Priska eHagmann-von Arx
Full Text Available This study examined the relation of fluid and crystallized intelligence with extrinsic (occupational skill level, income and intrinsic (job satisfaction career success as well as the incremental predictive validity of conscientiousness and its facets. Participants (N = 121 completed the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS, the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R and reported their occupational skill level, income and job satisfaction. Results revealed that crystallized intelligence was positively related to occupational skill level, but not to income. The association of crystallized intelligence and job satisfaction was negative and stronger for the lowest occupational skill level, whereas it was non-significant for higher levels. Fluid intelligence showed no association with career success. Beyond intelligence, conscientiousness and its facet self-discipline were associated with income, whereas conscientiousness and its facets competence and achievement striving were associated with job satisfaction. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the assessment process as well as for future research to adequately predict career success.
Arthur, Michael B.; Khapova, S.N.; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.
This paper compares contemporary career theory with the theory applied in recent career success research. The research makes inconsistent use of career theory, and in particular neglects the interdependence of the objective and subjective careers, and boundaryless career issues of
Success in today's economy means throwing out the old career rules. The "noncareer" career is driven by passion for the work and has the fluidity and flexibility needed in the contemporary workplace. (JOW)
The "new" career, most notably the boundaryless career, is associated with high career mobility, which is in turn associated with employability and career success of individuals. The current study examined how frequency, form (organisational, horizontal or vertical) and impact (objective career success) of career transitions have changed…
Ojeda, Lizette; Pina-Watson, Brandy; Castillo, Linda G.; Castillo, Rosalinda; Khan, Noshaba; Leigh, Jennifer
This study examined the role of culture and personality on the career decision self-efficacy of 338 Latino seventh-grade public middle school students. Specifically, we examined the role of acculturation, enculturation, ethnic identity, and conscientiousness on career decision self-efficacy. Findings indicated Latina girls were more acculturated…
Ohme, Melanie; Zacher, Hannes
According to career construction theory, continuous adaptation to the work environment is crucial to achieve work and career success. In this study, we examined the relative importance of career adaptability for job performance ratings using an experimental policy-capturing design. Employees (N =
Russell, Joyce E. A.; Burgess, Jennifer R. D.
Women still face barriers to career success and satisfaction: stereotypes, assumptions, organizational culture, human resource practices, and lack of opportunities. Despite individual and organizational strategies, many women leave to become entrepreneurs. There is a need to investigate how women define career success. (SK)
Sutin, Angelina R.; Costa, Paul T.; Miech, Richard; Eaton, William W.
The present research addresses the dynamic transaction between extrinsic (occupational prestige, income) and intrinsic (job satisfaction) career success and the Five-Factor Model of personality. Participants (N = 731) completed a comprehensive measure of personality and reported their job title, annual income, and job satisfaction; a subset of these participants (n = 302) provided the same information approximately 10 years later. Measured concurrently, emotionally stable and conscientious pa...
Frederiksen, Anders; Kato, Takao
capital formally through schooling for career success, as well as the gender gap in career success rates. Second, broadening the scope of human capital by experiencing various occupations (becoming a generalist) is found to be advantageous for career success. Third, initial human capital earned through......Denmark’s registry data provide accurate and complete career history data along with detailed personal characteristics (e.g., education, gender, work experience, tenure and others) for the population of Danish workers longitudinally. By using such data from 1992 to 2002, we provide rigorous...... formal schooling and subsequent human capital obtained informally on the job are found to be complements in the production of career success. Fourth, though there is a large body of the literature on the relationship between firm-specific human capital and wages, the relative value of firm-specific human...
Angela L. Duckworth
Full Text Available This article investigates how personality and cognitive ability relate to measures of objective success (income and wealth and subjective success (life satisfaction, positive affect, and lack of negative affect in a representative sample of 9,646 American adults. In cross-sectional analyses controlling for demographic covariates, cognitive ability, and other Big Five traits, conscientiousness demonstrated beneficial associations of small-to-medium magnitude with all success outcomes. In contrast, other traits demonstrated stronger, but less consistently beneficial, relations with outcomes in the same models. For instance, emotional stability demonstrated medium-to-large associations with life satisfaction and affect but a weak association with income and no association with wealth. Likewise, extraversion demonstrated medium-to-large associations with positive affect and life satisfaction but small-to-medium associations with wealth and (lack of negative affect and no association with income. Cognitive ability showed small-to-medium associations with income and wealth but no association with any aspect of subjective success. More agreeable adults were worse off in terms of objective success and life satisfaction, demonstrating small-to-medium inverse associations with those outcomes, but they did not differ from less agreeable adults in positive or negative affect. Likewise, openness to experience demonstrated small-to-medium inverse associations with every success outcome except positive affect, in which more open adults were slightly higher. Notably, in each of the five models predicting objective and subjective success outcomes, individual differences other than conscientiousness explained more variance than did conscientiousness. Thus, the benefits of conscientiousness may be remarkable more for their ubiquity than for their magnitude.
Duckworth, Angela L; Weir, David; Tsukayama, Eli; Kwok, David
This article investigates how personality and cognitive ability relate to measures of objective success (income and wealth) and subjective success (life satisfaction, positive affect, and lack of negative affect) in a representative sample of 9,646 American adults. In cross-sectional analyses controlling for demographic covariates, cognitive ability, and other Big Five traits, conscientiousness demonstrated beneficial associations of small-to-medium magnitude with all success outcomes. In contrast, other traits demonstrated stronger, but less consistently beneficial, relations with outcomes in the same models. For instance, emotional stability demonstrated medium-to-large associations with life satisfaction and affect but a weak association with income and no association with wealth. Likewise, extraversion demonstrated medium-to-large associations with positive affect and life satisfaction but small-to-medium associations with wealth and (lack of) negative affect and no association with income. Cognitive ability showed small-to-medium associations with income and wealth but no association with any aspect of subjective success. More agreeable adults were worse off in terms of objective success and life satisfaction, demonstrating small-to-medium inverse associations with those outcomes, but they did not differ from less agreeable adults in positive or negative affect. Likewise, openness to experience demonstrated small-to-medium inverse associations with every success outcome except positive affect, in which more open adults were slightly higher. Notably, in each of the five models predicting objective and subjective success outcomes, individual differences other than conscientiousness explained more variance than did conscientiousness. Thus, the benefits of conscientiousness may be remarkable more for their ubiquity than for their magnitude.
Colakoglu, Sidika N.
Based on the theoretical frameworks of the career enactment and the stress perspectives, this study develops and tests a model in which career boundarylessness affects subjective career success through its effect on three career competencies--knowing-why, knowing-how, and knowing-whom--and career autonomy and career insecurity. The results…
Maples, Mary F.
Examines the family and work relationships of dual career couples and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of these relationships. Various ingredients including personality traits that contribute to the success of the two-career partnership are listed. (RC)
Brown, Steven D.; Lent, Robert W.; Telander, Kyle; Tramayne, Selena
We performed a meta-analytic path analysis of an abbreviated version of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) model of work performance (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994). The model we tested included the central cognitive predictors of performance (ability, self-efficacy, performance goals), with the exception of outcome expectations. Results…
Lau, Victor P.; Shaffer, Margaret A.
A model based on Bandura's Social Learning Theory proposes the following personality traits as determinants of career success: locus of control, self-monitoring, self-esteem, and optimism, along with job performance and person-to-environment fit. (SK)
Ahmad Tisman Pasha
Full Text Available The objective of the study is to investigate the mediating role of career commitment between career development practices and career success of employee in insurance sector of Pakistan. Survey method was adopted to collect the data form 374 employees working in insurance sector systematic sampling. PLS-SEM technique was used using Smart PLS 2.0 to analyze the data. Findings of the study suggests that employees’ career development practices have positive relationship with career commitment and career success. Career commitment also have a positive relation with career success. Finally, career commitment mediates the positive role between career development practices and career of insurance sector employees. The effect of career development practices on career commitment and effect of career development practices on career success has been checked in past studies but the mediating role of career commitment particularly for the employees of insurance sector has not been checked before.
Guan, Y.; Arthur, M. B.; Khapova, S. N.; Hall, R.; Lord, R.
The concept of boundaryless careers characterizes emerging career patterns that are less dependent on traditional organizational career management. Based on an evidence-based review of literature on the relationship between career boundarylessness and career success published from 1994 to 2018, we found that boundaryless careers have mixed effects on the various indictors of career success, and these effects depend on the operationalization of career boundarylessness, the motives (voluntary v...
Boehm, Julia K.; Lyubomirsky, Sonja
Past research has demonstrated a relationship between happiness and workplace success. For example, compared with their less happy peers, happy people earn more money, display superior performance, and perform more helpful acts. Researchers have often assumed that an employee is happy and satisfied because he or she is successful. In this article,…
Buddeberg-Fischer, B; Stamm, M; Buddeberg, C; Klaghofer, R
Abstract Background Within the framework of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates, a Career-Success Scale (CSS) was constructed in a sample of young physicians choosing different career paths in medicine. Furthermore the influence of personality factors, the participants' personal situation, and career related factors on their career success was investigated. Methods 406 residents were assessed in terms of career aspired to, and their career progress. The Career-Success...
Full Text Available The results of numerous studies indicate that besides intellectual abilities, personality features figure as the strongest predictors of academic achievement. This research is aimed at exploring the relationship between personality features and academic achievement in secondary school students, as well as at testing whether academic achievement is one of the mechanisms suitable for explaining the relationship between personality features and the subjective well-being of students. The research included 408 students, with the average age of 16 years and 6 months. The results indicate that in both girls and boys a significant predictor of academic achievement is only the feature of conscientiousness. However, in conscientious students, higher academic achievement does not yield higher satisfaction with school and life, nor more frequent experiencing of pleasant emotions. Academic achievement is neither connected with openness towards experience nor with curiosity. The paper discusses practical implications of these findings and offers suggestions for future research. [Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179006: Nasledni, sredinski i psihološki činioci mentalnog zdravlja i br. 179022: Efekti egzistencijalne nesigurnosti na pojedinca i porodicu u Srbiji
Three successful American Indian women--film maker and businesswoman Valerie Red-Horse, Cherokee law professor and appeals court justice Stacey Leeds, and prolific artist Virginia Stroud--discuss their careers, emphasizing the importance of retaining cultural values, the struggles of being a racial and gender pioneer in their field, and the…
Guan, Yanjun; Wang, Zhen; Dong, Zhilin; Liu, Yukun; Yue, Yumeng; Liu, Haiyang; Zhang, Yuqing; Zhou, Wenxia; Liu, Haihua
The current research aimed to develop a multidimensional measure of career locus of control (LOC) and examine its predictive validity on objective and subjective career success among Chinese employees. Items of career LOC were generated based on literature review of the significant predictors of career success, as well as the open-ended responses…
Aurathai Lertwannawit; Sirivan Serirat; Siroj Pholpantin
This research assesses the relationship between career competencies and career success of Thai employees in the tourism and hospitality sector. The authors distinguished and operationalized four career competencies, i.e. computer and language skills, work spirits and ethics, team working and leadership, and tourism and hospitality knowledge and skills, and two career successes, i.e. objective and subjective career successes. A quantitative study was performed using 800 employees in four indus...
Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Stamm, Martina; Buddeberg, Claus; Klaghofer, Richard
Background Within the framework of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates, a Career-Success Scale (CSS) was constructed in a sample of young physicians choosing different career paths in medicine. Furthermore the influence of personality factors, the participants' personal situation, and career related factors on their career success was investigated. Methods 406 residents were assessed in terms of career aspired to, and their career progress. The Career-Success Scale, consisting of 7 items, was developed and validated, addressing objective criteria of academic career advancement. The influence of gender and career aspiration was investigated by a two-factorial analysis of variance, the relationships between personality factors, personal situation, career related factors and the Career-Success Scale by a multivariate linear regression analysis. Results The unidimensional Career-Success Scale has an internal consistency of 0.76. It is significantly correlated at the bivariate level with gender, instrumentality, and all career related factors, particularly with academic career and received mentoring. In multiple regression, only gender, academic career, surgery as chosen specialty, and received mentoring are significant predictors. The highest values were observed in participants aspiring to an academic career, followed by those pursuing a hospital career and those wanting to run a private practice. Independent of the career aspired to, female residents have lower scores than their male colleagues. Conclusion The Career-Success Scale proved to be a short, reliable and valid instrument to measure career achievements. As mentoring is an independent predictor of career success, mentoring programs could be an important instrument to specifically enhance careers of female physicians in academia. PMID:18518972
Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Stamm, Martina; Buddeberg, Claus; Klaghofer, Richard
Within the framework of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates, a Career-Success Scale (CSS) was constructed in a sample of young physicians choosing different career paths in medicine. Furthermore the influence of personality factors, the participants' personal situation, and career related factors on their career success was investigated. 406 residents were assessed in terms of career aspired to, and their career progress. The Career-Success Scale, consisting of 7 items, was developed and validated, addressing objective criteria of academic career advancement. The influence of gender and career aspiration was investigated by a two-factorial analysis of variance, the relationships between personality factors, personal situation, career related factors and the Career-Success Scale by a multivariate linear regression analysis. The unidimensional Career-Success Scale has an internal consistency of 0.76. It is significantly correlated at the bivariate level with gender, instrumentality, and all career related factors, particularly with academic career and received mentoring. In multiple regression, only gender, academic career, surgery as chosen specialty, and received mentoring are significant predictors. The highest values were observed in participants aspiring to an academic career, followed by those pursuing a hospital career and those wanting to run a private practice. Independent of the career aspired to, female residents have lower scores than their male colleagues. The Career-Success Scale proved to be a short, reliable and valid instrument to measure career achievements. As mentoring is an independent predictor of career success, mentoring programs could be an important instrument to specifically enhance careers of female physicians in academia.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Within the framework of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates, a Career-Success Scale (CSS was constructed in a sample of young physicians choosing different career paths in medicine. Furthermore the influence of personality factors, the participants' personal situation, and career related factors on their career success was investigated. Methods 406 residents were assessed in terms of career aspired to, and their career progress. The Career-Success Scale, consisting of 7 items, was developed and validated, addressing objective criteria of academic career advancement. The influence of gender and career aspiration was investigated by a two-factorial analysis of variance, the relationships between personality factors, personal situation, career related factors and the Career-Success Scale by a multivariate linear regression analysis. Results The unidimensional Career-Success Scale has an internal consistency of 0.76. It is significantly correlated at the bivariate level with gender, instrumentality, and all career related factors, particularly with academic career and received mentoring. In multiple regression, only gender, academic career, surgery as chosen specialty, and received mentoring are significant predictors. The highest values were observed in participants aspiring to an academic career, followed by those pursuing a hospital career and those wanting to run a private practice. Independent of the career aspired to, female residents have lower scores than their male colleagues. Conclusion The Career-Success Scale proved to be a short, reliable and valid instrument to measure career achievements. As mentoring is an independent predictor of career success, mentoring programs could be an important instrument to specifically enhance careers of female physicians in academia.
Ahmad Tisman Pasha; Kamal Ab Hamid; Arfan Shahzad
The objective of the study is to investigate the mediating role of career commitment between career development practices and career success of employee in insurance sector of Pakistan. Survey method was adopted to collect the data form 374 employees working in insurance sector systematic sampling. PLS-SEM technique was used using Smart PLS 2.0 to analyze the data. Findings of the study suggests that employees’ career development practices have positive relationship with career commitment and...
Valk, R.; van der Velde, E.G.; van Engen, Marloes
This article presents a study on international careers and career success of Indian women in Science & Technology (S&T). We conducted interviews with 30 (upper) middle class Indian women in New Delhi and Bangalore (India) who pursued careers abroad as self-initiated expatriates (SIEs). Important
Cumbler, Ethan; Yirdaw, Essey; Kneeland, Patrick; Pierce, Read; Rendon, Patrick; Herzke, Carrie; Jones, Christine D
Understanding the concept of career success is critical for hospital medicine groups seeking to create sustainably rewarding faculty positions. Conceptual models of career success describe both extrinsic (compensation and advancement) and intrinsic (career satisfaction and job satisfaction) domains. How hospitalists define career success for themselves is not well understood. In this study, we qualitatively explore perspectives on how early-career clinician-educators define career success. We developed a semistructured interview tool of open-ended questions validated by using cognitive interviewing. Transcribed interviews were conducted with 17 early-career academic hospitalists from 3 medical centers to thematic saturation. A mixed deductiveinductive, qualitative, analytic approach was used to code and map themes to the theoretical framework. The single most dominant theme participants described was "excitement about daily work," which mapped to the job satisfaction organizing theme. Participants frequently expressed the importance of "being respected and recognized" and "dissemination of work," which were within the career satisfaction organizing theme. The extrinsic organizing themes of advancement and compensation were described as less important contributors to an individual's sense of career success. Ambivalence toward the "academic value of clinical work," "scholarship," and especially "promotion" represented unexpected themes. The future of academic hospital medicine is predicated upon faculty finding career success. Clinician-educator hospitalists view some traditional markers of career advancement as relevant to success. However, early-career faculty question the importance of some traditional external markers to their personal definitions of success. This work suggests that the selfconcept of career success is complex and may not be captured by traditional academic metrics and milestones. © 2018 Society of Hospital Medicine
Daria D. Kogel
Full Text Available The paper describes the results of the study of the relationship a successful career and a romantic relationship. The general structure of the relationship between the successful career and romantic relationships between men and women obtained as a result of in-depth interviews is given. It is shown that the respondents’ representations are as follows: romantic relationships affect the career much more than a career to a romantic relationship. the positive aspects of this influence are highlighted, they are expressed in moral support, inspiration, confidence, etc. and negative aspects - lack of time, attention and energy resources. The differences in assessing the stediness of the relationship between a successful career and romantic relationships between men and women are shown. The features of perception and evaluation of the career success for people who are in relationships and those who do not have a romantic partner are given a distinct account. The relationship between a successful career and attitude of the respondent to the partner’s career is estblished. Additional results regarding the factors romantic relationships, which can contribute to a more successful career, are also obtained.
Sutherland, Kathryn A.
Expectations around success in academia vary, and early career academics often receive conflicting messages about what they should concentrate on to achieve promotion or tenure. Taking a social constructionist approach, this paper considers the constructs of objective and subjective career success in academia and shares the perspectives of early…
Omar, Zoharah; Krauss, Steven Eric; Sail, Rahim M.; Ismail, Ismi Arif
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore objective and subjective career success and to identify factors contributing to career success among a sample of technical and vocational education and training (TVET) "late bloomers" working in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: Incorporating a mixed method design, the authors…
Linehan, Margaret; Scullion, Hugh
Interviews with 50 female expatriate managers revealed that many were disadvantaged in their careers by lack of access to organizational supports such as mentors, interpersonal networks, assistance for spouses' careers, the glass ceiling, and other barriers. Women will remain a minority in management until organizations address these barriers in…
Zikic, Jelena; Novicevic, Milorad M.; Harvey, Michael; Breland, Jacob
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine repatriate career exploration as a continuing growth-oriented process and introduce repatriate hope as its crucial driver. Design/methodology/approach: Through a review of relevant literature, the framework of hope theory is introduced to argue for a more "agentic" view of the repatriate that can…
Webb, Tammy; Diamond-Wells, Tammy; Jeffs, Debra
Career mapping facilitates professional development of nurses by education specialists and nurse managers. On the basis of national Nursing Professional Development Scope and Standards, our education and professional development framework supports the organization's professional practice model and provides a foundation for the professional career map. This article describes development, implementation, and evaluation of the professional career map for nurses at a large children's hospital to support achievement of the nursing strategic goals for succession planning and professional development.
Balestreri, Kathryn; Sambolt, Megan; Duhon, Chad; Smerdon, Becky; Harris, Joseph
The "College and Career Readiness and Success Organizer" is a graphic that displays a consolidated overview of the many elements that impact a learner's ability to succeed in college and careers at both the institutional and individual levels. The "Organizer" is intended to be a comprehensive and visual representation of the…
Seibert, Scott E.; Kraimer, Maria L.
Measures of career success and an inventory of the Five-Factor Model of Personality were completed by 496 workers. Extraversion was related positively to salary, promotion, and career satisfaction; neuroticism was related negatively to satisfaction. A significant negative relationship between agreeableness and salary was found for workers in…
Gelissen, John; Graaf, Paul M. de
Pooled cross-sectional and life-history data from the Dutch Family Survey 1998 and 2000 (N = 4000) were used to investigate whether personality was directly related to income attainment and occupational career transitions after controlling for human capital indicators, working hours, and parental
Valk, Reimira; van der Velde, E.G.; van Engen, Marloes; Godbole, R.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into international career motives, repatriation and career success of Indian women in Science and Technology. Design/methodology/approach In total, 30 semi-structured interviews were conducted with (upper) middle-class Indian women in Science and
Gerli, Fabrizio; Bonesso, Sara; Pizzi, Claudio
Even though, over the last two decades, the boundaryless career concept has stimulated a wide theoretical debate, scholars have recently claimed that research on the competencies that are necessary for managing a cross-boundary career is still incomplete. Similarly, the literature on emotional and social competencies has demonstrated how they predict work performance across industries and jobs but has neglected their influence in explaining the individual's mobility across boundaries and their impact on career success. This study aims to fill these gaps by examining the effects of emotional and social competencies on boundaryless career and on objective career success. By analyzing a sample of 142 managers over a period of 8 years, we found evidence that emotional competencies positively influence the propensity of an individual to undertake physical career mobility and that career advancements are related to the possession of social competencies and depend on the adoption of boundaryless career paths. This study also provides a contribution in terms of the evaluation of the emotional and social competencies demonstrated by an individual and of the operationalization of the measurement of boundaryless career paths, considering three facets of the physical mobility construct (organizational, industrial, and geographical boundaries).
Whitfield, M D
In recent years, more women have pursued careers in business and the traditionally male professions. Those that have succeeded live with a high degree of environmental stress. Since some of them are now consulting psychiatrists it is important that the psychiatrist be able to differentiate difficulties which have a cultural basis from those stemming from individual psychodynamics. Cultural stresses have been reviewed under three headings: inaccurate stereotypes; inadequate cultural supports; and role overload. It has been suggested that contact with her peer group is extremely important for this type of woman patient. The peer group provides both support and a frame of reference within which individual problems may be understood.
Purba, Sylvia Diana
. This study aims to examine the effects of work-life balance and subjectivecareer success in career management influence on job satisfaction in female workers.Data were collected with convinience sampling technique in 91 women employees insome of the Bank in Jakarta. Using the data have proven the validity and realibilty,Hypotheses test by using SPSS V.22 software and macros inderect Hayes 2013. Thetest results prove work-life balance and subjective career success significant asintervening v...
Full Text Available Abstract This phenomenology qualitative research was conducted in order to examine the dynamics of career success among job hopper and how did job hoppers interpret the meaning career success in boundaryless career. This research used in-depth interview for collecting the data and supported by the data from the documents. The respondents involved in this research were fours job hoppers in the level of manager, five significant others, such as family, workmate, and a steady career. The findings revealed that: the job-hoppers individuals who frequently movement of job from one place to another place because of intrinsic factors (financial, interpersonal conflict, alternative employment opportunities, etc., extrinsic factors (challenges, willing to learn, personal characteristics, family, etc., proponent factors (networking, family support, and media. The meanings of career success among job-hopper in the boundaryless career namely; self-fulfillment (job satisfaction, life satisfaction, meeting personal goals, adding value to others, and work/life balance (family satisfaction and quality time with family. This study showed that being a job-hopper was a tool for pursuing the meaning of career success
Heslin, Peter A.
Business students (n=71) evaluated their career success thus far. Framed by social comparison theory, results showed that 68% used other-referent criteria to assess their success. Participants who believed that ability and personality are fixed attributes had greater reliance on other-referent criteria. (Contains 100 references.) (SK)
Malcata, Rita M; Hopkins, Will G; Pearson, Simon N
Tracking athletes' performances over time is important but problematic for sports with large environmental effects. Here we have developed career performance trajectories for elite triathletes, investigating changes in swim, cycle, run stages, and total performance times while accounting for environmental and other external factors. Performance times of 337 female and 427 male triathletes competing in 419 international races between 2000 and 2012 were obtained from triathlon.org. Athletes were categorized according to any top 16 placing at World Championships or Olympics between 2008 and 2012. A mixed linear model accounting for race distance (sprint and Olympic), level of competition, calendar-year trend, athlete's category, and clustering of times within athletes and races was used to derive athletes' individual quadratic performance trajectories. These trajectories provided estimates of age of peak performance and predictions for the 2012 London Olympic Games. By markedly reducing the scatter of individual race times, the model produced well-fitting trajectories suitable for comparison of triathletes. Trajectories for top 16 triathletes showed different patterns for race stages and differed more among women than among men, but ages of peak total performance were similar for men and women (28 ± 3 yr, mean ± SD). Correlations between observed and predicted placings at Olympics were slightly higher than those provided by placings in races before the Olympics. Athletes' trajectories will help identify talented athletes and their weakest and strongest stages. The wider range of trajectories among women should be taken into account when setting talent identification criteria. Trajectories offer a small advantage over usual race placings for predicting men's performance. Further refinements, such as accounting for individual responses to race conditions, may improve utility of performance trajectories.
Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos
In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining whether the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on…
Manuel Joaquín Fernández González
Full Text Available Fast-track maritime career is a topical question worldwide due to the shortage of seafarers in maritime industry. Assuming that the fast-track career officers’ relevant common characteristics in adolescence could predict future maritime career speed, the research questions of this research are: What were the common characteristics of fast-track career officers when they were 16-18? Were there any statistically significant differences between the fast-track career groups and the officers with a slower career at that age? A questionnaire survey involving 175 maritime officers was conducted in Latvia in January – October 2016, regarding officers’ family context, school achievement, involvement in sports, and personality traits when they were 16-18. Fast-track career officers perceived themselves as more conscientious, calm and more leadership oriented than the whole group in adolescence. Statistically significant differences among career-speed groups were found regarding family socioeconomic status, family atmosphere and family career support at that age. Based on those communalities among maritime officers with a fast-track carrier when they were 16-18, maritime education and training institutions could better find and give appropriate career guidance to prospective maritime officers. Even if maritime career speed is a very individualized phenomenon, family characteristics could be studied further as a potential good predictor of fast-track maritime career.
Singer, Norman M.
Asserts that community college leaders should give two important "good news" messages to graduates about their long-term career success and economic well-being: congratulatory and predictive. The latter component should make graduates aware that a community college degree should be the foundation for self-managed, continuous education and career…
Simonetti, Jack L.
Analysis of career-success factors identified by 5,000 managers yielded 10 key pieces: excellent performance record, communication skills, interpersonal skills, personality, skill currency, significant work experiences, power, ability to withstand pressure, ability to make difficult decisions, and having a mentor. (SK)
Wei, Wei; Taormina, Robert J
This study refined the concept of resilience and developed four valid and reliable subscales to measure resilience, namely, Determination, Endurance, Adaptability and Recuperability. The study also assessed their hypothesized relationships with six antecedent variables (worry, physiological needs satisfaction, organizational socialization, conscientiousness, future orientation and Chinese values) and with one outcome variable (nurses' career success). The four new 10-item subscale measures of personal resilience were constructed based on their operational definitions and tested for their validity and reliability. All items were included in a questionnaire completed by 244 full-time nurses at two hospitals in China. All four measures demonstrated concurrent validity and had high reliabilities (from 0.74 to 0.78). The hypothesized correlations with the personality and organizational variables were statistically significant and in the predicted directions. Regression analyses confirmed these relationships, which explained 25-32% of the variance for the four resilience facets and 27% of the variance for the nurses' career success. The results provided strong evidence that organizational socialization facilitates resilience, that resilience engenders career success and that identifying the four resilience facets permits a more complete understanding of personal resilience, which could benefit nurses, help nurse administrators with their work and also help in treating patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Marcham Darokah Danita Irianti Malute
Full Text Available Abstract This phenomenology qualitative research was conducted in order to know the dynamics of career success among job hopper and how did job hoppers interpret the meaning career success in boundaryless career. This research used in-depth interview for collecting the data and supported by the data from the documents. The respondents involved in this research were fours job hoppers in the level of manager, five significant others, such as family, workmate, and a steady career. The findings revealed that: the job-hoppers individuals who frequently movement of job from one place to another place because of intrinsic factors (financial, interpersonal conflict, alternative employment opportunities, etc., extrinsic factors (challenges, willing to learn, personal characteristics, family, etc., proponent factors (networking, family support, and media. The meanings of career success among job-hopper in the boundaryless career namely; self-fulfillment (job satisfaction, life satisfaction, meeting personal goals, adding value to others, and work/life balance (family satisfaction and quality time with family. This study showed that being a job-hopper was a tool for pursuing the meaning of career success. Keywords: Job-hopper, career success, boundaryless career, qualitative.
The objective of this research was to study the career success and the satisfaction of female executives working for schools in Bangkok, Thailand. This paper drew upon the survey data collected from 68 female executives. The survey conducted in on Bangkok schools. The statistics utilized in this paper included percentage, mean, standard deviation as well as t-test. The findings revealed that the majority of samples had more than 30 years of experience, held a master degre...
Zhou, W.; Guan, Y.; Xin, L.; Mak, M.C.K.; Deng, Y.
The present research had two goals. The first goal was to identify additional individual characteristics that may contribute to adaptive readiness. The second goal was to test if these characteristics fit the career adaptation model of readiness to resources to responses. We examined whether career success criteria (measured at Time 1) and career locus of control (measured at Time 1) would contribute to adaptivity and predict university students’ career decision-making self-efficacy (measured...
Amdurer, Emily; Boyatzis, Richard E; Saatcioglu, Argun; Smith, Melvin L; Taylor, Scott N
Career scholars have called for a broader definition of career success by inviting greater exploration of its antecedents. While success in various jobs has been predicted by intelligence and in other studies by competencies, especially in management, long term impact of having intelligence and using competencies has not been examined. Even in collegiate outcome studies, few have examined the longer term impact on graduates' careers or lives. This study assesses the impact of demonstrated emotional, social, and cognitive intelligence competencies assessed at graduation and g measured through GMAT at entry from an MBA program on career and life satisfaction, and career success assessed 5 to 19 years after graduation. Using behavioral measures of competencies (i.e., as assessed by others), we found that emotional intelligence competencies predict career satisfaction and success. Adaptability had a positive impact, but influence had the opposite effect on these career measures and life satisfaction. Life satisfaction was negatively affected by achievement orientation and positively affected by teamwork. Current salary, length of marriage, and being younger at time of graduation positively affect all three measures of life and career satisfaction and career success. GMAT (as a measure of g) predicted life satisfaction and career success to a slight but significant degree in the final model analyzed. Meanwhile, being female and number of children positively affected life satisfaction but cognitive intelligence competencies negatively affected it, and in particular demonstrated systems thinking was negative.
Amdurer, Emily; Boyatzis, Richard E.; Saatcioglu, Argun; Smith, Melvin L.; Taylor, Scott N.
Career scholars have called for a broader definition of career success by inviting greater exploration of its antecedents. While success in various jobs has been predicted by intelligence and in other studies by competencies, especially in management, long term impact of having intelligence and using competencies has not been examined. Even in collegiate outcome studies, few have examined the longer term impact on graduates' careers or lives. This study assesses the impact of demonstrated emotional, social, and cognitive intelligence competencies assessed at graduation and g measured through GMAT at entry from an MBA program on career and life satisfaction, and career success assessed 5 to 19 years after graduation. Using behavioral measures of competencies (i.e., as assessed by others), we found that emotional intelligence competencies predict career satisfaction and success. Adaptability had a positive impact, but influence had the opposite effect on these career measures and life satisfaction. Life satisfaction was negatively affected by achievement orientation and positively affected by teamwork. Current salary, length of marriage, and being younger at time of graduation positively affect all three measures of life and career satisfaction and career success. GMAT (as a measure of g) predicted life satisfaction and career success to a slight but significant degree in the final model analyzed. Meanwhile, being female and number of children positively affected life satisfaction but cognitive intelligence competencies negatively affected it, and in particular demonstrated systems thinking was negative. PMID:25566128
Full Text Available ABSTRACTCareer scholars have called for a broader definition of career success by inviting greater exploration of its antecedents. While success in various jobs has been predicted by intelligence and in other studies by competencies, especially in management, long term impact of having intelligence and using competencies has not been examined. Even in collegiate outcome studies, few have examined the longer term impact on graduates’ careers or lives. This study assesses the impact of demonstrated emotional, social, and cognitive intelligence competencies assessed at graduation and g measured through GMAT at entry from an MBA program on career and life satisfaction, and career success assessed 5 to 19 years after graduation. Using behavioral measures of competencies (i.e., as assessed by others, we found that emotional intelligence competencies predict career satisfaction and success. Adaptability had a positive impact, but influence had the opposite effect on these career measures and life satisfaction. Life satisfaction was negatively affected by achievement orientation and positively affected by teamwork. Current salary, length of marriage, and being younger at time of graduation positively affect all three measures of life and career satisfaction and career success. GMAT (as a measure of g predicted life satisfaction and career success to a slight but significant degree in the final model analyzed. Meanwhile, being female and number of children positively affected life satisfaction but cognitive intelligence competencies negatively affected it, and in particular demonstrated systems thinking was negative.
Full Text Available Purpose: summarized and sorted career success evaluation indicators of skilled employees Design/methodology/approach: Based on Grounded Theory, through interviews and questionnaires to railway skilled employees Findings and Originality/value: the study shows that “subjective career success”, including work-family balance, life satisfaction, career satisfaction, perception of career success, “objective career success”, including level of total revenue venue, growth rate of wage and times of promotion, “knowledge and skills career success” including upgrade of knowledge and skills, classification of skills, external competitiveness and job autonomy, are three important career success evaluation indicators of skilled employees. Originality/value: The results show that different age groups, different titles and different positions of skilled employees, there is a significant difference in the choice of career success evaluation indicators. It provides a useful reference to establish a career development system for the skilled employees.
Haro García, José Manuel de; Castejón Costa, Juan Luis
In order to determine the contribution of emotional intelligence (EI) to career success, in this study, we analyzed the relationship between trait EI (TEI), general mental ability (GMA), the big five personality traits, and career success indicators, in a sample of 130 graduates who were in the early stages of their careers. Results from hierarchical regression analyses indicated that TEI, and especially its dimension “repair,” has incremental validity in predicting one of the career success ...
Adedokun, Aderemi D.
The purpose of this quantitative study is to examine the relationship between the variables of career mentoring, leadership behaviors, and career success of African American female faculty and administrators in higher education positions. The aim is to determine whether mentoring is related to leadership behavior and career success of African…
Mesnan Supa`ad; Nor Wahiza Abd Wahat; Fathiyah Mohd Fakhruddin; Turiman Suandi
A very limited research has been done in the field of career development among Islamic education teachers. Most of the previous researches showed an improvement in terms of grades, positions, and responsibilities of their previous routines as an indicator of their career advancement. However, this conceptual (concept paper) discusses how personality factors, career planning, and career strategy can provide significant contribution to the success of Islamic education teachers’ career. Based on...
Willie T. Chinyamurindi
Full Text Available Orientation: In South Africa opportunities are being created that encourage more women to enter the workforce. Understanding how women conceptualise and experience career success affects not only their individual career development but also their general outlook in life. Research purpose: To investigate how a sample of previously disadvantaged women distance learners conceptualise and experience the notion of career success. Motivation for the study: Calls have been made for research incorporating a subjective understanding regarding career success, especially amongst minority groups. Research approach, design and method: An interpretive approach was employed aimed at understanding individual experience and the interpretation of it. Unstructured interviews were conducted shaped by the objectives of the study amongst a sample of women (n = 25. Main findings: Through narratives and stories, findings revealed career success to be conceptualised and experienced as (1 a means of professional attainment and recognition, (2 a contribution to society and (3 evident in material and non-material artefacts. Further, from the sample of women used in this research, the experience of career success considered not only socio-historical issues and community but also the cultural milieu. Education emerged as an enabler of individual pursuit and goals leading to career success. Practical/managerial implications: An understanding of how career success is conceptualised and experienced by previously disadvantaged women can serve as a forerunner to individual specific career development interventions. The results of the study are therefore useful to both academics and practitioners in their formulation of interventions that enable individual career development. Contribution: The experience of career success as found in this study through participant narratives and stories gave a picture of career development processes amongst previously disadvantaged groups in South
Amdurer, Emily; Boyatzis, Richard E.; Saatcioglu, Argun; Smith, Melvin L.; Taylor, Scott N.
ABSTRACTCareer scholars have called for a broader definition of career success by inviting greater exploration of its antecedents. While success in various jobs has been predicted by intelligence and in other studies by competencies, especially in management, long term impact of having intelligence and using competencies has not been examined. Even in collegiate outcome studies, few have examined the longer term impact on graduates’ careers or lives. This study assesses the impact of demonstr...
Blair, Elaine J.
Factors that contribute to college student success are multiple. Career exploration as a student success strategy was explored in this study. The purpose of this exploratory mixed-methods study was to explore whether there was a relationship between career exploration and the success of underrepresented students in higher education. Quantitative…
The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS) measures career adaptability, as a higher-order construct that integrates four psychosocial resources of employees for managing their career development: concern, control, curiosity, and confidence. The goal of the present study was to investigate the validity
Marianne Doubell; Miemie Struwig
This article reports on an empirical study that investigated factors influencing women’s career success. Statistics relating to the field of women in management indicate that, worldwide, women are underrepresented in executive and decision-making positions. Women face unique challenges in their career pursuit that may prevent them from moving up to executive positions. A framework to investigate the factors influencing career success indicates that factors such as demographics, personality, c...
Doubell, Marianne; Struwig, Miemie
This article reports on an empirical study that investigated factors influencing women's career success. Statistics relating to the field of women in management indicate that, worldwide, women are underrepresented in executive and decision-making positions. Women face unique challenges in their career pursuit that may prevent them from moving up to executive positions. A framework to investigate the factors influencing career success indicates that factors such as demographics, personality, c...
Blickle, Gerhard; Witzki, Alexander H.; Schneider, Paula B.
Career success of early employees was analyzed from a power perspective and a developmental network perspective. In a predictive field study with 112 employees mentoring support and mentors' power were assessed in the first wave, employees' networking was assessed after two years, and career success (i.e. income and hierarchical position) and…
Turban, Daniel B.; Moake, Timothy R.; Wu, Sharon Yu-Hsien; Cheung, Yu Ha
Although extroversion and proactive personality are related to career success, the mechanisms through which the relationships occur are unclear. Based on the contest- and sponsored-mobility processes, we examine a model linking extroversion and proactive personality to career success through the mediating effects of mentoring received and…
Bozeman, B.; Youtie, J.; Bretschneider, S.
As a part of discussion on knowledge utilization on science and technology, the mixed of papers presented in the panel discussion is designed to illustrate the patterns of collaboration, mobility, and diffusion of knowledge as well as those of labor force. In particular, the first two papers presented in the panel explore the potential of STEM career success through cosmopolitan collaboration and international community collaboration (focused on the relationships between China and Russia) in nanotechnology, which would provide implications on national and international benchmarking of innovation. For policy implications on graduate education and innovation, mobility pattern of non-U.S. Ph.D. degree holders is examined, and impact of a policy report on the target academic communities is investigated through development of credibility map. This panel is designed to highlight a recent effort of understanding geographical, cognitive or social spaces that are present in the scientific and technological activity as well as in doctoral education. The papers presented in this panel, therefore, will provide a rich set of significant and relevant insights drawn from examining STI knowledge utilization patterns to the STI-ENID community. The anticipated length of the event may be 90 minutes and there is no preferred number of attendees in particular although it is expected to be in between 35 and 60 at the minimum. (Author)
People launch a private career practice for many reasons. Often the motivation is to seek a working life with more control over--and flexibility relating to--time, freedom, location, work style, client base, family life, etc. Career practitioners who launch a private practice have often worked in the academic, government, military or non-profit…
Conscientious objection to democratically accepted laws in democratic societies is a fact, both among citizens and among professionals. Due respect for laws is a prima facie duty in these societies. But democratic justice must at the same time respect peoples' conscience for it constitutes the ethical identity of individuals. And both law and ethics are necessary - although neither of them is sufficient - for its realization. The problem of conscientious objection among healthcare professionals is analysed from this standpoint and the conclusion is that objection is not an absolute right to exemption from several duties, but that the responsibility of the professional and of the institutions towards the citizenry must always be taken into account. Some solutions are suggested that try to protect both the professionals and the citizens in a bi-directional way.
Full Text Available This article reports on an empirical study that investigated factors influencing women’s career success. Statistics relating to the field of women in management indicate that, worldwide, women are underrepresented in executive and decision-making positions. Women face unique challenges in their career pursuit that may prevent them from moving up to executive positions. A framework to investigate the factors influencing career success indicates that factors such as demographics, personality, culture, barriers, external and internal support impact on the career success of women. This study surveyed a sample of 301 professional and business women in South Africa. The results of the empirical survey showed that there are statistical significant relationships between groups of women based on their demographics and their perceptions of the factors that influence their career success.
Wiersma, Uco J.; Kappe, Rutger
The causal effects of extroversion and conscientiousness, two Big Five personality dimensions, were assessed on both selection and work success in a naturally occurring field study. College students (N = 96) completed Neuroticism-Extroversion Openness Five-Factor Inventory personality scales during
Full Text Available A very limited research has been done in the field of career development among Islamic education teachers. Most of the previous researches showed an improvement in terms of grades, positions, and responsibilities of their previous routines as an indicator of their career advancement. However, this conceptual (concept paper discusses how personality factors, career planning, and career strategy can provide significant contribution to the success of Islamic education teachers’ career. Based on the Five Factor Model, Gould Planning Model, and the support of previous researches, this paper discusses how these three factors can contribute to the success of Islamic education teachers’ career. This paper also discusses its impact towards Islamic education teachers in Malaysia, schools management, District Education Office, Ministry of Education, and teachers education institutions.
Robinson, Georgeanna F.W.B.; Schwartz, Lisa S.; DiMeglio, Linda A.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Gabrilove, Janice L.
Purpose To understand the factors that facilitate career success for career development awardees in clinical and translational science and to reconceptualize understanding of career success for this population. Method In 2013–2014, the authors conducted semi-structured interviews with former NIH KL2 or K12 scholars from nine Clinical and Translational Science Award-funded institutions. Participants either had or had not secured independent funding at least two years after the end of their last K award. Questions covered the factors that facilitate or hinder junior investigators’ transition to independent funding. Interviews were recorded and transcribed and the transcripts analyzed thematically. Results Forty individuals participated, with equal representation by men and women and by independently and not independently funded investigators. Personal factors that facilitated success included: networks, persistence and resilience, initiative, autonomy, and personal and professional balance. Organizational factors included: appropriate mentorship, protected research time, and institutional resources and support. Even independently funded participants described challenges regarding career direction. Five participants without independent funding modeled a broad spectrum of successful career paths, having assumed leadership positions not reliant on grant funding. Alternative definitions of career success included: improving public health, enjoying work, seeing mentees succeed, and receiving external acknowledgement of successes. Conclusions Awareness of the factors that facilitate or hinder career success can help junior faculty, mentors, and institutional leaders support career development in clinical and translational science. New definitions of career success are needed, as are career paths for faculty who want to engage in research in roles other than principal investigator. PMID:26509600
Katherine A. Johnson
Full Text Available The Science Career Continuum at the Chicago Botanic Garden is a model program for successfully encouraging youth from diverse backgrounds into STEM careers. This program has shown that when students are given an opportunity to participate in real scientific research under the mentorship of a caring professional over multiple years, they are more likely to go to college and pursue STEM careers than their peers.
Mike, Anissa; Jackson, Joshua J.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.
The current study examined the relationship between conscientiousness, work status, and volunteering utilizing two large samples, the St. Louis Personality and Aging Network (SPAN) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). It was hypothesized that conscientious adults who were retired would be more likely to volunteer because, after retirement, they gain a substantial amount of free time, while losing an outlet for their industrious and achievement-striving tendencies. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses revealed that conscientious, retired individuals were more likely to volunteer than conscientious, working individuals. Further analyses revealed that facets of conscientiousness provide differential information from the general trait. These findings indicate that volunteering during retirement fills an important niche for high-striving, conscientious individuals. PMID:25843985
Mike, Anissa; Jackson, Joshua J; Oltmanns, Thomas F
The current study examined the relationship between conscientiousness, work status, and volunteering utilizing two large samples, the St. Louis Personality and Aging Network (SPAN) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). It was hypothesized that conscientious adults who were retired would be more likely to volunteer because, after retirement, they gain a substantial amount of free time, while losing an outlet for their industrious and achievement-striving tendencies. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses revealed that conscientious, retired individuals were more likely to volunteer than conscientious, working individuals. Further analyses revealed that facets of conscientiousness provide differential information from the general trait. These findings indicate that volunteering during retirement fills an important niche for high-striving, conscientious individuals.
Du Toit, Audine Marlé
Subjective career success has been the focus of research for a number of years. The term refers to the individual’s personal perception of how successful he/she is in a career. In many qualitative studies subjective career success is found to be a multi-dimensional construct. Although there are quantitative instruments that measure subjective career success, they do not measure the construct on multiple dimensions. The first objective of this study was to determine the validity...
Entry into a successful academic career is often an arduous process. From career preparation through to doctoral studies and beyond, the journey can be fraught with trials. Why do many academics find difficulty in completing their studies in the minimum time and publishing afterwards? As the University of the Witwatersrand has a strategic goal of…
Koen, Jessie; Klehe, Ute-Christine; Van Vianen, Annelies E. M.
The transition from school to work is one of the most critical steps in graduates' careers, as it can determine vocational outcomes and future career success. Yet, these newcomers to the labor market often take longer than regular job seekers to find a suitable job, are more likely to experience a job mismatch and to suffer from underemployment.…
Richards Jennifer MJ
Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes to the structure of medical training worldwide require doctors to decide on their career specialty at an increasingly early stage after graduation. We studied trends in career choices for surgery, and the eventual career destinations, of UK graduates who declared an early preference for surgery. Methods Postal questionnaires were sent, at regular time intervals after qualification, to all medical qualifiers from all UK medical schools in selected qualification years between 1974 and 2005. They were sent in the first year after qualification, at year three and five years after qualification, and at longer time intervals thereafter. Results Responses were received from 27 749 of 38 280 doctors (73% at year one, 23 468 of 33151 (71% at year three, and 17 689 of 24 870 (71% at year five. Early career preferences showed that surgery has become more popular over the past two decades. Looking forward from early career choice, 60% of respondents (64% of men, 48% of women with a first preference for a surgical specialty at year one eventually worked in surgery (p Conclusions Surgery is a popular specialty choice in the UK. The great majority of doctors who progressed in a surgical career made an early and definitive decision to do so.
Now that job security with one organization is a relic of the past and companies are outsourcing training and other "nonessential" functions, the author suggests in his career communication classes that students develop the same inventive strategies to plan their employment futures that management consultants use to market themselves in the 21st…
Jones, Tamara Bertrand; Osborne-Lampkin, La'Tara
In recent years, a number of Black female junior scholars have participated in an early career professional development program designed to address socialization issues through individual and small group mentoring. This descriptive qualitative study investigated scholars' perceptions of the importance and effectiveness of a research…
Lirio, Pamela; Lituchy, Terri R.; Monserrat, Silvia Ines; Olivas-Lujan, Miguel R.; Duffy, Jo Ann; Fox, Suzy; Gregory, Ann; Punnett, B. J.; Santos, Neusa
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine career-life issues of successful women in the Americas. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 30 interviews were conducted with successful women in Canada, Argentina and Mexico. Themes were pulled from the interview transcripts for each country, analyzed and then compared across countries, looking…
Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Stamm, Martina; Buddeberg, Claus
Within the framework of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates a sample of young physicians aspiring to an academic career were surveyed on their career support and barriers experienced up to their sixth year of postgraduate training. Thirty-one junior academics took part in semi-structured telephone interviews in 2007. The interview guideline focused on career paths to date, career support and barriers experienced, and recommendations for junior and senior academics. The qualitatively assessed data were evaluated according to Mayring's content analysis. Furthermore, quantitatively gained data from the total cohort sample on person- and career-related characteristics were analyzed in regard to differences between the junior academics and cohort doctors who aspire to another career in medicine. Junior academics differ in terms of instrumentality as a person-related factor, and in terms of intrinsic career motivation and mentoring as career-related factors from cohort doctors who follow other career paths in medicine; they also show higher scores in the Career-Success Scale. Four types of career path could be identified in junior academics: (1) focus on basic sciences, (2) strong focus on research (PhD programs) followed by clinical training, (3) one to two years in research followed by clinical training, (4) clinical training and research in parallel. The interview material revealed the following categories of career-supporting experience: making oneself out as a proactive junior physician, research resources provided by superior staff, and social network; statements concerning career barriers encompassed interference between clinical training and research activities, insufficient research coaching, and personality related barriers. Recommendations for junior academics focused on mentoring and professional networking, for senior academics on interest in human resource development and being role models. The conditions for an academic career in
Full Text Available Abstract Background Within the framework of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates a sample of young physicians aspiring to an academic career were surveyed on their career support and barriers experienced up to their sixth year of postgraduate training. Methods Thirty-one junior academics took part in semi-structured telephone interviews in 2007. The interview guideline focused on career paths to date, career support and barriers experienced, and recommendations for junior and senior academics. The qualitatively assessed data were evaluated according to Mayring's content analysis. Furthermore, quantitatively gained data from the total cohort sample on person- and career-related characteristics were analyzed in regard to differences between the junior academics and cohort doctors who aspire to another career in medicine. Results Junior academics differ in terms of instrumentality as a person-related factor, and in terms of intrinsic career motivation and mentoring as career-related factors from cohort doctors who follow other career paths in medicine; they also show higher scores in the Career-Success Scale. Four types of career path could be identified in junior academics: (1 focus on basic sciences, (2 strong focus on research (PhD programs followed by clinical training, (3 one to two years in research followed by clinical training, (4 clinical training and research in parallel. The interview material revealed the following categories of career-supporting experience: making oneself out as a proactive junior physician, research resources provided by superior staff, and social network; statements concerning career barriers encompassed interference between clinical training and research activities, insufficient research coaching, and personality related barriers. Recommendations for junior academics focused on mentoring and professional networking, for senior academics on interest in human resource development and being role
Full Text Available self-administered qualitative survey (n = 98). All participants were permanent Operational Forces soldiers with varying ranks and years of experience. The data were thematically analysed in order to identify themes and specific attributes and skills... factors explaining career success in soldiers. The authors discussed general personality factors such as locus of control, self-efficacy, assertive behaviour and self-esteem and how these factors related to career success in the military environment...
Career advancement in Indonesian academia is nationally regulated. It, theoretically, provides equal opportunities for men and women to be productive and successful. The purpose of this study is to analyze gender effects on academic career productivity and success. Seven-hundred and fifty questionnaires were distributed randomly to eight Islamic Higher Education Institutions in seven provinces, from which 220 (Men = 57.7%, and Women = 42.3%) respondents returned the questionnaires with an ana...
This PhD research explores global career mobility of Dutch and Indian professionals categorized in three groups: 1) Company-Assigned Expatriates (CAEs);2) Independent Internationally Mobile Professionals (IIMPs) / Self-Initiated Expatriates (SIEs); 3) Repatriates.The purpose was to:- explore the
Jarvis, Phillip S.
There has been a renaissance in the thinking about career development. It is becoming accepted that information is not enough; in addition to academic and technical skills, youth and adults need to learn life/work designing and building skills to become healthy, productive, and self-reliant citizens. Despite the fact that Canadian students have…
Full Text Available Background: Career success is an evaluating and relational concept between someone's current progress and his/her future ideals of occupation. Researchers have shown personality characteristics are one of the main predictors of success and favorable job performance. Thus, the aim of present study was to determine the relationship between extraversion and introversion personality types and subjective and objective career success among nurses of selected private hospitals in Tehran. Methods: This research was a descriptive correlational study in which 230 nurses were selected from five private hospitals in Tehran as the study sample through Cochran sampling technique. Proportional to the number of nurses at each hospital, samples were selected via convenient random sampling. Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Golparvar and Ghazavi career success scale and personal information form were utilized to collect the data. The collected data wereanalyzed by SPSS-19 software using Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis. Results: The results indicated a significant relationship between personality type and subjective and objective career success of the nurses. Further, there was a negatively significant relationship between subjective and objective career success and introversion personality type (sig=0/004, r=-0.391 and sig=0.001, r=-0.415, respectively. However, there was a positively significant relationship between subjective and objective career success and extraversion personality type (sig=0.001, r=0.473 and sig=0.001, r=0.545, respectively. Conclusion: It is essential to take into account the relationship between career success and related factors such as personality in the planning, decisions and technical choices. Besides, favorable environmental factors and effective factors such as knowledge, attitudes and cognitive, emotional and behavioral skills, activity level and the situation of the organization should also be taken into
Canal-Domínguez, J. F.; Wall, Alan
This paper analyses the determining factors of PhDs' career success. Earnings have been used as an objective measure, and a subjective measure of success was constructed based on the individuals' assessments of broader aspects of their job position. When analysing the data by field of knowledge and gender, it was found that males and PhD holders…
Stamm, Martina; Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara
Although mentoring is perceived as key to a successful and satisfying career in medicine, there is a lack of methodologically sound studies to support this view. This study made use of a longitudinal design to investigate the impact of mentoring during postgraduate specialist training on the career success of doctors. We analysed data pertaining to 326 doctors (172 women, 52.8%; 154 men, 47.2%) from a cohort of medical school graduates participating in the prospective SwissMedCareer Study, assessing personal characteristics, the possession of a mentor, mentoring support provided by the development network, and career success. The impact of personal characteristics on having a mentor was investigated using multiple linear regression analysis. The impacts of having a mentor and of having development network mentoring support on career success were analysed using hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Up to 50% of doctors reported having a mentor. A significant gender difference was found, with fewer female than male doctors having a mentor (40.7% versus 60.4% at the fifth assessment; p ≤ 0.001). Apart from gender, significant predictors of having a mentor were instrumentality (β = 0.24, p ≤ 0.01) and extraprofessional concerns (β = -0.15, p ≤ 0.05). Both having a mentor and having career support from the development network were significant predictors of both objective (β = 0.15, p ≤ 0.01; β = 0.17, p ≤ 0.01) and subjective (β = 0.17, p ≤ 0.01; β = 0.14, p ≤ 0.05) career success, but not of career satisfaction. This study confirmed the positive impact of mentoring on career success in a cohort of Swiss doctors in a longitudinal design. However, female doctors, who are mentored less frequently than male doctors, appear to be disadvantaged in this respect. Formal mentoring programmes could reduce barriers to mentorship and promote the career advancement of female doctors in particular. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.
Full Text Available The paper deals with conscientious objection in health care, addressing the problems of scope, verification and limitation of such refusal, paying attention to ideological agendas hidden behind the right of conscience where the claimed refusal can cause harm or where such a claim is an attempt to impose certain moral values on society or an excuse for not providing health care. The nature of conscientious objection will be investigated and an ethical analysis of conscientious objection will be conducted. Finally some suggestions for health care policy will be proposed.
Mike, Anissa; Jackson, Joshua J.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.
The current study examined the relationship between conscientiousness, work status, and volunteering utilizing two large samples, the St. Louis Personality and Aging Network (SPAN) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). It was hypothesized that conscientious adults who were retired would be more likely to volunteer because, after retirement, they gain a substantial amount of free time, while losing an outlet for their industrious and achievement-striving tendencies. Cross-sectional and lo...
Full Text Available Orientation: A career within the South African Operational Forces is physically, mentally and emotionally challenging. It is a diverse working environment with its own organisational culture and unique challenges. Research purpose: The aim of the study was to explore the perceptions of Operational Forces soldiers regarding the unique requirements that facilitated their career success. Motivation for the study: A low percentage of candidates successfully complete the Operational Forces training. The financial implications of training candidates make it important to be able to identify candidates who have the potential to be successful, early on in the process. Research design, approach and method: Data were collected through a self-administered qualitative survey (n = 98. All participants were permanent Operational Forces soldiers with varying ranks and years of experience. The data were thematically analysed in order to identify themes and specific attributes and skills associated with a successful career in the Operational Forces. Main findings: A number of themes emerged from the data, each of which contributed to our understanding of the research question. The themes included self-concept, personality, interests, cognitive and physical factors. Practical and managerial implications: The research findings may help to inform decisions about approaches, practices and methodologies of the South African Operational Forces recruitment and selection process. Results also provide military organisations with the key characteristics to consider when identifying candidates with the highest potential for successful careers. Contribution and value-add: The study extends previous career success research by contributing an additional base of information regarding career success and factors that are perceived to influence it.
Jasmin E. Rosa
Full Text Available Construction is traditionally a male industry. Women have long had difficulties entering or advancing their career in construction. Evidence shows that a diversified workforce with gender balance will bring about higher levels of productivity. Despite the importance of this issue, there have been limited studies on women’s career development in construction. This study aims to investigate women’s career development in the Australian construction industry, with objectives to evaluate the challenges and success factors of women’s career development in the construction industry and provide strategies for narrowing the gender imbalance. A mixed approach of questionnaire survey and interview were conducted with female practitioners in the construction industry. Forty-three completed questionnaires were received and 10 interviews were conducted. Stress, family-work balance, and negative perception towards women in construction were the top three challenges identified. Dedication, determination, and independence were the top three success factors of women in construction. This study recommends construction employers consider providing personal development programs and flexible working arrangement for their female employees. Significance of this study lies on contributing to understanding women’s career development in construction. Findings will be useful for government and professional institutions to promulgate strategies for advancing women’s career development in construction.
Full Text Available Introduction: Human resources are the most valuable assets to any organisation, identifying factors that affect job performance of these resources has become increasingly important. Aim: To determine the relationship between self-esteem and success with job performance in the staff of the Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences (SKUMS Headquarters, Shahrekord, Iran. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical (correlational study, based on structural equation modeling, was conducted in 2015. The study population included 240 of the staff of SKUMS Headquarters, Shahrekord, Iran. From these people, 86 were selected by simple random sampling. A questionnaire of demographic characteristics, Paterson job performance, Radsyp career success and Eysenck selfesteem questionnaire were used to evaluate the concepts of job performance, success and self-esteem. The data were analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 23.0. Results: A total of 86 out of which 49 were female (57% and 37 (43% male, with a mean age of 39.85±7.6 (range 24-55 years. There was no significant relationship between demographic characteristics and job performance, career success and selfesteem. Self-esteem could be predicted positively and career success could be predicted negatively. Job performance and selfesteem had a significant positive correlation relationship (p<0.05. Conclusion: According to the direct relationship between job performance and self-esteem in this study, officials can improve job performance of staff through supporting them and reinforcing their self-esteem and thus providing career success.
Kay, Joseph S; Shane, Jacob; Heckhausen, Jutta
Youth's career attainment is associated with socioeconomic background, but may also be related to their beliefs about causes of success. Relationships between 17-year-olds' socioeconomic status (SES) and causal beliefs about success, and whether these beliefs predict career attainment after completing a vocational or university degree were examined using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (n = 997, 48.5% female). Youth with higher SES parents and those who attended higher levels of high schools were less likely to believe that success in society is due to external causes, but SES was unrelated to the belief that success is due to personal merit or ability. Youth who believe that success is due to external causes attained lower income, occupational prestige, and job autonomy, and slower increases in income over time. There were also significant indirect effects of youth's parents' SES and their own high school levels on career attainment through such external causal beliefs; merit beliefs, by contrast, were largely unrelated to career attainment. These results suggest that beliefs about external causes of success may uniquely contribute to the transmission and maintenance of SES across generations and over time.
Juneman Abraham; Murty Magda Pane
This research investigated the relation between conscientiousness, collectivism, and corrupt tendency–which is represented by moral emotions (shame and guilt proneness). The study was conducted on 117 students (76 male, 41 female; M = 18.93 years old; SD = 1.67 years old) in Jakarta. The result shows that collectivism has positive predictive correlation with the tendency of not doing corruption and that conscientiousness is not able to predict corrupt tendencies. Collectivism of which every g...
Chong, Yen Wan; Rahman, Maria Abdul
In today’s global work environment characterised by workplace diversity, multicultural skills or cultural intelligence (CQ) are essential soft skills for managerial success. In a multi-cultural country like Malaysia, the development of multicultural sensitivity is also important so that its citizens will learn to live in harmony. This paper reports on a study which reviews the effectiveness of a campus wide program that was implemented by a Malaysian public university which specializes in man...
Gordon, V Z
It was predicted that those participants who experienced discontinuity (death, divorce, and separations) from their parent(s) in childhood and who had successful careers in adulthood would manifest more innovative than adaptive cognitive styles on the Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory. The original research showed 61% of the sample members (n = 41) experienced family discontinuity. Ninety percent (n = 37) of the previous participants responded and showed 59% family discontinuity. Fifty-four percent in the follow-up study chose an alternative career path (counterstriving), the same percentage as in the original sample. When both family discontinuity and counterstriving were present, statistically significant innovation scores occurred. Family discontinuity in childhood and a successful career in adulthood are likely to be associated with high striving-motivation and an innovative (paradigm-breaking) problem-solving style.
Full Text Available Career advancement in Indonesian academia is nationally regulated. It, theoretically, provides equal opportunities for men and women to be productive and successful. The purpose of this study is to analyze gender effects on academic career productivity and success. Seven-hundred and fifty questionnaires were distributed randomly to eight Islamic Higher Education Institutions in seven provinces, from which 220 (Men = 57.7%, and Women = 42.3% respondents returned the questionnaires with an analyzable quality. Descriptive and multivariate analyses are employed for analyzing and presenting the results. The paper argues that women in Islamic Higher Education Institutions are less productive in terms of publications, hold lower academic rank and leadership positions, and earn significantly less than men. It further argues that Islamic Higher Education Institutions should provide specific empowerment for women by, for example, providing support for their continuing education, professional development, and career opportunities.
Serrano Gil, A; García Casado, M L
The issue of conscientious objection in Spain has been used by pro-choice groups against objecting health personnel as one of the obstacles to the implementation of the abortion law, a misnomer. At present objection is massive in the public sector; 95% of abortions are carried out in private clinics with highly lucrative returns; abortion tourism has decreased; and false objection has proliferated in the public sector when the objector performs abortions in the private sector for high fees. The legal framework for conscientious objection is absent in Spain. Neither Article 417 of the Penal Code depenalizing abortion, nor the Ministerial Decree of July 31, 1985, nor the Royal Decree of November 21, 1986 recognize such a concept. However, the ruling of the Constitutional Court on April 11, 1985 confirmed that such objection can be exercised with independence. Some authors refer to the applicability of Law No. 48 of December 16, 1984 that regulates conscientious objection in military service to health personnel. The future law concerning the fundamental right of ideological and religious liberty embodied in Article 16.1 of the Constitution has to be revised. A draft bill was submitted in the Congress or Representatives concerning this issue on May 3, 1985 that recognizes the right of medical personnel to object to abortion without career repercussions. Another draft bill was introduced on April 17, 1985 that would allow the nonparticipation of medical personnel in the interruption of pregnancy, however, they would be prohibited from practicing such in the private hospitals. Neither of these proposed bills became law. Professional groups either object unequivocally, or do not object at all, or object on an ethical level but do not object to therapeutic abortion. The resolution of this issue has to be by consensus and not by imposition.
Hirschy, Amy S.; Bremer, Christine D.; Castellano, Marisa
Career and technical education (CTE) students pursuing occupational associate's degrees or certificates differ from students seeking academic majors at 2-year institutions in several ways. This article examines several theoretical models of student persistence and offers a conceptual model of student success focused on CTE students in community…
Tartas, Malgorzata; Walkiewicz, Maciej; Majkowicz, Mikolaj; Budzinski, Waldemar
Systemic review of predictors of success in medical career is an important tool to recognize the indicators of proper training. To determine psychological factors that predict success in a medical career. The success is defined as professional competence, satisfaction with medicine as a career, occupational stress and burnout and quality of life (QOF). Part I (1999-2005), medical students were examined each subsequent year, beginning with admission. Assessment included academic achievement (high school final examination results, entrance exam results, academic results during medical school) and psychological characteristics (sense of coherence (SOC), depression, anxiety, coping styles, value system and need for social approval). Part II (2008-2009), the same participants completed an Internet survey 4 years after graduation. Results of the postgraduate medical exam were taken under consideration. Academic achievement predicts only professional competence. Coping styles are significant indicators of satisfaction with medicine as a career. SOC, while assessed with anxiety and depression during studies, enabled us to recognize future QOF of medical graduates. Professional stress is not predictable to such an extent as other success indicators. There are significant psychological qualities useful to draw the outline of the future job and life performance of medical graduates.
This study narrates the role of education/training in the career success stories of twelve women on an Irish active labour market programme, Community Employment (CE). All from lower socio-economic groups, having early school-leaving backgrounds, and, prior to CE, were long-term unemployed. CE enhances the employability of the long-term unemployed…
Restubog, Simon Lloyd D.; Bordia, Prashant; Bordia, Sarbari
The current study extends past research by examining leader-member exchange as a mediator of the relationship between employee reports of psychological contract breach and career success. In addition, we tested a competing perspective in which we proposed that performance mediators (i.e., in-role performance and organizational citizenship…
Rasdi, Roziah Mohd; Garavan, Thomas N.; Ismail, Maimunah
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how managerial level moderates the relationships between networking behaviours and career success (objective and subjective) in the context of a public sector organisation in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The study utilised a cross-sectional design and investigated these relationships…
LeCrom, Carrie; Rufer, Lisa; Slavich, Mark; Dwyer, Brendan; Greenhalgh, Gregory
The following case study attempted to assess what factors contribute to graduate school and early-career success among sport management graduate students. As faculty members charged with admitting the next generation of leaders in the sport industry, how should admissions decisions be made and what factors should be considered? The authors…
Gender gaps in achieved rank and salary, common indicators of objective success, often are attributed to the different family roles and responsibilities of men and women. This study tested three explanations for the different effects of family on careers: that is, choice, performance, and signaling explanations. In a sample of American doctoral…
MacDermid, Shelley M.; Lee, Mary Dean; Buck, Michelle; Williams, Margaret L.
A study of 78 women professionals/managers working reduced hours for family or personal reasons showed that less successful arrangements were associated with lack of upward mobility, underemployment, pressure to work full time, and difficult relations with co-workers. Career development was a concern for those in both more and less successful…
Russ-Eft, Darlene F.; Dickison, Philip D.; Levine, Roger
Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) are a critical segment in prehospital medical care. This study examined EMT-paramedic career success focused on minorities and women, as part of the Longitudinal Emergency Medical Technician Attributes and Demographics Study (LEADS). The LEADS data come from a representative sampling of EMTs throughout the…
Founder of Practical Strategy Consulting, Christopher Duncan is the bestselling author of Unite the Tribes and The Career Programmer. He's been a frequent guest on radio shows across the country, his monthly columns have been read by hundreds of thousands worldwide, and he is widely acclaimed for his immensely practical approach to success in the real world where self interest and office politics are often more prevalent than common sense. This keen insight does not come by accident. Christopher has an unusually diverse background which includes a career in sales consulting, life as a professi
Cho, Yonjoo; Park, Jiwon; Han, Soo Jeoung; Ju, Boreum; You, Jieun; Ju, Ahreum; Park, Chan Kyun; Park, Hye Young
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare South Korean female executives' definitions of career success with those of male executives, identify their career development strategies for success and provide implications for research and practice. Two research questions guiding our inquiry included: How do female executives' definitions of…
Liu, Jingying; Liu, Yan-Hui
The aim of this study was to explore the relationships among perceived organizational support, career success, self-esteem and intention to remain. A cross-sectional study was designed, and subjects were recruited from six nonprofit organizations in China in spring 2015. A convenience sample of 610 nurses answered a survey with questions related to their ideas about their work. Structural equation modelling analyses were conducted. The results revealed that perceived organizational support was positively associated with intention to remain and career success, which, in turn, mediated the relationship between perceived organizational support and intention to remain. We also found that self-esteem mediated the relationships between perceived organizational support and career success and between career success and intention to remain. Higher perceived organizational support, career success and self-esteem can increase intention to remain in Chinese nurses. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
McDaris, J. R.; Kirk, K. B.; Layou, K.; Macdonald, H.; Baer, E. M.; Blodgett, R. H.; Hodder, J.
Two-year colleges play an important role in developing a competent and creative geoscience workforce, teaching science to pre-service K-12 teachers, producing earth-science literate citizens, and providing a foundation for broadening participation in the geosciences. The Supporting and Advancing Geoscience Education in Two-Year Colleges (SAGE 2YC) project has developed web resources for geoscience faculty on the preparation and support of students in two-year colleges (2YCs). Online resources developed from two topical workshops and several national, regional, and local workshops around the country focus on two main categories: Career Preparation and Workforce Development, and Supporting Student Success in Geoscience at Two-year Colleges. The Career Preparation and Workforce Development resources were developed to help faculty make the case that careers in the geosciences provide a range of possibilities for students and to support preparation for the geoscience workforce and for transfer to four-year programs as geoscience majors. Many two-year college students are unaware of geoscience career opportunities and these materials help illuminate possible futures for them. Resources include an overview of what geoscientists do; profiles of possible careers along with the preparation necessary to qualify for them; geoscience employer perspectives about jobs and the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes they are looking for in their employees; employment trends in sectors of the economy that employ geoscience professionals; examples of geotechnician workforce programs (e.g. Advanced Technological Education Centers, environmental technology programs, marine technician programs); and career resources available from professional societies. The website also provides information to support student recruitment into the geosciences and facilitate student transfer to geoscience programs at four- year colleges and universities, including sections on advising support before
The aim of this research is to investigate how managers define career success for themselves. It seeks to discover what differences there are in the way that women and men, and older and younger managers, see their own career success. It fills an identifiable gap in the literature on career success, in that it examines the subject from the point of view of the individual, not the organisation. In doing so, it responds to calls for work in this area, especially the development o...
Kaderli, Reto; Muff, Brigitte; Stefenelli, Ulrich; Businger, Adrian
An increasing proportion of women are working in medicine, although only very few choose surgical specialties and the interest in an academic pursuit is generally smaller among women compared to their male colleagues. The aim of the present study was to analyse factors critical for a successful academic career for female surgeons in Switzerland and to assess the value of mentor-mentee relationships in this context. An anonymous national survey among board-certified female surgeons and female residents was conducted in Switzerland during spring 2008. The support in career advancement was investigated with five scales: networking, career planning, coaching, role model and emotional support scale. Career development was assessed based on the following criteria: number of talks at scientific conferences, number of peer-reviewed publications, participation in research projects, months of research as a fulltime activity, amount of awarded scholarships, amount of obtained third-party funds and number of research awards obtained. In total, 189/318 (59.4%) questionnaires were returned. Mentor-mentee relationships were reported by 109/189 (58%) respondents. The bivariate analysis showed a positive influence on the sum score regarding the respondents who were in a mentor-mentee relationship or who had support in doing household work (p = 0.09). A supporting network, especially in terms of a mentor, is crucial so that female physicians interested in an academic career get the opportunity to accomplish their purpose. There is considerable potential for improvement as almost half of the respondents did not have a mentor in this survey.
Westman, Mina; Etzion, Dalia
Reactions to 4 versions of a vignette describing a successful manager were obtained from 233 management students, including 50 executives in an extension course. Career success was perceived as a major cause of personal failure. The personal price paid by successful people was perceived differently depending on gender and marital status. (SK)
Shah, Shalaka Sharad
The issue of work-life balance is becoming increasingly important for employers and employees globally. The clearer becomes our understanding about this issue; the better it will be for an effective and positive integration of these dynamic domains of our lives. Work-family enrichment is a positive way of integrating work and family and it helps to achieve work-life balance. In this Indo-German study, work-life balance, work-family enrichment, work-family culture and career success are analys...
Carmen M. Iannarelli
Full Text Available This study examines factors affecting the academic performance of Hmong students at Chippewa Valley Technical College in Eau Claire, WI. Factors specifically analyzed for their impact upon student success are socioeconomic status, family support, the use of academic support programs, and the influence of agents of socialization. Through the use of archival institutional data, Hmong students were compared to white students at CVTC in terms of their relative grade point averages, course completion rates, and retention rates. Data revealed significant disparities in grade point average performance between Hmong and white students. The data also showed that eligibility for financial aid was significantly higher among Hmong students, and that this difference was commensurate with educational performance gaps between the two groups. Additionally, online surveys were used to assess family support while attending CVTC, the role of academic support programs, and influential agents of socialization. Gender differences in grade point average performance and socialization also were analyzed. Implications of the study’s findings are discussed and recommendations for improving the performance of Hmong students are provided.
Chaytor Andrew T
Full Text Available Abstract Background Professionalism in medical students is not only difficult to define but difficult to teach and measure. As negative behaviour in medical students is associated with post-graduate disciplinary action it would be useful to have a model whereby unprofessional behaviour at the undergraduate level can easily be identified to permit appropriate intervention. We have previously developed a scalar measure of conscientiousness, the Conscientiousness Index (CI, which positively correlates to estimates of professional behaviour in undergraduate medical students. By comparing CI points awarded in year 1 and year 2 of study we were able to use the CI model to determine whether teaching and clinical exposure had any effect on students’ conscientiousness. Methods CI points were collected by administrative staff from 3 successive cohorts of students in years 1 and 2 of study. Points were awarded to students for activities such as submission of immunisation status and criminal record checks, submission of summative assignments by a specified date and attendance at compulsory teaching sessions. CI points were then converted to a percentage of maximal possible scores (CI % to permit direct comparison between years 1 and 2 of study. Results CI % scores were generally high with each year of study for each cohort showing negatively skewed normal distributions with peaks > 89%. There was a high degree of correlation of CI % scores between year 1 and year 2 of study for each cohort alone and when cohort data was combined. When the change in CI % from year 1 to year 2 for all students was compared there was no significant difference in conscientiousness observed. Conclusions We have provided evidence that use of a CI model in undergraduate medical students provides a reliable measure of conscientiousness that is easy to implement. Importantly this study shows that measurement of conscientiousness by the CI model in medical students does not change
Sok, J.; Blomme, R.J.; Tromp, D.M.; Muijen, van J.J.
The purpose of this research project was to identify success factors in the careers of top women in the hospitality industry. We started out by interviewing five women who are currently working in a high management position in the hospitality industry, about their experiences on their way to the
Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between conscientiousness, empowerment and job performance among information technology professionals. An Employee Empowerment Questionnaire (EEQ, a Conscientiousness Scale and a Social Desirability Scale were administered to 101 information technology customer service engineers. Managers completed a Performance Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ for each customer service engineer. The results indicated a significant relationship between conscientiousness and empowerment. A curvilinear relationship was found between empowerment and performance. The practical and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.
Allison, Barbara J.; Voss, Richard Steven; Dryer, Sean
Business students (n=211) rated their organizational citizenship behavior (altruism, courtesy, civic virtue, sportsmanship, conscientiousness). A majority had moderately high levels, but a significant percentage had relatively low levels. Organizational citizenship behavior was significantly and positively related to academic performance. (SK)
Stocks, K. I.; Duerr, R.; Wyborn, L. A.; Yarmey, L.
Data Scientists do not have a single career trajectory or preparatory pathway. Successful data scientists have come from domain sciences, computer science, library science, and other diverse fields. They have worked up from entry-level staff positions, have started as academics with doctoral degrees, and have established themselves as management professionals. They have positions in government, industry, academia, and NGO's, and their responsibilities range from highly specialized, to generalists, to high-level leadership. This presents a potentially confusing landscape for students interested in the field: how to decide among the varied options to have the best chance at fulfilling employment? What are the mistakes to avoid? Many established data scientist, both old-timers and early career professionals, expressed interest in presenting in this session but were unable to justify using their one AGU abstract for something other than their funded projects. As the session chairs we interviewed them, plus our extended network of colleagues, to ask for their best advice on what was most critical to their success in their current position, what pitfalls to avoid, what ongoing challenges they see, and what advice they would give themselves, if they could do it all over again starting now. Here we consolidate those interviews with our own perspectives to present some of the common themes and standout advice.
Smith, Shannon B; Hollerbach, Ann; Donato, Annemarie Sipkes; Edlund, Barbara J; Atz, Teresa; Kelechi, Teresa J
A critical component of the progression of a successful academic career is being promoted in rank. Early-career faculty are required to have an understanding of appointment, promotion, and tenure (APT) guidelines, but many factors often impede this understanding, thwarting a smooth and planned promotion pathway for professional advancement. This article outlines the steps taken by an APT committee to improve the promotion process from instructor to assistant professor. Six sigma's DMAIC improvement model was selected as the guiding operational framework to remove variation in the promotion process. After faculty handbook revisions were made, several checklists developed, and a process review rubric was implemented; recently promoted faculty were surveyed on satisfaction with the process. Faculty opinions captured in the survey suggest increased transparency in the process and perceived support offered by the APT committee. Positive outcomes include a strengthened faculty support framework, streamlined promotion processes, and improved faculty satisfaction. Changes to the APT processes resulted in an unambiguous and standardized pathway for successful promotion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kogan, Lori R; McConnell, Sherry L; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina
This article addresses the challenges that gender performance expectations create within the veterinary profession. An investigation of veterinary students' perceptions of the essential characteristics that define successful veterinarians and veterinary students, and the gender differences within these definitions, is described. Because previous research supports the premise that the standards required for success differ for males and females, it is likely that male and female veterinary students possess different career expectations and definitions of career success. The ramifications of these differences are explored, and proposed strategies to address this issue, in the form of student support services, are discussed.
New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Educational Research.
Student Upgrading through Computer and Career Education System Services (Project SUCCESS) was an Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title VII-funded project in its third year of operation. Project SUCCESS served 460 students of limited English proficiency at two high schools in Brooklyn and one high school in Manhattan (New York City).…
Obschonka, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva; Stuetzer, Michael
What predicts a person's venture creation success over the course of the career, such as making progress in the venture creation process and multiple successful venture creations? Applying a life span approach of human development, this study examined the effect of early entrepreneurial competence in adolescence, which was gathered retrospectively…
New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment.
An evaluation was done of the New York City Public Schools' Student Upgrading through Computer and Career Education Systems Services Program (Project SUCCESS). Project SUCCESS operated at 3 high schools in Brooklyn and Manhattan (Murry Bergtraum High School, Edward R. Murrow High School, and John Dewey High School). It enrolled limited English…
Venus, J. H.; Gonzales, L. M.; Yes Network
The external influences on the decisions that geoscientists make pertaining to their careers are often assumed but not quantified. The YES Network is conducting an international study to determine the Key Decision points in the career pathways of early career geoscientists. The study aims to identify factors contributing to individual career decisions and to monitor these over a ten year period. The Initial phase of the study is now underway enabling preliminary conclusions to be drawn and will identify a group of individuals that will be tracked over the 10 year programme. The Survey will highlight reoccurring areas where Early Career Geoscientists are experiencing progression difficulties and, importantly, provide respondents with an opportunity to suggest solutions whilst also allowing general resource needs to be identified from the results as a whole. Early results show an overwhelming majority expressing job satisfaction most or all of the time (only 2 candidates reporting none). Respondents rate job satisfaction and respect highly, returning more responses than good salaries. A general frustration with administration, paper work and bureaucracy is particularly evident in those employed by government organisations. Early Career geoscientists express a frustration concerning a lack of involvement in decision making processes; interestingly several later career respondents also acknowledge a need to properly train, nurture and encourage new recruits to retain good graduates who may otherwise become disillusioned and leave the profession. The role of family in career choices has been highlighted both in survey and general feedback responses particularly by female geoscientists and those working in jobs with high levels of fieldwork; we aim to determine, to some extent, to what point these decisions are controlled by family as opposed to normal career progression. Flexible working conditions and agreed time away from field duty have been independently suggested
Garletts, Joseph A
In October 2000, Phoenix-based Sonora Quest Laboratories, LLC (SQL), commissioned The Gelfond Group to survey SQL employees. Responding to negative survey scores, SQL developed and implemented an entry-level career ladder for line staff of the specimen management/referral testing department. The program was piloted in February 2001, and was implemented fully shortly thereafter. The ladder was designed to provide job enrichment opportunities through company-conducted training and advancement provisions. It contained requirements for productivity and quality of work performed in addition to increasingly rigorous training and competency documentation. Employees were accountable for their own advancement and for ensuring that all documentation was complete. Advancement was automatic once requirements were completed. Pay increases accompanied each advancement on a predetermined scale. At the end of 12 months, employee turnover dropped from 39% to less than 20% annually. Both productivity and morale improved, and results on a second employee survey indicated dramatic improvement in five key areas. The career ladder concept has been replicated successfully in several other departments, including phlebotomy, and a six-tiered ladder is under development for the clinical laboratory. It will encompass CLA, MLT, and MT positions from entry level to technical coordinator.
English, Tammy; Carstensen, Laura L.
The articles appearing in this special section discuss the role that conscientiousness may play in healthy aging. Growing evidence suggests that conscientious individuals live longer and healthier lives. However, the question remains whether this personality trait can be leveraged to improve long-term health outcomes. We argue that even though it…
Holmes, M.; Advance-Nebraska Evaluation Team
At the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), 20% of short list candidates for faculty openings in science, engineering and mathematics (STEM) brought an academic partner into the hiring picture between 2008 and 2010, with a peak of 38% in 2010. Having a process in place to address dual career opportunities is a key component in an overall strategy to increase the number of women STEM faculty: 83% of academic scientist women's partners are also academics in STEM, according to a 2009 Stanford report, and 54% of academic scientist men's are. Offering two positions to qualified couples benefits the institution by increasing the chances of recruitment and retention of both candidates. UNL's ADVANCE program, ADVANCE-Nebraska, developed a process to take advantage of dual career opportunities. Nine dual career couples have been hired in the last three years; we expected to hire eight during the five-year life of the grant. We increased the proportion of women in the Engineering College by twenty percent (from n=10 to n=12). The success of the program arises from four key components: early notification to short-list candidates of the dual career program, a point person to coordinate dual career requests across the campus, flexible faculty appointments that provide a variety of opportunities for the partner, and a funding stream to support the partner hire. The point person, the ADVANCE Program Director, was created by the provost through the ADVANCE program. The Director communicates with every short list candidate for each open faculty position and with department and search committee chairs across STEM colleges as soon as the candidate is selected. When there is an eligible partner of the candidate who receives the job offer, if there is approval from the Office of Academic Affairs, the Dean of the target college, and the chair and faculty of the partner's target department, the partner is brought to UNL to interview, and the faculty of the partner's target department
Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul
This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious...... refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural...... identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals’ conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment...
Ford, Natalie J; Fraser, Kimberly D; Marck, Patricia B
In this paper we argue that nurse leaders need to work actively to create morally supportive environments for nurses in Canada that provide adequate room to exercise conscientious objection. Morally supportive environments engender a safe atmosphere to engage in open dialogue and action regarding conflict of conscience. The CNA's 2008 Code of Ethics for Registered Nurses has recognized the importance of conscientious objection in nursing and has created key guidelines for the registered nurse to follow when a conflict in conscience is being considered or declared. Nurse leaders need to further develop the understanding of conflicts of conscience through education, well-written guidelines for conscientious objection in workplaces and engagement in research to uncover underlying barriers to the enactment of conscientious objections. With advancements in technology, changing healthcare policies and increasing scope of practice, both reflection and dialogue on conscientious objection are critical for the continuing moral development of nurses in Canada.
Mpho M. Pheko
Full Text Available Orientation: Corporate mobility remains elusive for female managers. Research purpose: To investigate Batswana female managers’ strategies for entering and succeeding in managerial positions, the challenges they face and the consequences of success. Motivation for the study: There is a lack of research into the way Batswana female managers obtain management positions, as well as their experiences as female managers. Research approach, design and method: An interpretive approach using a case study strategy was employed. Semi-structured interviews were conducted which were shaped by the objectives of the study. A sample of female employees (n = 10, representing different organisations and professions, was obtained from various organisations in Botswana. Main findings: Findings revealed that female managers do experience a number of challenges. Various factors were identified that accounted for their career advancement as well as the consequences of success. The consequences of success were identified as being both positive and negative. Practical/managerial implications: The current study is important as the strategies for success that were identified can be used to assist interested women to obtain management-level positions. Furthermore, the challenges identified may assist both researchers and practitioners to design interventions that help to mitigate the challenges, in turn enabling the inclusion and advancement of women in leadership or managerial positions. Contributions: The current study may contribute new knowledge as past research conducted in Botswana seems to have focused mainly on the impact of regulatory and legislative challenges on women’s advancement. Such a focus ignores the other aspects of female managers’ experiences, which are addressed by the current study.
Conclusion: Hospitals should pay more attention to the benefits of positive personality trait on working motivation. It is meaningful to enhance perceived organizational support, career success and self-esteem in the working process so that nurses are willing to stay in the current employment.
Bozionelos, Nikos; Bozionelos, Giorgos; Kostopoulos, Konstantinos; Polychroniou, Panagiotis
Purpose: This study aims to investigate the relationship of mentoring provided with career success and organizational commitment in the general managerial population. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 194 native British who were employed in a variety of jobs, professions and industries in the United Kingdom. Findings: Mentoring…
This study examined the relationship of family background on students' academic self-efficacy and the impact of students' self-efficacy on their career and life success expectations. The study used the national dataset of the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS: 2002), funded by the U.S. Department of Education. Based on a path…
Students Upgrading through Computer and Career Education System Services (Project SUCCESS) was an Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title VII-funded project in its fourth year of operation. The project operated at two high schools in Brooklyn and one in Manhattan (New York). In the 1993-94 school year, the project served 393 students of…
Gardner, Keeba G.
This study will examine the relationship between career success outcomes of African American women and early familial factors, as well as personality traits. Using a cross-sectional case-control design. the study will use participants who self-identified as African American with two African American parents. They will be randomly selected from a…
Obschonka, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva; Stuetzer, Michael
What predicts a person's venture creation success over the course of the career, such as making progress in the venture creation process and multiple successful venture creations? Applying a life span approach of human development, this study examined the effect of early entrepreneurial competence in adolescence, which was gathered retrospectively by means of the Life History Calendar method. Human and social capitals during the founding process were investigated as mediators between adolesce...
Jackson, Joshua J.; Wood, Dustin; Bogg, Tim; Walton, Kate E.; Harms, Peter D.; Roberts, Brent W.
Typical assessments of personality traits collapse behaviors, thoughts, and feelings into a single measure without distinguishing between these different manifestations. To address this lack of specification, the current study develops and validates a measure that assesses a number of broad behaviors associated with the personality trait of conscientiousness (the Behavioral Indicators of Conscientiousness; BIC). Findings suggest that the lower-order structure of conscientious behaviors is mos...
Fuadiah, Lu’lu’ul; Anward, Hemy Heryati; Erlyani, Neka
The USAge of internet can have negative impacts on students, one of which is cyberloafing, the action of an individual using the internet access of an institution during the lecture hours for personal interests and other internet activities that are not related to the lectures. Cyberloafing influences some personality traits, such as conscientiousness. Students whose high level of conscientiousness can control their behavior to reach their goals and are not affected by personal desires and so...
Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul
This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals' conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment, and this requirement is found to create serious problems for those wishing to defend the idea under consideration. We conclude that the notion of a legal right to conscientious refusal for any profession is either fundamentally incompatible with elementary legal ethical requirements, or implausible because it undermines the functioning of a related professional sector (healthcare) or even of society as a whole.
Dikkers, J.S.E.; van Engen, M.L.; Vinkenburg, C.J.
Purpose: This study sets out to examine how gender and ambition are related to work hours and the utilization of other flexible work-home arrangements, and how this use is - in turn - associated with career-related outcomes (i.e. job level, and career satisfaction). Design/methodology/approach: In
Powley, Sherry; Sabol, Laurie
This book provides essays on career topics aimed at women and a directory of tools to help women get started or take their career to the next level. The essays topics are equal education and employment; role models, networks, and mentors for women; financial management; child care; introduction to financial aid; women's colleges and women's…
Tlaiss, Hayfaa; Kauser, Saleema
Purpose: Frequently used in fostering the career progression of individuals this paper aims to explore the concept of "wasta" and its significance in the career advancement of individuals in the Middle Eastern region. The paper also seeks to compare "wasta" with networking and mentoring. Design/methodology/approach: The…
Moreno, Melissa Gearhart
Women are underrepresented in technology careers because they pursue technology degrees less frequently and leave technology careers at greater numbers than do men. By analyzing a representative dataset of college graduates with degrees in computer science, computer engineering, and management information systems, this study identified…
Full Text Available This dissertation discusses the factors affecting women's success in museum careers. It draws on information gathered from interviews with successful women, to supplement existing information and statistics. Women are less successful than men, for they are underrepresented in the top jobs, and have lower average earnings. This is the result of a series of factors which hinder their career progression. Some emanate from the organizational culture of museums, which is often conservative and male-dominated. Others result from the clash between fulfilling family responsibilities and living up to current expectations in the workplace. A final set of factors concerns the typical attitudes and behaviour of individuals: the effects of women's own self-limitation, and men's, often unconsciously, pejorative viewpoint. The strategies for overcoming these barriers have also been assessed. Organizations are implementing equal opportunities programmes, including provisions for flexible working; for individuals, awareness is crucial, as well as profiting from networks, mentors, training and career planning. These strategies, however, are currently sufficient to help only the most exceptional women reach the top. The remaining problems are associated with deep-seated social stereotypes, and it will take a concerted effort by those in high status positions to help greater numbers of women overcome them.
Jackson, Joshua J; Wood, Dustin; Bogg, Tim; Walton, Kate E; Harms, Peter D; Roberts, Brent W
Typical assessments of personality traits collapse behaviors, thoughts, and feelings into a single measure without distinguishing between these different manifestations. To address this lack of specification, the current study develops and validates a measure that assesses a number of broad behaviors associated with the personality trait of conscientiousness (the Behavioral Indicators of Conscientiousness; BIC). Findings suggest that the lower-order structure of conscientious behaviors is mostly similar to the lower-order structure in extant trait measures. Furthermore, a daily diary method was used to validate the BIC against frequency counts of conscientious behavior. Overall, the results identify specific behaviors that conscientious individuals tend to perform and highlight possible advantages of this approach over broad trait assessment.
Samuel, Douglas B; Widiger, Thomas A
A dimensional perspective on personality disorder hypothesizes that the current diagnostic categories represent maladaptive variants of general personality traits. However, a fundamental foundation of this viewpoint is that dimensional models can adequately account for the pathology currently described by these categories. While most of the personality disorders have well established links to dimensional models that buttress this hypothesis, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has obtained only inconsistent support. The current study administered multiple measures of 1) conscientiousness-related personality traits, 2) DSM-IV OCPD, and 3) specific components of OCPD (e.g., compulsivity and perfectionism) to a sample of 536 undergraduates who were oversampled for elevated OCPD scores. Six existing measures of conscientiousness-related personality traits converged strongly with each other supporting their assessment of a common trait. These measures of conscientiousness correlated highly with scales assessing specific components of OCPD, but obtained variable relationships with measures of DSM-IV OCPD. More specifically, there were differences within the conscientiousness instruments such that those designed to assess general personality functioning had small to medium relationships with OCPD, but those assessing more maladaptive variants obtained large effect sizes. These findings support the view that OCPD does represent a maladaptive variant of normal-range conscientiousness.
Egan, Mark; Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam; Boyce, Christopher J; Wood, Alex M
Existing research on Big Five personality and unemployment has relied on personality measures elicited after the respondents had already spent years in the labor market, an experience that could change personality. We clarify the direction of influence by using the British Cohort Study (N = 4,206) to examine whether conscientiousness and other Big Five personality traits at age 16-17 predict unemployment over age 16-42. Our hypothesis that higher conscientiousness in adolescence would predict lower unemployment was supported. In analyses controlling for intelligence, gender, and parental socioeconomic status, the less conscientious (-1 SD) had a predicted probability of unemployment twice as high (3.4% vs. 1.7%) as the highly conscientious (+1 SD), an effect size comparable to intelligence. Mediation analysis revealed that academic motivation and educational attainment explained only 8.9% of this association. Fostering conscientiousness in early life may be an effective way to reduce unemployment throughout adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available It is a fact that fashion plays an important role to select a career, new options of careers from engineering are preferred by students instead of traditional options; for example, Mechatronics, Aeronautics, Automotive specializations, Bionics, Biomedical and others are so popular. Every day, new necessities are required in the world and it is necessary to find the way to solve them, for that reason these new majors are good options to students, however traditional areas are important too. Information Technology is not the exception because every enterprise, school, association and organization needs computers with systems that help to solve specific situations or to manage resources. In Mexico, Information Technology careers are been affected for low enrollment of students, of course private universities have suffered more this situation than public schools . In this research work are shown the most important factors that have a real incidence to choose an Information Technology career. The methodology consisted in the design of a survey using seven points Likert´s scale where potential students could express more about their expectative, preferences and required abilities to study these majors. The mentioned survey had three versions and each one was validated through Cronbach’s Alpha. Data collected were analyzed using statistical software SPSS to obtain the critical success factors.
Some philosophers have argued for what I call the reason-giving requirement for conscientious refusal in reproductive healthcare. According to this requirement, healthcare practitioners who conscientiously object to administering standard forms of treatment must have arguments to back up their conscience, arguments that are purely public in character. I argue that such a requirement, though attractive in some ways, faces an overlooked epistemic problem: it is either too easy or too difficult to satisfy in standard cases. I close by briefly considering whether a version of the reason-giving requirement can be salvaged despite this important difficulty. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Alexander Nealy, Yolande Kristine
This study examined factors that contribute to the success of African American professionals in STEM careers. Data were collected through a survey from 40 participants and in-depth interviews with eight of them. The survey was used to explore the participants' educational experiences from elementary school through college and on their STEM-related careers, whereas the individual interviews were used to gain insights into their perspectives as STEM professionals. The results of this study indicate that most of these African American STEM professionals attributed their choice of a STEM career to early exposure to and positive experiences in science and mathematics mediated by teachers and/or parents. Furthermore, the positive experiences and success in science and mathematics continued in high school and college, further solidifying their choice of a STEM career. However, for almost half of the participants, attending a HBCU seems to have played an important role in their enjoyment of and success in a STEM major. HBCUs provided them with role models and the necessary support and encouragement to succeed in their pursuit of a STEM degree. The results of this study illustrate the various factors that play a role in preventing leakage in the minority STEM pipeline: K-12 experiences mediated by parents and teachers; support systems in college and the workplace mediated by counselors, professors, peers, and administrators; and policies that facilitate integration and the development of such support systems. This study contributes to the current body of knowledge on minorities in STEM by focusing on what works, instead of focusing on the deficit model and what does not work. It is hoped that these results help validate the efforts of those who work towards a more equitable representation of the STEM fields.
Obstacles to promotion? Values of women faculty about career success and recognition. Committee on the Status of Women and Minorities, Virginia Commonwealth University, Medical College of Virginia Campus.
Buckley, L M; Sanders, K; Shih, M; Kallar, S; Hampton, C
To assess attitudes of female faculty about career progress, resources for career development, and values related to academic success and recognition. In 1997, the authors surveyed all faculty at Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine and its associated Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Of 918 faculty, 567 (62%) responded to the survey; 33% of the respondents were women. Compared with men, women faculty were less likely to be tenured or at the level of professor, spent more time in clinical activities, had less time for scholarly activity, and reported slower career progress. Women were more likely to report that promotion and tenure criteria had not been reviewed with them. Significant differences were found between female physicians and non-physician faculty; female physicians reported the least time for scholarly activities and poorest understanding of promotion and tenure criteria. When the authors asked faculty how they valued certain indicators of career success, women were less likely to value leadership than were men. Female physicians were less likely to value scholarship and national recognition as indicators of their career success. This survey found important differences in career progress of male and female faculty, with women reporting less time for career development. In addition, there were differences in values related to career success and recognition, which were most pronounced for female physicians. These differences may have an important impact on promotion for women in general and particularly for female physicians.
Cooper, Beth A.
Whether in a classroom setting or at a local community meeting, opportunities for providing descriptive and positive information about our professions to an audience unfamiliar with acoustics, noise control or hearing conservation often call for alternatives to technical demonstrations that illustrate principles of acoustics or noise control. More importantly, successful outreach presentations must convey images of our day-to-day activities and the challenges we address, many of which are non-technical. One successful approach to career outreach presentations makes use of a collection of photo slides featuring the speaker, his colleagues, customers and workplaces to vividly illustrate the specific job tasks, people and environment of the speaker's job or career. Against this fluid and multi-dimensional visual backdrop, an accompanying script addresses the main theme. A comprehensive photo slide collection may be established gradually, often by making use of and adding to technical and personal slides already in the speaker's possession. Slide collections are portable, easily and quickly reconfigured for back-to-back or spontaneous engagements, and they are well suited to speaking opportunities where technical presentations or demonstrations are not practical or appropriate. A carefully chosen sequence of photo slides minimizes the need for speaker's notes, as each photo itself provides a visual prompt. Although photo slide presentations are appropriate to a variety of outreach and professional settings, the specific illustrative and explanatory material presented here illustrates their application in career education outreach activities, using industrial hearing conservation as an example.
Full Text Available This study examines the differences among students in terms of self-reported leadership characteristics. It was conducted among all three programs and four generations of undergraduates at RIT Croatia. The goal of this study is to determine the differences among students who report being more and less leadership prone (Potential Future Leaders and Followers, respectively with regard to demographic characteristics, reported self reliance socialization pattern, college level and program choice, career focus attainment and development, and reported attitudes regarding the importance of specific personality traits in leadership, the importance of specific career development factors and success indicators. Research showed that generation and college program are not related to student reported leadership proneness, suggesting that college education’s impact on leadership traits is not significant. Only one socio-demographic factor considered was significantly different between clusters; namely, the respondents who had moved once were significantly more represented in the Potential Future Leaders cluster, suggesting that study-abroad programs might play a role in leadership development. In terms of ranking career development factors, success indicators, the importance of emotional stability and openness to experience as a specific leadership trait, Potential Future Leaders reported higher scores in comparison with Followers cluster, potentially resulting from their forwardlooking, goal-oriented attitude.
Kool, A.; Mainhard, M. T.; Brekelmans, M.; van Beukelen, P.; Jaarsma, Alexandra
This study compared Dutch alumni who previously participated in an honors program (n=72) to non-honors alumni who entered university as high-achieving high school students (n=72) with regard to (1) final university grade point average (GPA) and (2) early career outcomes. Final grades were drawn from
O'Shea, Daniel P.; Betsinger, Alicia M.; King, Christopher T.
A study examined the career progression of individuals in the following occupations: registered nurse; physical therapist; medical laboratory technologist; paramedic; ranked corrections officer; dental hygienist; electronic technician; pipefitter/plumber; social worker; and auto body shop manager. Researchers conducted face-to-face interviews in…
Converse, Caren Wakerman
Writing across the secondary curriculum has been viewed primarily through the lens of traditional academic courses taught in comprehensive high schools. In this paper the author draws on her past experience as a criminal justice teacher at a career and technical high school to describe writing that facilitates and demonstrates learning of subject…
Wilkin, Thomas; Nwoke, Godfrey I.
The role of Career and Technical Education (CTE) as a major source of skilled workers for the American economy and a vital component of American education is well established. Several recent studies show that when CTE programs combine rigorous academic standards and industry-based technical content, the result is higher academic achievement and…
San Miguel, Anitza M.; Kim, Mikyong Minsun
Utilizing a phenomenological perspective and method, this study aimed to reveal the lived career mentoring experiences of Latinas in science and engineering and to understand how selected Latina scientists and engineers achieved high-level positions. Our in-depth interviews revealed that (a) it is important to have multiple mentors for Latinas'…
Career and technical education is serving up great opportunities for students in culinary arts programs across the country. According to the National Restaurant Association (NRA), it is estimated that a total of 13.5 million workers will be needed for the rapidly growing restaurant and food-service industry by the year 2014. This article provides…
Hoeksema, Ludwig; Van De Vliert, Evert; Williams, Roger
The institutionalization of management development and the money spent on it is in sharp contrast to the importance attached to what we know about how managers leam and whether it helps them to get promotion, given the specific organizational context in which they work. We therefore examined career
Kool, A.; Mainhard, M. T.; Jaarsma, A. D C; Brekelmans, M.; van Beukelen, P.
This study compared Dutch alumni who previously participated in an honors program (n = 72) to non-honors alumni who entered university as high-achieving high school students (n = 72) with regard to (1) final university grade point average (GPA) and (2) early career outcomes. Final grades were drawn
However conscientious objection amongst the available few is a hitherto undocumented potential factor influencing access to health care in SSA. Provision of certain reproductive health services goes counter to some individual's religious and moral beliefs and practices. Health providers sometimes refuse to participate in or ...
Physics degree holders are among the most employable in the world, often doing everything from managing a research lab at a multi-million dollar corporation, to developing solutions to global problems in their own small startups. Employers know that with a physics training, a potential hire has acquired a broad problem-solving skill set that translates to almost any environment, as well as an ability to be self- guided and -motivated so that they can learn whatever skills are needed to successfully achieve their goals. Therefore it's no surprise that the majority of physics graduates find employment in private sector, industrial settings. Yet at the same time, only about 25 graduating PhDs will take a permanent faculty position- yet academic careers are usually the only track to which students are exposed while earning their degrees. In this talk, I will explore less-familiar (but more common!) career paths for physics graduates, and provide resources to help faculty mentors give their students better information and training for a broader scope of career possibilities.
Kalet, Adina L; Fletcher, Kathlyn E; Ferdman, Dina J; Bickell, Nina A
We studied female graduates of the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program (CSP, Class of 1984 to 1989) to explore and describe the complexity of creating balance in the life of mid-career academic woman physicians. We conducted and qualitatively analyzed (kappa 0.35 to 1.0 for theme identification among rater pairs) data from a semi-structured survey of 21 women and obtained their curricula vitae to quantify publications and grant support, measures of academic productivity. Sixteen of 21 (76%) women completed the survey. Mean age was 48 (range: 45 to 56). Three were full professors, 10 were associate professors, and 3 had left academic medicine. Eleven women had had children (mean 2.4; range: 1 to 3) and 3 worked part-time. From these data, the conceptual model expands on 3 key themes: (1) defining, navigating, and negotiating success, (2) making life work, and (3) making work work. The women who described themselves as satisfied with their careers (10/16) had clarity of values and goals and a sense of control over their time. Those less satisfied with their careers (6/16) emphasized the personal and professional costs of the struggle to balance their lives and described explicit institutional barriers to fulfillment of their potential. For this group of fellowship-prepared academic women physicians satisfaction is achieving professional and personal balance.
Samuel, Douglas B; Gore, Whitney L
Although reasonably strong support has been obtained for the Five-Factor Model's (FFM) ability to account for the existing personality disorder (PD) constructs, the support for obsessive-compulsive PD (OCPD) and dependent PD (DPD) has been relatively less consistent. Specifically, the expected correlation between OCPD and the FFM trait of Conscientiousness has varied in magnitude across studies while DPD has, at times, also evinced rather weak relationships with FFM Agreeableness. We determined that these inconsistencies were due primarily to the reliance on FFM measures that lack adequate fidelity to assess the maladaptive aspects of high Conscientiousness and Agreeableness. When alternative measures were utilized, the correlations were generally large and in line with expectations. We conclude that OCPD and DPD can be fruitfully conceptualized within the FFM but encourage the use of measures that provide a comprehensive assessment of both the adaptive and maladaptive aspects of the FFM traits. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pope, Thaddeus Mason
This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to conscience clauses and conscientious refusal. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it has also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions. Over the past several months, conscientious refusal disputes have had an unusually high profile not only in courthouses, but also in legislative and regulatory halls across the United States. Healthcare providers' own moral beliefs have been obstructing and are expected to increasingly obstruct patients' access to medical services. For example, some providers, on ethical or moral grounds, have denied: (1) sterilization procedures to pregnant patients, (2) pain medications in end-of-life situations, and (3) information about emergency contraception to rape victims. On the other hand, many healthcare providers have been forced to provide medical treatment that is inconsistent with their moral beliefs. There are two fundamental types of conscientious objection laws. First, there are laws that permit healthcare workers to refuse providing - on ethical, moral, or religious grounds healthcare services that they might otherwise have a legal or employer-mandated obligation to provide. Second, there are laws directed at forcing healthcare workers to provide services to which they might have ethical, moral, or religious objections. Both types of laws are rarely comprehensive, but instead target: (1) certain types of healthcare providers, (2) specific categories of healthcare services, (3) specific patient circumstances, and (4) certain conditions under which a right or obligation is triggered. For the sake of clarity, I have grouped recent legal developments concerning conscientious refusal into eight categories: 1. Abortion: right to refuse 2. Abortion: duty to provide 3. Contraception: right to refuse 4. Contraception: duty to provide 5. Sterilization: right to refuse 6. Fertility, HIV, vaccines
Reiss, David; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Nielsen, Lisbeth
In this special section, 9 studies and 6 commentaries make a unique contribution to the study of personality. They focus on the five-factor model and, in particular, one of those 5: conscientiousness. This trait has had astonishing success in the actuarial prediction of adaptive outcomes in adulthood and aging, but we have little understanding of…
Montanari Vergallo, G; Zaami, S; Di Luca, N M; Marinelli, E
The authors discuss the emergency contraception (EC) topic, assessing scientific and ethical aspects. The almost totality of the studies carried out tends to report on the use of drugs as an emergency measure to prevent pregnancy. However, it is not yet completely excluded that emergency contraceptives can induce medical abortion. The debate on side effects of EC continues to be a highly emotional and controversial issue both for advocates who believe they will lower considerably the number of unintended pregnancies and abortions, and for opponents who believe that using emergency contraception amounts to an abortion. This latter hypothesis highlights the conflicting aspect of the conscientious objection to abortion of physicians and pharmacists. This research work is aimed at investigating the emergency contraception issue, paying particular attention to the medico-legal and regulatory aspects of this subject. Particularly, the authors focus on the conscientious objection in order to assess, if any, legal protection for physicians and pharmacists who claim a right to conscientious objection. Inappropriate use of EC could be resolved through a registry of user. This registry, of course, would not have the intention of persecution, but would only serve to detect possible cases of subjugation, exploitation and harassment.
Giang Thi Huong Vu
Full Text Available In this study, the relationship between high performance work system (HPWS and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB in multinational corporations (MNCs in Vietnam, a fast-developing country with highly economic growth in Asia, was investigated. Besides, the underlying mechanism of this relationship was also explored. From the social exchange approach, an underlying mediated mechanism of career success in the relationship between HPWS and OCB was hypothesized. Data collected from individual employees working in multinational companies in Vietnam was used to test the hypotheses. The research findings supported the partial mediating role of career success in the positive relationship between HPWS and OCB. In addition, research implications as well as suggestions for future research were also presented. Bahasa Indonesia Abstrak: Dalam studi ini, hubungan antara high performance work system (HPWS dan organizational citizenship behavior (OCB di multinational corporations (MNC di Vietnam, negara cepat berkembang dengan pertumbuhan ekonomi yang sangat tinggi di Asia, ditelliti. Selain itu, mekanisme yang mendasari hubungan ini juga dieksplorasi. Dari pendekatan pertukaran sosial, mekanisme mediasi yang dimediasi dari kesuksesan karir dalam hubungan antara HPWS dan OCB dihipotesiskan. Data yang dikumpulkan dari masing-masing karyawan yang bekerja di perusahaan multinasional di Vietnam digunakan untuk menguji hipotesis. Temuan penelitian mendukung peran mediasi parsial dari kesuksesan karir dalam hubungan positif antara HPWS dan OCB. Selain itu, implikasi penelitian serta saran untuk penelitian masa depan juga disajikan.
Boccia, Gennaro; Moisè, Paolo; Franceschi, Alberto; Trova, Francesco; Panero, Davide; La Torre, Antonio; Rainoldi, Alberto; Schena, Federico; Cardinale, Marco
The idea that early sport success can be detrimental for long-term sport performance is still under debate. Therefore, the aims of this study were to examine the career trajectories of Italian high and long jumpers to provide a better understanding of performance development in jumping events. The official long-jump and high-jump rankings of the Italian Track and Field Federation were collected from the age of 12 to career termination, for both genders from the year 1994 to 2014. Top-level athletes were identified as those with a percentile of their personal best performance between 97 and 100. The age of entering competitions of top-level athletes was not different than the rest of the athletic population, whereas top-level athletes performed their personal best later than the rest of the athletes. Top-level athletes showed an overall higher rate of improvement in performance from the age of 13 to the age of 18 years when compared to all other individuals. Only 10-25% of the top-level adult athletes were top-level at the age of 16. Around 60% of the top-level young at the age of 16 did not maintain the same level of performance in adulthood. Female high-jump represented an exception from this trend since in this group most top-level young become top-level adult athletes. These findings suggest that performance before the age of 16 is not a good predictor of adult performance in long and high jump. The annual rate of improvements from 13 to 18 years should be included as a predictor of success rather than performance per se. Coaches should be careful about predicting future success based on performances obtained during youth in jumping events.
Full Text Available The idea that early sport success can be detrimental for long-term sport performance is still under debate. Therefore, the aims of this study were to examine the career trajectories of Italian high and long jumpers to provide a better understanding of performance development in jumping events.The official long-jump and high-jump rankings of the Italian Track and Field Federation were collected from the age of 12 to career termination, for both genders from the year 1994 to 2014. Top-level athletes were identified as those with a percentile of their personal best performance between 97 and 100.The age of entering competitions of top-level athletes was not different than the rest of the athletic population, whereas top-level athletes performed their personal best later than the rest of the athletes. Top-level athletes showed an overall higher rate of improvement in performance from the age of 13 to the age of 18 years when compared to all other individuals. Only 10-25% of the top-level adult athletes were top-level at the age of 16. Around 60% of the top-level young at the age of 16 did not maintain the same level of performance in adulthood. Female high-jump represented an exception from this trend since in this group most top-level young become top-level adult athletes.These findings suggest that performance before the age of 16 is not a good predictor of adult performance in long and high jump. The annual rate of improvements from 13 to 18 years should be included as a predictor of success rather than performance per se. Coaches should be careful about predicting future success based on performances obtained during youth in jumping events.
Nauta, Margaret M.
Career interests and self-efficacy (using J. L. Holland's realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional types for both) and the big five personality dimensions (openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism) were used to predict college students' career exploration behaviors approximately 18…
Ehsani, Johnathon P.; Li, Kaigang; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Tree-McGrath, Cheyenne Fox; Perlus, Jessamyn; O’Brien, Fearghal; Klauer, Sheila G.
Introduction Personality characteristics are associated with many risk behaviors. However, the relationship between personality traits, risky driving behavior, and crash risk is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between personality, risky driving behavior and crashes and near-crashes, using naturalistic driving research methods. Method Participants’ driving exposure, kinematic risky driving (KRD), high-risk secondary task engagement, and the frequency of crashes and near-crashes (CNC) were assessed over the first 18 months of licensure using naturalistic driving methods. A personality survey (NEO-Five Factor Inventory) was administered at baseline. The association between personality characteristics, KRD rate, secondary task engagement rate and CNC rate was estimated using a linear regression model. Mediation analysis was conducted to examine if participants’ KRD rate or secondary task engagement rate mediated the relationship between personality and CNC. Data were collected as part of the Naturalistic Teen Driving Study. Results Conscientiousness was marginally negatively associated with CNC (path c = −0.034, p = .09) and both potential mediators KRD (path a = −0.040, p = .09) and secondary task engagement while driving (path a = −0.053, p = .03). KRD, but not secondary task engagement, was found to mediate (path b = 0.376, p = .02) the relationship between conscientiousness and CNC (path c’ = −0.025, p = .20). Conclusions Using objective measures of driving behavior and a widely used personality construct, these findings present a causal pathway through which personality and risky driving are associated with CNC. Specifically, more conscientious teenage drivers engaged in fewer risky driving maneuvers, suffered fewer CNC. Practical Applications Part of the variability in crash-risk observed among newly licensed teenage drivers can be explained by personality. Parents and driving instructors may take teenage
Ehsani, Johnathon P; Li, Kaigang; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Fox Tree-McGrath, Cheyenne; Perlus, Jessamyn G; O'Brien, Fearghal; Klauer, Sheila G
Personality characteristics are associated with many risk behaviors. However, the relationship between personality traits, risky driving behavior, and crash risk is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between personality, risky driving behavior, and crashes and near-crashes, using naturalistic driving research methods. Participants' driving exposure, kinematic risky driving (KRD), high-risk secondary task engagement, and the frequency of crashes and near-crashes (CNC) were assessed over the first 18months of licensure using naturalistic driving methods. A personality survey (NEO-Five Factor Inventory) was administered at baseline. The association between personality characteristics, KRD rate, secondary task engagement rate, and CNC rate was estimated using a linear regression model. Mediation analysis was conducted to examine if participants' KRD rate or secondary task engagement rate mediated the relationship between personality and CNC. Data were collected as part of the Naturalistic Teen Driving Study. Conscientiousness was marginally negatively associated with CNC (path c=-0.034, p=.09) and both potential mediators KRD (path a=-0.040, p=.09) and secondary task engagement while driving (path a=-0.053, p=.03). KRD, but not secondary task engagement, was found to mediate (path b=0.376, p=.02) the relationship between conscientiousness and CNC (path c'=-0.025, p=.20). Using objective measures of driving behavior and a widely used personality construct, these findings present a causal pathway through which personality and risky driving are associated with CNC. Specifically, more conscientious teenage drivers engaged in fewer risky driving maneuvers, and suffered fewer CNC. Part of the variability in crash risk observed among newly licensed teenage drivers can be explained by personality. Parents and driving instructors may take teenage drivers' personality into account when providing guidance, and establishing norms and
DeWitty, Vernell P; Huerta, Carolina G; Downing, Christine A
In 2008, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation collaborated with the American Association of Colleges of Nursing to create the New Careers in Nursing (NCIN) scholarship program. Two goals of the program were to alleviate the nursing shortage and to increase diversity of the workforce. During this 7-year program (i.e., seven funding cycles), 130 schools of nursing in 41 states and the District of Columbia were selected as grantees, and they awarded 3,517 scholarships to second-degree accelerated nursing students who were members of groups underrepresented in nursing or who were economically disadvantaged. This article describes the demographic characteristics of the NCIN students, degree of satisfaction with their learning environment, perceptions of their mentoring experiences, and self-identified facilitators and barriers to program completion. Data sources for this article resulted from three surveys completed by scholars during their academic programs: the beginning, the midpoint, and within 6 months postgraduate. Results of analysis indicated that NCIN scholars are significantly more diverse compared with the national nurse population, and they reported high levels of satisfaction with their learning environments. Student relationships with peers and faculty improved during the period of program enrollment. Faculty support was the greatest facilitator for program completion, and competing priorities of finances and family responsibilities were the greatest challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Roberts, David H; Schwartzstein, Richard M; Weinberger, Steven E
Health care professionals in pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine play key roles as teachers for learners of all levels in both clinical care and scientific investigation. Teaching excellence requires training in principles of adult learning and the acquisition and practice of key professional skills including assessment and feedback techniques, curriculum development, and strategies for effective teaching across venues ranging from the bedside to the lecture hall. Those interested in pursuing teaching as the focus of their academic career and basis for promotion should invest in professional development as a teacher and educator. Professional development activities include obtaining additional training as a teacher in dedicated medical education fellowships or serving as a peer observer or being observed by a fellow teacher. Numerous additional options for training as a teacher and educator are now available including resource repositories, continuing medical education courses, and online training modules. Those with an interest in medical education research may benefit from enrollment in masters or other advanced degree programs focused on the qualitative and quantitative methods and other key research skills. Aspiring clinician-educators should also seek out opportunities to participate in a community of medical educators locally, regionally, nationally, and internationally. At each of these levels, there exist opportunities to contribute to course or program design, development, and evaluation. Finally, for those interested in promotion as an academic clinician-educator, there are increasing requirements to produce academic scholarship ranging from curricular materials to journal articles focused on education and education research.
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Meijers, Frans; Lengelle, Reinekke; Winters, Annemie; Kuijpers, Marinka
The cultivation of intrinsic motivation is key in the twenty first century, but most students in Dutch vocational education lack this quality. To foster intrinsic motivation, a strong career-learning environment is needed that enables students to develop career competencies and a career identity.
Rhee, Susan Byungsook
The goal of this research was to uncover the reasons for the unusual success of a small group of Korean-Americans in the American work arena. All had spent their childhood and formative years in Korea under the sole influence of Korean culture, attending the best high schools and colleges. Korean culture tends not to nurture some of the…
Kameny, Rebecca R.; DeRosier, Melissa E.; Taylor, Lorraine C.; McMillen, Janey Sturtz; Knowles, Meagan M.; Pifer, Kimberly
The United States falls short in the diversity of its scientific workforce. While the underrepresentation of minority researchers in the behavioral sciences has been a concern for several decades, policy and training initiatives have been only marginally successful in increasing their number. Diversity plays a critical role in our nation's…
Hill, Patrick L; Payne, Brennan R; Jackson, Joshua J; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A L; Roberts, Brent W
This study examined whether perceived social support predicted adaptive personality change in older adulthood, focusing on the trait of conscientiousness. We tested this hypothesis both at the broad domain level and with respect to the specific lower order facets that comprise conscientiousness: order, self-control, industriousness, responsibility, and traditionalism. A sample of 143 older adults (aged 60-91) completed measures of conscientiousness and social support during 2 assessments 7 months apart. Social support and conscientiousness were positively correlated among older adults. Moreover, older adults who perceived greater social support at baseline were more likely to gain in conscientiousness over time. The magnitude of this effect was relatively similar across the order, self-control, and industriousness facets. Perceived social support provides multiple benefits later in life, and the current results add to this literature by showing that it also promotes conscientiousness. As conscientiousness is linked to a variety of positive outcomes later in life, including health, future research should examine whether conscientiousness change may be an important mechanism through which social support enhances resilience in older adulthood. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Blake-Beard, Stacy D.
A survey of business graduates (154 white women and 41 black women) investigated the impact of race on mentoring and career success for women. Results indicated no statistical difference in the amount of mentoring reported by black or white respondents. (Author/JOW)
This paper examines the theoretical perspectives I utilised in my doctoral research to uncover the role of class and gender in my respondents' stories and experiences of their career success. I argue that adopting an economic model for conceptualising the influence of social class and gender in the respondents' stories and experiences of their…
Bijker, Monique; Van der Klink, Marcel; Boshuizen, Els
Bijker, M. M., Van der Klink, M. R., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2010, 25-27 August). Modelling self-efficacy, self-regulation, self-directed learning and career processes of adult professionals and relations with learning outcomes and labour market success. Paper presented at the 5th EARLI-SIG14
The purpose of this study was to identify the needs for and barriers to success of underrepresented students in the Communication Sciences and Disorders field and to determine factors linked to student persistence and academic achievement. An online survey was completed by 126 undergraduates pursuing graduate studies in Communication Sciences and Disorders. Data were subjected to Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H tests. Survey responses indicated that financial matters exerted the most influence on students' preparation for and number of choices for graduate-school applications. However, socioeconomic status was associated with needed financial support for paying tuition and completing the admission process. In addition, students at lower socioeconomic status reported spending fewer hours studying for tests and earned lower grade-point averages than peers who self-identified with a relatively high socioeconomic status. The findings also show a relationship between students' grade-point averages and family members' levels of education. The majority reported that mothers had earned the highest degree in their household, followed by siblings, themselves, and fathers. The findings suggest that students of low socioeconomic status were less academically prepared than those self-reporting a higher status. Moreover, the presence of a role model, such as a college-educated family member, may affect academic performance. Therefore, interventions for students at risk of not gaining admissions to graduate school include financial assistance and mentoring and advising programs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jesse, D Elizabeth; Dewees, Connie; McDowell, William C
It is essential to include teaching strategies in midwifery education that address career planning and the business aspects of practice. This article presents the Mini-Midwifery Business Institute (M-MBI), an innovative teaching strategy for midwives that can also be applied to other advanced practice professions. The M-MBI can be integrated into a professional roles course. Before and after graduation, midwifery students and other advanced practice professionals can use the information to gain confidence and skills for successful career planning and the business management of practice. © 2014 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Brown, D.; Vargas, W.; Padilla, E.; Strickland, J.; Echols, E.; Johnson, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.; Ithier-Guzman, W.; Ricciardi, L.; Johnson, A.; Braxton, L.
Historically, there has been a lack of ethnic and gender diversity in the geo-sciences. The Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success in Earth System Science (MS PHD'S) Professional Development Program provides a bridge to young scientists of diverse backgrounds who in turn will impact many. In a process of 3 phases, the program introduces the students to the scientific community through participation in professional and society meetings and networking with scientists and personnel within federal agencies, academic institutions and STEM-based industries. The program builds confidence, offers role models for professional development and provides students support during their education. Upon completion, students achieve a high level of self-actualization and self-esteem combined with individual growth. They become part of a community that continuously provides support and security to each other. This support is tangible through the mentor/mentee relationships which will help with individual growth throughout the mentoring cycle. Having role models and familiar faces to whom mentees can relate to will encourage our students to succeed in the STEM's field. To date, 159 students have participated in the program: 26 have successfully completed their PhD and 56 are currently enrolled in the PhD programs nationwide. The MS PHD'S Program creates a forum of diverse peoples by diverse peoples with diverse interest and strength, where the ongoing goal is to continually raise the bar for each individual. MS PHD'S establishes a nurturing goal-oriented environment for the geo scientist of the future who in turn will make profound contributions on a local, national and global scale. To conclude, MSPHD'S not only bridges the gap of unrepresented minorities in STEM careers, but also generates educational approaches to make the earth system sciences available to more, impacting all.
Minton, Deborah; Elias, Eileen; Rumrill, Phillip; Hendricks, Deborah J; Jacobs, Karen; Leopold, Anne; Nardone, Amanda; Sampson, Elaine; Scherer, Marcia; Gee Cormier, Aundrea; Taylor, Aiyana; DeLatte, Caitlin
Project Career is a five-year interdisciplinary demonstration project funded by NIDILRR. It provides technology-driven supports, merging Cognitive Support Technology (CST) evidence-based practices and rehabilitation counseling, to improve postsecondary and employment outcomes for veteran and civilian undergraduate students with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Provide a technology-driven individualized support program to improve career and employment outcomes for students with TBI. Project staff provide assessments of students' needs relative to assistive technology, academic achievement, and career preparation; provide CST training to 150 students; match students with mentors; provide vocational case management; deliver job development and placement assistance; and maintain an electronic portal regarding accommodation and career resources. Participating students receive cognitive support technology training, academic enrichment, and career preparatory assistance from trained professionals at three implementation sites. Staff address cognitive challenges using the 'Matching Person with Technology' assessment to accommodate CST use (iPad and selected applications (apps)). JBS International (JBS) provides the project's evaluation. To date, 117 students participate with 63% report improved life quality and 75% report improved academic performance. Project Career provides a national model based on best practices for enabling postsecondary students with TBI to attain academic, employment, and career goals.
Bullock-Yowell, Emily; Andrews, Lindsay; Buzzetta, Mary E.
The authors explore the hypothesis that career decision-making self-efficacy could be affected by negative career thoughts, Big Five personality factors, and cultural mistrust in a sample of African American and Caucasian college students. Findings demonstrated that negative career thinking, openness, and conscientiousness explained a significant…
Current debates on conscientious objection to military service reveal a conflict between conscription and individual freedom of conscience; they question the scope of human rights and liberties as well as raise an issue of their extension. The majority of member states of UN and CoE officially recognize a right to conscientious objection. However, the flow of complaints to international human rights monitoring bodies demonstrates absence of a general consensus on the concept, origin and legal...
Shaw, David; Gardiner, Dale; Lewis, Penney; Jansen, Nichon; Wind, Tineke; Samuel, Undine; Georgieva, Denie; Ploeg, Rutger; Broderick, Andrew
In this article, we analyse the potential benefits and disadvantages of permitting healthcare professionals to invoke conscientious objection to deceased organ donation. There is some evidence that permitting doctors and nurses to register objections can ultimately lead to attitudinal change and acceptance of organ donation. However, while there may be grounds for conscientious objection in other cases such as abortion and euthanasia, the life-saving nature of donation and transplantation ren...
Piecuch, Anna; Gryka, Malwina; Kozłowska-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata
Background The European Council Resolution 1763 (2010), “The right to conscientious objection in lawful medical care”, provoked a discussion among Polish pharmacists on the necessity for granting them the right to refuse to dispense medicinal products which invoke conscientious objection. Objective To explore attitudes of Polish pharmacists towards the conscience clause. Setting Pharmacies with public e-mail addresses in various parts of Poland (Lower Silesia Province, Mazovia Province, Kuyav...
Jagsi, Reshma; Griffith, Kent A; Jones, Rochelle D; Stewart, Abigail; Ubel, Peter A
Understanding the careers of recent career development awardees is essential to guide interventions to ensure gender equity and success in academic medicine. In 2010-2011 (T1) and 2014 (T2), 1,719 clinician-researchers who received new K08 and K23 awards in 2006-2009 were longitudinally surveyed. Multivariable analyses evaluated the influence of factors on success, including demographics, job characteristics, work environment, priorities, and domestic responsibilities. Of 1,275 respondents at T1, 1,066 (493 women; 573 men) responded at T2. Men and women differed in job characteristics, work environment, priorities, and domestic responsibilities. By T2, women had less funding (mean $780,000 vs. $1,120,000, P = .002) and published fewer papers (mean 33 vs. 45). Using a composite measure that considered funding, publications, or leadership to define success, 53.5% (264/493) of women and 67.0% (384/573) of men were successful. Gender differences in success persisted after accounting for other significant predictors-K award type, specialty, award year, work hours, funding institute tier, feeling responsible for participating in department/division administration, importance of publishing prolifically, feeling responsible for contributing to clinical care, importance of publishing high-quality research, collegiality of the mentoring relationship, adequacy of research equipment, and departmental climate. A significant interaction existed between K award type and gender; the gender difference in success was most pronounced among K23 researchers (among whom the odds ratio for females = 0.32). Men and women continue to have different experiences and career outcomes, with important implications for the design of interventions to promote equity and success.
Full Text Available The object of this paper is the issue of career counseling for secondary school students using the "Model career counseling" (hereinafter MCC. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the contribution of the MCC for students while deciding about the choice of their further education and career choices with the implementation of abilities, interests and personal abilities of the student. The method is an analysis of personality preconditions, general, specific abilities and interests of students by using standardized tests and non-standardized author's questionnaires. Consequently, comparison is realized of the collected data about students with graduate profiles in the study program. Based on the observed results, the focus of their further study is recommended to the students.
Tanner, J C; Rogers, C W; Firth, E C
There is increasing evidence that exercise early in life has a positive effect on musculoskeletal health. At present, there is little whole population research investigating the effect of racing as 2-year-olds on future racing career. To investigate the association between attaining training milestones as 2-year-olds with length of career and racing success in Thoroughbred horses in New Zealand. Retrospective data were obtained of the 2001/02-born Thoroughbred foal crop. The 3 training milestones were: registered with a trainer, trialled and raced. The association of the training milestones with career length was measured using the outcomes: number of race starts and number of years raced, in a Cox regression model. Logistic regression models analysed the association of the training milestones with the outcomes: won or placed in a race. Linear regression was performed to assess the association of training milestones with total career earnings. Of 4683 horses in the population; 3152 horses were registered with a trainer, 2661 horses trialled and 2109 horses raced. Horses that raced as 2-year-olds had significantly (PHorses that raced as 2-year-olds had significantly (PHorses registered with a trainer, trialled or raced as 2-year-olds were more likely to have won or been placed in a race than those that achieved the milestones as 3-year-olds or older. Horses that first trialled and raced as 2-year-olds had greater total earnings than those that first trialled or raced at a later age. Two-year-old training milestones had a strong association with positive racing career outcomes. Horses in training or racing as 2-year-olds may have better musculoskeletal health throughout life than horses that are first in training or racing at a later age. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.
Baber, Lorenzo D.; Castro, Erin L.; Bragg, Debra D.
The purpose of this brief is to understand the Illinois College and Career Readiness (CCR) Act in light of David Conley's college readiness model. Although not mentioned specifically by the Illinois statute, evaluation results gathered by the Office of Community College Research and Leadership (OCCRL) show alignment between a number of programs…
Postsecondary students with children often need an array of supports to succeed in their studies, which can require significant coordination among new and existing services (Conway, Blair, and Helmer 2012; Henrici n.d.; Miller, Gault, and Thorman 2011). Such supports might include financial aid, academic and career counseling, job placement…
Fassiotto, Magali; Simard, Caroline; Sandborg, Christy; Valantine, Hannah; Raymond, Jennifer
Faculty in academic medicine experience multiple demands on their time at work and home, which can become a source of stress and dissatisfaction, compromising success. A taskforce convened to diagnose the state of work-life flexibility at Stanford University School of Medicine uncovered two major sources of conflict: work-life conflict, caused by juggling demands of career and home; and work-work conflict, caused by competing priorities of the research, teaching, and clinical missions combined with service and administrative tasks. Using human-centered design research principles, the 2013-2014 Academic Biomedical Career Customization (ABCC) pilot program incorporated two elements to mitigate work-life and work-work conflict: integrated career-life planning, coaching to create a customized plan to meet both career and life goals; and a time-banking system, recognizing behaviors that promote team success with benefits that mitigate work-life and work-work conflicts. A matched-sample pre-post evaluation survey found the two-part program increased perceptions of a culture of flexibility (P = .020), wellness (P = .013), understanding of professional development opportunities (P = .036), and institutional satisfaction (P = .020) among participants. In addition, analysis of research productivity indicated that over the two-year program, ABCC participants received 1.3 more awards, on average, compared with a matched set of nonparticipants, a funding difference of approximately $1.1 million per person. These results suggest it is possible to mitigate the effects of extreme time pressure on academic medicine faculty, even within existing institutional structures.
Strickland, Sophie Lm
To explore attitudes towards conscientious objections among medical students in the UK. Medical students at St George's University of London, Cardiff University, King's College London and Leeds University were emailed a link to an anonymous online questionnaire, hosted by an online survey company. The questionnaire contained nine questions. A total of 733 medical students responded. Nearly half of the students in this survey stated that they believed in the right of doctors to conscientiously object to any procedure. Demand for the right to conscientiously object is greater in Muslim medical students when compared with other groups of religious medical students. Abortion continues to be a contentious issue among medical students and this may contribute to the looming crisis in abortion services over the coming years. This project sheds some light on how future doctors view some of their ethical rights and obligations. Using empirical evidence, it reveals that conscientious objection is an issue in the UK medical student body today. These data could help anticipate problems that may arise when these medical students qualify and practise medicine in the community. Clearer guidance is needed for medical students about the issue of conscientious objection at medical school.
Saad, Toni C
In her paper 'Cosmetic surgery and conscientious objection', Minerva rightly identifies cosmetic surgery as an interesting test case for the question of conscientious objection in medicine. Her treatment of this important subject, however, seems problematic. It is argued that Minerva's suggestion that a doctor has a prima facie duty to satisfy patient preferences even against his better clinical judgment, which we call Patient Preference Absolutism, must be regarded with scepticism. This is because (1) it overlooks an important distinction regarding autonomy's meaning and place in clinical practice, and (2) it makes obsolete the important concepts of expert clinical judgment and beneficence. Finally, we discuss two ideas which emerge from consideration of cosmetic surgery in relation to conscientious objection. These are the possible analogy between clinical judgment and conscientious objection, and the possible role the goals of medicine can play in defining the scope of conscientious objection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Harter, Thomas D
This paper aims to demonstrate how public disclosure can be used to balance physicians' conscientious objections with their professional obligations to patients--specifically respect for patient autonomy and informed consent. It is argued here that physicians should be permitted to exercise conscientious objections, but that they have a professional obligation to provide advance notification to patients about those objections. It is further argued here that public disclosure is an appropriate and ethically justifiable limit to the principle of advance notification. The argument for publicly disclosing physicians' conscientious objections is made in this paper by discussing three practical benefits of public disclosure in medicine, and then addressing how publicly disclosing physicians' conscientious objections is not an undue invasion of privacy. Three additional concerns with public disclosure of physicians' conscientious objections are briefly addressed--potential harassment of physicians, workplace discrimination, and mischaracterising physicians' professional aptitude--concluding that each of these concerns requires further deliberation in the realm of business ethics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Şeniz ANBARLI BOZATAY
Full Text Available Even though the discussion of conscientious objection, the refusal of military service due to individual’s moral values or religious beliefs, is new in Turkey, the subject has become the focus of intense interest. The discussion of conscientious objection in Turkey has come the to the fore with the heated debates between the glorification of the dynamics of Turkish social structure towards military service and the critique of militarism and conscientious objection’s legal dimensions, as well. Since the reduction of discussions in this context in Turkey to the legal dimension is the ignorance of social reality constituting basis to the legal dimension, the subject is examined with reference to the social and historical outlook on this issue and the study is built on dimensions.
Nyberg, Anna; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Leineweber, Constanze; Johansson, Gunn
The aim of this prospective study was to explore predictors of objective career success among Swedish women and men, focussing on gender differences. Data were drawn from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) with a total of 3670 female and 2773 male participants. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for job promotion and an above-average salary increase between 2008 and 2010 were obtained through binary logistic regression analyses. Individual and organisational factors measured in 2008 were used as predictors in analyses stratified by sex. Mutual adjustment was performed for these variables, as well as for labour market sector and staff category at baseline. In both sexes, younger age predicted both job promotion and an above-average salary increase. Job promotion was also in both sexes predicted by being part of decision-making processes, having conflicts with superiors, and being eager to advance. Furthermore, promotion was predicted by, among men, being educated to post-graduate level and having an open coping strategy and, among women, working >60 hours/week. An above-average salary increase was predicted in both sexes by having a university education. Postgraduate education, having children living at home, and being very motivated to advance predicted an above-average salary increase among women, as did working 51-60 hours/week and being part of decision-making processes in men. Gender differences were seen in several predictors. In conclusion, the results support previous findings of gender differences in predictors of career success. A high level of education, motivation to advance, and procedural justice appear to be more important predictors of career success among women, while open coping was a more important predictor among men.
Full Text Available The aim of this prospective study was to explore predictors of objective career success among Swedish women and men, focussing on gender differences. Data were drawn from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH with a total of 3670 female and 2773 male participants. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for job promotion and an above-average salary increase between 2008 and 2010 were obtained through binary logistic regression analyses. Individual and organisational factors measured in 2008 were used as predictors in analyses stratified by sex. Mutual adjustment was performed for these variables, as well as for labour market sector and staff category at baseline. In both sexes, younger age predicted both job promotion and an above-average salary increase. Job promotion was also in both sexes predicted by being part of decision-making processes, having conflicts with superiors, and being eager to advance. Furthermore, promotion was predicted by, among men, being educated to post-graduate level and having an open coping strategy and, among women, working >60 hours/week. An above-average salary increase was predicted in both sexes by having a university education. Postgraduate education, having children living at home, and being very motivated to advance predicted an above-average salary increase among women, as did working 51-60 hours/week and being part of decision-making processes in men. Gender differences were seen in several predictors. In conclusion, the results support previous findings of gender differences in predictors of career success. A high level of education, motivation to advance, and procedural justice appear to be more important predictors of career success among women, while open coping was a more important predictor among men.
Shaw, David; Gardiner, Dale; Lewis, Penney; Jansen, Nichon; Wind, Tineke; Samuel, Undine; Georgieva, Denie; Ploeg, Rutger; Broderick, Andrew
In this article, we analyse the potential benefits and disadvantages of permitting healthcare professionals to invoke conscientious objection to deceased organ donation. There is some evidence that permitting doctors and nurses to register objections can ultimately lead to attitudinal change and acceptance of organ donation. However, while there may be grounds for conscientious objection in other cases such as abortion and euthanasia, the life-saving nature of donation and transplantation renders objection in this context more difficult to justify. In general, dialogue between healthcare professionals is a more appropriate solution, and any objections must be justified with a strong rationale in hospitals where such policies are put in place.
Full Text Available The article analyzes different approaches to study of models of constructing the employment career in current environment. The changes having taken place in interrelationsbetween employees and organizations over recent 15 years led to changes in their mutual expectations including the ones concerning the career development. Boundaryless career based on career mobility and protean career based on subjective understanding of career success are regarded as alternatives to traditional careers. The main attributes of “new careers” are: an increased independence in employee-organization dyads, low level of mutual obligations, freedom of choice, self-actualization, priority of career loyalty and self-management in contrast to organization loyalty. Changes in career conceptualizing inevitably led to revision of career competences. Traditional professional competences give way to career meta-competences like adaptiveness, capacity for education, self-management, taking responsibility. At the same time empirical studies displaya prematurity of statements about the expressed loss of interest to traditional careers.
Bakker, A.B.; Demerouti, E.; Ten Brummelhuis, L.L.
The present study examines whether the relationship between work engagement and job performance is moderated by the extent to which individuals are inclined to work hard, careful, and goal-oriented. On the basis of the literature, it was hypothesized that conscientiousness strengthens the
Helms, Marilyn M.
This article describes a "conscientious consumerism" project that involves the student as the consumer to either commend or complain to a company about a recent product or service experience. This activity and presentation helps students develop an understanding of the commendation/complaint management process within organizations while…
Bakker, Arnold B.; Demerouti, Evangelia; ten Brummelhuis, Lieke L.
The present study examines whether the relationship between work engagement and job performance is moderated by the extent to which individuals are inclined to work hard, careful, and goal-oriented. On the basis of the literature, it was hypothesized that conscientiousness strengthens the relationship between work engagement and supervisor ratings…
Terracciano, Antonio; Löckenhoff, Corinna E; Zonderman, Alan B; Ferrucci, Luigi; Costa, Paul T
To examine the association between personality traits and longevity. Using the Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey, personality traits were assessed in 2359 participants (38% women; age = 17 to 98 years, mean = 50 years) from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, starting in 1958. Over the duration of the study, 943 (40%) participants died, on average 18 years after their personality assessment. The association of each trait with longevity was examined by Cox regression controlling for demographic variables. In preliminary analyses among the deceased, those who scored 1 standard deviation (SD) above the mean on General Activity (a facet of Extraversion), Emotional Stability (low Neuroticism), or Conscientiousness lived on average 2 to 3 years longer than those scoring 1 SD below the mean. Survival analyses on the full sample confirmed the association of General Activity, Emotional Stability, and Conscientiousness with lower risk of death, such that every 1-SD increase was related to about 13%, 15%, and 27% risk reduction, respectively. The association of personality traits with longevity was largely independent from the influence of smoking and obesity. Personality predictors of longevity did not differ by sex, except for Ascendance (a facet of Extraversion). Emotional Stability was a significant predictor when the analyses were limited to deaths due to cardiovascular disease, with comparable effect sizes for General Activity and Conscientiousness. In a large sample of generally healthy individuals followed for almost five decades, longevity was associated with being conscientious, emotionally stable, and active.
Terracciano, Antonio; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Costa, Paul T.
Objective To examine the association between personality traits and longevity. Methods Using the Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey, personality traits were assessed in 2359 participants (38% women; age: 17 to 98 years, M = 50) from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), starting in 1958. Over the duration of the study, 943 (40%) participants died, on average 18 years after their personality assessment. The association of each trait with longevity was examined by Cox regression controlling for demographic variables. Results In preliminary analyses among the deceased, those who scored one SD above the mean on General Activity (a facet of Extraversion), Emotional Stability (low Neuroticism), or Conscientiousness lived on average two to three years longer than those scoring one SD below the mean. Survival analyses on the full sample confirmed the association of General Activity, Emotional Stability, and Conscientiousness with lower risk of death, such that every one SD increase was related to about 13%, 15%, and 27% risk reduction, respectively. The association of personality traits with longevity was largely independent from the influence of smoking and obesity. Personality predictors of longevity did not differ by sex, except for Ascendance (a facet of Extraversion). Emotional Stability was a significant predictor when the analyses were limited to deaths due to cardiovascular disease, with comparable effect sizes for General Activity and Conscientiousness. Conclusions In a large sample of generally healthy individuals followed for almost five decades, longevity was associated with being conscientious, emotionally stable, and active. PMID:18596250
It is submitted that whilst the Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act fails to provide the principles for determining the limits of the right to conscientious ... 'n Reg op gewetensbeswaar teen deelname aan vrugafdrywingsprosedures is egter implisiet in artikel 15 van die Grondwet van die Republiek van Suid-Afrika vervat.
Piecuch, Anna; Gryka, Malwina; Kozłowska-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata
The European Council Resolution 1763 (2010), ‘‘The right to conscientious objection in lawful medical care’’, provoked a discussion among Polish pharmacists on the necessity for granting them the right to refuse to dispense medicinal products which invoke conscientious objection. To explore attitudes of Polish pharmacists towards the conscience clause. Pharmacies with public e-mail addresses in various parts of Poland (Lower Silesia Province, Mazovia Province, Kuyavia-Pomerania Province, and West Pomeranian Province). An online survey questionnaire addressed to 1,454 pharmacies. The participants were asked 8 questions,including a question addressed only to pharmacy managers and owners. Attitudes towards the right to conscientious objection for pharmacists. Ultimately, responses of 126 pharmacists (83 women, 43 men, average age-39 years of age) were taken into consideration. Most participants (92 %) have never refused to fill a prescription due to their beliefs; however, 15 % of participants state that if the conscience clause were legally sanctioned, they would exercise this right. Most participants(73 %) think that pharmacists should not have the right to conscientious objection. Almost half of participants who support implementation of the conscience clause would grant this right to pharmacists on a conditional basis, if the pharmacists were obliged to present other real options to the patient about obtaining a specific product. Pharmacists are rather reluctant to the idea of implementing the conscience clause, but despite a clear majority of its opponents, there seems to be a necessity for introducing such a regulation.
Walkiewicz, Maciej; Tartas, Malgorzata; Majkowicz, Mikolaj; Budzinski, Waldemar
Our study investigated the styles of success in the medical career in young physicians, in comparison with the same subjects examined 4-10 years earlier. The participants were first studied when they applied to the medical university (1999). Questionnaires were sent to all students each year (2000-2005). Fifty-four medical doctors participated in the first phase of the study completed a questionnaire four years after graduation. The current questionnaire included measures of burnout, satisfaction with medicine as a career, quality of life (QOL) and postgraduate examination results. Previous questionnaires had included measures of academic achievement, depression and anxiety. We can describe three different styles of success, which can be predicted during medical education. Physicians with the best professional competence have the lowest income. However, physicians with the lowest professional competence gain the highest income. Those with the highest QOL (general well-being and life satisfaction) have the lowest professional stress and vulnerability to burnout. Anxiety and academic achievement (during the second and fourth year of study) are the significant predictors of specific style belonging. Our results may be useful to medical school admissions and resident selection committees to identify candidates at risk for less satisfaction or less competence.
The overwhelming majority of students at 2-year colleges take geoscience courses (e.g. physical geology or physical geography) to fulfill part of the general education requirements of the Associates in Arts degree or General Education certificates for transfer to a 4-year school. It is common in community college earth science programs to have a relatively small number of students continuing on to major in geoscience programs at their transfer 4-year institution. To increase interest and retention in geosciences courses, we have developed a two prong approach - one aimed at students looking to transfer to a 4-year institution and the other aimed at students in the often overlooked career and technical education (CTE) programs. In the case of transfer students, we employ a "high touch" approach in introductory Physical Geology courses. This includes raising awareness of geoscience related careers combined with faculty mentor and advisor activities for students who express interest in science on their admission forms or in discussions of potential careers in science in first-year experience courses. Faculty mentorships have been very effective, not only in recruiting students to consider careers in geology, but also in advising a curriculum for students necessary to be successful upon transfer to a 4-year institution (such as completing college level chemistry, physics, and calculus courses prior to transfer). The second approach focuses on students pursuing certificates and degrees in CTE energy-related programs (such as HVAC, industrial engineering technology, electrician, and utility linemen). To increase awareness of vocational related geoscience careers, many of which require a good foundation in the vocational training students are currently pursing, we developed a foundation energy course - Energy and the Environment - which fulfills both the science general education component of the AA degree for students looking to transfer as well as CTE students. The
Fayard, Jennifer V.; Roberts, Brent W.; Robins, Richard W.; Watson, David
We conducted 3 studies to test the idea that guilt is a key affective component of Conscientiousness and that it can account for the relation between Conscientiousness and negative affect. Study 1 used meta-analysis to show that Conscientiousness was associated with specific emotions and overall negative affect but was most strongly associated with guilt. Conscientiousness was negatively related to guilt experience but positively related to guilt proneness. Also, guilt experience mediated the...
Martínez León, Mercedes; Rabadán Jiménez, José
The main objective of this paper is to highlight the numerous conflicts enters the consciousness and the laws are becoming more frequent health professionals in daily clinical practice. Clarify and define concepts such as ″conscientious objection for health professionals, to avoid confusion with other terms. This is work that aims to address the objection of conscience, not from the law but from the ethics and deontology, reviewing existing regulations both internationally and nationally. In addition to complete the studio, in a last part we discuss the state of the ″conscientious objection″ tars the recent passage of the organic law 2 / 2010, 3 march, sexual and reproductive health and the interruption of pregnancy. As a final conclusion we can say that ″conscientious objection″ is recognized in international declarations and even in the european constitution. in spain, the code of ethics and medical ethics, is one of the places where the objection of conscience of health professionals has great development for years, states that the doctor can refrain from the practice of certain professional acts such as abortion, in vitro fertilization or sterilization, if they are in contradiction with its ethical and scientific beliefs. Also recently, the general assembly of october 24, 2009, the central committee of ethics has made a declaration on ″conscientious objection″, insisting on its recognition. Finally, the organic law 2 / 2010, 3 march, sexual and reproductive health and the interruption of pregnancy, seems to be recognized ″the right to exercise conscientious objection″ of health professionals directly involved in the voluntary termination of pregnancy, after much discussion, but it is still early to assess the implementation of this right because, until july 5, 2010, will come into force this law, what will the future that we clarify the development of this important right for health professionals.
Lounsbury, John W.; Hutchens, Teresa; Loveland, James M.
Big Five personality traits were analyzed in relation to career decidedness among adolescents in middle and high school. Participants were 248 7th-grade, 321 10th-grade, and 282 12th-grade students. As hypothesized, Conscientiousness was positively and significantly correlated with career decidedness in all three grades. Openness and Agreeableness…
Nauta, Margaret M.
Relationships among the Big Five personality factors (openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism), career interests, and career self-efficacy (using Holland's realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional types for both of the latter) were examined. Among a sample of 147 college students,…
Laura Florence Harris
Full Text Available Conscientious objection to abortion, clinicians' refusal to perform legal abortions because of their religious or moral beliefs, has been the subject of increasing debate among bioethicists, policymakers, and public health advocates in recent years. Conscientious objection policies are intended to balance reproductive rights and clinicians' beliefs. However, in practice, clinician objection can act as a barrier to abortion access-impinging on reproductive rights, and increasing unsafe abortion and related morbidity and mortality. There is little information about conscientious objection from a medical or public health perspective. A quantitative instrument is needed to assess prevalence of conscientious objection and to provide insight on its practice. This paper describes the development of a survey instrument to measure conscientious objection to abortion provision.A literature review, and in-depth formative interviews with stakeholders in Colombia were used to develop a conceptual model of conscientious objection. This model led to the development of a survey, which was piloted, and then administered, in Ghana.The model posits three domains of conscientious objection that form the basis for the survey instrument: 1 beliefs about abortion and conscientious objection; 2 actions related to conscientious objection and abortion; and 3 self-identification as a conscientious objector.The instrument is intended to be used to assess prevalence among clinicians trained to provide abortions, and to gain insight on how conscientious objection is practiced in a variety of settings. Its results can inform more effective and appropriate strategies to regulate conscientious objection.
The present article aims to show the importance of positive work-related experiences within occupational health psychology by examining the relationship between flow at work (i.e., absorption, work enjoyment, and intrinsic work motivation) and job performance. On the basis of the literature, it was hypothesized that (a) motivating job characteristics are positively related to flow at work and (b) conscientiousness moderates the relationship between flow and other ratings of (in-role and out-of-role) performance. The hypotheses were tested on a sample of 113 employees from several occupations. Results of moderated structural equation modeling analyses generally supported the hypotheses. Motivating job characteristics were predictive of flow, and flow predicted in-role and extra-role performance, for only conscientious employees.
Carlson, Emily; Burger, Birgitta; London, Justin; Thompson, Marc R; Toiviainen, Petri
Previous research has shown broad relationships between personality and dance, but the relationship between personality and specific structural features of music has not been explored. The current study explores the influence of personality and trait empathy on dancers' responsiveness to small tempo differences between otherwise musically identical stimuli, measured by difference in the amount in acceleration of key joints. Thirty participants were recorded using motion capture while dancing to excerpts from six popular songs that were time-stretched to be slightly faster or slower than their original tempi. Analysis revealed that higher conscientiousness and lower extraversion both correlated with greater responsiveness to tempo change. Partial correlation analysis revealed that conscientiousness remained significantly correlated with responsiveness when extraversion was controlled, but not vice versa. No effect of empathy was found. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hall-Ellis, Sylvia D.; Grealy, Deborah S.
Succession planning and management are critical parts of strategic planning for libraries in the twenty-first century. Making certain that the right people are in place with the prerequisite training and experience to assume leadership positions is a vital part of strategic planning and talent management in libraries that rely on teams of people…
The opening up of civil marriage to same-sex couples in the Netherlands in 2001 and the existing legal recognition of conscientious objections among civil servants had created the legal and political possibility of marriage registrars with conscientious objections against conducting same-sex
Kershner, J; Kirkpatrick, T; McLaren, D
B.I. is a 39-year-old, intellectually gifted (IQ = 130) man with learning disabilities who, without known cause, demonstrated symptoms of amnesic-semantic aphasia at age 13. This led to placement in a public school class for students with mild mental retardation and to his dropping out of school after repeating Grade 9. His aphasia is associated with a severe deficit in speech comprehension, poor reading and writing, spatial confusion, and episodic memory loss. We studied the remarkable behavioral and cognitive adjustments that have enabled him to lead a fulfilling life and become a highly successful business executive. Implications are discussed in the context of patterns of successful functioning and current views of the neuropsychological and neurological bases of such disorders.
Full Text Available One of the most robust findings in work psychology is the role that conscientiousness plays in performance; more recently, research indicates that conscientious employees are also the most engaged in their work. The present study examines whether the organization has any role in this relation, and if it is possible for individuals who are low in conscientiousness to also feel high levels of engagement. One hundred forty-one full-time Romanian workers and their peers, representing a variety of industries, were surveyed, revealing that features of the organization can actually attenuate the relation between conscientiousness and engagement. Specifically, when employees perceive that the organization is relatively formalized (i.e., where following rules is important, and in organizations where there is a perception that effort is rewarded, conscientiousness is not as strongly associated with engagement. These organizational features represent situational strength, and when situations are strong, scripts and rules tend to predict behavior, rather than personality. As such, it may be possible for low-conscientiousness individuals to actually become more engaged through organizational change. For those who are low in conscientiousness, for example, a formal work environment likely provides structure and decreases ambiguity, which aids in lower conscientious employees becoming more engaged. Similarly, when it is perceived that the organization rewards effort, those who are low in conscientiousness receive this reinforcement, and likely benefit the most, as their levels of engagement tend to approach those who are higher in conscientiousness.
Bocciardi, Federica; Caputo, Andrea; Fregonese, Chiara; Langher, Viviana; Sartori, Riccardo
Purpose: In the current labour market, the competence to adapt is becoming significantly relevant for career development and career success. The construct of career adaptability, i.e. the capability to adapt to changing career-related circumstances and predict advancement in career development, seems to provide a fruitful scientific base for…
Full Text Available This study explored the relationship between the psychological career resources and career anchors of a sample of 2 997 working adults at predominantly managerial and supervisory levels in the service industry. The Psychological Career Resources Inventory and the Career Orientations Inventory were applied. Stepwise regression analyses indicated dimensions of psychological career resources as significant predictors of participants’ career anchors. The findings add valuable new knowledge that can be used to inform organisational career development support practices as well as career counselling and guidance services concerned with promoting individuals’ employability and experiences of intrinsic career success.
Zacher, Hannes; Ambiel, Rodolfo A.M.; Noronha, Ana Paula Porto
Career adaptability constitutes a resource that can help employees to effectively manage career changes and challenges. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between the two higher-order constructs of career adaptability and career entrenchment (i.e., the perceived inability
Delgado, Mikel M; Sulloway, Frank J
Conscientiousness is a fundamental aspect of human personality, one that is closely linked with various favorable life outcomes. Despite its importance in humans, conscientiousness has received little attention as to how it may have evolved, or whether it provides similar fitness benefits in other animals. To date, research in animal personality has found consistent support for the presence of all major dimensions of human personality in other animals except conscientiousness. In this review, we investigate conscientiousness at the level of traits and facets (clusters of closely related traits). A systematic review of the literature retrieved 876 relevant publications describing attributes of conscientiousness in other animal species. A factor analysis of citation counts revealed 2 major dimensions representing 9 distinct facets of conscientiousness in nonhumans. These facets, together with their underlying personality traits, exhibit individual variability, are generally known to be heritable, and often offer clear fitness benefits to individuals. Other facets of conscientiousness appear to be unique to humans. Publication biases, research biases, and anthropomorphism may all play a role in the structure of the evidence we report. We conclude by suggesting fruitful areas of future research to further elucidate the presence and functional roles of conscientiousness in animals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Smith, Kelly A; Barstead, Matthew G; Rubin, Kenneth H
Social withdrawal, or refraining from social interaction in the presence of peers, places adolescents at risk of developing emotional problems like anxiety and depression. The personality traits of neuroticism and conscientiousness also relate to emotional difficulties. For example, high conscientiousness predicts lower incidence of anxiety disorders and depression, while high neuroticism relates to greater likelihood of these problems. Based on these associations, socially withdrawn adolescents high in conscientiousness or low in neuroticism were expected to have lower levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Participants included 103 adolescents (59 % female) who reported on their personality traits in 8th grade and their anxiety and depressive symptoms in 9th grade. Peer ratings of social withdrawal were collected within schools in 8th grade. A structural equation model revealed that 8th grade withdrawal positively predicted 9th grade anxiety and depressive symptoms controlling for 8th grade anxiety and depressive symptoms, but neuroticism did not. Conscientiousness moderated the relation of withdrawal with depressive symptoms but not anxiety, such that high levels of conscientiousness attenuated the association between withdrawal and depressive symptoms. This buffering effect may stem from the conceptual relation between conscientiousness and self-regulation. Conscientiousness did not, however, moderate the association between withdrawal and anxiety, which may be partly due to the role anxiety plays in driving withdrawal. Thus, a conscientious, well-regulated personality partially protects withdrawn adolescents from the increased risk of emotional difficulties.
Marjanovic, Zdravko; Bajkov, Lisa; MacDonald, Jennifer
The Conscientious Responders Scale is a five-item embeddable validity scale that differentiates between conscientious and indiscriminate responding in personality-questionnaire data (CR & IR). This investigation presents further evidence of its validity and generalizability across two experiments. Study 1 tests its sensitivity to questionnaire length, a known cause of IR, and tries to provoke IR by manipulating psychological reactance. As expected, short questionnaires produced higher Conscientious Responders Scale scores than long questionnaires, and Conscientious Responders Scale scores were unaffected by reactance manipulations. Study 2 tests concerns that the Conscientious Responders Scale's unusual item content could potentially irritate and baffle responders, ironically increasing rates of IR. We administered two nearly identical questionnaires: one with an embedded Conscientious Responders Scale and one without the Conscientious Responders Scale. Psychometric comparisons revealed no differences across questionnaires' means, variances, interitem response consistencies, and Cronbach's alphas. In sum, the Conscientious Responders Scale is highly sensitive to questionnaire length-a known correlate of IR-and can be embedded harmlessly in questionnaires without provoking IR or changing the psychometrics of other measures.
Israel, Salomon; Moffitt, Terrie E.
The articles in this special section bolster the already strong evidence base that personality differences in the trait of conscientiousness predict health. What is now needed is a research agenda for translating documented risk associations between low conscientiousness and poor health into policies and interventions that improve health outcomes…
Hulsheger, Ute R.; Maier, Gunter W.
Although research indicates that making progress on personal work goals predicts positive job attitudes, little is known about the role of conscientiousness in moderating this relationship. Congruence theories suggest that job attitudes will be more dependent on goal progress when employees are high in conscientiousness, whereas compensation…
Minbashian, Amirali; Wood, Robert E.; Beckmann, Nadin
The present study examined the viability of incorporating task-contingent units into the study of personality at work, using conscientiousness as an illustrative example. We used experience-sampling data from 123 managers to show that (a) momentary conscientiousness at work is contingent on the difficulty and urgency demands of the tasks people…
Frederiksen, Anders; Kato, Takao
and Waldman and Lazear. Our analysis allows for both internal promotion and external recruitment as means to achieve top management appointments, and yields additional findings: the breath of human capital is more important in mature firms, as predicted by the theory; and the concept of firm-specific human...
Fahey, D F; Myrtle, R C
This research examines the job and career changes of healthcare executives and managers working in different segments of the healthcare industry in the western United States. The results suggest that the job and career patterns in the healthcare delivery sector are undergoing significant transformation. One third of the respondents reports that at least one of their last four job changes was involuntary or unplanned. One half of those attempted to make a career change. This study identifies four different executive and management career patterns. The most common was one of multiple career changes. The second pattern was that of a single career change, followed by a 'traditional' career in which one did not seek a career change. The final pattern was characterized as a movement back and forth between two different segments of the healthcare industry. Age, gender, marital status and education were not associated with any specific career pattern. The need to achieve results early in the respondent's career had a strong influence on career patterns. This study confirms the fluidity of career movement and the changing permeability between the various segments of the healthcare industry. It also suggests that career success increasingly will require broad management experience in those different segments.
Schuklenk and Smalling argue that it is practically impossible for civic institutions to meet the conditions necessary to ensure that conscientious objection does not conflict with the core principles of liberal democracies. In this response, I propose an alternative definition of conscience to that offered by Schuklenk and Smalling. I discuss what I call the 'traditional' notion of conscience, and contrast this with the existentialist conception of conscience (which I take to be a close cousin of the view targeted by Schuklenk and Smalling). I argue that the traditional notion, grounded in an objective moral order, avoids the criticisms advanced by Schuklenk and Smalling; the existentialist conception, in contrast, does not. I conclude by discussing the benefits and risks of a 'restricted view' of respect for conscience. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
David A. Ellis
Full Text Available Several aspects of an individual’s appearance have been shown to predict personality and related behaviour. While some of these cues are grounded in biology (e.g., the human face, other aspects of a person’s appearance can be actively controlled (e.g., clothing. In this paper, we consider a common fashion accessory, the wristwatch. In an exploratory sample (N > 100 and a confirmatory sample (N > 600, we compared big-five personality traits between individuals who do or do not regularly wear a standard wristwatch. Significantly higher levels of conscientiousness were observed in participants who wore a watch. In a third study (N = 85, watch wearers arrived significantly earlier to appointments in comparison to controls. These results are discussed in relation to enclothed cognition and the rise of wearable technology including smartwatches.
Ellis, David A; Jenkins, Rob
Several aspects of an individual's appearance have been shown to predict personality and related behaviour. While some of these cues are grounded in biology (e.g., the human face), other aspects of a person's appearance can be actively controlled (e.g., clothing). In this paper, we consider a common fashion accessory, the wristwatch. In an exploratory sample (N > 100) and a confirmatory sample (N > 600), we compared big-five personality traits between individuals who do or do not regularly wear a standard wristwatch. Significantly higher levels of conscientiousness were observed in participants who wore a watch. In a third study (N = 85), watch wearers arrived significantly earlier to appointments in comparison to controls. These results are discussed in relation to enclothed cognition and the rise of wearable technology including smartwatches.
Clarkston, B. E.; Garza, C.
Diversity within the Ocean Sciences workforce is still underperforming relative to other scientific disciplines, a problem that will be only be solved by recruiting, engaging and retaining a more diverse student population. The Monterey Bay Regional Ocean Science Research Experiences for Undergraduates program is housed at California State University, Monterey Bay (CSUMB), an HSI with strong connections to multiple regional community colleges and other Predominantly Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) in the CSU system. From this unique position, 11 sophomore and junior-level undergraduate students are recruited per year from academic institutions where research opportunities in STEM are limited and from groups historically underrepresented in the Ocean Sciences, including women, underrepresented minorities, persons with disabilities, and veterans. During the program, students engage in a 10-week original research project guided by a faculty research mentor in one of four themes: Oceanography, Marine Biology and Ecology, Ocean Engineering, and Marine Geology. In addition to research, students engage in rigorous weekly professional development workshops in which they practice critical thinking, ethical decision-making, peer review, writing and oral communication skills. These workshops include tangible products such as an NSF-style proposal paper, Statement of Purpose and CV modelled for the SACNAS Travel Award Application, research abstract, scientific report and oral presentation. To help retain students in Ocean Sciences, students build community during the REU by living together in the CSUMB dormitories; post-REU, students stay connected through an online facebook group, LinkedIn page and group webinars. To date, the REU has supported 22 students in two cohorts (2014, 2015) and here we present successes, challenges and lessons learned for a program designed to prepare students for 21st century Ocean Science careers.
Inman, Pamela L.
For women, success in shattering the glass ceiling lies not in adapting to a male workplace culture but in using career strategies such as self-knowledge, multiple mentors, integration of body and soul, and fluid, customized careers. (SK)
Full Text Available Background: The Supreme Court of Canada (SCC has ruled that the federal government is required to remove the provisions of the Criminal Code of Canada that prohibit medical assistance in dying (MAID. The SCC has stipulated that individual physicians will not be required to provide MAID should they have a religious or conscientious objection. Therefore, the pending legislative response will have to balance the rights of the patients with the rights of physicians, other health care professionals, and objecting institutions. Objective: The objective of this paper is to critically assess, within the Canadian context, the moral probity of individual or institutional objections to MAID that are for either religious or conscientious reasons. Methods: Deontological ethics and the Doctrine of Double Effect. Results: The religious or conscientious objector has conflicting duties, i.e., a duty to respect the “right to life” (section 7 of the Charter and a duty to respect the tenets of his or her religious or conscientious beliefs (protected by section 2 of the Charter. Conclusion: The discussion of religious or conscientious objections to MAID has not explicitly considered the competing duties of the conscientious objector. It has focussed on the fact that a conscientious objection exists and has ignored the normative question of whether the duty to respect one’s conscience or religion supersedes the duty to respect the patient’s right to life.
Tracy J. Opie
Research purpose: The job demand-resources model is utilised to investigate the moderating role of conscientiousness and neuroticism on the relationship between work-family conflict and work engagement. Motivation for the study: Working mothers are challenged to establish a balance between work and family life. The resulting work-family conflict can negatively affect well-being. It is thus necessary to explore personal factors that relate to work-family conflict, particularly in the South African context. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative, cross-sectional survey design was used. The sample (N = 267 was comprised of working mothers from several organisations. Data was gathered using the work-to-family conflict questionnaire, the Basic Traits Inventory and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. Main findings: The results indicated that work-family conflict negatively predicts work engagement. Conscientiousness positively predicts work engagement, and neuroticism negatively predicts work engagement. A significant interaction effect was found for conscientiousness but not for neuroticism. The findings showed that for participants with high levels of conscientiousness, work engagement decreases significantly more with an increase in work-family conflict than for participants with low levels of conscientiousness. Practical/Managerial implications: Organisations should consider those individuals who have high levels of conscientiousness and low levels of neuroticism in the selection and placement of employees. In addition, organisations have a responsibility to provide conscientious women, particularly mothers, with adequate support to ensure that work-family conflict does not adversely impact their levels of work engagement.
Hahn, Gerald J
A valuable guide to a successful career as a statistician A Career in Statistics: Beyond the Numbers prepares readers for careers in statistics by emphasizing essential concepts and practices beyond the technical tools provided in standard courses and texts. This insider's guide from internationally recognized applied statisticians helps readers decide whether a career in statistics is right for them, provides hands-on guidance on how to prepare for such a career, and shows how to succeed on the job. The book provides non-technical guidance for a successful career. The authors' extensive indu
The paper analyzes conscientious objection by physicians, through the concrete situation of legal abortion in Brazil. It reviews the two main ethical frameworks about conscientious objection in public health, the incompatibility thesis and the integrity thesis, to analyze the reality of legal abortion services in the referral services of the Brazilian public health care system. From these two perspectives, a third perspective is proposed - the justification thesis, to manage the right to conscientious objection among physicians in referral services. This analysis may contribute to the organization of services for legal abortion and to the education of future physicians working in emergency obstetric care.
West-Oram, Peter; Buyx, Alena
The right to conscientious objection in the provision of healthcare is the subject of a lengthy, heated and controversial debate. Recently, a new dimension was added to this debate by the US Supreme Court's decision in Burwell vs. Hobby Lobby et al. which effectively granted rights to freedom of conscience to private, for-profit corporations. In light of this paradigm shift, we examine one of the most contentious points within this debate, the impact of granting conscience exemptions to healthcare providers on the ability of women to enjoy their rights to reproductive autonomy. We argue that the exemptions demanded by objecting healthcare providers cannot be justified on the liberal, pluralist grounds on which they are based, and impose unjustifiable costs on both individual persons, and society as a whole. In doing so, we draw attention to a worrying trend in healthcare policy in Europe and the United States to undermine women's rights to reproductive autonomy by prioritizing the rights of ideologically motivated service providers to an unjustifiably broad form of freedom of conscience. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Baldelli, Ilaria; Massaro, Alma; Penco, Susanna; Bassi, Anna Maria; Patuzzo, Sara; Ciliberti, Rosagemma
In Italy, Law 413/1993 states that public and private Italian Institutions, including academic faculties, are obliged to fully inform workers and students about their right to conscientious objection to scientific or educational activities involving animals, hereafter written as "animal CO". However, little monitoring on the faculties' compliance with this law has been performed either by the government or other institutional bodies. Based on this premise, the authors have critically reviewed the existing data and compared them with those emerging from their own investigation to discuss limitations and inconsistencies. The results of this investigation revealed that less than half of Italian academic faculties comply with their duty to inform on animal CO. Non-compliance may substantially affect the right of students to make ethical choices in the field of animal ethics and undermines the fundamental right to express their own freedom of thought. The Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research, ethics committees and animal welfare bodies should cooperate to make faculties respect this law. Further research is needed to better understand the reasons for the current trend, as well as to promote the enforcement of Law 413/1993 with particular regard to information on animal CO.
Gartland, Nicola; O'Connor, Daryl B; Lawton, Rebecca
Conscientiousness (C) is positively associated with health and longevity although the mechanisms underlying this relationship are not fully understood. Stress may play a role in explaining the C-longevity relationship. This study investigated whether C predicted the cognitive appraisals of daily stressors/hassles. Participants (N=102) completed measures of C and cognitive appraisal in relation to the most stressful hassle they had experienced in the last 7 days. Correlational analysis revealed that Total C, Order and Industriousness were positively correlated with primary appraisals, and Responsibility was positively correlated with secondary appraisals. The facets of C were then entered into hierarchical regression models, controlling for age and gender. This demonstrated that Order (β=0.27, paccounting for 15.8% of the variance. Responsibility significantly predicted secondary appraisals (β=0.44, paccounting for 16.3% of the variance. These findings indicate that higher Order and Industriousness are related to having a greater stake in daily stressors, whereas higher Responsibility is related to greater confidence in one's ability to deal with daily stressors. These results are the first demonstration that C is related to the appraisals of daily hassles and suggest that C may moderate the experience of stress in daily life. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Duggan, Katherine A.; Friedman, Howard S.; McDevitt, Elizabeth A.; Mednick, Sara C.
Although previous research has shown personality and sleep are each substantial predictors of health throughout the lifespan, little is known about links between personality and healthy sleep patterns. This study examined Big Five personality traits and a range of factors related to sleep health in 436 university students (M age = 19.88, SD = 1.50, 50% Male). Valid self-report measures of personality, chronotype, sleep hygiene, sleep quality, and sleepiness were analyzed. To remove multicollinearity between personality factors, each sleep domain was regressed on relevant demographic and principal component-derived personality factors in multiple linear regressions. Results showed that low conscientiousness and high neuroticism were the best predictors of poor sleep (poor sleep hygiene, low sleep quality, and increased sleepiness), consistent with other research on predictors of poor health and mortality risk. In this first comprehensive study of the topic, the findings suggest that personality has a significant association with sleep health, and researchers could profitably examine both personality and sleep in models of health and well-being. PMID:24651274
Full Text Available In Italy, Law 413/1993 states that public and private Italian Institutions, including academic faculties, are obliged to fully inform workers and students about their right to conscientious objection to scientific or educational activities involving animals, hereafter written as “animal CO”. However, little monitoring on the faculties’ compliance with this law has been performed either by the government or other institutional bodies. Based on this premise, the authors have critically reviewed the existing data and compared them with those emerging from their own investigation to discuss limitations and inconsistencies. The results of this investigation revealed that less than half of Italian academic faculties comply with their duty to inform on animal CO. Non-compliance may substantially affect the right of students to make ethical choices in the field of animal ethics and undermines the fundamental right to express their own freedom of thought. The Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research, ethics committees and animal welfare bodies should cooperate to make faculties respect this law. Further research is needed to better understand the reasons for the current trend, as well as to promote the enforcement of Law 413/1993 with particular regard to information on animal CO.
Full Text Available Institute “conscientious” protects citizens’ freedom of each person in relation to the choice according to their own conscience. With the view of her/his ethical, religious or moral principles, medical worker has the right to refer to conscientious objection and decline to conduct health care if it is not in dissonance with professional standards or if it is not causing any permanent consequences on health or it is not danger for patient’s life. Medical worker shall inform the patient and responsible or superior person on her decision in due time. This is a multidisciplinary problem whose solution can be found only through joint and simultaneous access to several scientific disciplines and professions (physicians, lawyers, ethicists, theologians, sociologists, etc., as well as interest groups (associations of patients and health workers, chambers, etc. according to international and national regulations, the recent case law of international and domestic courts, rules and protocols of the profession, the decision of codes of ethics, the principles of religion etc.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to predict both adaptive psychological functioning (well-being and adaptive social functioning (career stability in middle adulthood based on behaviors observed in toddlerhood and personality traits measured in adolescence. 83 people participated in an ongoing longitudinal study started in 1961 (58% women. Based on children's behavior in toddlerhood, three temperamental dimensions were identified - positive affectivity, negative affectivity and disinhibition. In adolescence, extraversion and neuroticism were measured at the age of 16 years. Various aspects of well-being were used as indicators of adaptive psychological functioning in adulthood: life satisfaction, self-esteem and self-efficacy. Career stability was used as an indicator of adaptive social functioning. Job careers of respondents were characterized as stable, unstable or changeable. Extraversion measured at the age of 16 proved to be the best predictor of well-being indicators; in case of self-efficacy it was also childhood disinhibition. Extraversion in adolescence, childhood disinhibition and negative affectivity predicted career stability. Findings are discussed in the context of a theoretical framework of higher order factors of the Big Five personality constructs, stability and plasticity.
The aim of the study was to predict both adaptive psychological functioning (well-being) and adaptive social functioning (career stability) in middle adulthood based on behaviors observed in toddlerhood and personality traits measured in adolescence. 83 people participated in an ongoing longitudinal study started in 1961 (58% women). Based on children’s behavior in toddlerhood, three temperamental dimensions were identified – positive affectivity, negative affectivity and disinhibition. In adolescence, extraversion and neuroticism were measured at the age of 16 years. Various aspects of well-being were used as indicators of adaptive psychological functioning in adulthood: life satisfaction, self-esteem and self-efficacy. Career stability was used as an indicator of adaptive social functioning. Job careers of respondents were characterized as stable, unstable or changeable. Extraversion measured at the age of 16 proved to be the best predictor of well-being indicators; in case of self-efficacy it was also childhood disinhibition. Extraversion in adolescence, childhood disinhibition and negative affectivity predicted career stability. Findings are discussed in the context of a theoretical framework of higher order factors of the Big Five personality constructs, stability and plasticity. PMID:25919394
Farkas, Gary J.; Mazurek, Ewa; Marone, Jane R.
The VARK learning style is a pedagogical focus in health care education. This study examines relationships of course performance vs. VARK learning preference, study time, and career plan among students enrolled in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course at a large urban university. Students (n?=?492) from the fall semester course completed…
Andam, Aba Bentil; Dawson, Silvina Ponce; Horton, K. Renee; Sandow, Barbara
In essentially all countries, responsibilities for child care, cooking, cleaning, and other homemaking tasks fall predominantly on the wife and mother. In addition, the childbearing years come during the period when a physicist must study hard, work long hours on research, and take temporary positions, often abroad. Thus, balancing family and career has long been one of the major barriers to women's participation in science and engineering fields, including physics. While many young women believe that they must choose between having children and having a science career, the fact is that the majority of women physicists in both developing and developed countries have successfully done both. This paper summarizes some ideas and recommendations raised in discussions, especially focused on easing the challenges of having children while in temporary jobs, returning to physics after a career break, the need for "family-friendly" working conditions, and the dual-career problem facing couples where both are scientists.
Wendelberger, Joanne Roth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
This presentation will provide career advice for individuals seeking to go beyond just having a job to building a successful career in the areas of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Careful planning can be used to turn a job into a springboard for professional advancement and personal satisfaction. Topics to be addressed include setting priorities, understanding career ladders, making tough choices, overcoming stereotypes and assumptions by others, networking, developing a professional identify, and balancing a career with family and other personal responsibilities. Insights on the transition from individual technical work to leadership will also be provided. The author will draw upon experiences gained in academic, industrial, and government laboratory settings, as well as extensive professional service and community involvement.
Orvis, Karin A; Dudley, Nicole M; Cortina, Jose M
The authors examined the role of employee conscientiousness as a moderator of the relationships between psychological contract breach and employee behavioral and attitudinal reactions to the breach. They collected data from 106 newly hired employees within the 1st month of employment (Time 1), 3 months later (Time 2), and 8 months after Time 1 (Time 3) to observe the progression through contract development, breach, and reaction. Results suggest that conscientiousness is a significant moderator for 4 of the 5 contract breach-employee reaction relationships examined (turnover intentions, organizational loyalty, job satisfaction, and 1 of 2 facets of job performance). Specifically, employees who were lower in conscientiousness had more negative reactions to perceived breach with respect to turnover intentions, organizational loyalty, and job satisfaction. In contrast, employees who were higher in conscientiousness reduced their job performance to a greater degree in response to contract breach. Future research directions are discussed.
Pluess, Michael; Bartley, Mel
The social gradient in smoking is well known, with higher rates among those in less advantaged socioeconomic position. Some recent research has reported that personality characteristics partly explain this gradient. However, the majority of existing work is limited by cross-sectional designs unsuitable to determine whether differences in conscientiousness are a predictor or a product of social inequalities. Adopting a life course perspective, we investigated in the current paper the influence of conscientiousness in early and mid-life on the social gradient in smoking and the role of potential confounding factors in a large longitudinal cohort study. Using data from the 1958 National Child Development Study, we examined the extent to which two measures of conscientiousness, one assessed with a personality questionnaire at age 50 and one derived from three related items at 16 years in childhood, explained the social gradient of smoking at age 50 by comparing nested logistic regression models that included social class at birth, cognitive ability, attention and conduct problems at age 7, and educational qualification. Childhood conscientiousness was a significant predictor of smoking at 50 years (OR=0.86, CI (95%) 0.84 to 0.88), explaining 5.0% of the social gradient independent of all other variables. Childhood conscientiousness was a stronger predictor than adult conscientiousness, statistically accounting for the observed direct association of adult conscientiousness with smoking. Conscientiousness may be a predictor rather than a product of social differences in smoking. Inclusion of personality measures and adoption of a life course perspective add significantly to our understanding of health inequalities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
The Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia includes two statutes: (a) the freedom to decide about the birth of one's own child (freedom of birth-decision), and (b) the right of conscientious objection, including the right to abortion. This discussion focuses on the principles of "free choice and womens'reproductive freedom". The right of conscientious objection in relation to the right to abortion is also discussed.
Mõttus, René; Allik, Jüri; Realo, Anu; Rossier, Jérôme; Zecca, Gregory; Ah-Kion, Jennifer; Amoussou-Yéyé, Dénis; Bäckström, Martin; Barkauskiene, Rasa; Barry, Oumar; Bhowon, Uma; Björklund, Fredrik; Bochaver, Aleksandra; Bochaver, Konstantin; de Bruin, Gideon
Rankings of countries on mean levels of self-reported Conscientiousness continue to puzzle researchers. Based on the hypothesis that cross-cultural differences in the tendency to prefer extreme response categories of ordinal rating scales over moderate categories can influence the comparability of self-reports, this study investigated possible effects of response style on the mean levels of self-reported Conscientiousness in 22 samples from 20 countries. Extreme and neutral responding were es...
Fuchs, Tom A; Dwyer, Michael G; Kuceyeski, Amy; Choudhery, Sanjeevani; Carolus, Keith; Li, Xian; Mallory, Matthew; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Jakimovski, Dejan; Ramasamy, Deepa; Zivadinov, Robert; Benedict, Ralph H B
Quantifying white matter (WM) tract disruption in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) provides a novel means for investigating the relationship between defective network connectivity and clinical markers. PwMS exhibit perturbations in personality, where decreased Conscientiousness is particularly prominent. This trait deficit influences disease trajectory and functional outcomes such as work capacity. We aimed to identify patterns of WM tract disruption related to decreased Conscientiousness in PwMS. Personality assessment and brain MRI were obtained in 133 PwMS and 49 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC). Lesion maps were applied to determine the severity of WM tract disruption between pairs of gray matter regions. Next, the Network-Based-Statistics tool was applied to identify structural networks whose disruption negatively correlates with Conscientiousness. Finally, to determine whether these networks explain unique variance above conventional MRI measures and cognition, regression models were applied controlling for age, sex, brain volume, T2-lesion volume, and cognition. Relative to HCs, PwMS exhibited lower Conscientiousness and slowed cognitive processing speed (p = .025, p = .006). Lower Conscientiousness in PwMS was significantly associated with WM tract disruption between frontal, frontal-parietal, and frontal-cingulate pathways in the left (p = .02) and right (p = .01) hemisphere. The mean disruption of these pathways explained unique additive variance in Conscientiousness, after accounting for conventional MRI markers of pathology and cognition (ΔR 2 = .049, p = .029). Damage to WM tracts between frontal, frontal-parietal, and frontal-cingulate cortical regions is significantly correlated with reduced Conscientiousness in PwMS. Tract disruption within these networks explains decreased Conscientiousness observed in PwMS as compared with HCs. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Franke, Wolf D. [ADVOLAT Gruppe (Switzerland); Winz, Rainer (eds.) [Hochschule Merseburg (Germany). Fachbereich Informatik und Kommunikationssysteme; ADVOLAT Gruppe (Switzerland)
The compendium under consideration gives a review on the most important technologies, market tendencies, career chances and training ways within the range of renewable energies. Experts from research, economics and associations present facts and background information according to the power production by sun, wind, water, bio fuels and geothermal energy as well as their practical application in different economic sectors. Prominent enterprises as technology leaders and potential employers are presented. Valuable information, contacts and addresses for the reader are given.
Farkas, Gary J; Mazurek, Ewa; Marone, Jane R
The VARK learning style is a pedagogical focus in health care education. This study examines relationships of course performance vs. VARK learning preference, study time, and career plan among students enrolled in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course at a large urban university. Students (n = 492) from the fall semester course completed a survey consisting of the VARK questionnaire, gender, academic year, career plans, and estimated hours spent per week in combined classroom and study time. Seventy-eight percent of students reported spending 15 or fewer hours per week studying. Study time and overall course score correlated significantly for the class as a whole (r = 0.111, P = 0.013), which was mainly due to lecture (r = 0.118, P = 0.009) performance. No significant differences were found among students grouped by learning styles. When corrected for academic year, overall course scores (mean ± SEM) for students planning to enter dentistry, medicine, optometry or pharmacy (79.89 ± 0.88%) were significantly higher than those of students planning to enter physical or occupational therapies (74.53 ± 1.15%; P = 0.033), as well as nurse/physician assistant programs (73.60 ± 1.3%; P = 0.040). Time spent studying was not significantly associated with either learning style or career choice. Our findings suggest that specific career goals and study time, not learning preferences, are associated with better performance among a diverse group of students in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course. However, the extent to which prior academic preparation, cultural norms, and socioeconomic factors influenced these results requires further investigation. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.
Franke, Wolf D. (ed.) [ADVOLAT Gruppe (Switzerland)
The compendium under consideration gives a review on the most important technologies, market tendencies, career chances and training ways within the range of renewable energies. Experts from research, economics and associations present facts and background information according to the power production by sun, wind, water, bio fuels and geothermal energy as well as their practical application in different economic sectors. Prominent enterprises as technology leaders and potential employers are presented. Valuable information, contacts and addresses for the reader are given.
Farahani, Mohammad-Naghy; Kormi-Nouri, Reza; De Raad, Boele
The relationship between conscientiousness, mental health and mental illness has been an issue for the last two decades. By using a dual model of mental health, the present study examined a non-linear relationship between conscientiousness and healthy or non-healthy symptoms in two different cultures. Participants in this study were 296 Iranian and 310 Swedish university students (18-24 years of age). We used two different conscientiousness scales; the 12-item conscientiousness subscale of the NEO/FFI as an imported (etic) scale, and a 10-item Iranian conscientiousness scale as an indigenous (emic) and culture-dependent scale. In both conscientiousness scales, multivariate analysis of variance showed that conscientiousness differentiated among four mental health groups (languishing, troubled, symptomatic and flourishing), although languishing and troubled individuals were less conscientious than flourishing and symptomatic individuals. Furthermore, the non-healthy symptomatic individuals were more conscientiousness than flourishing individuals. The results showed no significant differences between the two cultures in terms of the four mental health categories. It was concluded that the relationship between conscientiousness and mental health/mental illness is more a non-linear relationship than a linear one.
Arthur, Nancy; Collins, Sandra; Marshall, Catherine; McMahon, Mary
The recent focus on social justice issues in career development is primarily conceptual in nature and few resources account for the challenges or successes experienced by career development practitioners. The purpose of this article is to report the results of a research study of career practitioners in Canada regarding the competencies they use…
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In a recent article for this journal, Morten Magelssen argues that the right to conscientious objection in healthcare is grounded in the moral integrity of healthcare professionals, a good for both professionals and society. In this paper, I argue that there is no right to conscientious objection in healthcare, at least as Magelssen conceives of it. Magelssen's conception of the right to conscientious objection is too expansive in nature. Although I will assume that there is a right to conscientious objection, it does not extend to objections that are purely religious in nature. i Thus, this right is considerably more restricted than Magelssen thinks. In making my case, I draw on John Rawls's later work in arguing for the claim that conscientious objection based on purely religious considerations fails to benefit society in the appropriate way. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Kepes, Sven; McDaniel, Michael A
Sensitivity analyses refer to investigations of the degree to which the results of a meta-analysis remain stable when conditions of the data or the analysis change. To the extent that results remain stable, one can refer to them as robust. Sensitivity analyses are rarely conducted in the organizational science literature. Despite conscientiousness being a valued predictor in employment selection, sensitivity analyses have not been conducted with respect to meta-analytic estimates of the correlation (i.e., validity) between conscientiousness and job performance. To address this deficiency, we reanalyzed the largest collection of conscientiousness validity data in the personnel selection literature and conducted a variety of sensitivity analyses. Publication bias analyses demonstrated that the validity of conscientiousness is moderately overestimated (by around 30%; a correlation difference of about .06). The misestimation of the validity appears to be due primarily to suppression of small effects sizes in the journal literature. These inflated validity estimates result in an overestimate of the dollar utility of personnel selection by millions of dollars and should be of considerable concern for organizations. The fields of management and applied psychology seldom conduct sensitivity analyses. Through the use of sensitivity analyses, this paper documents that the existing literature overestimates the validity of conscientiousness in the prediction of job performance. Our data show that effect sizes from journal articles are largely responsible for this overestimation.
Buzzanell, Patrice M.; Goldzwig, Steven R.
Examines the linear or bureaucratic career models (dominant in career research, metaphors, paradigms, and ideologies) which maintain career myths of flexibility and individualized routes to success in organizations incapable of offering such versatility. Describes nonlinear career models which offer suggestive metaphors for re-visioning careers…
Christensen, Judith; And Others
This monograph on the development of teachers' careers synthesizes researchers' prescriptions for early-, mid-, and late-career professional development; and describes successful programs that demonstrate sensitivity to the stages of teachers' growth. The first chapter, "Teachers' Career Development," reviews current adult- and career-stage…
Schuklenk, Udo; Smalling, Ricardo
We describe a number of conscientious objection cases in a liberal Western democracy. These cases strongly suggest that the typical conscientious objector does not object to unreasonable, controversial professional services-involving torture, for instance-but to the provision of professional services that are both uncontroversially legal and that patients are entitled to receive. We analyse the conflict between these patients' access rights and the conscientious objection accommodation demanded by monopoly providers of such healthcare services. It is implausible that professionals who voluntarily join a profession should be endowed with a legal claim not to provide services that are within the scope of the profession's practice and that society expects them to provide. We discuss common counterarguments to this view and reject all of them. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Hertler Steven C.
Full Text Available The five factor trait of conscientiousnessis a supertrait, denoting on one hand a pattern of excessive labor, rigidity, orderliness and compulsivity,and on the other hand a pattern of strict rectitude, scrupulosity, dutifulness and morality. In both respects the obsessive-compulsive personality is conscientious; indeed, it has been labeled a disorder of extreme conscientiousness (Widiger et al., 2009. Antisocial personality disorder, in the present paper, is described as occupying the opposite end of the conscientiousness continuum. The antisocial is impulsive rather than compulsive, illicit rather than licit, and furtive rather than forthright.After clinically comparing the obsessive and antisocial personalities, the present paper invokes evolutionary theory to explain their resultant behavioral, ideological, political and demographic differences.
Theiss, Justin D; Hobbs, William B; Giordano, Peter J; Brunson, Olivia M
Informed consent is central to conducting ethical research with human participants. The present study investigated differences in consent form reading in relation to conscientiousness, procrastination, and the point-of-time (PT) effect among undergraduate participants at a U.S. university. As hypothesized, conscientious participants and those who signed up to participate in a research study more days in advance and for earlier sessions (PT effect) read the consent form more thoroughly. However, procrastination was not related to consent form reading. Most importantly, consent form reading in general was poor, with 80% of participants demonstrating that they had not read the consent form. Conscientious participants were more likely to self-report reading the consent form, irrespective of their measured consent form reading. The article closes with suggestions to improve the process of obtaining informed consent with undergraduate participants. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Personality plays a significant role in influencing motivation for choosing a perspective profession. As empirical evidence confirmed, personality traits conscientiousness, openness to experience, extraversion are in positive correlation with intrinsic motives for choosing teaching as a profession (in negative with personality trait neuroticism, and in negative correlation with extrinsic motivation and fallback career (in positive with personality trait neuroticism. The primary aim of research is to point out the importance of personality traits in career choices via detecting which personality traits are predictors of fallback career. In the research first grade university students (teacher trainees; N = 402 completed the Five Factor Inventory and SMVUP-4-S scale. As results show, Big Five personality traits are in correlation with fallback career and are a significant predictor of fallback career. The Big Five model together explained 17.4% of the variance in fallback career, where personality traits agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness to experience and neuroticism has been shown as a statistically significant predictor of fallback career of teacher trainees.
... provide meaningful training, mentoring, and career-development opportunities. Further, exposing students... eligibility). Successful applicants will be placed in a 2-year career development program. Agencies may... compare available Federal career opportunities, E.O. 13562 requires the use of standard naming conventions...
Gevers, J.M.P.; Peeters, M.A.G.
In this study of 43 student project teams, we tested a multi-level mediation model of the relationship between dissimilarity in conscientiousness, team temporal processes, and team member satisfaction. We distinguished between individual-level dissimilarity in conscientiousness (i.e., the distance
When I look back at how my career started, I think to myself, what if I had undertaken the BA in Business Studies which I had been accepted for, instead of the BSc in Nursing for which I was still waiting to hear the results of my interview? Well, probably I would have spent four years studying business, followed by 40 years sitting in an office somewhere; Tesco, Sainsbury's or Marks and Spencer probably. I was lucky though, my father phoned up every couple of weeks (I was only 17 and didn't really have a clue what I wanted to do) and eventually they said 'yes' and I started my nursing career. Perhaps this is the first bit of advice for anybody thinking of a career in health:
Carter, Nathan T; Dalal, Dev K; Boyce, Anthony S; O'Connell, Matthew S; Kung, Mei-Chuan; Delgado, Kristin M
The personality trait of conscientiousness has seen considerable attention from applied psychologists due to its efficacy for predicting job performance across performance dimensions and occupations. However, recent theoretical and empirical developments have questioned the assumption that more conscientiousness always results in better job performance, suggesting a curvilinear link between the 2. Despite these developments, the results of studies directly testing the idea have been mixed. Here, we propose this link has been obscured by another pervasive assumption known as the dominance model of measurement: that higher scores on traditional personality measures always indicate higher levels of conscientiousness. Recent research suggests dominance models show inferior fit to personality test scores as compared to ideal point models that allow for curvilinear relationships between traits and scores. Using data from 2 different samples of job incumbents, we show the rank-order changes that result from using an ideal point model expose a curvilinear link between conscientiousness and job performance 100% of the time, whereas results using dominance models show mixed results, similar to the current state of the literature. Finally, with an independent cross-validation sample, we show that selection based on predicted performance using ideal point scores results in more favorable objective hiring outcomes. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
Faúndes, Anibal; Duarte, Graciana Alves; Osis, Maria José Duarte
Conscientious objection is a legitimate right of physicians to reject the practice of actions that violate their ethical or moral principles. The application of that principle is being used in many countries as a justification to deny safe abortion care to women who have the legal right to have access to safe termination of pregnancy. The problem is that, often, this concept is abused by physicians who camouflage under the guise of conscientious objection their fear of experiencing discrimination and social stigma if they perform legal abortions. These colleagues seem to ignore the ethical principle that the primary conscientious duty of OB/GYNs is-at all times-to treat, or provide benefit and prevent harm to, the patients for whose care they are responsible. Any conscientious objection to treating a patient is secondary to this primary duty. One of the jobs of the FIGO Working Group for the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion is to change this paradigm and make our colleagues proud of providing legal abortion services that protect women's life and health, and concerned about disrespecting the human rights of women and professional ethical principles. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
de Vries, A.; de Vries, R.E.; Born, M.Ph.
Recent research has suggested that the six-dimensional personality model, and especially the dimension Honesty-Humility/Integrity, adds incremental validity to the prediction of important criteria. We expected both this dimension and the dimension Conscientiousness to explain incremental variance in
Stavropoulos, Vasilis; Kuss, Daria; Griffiths, Mark; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso
Over the last decade, research on Internet addiction (IA) has increased. However, almost all studies in the area are cross-sectional and do not examine the context in which Internet use takes place. Therefore, a longitudinal study examined the role of conscientiousness (as a personality trait) and classroom hostility (as a contextual factor) in…
Carlson, Matthew; Oshri, Assaf; Kwon, Josephine
Child maltreatment poses significant risk to the development of callous/unemotional traits as well as risk behaviors such as engaging in violence, having sex with strangers, and binge drinking. In the current study, the indirect pathway from child maltreatment to risk behaviors was examined via callous/unemotional traits; whereas the conscientious personality trait was tested as a moderator of this indirect pathway. Young adults and parents (N=361; Mage=19.14, SD=1.44) completed questionnaires on child maltreatment histories, callousness/unemotional traits, personality characteristics, and risk behaviors. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypothesized direct, indirect and conditional indirect effects. Findings showed indirect links between the child maltreatment latent factor and physical fighting, having sex with strangers, and binge drinking via callous/unemotional traits. Furthermore, the conscientiousness personality type significantly buffered the connection between callous/unemotional traits and physical fighting, supporting a conditional indirect effects. Callous/unemotional traits are important factors in the underlying mechanism between child maltreatment and risk behaviors among young adults, and conscientiousness serves as a protective factor against violence. Preventive intervention programs and clinicians may benefit from focusing in addressing callous/unemotional traits among youth who report childhood maltreatment experiences as well as targeting conscientiousness as a protective factor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: This study is aimed at examining the mediating role of personality trait of conscientiousness in the relationship between attitudes towards addiction (which is considered to be a barrier to educational achievement and students’ academic performance. Method: As a cross sectional study lying within the range of descriptive studies, 106 students of Guilan University of medical sciences in 2010-2011 were randomly selected as the study sample and responded to the items of subscale conscientiousnessof NEO Personality Inventory and attitude measurement questionnaire toward addiction. Recent acquired total averages of students were considered as academic performance. Findings: In the first step, the academic performance regression was significant aboard tendency towards addiction. In the second step, however, with entry of conscientiousness as a mediator variable , there was observed a significant decrease in the β coefficient of attitude toward addiction and lost its significance. In other words, the mediator variable, consciousness, plays a mediating part in the relationship between tendency to addiction and educational performance. In general, these two variables could moderately explain 12% of the variance in academic performance to make the adjustment. Conclusion: Conscientious people enjoy higher achievement and lower degree often tendency toward addiction due to such factors as self-regulation, perseverance, and resistance against harmful impulses. Therefore,the personality trait of conscientiousness can counteract the detrimental effect of attitude toward addiction on academic performance through performing a protective role.
Rahafar, Arash; Maghsudloo, Mahdis; Farhangnia, Sajedeh; Vollmer, Christian; Randler, Christoph
Previous findings have demonstrated that chronotype (morningness/intermediate/eveningness) is correlated with cognitive functions, that is, people show higher mental performance when they do a test at their preferred time of day. Empirical studies found a relationship between morningness and higher learning achievement at school and university. However, only a few of them controlled for other moderating and mediating variables. In this study, we included chronotype, gender, conscientiousness and test anxiety in a structural equation model (SEM) with grade point average (GPA) as academic achievement outcome. Participants were 158 high school students and results revealed that boys and girls differed in GPA and test anxiety significantly, with girls reporting better grades and higher test anxiety. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between conscientiousness and GPA (r = 0.17) and morningness (r = 0.29), respectively, and a negative correlation between conscientiousness and test anxiety (r = -0.22). The SEM demonstrated that gender was the strongest predictor of academic achievement. Lower test anxiety predicted higher GPA in girls but not in boys. Additionally, chronotype as moderator revealed a significant association between gender and GPA for evening types and intermediate types, while intermediate types showed a significant relationship between test anxiety and GPA. Our results suggest that gender is an essential predictor of academic achievement even stronger than low or absent test anxiety. Future studies are needed to explore how gender and chronotype act together in a longitudinal panel design and how chronotype is mediated by conscientiousness in the prediction of academic achievement.
Adenitire, John Olusegun
It is argued that the current policy of the British Medical Association (BMA) on conscientious objection is not aligned with recent human rights developments. These grant a right to conscientious objection to doctors in many more circumstances than the very few recognised by the BMA. However, this wide-ranging right may be overridden if the refusal to accommodate the conscientious objection is proportionate. It is shown that it is very likely that it is lawful to refuse to accommodate conscientious objections that would result in discrimination of protected groups. It is still uncertain, however, in what particular circumstances the objection may be lawfully refused, if it poses risks to the health and safety of patients. The BMA's policy has not caught up with these human rights developments and ought to be changed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Birjandi, Parviz; Siyyari, Masood
This paper presents the results of an investigation into the role of two personality traits (i.e. Agreeableness and Conscientiousness from the Big Five personality traits) in predicting rating error in the self-assessment and peer-assessment of composition writing. The average self/peer-rating errors of 136 Iranian English major undergraduates…
Carnegie Corporation of New York, 2011
Our nation's educational system has scored many extraordinary successes in raising the level of reading and writing skills in younger children. Yet the pace of literacy improvement in our schools has not kept up with the accelerating demands of the global knowledge economy. In state after state, the testing data mandated by No Child Left Behind…
With consistent downsizing in today's healthcare arena, many nurses are considering alternative careers. Several ONS members have found creative ways to parlay their nursing education and experience into successful careers that are both fulfilling and profitable.
Hughey, Kenneth F.; Hughey, Judith K.
Presents information relevant to school counseling about the implications of work changes. Outlines foundational guides for student success: improving decision making, learning about career paths, acquiring employability skills, and developing lifelong learning attitudes. Describes activities to facilitate career development. (SK)
While a main goal for corporate trainers traditionally has been to train employees to reach organizational goals, many trainers may find their roles expanding. With companies cutting back on staffing and consolidating multiple job roles into single positions, career development has taken on a much larger significance. At forward-thinking…
Wang, Mo; Wanberg, Connie R
This article surveys 100 years of research on career management and retirement, with a primary focus on work published in the Journal of Applied Psychology. Research on career management took off in the 1920s, with most attention devoted to the development and validation of career interest inventories. Over time, research expanded to attend to broader issues such as the predictors and outcomes of career interests and choice; the nature of career success and who achieves it; career transitions and adaptability to change; retirement decision making and adjustment; and bridge employment. In this article, we provide a timeline for the evolution of the career management and retirement literature, review major theoretical perspectives and findings on career management and retirement, and discuss important future research directions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Feetham, Suzanne; Doering, Jennifer J
The purpose of this article is to propose a conceptualization of career development that emphasizes the interdependence between research, practice, and policy. Career cartography applies three decades of career development experience to lay out a systematic, comprehensive, and iterative approach for planning and communicating the outcomes of science at any career stage. To inform practice and policy, nurse researchers must be clear on the intended destination and trajectory of the science, and be skilled in communicating that science and vision to diverse stakeholders. Career cartography builds on the science of cartography, is developed within the context of public and health policy, and is composed of several components, including a destination statement, career mapping, a supportive career cartography team, and use of communication and dissemination strategies. The successful utilization of career cartography may accelerate advancement of individual careers, scientific impact, and the discipline as a whole by guiding nurse researchers to be deliberative in career planning and to communicate successfully the outcomes of research across a wide variety of stakeholders. Career cartography provides a framework for planning a nurse researcher's program of research and scholarship to advance science, policy, and health of the public. Career cartography guides nurse researchers to realize their full potential to advance the health of the public and inform public and health policy in academic and practice environments. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Perry, Sara Jansen; Rubino, Cristina; Witt, L A
In an integrated test of the job demands-resources model and trait activation theory, we predicted that the general job performance of employees who also hold supervisory roles may act as a demand to subordinates, depending on levels of subordinate conscientiousness. In a sample of 313 customer service call centre employees, we found that high-conscientiousness individuals were more likely to experience emotional exhaustion, and low-conscientiousness individuals were less likely as the general job performance of their supervisor improved. The results were curvilinear, such that high-conscientiousness individuals' exhaustion levelled off with very high supervisor performance (two standard deviations above the mean), and low-conscientiousness individuals' exhaustion levelled off as supervisor performance improved from moderate to high. These findings suggest high-conscientiousness employees may efficiently handle demands presented by a low-performing coworker who is their boss, but when performance expectations are high (i.e. high-performing boss), these achievement-oriented employees may direct their resources (i.e. energy and time) towards performance-related efforts at the expense of their well-being. Conversely, low-conscientiousness employees suffer when paired with a low-performing boss, but benefit from a supervisor who demonstrates at least moderate job performance.
Grant W Edmonds
Full Text Available Leukocyte telomere length (LTL shortens with age, and is a prospective marker of mortality related to cardiovascular disease. Many health behaviors and social environmental factors have been found to be associated with LTL. Several of these are also associated with conscientiousness, a dispositional personality trait. Conscientiousness is a propensity to be planful, adhere to social norms, and inhibit pre-potent responses. Like LTL, conscientiousness is prospectively related to mortality, possibly through cumulative effects on health over the life course via multiple pathways. As a result, we hypothesized that childhood levels of conscientiousness would predict LTL prospectively in adulthood. We selected a sample of 60 women in the Hawaii Personality and Health Cohort; 30 described by their teachers as high on conscientiousness in childhood and 30 described as low on the trait. Dried blood spot samples collected in adulthood 40 years later were used as sources of DNA for the LTL assay. Conscientiousness was associated with longer LTL (p = .02. Controlling for age did not account for this association. Controlling for education and physiological dysregulation partially attenuated the association, and the effect remained significant when accounting for differences in LTL across cultural groups. These results represent the first evidence that childhood personality prospectively predicts LTL 40 years later in adulthood. Our findings would be consistent with a mediation hypothesis whereby conscientiousness predicts life paths and trajectories of health that are reflected in rates of LTL erosion across the lifespan.
De Zordo, Silvia
This article discusses the issue of abortion stigma and conscientious objection based on the main results of a qualitative study carried out in hospitals providing abortion care in Italy and Spain (Catalunya). This study was aimed at examining obstetricians-gynaecologists' experiences and attitudes to abortion, or voluntary interruption of pregnancy. The abortion law is relatively liberal in these two Catholic countries (much more liberal in Spain than in Italy). However, abortion still is strongly stigmatized in the public debate on human and reproductive rights, whose focus has shifted, over the last decade, from women's rights to the "rights of the conceived". Based on a study carried out in Italy in 2011-2012 and in Spain in 2013- 2015, this article discusses the impact of the stigmatization of abortion on the quality of obstetricians-gynaecologists' training and on their professional choices concerning conscientious objection and shows how physicians contribute to reproduce abortion stigma in the two countries.
Davis, Shoni; Schrader, Vivian; Belcheir, Marcia J
Considering a growing nurse shortage and the need for qualified nurses to handle increasingly complex patient care situations, how ethical beliefs are influenced and the consequences that can occur when moral conflicts of right and wrong arise need to be explored. The aim of this study was to explore influencers identified by nurses as having the most impact on the development of their ethical beliefs and whether these influencers might impact levels of moral distress and the potential for conscientious objection. Nurses whose ethical beliefs were most influenced by their religious beliefs scored higher in levels of moral distress and demonstrated greater differences in areas of conscientious objection than did nurses who developed their ethical beliefs from influencers such as family values, life and work experience, political views or the professional code of ethics.
The m aintenance of the INTOSAI GOV standardssystem, which show by itself guidance from a conscientious state financial management in the field of internal control and standards of record-keeping, is generalized. The directions of the use of risk and control model COSO are determinated for the financial management of state sector in part of authentication of sources of risk, aims and duties of organization. The measures are worked out on introduction of standards of INTOSAI GOVand models of C...
Baker, Levi R; McNulty, James K
Should intimates respond to their interpersonal mistakes with self-criticism or with self-compassion? Although it is reasonable to expect self-compassion to benefit relationships by promoting self-esteem, it is also reasonable to expect self-compassion to hurt relationships by removing intimates' motivation to correct their interpersonal mistakes. Two correlational studies, 1 experiment, and 1 longitudinal study demonstrated that whether self-compassion helps or hurts relationships depends on the presence versus absence of dispositional sources of the motivation to correct interpersonal mistakes. Among men, the implications of self-compassion were moderated by conscientiousness. Among men high in conscientiousness, self-compassion was associated with greater motivation to correct interpersonal mistakes (Studies 1 and 3), observations of more constructive problem-solving behaviors (Study 2), reports of more accommodation (Study 3), and fewer declines in marital satisfaction that were mediated by decreases in interpersonal problem severity (Study 4); among men low in conscientiousness, self-compassion was associated with these outcomes in the opposite direction. Among women, in contrast, likely because women are inherently more motivated than men to preserve their relationships for cultural and/or biological reasons, self-compassion was never harmful to the relationship. Instead, women's self-compassion was positively associated with the motivation to correct their interpersonal mistakes (Study 1) and changes in relationship satisfaction (Study 4), regardless of conscientiousness. Accordingly, theoretical descriptions of the implications of self-promoting thoughts for relationships may be most complete to the extent that they consider the presence versus absence of other sources of the motivation to correct interpersonal mistakes. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.
Baker, Levi; McNulty, James K.
Should intimates respond to their interpersonal mistakes with self-criticism or with self-compassion? Although it is reasonable to expect self-compassion to benefit relationships by promoting self-esteem, it is also reasonable to expect self-compassion to hurt relationships by removing intimates’ motivation to correct their interpersonal mistakes. Two correlational studies, 1 experiment, and 1 longitudinal study demonstrated that whether self-compassion helps or hurts relationships depends on the presence versus absence of dispositional sources of the motivation to correct interpersonal mistakes. Among men, the implications of self-compassion were moderated by conscientiousness. Among men high in conscientiousness, self-compassion was associated with greater motivation to correct interpersonal mistakes (Studies 1 and 3), observations of more-constructive problem-solving behaviors (Study 2), reports of more accommodation (Study 3), and fewer declines in marital satisfaction that were mediated by decreases in interpersonal problem severity (Study 4); among men low in conscientiousness, self-compassion was associated with these outcomes in the opposite direction. Among women, in contrast, likely because women are inherently more motivated than men to preserve their relationships for cultural and/or biological reasons, self-compassion was never harmful to the relationship. Instead, women’s self-compassion was positively associated with the motivation to correct their interpersonal mistakes (Study 1) and changes in relationship satisfaction (Study 4), regardless of conscientiousness. Accordingly, theoretical descriptions of the implications of self-promoting thoughts for relationships may be most complete to the extent that they consider the presence versus absence of other sources of the motivation to correct interpersonal mistakes. PMID:21280964
Nes, Lise Solberg; Carlson, Charles R.; Crofford, Leslie J.; de Leeuw, Reny; Segerstrom, Suzanne C.
Ability to self-regulate varies and self-regulatory strength is a limited source that can be depleted or fatigued. Research on the impact of individual differences on self-regulatory capacity is still scarce, and this study aimed to examine whether personality factors such as dispositional optimism, conscientiousness, and self-consciousness can impact or buffer self-regulatory fatigue. Participants were patients diagnosed with chronic multi-symptom illnesses (N = 50), or pain free matched con...
Neureiter, Mirjam; Traut-Mattausch, Eva
The impostor phenomenon (IP) is increasingly recognized as an important psychological construct for career development, yet empirical research on how it functions in this domain is sparse. We investigated in what way impostor feelings are related to the fear of failure, fear of success, self-esteem, and the career-development aspects career planning, career striving, and the motivation to lead. We conducted two studies with independent samples of university students (N = 212) in a laboratory study and working professionals (N = 110) in an online study. In both samples, impostor feelings were fostered by fear of failure, fear of success, and low self-esteem and they decreased career planning, career striving, and the motivation to lead. A path analysis showed that impostor feelings had the most negative effects on career planning and career striving in students and on the motivation to lead in working professionals. The results suggest that the IP is relevant to career development in different ways at different career stages. Practical implications and interventions to reduce the negative effects of impostor feelings on career development are discussed.
Full Text Available The impostor phenomenon is increasingly recognized as an important psychological construct for career development, yet empirical research on how it functions in this domain is sparse. We investigated in what way impostor feelings are related to the fear of failure, fear of success, self-esteem, and the career-development aspects career planning, career striving, and the motivation to lead. We conducted two studies with independent samples of university students (N = 212 in a laboratory study and working professionals (N = 110 in an online study. In both samples, impostor feelings were fostered by fear of failure, fear of success, and self-esteem and they decreased career planning, career striving, and motivation to lead. A path analysis showed that impostor feelings had the most negative effects on career planning and career striving in students and on the motivation to lead in working professionals. The results suggest that the impostor phenomenon is relevant to career development in different ways at different career stages. Practical implications and interventions to reduce the negative effects of impostor feelings on career development are discussed.
ACT is committed to working with career and technical educators in order to prepare students to meet the standards of the high-performance workplace. In short, prepare them to be career- and job-ready. This commitment is a reflection of ACT's mission: "helping people achieve education and workplace success." After devoting more than two decades of…
Gifford, James; Snyder, Mary Grace; Cuddapah, Jennifer Locraft
A close look at one professional's career change into teaching illustrates unique challenges and qualities, showing in stark relief what makes the induction smoother and the experience more successful. This article presents the story of a novice career changer teacher that illustrates their unique problems and dispositions, as well as…
Neault, Roberta A.; Pickerell, Deirdre A.
For couples with two professional careers, juggling work and home responsibilities has never been easy. However, in today's global economy, where local job opportunities may be harder to find, new challenges are emerging. Is it possible to have a successful career without sacrificing personal satisfaction, life balance, or relationships? A…
Full Text Available Previous research on work engagement has mostly examined the relationship of personal resources and work characteristics with work engagement. In this study, the authors focus on the moderating role of one work characteristic, namely workplace mistreatment (i.e., abusive supervision and incivility, on the relationship between a personal resource (i.e., conscientiousness and work engagement dimensions. Using a convenience sample of employees from various organizations, the authors found support for the hypotheses that abusive supervision and incivility moderated the relationship between conscientiousness and work engagement. Specifically, the relationship between conscientiousness and two work engagement dimensions (dedication and absorption is weaker for employees experiencing abusive supervision, whereas the relationship between conscientiousness and two work engagement dimensions (vigor and dedication is weaker for employees experiencing incivility.
Chen, Yiwei; Peng, Yisheng; Ma, Xiaodong; Dong, Xinqi
The present study examined whether individuals' personality traits, Neuroticism and Conscientiousness, moderated the relationship between perceived stress and depressive symptoms among U.S. Chinese older adults. Data analysis was based on the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE). Three thousand one hundred and fifty-nine Chinese adults aged 60 years and older participated in the PINE study. They completed scales that assessed their personality (ie, Neuroticism and Conscientiousness of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory), perceived stress (the Chinese Perceived Stress Scale), and depressive symptoms (the Patient Health Questionnaire). Perceived stress was positively related to depressive symptoms among U.S. Chinese older adults. No moderation effects were found for Neuroticism. Conscientiousness significantly moderated the perceived stress-depressive symptom relationship. The positive relationship between perceived stress and depressive symptoms was weaker for people who were higher in Conscientiousness than those who were lower in Conscientiousness. Conscientiousness mitigated the stress-depressive symptom relationship among U.S. Chinese older adults. Future research is needed to identify the psychological and sociocultural profiles of individuals who show stress resilience and those who are vulnerable. Social services and psychological interventions are needed to promote health and well-being among U.S. Chinese older adults. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Conscientious objection in health care is a form of compromise whereby health care practitioners can refuse to take part in safe, legal, and beneficial medical procedures to which they have a moral opposition (for instance abortion). Arguments in defense of conscientious objection in medicine are usually based on the value of respect for the moral integrity of practitioners. I will show that philosophical arguments in defense of conscientious objection based on respect for such moral integrity are extremely weak and, if taken seriously, lead to consequences that we would not (and should not) accept. I then propose that the best philosophical argument that defenders of conscientious objection in medicine can consistently deploy is one that appeals to (some form of) either moral relativism or subjectivism. I suggest that, unless either moral relativism or subjectivism is a valid theory--which is exactly what many defenders of conscientious objection (as well as many others) do not think--the role of moral integrity and conscientious objection in health care should be significantly downplayed and left out of the range of ethically relevant considerations.
Hughes, Amber N.; Gibbons, Melinda M.
The purpose of this study was to examine the career development of underprepared college students using relational career theory. Specifically, the constructs of family influence, locus of control, and career decision-making self-efficacy were explored as they relate to perceived success in college. Significant correlations between external locus…
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Kuijpers, Marinka; Scheerens, Jaap
Career development gains new meaning in the context of employability demands in a knowledge economy. In this context, increased mobility, a dynamic work environment, and an increased level of career support from employers are seen as characteristics of a modern career. All of these characteristics
This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in airlines. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the airline industry, including salaries, working conditions, job requirements, and projected job opportunities. In the main part of the booklet, the following 22 job…
Zampas, Christina; Andión-Ibañez, Ximena
The practice of conscientious objection often arises in the area of individuals refusing to fulfil compulsory military service requirements and is based on the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion as protected by national, international and regional human rights law. The practice of conscientious objection also arises in the field of health care, when individual health care providers or institutions refuse to provide certain health services based on religious, moral or philosophical objections. The use of conscientious objection by health care providers to reproductive health care services, including abortion, contraceptive prescriptions, and prenatal tests, among other services is a growing phenomena throughout Europe. However, despite recent progress from the European Court of Human Rights on this issue (RR v. Poland, 2011), countries and international and regional bodies generally have failed to comprehensively and effectively regulate this practice, denying many women reproductive health care services they are legally entitled to receive. The Italian Ministry of Health reported that in 2008 nearly 70% of gynaecologists in Italy refuse to perform abortions on moral grounds. It found that between 2003 and 2007 the number of gynaecologists invoking conscientious objection in their refusal to perform an abortion rose from 58.7 percent to 69.2 percent. Italy is not alone in Europe, for example, the practice is prevalent in Poland, Slovakia, and is growing in the United Kingdom. This article outlines the international and regional human rights obligations and medical standards on this issue, and highlights some of the main gaps in these standards. It illustrates how European countries regulate or fail to regulate conscientious objection and how these regulations are working in practice, including examples of jurisprudence from national level courts and cases before the European Court of Human Rights. Finally, the article will provide recommendations
So often, people assume that TSA is only the Transportation Security Administration, but another very important TSA is the Technology Student Association, an extracurricular organization that uses competitive events and leadership to help develop science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) skills and knowledge in its membership. In this…
This document contains four symposium papers on career issues in human resource development (HRD). "Are Careers What They Used To Be: A Factor Analysis of Schein's Career Orientations Inventory" (Gerri Mukri, Sharon Confessore) is a statistical analysis of Schein's Career Orientations Inventory that finds the inventory to be a…
Eveslage, Sonja A.; And Others
People and relationships that have helped faculty to develop their careers were studied, along with the impact of these relationships on faculty careers. Successful faculty were asked to: identify their career helpers, assess the relative impact of various career helping relationships on their professional identities, and describe the…
Yates, Julia; Hooley, Tristram; Bagri, Kiren Kaur
Empirical evidence attests the impact that career image has on objective career success, yet little is known of how career practitioners conceptualise and operationalise this information. This article presents the quantitative findings of an online survey of career practitioners (n = 399, 74% female, 89% white and 75% from the U.K.) exploring…
Leikas, Sointu; Ilmarinen, Ville-Juhani
Experience sampling studies on Big Five-related behavior show that people display the whole spectrum of each trait in their daily behavior, and that desirable Big Five states-especially state Extraversion-are related to positive mood. However, other research lines suggest that extraverted and conscientious behavior may be mentally depleting. The present research examined this possibility by extending the time frame of the measured personality processes. A 12-day experience sampling study (N = 48; observations = 2,328) measured Big Five states, mood, stress, and fatigue five times a day. Extraverted and conscientious behavior were concurrently related to positive mood and lower fatigue, but to higher fatigue after a 3-hour delay. These relations were not moderated by personality traits. The relation between extraverted behavior and delayed fatigue was mediated by the number of people the person had encountered. Whether the person had a goal mediated the relation between conscientious behavior and delayed fatigue. Extraverted and conscientious behavior predict mental depletion after a 3-hour delay. The results help reconcile previous findings regarding the consequences of state Extraversion and provide novel information about the consequences of state Conscientiousness. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The main objective of this diploma thesis is to outline various theories of work motivation, career growth and their practical application in sales team management within a sales organization. In the theoretical part the paper deals with the definition of essential terms including but not limited to motivation, work motivation, career and work career. Moreover, it focuses on selected motivational theories, basic criteria and current principles of managing the work career, career growth and de...
L. J. Van Vuuren
Full Text Available Previously the authors reported on a study in which an attempt was made at defining and measuring the construct career resilience (Fourie & Van Vuuren, 1998. The present article continues this investigation by reporting on the relationship between career resilience and career anchors, as defined in Scheins (1975; 1978; 1990; 1992 career anchor model. The aim of the study was to determine whether career anchor patterning could potentially inhibit or facilitate individuals' levels of career resilience. The "Career Resilience Questionnaire" (CRQ (Fourie & Van Vuuren, 1998 together with Scheins (1990 "Career Orientations Inventory" (COI were administered to 352 skilled employees. The findings regarding the statistical relationship between the two constructs are discussed. Opsomming Loopbaanankers en loopbaangehardheid: supplementere konstrukte? In n vorige publikasie van Fourie en Van Vuuren (1998 is die bevindinge aangaande die afbakening en meting van die konstruk, loopbaangehardheid, gerapporteer. In die huidige artikel word die ondersoek voortgesit met 'n beskrywing van die verwantskap tussen loopbaangehardheid en loopbaanankers, soos gedefinieer in die loopbaanankermodel van Schein (1975; 1978; 1990; 1992. Die doel met die studie was om te bepaal of die mate van loopbaanankerontplooiing individuele vlakke van loopbaangehardheid potensieel fasiliteer ofinhibeer. Die "Career Resilience Questionnaire" (CRQ (Fourie & Van Vuuren, 1998 is tesame met die "Career Orientation Inventory" (COI (Schein, 1990 op 352 geskoolde werknemers geadministreer. Die bevindinge betreffende die statistiese verwantskap tussen die twee konstrukte word bespreek.
In today's rapid paced global environment, broadening career options for career development depends on successful cross-functional career navigation. For scientists and engineers, this means developing a diversity of skills in addition to a strong technical foundation. Fortunately, companies use cross-functional teams as one of the key tools for rapidly developing and commercializing products and services. Participation on these teams carries with it the additional benefit of allowing an individual to develop new skills, and to gain valuable expertise in areas that are critical to the growth of their company, their industry and, most importantly, their career. This talk will outline some of the important cross functional skills that can propel your career ahead and ways in which you can take charge of your career mapping and enhance your value and employability.
Salas, Sofía P; Besio, Mauricio; Bórquez Estefó, Gladys; Salinas, Rodrigo A; Valenzuela, Carlos Y; Micolich, Constanza; Novoa Sotta, Fernando; Bernier Villarroel, Lioniel; Montt M, Julio; Misseroni Raddatz, Adelio
The Chilean bill that regulates abortion for three cases (Bulletin Nº 9895-11) includes the possibility that health professionals may manifest their conscientious objection (CO) to perform this procedure. Due to the broad impact that the issue of C O had, the Ethics Department of the Chilean College of Physicians considered important to review this concept and its ethical and legal basis, especially in the field of sexual and reproductive health. In the present document, we define the practical limit s of CO, both for the proper fulfillment of the medical profession obligations, and for the due respect and non-discrimination that the professional objector deserves. We analyze the denial of some health institutions to perform abortions if it is legalize d, and we end with recommendations adjusted to the Chilean reality. Specifically, we recognize the right to conscientious objection that all physicians who directly participate in a professional act have. But we a lso recognize that physicians have ineludib le obligations towards their patients, including the obligation to inform about the existence of this service, how to access to it and -as set out in our code of ethics- to ensure that another colleague will continue attending the patient.
Huang, Jason L; Cropanzano, Russell; Li, Andrew; Shao, Ping; Zhang, Xin-An; Li, Yuhui
Researchers have paid limited attention to what makes organizational authority figures decide to treat their employees either justly or unjustly. Drawing from the actor-focused model of justice, as well as the stereotype content model, we argue that employee conscientiousness and agreeableness can impact the extent to which supervisors adhere to normative rules for distributive, procedural, informational, and interpersonal justice, as a result of supervisors' evaluations of their employees' effort and their liking of the employees. Supervisory compliance with justice rules may, in turn, impact the extent to which employees judge themselves to be treated either justly or unjustly. We tested these possibilities in 3 studies. In Study 1, we utilized a meta-analysis to demonstrate positive relationships between employees' conscientiousness, agreeableness, and their justice perceptions. In Study 2, we conducted 3 experiments to test the causal relationship between employee personality and supervisor intentions to comply with justice rules. In Study 3, we conducted an employee-supervisor dyadic field survey to examine the entire mediation model. Results are discussed in terms of the potential roles that both employees and supervisors may play in shaping employees' justice perceptions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Laboratory classes in which animals are seriously harmed or killed, or which use cadavers or body parts from ethically debatable sources, are controversial within veterinary and other biomedical curricula. Along with the development of more humane teaching methods, this has increasingly led to objections to participation in harmful animal use. Such cases raise a host of issues of importance to universities, including those pertaining to curricular design and course accreditation, and compliance with applicable animal welfare and antidiscrimination legislation. Accordingly, after detailed investigation, some universities have implemented formal policies to guide faculty responses to such cases, and to ensure that decisions are consistent and defensible from legal and other policy perspectives. However, many other institutions have not yet done so, instead dealing with such cases on an ad hoc basis as they arise. Among other undesirable outcomes this can lead to insufficient student and faculty preparation, suboptimal and inconsistent responses, and greater likelihood of legal challenge. Accordingly, this paper provides pertinent information about the evolution of conscientious objection policies within Australian veterinary schools, and about the jurisprudential bases for conscientious objection within Australia and the USA. It concludes with recommendations for the development and implementation of policy within this arena.
Mike, Anissa; King, Hannah; Oltmanns, Thomas F; Jackson, Joshua J
Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is defined as being overly controlling, rigid, orderly, and perfectionistic. At a definitional level, OCPD would appear to be highly related to the trait of Conscientiousness. The current study attempts to disentangle this relationship by examining the relationship at a facet level using multiple forms of OCPD assessment and using multiple reports of OCPD and personality. In addition, the relationship between OCPD and each Big Five trait was examined. The study relied on a sample of 1,630 adults who completed self-reports of personality and OCPD. Informants and interviewers also completed reports on the targets. Bifactor models were constructed in order to disentangle variance attributable to each facet and its general factors. Across four sets of analyses, individuals who scored higher on OCPD tended to be more orderly and achievement striving, and more set in their ways, but less generally conscientious. OCPD was also related to select facets under each Big Five trait. Notably, findings indicated that OCPD has a strong interpersonal component and that OCPD tendencies may interfere with one's relationships with others. Findings suggest that OCPD's relationship with personality can be more precisely explained through its relationships with specific tendencies rather than general, higher-order traits. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cabal, Luisa; Olaya, Monica Arango; Robledo, Valentina Montoya
Conscientious Objection or conscientious refusal (CO) in access to reproductive health care is at the center of current legal debates worldwide. In countries such as the US and the UK, constitutional dilemmas surrounding CO in the context of reproductive health services reveal inadequate policy frameworks for balancing CO rights with women's rights to access contraception and abortion. The Colombian Constitutional Court's holistic jurisprudence regarding CO standards has applied international human rights norms so as to not only protect women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights, but to also introduce clear limits for the exercise of CO in health care settings. This paper reviews Latin American lines of regulation in Argentina, Uruguay, and Mexico City to argue that the Colombian Court's jurisprudence offers a strong guidance for future comprehensive policy approaches that aim to effectively balance tensions between CO and women's reproductive rights. Copyright © 2014 Cabal, Olaya, Robledo. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Since 2007, when Mexico City decriminalized abortion during the first trimester, a debate has been taking place regarding abortion and the right to conscientious objection (CO). Many people argue that, since the provision of abortions (or "legal terminations of pregnancy" as they are called under Mexico City's law) is now a statutory duty of healthcare personnel there can be no place for "conscientious objection." Others claim that, even if such an objection were to be allowed, it should not be seen as a right, since talk about a right to CO may lead to a slippery slope where we may end up recognizing a right to disobey the law. In this paper, I argue that there is a right to CO and that this may be justified through the notions of autonomy and integrity, which a liberal democracy should respect. However, it cannot be an absolute right, and in the case of abortion, it conflicts with women's reproductive rights. Therefore, CO should be carefully regulated so that it does not obstruct the exercise of women's reproductive rights. Regulation should address questions about who is entitled to object, how such objection should take place, and what can legitimately be objected to.
Magidson, Jessica F; Roberts, Brent W; Collado-Rodriguez, Anahi; Lejuez, C W
Considerable evidence suggests that personality traits may be changeable, raising the possibility that personality traits most linked to health problems can be modified with intervention. A growing body of research suggests that problematic personality traits may be altered with behavioral intervention using a bottom-up approach. That is, by targeting core behaviors that underlie personality traits with the goal of engendering new, healthier patterns of behavior that, over time, become automatized and manifest in changes in personality traits. Nevertheless, a bottom-up model for changing personality traits is somewhat diffuse and requires clearer integration of theory and relevant interventions to enable real clinical application. As such, this article proposes a set of guiding principles for theory-driven modification of targeted personality traits using a bottom-up approach, focusing specifically on targeting the trait of conscientiousness using a relevant behavioral intervention, Behavioral Activation (BA), considered within the motivational framework of expectancy value theory (EVT). We conclude with a real case example of the application of BA to alter behaviors counter to conscientiousness in a substance-dependent patient, highlighting the EVT principles most relevant to the approach and the importance and viability of a theoretically driven, bottom-up approach to changing personality traits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Simon B. Goldberg
Full Text Available Questions regarding the replicability of key findings in the self-regulation literature (e.g., ego-depletion effect have led some to call for a more thorough evaluation of commonly used measures of self-control. The isometric handgrip task is one such measure. The current study examined correlates of handgrip persistence using data drawn from a larger randomized controlled trial. Handgrip persistence was measured both at baseline and following a physical stressor (cold pressor test. Correlations were examined between handgrip performance and personality traits theoretically closely linked with self-regulation: conscientiousness and neuroticism. Baseline handgrip performance was correlated with several measures drawn from the nomological network of self-regulation including measures of trait neuroticism, mindfulness, anxiety sensitivity, perceived stress, and positive affect, although not with trait conscientiousness. Baseline handgrip predicted aversiveness experienced during the physical stressor, while changes in handgrip performance tracked changes in implicit and explicit negative affect (i.e., affective reactivity. These associations were largely maintained when controlling for variables highly correlated with overall grip strength (i.e., gender, height, and weight, although correlations separated by gender suggest associations were primarily driven by female participants. Results support future research using the handgrip task.
Commercial nuclear power utilities are under pressure to effectively recruit and retain licensed reactor operators in light of poor candidate training completion rates and recent candidate failures on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license exam. One candidate failure can cost a utility over $400,000, making the successful licensing of new operators a critical path to operational excellence. This study was designed to discover if the NEO-PI-3, a 5-factor measure of personality, could improve selection in nuclear utilities by identifying personality factors that predict license candidate success. Two large U.S. commercial nuclear power corporations provided potential participant contact information and candidate results on the 2014 NRC exam from their nuclear power units nation-wide. License candidates who participated (n = 75) completed the NEO-PI-3 personality test and results were compared to 3 outcomes on the NRC exam: written exam, simulated operating exam, and overall exam result. Significant correlations were found between several personality factors and both written and operating exam outcomes on the NRC exam. Further, a regression analysis indicated that personality factors, particularly Conscientiousness, predicted simulated operating exam scores. The results of this study may be used to support the use of the NEO-PI-3 to improve operator selection as an addition to the current selection protocol. Positive social change implications from this study include support for the use of a personality measure by utilities to improve their return-on-investment in candidates and by individual candidates to avoid career failures. The results of this study may also positively impact the public by supporting the safe and reliable operation of commercial nuclear power utilities in the United States.
An effective midlife career change is challenging to bring about successfully. Identity and its relationship to work are key factors. A three-point plan to a successful career change includes the following: know thyself, consult trusted advisors, and think big. (JOW)
Holtschlag, Claudia; Morales, Carlos E.; Masuda, Aline D.; Maydeu-Olivares, Alberto
Although career success is an issue of global concern, few studies have examined the antecedents of career success across cultures. In this study we test whether the relationship between individuals' self-enhancement values (achievement and power) and hierarchical status differs across 29 countries and whether this variation depends on countries'…
Full Text Available In this article we propose to study occupational careers with historical data by using multilevel growth models. Historical career data are often characterized by a lack of information on the timing of occupational changes and by different numbers of observations of occupations per individual. Growth models can handle these specificities, whereas standard methods, such as event history analyses can't. We illustrate the use of growth models by studying career success of men and women, using data from the Historical Sample of the Netherlands. The results show that the method is applicable to male careers, but causes trouble when analyzing female careers.
Marija Turnšek Mikačič
Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: We employed a qualitative approach to study the effects of career planning education, perceiving it as an effective way to gain a deeper understanding of introductorily-organised career education. Purpose: We researched important areas to formulate a questionnaire for quantitative analysis. Method: We used a qualitative research approach in order to develop a theoretical framework for the exploration, interpretation and identification of the impact of education on career plans, on the changing attitudes towards careers, the raising of self-esteem and perception of personal growth. We used Neuro-linguistic programming as a tool to develop and achieve personal excellence within the career planning. Results: We constructed a paradigmatic model and developed the final theory. By means of qualitative analysis, we identified the elements of design criteria for the construction of the questionnaire; we measured the effects of education on career plans. Organization: The findings of the research will prove useful in personal management and career management in the process of planning and organizing the promotion of individuals within the organizations in accordance with the needs of those organizations. Originality: A career plan as a building block of personal growth, based on the model of career education with the in-built elements and tools of NLP, has been confirmed by the most recent studies in neuroscience. This represents a novelty, and, therefore, this study offers a genuine contribution, and is an indicator of contemporary knowledge, based on the results of the research. Limitations/Future Research: The model of career education and the results of this study open new directions for further research of the influence of career planning on the organisation of companies and their success, which is the phase of the study which was not carried out.
Full Text Available The main problem of the study was to examine the characteristics of sports career drop outs of young elite sportswomen and their adaptation to the post-sport life. The sample included 20 ex-young elite sportswomen, who had brought their successful sport careers to an end before the age of 19. We used a modified interview about sports career termination (Cecić Erpič, 1998 for the investigation of the characteristics of their sports careers. To examine the caracteristics of sport careers we used frequency analysis and cluster analysis. The results showed that the participants mostly stated more than one reason for the termination of their career. The most common reasons for career termination were: lack of motivation, bad relations with trainers or co-competitors and dedication to school or education. After the end of a sports career most of the young sportswomen stayed actively in touch with sport, either as trainers, judges, or they remained engaged in sports for recreation.
Yates, Julia; Hooley, Tristram; Kaur Bagri, Kiren
Empirical evidence attests the impact that career image has on objective career success, yet little is known of how career practitioners conceptualise and operationalise this information. This article presents the quantitative findings of an online survey of career practitioners (n = 399, 74% female, 89% white and 75% from the U.K.) exploring their attitudes and practices towards issues of appearance and attractiveness. Career practitioners who participated in this survey acknowledged that be...
... in Dentistry e-mail Print Share Careers in Dentistry A dental education opens up a world of ... accredited training programs in your area . Careers in Dentistry Be a Dentist General Dentistry Dental Specialties Dental ...
Describes career changes and retirement choices made by outgoing "career" superintendents. Choices ranged from teaching and consulting to administering philanthropic organizations and launching a charter-boat business. (MLH)
US Agency for International Development — CareerConnector is USAID's premiere recruiting tool. It is powered by Monster and integrated with www.usajobs.gov. CareerConnector tracks the progression of a...
Sinclair, Jennifer; Cuthbert, Denise; Barnacle, Robyn
This article begins the work of examining what kind of doctoral experiences positively influence researcher development, and what other attributes may contribute to a successful research career. It reports preliminary findings from the analysis of survey responses by a sample of successful mid-career researchers. Positive doctoral experiences and…
Full Text Available Based on a sample of 350 employees in the telecommunication and telecommunication, we obtained empirical evidence suggesting that while individuals high on conscientiousness tended to react more positively to job scope, individuals high on negative affinity tended to react less positively. Job scope was defined as the extent to which a job required the jobholder to be mentally and physically involved to get it done effectively. Typically, a job characterized by a high job scope would be non-repetitive, would need a great deal of independent thought/action and training, would entail the job holder to keep track of his/her progress, and others. The affirmative results obtained in regard of the moderating roles of personality factors in the present study suggested that job design researchers should further explore individuals’ personality differences in response to job scope.
Duplisea, Eric A.
America's earliest schools taught career awareness and job skills, but for 200 years it was a speciality curriculum--cultivating a classical heritage predominated. Recently the hard sell message is that schooling and credentialism ensure entry into the "successful life". Vocational educators must become leaders, explode this myth, and redefine…
Die Verschränkung von Arbeitskultur, beruflichem Erfolg und Geschlecht in technik- und naturwissenschaftlichen Berufen The Entanglement of Work Culture, Career Success, and Gender in Technical and Natural Scientific Professions
Full Text Available In dem Band geht die Autorin Dr. Yvonne Haffner, Wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin am Institut für Soziologie der Universität Darmstadt, den strukturellen Barrieren für eine gleichberechtigte Karriere von Frauen und Männern im Beruf nach. Dabei werden vor allem gängige Leistungskriterien in den Blick genommen und die verbreitete Vorstellung von der auf individuellen Leistungen beruhenden Karriere hinterfragt. Die Ergebnisse verdeutlichen, dass karriererelevante Anforderungen nur in relativ geringem Maße an objektivierbare Leistungskriterien gebunden sind und impliziten, wenig objektivierbaren Kriterien eine besondere Bedeutung für den Karriereverlauf zukommt. Diese impliziten Kriterien beziehen sich auf die moderne Arbeitskultur mit ihrem hohen Verfügbarkeitsanspruch, der sich wiederum geschlechtsspezifisch unterschiedlich auswirkt.This author of this book, Dr. Yvonne Haffner, research assistant at the Institute for Sociology at the University of Darmstadt, inspects the structural barriers for equal career opportunities for women and men in the work force. She examines the general criteria for achievement as well as the widespread idea that careers are dependant on individual performance. The results merely underscore the fact that demands relevant to the career are rarely bound to objective performance criteria. Conversely, implied criteria, which are rarely objective, have taken on important meaning for career paths. These implied criteria are often related to modern working cultures with high demands in terms of availability. This has a varied gender-specific effect.
Barnatt, Joan; Gahlsdorf Terrell, Dianna; D'Souza, Lisa Andries; Jong, Cindy; Cochran-Smith, Marilyn; Viesca, Kara Mitchell; Gleeson, Ann Marie; McQuillan, Patrick; Shakman, Karen
Career decisions of four teachers are explored through the concept of figured worlds in this qualitative, longitudinal case study. Participants were purposefully chosen for similarity at entry, with a range of career trajectories over time. Teacher career paths included remaining in one school, repeated changes in schools, attrition after…
Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.
This resource is designed to provide Ohio labor market information for use with advisory committees to stimulate and inform dialogue about the current evaluation and future planning of programs. It provides reports for 23 career fields in 6 career clusters. Each report highlights careers and occupations in the field and answers these questions:…
Gardner, Diane L.
A longitudinal, repeated-measures descriptive survey used to measure career commitment and its relationship to turnover and work performance in 320 newly employed registered nurses at one hospital found that career commitment is not a stable phenomenon. The direct association between career commitment and turnover and with job performance is weak.…
Full Text Available A review of several studies of teachers’ career motivation since Bulgarian Renaissance till nowadays is presented in this paper. 203 Bulgarian teachers in public schools were studied by means of a questionnaire created by Slavchov & Stoyanova (2007 measuring career motivational types, according to Moses’ typology (2003. The career motivational type of Authenticity seekers was the most preferred by the studied Bulgarian teachers, followed by Personal developers and Stability seekers. Career builders as a career motivational type was minor career motivator, the least preferred one by Bulgarian teachers. A lot of significant positive correlations existed between teachers’ career motivational types. Some social-demographic factors (such as gender, specialty, work experience, and age differentiated teachers’ career motivators. The type of Autonomy seekers was more preferred career motivator by male teachers than by female teachers in correspondence to the traditional stereotypes for men. Longer teachers’ work experience and teachers’ advance in age were related to more frequency of Stability seekers, but less frequency of Novelty seekers career motivator. Preschool and elementary school teachers preferred more strongly Authenticity seekers as a career motivator than teachers in natural sciences and mathematics. Establishing major career motivators for teachers may be related to opportunities for improvement of performance and work satisfaction.
Powers, Donald E.; Kaufman, James C.
The objective of the study reported here was to explore the relationship of Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) General Test scores to selected personality traits--conscientiousness, rationality, ingenuity, quickness, creativity, and depth. A sample of 342 GRE test takers completed short personality inventory scales for each trait. Analyses…
Kok, Almar A L; Plaisier, Inger; Smit, Johannes H; Penninx, Brenda W J H
High numbers of employees are coping with affective disorders. At the same time, ambitiousness, achievement striving and a strong sense of personal control and responsibility are personality characteristics that are nowadays regarded as key to good work functioning, whereas social work circumstances tend to be neglected. However, it is largely unkown how personality characteristics and work circumstances affect work functioning when facing an affective disorder. Given the high burden of affective disorders on occupational health, we investigate these issues in the context of affective disorders and absenteeism from work. The principal aim of this paper is to examine whether particular personality characteristics that reflect self-governance (conscientiousness and mastery) and work circumstances (demands, control, support) influence the impact of affective disorders on long-term absenteeism (>10 working days). Baseline and 1-year follow-up data from 1249 participants in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) in 2004-2006 was employed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed, including interaction effects between depressive, anxiety, and comorbid disorders and personality and work circumstances. In general, mastery and conscientiousness increased nor diminished odds of subsequent long-term absenteeism, whereas higher job support significantly decreased these odds. Interaction effects showed that the impact of affective disorders on absenteeism was stronger for highly conscientious employees and for employees who experienced high job demands. Affective disorders may particularly severely affect work functioning of employees who are highly conscientious or face high psychological job demands. Adjusting working conditions to their individual needs may prevent excessive work absence.
Linn, Brooke A; Burton, Samantha J; Shepler, Brian M
To use parts of the APhA Career Pathway Evaluation Program for Pharmacy Professionals in a career development laboratory designed to provide students with relevant information that will help them prepare for successful careers across the profession of pharmacy. Students enrolled in the second professional year of pharmacy school participated in an interactive three-hour career development laboratory. Students completed the APhA Career Pathway Evaluation Program for Pharmacy Professionals Online Assessment Tool prior to the laboratory. In class, the students were randomized into eight groups. Two career profiles were assigned to each group for discussion during a thirty-minute brainstorming session. The groups reported their knowledge for each career profile to the entire class, and the instructors supplemented the discussion with details and more specific information about each profile. Two years of data were collected (n=300 students). One hundred and twenty four (41.3%) students responded to the voluntary post-laboratory survey questions. Overall, students rated the career pathway activities favorably with an average score of 8.13 out of 10. After participation in the discussion, 74 (59.7%) respondents indicated their career interests had been impacted. This career development laboratory is one example of how the APhA Career Pathway Evaluation Program for Pharmacy Professionals can be effectively incorporated into the PharmD curriculum in order to help students explore the various career options they might not have otherwise discovered on their own. Published by Elsevier Inc.
This study is conducted with 56 recently retired full-time sports coaches to examine the importance of career awareness, postsport career planning, and career transition needs. Results indicate that the individuals do not have a high level of career awareness, have done relatively little postsport career planning during their coaching careers, and…
CERN. Geneva; Dr. Vinkenburg, Claartje; Guinot, Genevieve
Excellence is a non-negotiable in science, a necessary condition for a successful careers as well as the funding of research projects. Scientific excellence is the sole criterion used by the European Research Council (ERC) to award frontier research grants. However, statistics show that there are still persistent inequalities between men and women scientists in ERC funding success as well as other career outcomes. Dr. Claartje Vinkenburg, of the VU University of Amsterdam, will illustrate two projects commissioned by the ERC Gender Balance Working Group to uncover and address this phenomenon. The first project [ERCAREER (Vinkenburg PI, 2012-2014)] is about unconventional careers and career breaks, and studies the gendered nature of career paths of ERC applicants. Findings show that “conventional careers” in science are inextricably tied to normative beliefs about the ideal academic, mobility, independence, and excellence. Allowing unconventional careers to address the issue results in ir...
Hooley, Tristram; Yates, Julia
This article presents a critical exploration of the role of career professionals in supporting people to reflect on and enhance their appearance, attractiveness and self-presentation (career image). The article is conceptual and based on a review of the broader literature on career success, appearance and attractiveness. It explores the evidence…
Research purpose: The study empirically assessed the causal influence of individuals’ career orientations on their perceived life satisfaction, job or career satisfaction, sense of happiness and their perceptions of work as a valuable activity as aspects of their subjective work experiences. Motivation for study: From an organisational perspective, research on individuals’ inner definitions of career success and satisfaction is needed to guide current selection, placement, development, reward and retention practices. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative survey was conducted on a random sample of 2997 participants at predominantly managerial and supervisory level in the service industry. The measuring instruments consisted of an adapted five-factor career orientations model of the Career Orientations Inventory and a 4-item global subjective work experiences scale. Structural equation modelling (SEM was conducted to achieve the aim of the study. Main findings/results: Statistically significant causal relationships were observed between the career orientations and subjective work experiences variables. Practical implications: Individuals’ career orientations influence their general sense of life and job or career satisfaction, happiness and perceptions of work as a valuable activity. Organisations concerned with the retention of staff need to find a way of aligning individuals’ career needs and motives with the goals and aspirations of the organisation. Contribution/value-add: The research confirms the need for assessing the inner career orientations of employees as these provide valuable information regarding the motives and values driving individuals’ career decision making and subjective experiences of their working lives.
Zimmerman, Andrea McNeely
The number of biomedical PhD scientists being trained and graduated far exceeds the number of academic faculty positions and academic research jobs. If this trend is compelling biomedical PhD scientists to increasingly seek career paths outside of academia, then more should be known about their intentions, desires, training experiences, and career path navigation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to understand the process through which biomedical PhD scientists are trained and supported for navigating future career paths. In addition, the study sought to determine whether career development support efforts and opportunities should be redesigned to account for the proportion of PhD scientists following non-academic career pathways. Guided by the social cognitive career theory (SCCT) framework this study sought to answer the following central research question: How does a southeastern tier 1 research university train and support its biomedical PhD scientists for navigating their career paths? Key findings are: Many factors influence PhD scientists' career sector preference and job search process, but the most influential were relationships with faculty, particularly the mentor advisor; Planned activities are a significant aspect of the training process and provide skills for career success; and Planned activities provided skills necessary for a career, but influential factors directed the career path navigated. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
Lindsey, Merry L; de Castro Brás, Lisandra E
We adopted well-known physics equations to illustrate concepts for developing a successful academic career plan. Formulas for distance, force, momentum, and power are used to explain how to define goals and set a pace that maximizes success potential. Formulas for synergy, balance, and stress are used to highlight common obstacles encountered by both junior (untenured and early career) and established faculty and provide ways to circumvent or limit damage from setbacks. Combined, these formulas provide tips for thriving in an academic environment.
Yolanda GarcÃ¬a Ruiz
Full Text Available The economic crisis so strongly affecting some southern European countries has led to significant cuts in the system of universal public health care in Spain. Such measures particularly affect irregular immigrants and can also cause significant public health consequences. A form of civil resistance that deserves to be analyzed is the conscientious objection of Spanish doctors who have chosen to continue attending irregular immigrants in contravention of new the rules restricting their access to the public health system and their right to health. The aim of this paper is to analyze the new regulation which cut health care for irregular immigrants in Spain, the impact of this new regulation on the most vulnerable groups, and the response of doctors, who exercised their right to conscientious objection in relation to applying the new regulation. Finally to examine the announcement of change which came about as a consequence of international and domestic social pressure causing political risk to the Spanish National Government. La crisis económica, que ha afectado tan profundamente a algunos países del sur de Europa, ha dado lugar a significativos recortes en el sistema de atención sanitaria pública en España. Algunas de las medidas adoptadas han afectado específicamente a los inmigrantes irregulares y pueden tener, incluso, efectos en el ámbito de la salud pública. Una forma de desobediencia civil que merece ser analizada es la declaración de objeción de conciencia de determinados médicos y profesionales sanitarios españoles que han continuado atendiendo a los inmigrantes irregulares en contra de las nuevas restricciones impuestas por el Gobierno que afectan al reconocimiento universal del derecho a la salud. El propósito de este artículo es el de analizar la nueva regulación que limita el acceso a la asistencia sanitaria de los inmigrantes irregulares en España, el impacto de esta nueva regulación en los grupos más vulnerables
for the development of a critically reflexive career guidance practice. The considerations are organised around seven elements. 1. Creating opportunity, structure and access 2. Entering a community and increasing visibility 3. Providing guidance in communities 4. Exploring potentials in guidance situations 5...... in career guidance practices as well as in the lives of the people in the communities. This paper falls into two parts: The first part considers the collective as the starting point for the development of meaningful career guidance activities. Based on previous research on career guidance in communities......The aim of this paper is to inspire practitioners and professionals to leave their offices to bring career guidance into communities that might not identify with career guidance in the first instance. By making the effort to engage with communities, practitioners may bring about a critical change...
Wadsworth, John; Cocco, Karen
Lifelong career development activities may assist persons with more severe forms of mental retardation in achieving occupational tenure. Occupational tenure is important if individuals are to move away from a succession of entry-level employment. Adaptive career development strategies and techniques may prevent job dissatisfaction and poor…
Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011
This paper captures the progress made by North Dakota in adopting both the common core state standards, subsequent work in ensuring those standards are accompanied by college- and career-ready assessments, and the potential benefits of preparing all students for success in college and a career. (Contains 11 endnotes.)
Stenberg, Laurie; Tuchscherer, Jerry
Idaho's Nontraditional-by-Gender Scholarship Program includes the following elements of success: provision of realistic information to women about jobs, support groups and peer advisors, placement, career fairs and on-campus interviews, business-labor-education partnerships, and career guidance and counseling. (SK)
Abkhezr, Peyman; McMahon, Mary
For people with refugee backgrounds, pursuing a meaningful career in their country of resettlement is important for their successful integration. However, for many, achieving this is a challenging process. Career counsellors may have a role to play in facilitating the transition and integration of people with refugee backgrounds, and narrative…
Roessler, Richard T.; Hennessey, Mary L.; Hogan, Ebony M.; Savickas, Suzanne
Career assessment and planning services that enable students with disabilities to make successful transitions from higher education to careers are an important component often missing in the postsecondary educational experience. Comprehensive services in this regard involve students in considering how to incorporate their preferences, assets, and…
Savickas, Mark L.
To help clients increase career success and life satisfaction, counselors can elicit and examine clients' concepts about work and love. If client's personal meanings conflict with social meaning of work and love, counselors can link client beliefs to client's career concerns, provoking cognitive dissonance that motivates client to modify beliefs.…
National Employer Leadership Council, Washington, DC.
This document highlights the school-to-careers (STC) partnerships connecting workplace experiences to classroom learning to prepare students for successful employment in the utilities industry. First, the current state of the utilities industry and careers in the utilities industry are reviewed. Next, the following organizations and employers are…
Bryant, B; Rabbitts, D; Shover, J; Torres, M; VanDerHeyden, B; Violand-Jones, S
Motivation, quality improvement, productivity enhancement. These are just some of the benefits of an effective career ladder program. The key term here is effective. It is easy for laboratory personnel to stagnate professionally if they do not have a career ladder program, but it is even easier for them to become frustrated--even cynical--over a program that fails to live up to its expectations to encourage, support, and reward professional advancement. If you have been looking form some ideas to get your own career ladder program off the ground, the following responses from your colleagues may help as CLMR asks: What makes your career ladder program effective?
Diniz, Debora; Madeiro, Alberto; Rosas, Cristião
In Brazil, to have a legal abortion in the case of rape, the woman's statement that rape has occurred is considered sufficient to guarantee the right to abortion. The aim of this study was to understand the practice and opinions about providing abortion in the case of rape among obstetricians-gynecologists (OBGYNs) in Brazil. A mixed-method study was conducted from April to July 2012 with 1,690 OBGYNs who responded to a structured, electronic, self-completed questionnaire. In the quantitative phase, 81.6% of the physicians required police reports or judicial authorization to guarantee the care requested. In-depth telephone interviews with 50 of these physicians showed that they frequently tested women's rape claim by making them repeat their story to several health professionals; 43.5% of these claimed conscientious objection when they were uncertain whether the woman was telling the truth. The moral environment of illegal abortion alters the purpose of listening to a patient - from providing care to passing judgement on her. The data suggest that women's access to legal abortion is being blocked by these barriers in spite of the law. We recommend that FEBRASGO and the Ministry of Health work together to clarify to physicians that a woman's statement that rape occurred should allow her to access a legal abortion. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Susan E Beswick,1 Sandee Westell,1 Sarah Sweetman,1 Charmaine Mothersill,1 Lianne P Jeffs1,21St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Keenan Research Centre of the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada Background: Developing a therapeutic partnership between patient and nurse is key to ensuring the patient's needs and preferences are identified, addressed, and valued as a key patient safety goal. There is growing recognition that patients living with chronic lung diseases often experience increased levels of stress, anxiety, and depression compared to their healthy counterparts. Creating strategies for early identification and management of patients' fears and anxieties is a strategy to minimize anxiety and depressive symptoms.Methods: This article provides an overview of a qualitative study which explored nurses' perceptions and experiences associated with the implementation of the Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario's Establishing Therapeutic Relationships Best Practice Guideline that focused on strategies to alleviate patients' fears and anxieties on one respirology unit.Results: Study findings suggest that involvement in Best Practice Guideline implementation enabled nurses to address patients' fears and anxieties in a focused, conscientious manner and to be more collaborative and confident in their care.Conclusion: Providing opportunities for nurses to learn and apply evidence-based practice around therapeutic patient-centered care is a key step in ensuring a quality patient experience.Keywords: evidence-based practice, best practice guideline, therapeutic relationship, fear and anxiety, collaborative practice
SUMMARY Conception of personal career as a self-realization project. Bachelor work. Relevance: Nowadays career is an important aspect in an individual’s life where the main author of the script, the director and creator is the person who takes responsibility for his/her own life. Modern career management is a life long process, which is more like a self monitored project based on self realisation. A successful career in project management is not only about an individual’s personal qualities, ...
Solomon, Brittany C; Jackson, Joshua J
You marry your spouse "for better, for worse" and "for richer, for poorer," but does your choice of partner make you richer or poorer? It is unknown whether people's dispositional characteristics can seep into their spouses' workplace. Using a representative, longitudinal sample of married individuals (N=4,544), we examined whether Big Five personality traits of participants' spouses related to three measures of participants' occupational success: job satisfaction, income, and likelihood of being promoted. For both male and female participants, partner conscientiousness predicted future job satisfaction, income, and likelihood of promotion, even after accounting for participants' conscientiousness. These associations occurred because more conscientious partners perform more household tasks, exhibit more pragmatic behaviors that their spouses are likely to emulate, and promote a more satisfying home life, enabling their spouses to focus more on work. These results demonstrate that the dispositional characteristics of the person one marries influence important aspects of one's professional life. © The Author(s) 2014.
The practice of conscientious objection by healthcare workers is growing across the globe. It is most common in reproductive healthcare settings because of the religious or moral values placed on beliefs as to when life begins. It is often invoked in the context of abortion and contraceptive services, including the provision of information related to such services. Few states adequately regulate the practice, leading to denial of access to lawful reproductive healthcare services and violations of fundamental human rights. International ethical, health, and human rights standards have recently attempted to address these challenges by harmonizing the practice of conscientious objection with women's right to sexual and reproductive health services. FIGO ethical standards have had an important role in influencing human rights development in this area. They consider regulation of the unfettered use of conscientious objection essential to the realization of sexual and reproductive rights. Under international human rights law, states have a positive obligation to act in this regard. While ethical and human rights standards regarding this issue are growing, they do not yet exhaustively cover all the situations in which women's health and human rights are in jeopardy because of the practice. The present article sets forth existing ethical and human rights standards on the issue and illustrates the need for further development and clarity on balancing these rights and interests. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reevy, Gretchen M; Delgado, Mikel M
Few studies have examined how personality traits may be related to the amounts and types of attachments humans have toward companion animals (pets). In this study, 1,098 companion animal guardians (owners) completed a survey that included the Big Five Inventory, the Lexington Attachment to Pets Scale, and the Pet Attachment Questionnaire. Each participant chose whether he or she identified as a Cat Person, Dog Person, Both, or Neither. Results indicated that neuroticism, conscientiousness, choosing a dog as a favorite pet, and identifying as a Cat Person, Dog Person, or Both predicted affection for a pet. Conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness decreased avoidant attachment to pets, and neuroticism increased anxious attachment to pets. Both dogs and cats could benefit from pet owners who are conscientious, and there may be some benefits of neuroticism in pet owners. The findings of this study will advance understanding of the human-animal bond. As this understanding increases, measurements of human attachment and personality may be useful for the development of tools that could assist shelter employees and veterinarians in counseling people about pet ownership.
Boyce, Christopher J; Wood, Alex M; Ferguson, Eamonn
Loss aversion is considered a general pervasive bias occurring regardless of the context or the person making the decision. We hypothesized that conscientiousness would predict an aversion to losses in the financial domain. We index loss aversion by the relative impact of income losses and gains on life satisfaction. In a representative German sample (N = 105,558; replicated in a British sample, N = 33,848), with conscientiousness measured at baseline, those high on conscientiousness have the strongest reactions to income losses, suggesting a pronounced loss aversion effect, whereas for those moderately unconscientious, there is no loss aversion effect. Our research (a) provides the first evidence of personality moderation of any loss aversion phenomena, (b) supports contextual perspectives that both personality and situational factors need to be examined in combination, (c) shows that the small but robust relationship between income and life satisfaction is driven primarily by a subset of people experiencing highly impactful losses. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Dudley, Nicole M; Orvis, Karin A; Lebiecki, Justin E; Cortina, José M
Researchers of broad and narrow traits have debated whether narrow traits are important to consider in the prediction of job performance. Because personality-performance relationship meta-analyses have focused almost exclusively on the Big Five, the predictive power of narrow traits has not been adequately examined. In this study, the authors address this question by meta-analytically examining the degree to which the narrow traits of conscientiousness predict above and beyond global conscientiousness. Results suggest that narrow traits do incrementally predict performance above and beyond global conscientiousness, yet the degree to which they contribute depends on the particular performance criterion and occupation in question. Overall, the results of this study suggest that there are benefits to considering the narrow traits of conscientiousness in the prediction of performance. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.
Schoenfeld, Jerry; Segal, Gerry; Borgia, Dan
A primary goal for professors in academia is to facilitate the career success of their students by providing them with the necessary subject knowledge, skills, experience, and confidence. In this paper, we propose the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) model as a useful tool to explain how accounting students' career interests, goals, and…
Hughes, Deirdre; Meijers, Frans; Kuijpers, Marinka
Careers work is a very political business. Since the early 1990s, successive governments in England and the Netherlands have persistently challenged those working in the careers sector to demonstrate the educational, social and economic value and impact of their work. In this context, the marketisation of career guidance policies and practices has…
Sheikhi, Mohammad Reza; Fallahi-Khoshnab, Masoud; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Oskouie, Fatemeh
Nurses require certain skills for progression in their field. Identifying these skills can provide the context for nursing career advancement. This study aimed to identify the skills needed for nurses' career advancement. A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted to study a purposive sample of eighteen nurses working in teaching hospitals affiliated with the Qazvin, Shahid Beheshti, and Iran Universities of Medical Sciences. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews, and analyzed using conventional content analysis. The three themes extracted from the data included interpersonal capabilities, competency for career success, and personal capacities. The results showed that acquiring a variety of skills is essential for career advancement. The findings showed that personal, interpersonal, and functional skills can facilitate nurses' career advancement. The effects of these skills on career advancement depend on a variety of conditions that require further studies.
Sheikhi, Mohammad Reza; Fallahi-Khoshnab, Masoud; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Oskouie, Fatemeh
Background Nurses require certain skills for progression in their field. Identifying these skills can provide the context for nursing career advancement. Objectives This study aimed to identify the skills needed for nurses’ career advancement. Materials and Methods A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted to study a purposive sample of eighteen nurses working in teaching hospitals affiliated with the Qazvin, Shahid Beheshti, and Iran Universities of Medical Sciences. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews, and analyzed using conventional content analysis. Results The three themes extracted from the data included interpersonal capabilities, competency for career success, and personal capacities. The results showed that acquiring a variety of skills is essential for career advancement. Conclusions The findings showed that personal, interpersonal, and functional skills can facilitate nurses’ career advancement. The effects of these skills on career advancement depend on a variety of conditions that require further studies. PMID:27556054
Curry, Kathy S.
This qualitative phenomenological study used a modified Groenewald's five steps method with semi-structured, recorded, and transcribed interviews to focus on the underrepresentation of females in science-related careers. The study explored the lived experiences of a purposive sample of 25 senior female college students attending a college in Macon, Georgia. Ten major themes emerged from the research study that included (a) journey to a science-related career; (b) realization of career interest; (c) family support (d) society's role; (e) professors' treatment of students; (f) lack of mentors and models; (g) gender and career success; (h) females and other disadvantages in science-related careers; (i) rewards of the journey; and (j) advice for the journey. The three minor themes identified were (a) decision-making; (b) career awareness; and (c) guidance. The key findings revealed that females pursuing a science degree or subsequent science-related career, shared their experience with other females interested in science as a career choice, dealt with barriers standing in the way of their personal goals, lack role models, and received little or no support from family and friends. The study findings may offer information to female college students interested in pursuing science-related careers and further foundational research on gender disparities in career choice.
Full Text Available The current economic and financial context, influenced by the crisis, as well as the need of meeting the European Union standards, make the permanent restructuring of the workforce, combined with career staff development an extremely important line of action. Career consists of succession of positions in a hierarchy, resulting from a series of experiences, correlated with each other, through which any person pass along life. Career or professional development is a process more complex than training, aimed at acquiring useful knowledge, both in relation to the current and future positions, along the life span and development of a person. In the Romanian labour market conditions, organizations need to find the most appropriate way to identify, attract and maintain, with maximum efficiency, performant human resources with exceptional skills and/or professional experience. The choice of specialization has become a component of education. A well-determined vocational guidance system may allow for that choice of specialization which directly answers to the market requirements.
Robertson, Peter J.
Structural explanations of career choice and development are well established. Socioeconomic inequality represents a powerful factor shaping career trajectories and economic outcomes achieved by individuals. However, a robust and growing body of evidence demonstrates a strong link between socioeconomic inequality and health outcomes. Work is a key…
Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.
This handbook is the result of the Treasury Department's efforts to increase professionalism among its procurement employees nationwide through its Procurement Career Management Program. First, the scope and objectives of the Procurement Career Management Program are discussed. The remaining sections of the handbook deal with the following program…
Gorman, Anna M., Ed.; Vetter, Louise, Ed.
The five major papers whose full texts are included address themselves to various topics that can influence the lives of women in their career choices and advancement. Federal Legislation: Impact on Women's Careers, Mary Allen Jolley, discusses sex discrimination, legal gains made over the past 10 years, sex role stereotyping, and vocational…
State Univ. of New York, Oswego. Coll. at Oswego. Dept. of Industrial Arts and Technology.
The guide is designed primarily for industrial arts teachers at the middle school level who wish to integrate career education into their curricula. The lessons and activities attempt to establish a balance among career information, technical information, and hands-on experience. The guide contains six lesson plans which cover the topics: the…
Claims growing importance of human resource (HR) management suggests there are extensive career opportunities in HR. Notes there is no single entry position in HR management, and only one in seven HR professionals believes luck was a factor in his or her success. Concludes HR professionals must be able to deliver usual services and effectively…
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Johnson, Louise; Meerdink, Lois A.
Describes and assesses job sharing as an employment alternative for career services professionals. Discusses the job-sharing format with regard to fringe benefits, scheduling, advantages, client reactions, potential problems, and specific factors that contribute to successful job sharing. (BH)
Moche, Dinah L.
Describes a research project in which multimedia packets were developed showing the lifestyles of six successful female scientists and the evaluation of the effectiveness of materials developed to improve the attitudes of students toward careers for females in science. (CP)
.... For example, an Army report on sexual harassment stated that about half of the Army women surveyed thought that men have an advantage over women when it comes to having a successful military career...
Walker, Stephen W
The third edition of Security Careers is the authoritative reference for current job descriptions and pay practices of security, compliance, ethics, environmental, health and safety occupations. The job descriptions and compensation ranges in this report are drawn from research from the Foushée Group, which has been conducting this research since 1980. Security Careers includes more than 75 job descriptions for security-related positions, which range from the entry-level security guard to the top global corporate executive. It also provides four years of compensation trend data to give a th
D. Litt. et Phil. Factor analytic techniques were used to investigate the psychometric properties of three measuring instruments, namely the Adult Career Concerns Inventory (Super, Thompson & Lindeman, 1988), the Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory (Holland & Gottfredson, 1994), and the Career Resilience Questionnaire (Fourie & Van Vuuren, 1998). The analyses served the purpose of elucidating the conceptual meanings of the constructs of career concerns, career status and career resil...
Research purpose: This study investigated the relationship between cognitive ability, emotional intelligence and negative thoughts pertaining to career in a sample of unemployed, non-student adults. Motivation for study: There is a need for research which investigates the psychological factors that contribute to successful career exploration and decision-making. Cognitive ability is one such factor, whilst emotional intelligence is another whose validity is not yet well established. Research design, approach and method: A survey design and quantitative procedures were used in gathering and analysing data gathered from 193 non-student, middle-aged adults attending a community-based career exploration programme in British Columbia, Canada. Cognitive ability, emotional intelligence and negative career thoughts before and after a career exploration programme were measured. Main findings: Neither cognitive ability nor any aspect of emotional intelligence predicted negative career thinking change. Cognitive ability predicted overall negative career thoughts as well as decision-making confusion, but only after the programme. The ability to manage emotions, however, predicted negative career thoughts both before and after the career decision-making programme. Practical/managerial implications: The managing emotions component of emotional intelligence is significantly associated with negative career thoughts. These findings suggest that career counselling requires that the role of emotions and their influence on behaviours must be given more consideration. Industrial and organisational (IO psychologists would benefit from engaging in programmes that train them to assist clients in becoming more aware of, and increasing, their own emotional intelligence. Contribution/value-add: The study added insights to the field of career psychology regarding the ability of emotional intelligence to predict important outcomes regarding the dimensions of emotional intelligence (EI as
Sickinger, Pamela H.
Within the framework of social cognitive career theory, social cognitive career variables, demographic variables, and the contextual variable, parent support, were examined to determine their predictive value for eighth-grade students' career exploration behavior. Results suggest that the social cognitive career variable, intentions/goals,…
Fouad, Nadya A.; Ghosh, Arpita; Chang, Wen-hsin; Figueiredo, Catia; Bachhuber, Thomas
College is a significant time for undergraduates to declare majors and choose career paths. For many undergraduates, choosing both a major and a career path is challenging. Research shows that many universities deliver career interventions through dedicated career decision-making courses (Mead & Korschgen, 1994). However, there has been…
Marshall, Sandra J.; Wijting, Jan P.
Factor analysis of data from two samples identified nine indices of women's career orientation. Two factors accounted for significant variance common to the indices: career centeredness, which reflects the importance attached to a career relative to other life activities, and career commitment, which implies a commitment to lifetime employment.…
Fouad, Nadya A.; Kantamneni, Neeta; Chen, Yung-Lung; Novakovic, Alexandra; Guillen, Amy; Priester, Paul E.; Henry, Caroline; Terry, Sarah
Many vocational psychologists advocate addressing career as well as personal concerns in career counseling. However, some clients may have inappropriate expectations toward career counseling and may not be prepared or want to discuss personal issues. This study examined whether perceptions of the career counseling process could be modified with…
Thomas, Melissa; Inniss-Richter, Zipporah; Mata, Holly; Cottrell, Randall R
The importance of career development in professional organizations has been noted in the literature. Personal and professional benefits of membership regardless of discipline can be found across the career spectrum from student to executive. The benefits of professional membership with respect to career development in local chapter organizations have seldom been studied. Local chapter participation may offer significant career development opportunities for the practitioner, faculty member, and student. The purpose of this study was to explore the importance of local chapter involvement to the career development of health education practitioners. An 18-item questionnaire was disseminated to the membership of three local SOPHE (Society for Public Health Education) chapters that explored the level of local chapter involvement and the impact of how specific professional development activities impacted career development. The results of the survey highlighted the importance of continuing education programs, networking, and leadership experience in developing one's career that are offered by local SOPHE chapter involvement. Making a positive impact in the community and earning the respect of one's peers were most often reported as indicators of career success. These factors can directly impact local chapter participation. Career development can certainly be enhanced by active participation in the local chapter of a professional association.
Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Stamm, Martina; Klaghofer, Richard
To date, there are hardly any studies on the choice of career path in medical school graduates. The present study aimed to investigate what career paths can be identified in the course of postgraduate training of physicians; what factors have an influence on the choice of a career path; and in what way the career paths are correlated with career-related factors as well as with work-life balance aspirations. The data reported originates from five questionnaire surveys of the prospective SwissMedCareer Study, beginning in 2001 (T1, last year of medical school). The study sample consisted of 358 physicians (197 females, 55%; 161 males, 45%) participating at each assessment from T2 (2003, first year of residency) to T5 (2009, seventh year of residency), answering the question: What career do you aspire to have? Furthermore, personal characteristics, chosen specialty, career motivation, mentoring experience, work-life balance as well as workload, career success and career satisfaction were assessed. Career paths were analysed with cluster analysis, and differences between clusters analysed with multivariate methods. The cluster analysis revealed four career clusters which discriminated distinctly between each other: (1) career in practice, (2) hospital career, (3) academic career, and (4) changing career goal. From T3 (third year of residency) to T5, respondents in Cluster 1-3 were rather stable in terms of their career path aspirations, while those assigned to Cluster 4 showed a high fluctuation in their career plans. Physicians in Cluster 1 showed high values in extraprofessional concerns and often consider part-time work. Cluster 2 and 3 were characterised by high instrumentality, intrinsic and extrinsic career motivation, career orientation and high career success. No cluster differences were seen in career satisfaction. In Cluster 1 and 4, females were overrepresented. Trainees should be supported to stay on the career path that best suits his/her personal and
Building a successful professional career in the physician-scientist realm is rewarding but challenging, especially in the dynamic and competitive environment of today's modern society. This educational review aims to provide readers with five important career development lessons drawn from the business and social science literatures. Lessons 1-3 describe career strategy, with a focus on promoting one's strengths while minimizing fixing one's weaknesses (Lesson 1); effective time management in the pursuit of long-term goals (Lesson 2); and the intellectual flexibility to abandon/modify previously made decisions while embracing emerging opportunities (Lesson 3). Lesson 4 explains how to maximize the alternative benefits of English-language fluency (i.e., functions such as signaling and cognition-enhancing capabilities). Finally, Lesson 5 discusses how to enjoy happiness and stay motivated in a harsh, zero-sum game society.
Ryba, Tatiana; Stambulova, Natalia
This symposium will introduce a project developed under the auspices of the International Society of Sport Psychology (ISSP) in an effort to inspire and support the development of culturally sensitive theoretical frameworks and research methodologies in career studies and career assistance services...... around the world. The cultural approach to the theory and practice of sport psychological research has been recently articulated in two edited books, Cultural Sport Psychology (Schinke & Hanrahan, 2009) and The Cultural Turn in Sport Psychology (Ryba, Schinke, & Tenenbaum, 2010). The presenters...... in this symposium continue the initiated dialogue of the relevance of culture and cultural issues in their analyses of how social and cultural discourses shape career development and career transitions of athletes in different countries. Opening the foundations of sport psychological knowledge to culturally diverse...
Schwartz, Elliott; And Others
With the inspiration, the originality, the skill and craftsmanship, the business acumen, the patience, and the luck, it's possible to become a classical composer, pop/rock/country composer, jingle composer, or educational composer. Describes these careers. (Editor/RK)
"There's more diversity in physics careers than you might think. Stephen Battersby talks to three very different phsicists, all doing their bit to help us learn more about the world we live in." (2 pages)
van der Vink, G. E.; van der Vink, G. E.
A new generation of Geoscientists are abandoning the traditional pathways of oil exploration and academic research to pursue careers in public policy, international affairs, business, education and diplomacy. They are using their backgrounds in Geoscience to address challenging, multi-disciplinary problems of societal concern. To prepare for such careers, students are developing a broad understanding of science and a basic literacy in economics, international affairs, and policy-making.
Classens, Anver; Hooper, Dick; Johnson, Bruce
Central Piedmont Community College (CPCC), located in Charlotte, North Carolina, established the Carolinas Energy Career Center (Center) - a comprehensive training entity to meet the dynamic needs of the Charlotte region's energy workforce. The Center provides training for high-demand careers in both conventional energy (fossil) and renewable energy (nuclear and solar technologies/energy efficiency). CPCC completed four tasks that will position the Center as a leading resource for energy career training in the Southeast: • Development and Pilot of a New Advanced Welding Curriculum, • Program Enhancement of Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) Technology, • Student Support through implementation of a model targeted toward Energy and STEM Careers to support student learning, • Project Management and Reporting. As a result of DOE funding support, CPCC achieved the following outcomes: • Increased capacity to serve and train students in emerging energy industry careers; • Developed new courses and curricula to support emerging energy industry careers; • Established new training/laboratory resources; • Generated a pool of highly qualified, technically skilled workers to support the growing energy industry sector.
Glick, Shimon M; Jotkowitz, Alan
The recent essay by Schuklenk and Smalling opposing respect for physicians' conscientious objections to providing patients with medical services that are legally permitted in liberal democracies is based on several erroneous assumptions. Acting in this manner would have serious harmful effects on the ethos of medicine and of bioethics. A much more nuanced and balanced position is critical in order to respect physicians' conscience with minimal damage to patients' rights. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Edmonds, Grant W; Hampson, Sarah E; Côté, Hélène C F; Hill, Patrick L; Klest, Bridget
Conscientiousness is associated with longevity. As such, identifying the biological pathways linking personality to mortality is important. This study employs longitudinal data spanning >40 years to test prospective associations with Leukocyte Telomere Length (LTL), a potential marker of cellular aging. Because telomeres shorten over time, and are sensitive to oxidative stress, shorter LTL may reflect cumulative damage associated with negative health behaviors and past stressful events. We investigated childhood conscientiousness as a protective factor, expecting an association with longer LTL in adulthood, possibly reflecting slower LTL shortening. Potential lifespan pathways involving childhood trauma, smoking behaviors, and Body Mass Index (BMI) were explored. Childhood conscientiousness showed a small raw association with LTL ( r = .08, p = .04), although this effect did not persist when controlling for age and sex. Despite this lack of a direct effect on LTL, we detected an indirect effect operating jointly through BMI and smoking. Higher rates of childhood betrayal trauma were associated with shorter LTL. Contrary to our hypothesis that conscientiousness would buffer this effect, we found evidence for an interaction with childhood betrayal traumas where the association between childhood betrayal traumas and LTL was larger for those higher on conscientiousness in childhood.
Swartz, Johnna R.; Knodt, Annchen R.; Radtke, Spenser R.; Hariri, Ahmad R.
Personality traits such as conscientiousness as self-reported by individuals can help predict a range of outcomes, from job performance to longevity. Asking others to rate the personality of their acquaintances often provides even better predictive power than using self-report. Here, we examine whether peer-reported personality can provide a better link between brain function, namely threat-related amygdala activity, and future health-related behavior, namely problem drinking, than self-reported personality. Using data from a sample of 377 young adult university students who were rated on five personality traits by peers, we find that higher threat-related amygdala activity to fearful facial expressions is associated with higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness. Moreover, higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness predicts lower future problem drinking more than one year later, an effect specific to men. Remarkably, relatively higher amygdala activity has an indirect effect on future drinking behavior in men, linked by peer-reported conscientiousness to lower future problem drinking. Our results provide initial evidence that the perceived conscientiousness of an individual by their peers uniquely reflects variability in a core neural mechanism supporting threat responsiveness. These novel patterns further suggest that incorporating peer-reported measures of personality into individual differences research can reveal novel predictive pathways of risk and protection for problem behaviors. PMID:27717769
Swartz, Johnna R; Knodt, Annchen R; Radtke, Spenser R; Hariri, Ahmad R
Personality traits such as conscientiousness as self-reported by individuals can help predict a range of outcomes, from job performance to longevity. Asking others to rate the personality of their acquaintances often provides even better predictive power than using self-report. Here, we examine whether peer-reported personality can provide a better link between brain function, namely threat-related amygdala activity, and future health-related behavior, namely problem drinking, than self-reported personality. Using data from a sample of 377 young adult university students who were rated on five personality traits by peers, we find that higher threat-related amygdala activity to fearful facial expressions is associated with higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness. Moreover, higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness predicts lower future problem drinking more than one year later, an effect specific to men. Remarkably, relatively higher amygdala activity has an indirect effect on future drinking behavior in men, linked by peer-reported conscientiousness to lower future problem drinking. Our results provide initial evidence that the perceived conscientiousness of an individual by their peers uniquely reflects variability in a core neural mechanism supporting threat responsiveness. These novel patterns further suggest that incorporating peer-reported measures of personality into individual differences research can reveal novel predictive pathways of risk and protection for problem behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rotberg, Heidi L.; And Others
Explored the relation of socioeconomic status (SES), race, gender, career self-efficacy, career interests, and sex role orientation to career-choice range in female-male and non-gender-dominated careers and career self-efficacy. Career interest and career self-efficacy expectations significantly predicted range of perceived career options. Career…
The studies presented in this dissertation are concerned with the question why a musician’s career can become a failure or a success. The central research question within this thesis is: What are the determinants of career success for Dutch pop musicians? The first study presents findings from a
Dima, Danai; Friston, Karl J; Stephan, Klaas E; Frangou, Sophia
Individual differences in cognitive efficiency, particularly in relation to working memory (WM), have been associated both with personality dimensions that reflect enduring regularities in brain configuration, and with short-term neural plasticity, that reflects task-related changes in brain connectivity. To elucidate the relationship of these two divergent mechanisms, we tested the hypothesis that personality dimensions, which reflect enduring aspects of brain configuration, inform about the neurobiological framework within which short-term, task-related plasticity, as measured by effective connectivity, can be facilitated or constrained. As WM consistently engages the dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC), parietal (PAR), and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), we specified a WM network model with bidirectional, ipsilateral, and contralateral connections between these regions from a functional magnetic resonance imaging dataset obtained from 40 healthy adults while performing the 3-back WM task. Task-related effective connectivity changes within this network were estimated using Dynamic Causal Modelling. Personality was evaluated along the major dimensions of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Only two dimensions were relevant to task-dependent effective connectivity. Neuroticism and Conscientiousness respectively constrained and facilitated neuroplastic responses within the WM network. These results suggest individual differences in cognitive efficiency arise from the interplay between enduring and short-term plasticity in brain configuration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ellershaw, Julia; Fullarton, Christie; Rodwell, John; Mcwilliams, John
This study examined the relationships between the personality traits of conscientiousness, openness and extraversion at trait and facet-levels and three indicators of work role performance; proficiency, 'adaptivity' and proactivity measured at individual, team and organisational levels. This is one of the first studies to explore the relationship between personality, measured at trait and facet-level and performance using a comprehensive range of performance indicators. An online survey of 393 nurses from health-care organisations across Australia was conducted to test hypothesised relationships. Path analyses revealed numerous relationships between personality, measured at both trait and facet-levels, and work role performance. Conscientiousness was highlighted as the strongest driver of work role performance across all the indicators, with extraversion also strongly associated with work role performance. Openness to experience, previously considered a week predictor of performance, was, when examined at the facet-level, related to all of the work role performance indicators. Results suggests a bandwidth effect, where the personality traits drive global performance while the facets drive specific performance. Better understanding of the relationship between personality and work role performance will help nurse managers to foster the fit between individual and organisation, improving job satisfaction, engagement, retention and performance in role. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sumandea, C Amelia; Balke, C William
Many sources of advice and guidance are available to the early career investigator. Generally, mentors serve as the primary source of information, although program and review officers are the most underutilized resources. This article organizes these opportunities to enable early career investigators to plot a rational trajectory for career success. A list of the major agencies that provide grant support for early career investigators is included. In addition, funding opportunities are organized on the basis of the stage in career development pathway and the type of terminal degree.
Kim, Hayeon; Kang, Dae-seok; Lee, Sang-won; McLean, Gary
This study examined how the perception of a linkage between organizational ethical behavior and career success, representing ethical orientation of the organization, influences employees' perceptions of organizational politics and their subsequent career motivation, that is, career commitment, motivation to participate in training, and turnover…
Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D., Hon. Ph.D.
Full Text Available In general, organizations obtain work from people by offering them some kind of career within their structures. The operation of organizations, therefore, depends on people’s assuming a career orientation toward them. To generate this orientation, organizations distribute rewards, working conditions, and prestige to their members according to career level; thus these benefits are properties of the organizational career. To advance in this career is to receive more or better of all or some of these benefits. Generally speaking, therefore, people work to advance their organizational careers. But also, generally speaking, people do not like to talk about their careers or to be asked about them in everyday conversations with many or unknown people. In this sense, a person’s own organizational career is a sensitive or “taboo topic.” Discussions with others about one’s career occur only under the most private, discreet conditions. As a result, while people may talk abstractly and generally about careers, these discussions are typically based on a combination of the little they know of their own career and much speculation. They often have very little particular or general knowledge based on actual careers. These observations apply also to a large sector or the sociological community, as indicated by a brief perusal of the table of contents of sociological monographs and readers on organizations. The topic of careers is seldom discussed and almost never concertedly focused upon.
Full Text Available The author has been represented four basic domains, which we should include in the career development of new employers; individual, people/employees, organisation and work task. Each of these domains includes three subordinate or learning tasks, which are very important for balancing the educational plan of new employees. The author warns about the most important role of the work organisation. Twelve learning tasks, suggested in the system of the new employee career development bring new challenges for educational organisations but also limits. The author is also quite sure career development programs must become part of the regular school curriculum especially at the end of schooling and before entry into the work organisation.
Soonjoo Park, RN, PhD
Conclusions: The discipline-based career course was effective in decreasing perceptions of career barriers and increasing career search self-efficacy and career preparation behavior among nursing students.
Coughlan, Linda Martina; Patton, Declan
The scarcity of appropriately qualified nurses and midwives is a major obstacle in achieving an effective health system. Neonatal nurses and midwives require a high level of skill and education to fulfil their role. It is also an area that sees high staff turnover rates. For this study a descriptive qualitative approach was used to ascertain early career neonatal nurses' and midwives' experiences of further education, their future career plans, and their perceived facilitators and barriers to further education and career progression. After receiving ethical approval, twelve nurses and midwives were recruited across three tertiary level neonatal units in Ireland. Semi structured interviews were carried out and interview transcripts were subsequently analysed using Attride-Stirling's (2001) Thematic Networks to deduce themes from the data. Support and involvement, mentoring, and career progression and retention were the three main themes identified upon analysis of the data. The majority of participants identified definitive career plans but some felt their goals were unachievable in their current workplace. Consequently a large number of participants have plans to leave their employment in neonates and pursue a career in other areas of nursing. Staff appraisals and succession planning programmes may assist early career nurses and midwives in focusing on their individual career goals, leading to a greater uptake of further specialised education and improved retention of neonatal nurses and midwives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kettunen, Jaana; Vuorinen, Raimo; Sampson, James P., Jr.
This article reports the outcomes of a study, undertaken from a phenomenographic perspective, of career practitioners' conceptions of social media usage in career services. Fifteen Finnish career practitioners--representing comprehensive, secondary and higher education as well as public employment services--were interviewed in focus groups. The…
Meijers, Frans; Kuijpers, Marinka
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to focus on the effects of career development and guidance among students (age 17-23) enrolled in higher education in The Netherlands. First the paper explores whether the development of career competencies contribute to career identity, learning motivation,
Marinka Kuijpers; dr. Frans Meijers
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to focus on the effects of career development and guidance among students (age 17-23) enrolled in higher education in The Netherlands. First the paper explores whether the development of career competencies contribute to career identity, learning motivation,
Koivisto, Petri; Vinokur, Amiram D.; Vuori, Jukka
This randomized experimental study (N = 1,034) examines both the direct and the indirect effects of the Towards Working Life intervention on 2 components of adolescents' career preparation: preparedness for career choice and attitude toward career planning. The intervention comprised a 1-week workshop program, the proximal goals of which were to…
National Career Development Association, 2015
Covers career development theory, models, and techniques and how to apply them; understand the steps in the career development process and why career choice and development theory is important as well as limitations. Presents the assumptions that underlie four different types of theories; trait and factor, learning, developmental, and transition…
Pope, Allen; Fugmann, Gerlis; Kruse, Frigga
As a partner organization of AGU, the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS; http://www.apecs.is) fully supports the views expressed in Wendy Gordon's Forum article "Developing Scientists' `Soft' Skills" (Eos, 95(6), 55, doi:10.1002/2014EO060003). Her recognition that beyond research skills, people skills and professional training are crucial to the success of any early-career scientist is encouraging.
Schulz, Jonathan F; Thöni, Christian
People self-assess their relative ability when making career choices. Thus, confidence in their own abilities is likely an important factor for selection into various career paths. In a sample of 711 first-year students we examine whether there are systematic differences in confidence levels across fields of study. We find that our experimental confidence measures significantly vary between fields of study: While students in business related academic disciplines (Political Science, Law, Economics, and Business Administration) exhibit the highest confidence levels, students of Humanities range at the other end of the scale. This may have important implications for subsequent earnings and professions students select themselves in.
This document will teach students about careers in the wind energy industry. Wind energy, both land-based and offshore, is expected to provide thousands of new jobs in the next several decades. Wind energy companies are growing rapidly to meet America's demand for clean, renewable, and domestic energy. These companies need skilled professionals. Wind power careers will require educated people from a variety of areas. Trained and qualified workers manufacture, construct, operate, and manage wind energy facilities. The nation will also need skilled researchers, scientists, and engineers to plan and develop the next generation of wind energy technologies.
Schulz, Jonathan F.; Thöni, Christian
People self-assess their relative ability when making career choices. Thus, confidence in their own abilities is likely an important factor for selection into various career paths. In a sample of 711 first-year students we examine whether there are systematic differences in confidence levels across fields of study. We find that our experimental confidence measures significantly vary between fields of study: While students in business related academic disciplines (Political Science, Law, Economics, and Business Administration) exhibit the highest confidence levels, students of Humanities range at the other end of the scale. This may have important implications for subsequent earnings and professions students select themselves in. PMID:26808273
Kokaska, Charles J.
Career education, which is designed to promote cognitive, affective, and psychomotor skills at all educational levels, is especially important for exceptional children. A comprehensive approach to career development is needed by school districts, along with feedback from former students. (SEW)
Bower, K A
Much like the development of a clinical path, the creation of a career path requires knowledge of patterns of behavior, needs for standardized education and skill development, along with variance analysis and individualized care. This nationally known nursing entrepreneur tells the story of her involvement in the development of case management and clinical pathways and how she turned that into a successful business that has changed how patient care is managed nationally and internationally.
Frugé, Ernest; Margolin, Judith; Horton, Terzah; Venkateswaran, Lakshmi; Lee, Dean; Yee, Donald L; Mahoney, Donald
A workshop at the 2008 ASPHO Annual Meeting functioned as the first step in a systematic needs assessment of the particular challenges to satisfaction and success in the middle and senior phases of career development for pediatric hematologist/oncologists (PHOs). The 61 ASPHO members who attended were randomly distributed to small discussion groups based on self-identified career stage. Groups completed challenge forms for each issue identified as pertinent to their own stage of professional development. A total of 71 forms with useable data were generated by the groups. The largest number of challenges described (26) clustered around themes of Work-Life Balance followed by Transition and Succession (18), Management and Finances (15), and Keeping up to Date (13). Mid-career groups were more likely to identify Work-Life Balance challenges while senior stage groups were more likely to articulate Succession and Management challenges. The article describes the demographics of the workshop participants, summarizes the content of challenge themes and the associated suggestions for management. It is hoped that this effort will assist educational and career planning efforts by individuals, institutions, and ASPHO as a professional society.
Jagsi, Reshma; DeCastro, Rochelle; Griffith, Kent A; Rangarajan, Soumya; Churchill, Cristina; Stewart, Abigail; Ubel, Peter A
To examine the careers of career development award recipients. In 2009, a postal survey was conducted of 818 recipients of K08 and K23 awards in 2000-2001 to examine career paths and personal characteristics. Of 589 respondents (72% response rate), 211 (35.9%) were female. Women were less likely to have children (Psuccessful (P=.002), and they published fewer papers (P=.001). Overall, 118 women (55.9%) and 274 men (72.5%) met at least one of the following criteria for success: serving as principal investigator on an R01 or grants>$1,000,000 since K award receipt, publishing at least 35 publications since K award year, or serving as dean, department chair, or division chief. In a multivariate model, gender (odds ratio 1.72, P=.003) was associated with the likelihood of success by this definition, and analysis revealed no significant interactions (including with parental status). Most of these promising investigators of both genders remained in academia and received promotions. However, gender differences in success existed, unrelated to parental status, suggesting a need for ongoing investigation of the causes of gender differences in academic medical careers.
Full Text Available Orientation: Career exploration can be a stressful experience, often manifested by negative career thoughts. In this article, the factors which influence the ability to cope with negative thinking are investigated.Research purpose: This study investigated the relationship between cognitive ability, emotional intelligence and negative thoughts pertaining to career in a sample of unemployed, non-student adults.Motivation for study: There is a need for research which investigates the psychological factors that contribute to successful career exploration and decision-making. Cognitive ability is one such factor, whilst emotional intelligence is another whose validity is not yet well established.Research design, approach and method: A survey design and quantitative procedures were used in gathering and analysing data gathered from 193 non-student, middle-aged adults attending a community-based career exploration programme in British Columbia, Canada. Cognitive ability, emotional intelligence and negative career thoughts before and after a career exploration programme were measured.Main findings: Neither cognitive ability nor any aspect of emotional intelligence predicted negative career thinking change. Cognitive ability predicted overall negative career thoughts as well as decision-making confusion, but only after the programme. The ability to manage emotions, however, predicted negative career thoughts both before and after the career decision-making programme.Practical/managerial implications: The managing emotions component of emotional intelligence is significantly associated with negative career thoughts. These findings suggest that career counselling requires that the role of emotions and their influence on behaviours must be given more consideration. Industrial and organisational (IO psychologists would benefit from engaging in programmes that train them to assist clients in becoming more aware of, and increasing, their own emotional
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a discipline-based career course on perceptions of career barriers, career search self-efficacy, and career preparation behavior of nursing students. Differences in career search self-efficacy and career preparation behavior by the students' levels of career barriers were also examined. The study used a modified one-group, pretest-posttest design. The convenience sample consisted of 154 undergraduate nursing students in a university. The discipline-based career course consisted of eight sessions, and was implemented for 2 hours per session over 8 weeks. The data were collected from May to June in 2012 and 2013 using the following instruments: the Korean Career Indecision Inventory, the Career Search Efficacy Scale, and the Career Preparation Behavior Scale. Descriptive statistics, paired t test, and analysis of covariance were used to analyze the data. Upon the completion of the discipline-based career course, students' perceptions of career barriers decreased and career search self-efficacy and career preparation behavior increased. Career search self-efficacy and career preparation behavior increased in students with both low and high levels of career barriers. The difference between the low and high groups was significant for career search self-efficacy but not for career preparation behavior. The discipline-based career course was effective in decreasing perceptions of career barriers and increasing career search self-efficacy and career preparation behavior among nursing students. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Boutaiba, Sami Stephan; Sommerlund, Julie
, the methodology can inspire scholars to explore the findings observed in this paper. Practical implications – The idealization of the boundaryless career is problematic, as it poses problems to those concerned with the career. A more flexible ideal of careers would be preferable to researchers and organisational...
This document contains four papers from a symposium on career issues in organizations. "Learning During Downsizing: Stories from the Survivors" (Sharon J. Confessore) describes a study to demonstrate that survivors of corporate downsizings undertake learning activities and use many resources to accomplish the learning tasks.…
Trends in the current job market in the field of dance are identified, and aspects, such as personal qualifications, training requirements, income potential, and employment possibilities, are discussed. Employment opportunities in the professional world, the field of education, and the corporate environment are explored. Career opportunities for…
Madrid, R E; Rotger, V I; Herrera, M C
Although biomedical engineering was started in Argentina about 35 years ago, it has had a sustained growth for the last 25 years in human resources, with the emergence of new undergraduate and postgraduate careers, as well as in research, knowledge, technological development, and health care.
In this article, the author talks about his career as a composer and offers some advice for aspiring composers. The author works as a composer in the movie industry, creating music that supports a film's story. Other composers work on television shows, and some do both television and film. The composer uses music to tell the audience what kind of…
community. Learn More Â» Life at Argonne Our diverse community values work-life balance. Find your niche ; enjoy life at work! Learn More Â» Back to top Twitter Flickr Facebook Linked In YouTube Pinterest Google National Security User Facilities Science Work with Us About Safety News Careers Apply for a Job External
Ryan, Peter J.; And Others
Anyone with a flair for business, product development, or promotion might consider a manufacturing or merchandising occupation. The music industry offers many career opportunities for administrators, salespersons, marketing specialists--the record industry offers positions from promotion manager to rack jobber. Describes instrument company…
The musical landscape in Europe shows a complex picture. Societal change leads to change in the careers of artists. We see an increasing number of unstable jobs in the music profession. It no longer offers many opportunities for full-time, long-term contract work, but is often more project-based,
Full Text Available The paper presents some concepts of the recently deceased American anthropologist Clifford Geertz, putting them into the specific context of his rich and interesting career, influences that he had, as well as some reactions to his ideas. A particular attention is placed upon the concept of culture, as the key concept in the 20th century American anthropology.
... programs must be supported by employee training and development programs. The focus of the program should... learning experiences throughout an employee's career, such as details, mentoring, coaching, learning groups..., MANAGEMENT, AND EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT Succession Planning § 412.201 Management succession. The head of each...
Internal Labour Market as Factor in the Career Success Perceived by an EngineerMercado Interno de Trabalho como Fator de Sucesso na Carreira Percebido pelo EngenheiroMercado Interno de Trabajo como Factor de Éxito en la Carrera Percibido por Ingeniero
HEREDIA, Alberto Ismael Bejarano
Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe phenomenon of the global crisis in both the financial energy sectors as well as the emergence of new technologies companies consider their success or failure depending on the ability to respond quickly to opportunities in their competitive environment. This competitiveness is found especially in the capacity of their technical professionals. On the other hand career is characterized as protean, boundaryless and directed mainly by the individual. Given this scenario, organizations should organize an internal labor market to attract, develop and retain talent. The purpose of this research is to study the impact of internal labour market and subjective career success perceived by engineers in organizations. For the study a survey was conducted via email to 1135 graduates with a response rate of 89.07%. Structural equations were then applied to identify relationships. The results show a positive relationship between internal labour market and subjective career success perceived by engineers working in the organization. The conclusions of the study can help engineers and companies to drive the careers of these knowledge workers as a way to help them to be happier and help their companies to have more dynamic and proactive engineers. At the same time, educational institutions with engineering programs will gain a better understanding of an engineer’s career, and will be able to use this knowledge to review the effectiveness of their educational programs.RESUMOPelo fenômeno da crise global nos setores financeiro e de energia, e pelo surgimento de novas tecnologias, as empresas consideram que seu sucesso ou fracasso depende da capacidade de responder rapidamente às oportunidades em seu ambiente competitivo. Esta competitividade é encontrada principalmente na capacidade de seus profissionais técnicos. Por outro lado, a carreira é caracterizada como protéana, sem fronteiras e dirigida principalmente pelo indivíduo. Diante desse cen
Ahmadiyeh, Nasim; Cho, Nancy L; Kellogg, Katherine C; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Moore, Francis D; Ashley, Stanley W; Zinner, Michael J; Breen, Elizabeth M
With the current and projected shortages of general surgeons, more attention is being paid to the increasing pool of women physicians. This study seeks to understand the variables leading to career satisfaction for women surgeons to better recruit, retain, and support them. Eighteen semi-structured interviews of 12 female and 6 male surgeons 2 to 12 years into practice were qualitatively analyzed and converted to coded, categorized data. Significance was derived by Fisher's exact test. Participants were recruited by snowball sampling. Our sample represents a highly satisfied group of female and male surgeons. Although both women and men describe with equal frequency having made career tradeoffs for personal and family time, and vice versa, women far more frequently than men cite reasons related to their personal time, predictable time, and family relationships as why they are currently satisfied with their career (34.1% versus 8.7%; p women most frequently cite social networks as a key to success (88% versus 12% by men; p men more frequently cite reasons related to training (29% versus 0% by women; p women; p men and women make tradeoffs of career for family and family for career, women's perception of satisfaction comes from viewing their surgical career within the broader context of their lives. Women might be attracted to a career that acknowledges and values the whole person beyond the surgeon, and could benefit from work infrastructures that enhance networking. Copyright (c) 2010 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rodrigo Cunha da Silva
Full Text Available Purpose – To analyze the relationships between career anchors and young Generation Y professionals’ values, from the career concept perspective. Design/methodology/approach – Research concerning the proposed objective was carried out through quantitative research involving 189 Business Administration majors from a Catholic university in São Paulo, Brazil. We used two instruments to identify the career anchors and values of respondents: Schein (1990 and Schwartz (1994, respectively. We used statistical techniques to explore the relationships between career anchors and values. Findings – Among the results, mention should be made to the statistical relationships found between analyzed career anchors and values. It is also important to stress that, although the Lifestyle career anchor was predominantly present in the conglomerate division, this anchor was the predominant characteristic in the differentiation of the smaller group of respondents, the new career group. The General Management Career Anchor, which presents a lower incidence, is the predominant characteristic of the larger group, referring to organizational careers. As well as the Lifestyle career anchor, the Hedonism value was predominant among respondents. Originality/value – The need to consider the following was found: Generation Y presents generational characteristics that drive people management to propose work structures that offer activities to generate learning, pleasure, self-fulfillment and conciliation between work and personal life.
Zhou, Mingjie; Zhou, Yixin; Zhang, Jianxin; Obschonka, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K
While the study of personality differences is a traditional psychological approach in entrepreneurship research, economic research directs attention towards the entrepreneurial ecosystems in which entrepreneurial activity are embedded. We combine both approaches and quantify the interplay between the individual personality make-up of entrepreneurs and the local personality composition of ecosystems, with a special focus on person-city personality fit. Specifically, we analyse personality data from N = 26,405 Chinese residents across 42 major Chinese cities, including N = 1091 Chinese entrepreneurs. Multi-level polynomial regression and response surface plots revealed that: (a) individual-level conscientiousness had a positive effect and individual-level agreeableness and neuroticism had a negative effect on entrepreneurial success, (b) city-level conscientiousness had a positive, and city-level neuroticism had a negative effect on entrepreneurial success, and (c) additional person-city personality fit effects existed for agreeableness, conscientiousness and neuroticism. For example, entrepreneurs who are high in agreeableness and conduct their business in a city with a low agreeableness level show the lowest entrepreneurial success. In contrast, entrepreneurs who are low in agreeableness and conduct their business in a city with a high agreeableness level show relatively high entrepreneurial success. Implications for research and practice are discussed. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.
Mentz, Robert J; Becker, Richard C
Contemporary cardiovascular research offers junior investigators the opportunity to explore the gamut of biomedical questions. Despite the recent reduction in the availability of funding mechanisms that have historically served as the primary pathways for investigators in the early stages of career development, there remain numerous traditional and non-traditional funding opportunities. This article highlights these opportunities in order to assist early career investigators in the development of a personalized research trajectory, which optimizes the potential for career success.
Jovielyn Mañibo; Elna Lopez
This academic undertaking sought to determine the relationship between the locus of control and career interest of the respondents towards their future employment. The objectives of the study were to determine the respondents’ locus of control and career interest; to find if there is a significant relationship between the respondents’ locus of control and career interest and to develop an action plan that will gauge the students’ employment success as to their chosen field. In ...
Buddeberg-Fischer, B; Stamm, M; Buddeberg, C; Klaghofer, R
QUESTIONS UNDER STUDY: The present study aimed to investigate the differences between future family physicians, and physicians aspiring to other medical specialities, in terms of sociodemographic factors and variables concerning personality factors, career motivation, career success, importance of life goals and work-life balance; further, the stability in career choice of family physicians from medical school through to residency was evaluated. METHODS: Data reported are from four assessment...
The success of an overseas employment contract is significantly influenced by career related challenges. This paper presents the findings of a primary research conducted in the three GCC countries (Bahrain, Oman and the UAE) to comprehend the key career related challenges faced by professional Indian expatriates. This paper also explores the influence of demographic factors on career related challenges and concludes with the analysis of overall findings.
The success of an overseas employment contract is significantly influenced by career related challenges. This paper presents the findings of a primary research conducted in the three GCC countries (Bahrain, Oman and the UAE) to comprehendthe key career related challenges faced by professional Indian expatriates. This paper also explores the influence of demographic factors on career related challenges and concludes with the analysis of overall findings.
Mullola, Sari; Hakulinen, Christian; Presseau, Justin; Gimeno Ruiz de Porras, David; Jokela, Markus; Hintsa, Taina; Elovainio, Marko
Personality influences an individual's adaptation to a specific job or organization. Little is known about personality trait differences between medical career and specialty choices after graduating from medical school when actually practicing different medical specialties. Moreover, whether personality traits contribute to important career choices such as choosing to work in the private or public sector or with clinical patient contact, as well as change of specialty, have remained largely unexplored. In a nationally representative sample of Finnish physicians (N = 2837) we examined how personality traits are associated with medical career choices after graduating from medical school, in terms of employment sector, patient contact, medical specialty and change of specialty. Personality was assessed using the shortened version of the Big Five Inventory (S-BFI). An analysis of covariance with posthoc tests for pairwise comparisons was conducted, adjusted for gender and age with confounders (employment sector, clinical patient contact and medical specialty). Higher openness was associated with working in the private sector, specializing in psychiatry, changing specialty and not practicing with patients. Lower openness was associated with a high amount of patient contact and specializing in general practice as well as ophthalmology and otorhinolaryngology. Higher conscientiousness was associated with a high amount of patient contact and specializing in surgery and other internal medicine specialties. Lower conscientiousness was associated with specializing in psychiatry and hospital service specialties. Higher agreeableness was associated with working in the private sector and specializing in general practice and occupational health. Lower agreeableness and neuroticism were associated with specializing in surgery. Higher extraversion was associated with specializing in pediatrics and change of specialty. Lower extraversion was associated with not practicing with
Arbabi, Talat; Vollmer, Christian; Dörfler, Tobias; Randler, Christoph
Individuals differ in their timing of sleep (bed times, rise times) and in their preference for morning or evening hours. Previous work focused on the relationship between academic achievement and these variables in secondary school students. The main aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between chronotype and academic achievement in 10-year-old children (n = 1125) attending 4th grade of primary school. They filled a cognitive test (Culture Fair Intelligence Test, CFT 20-R) and questions about rise times and bed times, academic achievement, conscientiousness and motivation. We used the "scales for the assessment of learning and performance motivation" (SELLMO; Skalen zur Erfassung der Lern- und Leistungsmotivation for motivation), the short version of the Five-Factor Personality Inventory Children (FFPI-C) to measure conscientiousness, and the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM) to assess morningness-eveningness. Mean CSM score was 37.84 ± 6.66, midpoint of sleep was 1:36 ± 00:25 and average sleep duration (time in bed) was 10:15 ± 0:48. Morningness orientation was positively related to intelligence, conscientiousness and learning objectives. Eveningness orientation was related to avoidance performance objectives and work avoidance. Early midpoint of sleep, conscientiousness and intelligence were associated with better grades. The multivariate model showed that intelligence was the strongest predictor of good grades. Conscientiousness, motivation, younger age and an earlier midpoint of sleep were positively related to good grades. This is the first study in primary school pupils, and it shows that the relationship between evening orientation and academic achievement is already prevalent at this age even when controlling for important predictors of achievement.
The bachelor thesis introduces a topic of career development in organizational context. The aim of this work was to present the concept of career development from organizational perspective and to outline the contrast between the traditional career and the contemporary career concepts with the new psychological contract taken into consideration. The contemporary view of career also changes the organizational approach towards the career planning and career management of its employees. The majo...
Egerod, Benjamin Carl Krag
effects depending on the senator's career ambitions. While retiring senators are no longer accountable to anyone but themselves, revolving door politicians will be accountable to their future employers, because they depend on them for post-elective employment. During their final Congress, this should lead......I investigate how the revolving door affects voting in the Senate. The literature on final-term problems suggests that senators should become more extreme before they leave office, because they no longer are accountable to voters. Lack of electoral accountability could, however, have different...... revolving door senators to moderate themselves, while retiring ones should grow more partisan. Using data on post-elective career trajectories from 102nd to the 113th Senate, I present fixed effects estimates that back this claim. I show that the effect is driven by senators, who choose to resign...
Järvinen, Margaretha; Ravn, Signe
A considerable part of today's sociological research on recreational drug use is (explicitly or implicitly) inspired by Howard Becker's classical model of deviant careers. The aim of the present paper is to directly apply Becker's theory to empirical data on present-day cannabis use and to suggest...... in treatment for cannabis problems in Copenhagen, Denmark. We suggest a revision of Becker's career model in relation to four aspects: initiation of cannabis use, differentiation between socially integrated and individualised, disintegrated use, social control from non-users, and the users' moral stance...... on cannabis. A central point of the paper is that social interaction may both motivate cannabis use, as Becker proposed, and serve as a protective factor against extensive, problematic use....
Early-career scientists honoured Nine physicists were among 67 US-based researchers to be awarded a Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers at a White House ceremony in late December 2008. The award comes with up to five years' funding for research deemed critical to government missions. This year's winners include nuclear physicist Mickey Chiu and particle physicist Hooman Davoudiasl, both of the Brookhaven National Laboratory; biophysicist Michael Elowitz of the California Institute of Technology; Chad Fertig, an atomic physicist at the University of Georgia; astronomer Charles Kankelborg of Montana State University; astrophysicist Merav Opher of George Mason University; theorist Robin Santra of the Argonne National Laboratory; quantum-computing researcher Raymond Simmons of the National Institute of Standards and Technologies in Boulder, Colorado; and string theorist Anastasia Volovich of Brown University.
Auriol, Emmanuelle; Friebel, Guido; Pechlivanos, Lambros
We investigate how changes in the commitment power of a principal affect cooperation among agents who work in a team. When the principal and her agents are symmetrically uncertain about the agents' innate abilities, workers have career concerns. Then, unless the principal can commit herself to long-term wage contracts, an implicit sabotage incentive emerges. Agents become reluctant to help their teammates. Anticipating this risk, and in order to induce the desired level of cooperation, the pr...
Polozov Andrey Anatolievich
Full Text Available Most researchers seem career as translational motion the steps to the top. However, very similar to that on the ladder just two steps – in 25 and 39 years. At age 25, the largest value reaches the value of the index of intelligence, and at the age of 39 years – management experience. Best results have revealed 6 years after the beginning of its profile.
Murphy, James Peter
The purpose of this presentation was to give individuals interested in pursuing a career in culinary arts the advice and access to education surrounding this field. Culinary arts covers the multidisciplinary field and areas of practice and study which includes culinary performing arts (cooking), gastronomy (food studies), bakery and pastry arts, food and beverage studies (bar, restaurant, barista), wine studies , food product development and health, hygiene and nutrition. So many individuals ...
Drosdeck, Joseph M; Osayi, Sylvester N; Peterson, Laura A; Yu, Lianbo; Ellison, Edwin Christopher; Muscarella, Peter
Previous studies have demonstrated correlations between personality traits and job performance and satisfaction. Evidence suggests that personality differences exist between surgeons and nonsurgeons, some of which may develop during medical training. Understanding these personality differences may help optimize job performance and satisfaction among surgical trainees and be used to identify individuals at risk of burnout. This study aims to identify personality traits of surgeons and nonsurgeons at different career points. We used The Big Five Inventory, a 44-item measure of the five factor model. Personality data and demographics were collected from responses to an electronic survey sent to all faculty and house staff in the Departments of Surgery, Medicine, and Family Medicine at The Ohio State University College of Medicine. Data were analyzed to identify differences in personality traits between surgical and nonsurgical specialties according to level of training and to compare surgeons to the general population. One hundred ninety-two house staff and faculty in surgery and medicine completed the survey. Surgeons scored significantly higher on conscientiousness and extraversion but lower on agreeableness compared to nonsurgeons (all P personality differences between surgical and nonsurgical specialties. The use of personality testing may be a useful adjunct in the residency selection process for applicants deciding between surgical and nonsurgical specialties. It may also facilitate early intervention for individuals at high risk for burnout and job dissatisfaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maas, Angela H E M; ter Braak, Edith W M T; Verbon, Annelies
For more than 15 years two-thirds of medical students have been women. Despite this, they represent a minority (16-25 %) of professors in academic medicine. There is still a major gender gap to the disadvantage of women in leading positions in academia, with women earning only 80% of the salary of their male counterparts and fewer opportunities for scientific grants. Recent studies have shown that career ambition among men and women in medicine is comparable. However, successful women more often doubt their own achievements than men do. This is known as the 'imposter phenomenon' and acts as a barrier to career progression. Female leadership should be more actively promoted and encouraged to establish the diversity and creativity that we need in our current healthcare system.
Bullock-Yowell, Emily; Katz, Sheba P.; Reardon, Robert C.; Peterson, Gary W.
The respective roles of social cognitive career theory and cognitive information processing in career exploratory behavior were analyzed. A verified path model shows cognitive information processing theory's negative career thoughts inversely predict social cognitive career theory's career problem-solving self-efficacy, which predicts career…
Thessin, Rebecca A.; Scully-Russ, Ellen; Lieberman, Daina S.
Research has demonstrated career and technical education (CTE) programs have a strong positive influence on secondary students' behavior, attendance, academic achievement, and college persistence. Critical success factors common to career academies, small schools, and CTE programs include socio-emotional support and community, along with a culture…
This case study examines the successful mentoring relationship between an early-career principal and her mentor as they participated in an Entry Year Program for early-career school administrators as a component of an Administrative Leadership Academy (ALA). Using a feminist poststructuralist framework, the findings show that contrary to…
A survey of 151 Italian scientists and engineers and case studies of a career development system for technical professionals revealed that career orientation (as measured by Schein's career anchors) is a useful predictor of career route preferences. (Author/JOW)
Sergey N. Tolstoguzov
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe the experience of careeroriented activities carried out with students of schools in developed and developing countries. Career Guidance in Russia, despite the vast experience of its implementation, is experiencing serious difficulties. In this regard, it is important to take into account the international experience career-oriented activities, such as in the developed countries of North America and the European Union as well as in several Asian countries with rapidly growing economies and a large demographic potential, taking into account the best variants for the Russian education system. Methods. The experience of career-oriented work undertaken with pupils of the USA, Canada, Israel, France, UK, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Japan, Singapore, China and India is shown on the basis of the comparative analysis of different publications and information sources. The author has made an attempt to generalize the principles of psycho-pedagogical and administrative assistance in professional self-determination of senior pupils abroad. Scientific novelty. The approaches to career-oriented activities in countries with different levels of economic development are compared for the first time. Some principles are revealed. Firstly, the higher the income level per capita in the country, the greater attention is given to vocational guidance. The politics in the developed countries is based on interests of the individual: children’s acquaintance with the world of professions begins already at younger school and the moment of definitive selfdetermination is postponed till the end of their senior stage of education; the possibility of direction change of professional preparation in case of detection of discrepancy of qualities of the pupil to originally selected profile is provided. Career-oriented activity in developing countries, on the contrary, is rigidly coordinated to requirements of economy and a labour market
Dodd, Vanessa; Hooley, Tristram
Teachers play an important role supporting young people to form their career identities and to make successful transitions into further learning and work. In England, there has been limited research that has looked specifically at the role of teachers and none of which has tried to establish a measure of teacher attitude toward careers work. This…
Hay, Iain; Bartlett-Trafford, Julie; Chang, T. C.; Kneale, Pauline; Szili, Gerti
Although graduate programs typically prepare university students well for research activity, many have been less successful in educating for other aspects of academic careers. This article discusses Iain Hay's "Letter to a New University Teacher," which has been used internationally to help new lecturers beginning their career.…
Wentling, Rose Mary
According to interviews with 30 women in middle management, 4 factors pertinent to their success were educational credentials, hard work, mentors, and interpersonal skills. Barriers to career development were supervisors/directors, sex discrimination, lack of political savvy, and lack of career strategy. (SK)
Schnoes, Alexandra M.; Caliendo, Anne; Morand, Janice; Dillinger, Teresa; Naffziger-Hirsch, Michelle; Moses, Bruce; Gibeling, Jeffery C.; Yamamoto, Keith R.; Lindstaedt, Bill; McGee, Richard; O'Brien, Theresa C.
The Graduate Student Internships for Career Exploration (GSICE) program at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), offers structured training and hands-on experience through internships for a broad range of PhD-level careers. The GSICE program model was successfully replicated at the University of California, Davis (UC Davis). Here, we…
Rogers, MeLisa J.
An extended career or working through planned retirement may assist baby boomers in recapturing financial losses experienced from the U.S. retirement market between 2007 and 2008. Job security, enhanced by adding value to an organization through competent performance, is an important link to the success of an extended career. Hence, baby boomers…
Pryor, Robert G. L.; Bright, James E. H.
Failing is a neglected topic in career development theory and counselling practice. Most theories see failing as simply the opposite of success and something to be avoided. It is contended that the Chaos Theory of Careers with its emphasis on complexity, uncertainty and consequent human imitations, provides a conceptually coherent account of…
Mayes, Renae D.; Hines, Erik M.
Current literature on college and career readiness highlights the role of educators in promoting the success of all students. However, few studies have focused on the specific needs of gifted African American girls. This article discusses the school experiences and career development of gifted African American girls and it provides a culturally…
Bartlett, Jennifer; Domene, José F.
Little is known about the career development of youth with a history of criminal activity and the factors that influence their career development. The ability to secure employment is important in predicting successful outcomes for this population, but unfortunately youth who have been involved in crime are likely to face a myriad of obstacles to…
Armstrong, Lesley; West, Jim
An Australian bank developed a four-stage career development strategy for information technology workers: (1) career coaching sessions with executives; (2) career coaching seminars for line managers and team leaders; (3) staff career planning workshops; and (4) online career development support. The program resulted in increased satisfaction,…
Seligman, Linda; And Others
Examined career development of 24 preadolescents and assessed how career development was related to their perceptions of their family, self-image, career awareness, interests, and work/family aspirations. Findings suggest that, by age 10, children have thought about their future and can articulate their career and family aspirations. Career goals…
In 2010, the Association for Career and Technical Education (ACTE) released a "What Is Career Ready?" definition. As the career-readiness definition explains, there is much overlap between "college readiness" and "career readiness," but academic preparedness for college alone is not enough to be truly career-ready.…
'What's the point in doing that?' This is often the response given to those saying they are undertaking education outside of work hours. Many do not see their role in theatre as just a job, but now want a career which means extra studying. Ideally this needs to be in advance so they are one step ahead for when an opportunity arises. Career opportunities and education go hand in hand together, and so it is difficult to discuss one without mentioning the other to some degree. We need education to access career opportunities, but we also need career routes to help drive education forward.
Sommerlund, Julie; Boutaiba, Sami
: a theoretical argument, and a qualitative ethnographic study, involving observations and interviews. Findings - The theoretical argument questions the underlying premise and promise of the notion of the boundaryless career, namely that modern careers amount to a higher level of personal freedom. This empirical...... of careers makes both "new" and "old" types of careers possible. Design/methodology/approach - The approach is twofold: a theoretical argument, and a qualitative ethnographic study, involving observations and interviews. Findings - The theoretical argument questions the underlying premise and promise...
Mittendorff, Kariene; Beijaard, Douwe; den Brok, Perry; Koopman, Maaike
In this article, we examine the relationship between different career guidance styles of vocational education teachers and vocational education students' career competencies (i.e. career reflection, career exploration and networking). Questionnaires on students' perceptions of the career guidance of their teachers during career conversations, and…
Full Text Available This article examines the effects of immigrants’ perceptions of their contribution to the host country, access to equal opportunities and government support on their career satisfaction. Results suggested that expatriates’ willingness to contribute to the host country have a significant positive association with their career satisfaction. Expatriates’ positive perceptions on equal opportunities to be successful are also significantly related directly to their career satisfaction. Results support the view that the expatriates’ optimistic perceptions towards the host country will enhance the quality of their career undertakings. Government should adopt a light touch towards the problem, by providing entry relaxation for them and promoting Malaysia as an attractive working and living environment.
Cunningham, Cynthia R; Murray, Shelley S
For six years, Cynthia Cunningham and Shelley Murray shared an executive job at Fleet Bank. One desk, one chair, one computer, one telephone, and one voice-mail account. To their clients and colleagues, they were effectively one person, though one person with the strengths and ideas of two, seamlessly handing projects back and forth. Although their department was dissolved after the bank merged with Bank of America, the two continue to consider themselves a package-they have one resume, and they are seeking their next opportunity together. Their choice to share a job was not only a quality-of-life decision but one intended to keep their careers on course: "Taking two separate part-time jobs would have thrown us completely off track" they write in this first-person account."We're both ambitious people, and neither of us wanted just a job. We wanted careers" In this article, the two highly motivated women reveal their determination to manage the demands of both family and career. Flextime,telecommuting, and compressed workweeks are just some of the options open to executives seeking greater work/ life balance, and the job share, as described by Cunningham and Murray, could well be the next solution for those wishing to avoid major trade-offs between their personal and professional lives. Cunningham and Murray describe in vivid detail how they structured their unusual arrangement, how they sold themselves to management, and the hurdles they faced along the way. Theirs is a win-win story, for the company and for them.
The career self-efficacy has positive and strong statistically significant association with past performances accomplishment of the students (r= .752, P< .01). However, it was statistically significant and has weak relationship with career exploration behaviour (r= .214, P<.05).Verbal persuasion is more significant association (r ...
Neault, Roberta A.; Pickerell, Deirdre A.
In this article, the authors present a model of career engagement that helps bridge the gap between career counselors' focus on supporting individuals to find meaningful work and employers' desire for an engaged, productive, and committed workforce. They briefly review highlights of the employee engagement literature, introduce the Career…
Bimrose, Jenny; McMahon, Mary; Watson, Mark
As work and employment transitions become more frequent and difficult, the demand for formal career guidance increases. Women are likely to experience structural labour market disadvantage and may benefit from formal support that is sympathetic to their particular needs. Yet the traditional psychological paradigms that dominate career guidance…
The presentation made here accepts the thesis that the choice of career is not a simple matter. In fact, it asserts that more than ever before, the choice of a career on a training programme now requires a lot of thinking as well as taking into consideration several factors before choosing, planning and entering into a particular ...