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Sample records for conscientiousness career success

  1. Testing relations of crystallized and fluid intelligence and the incremental predictive validity of conscientiousness and its facets on career success in a small sample of German and Swiss workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priska eHagmann-von Arx

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relation of fluid and crystallized intelligence with extrinsic (occupational skill level, income and intrinsic (job satisfaction career success as well as the incremental predictive validity of conscientiousness and its facets. Participants (N = 121 completed the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS, the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R and reported their occupational skill level, income and job satisfaction. Results revealed that crystallized intelligence was positively related to occupational skill level, but not to income. The association of crystallized intelligence and job satisfaction was negative and stronger for the lowest occupational skill level, whereas it was non-significant for higher levels. Fluid intelligence showed no association with career success. Beyond intelligence, conscientiousness and its facet self-discipline were associated with income, whereas conscientiousness and its facets competence and achievement striving were associated with job satisfaction. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the assessment process as well as for future research to adequately predict career success.

  2. Testing Relations of Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence and the Incremental Predictive Validity of Conscientiousness and Its Facets on Career Success in a Small Sample of German and Swiss Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann-von Arx, Priska; Gygi, Jasmin T; Weidmann, Rebekka; Grob, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relation of fluid and crystallized intelligence with extrinsic (occupational skill level, income) and intrinsic (job satisfaction) career success as well as the incremental predictive validity of conscientiousness and its facets. Participants (N = 121) completed the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS), the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), and reported their occupational skill level, income, and job satisfaction. Results revealed that crystallized intelligence was positively related to occupational skill level, but not to income. The association of crystallized intelligence and job satisfaction was negative and stronger for the lowest occupational skill level, whereas it was non-significant for higher levels. Fluid intelligence showed no association with career success. Beyond intelligence, conscientiousness and its facet self-discipline were associated with income, whereas conscientiousness and its facets competence and achievement striving were associated with job satisfaction. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the assessment process as well as for future research to adequately predict career success.

  3. Career success in a boundaryless career world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arthur, Michael B.; Khapova, S.N.; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares contemporary career theory with the theory applied in recent career success research. The research makes inconsistent use of career theory, and in particular neglects the interdependence of the objective and subjective careers, and boundaryless career issues of

  4. Goodbye Career, Hello Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komisar, Randy

    2000-01-01

    Success in today's economy means throwing out the old career rules. The "noncareer" career is driven by passion for the work and has the fluidity and flexibility needed in the contemporary workplace. (JOW)

  5. Goodbye Career, Hello Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komisar, Randy

    2000-01-01

    Success in today's economy means throwing out the old career rules. The "noncareer" career is driven by passion for the work and has the fluidity and flexibility needed in the contemporary workplace. (JOW)

  6. Exploring MBA Career Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Amanda; Hodgkinson, Myra

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the meaning of career success in relation to the attainment of an MBA degree, for a group of experienced managers. In so doing, the paper aims to consider the adequacy of MBA career success, defined solely in terms of external criteria. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 36 in-depth interviews…

  7. Career success in a boundaryless career world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arthur, Michael B.; Khapova, Svetlana N.; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares contemporary career theory with the theory applied in recent career success research. The research makes inconsistent use of career theory, and in particular neglects the interdependence of the objective and subjective careers, and boundaryless career issues of inter-organization

  8. Career Transitions and Career Success in the "New" Career Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudzikowski, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    The "new" career, most notably the boundaryless career, is associated with high career mobility, which is in turn associated with employability and career success of individuals. The current study examined how frequency, form (organisational, horizontal or vertical) and impact (objective career success) of career transitions have changed…

  9. Acculturation, Enculturation, Ethnic Identity, and Conscientiousness as Predictors of Latino Boys' and Girls' Career Decision Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Lizette; Pina-Watson, Brandy; Castillo, Linda G.; Castillo, Rosalinda; Khan, Noshaba; Leigh, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of culture and personality on the career decision self-efficacy of 338 Latino seventh-grade public middle school students. Specifically, we examined the role of acculturation, enculturation, ethnic identity, and conscientiousness on career decision self-efficacy. Findings indicated Latina girls were more acculturated…

  10. Success and Women's Career Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Joyce E. A.; Burgess, Jennifer R. D.

    1998-01-01

    Women still face barriers to career success and satisfaction: stereotypes, assumptions, organizational culture, human resource practices, and lack of opportunities. Despite individual and organizational strategies, many women leave to become entrepreneurs. There is a need to investigate how women define career success. (SK)

  11. Human capital and career success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Kato, Takao

    Denmark’s registry data provide accurate and complete career history data along with detailed personal characteristics (e.g., education, gender, work experience, tenure and others) for the population of Danish workers longitudinally. By using such data from 1992 to 2002, we provide rigorous...... evidence for the first time for the population of workers in an entire economy (as opposed to case study evidence) on the effects of the nature and scope of human capital on career success (measured by appointments to top management). First, we confirm the beneficial effect of acquiring general human...... capital formally through schooling for career success, as well as the gender gap in career success rates. Second, broadening the scope of human capital by experiencing various occupations (becoming a generalist) is found to be advantageous for career success. Third, initial human capital earned through...

  12. Job performance ratings : The relative importance of mental ability, conscientiousness, and career adaptability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohme, Melanie; Zacher, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    According to career construction theory, continuous adaptation to the work environment is crucial to achieve work and career success. In this study, we examined the relative importance of career adaptability for job performance ratings using an experimental policy-capturing design. Employees (N = 13

  13. The Impact of Career Boundarylessness on Subjective Career Success: The Role of Career Competencies, Career Autonomy, and Career Insecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colakoglu, Sidika N.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the theoretical frameworks of the career enactment and the stress perspectives, this study develops and tests a model in which career boundarylessness affects subjective career success through its effect on three career competencies--knowing-why, knowing-how, and knowing-whom--and career autonomy and career insecurity. The results…

  14. Dual Career Marriages: Elements for Potential Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples, Mary F.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the family and work relationships of dual career couples and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of these relationships. Various ingredients including personality traits that contribute to the success of the two-career partnership are listed. (RC)

  15. Factors Identifying Successful Adolescent Career Awareness Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Mary Liz

    Helping adolescents make successful career decisions has been the concern of the education system, with a variety of methods being tried over the years. A literature review indicated that there are a number of successful programs giving adolescents a good basis from which to make career choices. State and national levels contribute funding and…

  16. Human capital and career success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Kato, Takao

    Denmark’s registry data provide accurate and complete career history data along with detailed personal characteristics (e.g., education, gender, work experience, tenure and others) for the population of Danish workers longitudinally. By using such data from 1992 to 2002, we provide rigorous evide...

  17. Yes we can! Successful examples of disallowing 'conscientious objection' in reproductive health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, Christian; Gemzell Danielsson, Kristina; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Guðmundsson, Jens A; Arthur, Joyce

    2016-06-01

    Reproductive health care is the only field in medicine where health care professionals (HCPs) are allowed to limit a patient's access to a legal medical treatment - usually abortion or contraception - by citing their 'freedom of conscience.' However, the authors' position is that 'conscientious objection' ('CO') in reproductive health care should be called dishonourable disobedience because it violates medical ethics and the right to lawful health care, and should therefore be disallowed. Three countries - Sweden, Finland, and Iceland - do not generally permit HCPs in the public health care system to refuse to perform a legal medical service for reasons of 'CO' when the service is part of their professional duties. The purpose of investigating the laws and experiences of these countries was to show that disallowing 'CO' is workable and beneficial. It facilitates good access to reproductive health services because it reduces barriers and delays. Other benefits include the prioritisation of evidence-based medicine, rational arguments, and democratic laws over faith-based refusals. Most notably, disallowing 'CO' protects women's basic human rights, avoiding both discrimination and harms to health. Finally, holding HCPs accountable for their professional obligations to patients does not result in negative impacts. Almost all HCPs and medical students in Sweden, Finland, and Iceland who object to abortion or contraception are able to find work in another field of medicine. The key to successfully disallowing 'CO' is a country's strong prior acceptance of women's civil rights, including their right to health care.

  18. Overcome barriers to career success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raudsepp, E.

    1983-04-01

    A test is given to determine if an engineer suffers from one of the three barriers to technical success: fear of success, fear of failure, or perfectionism. As in most such tests, the middle way is best. Successful engineers know that perfection cannot be attained, that they don't have time to worry about failure or success, and that by aiming and perservering in doing things well, success can be achieved.

  19. Psychological Mobility and Career Success in the "New" Career Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbruggen, Marijke

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of two types of psychological mobility, i.e. boundaryless mindset and organizational mobility preference, on career success. We hypothesized that this relationship would be partially mediated by physical mobility. In addition, we expected the direction of the influence to depend on the type of psychological mobility. We…

  20. The Effects of Objective Career Success on Subsequent Subjective Career Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Stephen A.; Tymon, Walter G., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    We use a sample of working adults (N = 638) to explore the effects of past objective career success (mobility, promotions, and salary change) on current subjective success (human capital assessments by one's managers, core self evaluations, satisfaction with one's career) by gender, across an economic cycle (2004-2011), controlling for career…

  1. Social Cognitive Career Theory, Conscientiousness, and Work Performance: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven D.; Lent, Robert W.; Telander, Kyle; Tramayne, Selena

    2011-01-01

    We performed a meta-analytic path analysis of an abbreviated version of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) model of work performance (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994). The model we tested included the central cognitive predictors of performance (ability, self-efficacy, performance goals), with the exception of outcome expectations. Results…

  2. Social Cognitive Career Theory, Conscientiousness, and Work Performance: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven D.; Lent, Robert W.; Telander, Kyle; Tramayne, Selena

    2011-01-01

    We performed a meta-analytic path analysis of an abbreviated version of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) model of work performance (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994). The model we tested included the central cognitive predictors of performance (ability, self-efficacy, performance goals), with the exception of outcome expectations. Results…

  3. Certification and Career Success: A LEADS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ-Eft, Darlene; Dickison, Phil; Levine, Roger

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between certification examination test results and Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) career success. The sample was drawn from the Longitudinal Emergency Medical Technician Attributes and Demographics Study (LEADS). LEADS participants were matched with National Registry of Emergency Medical Technician (NREMT)…

  4. Career-Success Scale – A new instrument to assess young physicians' academic career steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddeberg Claus

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within the framework of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates, a Career-Success Scale (CSS was constructed in a sample of young physicians choosing different career paths in medicine. Furthermore the influence of personality factors, the participants' personal situation, and career related factors on their career success was investigated. Methods 406 residents were assessed in terms of career aspired to, and their career progress. The Career-Success Scale, consisting of 7 items, was developed and validated, addressing objective criteria of academic career advancement. The influence of gender and career aspiration was investigated by a two-factorial analysis of variance, the relationships between personality factors, personal situation, career related factors and the Career-Success Scale by a multivariate linear regression analysis. Results The unidimensional Career-Success Scale has an internal consistency of 0.76. It is significantly correlated at the bivariate level with gender, instrumentality, and all career related factors, particularly with academic career and received mentoring. In multiple regression, only gender, academic career, surgery as chosen specialty, and received mentoring are significant predictors. The highest values were observed in participants aspiring to an academic career, followed by those pursuing a hospital career and those wanting to run a private practice. Independent of the career aspired to, female residents have lower scores than their male colleagues. Conclusion The Career-Success Scale proved to be a short, reliable and valid instrument to measure career achievements. As mentoring is an independent predictor of career success, mentoring programs could be an important instrument to specifically enhance careers of female physicians in academia.

  5. Career-success scale - a new instrument to assess young physicians' academic career steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Stamm, Martina; Buddeberg, Claus; Klaghofer, Richard

    2008-06-02

    Within the framework of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates, a Career-Success Scale (CSS) was constructed in a sample of young physicians choosing different career paths in medicine. Furthermore the influence of personality factors, the participants' personal situation, and career related factors on their career success was investigated. 406 residents were assessed in terms of career aspired to, and their career progress. The Career-Success Scale, consisting of 7 items, was developed and validated, addressing objective criteria of academic career advancement. The influence of gender and career aspiration was investigated by a two-factorial analysis of variance, the relationships between personality factors, personal situation, career related factors and the Career-Success Scale by a multivariate linear regression analysis. The unidimensional Career-Success Scale has an internal consistency of 0.76. It is significantly correlated at the bivariate level with gender, instrumentality, and all career related factors, particularly with academic career and received mentoring. In multiple regression, only gender, academic career, surgery as chosen specialty, and received mentoring are significant predictors. The highest values were observed in participants aspiring to an academic career, followed by those pursuing a hospital career and those wanting to run a private practice. Independent of the career aspired to, female residents have lower scores than their male colleagues. The Career-Success Scale proved to be a short, reliable and valid instrument to measure career achievements. As mentoring is an independent predictor of career success, mentoring programs could be an important instrument to specifically enhance careers of female physicians in academia.

  6. Protean Attitude and Career Success: The Mediating Role of Self-Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Ans; Soens, Nele

    2008-01-01

    A protean career attitude is considered as an important determinant of career success in the contemporary career era. In this article we test a model in which we specify the relationships between protean career attitude, career self-management behaviors, career insight, and career success outcomes (career satisfaction and perceived employability).…

  7. International careers and career success of Indian women in science & technology : The importance of career capital and organizational capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, R.; van der Velde, E.G.; van Engen, Marloes

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study on international careers and career success of Indian women in Science & Technology (S&T). We conducted interviews with 30 (upper) middle class Indian women in New Delhi and Bangalore (India) who pursued careers abroad as self-initiated expatriates (SIEs). Important

  8. International careers and career success of Indian women in science & technology : The importance of career capital and organizational capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, R.; van der Velde, E.G.; van Engen, Marloes

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study on international careers and career success of Indian women in Science & Technology (S&T). We conducted interviews with 30 (upper) middle class Indian women in New Delhi and Bangalore (India) who pursued careers abroad as self-initiated expatriates (SIEs). Important ele

  9. Jump starting your nursing career: toolbox for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubik, Louise D

    2008-03-01

    While there is no single path to career advancement in nursing, there are developmental tools and organizational systems to promote nurses' career advancement and to assist in the organization of professional accomplishments. As nurses achieve additional credentialing, certification, licensure and academic credentials, it is important that they list these credentials after their names to market their career accomplishments and expertise. Career tool boxes such as a file system, resume and professional portfolio, are key organizational systems for nurses to keep track of their success and to promote their careers in nursing.

  10. Career Mapping for Professional Development and Succession Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Tammy; Diamond-Wells, Tammy; Jeffs, Debra

    Career mapping facilitates professional development of nurses by education specialists and nurse managers. On the basis of national Nursing Professional Development Scope and Standards, our education and professional development framework supports the organization's professional practice model and provides a foundation for the professional career map. This article describes development, implementation, and evaluation of the professional career map for nurses at a large children's hospital to support achievement of the nursing strategic goals for succession planning and professional development.

  11. Elements of Success in Chicago Botanic Garden's Science Career Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katherine A

    2016-03-01

    The Science Career Continuum at the Chicago Botanic Garden is a model program for successfully encouraging youth from diverse backgrounds into STEM careers. This program has shown that when students are given an opportunity to participate in real scientific research under the mentorship of a caring professional over multiple years, they are more likely to go to college and pursue STEM careers than their peers. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education.

  12. Personality, social background, and occupational career success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelissen, John; Graaf, Paul M. de

    2006-01-01

    Pooled cross-sectional and life-history data from the Dutch Family Survey 1998 and 2000 (N = 4000) were used to investigate whether personality was directly related to income attainment and occupational career transitions after controlling for human capital indicators, working hours, and parental so

  13. International career motives, repatriation and career success of Indian women in science & technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, Reimira; van der Velde, E.G.; van Engen, Marloes; Godbole, R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into international career motives, repatriation and career success of Indian women in Science and Technology. Design/methodology/approach In total, 30 semi-structured interviews were conducted with (upper) middle-class Indian women in Science and

  14. Boundaryless career and career success: the impact of emotional and social competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio eGerli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though, over the last two decades, the boundaryless career concept has stimulated a wide theoretical debate, scholars have recently claimed that research on the competencies that are necessary for managing a cross-boundary career is still incomplete. Similarly, the literature on emotional and social competencies has demonstrated how they predict work performance across industries and jobs but has neglected their influence in explaining the individual’s mobility across boundaries and their impact on career success.This study aims to fill these gaps by examining the effects of emotional and social competencies on boundaryless career and on objective career success. By analyzing a sample of 142 managers over a period of eight years, we found evidence that emotional competencies positively influence the propensity of an individual to undertake physical career mobility and that career advancements are related to the possession of social competencies and depend on the adoption of boundaryless career paths. This study also provides a contribution in terms of the evaluation of the emotional and social competencies demonstrated by an individual and of the operationalization of the measurement of boundaryless career paths, considering three facets of the physical mobility construct (organizational, industrial and geographical boundaries.

  15. Boundaryless career and career success: the impact of emotional and social competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerli, Fabrizio; Bonesso, Sara; Pizzi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Even though, over the last two decades, the boundaryless career concept has stimulated a wide theoretical debate, scholars have recently claimed that research on the competencies that are necessary for managing a cross-boundary career is still incomplete. Similarly, the literature on emotional and social competencies has demonstrated how they predict work performance across industries and jobs but has neglected their influence in explaining the individual's mobility across boundaries and their impact on career success. This study aims to fill these gaps by examining the effects of emotional and social competencies on boundaryless career and on objective career success. By analyzing a sample of 142 managers over a period of 8 years, we found evidence that emotional competencies positively influence the propensity of an individual to undertake physical career mobility and that career advancements are related to the possession of social competencies and depend on the adoption of boundaryless career paths. This study also provides a contribution in terms of the evaluation of the emotional and social competencies demonstrated by an individual and of the operationalization of the measurement of boundaryless career paths, considering three facets of the physical mobility construct (organizational, industrial, and geographical boundaries).

  16. The Meaning of Career Success among Job-Hopper in The Boundaryless Career (Phenomenological Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcham Darokah

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This phenomenology qualitative research was conducted in order to examine the dynamics of career success among job hopper and how did job hoppers interpret the meaning career success in boundaryless career. This research used in-depth interview for collecting the data and supported by the data from the documents. The respondents involved in this research were fours job hoppers in the level of manager, five significant others, such as family, workmate, and a steady career. The findings revealed that: the job-hoppers individuals who frequently movement of job from one place to another place because of intrinsic factors (financial, interpersonal conflict, alternative employment opportunities, etc., extrinsic factors (challenges, willing to learn, personal characteristics, family, etc., proponent factors (networking, family support, and media. The meanings of career success among job-hopper in the boundaryless career namely; self-fulfillment (job satisfaction, life satisfaction, meeting personal goals, adding value to others, and work/life balance (family satisfaction and quality time with family. This study showed that being a job-hopper was a tool for pursuing the meaning of career success

  17. Graduate interns’ experiences: A career success orientations approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Kanye

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Organisations are challenged to achieve optimal business results by specifically attracting and retaining talented human resources, while simultaneously creating environments where individuals feel their own personal career aspirations are fulfilled. This study examined graduate interns’ experiences using career success orientations as a framework. Data were collected using a card sorting technique and semi-structured interviews. The data were then analysed and used as a guide for internship programme design. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  18. Graduate interns’ experiences: A career success orientations approach

    OpenAIRE

    B Kanye; F. Crous

    2007-01-01

    Organisations are challenged to achieve optimal business results by specifically attracting and retaining talented human resources, while simultaneously creating environments where individuals feel their own personal career aspirations are fulfilled. This study examined graduate interns’ experiences using career success orientations as a framework. Data were collected using a card sorting technique and semi-structured interviews. The data were then analysed and used as a guide for internship ...

  19. Career Success and Work Performance: Desirable Goals or Double Binds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Abraham K.

    Successful work performance and its corollary, career success, generate both positive (intended) and negative (unintended) outcomes for individuals. The negative outcomes foster a sense of personal and social alienation, which in turn promote behaviors that have negative implications for work motivation and organizational and leadership processes.…

  20. INDIVIDUAL MANAGEMENT AND COUNSELING AS MODERATORS IN ACHIEVING CAREER COMPETENCIES AND SUCCESS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huo-Tsan Chang; Chia-Yi Feng; Chi-Lih Shyu

    2014-01-01

      We adopted the perspectives of organizational support and self-regulation to examine how counseling and individual management, respectively, moderate career competencies to predict career success...

  1. A new multidimensional measure of personal resilience and its use: Chinese nurse resilience, organizational socialization and career success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Taormina, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    This study refined the concept of resilience and developed four valid and reliable subscales to measure resilience, namely, Determination, Endurance, Adaptability and Recuperability. The study also assessed their hypothesized relationships with six antecedent variables (worry, physiological needs satisfaction, organizational socialization, conscientiousness, future orientation and Chinese values) and with one outcome variable (nurses' career success). The four new 10-item subscale measures of personal resilience were constructed based on their operational definitions and tested for their validity and reliability. All items were included in a questionnaire completed by 244 full-time nurses at two hospitals in China. All four measures demonstrated concurrent validity and had high reliabilities (from 0.74 to 0.78). The hypothesized correlations with the personality and organizational variables were statistically significant and in the predicted directions. Regression analyses confirmed these relationships, which explained 25-32% of the variance for the four resilience facets and 27% of the variance for the nurses' career success. The results provided strong evidence that organizational socialization facilitates resilience, that resilience engenders career success and that identifying the four resilience facets permits a more complete understanding of personal resilience, which could benefit nurses, help nurse administrators with their work and also help in treating patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Factors Influencing Career Success of Employees in Agribusiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Macák

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Effective HR management in the agribusiness industry can succeed in many ways. Our paper focuses to career success in the agribusiness, respectively to one of the most important human resource management tools. Applying decision-making methods using best practices in IT is cost-effective in more areas. Processing and sorting quantitative data was done using programs Statistica 10, Excel 2010. Furthermore, concerning the statistical hypothesis testing there were used modules Analysis of variance and t-test. Last but not least, there were used decision-making algorithms and corresponding software tools in support of identifying the types of suitable models of career decision-making processes. The first part of this article concentrates on the theoretical background. The second part evaluates the results of a quantitative survey carried out for this research. The research was conducted on a representative sample of agro-business companies, which were categorized according to EU recommendations. Representativeness of respondents’ selection was achieved by the randomization of the responder sample. This sample contained information from 226 employees of the agro-business sector. The main aim of the paper is to evaluate the correlation between organization size and employee career success. A further aim is to identify the factors involved in career success. The outcomes of the questionnaire data were analyzed using descriptive and multidimensional statistical tools, based on Statistica 10 and Excel 2010 programs, supported by analysis of scatter variance and t-test for testing hypotheses. The results confirm three factors for career success: the first is a subjective criterion, namely career satisfaction. The others are objective factors – the occupational status, and income change. With reference to these three factors it was confirmed that the size of a company has an impact on career success. It was shown that, overall, employees are happy to

  3. A Career Success Model for Academics at Malaysian Research Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Said, Al-Mansor; Mohd Rasdi, Roziah; Abu Samah, Bahaman; Silong, Abu Daud; Sulaiman, Suzaimah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a career success model for academics at the Malaysian research universities. Design/methodology/approach: Self-administered and online surveys were used for data collection among 325 academics from Malaysian research universities. Findings: Based on the analysis of structural equation modeling, the…

  4. Career Guidance and Student Success in Dutch Higher Vocational Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Wierik, Mark L. J.; Beishuizen, Jos; van Os, Willem

    2015-01-01

    To enhance student success, a growing number of vocational education and training institutions in the Netherlands are nowadays implementing new career guidance practices in their competence-based approaches to learning. Based on individual-level data of undergraduate first-year full-time students from a Dutch university of applied sciences, this…

  5. THE MEANING OF CAREER SUCCESS AMONG JOB-HOPPER IN THE BOUNDARYLESS CAREER (Phenomenological Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcham Darokah Danita Irianti Malute

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This  phenomenology  qualitative  research  was  conducted  in  order  to  know  the dynamics of career success among job hopper and how did job hoppers interpret the  meaning  career  success  in  boundaryless  career. This  research  used  in-depth interview  for  collecting  the  data  and  supported  by the  data  from  the  documents. The  respondents  involved in  this  research  were  fours job  hoppers in  the level  of manager,  five  significant  others,  such  as  family,  workmate,  and  a  steady  career. The findings revealed that: the job-hoppers individuals who frequently movement of  job  from  one  place  to  another  place  because  of  intrinsic  factors  (financial, interpersonal  conflict,  alternative  employment  opportunities,  etc.,  extrinsic factors  (challenges,  willing  to  learn,  personal  characteristics,  family,  etc., proponent  factors  (networking,  family  support,  and media.  The  meanings  of career  success  among  job-hopper  in  the  boundaryless  career  namely;  self-fulfillment (job satisfaction, life satisfaction, meeting personal goals, adding value to  others,  and  work/life  balance  (family  satisfaction  and  quality  time  with family.  This  study  showed  that  being  a  job-hopper was  a  tool  for  pursuing  the meaning of career success. Keywords: Job-hopper, career success, boundaryless career, qualitative.

  6. Conscientiousness: Origins in Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining whether the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on…

  7. The relationship between personality traits, self-report conscientiousness the Conscientiousness Index and academic performance in undergraduate medical students.

    OpenAIRE

    Finn, G. M.; Carter, M; Sawdon, M.; Thompson, N; Tiffin, P.

    2012-01-01

    Personality traits are now accepted as being important factors within the workplace and medical education. Both cognitive ability and conscientiousness have been shown as important predictors of work-related performance within organisational research1. Conscientiousness is in an important trait within any career, but in particular within medicine where a lack of diligence can be disastrous and potentially cost lives. Within undergraduate students, objective measurement of conscientiousness is...

  8. Protean Career Attitude, Competency Development & Career Success: A Mediating Effect of Perceived Employability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Zafar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Universities built for the purpose of earning profit have sprung up in nearly every nook and cranny of Pakistan. Education has become an industry. Therefore competition is stiff in the university business. The very nature of contract between the employee and employer is changing and organization cannot guarantee the worker lifetime employment through vertical progressions. Instead the employees have to mold themselves into a “protean career attitude” by taking care of his or her employment needs and assure their “employability” by “developing the competencies” in shape of KSAO’s. The present study shows the relationship of various variables like Protean Career Attitude, Competency Development and Employability with success of academicians in their careers. A close-ended questionnaire is built to measure the variables and to test the hypothesis. Punjab is taken as a sample, data Analysis is done through factor analysis, descriptive statistics and hierarchical regression analysis.

  9. Long term impact of emotional, social and cognitive intelligence competencies and GMAT on career and life satisfaction and career success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdurer, Emily; Boyatzis, Richard E; Saatcioglu, Argun; Smith, Melvin L; Taylor, Scott N

    2014-01-01

    Career scholars have called for a broader definition of career success by inviting greater exploration of its antecedents. While success in various jobs has been predicted by intelligence and in other studies by competencies, especially in management, long term impact of having intelligence and using competencies has not been examined. Even in collegiate outcome studies, few have examined the longer term impact on graduates' careers or lives. This study assesses the impact of demonstrated emotional, social, and cognitive intelligence competencies assessed at graduation and g measured through GMAT at entry from an MBA program on career and life satisfaction, and career success assessed 5 to 19 years after graduation. Using behavioral measures of competencies (i.e., as assessed by others), we found that emotional intelligence competencies predict career satisfaction and success. Adaptability had a positive impact, but influence had the opposite effect on these career measures and life satisfaction. Life satisfaction was negatively affected by achievement orientation and positively affected by teamwork. Current salary, length of marriage, and being younger at time of graduation positively affect all three measures of life and career satisfaction and career success. GMAT (as a measure of g) predicted life satisfaction and career success to a slight but significant degree in the final model analyzed. Meanwhile, being female and number of children positively affected life satisfaction but cognitive intelligence competencies negatively affected it, and in particular demonstrated systems thinking was negative.

  10. Long term impact of emotional, social and cognitive intelligence competencies and GMAT on career and life satisfaction and career success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdurer, Emily; Boyatzis, Richard E.; Saatcioglu, Argun; Smith, Melvin L.; Taylor, Scott N.

    2014-01-01

    Career scholars have called for a broader definition of career success by inviting greater exploration of its antecedents. While success in various jobs has been predicted by intelligence and in other studies by competencies, especially in management, long term impact of having intelligence and using competencies has not been examined. Even in collegiate outcome studies, few have examined the longer term impact on graduates' careers or lives. This study assesses the impact of demonstrated emotional, social, and cognitive intelligence competencies assessed at graduation and g measured through GMAT at entry from an MBA program on career and life satisfaction, and career success assessed 5 to 19 years after graduation. Using behavioral measures of competencies (i.e., as assessed by others), we found that emotional intelligence competencies predict career satisfaction and success. Adaptability had a positive impact, but influence had the opposite effect on these career measures and life satisfaction. Life satisfaction was negatively affected by achievement orientation and positively affected by teamwork. Current salary, length of marriage, and being younger at time of graduation positively affect all three measures of life and career satisfaction and career success. GMAT (as a measure of g) predicted life satisfaction and career success to a slight but significant degree in the final model analyzed. Meanwhile, being female and number of children positively affected life satisfaction but cognitive intelligence competencies negatively affected it, and in particular demonstrated systems thinking was negative. PMID:25566128

  11. Long term impact of emotional, social and cognitive intelligence competencies and GMAT on career and life satisfaction and career success

    OpenAIRE

    Amdurer, Emily; Boyatzis, Richard E.; Saatcioglu, Argun; Smith, Melvin L.; Taylor, Scott N.

    2014-01-01

    Career scholars have called for a broader definition of career success by inviting greater exploration of its antecedents. While success in various jobs has been predicted by intelligence and in other studies by competencies, especially in management, long term impact of having intelligence and using competencies has not been examined. Even in collegiate outcome studies, few have examined the longer term impact on graduates' careers or lives. This study assesses the impact of demonstrated emo...

  12. Long term impact of emotional, social and cognitive intelligence competencies and GMAT on career and life satisfaction and career success

    OpenAIRE

    Amdurer, Emily; Boyatzis, Richard E.; Saatcioglu, Argun; Smith, Melvin L.; Taylor, Scott N.

    2014-01-01

    Career scholars have called for a broader definition of career success by inviting greater exploration of its antecedents. While success in various jobs has been predicted by intelligence and in other studies by competencies, especially in management, long term impact of having intelligence and using competencies has not been examined. Even in collegiate outcome studies, few have examined the longer term impact on graduates' careers or lives. This study assesses the impact of demonstrated emo...

  13. Long Term Impact of Emotional, Social and Cognitive Intelligence Competencies and GMAT on Career and Life Satisfaction and Career Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eAmdurer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTCareer scholars have called for a broader definition of career success by inviting greater exploration of its antecedents. While success in various jobs has been predicted by intelligence and in other studies by competencies, especially in management, long term impact of having intelligence and using competencies has not been examined. Even in collegiate outcome studies, few have examined the longer term impact on graduates’ careers or lives. This study assesses the impact of demonstrated emotional, social, and cognitive intelligence competencies assessed at graduation and g measured through GMAT at entry from an MBA program on career and life satisfaction, and career success assessed 5 to 19 years after graduation. Using behavioral measures of competencies (i.e., as assessed by others, we found that emotional intelligence competencies predict career satisfaction and success. Adaptability had a positive impact, but influence had the opposite effect on these career measures and life satisfaction. Life satisfaction was negatively affected by achievement orientation and positively affected by teamwork. Current salary, length of marriage, and being younger at time of graduation positively affect all three measures of life and career satisfaction and career success. GMAT (as a measure of g predicted life satisfaction and career success to a slight but significant degree in the final model analyzed. Meanwhile, being female and number of children positively affected life satisfaction but cognitive intelligence competencies negatively affected it, and in particular demonstrated systems thinking was negative.

  14. Does Trait Emotional Intelligence Predict Unique Variance in Early Career Success Beyond IQ and Personality?

    OpenAIRE

    Haro García, José Manuel de; Castejón Costa, Juan Luis

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine the contribution of emotional intelligence (EI) to career success, in this study, we analyzed the relationship between trait EI (TEI), general mental ability (GMA), the big five personality traits, and career success indicators, in a sample of 130 graduates who were in the early stages of their careers. Results from hierarchical regression analyses indicated that TEI, and especially its dimension “repair,” has incremental validity in predicting one of the career success ...

  15. Does Trait Emotional Intelligence Predict Unique Variance in Early Career Success Beyond IQ and Personality?

    OpenAIRE

    Haro García, José Manuel de; Castejón Costa, Juan Luis (coord.)

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine the contribution of emotional intelligence (EI) to career success, in this study, we analyzed the relationship between trait EI (TEI), general mental ability (GMA), the big five personality traits, and career success indicators, in a sample of 130 graduates who were in the early stages of their careers. Results from hierarchical regression analyses indicated that TEI, and especially its dimension “repair,” has incremental validity in predicting one of the career success ...

  16. Neuroticism, Extraversion, Conscientiousness and Stress: Physiological Correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; van Schaik, Martin G.; Korteling, J.E. (Hans); van Erp, Johannes Bernardus Fransiscus; Toet, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    High extraversion and conscientiousness and low neuroticism predict successful performance during and after stressful conditions. We investigated whether these personality factors are linked to stress sensitivity and to baseline physiology. Stress was induced through negative feedback on gaming perf

  17. Neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness and stress : Physiological correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.M.; Schaik, M.G. van; Korteling, J.E.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Toet, A.

    2015-01-01

    High extraversion and conscientiousness and low neuroticism predict successful performance during and after stressful conditions. We investigated whether these personality factors are linked to stress sensitivity and to baseline physiology. Stress was induced through negative feedback on gaming perf

  18. Neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness and stress : Physiological correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.M.; Schaik, M.G. van; Korteling, J.E.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Toet, A.

    2015-01-01

    High extraversion and conscientiousness and low neuroticism predict successful performance during and after stressful conditions. We investigated whether these personality factors are linked to stress sensitivity and to baseline physiology. Stress was induced through negative feedback on gaming perf

  19. Neuroticism, Extraversion, Conscientiousness and Stress: Physiological Correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Schaik, van Martin G.; Korteling, J.E. (Hans); Erp, van Jan B.F.; Toet, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    High extraversion and conscientiousness and low neuroticism predict successful performance during and after stressful conditions. We investigated whether these personality factors are linked to stress sensitivity and to baseline physiology. Stress was induced through negative feedback on gaming perf

  20. Neuroticism, Extraversion, Conscientiousness and Stress: Physiological Correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; van Schaik, Martin G.; Korteling, J.E. (Hans); van Erp, Johannes Bernardus Fransiscus; Toet, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    High extraversion and conscientiousness and low neuroticism predict successful performance during and after stressful conditions. We investigated whether these personality factors are linked to stress sensitivity and to baseline physiology. Stress was induced through negative feedback on gaming

  1. Launching Successful Beginnings for Early Career Faculty Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Vicki S; Anderson, Cindy M; Killion, Cheryl; Bowers, Barbara; Wyman, Jean F; Herrick, Linda M; Zerwic, Julie J; Smith, Carol E; Cohen, Marlene Z; Benefield, Lazelle E; Topp, Robert; Fahrenwald, Nancy L; Titler, Marita; Larson, Janet L; Varty, Maureen M; Jefferson, Urmeka T

    2017-08-01

    Junior faculty follow a research path replete with challenges as they strive to create knowledge in their area of interest while balancing new responsibilities. Unlike graduate school, where students focus inward on personal development, junior faculty must add responsibilities in ways that hold them accountable as members of a university. This special article deals with three themes of interest to new junior faulty launching research programs: personal development, collaboration and team development within university settings, and funding advice. Strategies in these areas provide guidance on navigating early careers and finding success in the academic setting.

  2. Conscientiousness: Origins in Childhood?

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining if the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on self-regulation, academic motivation, and internalized compliance/internalization of standards. Based on the accumulated body of evidence, we conclude that self...

  3. Future Career Success for Teachers of ESP in Teacher Professionalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯鑫初; 陈兆东

    2013-01-01

    To be a qualified teacher in the new age, teachers of ESP (English for Specific Purposes) should increase their professional awareness:teachers are professionals and educators. A profession needs constant upgrade of the knowledge in the field. It requires continuous development for teachers who are engage in the field. It also takes a lot of research ef orts to ensure its success and ef iciency in operation. More than that, teachers of ESP, the professionals in the near future, should also set another two criteria for themselves. They are occupation awareness and career success. To make it more accurate, the thesis tries to have a smal discussion over the criteria and bring some acceleration to teachers of ESP’s professional development.

  4. Conscience and Conscientious Objections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, Anders

    2007-01-01

    In Western countries conscientious objection is usually accommodated in various ways, at least in certain areas (military conscription, medicine) and to some extent. It appears to be regarded as fundamentally different from other kinds of objection. But why? This study argues that conscientious obje

  5. A narrative investigation into the meaning and experience of career success: Perspectives from women participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willie T. Chinyamurindi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: In South Africa opportunities are being created that encourage more women to enter the workforce. Understanding how women conceptualise and experience career success affects not only their individual career development but also their general outlook in life.Research purpose: To investigate how a sample of previously disadvantaged women distance learners conceptualise and experience the notion of career success.Motivation for the study: Calls have been made for research incorporating a subjective understanding regarding career success, especially amongst minority groups.Research approach, design and method: An interpretive approach was employed aimed at understanding individual experience and the interpretation of it. Unstructured interviews were conducted shaped by the objectives of the study amongst a sample of women (n = 25.Main findings: Through narratives and stories, findings revealed career success to be conceptualised and experienced as (1 a means of professional attainment and recognition, (2 a contribution to society and (3 evident in material and non-material artefacts. Further, from the sample of women used in this research, the experience of career success considered not only socio-historical issues and community but also the cultural milieu. Education emerged as an enabler of individual pursuit and goals leading to career success.Practical/managerial implications: An understanding of how career success is conceptualised and experienced by previously disadvantaged women can serve as a forerunner to individual specific career development interventions. The results of the study are therefore useful to both academics and practitioners in their formulation of interventions that enable individual career development.Contribution: The experience of career success as found in this study through participant narratives and stories gave a picture of career development processes amongst previously disadvantaged groups in South

  6. Time is on my side: time, general mental ability, human capital, and extrinsic career success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A; Klinger, Ryan L; Simon, Lauren S

    2010-01-01

    The present study linked general mental ability (GMA) to extrinsic career success using a multilevel framework that included time and 3 possible time-based mediators of the GMA-career success relationship. Results, based on a large national sample, revealed that over a 28-year period, GMA affected growth in 2 indicators of extrinsic career success (income and occupational prestige), such that the careers of high-GMA individuals ascended more steeply over time than those of low-GMA individuals. Part of the reason high-GMA individuals had steeper growth in extrinsic success over time was because they attained more education, completed more job training, and gravitated toward more complex jobs. GMA also moderated the degree to which within-individual variation in the mediating variables affected within-individual variation in extrinsic career success over time: Education, training, and job complexity were much more likely to translate into career success for more intelligent individuals.

  7. PREREQUISITES FOR SUCCESSFUL CAREER AS A TEACHER IN TECHNICAL INSTITUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Akshaya Kumar Sabat,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is a noble profession and a teacher plays an important role in society. In this modern world, we have well deviated from the “Gurukul” system of Indian teaching-learning process in educating our young mass. In order to cope with the rapid developments in the technological world and the education system, a technical teacher has to understand the system as a whole to play a pivotal role. In this paper, we present the attributes, characteristics and duties of a teacher for successful career in technical education, who takes up the profession by virtue of his/her interest not by compulsion. In addition, some suggestions have been highlighted to improvethe working condition for a teacher in technical institutes.

  8. Long Term Impact of Emotional, Social and Cognitive Intelligence Competencies and GMAT on Career and Life Satisfaction and Career Success

    OpenAIRE

    Emily eAmdurer; Richard Eleftherios Boyatzis; Argun eSaatcioglu; Melvin eSmith; Taylor, Scott N.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACTCareer scholars have called for a broader definition of career success by inviting greater exploration of its antecedents. While success in various jobs has been predicted by intelligence and in other studies by competencies, especially in management, long term impact of having intelligence and using competencies has not been examined. Even in collegiate outcome studies, few have examined the longer term impact on graduates’ careers or lives. This study assesses the impact of demonstr...

  9. Protean and bounderyless career attitudes: relationships with subjective and objective career success

    OpenAIRE

    Volmer, Judith; Spurk, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    "The protean and boundaryless career attitudes have gained special attention during the past years. A protean career attitude implies that a person strives towards a developmental progression and self-fulfillment; a boundaryless career attitude is characterized by a high physical and/or psychological mobility. The aim of the present paper is twofold: First, we want to empirically investigate the relationship between protean and boundaryless career attitudes and subjective (i.e., career satisf...

  10. [Conscientious objectors among physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisker, Rubén; Pérez-Tamayo, Ruy

    2006-01-01

    Conscientious objection refers to the possibility that an individual decides not to comply with a legal mandate because of his or hers convictions, which is accepted by some political constitutions. The classical example is to refuse participation in obligatory military service for personal reasons of conscience, but in the present paper we refer to its use in medical practice utilizing three examples: euthanasia, abortion and the refusal to prescribe emergency contraception. We conclude that in all situations patients rights supersedes conscientious objection.

  11. Career adaptability predicts subjective career success above and beyond personality traits and core self-evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS) measures career adaptability, as a higher-order construct that integrates four psychosocial resources of employees for managing their career development: concern, control, curiosity, and confidence. The goal of the present study was to investigate the validity

  12. Career adaptability predicts subjective career success above and beyond personality traits and core self-evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS) measures career adaptability, as a higher-order construct that integrates four psychosocial resources of employees for managing their career development: concern, control, curiosity, and confidence. The goal of the present study was to investigate the validity

  13. The Longitudinal Impact of Self-Efficacy and Career Goals on Objective and Subjective Career Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abele, Andrea E.; Spurk, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The present research reports on the impact of occupational self-efficacy and of career-advancement goals on objective (salary, status) and subjective (career satisfaction) career attainments. Seven hundred and thirty four highly educated and full-time employed professionals answered questionnaires immediately after graduation, three years later,…

  14. Mentoring Support and Power: A Three Year Predictive Field Study on Protege Networking and Career Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blickle, Gerhard; Witzki, Alexander H.; Schneider, Paula B.

    2009-01-01

    Career success of early employees was analyzed from a power perspective and a developmental network perspective. In a predictive field study with 112 employees mentoring support and mentors' power were assessed in the first wave, employees' networking was assessed after two years, and career success (i.e. income and hierarchical position) and…

  15. Addressing Career Success Issues of African Americans in the Workplace: An Undergraduate Business Program Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Belinda Johnson

    2009-01-01

    Career success as measured by the objective, traditional criteria of the composite of high number of promotions, high annual compensation, and high organizational level in corporate America has eluded the majority of African Americans. This article describes an undergraduate business program career success intervention designed to assist African…

  16. Examining the Relationship between Social Capital and Career Success among Welfare to Work Participants in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Green, Dionne Marie

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between social capital and career success among welfare to work participants in a Louisiana program from 2007 to 2009. Based on the high percentage who do not complete the Louisiana STEP program, outcomes from 2007 to 2009 suggest current STEP work activities may not prepare participants for career success and…

  17. Linking Extroversion and Proactive Personality to Career Success: The Role of Mentoring Received and Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turban, Daniel B.; Moake, Timothy R.; Wu, Sharon Yu-Hsien; Cheung, Yu Ha

    2017-01-01

    Although extroversion and proactive personality are related to career success, the mechanisms through which the relationships occur are unclear. Based on the contest- and sponsored-mobility processes, we examine a model linking extroversion and proactive personality to career success through the mediating effects of mentoring received and…

  18. Linking Extroversion and Proactive Personality to Career Success: The Role of Mentoring Received and Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turban, Daniel B.; Moake, Timothy R.; Wu, Sharon Yu-Hsien; Cheung, Yu Ha

    2017-01-01

    Although extroversion and proactive personality are related to career success, the mechanisms through which the relationships occur are unclear. Based on the contest- and sponsored-mobility processes, we examine a model linking extroversion and proactive personality to career success through the mediating effects of mentoring received and…

  19. Predicting STEM Career Success by STI Knowledge Utilization Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozeman, B.; Youtie, J.; Bretschneider, S.

    2016-07-01

    As a part of discussion on knowledge utilization on science and technology, the mixed of papers presented in the panel discussion is designed to illustrate the patterns of collaboration, mobility, and diffusion of knowledge as well as those of labor force. In particular, the first two papers presented in the panel explore the potential of STEM career success through cosmopolitan collaboration and international community collaboration (focused on the relationships between China and Russia) in nanotechnology, which would provide implications on national and international benchmarking of innovation. For policy implications on graduate education and innovation, mobility pattern of non-U.S. Ph.D. degree holders is examined, and impact of a policy report on the target academic communities is investigated through development of credibility map. This panel is designed to highlight a recent effort of understanding geographical, cognitive or social spaces that are present in the scientific and technological activity as well as in doctoral education. The papers presented in this panel, therefore, will provide a rich set of significant and relevant insights drawn from examining STI knowledge utilization patterns to the STI-ENID community. The anticipated length of the event may be 90 minutes and there is no preferred number of attendees in particular although it is expected to be in between 35 and 60 at the minimum. (Author)

  20. Factors Contributing to the Subjective Career Success among Islamic Educators in Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesnan Supa`ad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A very limited research has been done in the field of career development among Islamic education teachers. Most of the previous researches showed an improvement in terms of grades, positions, and responsibilities of their previous routines as an indicator of their career advancement. However, this conceptual (concept paper discusses how personality factors, career planning, and career strategy can provide significant contribution to the success of Islamic education teachers’ career. Based on the Five Factor Model, Gould Planning Model, and the support of previous researches, this paper discusses how these three factors can contribute to the success of Islamic education teachers’ career. This paper also discusses its impact towards Islamic education teachers in Malaysia, schools management, District Education Office, Ministry of Education, and teachers education institutions.

  1. Preparing minority undergraduate students for successful science careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akundi, Murty

    2008-03-01

    Xavier University of Louisiana is well known for being number one in graduating the most minority students in physical and biological sciences. The reason for this success is built on the concept of Standards with Sympathy in the Sciences (Triple S). This is an outgrowth of over twenty years of planning and development by the Xavier science faculty to devise a program for preparing and retaining students in the sciences and engineering. Xavier has been successfully conducting for over ten years, Summer Science Academy (SSA) for middle and high school students; Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Scholars and Howard Hughes Biomedical programs for in-coming freshmen. Recently, through a grant from NSF, we have developed the Experiential Problem-solving and Analytical Reasoning (EPsAR) summer bridge program for in-coming freshmen who were given conditional admission to the university (i.e., those students who scored below the acceptable range for placement into degree mathematics courses). In this program, EPsAR participants will be engaged in problem-solving and critical thinking activities for eight hours per day, five days per week, for six weeks. Additionally, an interdisciplinary approach is taken to convey the mathematical skills learned to relate to physics, chemistry, biology, and computer science. Sixty-six students have participated in the last two years in the EPsAR program. During the first year 23 of 28 students successfully bi-passed the algebra review course and were placed into a degree credit course in mathematics. In the second year, thirty-one (31) of the 38 were advanced to a higher-level mathematics course. Twenty-three (23) out of 38 went on to degree credit math course. To retain students in the sciences peer tutoring in all the science disciplines are made available to students throughout the day for 5 days per week. Faculty and students are available to give guidance to the needed students. The University has established a

  2. Elements of Success in Chicago Botanic Garden’s Science Career Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Johnson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Science Career Continuum at the Chicago Botanic Garden is a model program for successfully encouraging youth from diverse backgrounds into STEM careers. This program has shown that when students are given an opportunity to participate in real scientific research under the mentorship of a caring professional over multiple years, they are more likely to go to college and pursue STEM careers than their peers. 

  3. Conscientious objection in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerva, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The law regulating abortion in Italy gives healthcare practitioners the option to make a conscientious objection to activities that are specific and necessary to an abortive intervention. Conscientious objectors among Italian gynaecologists amount to about 70%. This means that only a few doctors are available to perform abortions, and therefore access to abortion is subject to constraints. In 2012 the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (IPPF EN) lodged a complaint against Italy to the European Committee of Social Rights, claiming that the inadequate protection of the right to access abortion implies a violation of the right to health. In this paper I will discuss the Italian situation with respect to conscientious objection to abortion and I will suggest possible solutions to the problem.

  4. The Conscientious Responders Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Marjanovic

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This investigation introduces a novel tool for identifying conscientious responders (CRs and random responders (RRs in psychological inventory data. The Conscientious Responders Scale (CRS is a five-item validity measure that uses instructional items to identify responders. Because each item instructs responders exactly how to answer that particular item, each response can be scored as either correct or incorrect. Given the long odds of answering a CRS item correctly by chance alone on a 7-point scale (14.29%, we reasoned that RRs would answer most items incorrectly, whereas CRs would answer them correctly. This rationale was evaluated in two experiments in which CRs’ CRS scores were compared against RRs’ scores. As predicted, results showed large differences in CRS scores across responder groups. Moreover, the CRS correctly classified responders as either conscientious or random with greater than 93% accuracy. Implications for the reliability and effectiveness of the CRS are discussed.

  5. The psychometric evaluation and predictors for two subjective career success instruments / Audine Marlé du Toit

    OpenAIRE

    Du Toit, Audine Marlé

    2014-01-01

    Subjective career success has been the focus of research for a number of years. The term refers to the individual’s personal perception of how successful he/she is in a career. In many qualitative studies subjective career success is found to be a multi-dimensional construct. Although there are quantitative instruments that measure subjective career success, they do not measure the construct on multiple dimensions. The first objective of this study was to determine the validity...

  6. The psychometric evaluation and predictors for two subjective career success instruments / Audine Marlé du Toit

    OpenAIRE

    Du Toit, Audine Marlé

    2014-01-01

    Subjective career success has been the focus of research for a number of years. The term refers to the individual’s personal perception of how successful he/she is in a career. In many qualitative studies subjective career success is found to be a multi-dimensional construct. Although there are quantitative instruments that measure subjective career success, they do not measure the construct on multiple dimensions. The first objective of this study was to determine the validity...

  7. Training career adaptability to facilitate a successful school-to-work transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen, J.; Klehe, U.-C.; van Vianen, A.E.M.

    2012-01-01

    The transition from school to work is one of the most critical steps in graduates' careers, as it can determine vocational outcomes and future career success. Yet, these newcomers to the labor market often take longer than regular job seekers to find a suitable job, are more likely to experience a j

  8. Training Career Adaptability to Facilitate a Successful School-to-Work Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koen, Jessie; Klehe, Ute-Christine; Van Vianen, Annelies E. M.

    2012-01-01

    The transition from school to work is one of the most critical steps in graduates' careers, as it can determine vocational outcomes and future career success. Yet, these newcomers to the labor market often take longer than regular job seekers to find a suitable job, are more likely to experience a job mismatch and to suffer from underemployment.…

  9. Success for Learning Disabled Students. Sources to Upgrade Career Counseling and Employment of Special Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombana, Judy H.

    As one of the publications of the Florida Sources to Upgrade the Career Counseling and Employment of Special Students (SUCCESS) Project, this guide is designed to provide school counselors, occupational specialists, and other guidance personnel with basic information and listings of resources concerning the career guidance needs of handicapped…

  10. Career inflection points of women who successfully achieved the hospital CEO position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Donald W; Lemak, Christy Harris; Wainio, Joyce Anne

    2014-01-01

    Women are significantly underrepresented in hospital CEO positions, and this gender disparity has changed little over the past few decades. The purpose of this study was to analyze the career trajectories of successful female healthcare executives to determine factors that generated inflections in their careers. Using qualitative research methodology, we studied the career trajectories of 20 women who successfully ascended into a hospital CEO position. Our findings revealed 25 inflection points related to education and training, experience, career management, family, networking, and mentorship and sponsorship. We found substantial differences in the career inflection points by functional background. Inflections were more pronounced early in the careers of women in healthcare management, while clinical and administrative support executives experienced more inflections later as they took on responsibilities outside of their professional roles. Only two inflections were common among all the executives: completing a graduate degree and obtaining experience as a chief operating officer. More importantly, our findings show that organizational support factors are critical for the career advancement of women. We conclude with recommendations for individuals in an effort to enhance their career trajectories. We also provide recommended activities for organizations to support the careers of women in healthcare leadership.

  11. Exploring Career-Life Success and Family Social Support of Successful Women in Canada, Argentina and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lirio, Pamela; Lituchy, Terri R.; Monserrat, Silvia Ines; Olivas-Lujan, Miguel R.; Duffy, Jo Ann; Fox, Suzy; Gregory, Ann; Punnett, B. J.; Santos, Neusa

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine career-life issues of successful women in the Americas. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 30 interviews were conducted with successful women in Canada, Argentina and Mexico. Themes were pulled from the interview transcripts for each country, analyzed and then compared across countries, looking…

  12. Exploring Career-Life Success and Family Social Support of Successful Women in Canada, Argentina and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lirio, Pamela; Lituchy, Terri R.; Monserrat, Silvia Ines; Olivas-Lujan, Miguel R.; Duffy, Jo Ann; Fox, Suzy; Gregory, Ann; Punnett, B. J.; Santos, Neusa

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine career-life issues of successful women in the Americas. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 30 interviews were conducted with successful women in Canada, Argentina and Mexico. Themes were pulled from the interview transcripts for each country, analyzed and then compared across countries, looking…

  13. Conscientious Objection to Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Steve; Giubilini, Alberto; Walker, Mary Jean

    2017-03-01

    Vaccine refusal occurs for a variety of reasons. In this article we examine vaccine refusals that are made on conscientious grounds; that is, for religious, moral, or philosophical reasons. We focus on two questions: first, whether people should be entitled to conscientiously object to vaccination against contagious diseases (either for themselves or for their children); second, if so, to what constraints or requirements should conscientious objection (CO) to vaccination be subject. To address these questions, we consider an analogy between CO to vaccination and CO to military service. We argue that conscientious objectors to vaccination should make an appropriate contribution to society in lieu of being vaccinated. The contribution to be made will depend on the severity of the relevant disease(s), its morbidity, and also the likelihood that vaccine refusal will lead to harm. In particular, the contribution required will depend on whether the rate of CO in a given population threatens herd immunity to the disease in question: for severe or highly contagious diseases, if the population rate of CO becomes high enough to threaten herd immunity, the requirements for CO could become so onerous that CO, though in principle permissible, would be de facto impermissible.

  14. Academic career in medicine – requirements and conditions for successful advancement in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamm Martina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within the framework of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates a sample of young physicians aspiring to an academic career were surveyed on their career support and barriers experienced up to their sixth year of postgraduate training. Methods Thirty-one junior academics took part in semi-structured telephone interviews in 2007. The interview guideline focused on career paths to date, career support and barriers experienced, and recommendations for junior and senior academics. The qualitatively assessed data were evaluated according to Mayring's content analysis. Furthermore, quantitatively gained data from the total cohort sample on person- and career-related characteristics were analyzed in regard to differences between the junior academics and cohort doctors who aspire to another career in medicine. Results Junior academics differ in terms of instrumentality as a person-related factor, and in terms of intrinsic career motivation and mentoring as career-related factors from cohort doctors who follow other career paths in medicine; they also show higher scores in the Career-Success Scale. Four types of career path could be identified in junior academics: (1 focus on basic sciences, (2 strong focus on research (PhD programs followed by clinical training, (3 one to two years in research followed by clinical training, (4 clinical training and research in parallel. The interview material revealed the following categories of career-supporting experience: making oneself out as a proactive junior physician, research resources provided by superior staff, and social network; statements concerning career barriers encompassed interference between clinical training and research activities, insufficient research coaching, and personality related barriers. Recommendations for junior academics focused on mentoring and professional networking, for senior academics on interest in human resource development and being role

  15. Early career choices and successful career progression in surgery in the UK: prospective cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richards Jennifer MJ

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes to the structure of medical training worldwide require doctors to decide on their career specialty at an increasingly early stage after graduation. We studied trends in career choices for surgery, and the eventual career destinations, of UK graduates who declared an early preference for surgery. Methods Postal questionnaires were sent, at regular time intervals after qualification, to all medical qualifiers from all UK medical schools in selected qualification years between 1974 and 2005. They were sent in the first year after qualification, at year three and five years after qualification, and at longer time intervals thereafter. Results Responses were received from 27 749 of 38 280 doctors (73% at year one, 23 468 of 33151 (71% at year three, and 17 689 of 24 870 (71% at year five. Early career preferences showed that surgery has become more popular over the past two decades. Looking forward from early career choice, 60% of respondents (64% of men, 48% of women with a first preference for a surgical specialty at year one eventually worked in surgery (p Conclusions Surgery is a popular specialty choice in the UK. The great majority of doctors who progressed in a surgical career made an early and definitive decision to do so.

  16. Your Career as a Successful Independent TESL Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to present information on how to develop one's career as an independent TESOL professional (e.g. adjunct instructor, freelancer, contractor or consultant). The methodology used to present this information is active practitioner reflection. The discussion includes topics such as various types independent…

  17. Networking: A Key to Career Communication and Management Consulting Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Now that job security with one organization is a relic of the past and companies are outsourcing training and other "nonessential" functions, the author suggests in his career communication classes that students develop the same inventive strategies to plan their employment futures that management consultants use to market themselves in the 21st…

  18. GENDERED CAREER PRODUCTIVITY AND SUCCESS IN ACADEMIA IN INDONESIA’S ISLAMIC HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Kholis

    2012-01-01

    Career advancement in Indonesian academia is nationally regulated. It, theoretically, provides equal opportunities for men and women to be productive and successful. The purpose of this study is to analyze gender effects on academic career productivity and success. Seven-hundred and fifty questionnaires were distributed randomly to eight Islamic Higher Education Institutions in seven provinces, from which 220 (Men = 57.7%, and Women = 42.3%) respondents returned the questionnaires with an ana...

  19. A Career Success of the Distributors in Multi-Level Marketing (MLM) Company

    OpenAIRE

    Siahaan, Elisabet; Lumbanraja, Prihatin; Muchtar, Yasmin Chairunisa

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, MLM Company around the world are highly developed, and companies especially in Indonesia have been using a system of direct sales to the consumers. The career structure in MLM Company has been very much acknowledged. However, not all MLM distributors are able to achieve the line of succession. The purpose of this research is to analyse the main causes of career success in MLM Company. This study uses both quantitative and qualitative methods. The selection of samples is carried out ...

  20. [Medicine and conscientious objection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, K

    2007-01-01

    Conscientious objection to democratically accepted laws in democratic societies is a fact, both among citizens and among professionals. Due respect for laws is a prima facie duty in these societies. But democratic justice must at the same time respect peoples' conscience for it constitutes the ethical identity of individuals. And both law and ethics are necessary - although neither of them is sufficient - for its realization. The problem of conscientious objection among healthcare professionals is analysed from this standpoint and the conclusion is that objection is not an absolute right to exemption from several duties, but that the responsibility of the professional and of the institutions towards the citizenry must always be taken into account. Some solutions are suggested that try to protect both the professionals and the citizens in a bi-directional way.

  1. "Effects of networking on career success: A longitudinal study": Correction to Wolff and Moser (2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Reports an error in "Effects of networking on career success: A longitudinal study" by Hans-Georg Wolff and Klaus Moser (Journal of Applied Psychology, 2009[Jan], Vol 94[1], 196-206). In the article, results from a confirmatory factor analysis on subjective career success in the Measures section contained an error in the reported Chi-square (i.e., χ² (5, N = 257) = 9.17). This error does not alter any conclusions or substantive statements in the original article. The correct fit indices are " χ²(5, N = 257) 9.67, p = .08, RMSEA = 0.059, CFI = 1.00." (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2009-00697-007.) Previous research has reported effects of networking, defined as building, maintaining, and using relationships, on career success. However, empirical studies have relied exclusively on concurrent or retrospective designs that rest upon strong assumptions about the causal direction of this relation and depict a static snapshot of the relation at a given point in time. This study provides a dynamic perspective on the effects of networking on career success and reports results of a longitudinal study. Networking was assessed with 6 subscales that resulted from combining measures of the facets of (a) internal versus external networking and (b) building versus maintaining versus using contacts. Objective (salary) and subjective (career satisfaction) measures of career success were obtained for 3 consecutive years. Multilevel analyses showed that networking is related to concurrent salary and that it is related to the growth rate of salary over time. Networking is also related to concurrent career satisfaction. As satisfaction remained stable over time, no effects of networking on the growth of career satisfaction were found. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Global career mobility, repatriation and career success of Dutch and Indian professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, Reimara

    2016-01-01

    This PhD research explores global career mobility of Dutch and Indian professionals categorized in three groups: 1) Company-Assigned Expatriates (CAEs);2) Independent Internationally Mobile Professionals (IIMPs) / Self-Initiated Expatriates (SIEs); 3) Repatriates.The purpose was to:- explore the

  3. Global career mobility, repatriation and career success of Dutch and Indian professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, Reimara

    2016-01-01

    This PhD research explores global career mobility of Dutch and Indian professionals categorized in three groups: 1) Company-Assigned Expatriates (CAEs);2) Independent Internationally Mobile Professionals (IIMPs) / Self-Initiated Expatriates (SIEs); 3) Repatriates.The purpose was to:- explore the mot

  4. Global career mobility, repatriation and career success of Dutch and Indian professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, Reimara

    2016-01-01

    This PhD research explores global career mobility of Dutch and Indian professionals categorized in three groups: 1) Company-Assigned Expatriates (CAEs);2) Independent Internationally Mobile Professionals (IIMPs) / Self-Initiated Expatriates (SIEs); 3) Repatriates.The purpose was to:- explore the mot

  5. The conscientious retiree: The relationship between conscientiousness, retirement, and volunteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike, Anissa; Jackson, Joshua J; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2014-10-01

    The current study examined the relationship between conscientiousness, work status, and volunteering utilizing two large samples, the St. Louis Personality and Aging Network (SPAN) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). It was hypothesized that conscientious adults who were retired would be more likely to volunteer because, after retirement, they gain a substantial amount of free time, while losing an outlet for their industrious and achievement-striving tendencies. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses revealed that conscientious, retired individuals were more likely to volunteer than conscientious, working individuals. Further analyses revealed that facets of conscientiousness provide differential information from the general trait. These findings indicate that volunteering during retirement fills an important niche for high-striving, conscientious individuals.

  6. Effective communication: the key to career success and great leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelman, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    Good communication is the key to educating, creating, and negotiating with others, and is especially important for security professionals whose jobs involve dealing with an employee having problems, negotiating with another department to get something we need, educating our bosses about hardening our targets or trying to de-escalate a family or patient who is upset or out of control, the author points out. Developing your own communication style, based on your understanding of what is involved in effective communications, will stand you in good stead in succeeding as a leader and advancing your career, she says.

  7. Operational Forces soldiers’ perceptions of attributes and skills for career success

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rawoot, Ishreen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available , irawoot@csir.co.za Dates: Received: 23 Feb. 2017 Accepted: 24 Mar. 2017 Published: 31 July 2017 How to cite this article: Rawoot, I., Van Heerden, A., & Parker, L. (2017). Operational Forces soldiers’ perceptions of attributes and skills for career... to military career success. Presence Will Character Attitude Cognitive Interpersonal Maturity Calm Reliable Commitment Sound judgement Works well in a team Persistent Hardy Empathy Competitive Initiative - Self-confident Adaptability Organised Risk taker High...

  8. Human capital and career success: Evidence from linked employer-employee data

    OpenAIRE

    Frederiksen, Anders; Kato, Takao

    2011-01-01

    Denmark's registry data provide accurate and complete career history data along with detailed personal characteristics (e.g., education, gender, work experience, tenure and others) for the population of Danish workers longitudinally. By using such data from 1992 to 2002, we provide rigorous evidence for the first time for the population of workers in an entire economy (as opposed to case study evidence) on the effects of the nature and scope of human capital on career success (measured by app...

  9. Protean Career Attitude, Competency Development & Career Success: A Mediating Effect of Perceived Employability

    OpenAIRE

    Junaid Zafar; Norazuwa Bint Mat

    2012-01-01

    Universities built for the purpose of earning profit have sprung up in nearly every nook and cranny of Pakistan. Education has become an industry. Therefore competition is stiff in the university business. The very nature of contract between the employee and employer is changing and organization cannot guarantee the worker lifetime employment through vertical progressions. Instead the employees have to mold themselves into a “protean career attitude” by taking care of his or her employment ne...

  10. The openness of Britain during industrialization. Determinants of career success of British men born between 1780 and 1880

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montt, Cristóbal; Maas, Ineke

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we study the occupational careers of British men during industrialisation. We ask whether careers became more successful during industrialisation and whether British society became more open.Using the Longitudinal Study of Residential Histories dataset we analysed the career of 6229

  11. An explorative study on factors influencing the career success of management employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Koekemoer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: South African organisations are increasingly recognising the importance of attracting, developing and retaining top talent, especially management employees.Research purpose: In an attempt to help organisations with retaining talent, this study focused on career success and identified specific factors that influence the career success of managers in the South African work environment.Motivation for the study: Organisations need to establish favourable organisational conditions and human resource practices to retain their management employees. By identifying influential factors for the career success of managers, this research may help organisations to focus more accurately on their retention strategies for management employees.Research approach, design and method: The present study used a qualitative research design that followed an exploratory approach. A non-probability purposive sample of 24 senior management employees was selected from two financial institutions in South Africa. Qualitative data was collected by means of semi-structured interviews and the verbatim transcriptions were analysed by content analysis.Main findings: Managers identified various factors that impact on their career success. One can distinguish ‘external’ factors (e.g. political and economic climate and business environment from ‘internal’ factors (e.g. individuals’ personal attributes, skills and education.Practical/managerial implications: Individuals should focus on the internal contributing factors, whilst organisations should manage the external contributing factors more effectively.Contribution/value-add: Specific South African factors that influence the career success of managers should be included in future retention strategies. From the findings it is suggested that both the individuals and organisations can implement strategies to ensure career success and thereby help retain the top talent in organisations.

  12. An Empirical Research on the Correlation between Human Capital and Career Success of Knowledge Workers in Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenchen; Xiao, Hongjun; Yang, Xi

    Human capital plays an important part in employability of knowledge workers, also it is the important intangible assets of company. This paper explores the correlation between human capital and career success of knowledge workers. Based on literature retrieval, we identified measuring tool of career success and modified further; measuring human capital with self-developed scale of high reliability and validity. After exploratory factor analysis, we suggest that human capital contents four dimensions, including education, work experience, learning ability and training; career success contents three dimensions, including perceived internal competitiveness of organization, perceived external competitiveness of organization and career satisfaction. The result of empirical analysis indicates that there is a positive correlation between human capital and career success, and human capital is an excellent predictor of career success beyond demographics variables.

  13. Women's Career Success: A Factor Analytic Study of Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, LuAnn Ricketts

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 466 women employed in retailing received 205 responses identifying (1) factors influencing the success and advancement of women in retailing and (2) how those factors differ for women in upper versus middle positions. Upper-level executives placed more importance on ambition and abilities; midlevel executives credited opportunity and…

  14. GENDERED CAREER PRODUCTIVITY AND SUCCESS IN ACADEMIA IN INDONESIA’S ISLAMIC HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Kholis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Career advancement in Indonesian academia is nationally regulated. It, theoretically, provides equal opportunities for men and women to be productive and successful. The purpose of this study is to analyze gender effects on academic career productivity and success. Seven-hundred and fifty questionnaires were distributed randomly to eight Islamic Higher Education Institutions in seven provinces, from which 220 (Men = 57.7%, and Women = 42.3% respondents returned the questionnaires with an analyzable quality. Descriptive and multivariate analyses are employed for analyzing and presenting the results. The paper argues that women in Islamic Higher Education Institutions are less productive in terms of publications, hold lower academic rank and leadership positions, and earn significantly less than men. It further argues that Islamic Higher Education Institutions should provide specific empowerment for women by, for example, providing support for their continuing education, professional development, and career opportunities.

  15. Networking and Managers' Career Success in the Malaysian Public Sector: The Moderating Effect of Managerial Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasdi, Roziah Mohd; Garavan, Thomas N.; Ismail, Maimunah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how managerial level moderates the relationships between networking behaviours and career success (objective and subjective) in the context of a public sector organisation in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The study utilised a cross-sectional design and investigated these relationships…

  16. Implications of the Theory of Successful Intelligence for Career Choice and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    Successful intelligence is the ability to attain life goals by adapting to, shaping, and selecting environments and recognizing and dealing with strengths and weaknesses. Research on the measurement of analytical, creative, and practical abilities validates the theory and the usefulness of triarchic instruction in finding a career path. (Contains …

  17. Exploring Predictors of Graduate School and Career Success: A Case Study in Sport Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCrom, Carrie; Rufer, Lisa; Slavich, Mark; Dwyer, Brendan; Greenhalgh, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The following case study attempted to assess what factors contribute to graduate school and early-career success among sport management graduate students. As faculty members charged with admitting the next generation of leaders in the sport industry, how should admissions decisions be made and what factors should be considered? The authors…

  18. Influences on Perceived Career Success: Findings from US Graduate Business Degree Alumni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchiara, Faye K.; Kwesiga, Eileen; Bell, Myrtle P.; Baruch, Yehuda

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the perceptions of US MBA and specialist master's degree alumni to determine the influence that their degree program experiences had on subsequent perceptions of career success. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from 318 alumni MBA and specialist master's degree recipients from a…

  19. A Model of Career Success: A Longitudinal Study of Emergency Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachulicz, Sarah; Schmitt, Neal; Kuljanin, Goran

    2008-01-01

    Objective and subjective career success were hypothesized to mediate the relationships between sociodemographic variables, human capital indices, individual difference variables, and organizational sponsorship as inputs and a retirement decision and intentions to leave either the specialty of emergency medicine (EM) or medicine as output…

  20. Networking and Managers' Career Success in the Malaysian Public Sector: The Moderating Effect of Managerial Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasdi, Roziah Mohd; Garavan, Thomas N.; Ismail, Maimunah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how managerial level moderates the relationships between networking behaviours and career success (objective and subjective) in the context of a public sector organisation in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The study utilised a cross-sectional design and investigated these relationships…

  1. End of Program Assessments and Their Association with Early Career Success in LIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbun-Grubb, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Analyses of North American LIS program alumni survey data indicate that the completion of any end of program assessment (EPA) or capstone is associated with certain early-career success measures. Using data collected in the Workforce Issues in Library and Information Science 2 project (WILIS 2), we examined the type of EPAs (internships,…

  2. Impact of the Special Education Vocational Education Program (VEP) on Student Career Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofoegbu, Nelly E.; Azarmsa, Reza

    2010-01-01

    The Vocational Education Program (VEP) was established by the special education department in the Long Beach Unified School District (LBUSD) in an effort to assist students with disabilities to graduate from high school and be gainfully employed. This study investigated the impact of VEP on students' careers success after graduation. The…

  3. Exploring Predictors of Graduate School and Career Success: A Case Study in Sport Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCrom, Carrie; Rufer, Lisa; Slavich, Mark; Dwyer, Brendan; Greenhalgh, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The following case study attempted to assess what factors contribute to graduate school and early-career success among sport management graduate students. As faculty members charged with admitting the next generation of leaders in the sport industry, how should admissions decisions be made and what factors should be considered? The authors…

  4. College and Career Readiness and Success: Inventory of Policies, Programs, and Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    College and Career Readiness and Success Center, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This inventory is designed to assist state education agencies and other stakeholders to identify the policies, programs, and initiatives in their states that support students on their pathways to success in college and careers. In other words, it addresses the question: What policies, programs, and initiatives does your state have in place to…

  5. Examining Career Success of Minority and Women Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs): A LEADS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ-Eft, Darlene F.; Dickison, Philip D.; Levine, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) are a critical segment in prehospital medical care. This study examined EMT-paramedic career success focused on minorities and women, as part of the Longitudinal Emergency Medical Technician Attributes and Demographics Study (LEADS). The LEADS data come from a representative sampling of EMTs throughout the…

  6. Unite the tribes ending turf wars for career and business success

    CERN Document Server

    Duncan, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Founder of Practical Strategy Consulting, Christopher Duncan is the bestselling author of Unite the Tribes and The Career Programmer. He's been a frequent guest on radio shows across the country, his monthly columns have been read by hundreds of thousands worldwide, and he is widely acclaimed for his immensely practical approach to success in the real world where self interest and office politics are often more prevalent than common sense. This keen insight does not come by accident. Christopher has an unusually diverse background which includes a career in sales consulting, life as a professi

  7. Perceived organizational support and intention to remain: The mediating roles of career success and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingying; Liu, Yan-Hui

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationships among perceived organizational support, career success, self-esteem and intention to remain. A cross-sectional study was designed, and subjects were recruited from six nonprofit organizations in China in spring 2015. A convenience sample of 610 nurses answered a survey with questions related to their ideas about their work. Structural equation modelling analyses were conducted. The results revealed that perceived organizational support was positively associated with intention to remain and career success, which, in turn, mediated the relationship between perceived organizational support and intention to remain. We also found that self-esteem mediated the relationships between perceived organizational support and career success and between career success and intention to remain. Higher perceived organizational support, career success and self-esteem can increase intention to remain in Chinese nurses.

  8. Conscientious objection in health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuře Josef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with conscientious objection in health care, addressing the problems of scope, verification and limitation of such refusal, paying attention to ideological agendas hidden behind the right of conscience where the claimed refusal can cause harm or where such a claim is an attempt to impose certain moral values on society or an excuse for not providing health care. The nature of conscientious objection will be investigated and an ethical analysis of conscientious objection will be conducted. Finally some suggestions for health care policy will be proposed.

  9. Conscientious commitment to women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Bernard M; Cook, Rebecca J

    2011-05-01

    Conscientious commitment, the reverse of conscientious objection, inspires healthcare providers to overcome barriers to delivery of reproductive services to protect and advance women's health. History shows social reformers experiencing religious condemnation and imprisonment for promoting means of birth control, until access became popularly accepted. Voluntary sterilization generally followed this pattern to acceptance, but overcoming resistance to voluntary abortion calls for courage and remains challenging. The challenge is aggravated by religious doctrines that view treatment of ectopic pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, and emergency contraception not by reference to women's healthcare needs, but through the lens of abortion. However, modern legal systems increasingly reject this myopic approach. Providers' conscientious commitment is to deliver treatments directed to women's healthcare needs, giving priority to patient care over adherence to conservative religious doctrines or religious self-interest. The development of in vitro fertilization to address childlessness further illustrates the inspiration of conscientious commitment over conservative objections.

  10. [Abortion and conscientious objection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarkowski, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Polish laws specify the parties responsible for lawful medical care in the availability of abortion differently than the Resolution of the Council of Europe. According to Polish regulations they include all Polish doctors while according to the Resolution, the state. Polish rules should not discriminate against anyone in connection with his religion or belief, even more so because the issue of abortion is an example of an unresolved ethical dispute. The number of lawful abortion in Poland does not exceed 1000 per year and can be carried out by only a few specialists contracted by the National Health Fund. Sufficient information and assistance should be provided to all pregnant women by the National Health Fund. The participation of all physicians in the informing process is not necessary, as evidenced by the lack of complaints to provide information on where in vitro fertilization treatment can be found - until recently only available when paid for by the individual and performed in much larger numbers than abortion. Entities performing this paid procedure made sure to provide information on their own. The rejection of the right to the conscientious objection clause by negating the right to refuse information may lead some to give up the profession or cause the termination of certain professionals on the basis of the professed worldview. Meanwhile, doctors are not allowed to be discriminated against on the basis of their conscience or religion.

  11. Relation of success and nontraditional career choice to selection for dating and friendship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Usha; Pfost, Karen S; House, Alvin E; Pierson, Eric

    2010-08-01

    Women who succeed in traditionally male-dominated fields have previously been found to experience lower social acceptance, both from men in romantic contexts and from women in platonic contexts. The present study examined whether such preferences continue to exist. Participants were 256 university students (110 men, 146 women) with an average age of 21.4 yr. (SD = 3.6). They answered the Bem Sex Role Inventory and the Modern Sexism Scale and also responded to four descriptions of stimulus persons which represented the variables of traditional versus nontraditional field and successful versus nondescribed academic performance. Results indicated that men preferred to date women in traditional careers (independent of their success). This finding was unrelated to men's scores on sex role orientation or egalitarianism and sexism. However, in platonic relationships, women favored women in nontraditional careers as friends.

  12. Internal Labour Market as Factor in the Career Success Perceived by an Engineer

    OpenAIRE

    Bejarano Heredia, Alberto Ismael; Jauregui Machuca, Kety Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of the global crisis in both the financial energy sectors as well as the emergence of new technologies companies consider their success or failure depending on the ability to respond quickly to opportunities in their competitive environment. This competitiveness is found especially in the capacity of their technical professionals. On the other hand career is characterized as protean, boundaryless and directed mainly by the individual. Given this scenario, organizations should o...

  13. Supporting Geoscience Students at Two-Year Colleges: Career Preparation and Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaris, J. R.; Kirk, K. B.; Layou, K.; Macdonald, H.; Baer, E. M.; Blodgett, R. H.; Hodder, J.

    2013-12-01

    Two-year colleges play an important role in developing a competent and creative geoscience workforce, teaching science to pre-service K-12 teachers, producing earth-science literate citizens, and providing a foundation for broadening participation in the geosciences. The Supporting and Advancing Geoscience Education in Two-Year Colleges (SAGE 2YC) project has developed web resources for geoscience faculty on the preparation and support of students in two-year colleges (2YCs). Online resources developed from two topical workshops and several national, regional, and local workshops around the country focus on two main categories: Career Preparation and Workforce Development, and Supporting Student Success in Geoscience at Two-year Colleges. The Career Preparation and Workforce Development resources were developed to help faculty make the case that careers in the geosciences provide a range of possibilities for students and to support preparation for the geoscience workforce and for transfer to four-year programs as geoscience majors. Many two-year college students are unaware of geoscience career opportunities and these materials help illuminate possible futures for them. Resources include an overview of what geoscientists do; profiles of possible careers along with the preparation necessary to qualify for them; geoscience employer perspectives about jobs and the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes they are looking for in their employees; employment trends in sectors of the economy that employ geoscience professionals; examples of geotechnician workforce programs (e.g. Advanced Technological Education Centers, environmental technology programs, marine technician programs); and career resources available from professional societies. The website also provides information to support student recruitment into the geosciences and facilitate student transfer to geoscience programs at four- year colleges and universities, including sections on advising support before

  14. Career Development among First-Year College Students: College Self-Efficacy, Student Persistence, and Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephen L.; Jenkins-Guarnieri, Michael A.; Murdock, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the career development of college student persistence decisions through the theoretical lens of social cognitive career theory (SCCT). Specifically, the authors sought to understand the potential role of college self-efficacy in first-year student persistence and academic success at a medium size university. Using a…

  15. Defining Advancement Career Paths and Succession Plans: Critical Human Capital Retention Strategies for High-Performing Advancement Divisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Jon Derek; Wolk, Holly Gordon

    2010-01-01

    There are many factors that can influence whether a highly talented staff member will build a career within an institution or use it as a stepping stone. This article defines and explores the notions of developing career paths and succession planning and why they are critical human capital investment strategies in retaining the highest performers…

  16. Defining Advancement Career Paths and Succession Plans: Critical Human Capital Retention Strategies for High-Performing Advancement Divisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Jon Derek; Wolk, Holly Gordon

    2010-01-01

    There are many factors that can influence whether a highly talented staff member will build a career within an institution or use it as a stepping stone. This article defines and explores the notions of developing career paths and succession planning and why they are critical human capital investment strategies in retaining the highest performers…

  17. The relationships among perceived organizational support, intention to remain, career success and self-esteem in Chinese male nurses

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among perceived organizational support, intention to remain, career success and self-esteem in male nurses in China. Background: Recently, turnover is considered increasingly more normal. Male nurses could be stabilized by improving their perceived organizational support, career success and self-esteem. Design: A cross-sectional design was used in the present study. Method: 405 full-time male Registered Nurses, from ...

  18. The Chernyshenko Conscientiousness Scales: A New Facet Measure of Conscientiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jessica A; O'Connor, Daryl B; Gartland, Nicola; Roberts, Brent W

    2016-06-01

    The current research sought to validate the Chernyshenko Conscientiousness Scales (CCS), a novel measure designed to assess six facets of conscientiousness. Data from 7,569 U.S. participants and 649 U.K. participants were analyzed to assess the internal reliability and factorial structure of the scales. Test-retest reliability, convergent and divergent validity, and criterion-related validity were also evaluated using a separate U.K. sample (n = 118; n = 80 for test-retest). The results showed that those items designed to measure industriousness, order, self-control, traditionalism, and virtue were best represented by a five-factor structure, broadly consistent with the five scales. However, the content and structure of the responsibility scale requires further investigation. Overall, the CCS has the potential to be a useful alternative to the faceted measures of conscientiousness that are currently available. However, future research is required to refine a number of problematic items and to clarify which facets can be better described as interstitial dimensions between conscientiousness and other Big Five domains.

  19. The Career Success/Personal Failure Phenomenon as Perceived in Others: Comparing Vignettes of Male and Female Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Mina; Etzion, Dalia

    1990-01-01

    Reactions to 4 versions of a vignette describing a successful manager were obtained from 233 management students, including 50 executives in an extension course. Career success was perceived as a major cause of personal failure. The personal price paid by successful people was perceived differently depending on gender and marital status. (SK)

  20. Relevance of career services for CEMS students for successful job-entry

    OpenAIRE

    Zicháčková, Denisa

    2010-01-01

    The thesis aims at exploring what the role of career guidance services for CEMS students in their job search is, and at proposing a number of recommendations for further development of CEMS career services. First part of this thesis will provide us with a necessary theoretical background on career choice, career management and development, and career guidance. Then, CEMS and its current career services offer will be presented in brief. Finally, an analysis of a research that we have conducted...

  1. Stressing Success: Examining Hmong Student Success in Career and Technical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen M. Iannarelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines factors affecting the academic performance of Hmong students at Chippewa Valley Technical College in Eau Claire, WI. Factors specifically analyzed for their impact upon student success are socioeconomic status, family support, the use of academic support programs, and the influence of agents of socialization. Through the use of archival institutional data, Hmong students were compared to white students at CVTC in terms of their relative grade point averages, course completion rates, and retention rates. Data revealed significant disparities in grade point average performance between Hmong and white students. The data also showed that eligibility for financial aid was significantly higher among Hmong students, and that this difference was commensurate with educational performance gaps between the two groups. Additionally, online surveys were used to assess family support while attending CVTC, the role of academic support programs, and influential agents of socialization. Gender differences in grade point average performance and socialization also were analyzed. Implications of the study’s findings are discussed and recommendations for improving the performance of Hmong students are provided.

  2. Understanding Conscientiousness and Its Role in Improved Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Jane; Dunlap, Allison

    2014-01-01

    In today's rapidly changing global economy, "21st century skills" means much more than proficiency in basic academic subjects. One of the most important noncognitive competencies for student success is conscientiousness, which encompasses traits such as perseverance, self-regulation, resilience, and responsibility. Researchers have found…

  3. Success factors in top career : Towards a life-cycle model on careers of women and men, inside and outside the hospitality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sok, J.; Tromp, D.M.; Blomme, R.J.; Muijen, van J.J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to identify success factors in the careers of top women in the hospitality industry. We started out by interviewing five women who are currently working in a high management position in the hospitality industry, about their experiences on their way to the top

  4. Success factors in top career : Towards a life-cycle model on careers of women and men, inside and outside the hospitality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sok, J.; Blomme, R.J.; Tromp, D.M.; Muijen, van J.J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to identify success factors in the careers of top women in the hospitality industry. We started out by interviewing five women who are currently working in a high management position in the hospitality industry, about their experiences on their way to the

  5. Data Science Careers: A Sampling of Successful Strategies, Pitfalls, and Persistent Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, K. I.; Duerr, R.; Wyborn, L. A.; Yarmey, L.

    2015-12-01

    Data Scientists do not have a single career trajectory or preparatory pathway. Successful data scientists have come from domain sciences, computer science, library science, and other diverse fields. They have worked up from entry-level staff positions, have started as academics with doctoral degrees, and have established themselves as management professionals. They have positions in government, industry, academia, and NGO's, and their responsibilities range from highly specialized, to generalists, to high-level leadership. This presents a potentially confusing landscape for students interested in the field: how to decide among the varied options to have the best chance at fulfilling employment? What are the mistakes to avoid? Many established data scientist, both old-timers and early career professionals, expressed interest in presenting in this session but were unable to justify using their one AGU abstract for something other than their funded projects. As the session chairs we interviewed them, plus our extended network of colleagues, to ask for their best advice on what was most critical to their success in their current position, what pitfalls to avoid, what ongoing challenges they see, and what advice they would give themselves, if they could do it all over again starting now. Here we consolidate those interviews with our own perspectives to present some of the common themes and standout advice.

  6. Long term impact of emotional, social and cognitive intelligence competencies and GMAT on career and life satisfaction and career success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amdurer, Emily; Boyatzis, Richard E; Saatcioglu, Argun; Smith, Melvin L; Taylor, Scott N

    2014-01-01

    .... This study assesses the impact of demonstrated emotional, social, and cognitive intelligence competencies assessed at graduation and g measured through GMAT at entry from an MBA program on career...

  7. Compensatory conscientiousness and health in older couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W; Smith, Jacqui; Jackson, Joshua J; Edmonds, Grant

    2009-05-01

    The present study tested the effect of conscientiousness and neuroticism on health and physical limitations in a representative sample of older couples (N= 2,203) drawn from the Health and Retirement Study. As in past research, conscientiousness predicted better health and physical functioning, whereas neuroticism predicted worse health and physical functioning. Unique to this study was the finding that conscientiousness demonstrated a compensatory effect, such that husbands' conscientiousness predicted wives' health outcomes above and beyond wives' own personality. The same pattern held true for wives' conscientiousness as a predictor of husbands' health outcomes. Furthermore, conscientiousness and neuroticism acted synergistically, such that people who scored high for both traits were healthier than others. Finally, we found that the combination of high conscientiousness and high neuroticism was also compensatory, such that the wives of men with this combination of personality traits reported better health than other women.

  8. Success attitudes of young ophthalmologists in the first decade of their career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rodrigo Pedreira Chaves

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe the main success attitudes of young ophthalmologists in the first decade of their career. METHODS: This descriptive study comprised subjects selected from a sample of ophthalmologists who were participating in a congress, using a semi-structured questionnaire. The inclusion criteria were as follows: ophthalmologists under the age of 40 years, within 5-10 years from ophthalmology residency conclusion. The subjects were asked about the three main success attitudes in their personal experience during the first years of ophthalmology practice. After the initial results, the 10 most frequently mentioned attitudes were listed and volunteers were again interviewed to choose, within the latter list, the three main attitudes. RESULTS: Forty-eight ophthalmologists were interviewed, 24 (50% were male; the mean age was 37 years (SD: 2 years, range: 33-40 years and the mean time from ophthalmology residency conclusion was 8 years (SD: 1 year, range: 5-10 years. The frequency of such mentioned success attitudes were as follows: to invest in professional updating (22.9%, to have a good relationship with patients and professional partners (18.8%, to prioritize individual and family happiness (12.5%, initially to work in an established group (11.1%, to work in public service (9.7%, to have their own business with a homogeneous group (7.6%, to save money (7.6%, to be ready to resume work (4.2%, to get business administration skills (4.2%, and to have professional insurance (0.7%. CONCLUSIONS: The three main success attitudes consisted in investing in professional updating (22.9%, maintaining a good relationship with patients and professional partners (18.8%, and prioritizing individual and family happiness (12.5%. Although these results should not be generalized, they are helpful not only for those ophthalmologists at the beginning of a career but also those who want to reflect on what to prioritize in their professional practice.

  9. An Empirical Research on the Correlation between Human Capital and Career Success: Serbian and Macedonian Banking Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Boskov, Tatjana; Bishev, Gligor; Radjenovic, Zarko; Zezova, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the impact of human capital on the achievement of career success is essential for each individual in turbulent times on the labor market. Banking sector also is human capital intensive and plays a critical role for the banks in meeting their goals and offering services to its clients. In the current era of technology, globalization and the general progress principles of "knowledge economy" are ruling. So, each individual in the labor market who wants to build own career, shou...

  10. Gender differences and the definition of success: male and female veterinary students' career and work performance expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Lori R; McConnell, Sherry L; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses the challenges that gender performance expectations create within the veterinary profession. An investigation of veterinary students' perceptions of the essential characteristics that define successful veterinarians and veterinary students, and the gender differences within these definitions, is described. Because previous research supports the premise that the standards required for success differ for males and females, it is likely that male and female veterinary students possess different career expectations and definitions of career success. The ramifications of these differences are explored, and proposed strategies to address this issue, in the form of student support services, are discussed.

  11. Nascent Entrepreneurship and the Developing Individual: Early Entrepreneurial Competence in Adolescence and Venture Creation Success during the Career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obschonka, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva; Stuetzer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    What predicts a person's venture creation success over the course of the career, such as making progress in the venture creation process and multiple successful venture creations? Applying a life span approach of human development, this study examined the effect of early entrepreneurial competence in adolescence, which was gathered retrospectively…

  12. Why some make it and others do not: Identifying psychological factors that predict career success in professional adult soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2009-01-01

    This prospective study was designed to identify psychological factors that predict career success in professional adult soccer. Post hoc, two groups were distinguished: (1) Male soccer players who Successfully progressed into professional adult soccer (n = 18) and (2) Male soccer players who did not

  13. Tips for charting the course of a successful health research career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbuagbaw L

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lawrence Mbuagbaw,1–3 Frederick Morfaw,4 John-Eudes L Kunda,5 Jackson K Mukonzo,6 Jasmine Kastner,7 Shiyuan Zhang,2,3 Madzouka Kokolo,8 Lehana Thabane1,3,9–11 1Centre for Development of Best Practices in Health, Yaounde Central Hospital, Yaounde, Cameroon; 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, 3Biostatistics Unit, Father Sean O'Sullivan Research Centre, St Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicines and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde 1, Yaounde, Cameroon; 5Community Information and Epidemiological Technologies, Lusaka, Zambia; 6School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Makerere, Kampala, Uganda; 7Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, BC, Canada; 8Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, 9Departments of Pediatrics and Anaesthesia, McMaster University, 10Centre for Evaluation of Medicine, St Joseph's Healthcare, 11Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, ON, Canada Abstract: Young health researchers all over the world often encounter difficulties in the early stages of their careers. Formal acquisition of research skills in academic settings does not always offer sufficient guidance to overcome these challenges. Based on the collective experiences of some young researchers and research mentors, we describe some tips for a successful health career and offer some useful resources. These tips include: institutional affiliation, early manuscript writing, early manuscript reviewing, finding a mentor, collaboration and networking, identifying sources of funding, establishing research interests, investing in research methods training, developing interpersonal and personal skills, providing mentorship, and balancing work with everyday life. The rationale behind these tips and how to achieve them is provided. Keywords: health research career, young researcher

  14. Do students learn to be more conscientious at medical school?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaytor Andrew T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Professionalism in medical students is not only difficult to define but difficult to teach and measure. As negative behaviour in medical students is associated with post-graduate disciplinary action it would be useful to have a model whereby unprofessional behaviour at the undergraduate level can easily be identified to permit appropriate intervention. We have previously developed a scalar measure of conscientiousness, the Conscientiousness Index (CI, which positively correlates to estimates of professional behaviour in undergraduate medical students. By comparing CI points awarded in year 1 and year 2 of study we were able to use the CI model to determine whether teaching and clinical exposure had any effect on students’ conscientiousness. Methods CI points were collected by administrative staff from 3 successive cohorts of students in years 1 and 2 of study. Points were awarded to students for activities such as submission of immunisation status and criminal record checks, submission of summative assignments by a specified date and attendance at compulsory teaching sessions. CI points were then converted to a percentage of maximal possible scores (CI % to permit direct comparison between years 1 and 2 of study. Results CI % scores were generally high with each year of study for each cohort showing negatively skewed normal distributions with peaks > 89%. There was a high degree of correlation of CI % scores between year 1 and year 2 of study for each cohort alone and when cohort data was combined. When the change in CI % from year 1 to year 2 for all students was compared there was no significant difference in conscientiousness observed. Conclusions We have provided evidence that use of a CI model in undergraduate medical students provides a reliable measure of conscientiousness that is easy to implement. Importantly this study shows that measurement of conscientiousness by the CI model in medical students does not change

  15. [Conscientious objection in medical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beca, Juan Pablo I; Astete, Carmen A

    2015-04-01

    Medical practice implies the controversial encounter of diverse circumstances in which eventual conflicts between physicians and patients values as well as between physicians values and legal or institutional rules arise. When dealing with these situations, physicians have the right to refuse acting against their moral conscience. This conscientious objection, accepted as a personal right and recognized by several legislations and medical ethics codes, is valid only if it has been reasonably justified and declared in advance. Conversely, it would be invalid if it is based upon convenience or understood as a collective refusal, which may be a form of civil disobedience. Conscientious objection in medicine is considered a limited right even though patients ought to be respected in their demands for legally accepted treatments or interventions. On the other hand, personal conscientious objection is different from the prerogative of institutions to establish their own regulations according to their institutional ideology or ethics codes. However, public hospitals have to offer all treatments or interventions legally allowed, since the state has the obligation to guarantee all citizens an appropriate access to them.

  16. Using career ladders to motivate and retain employees: an implementation success story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garletts, Joseph A

    2002-01-01

    In October 2000, Phoenix-based Sonora Quest Laboratories, LLC (SQL), commissioned The Gelfond Group to survey SQL employees. Responding to negative survey scores, SQL developed and implemented an entry-level career ladder for line staff of the specimen management/referral testing department. The program was piloted in February 2001, and was implemented fully shortly thereafter. The ladder was designed to provide job enrichment opportunities through company-conducted training and advancement provisions. It contained requirements for productivity and quality of work performed in addition to increasingly rigorous training and competency documentation. Employees were accountable for their own advancement and for ensuring that all documentation was complete. Advancement was automatic once requirements were completed. Pay increases accompanied each advancement on a predetermined scale. At the end of 12 months, employee turnover dropped from 39% to less than 20% annually. Both productivity and morale improved, and results on a second employee survey indicated dramatic improvement in five key areas. The career ladder concept has been replicated successfully in several other departments, including phlebotomy, and a six-tiered ladder is under development for the clinical laboratory. It will encompass CLA, MLT, and MT positions from entry level to technical coordinator.

  17. Key Decision Points in the Careers of Geoscientists: The Role of the YES Network in Facilitating Successful Career Transitions for Early Career Geoscientists (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venus, J. H.; Gonzales, L. M.; Yes Network

    2010-12-01

    The external influences on the decisions that geoscientists make pertaining to their careers are often assumed but not quantified. The YES Network is conducting an international study to determine the Key Decision points in the career pathways of early career geoscientists. The study aims to identify factors contributing to individual career decisions and to monitor these over a ten year period. The Initial phase of the study is now underway enabling preliminary conclusions to be drawn and will identify a group of individuals that will be tracked over the 10 year programme. The Survey will highlight reoccurring areas where Early Career Geoscientists are experiencing progression difficulties and, importantly, provide respondents with an opportunity to suggest solutions whilst also allowing general resource needs to be identified from the results as a whole. Early results show an overwhelming majority expressing job satisfaction most or all of the time (only 2 candidates reporting none). Respondents rate job satisfaction and respect highly, returning more responses than good salaries. A general frustration with administration, paper work and bureaucracy is particularly evident in those employed by government organisations. Early Career geoscientists express a frustration concerning a lack of involvement in decision making processes; interestingly several later career respondents also acknowledge a need to properly train, nurture and encourage new recruits to retain good graduates who may otherwise become disillusioned and leave the profession. The role of family in career choices has been highlighted both in survey and general feedback responses particularly by female geoscientists and those working in jobs with high levels of fieldwork; we aim to determine, to some extent, to what point these decisions are controlled by family as opposed to normal career progression. Flexible working conditions and agreed time away from field duty have been independently suggested

  18. National Institutes of Health Career Development Awards for Cardiovascular Physician-Scientists: Recent Trends and Strategies for Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindman, Brian R; Tong, Carl W; Carlson, Drew E; Balke, C William; Jackson, Elizabeth A; Madhur, Meena S; Barac, Ana; Abdalla, Marwah; Brittain, Evan L; Desai, Nihar; Kates, Andrew M; Freeman, Andrew M; Mann, Douglas L

    2015-10-20

    Nurturing the development of cardiovascular physician-scientist investigators is critical for sustained progress in cardiovascular science and improving human health. The transition from an inexperienced trainee to an independent physician-scientist is a multifaceted process requiring a sustained commitment from the trainee, mentors, and institution. A cornerstone of this training process is a career development (K) award from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). These awards generally require 75% of the awardee's professional effort devoted to research aims and diverse career development activities carried out in a mentored environment over a 5-year period. We report on recent success rates for obtaining NIH K awards, provide strategies for preparing a successful application and navigating the early career period for aspiring cardiovascular investigators, and offer cardiovascular division leadership perspectives regarding K awards in the current era. Our objective is to offer practical advice that will equip trainees considering an investigator path for success.

  19. Marriage/Family Issues and Wife Styles Across Naval Officer Career Stages: Their Implications for Career Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    mechanisms . A related point in adaptation of the marriage and family to the Naval career during this early phase, is the problem of converting the wife...evidence that this may be the case. Medical facili- ties, alchohol rehabilitation centers and military social workers are said to treat an abnormally

  20. Career Success: The Role of Teenage Career Aspirations, Ambition Value and Gender in Predicting Adult Social Status and Earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Julie S.; Schoon, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Links between family social background, teenage career aspirations, educational performance and adult social status attainment are well documented. Using a contextual developmental framework, this article extends previous research by examining the role of gender and teenage ambition value in shaping social status attainment and earnings in…

  1. Conscientiousness predicts greater recovery from negative emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaras, Kristin N; Schaefer, Stacey M; van Reekum, Carien M; Lapate, Regina C; Greischar, Lawrence L; Bachhuber, David R; Love, Gayle Dienberg; Ryff, Carol D; Davidson, Richard J

    2012-10-01

    Greater levels of conscientiousness have been associated with lower levels of negative affect. We focus on one mechanism through which conscientiousness may decrease negative affect: effective emotion regulation, as reflected by greater recovery from negative stimuli. In 273 adults who were 35-85 years old, we collected self-report measures of personality including conscientiousness and its self-control facet, followed on average 2 years later by psychophysiological measures of emotional reactivity and recovery. Among middle-aged adults (35-65 years old), the measures of conscientiousness and self-control predicted greater recovery from, but not reactivity to, negative emotional stimuli. The effect of conscientiousness and self-control on recovery was not driven by other personality variables or by greater task adherence on the part of high conscientiousness individuals. In addition, the effect was specific to negative emotional stimuli and did not hold for neutral or positive emotional stimuli.

  2. Conscientiousness predicts greater recovery from negative emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Kristin N Javaras; Schaefer, Stacey M.; van Reekum, Carien M.; Lapate, Regina C.; Greischar, Lawrence L.; Bachuber, David R.; Love, Gale; Ryff, Carol D.; Richard J Davidson

    2012-01-01

    Greater levels of conscientiousness have been associated with lower levels of negative affect. We focus on one mechanism through which conscientiousness may decrease\\ud negative affect: effective emotion regulation, as reflected by greater recovery from negative stimuli. In 273 adults who were 35 - 85 years old, we collected self-report measures of personality including conscientiousness and its self-control facet, followed\\ud on average 2 years later by psychophysiological measures of emotio...

  3. The relation between conscientiousness, empowerment and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riëtte Sutherland

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between conscientiousness, empowerment and job performance among information technology professionals. An Employee Empowerment Questionnaire (EEQ, a Conscientiousness Scale and a Social Desirability Scale were administered to 101 information technology customer service engineers. Managers completed a Performance Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ for each customer service engineer. The results indicated a significant relationship between conscientiousness and empowerment. A curvilinear relationship was found between empowerment and performance. The practical and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.

  4. Batswana female managers’ career experiences and perspectives on corporate mobility and success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpho M. Pheko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Corporate mobility remains elusive for female managers.Research purpose: To investigate Batswana female managers’ strategies for entering and succeeding in managerial positions, the challenges they face and the consequences of success.Motivation for the study: There is a lack of research into the way Batswana female managers obtain management positions, as well as their experiences as female managers.Research approach, design and method: An interpretive approach using a case study strategy was employed. Semi-structured interviews were conducted which were shaped by the objectives of the study. A sample of female employees (n = 10, representing different organisations and professions, was obtained from various organisations in Botswana.Main findings: Findings revealed that female managers do experience a number of challenges. Various factors were identified that accounted for their career advancement as well as the consequences of success. The consequences of success were identified as being both positive and negative.Practical/managerial implications: The current study is important as the strategies for success that were identified can be used to assist interested women to obtain management-level positions. Furthermore, the challenges identified may assist both researchers and practitioners to design interventions that help to mitigate the challenges, in turn enabling the inclusion and advancement of women in leadership or managerial positions.Contributions: The current study may contribute new knowledge as past research conducted in Botswana seems to have focused mainly on the impact of regulatory and legislative challenges on women’s advancement. Such a focus ignores the other aspects of female managers’ experiences, which are addressed by the current study.

  5. Cosmetic surgery and conscientious objection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerva, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, I analyse the issue of conscientious objection in relation to cosmetic surgery. I consider cases of doctors who might refuse to perform a cosmetic treatment because: (1) the treatment aims at achieving a goal which is not in the traditional scope of cosmetic surgery; (2) the motivation of the patient to undergo the surgery is considered trivial; (3) the patient wants to use the surgery to promote moral or political values that conflict with the doctor's ones; (4) the patient requires an intervention that would benefit himself/herself, but could damage society at large.

  6. How Providing Mentoring Relates to Career Success and Organizational Commitment: A Study in the General Managerial Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozionelos, Nikos; Bozionelos, Giorgos; Kostopoulos, Konstantinos; Polychroniou, Panagiotis

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the relationship of mentoring provided with career success and organizational commitment in the general managerial population. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 194 native British who were employed in a variety of jobs, professions and industries in the United Kingdom. Findings: Mentoring…

  7. Employability and Job Performance as Links in the Relationship Between Mentoring Receipt and Career Success: A Study in SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozionelos, Nikos; Kostopoulos, Konstantinos; Heijden, van der Beatrice; Rousseau, Denise M.; Bozionelos, Giorgos; Hoyland, Thomas; Miao, Rentao; Marzec, Izabela; Jedrzejowicz, Piotr; Epitropaki, Olga; Mikkelsen, Aslaug; Scholarios, Dora; Heijde, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    This study developed and tested a model that posited employability and job performance as intervening variables in the relationship between receipt of mentoring and career success. Participants were 207 information technology (IT) professionals employed in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) i

  8. Employability and Job Performance as Links in the Relationship Between Mentoring Receipt and Career Success: A Study in SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozionelos, Nikos; Kostopoulos, Konstantinos; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Rousseau, Denise M.; Bozionelos, Giorgos; Hoyland, Thomas; Miao, Rentao; Marzec, Izabela; Jedrzejowicz, Piotr; Epitropaki, Olga; Mikkelsen, Aslaug; Scholarios, Dora; Heijde, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    This study developed and tested a model that posited employability and job performance as intervening variables in the relationship between receipt of mentoring and career success. Participants were 207 information technology (IT) professionals employed in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) i

  9. The relationships among perceived organizational support, intention to remain, career success and self-esteem in Chinese male nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-ying Liu

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Hospitals should pay more attention to the benefits of positive personality trait on working motivation. It is meaningful to enhance perceived organizational support, career success and self-esteem in the working process so that nurses are willing to stay in the current employment.

  10. Family Background, Students' Academic Self-Efficacy, and Students' Career and Life Success Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mihyeon

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of family background on students' academic self-efficacy and the impact of students' self-efficacy on their career and life success expectations. The study used the national dataset of the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS: 2002), funded by the U.S. Department of Education. Based on a path…

  11. Are you in a healthy relationship? Linking conscientiousness to health via implementing and immunizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Patrick L; Nickel, Lauren B; Roberts, Brent W

    2014-12-01

    The benefits of living a conscientious life have been demonstrated across multiple domains, and yet, few studies have sought to explain how the positive effects in one area may help explain those in another. The current article considers the possibility that conscientious individuals live healthier lives by virtue of having greater success in their relationships. Using both past research and new findings to support our model, we set forth a framework by which to consider how Conscientiousness affects relationship functioning, which in turn leads to better physical, emotional, and psychological health. In so doing, we also provide a new outlook on the health benefits associated with Conscientiousness, and how these may be conferred by relationship success.

  12. Will Interventions Targeting Conscientiousness Improve Aging Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Tammy; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    The articles appearing in this special section discuss the role that conscientiousness may play in healthy aging. Growing evidence suggests that conscientious individuals live longer and healthier lives. However, the question remains whether this personality trait can be leveraged to improve long-term health outcomes. We argue that even though it…

  13. Determinants of Educational Career Change Decisions and their Effect on Success of Decision: A Study of Professionals of it Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Raza

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study dealt with the target population and the selected sample which consisted of the professionals who have changed their educational career towards IT, so a cluster of IT professionals from population was taken and purposive sampling technique was applied. A total of Two hundred questionnaires were circulated in different governmental and private organizations and a total of 180 Questionnaires were returned back having a response rate of 90%. Pearson Correlation was applied to investigate the intensity of the relationship and to analyze the direction of relationship between independent and dependent variables. Correlation values were found significant which shows that students mostly change their educational career due to the perceived scope of IT in future and they feel more satisfied when they enter into professional life. Multiple regression analysis show that current trends of IT (hypothesis 1 is a significant contributor in success of education career change decision (ECCD of professionals (β = 0.132, p-value = 0.024. Perceived scope of IT (hypothesis 2 (β = 0.327, p value = 0.000 make significant influence on Success of ECCD of professionals. Similarly, work environment (hypothesis 3 (β = 0.215, p value = 0.000 significantly influences success of ECCD of professionals. This illustrated that adoption of education career according to the potential, enables students to extend their capabilities in a best manner and make full contribution to society.

  14. Conscientious objection: a call to nursing leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Natalie J; Fraser, Kimberly D; Marck, Patricia B

    2010-09-01

    In this paper we argue that nurse leaders need to work actively to create morally supportive environments for nurses in Canada that provide adequate room to exercise conscientious objection. Morally supportive environments engender a safe atmosphere to engage in open dialogue and action regarding conflict of conscience. The CNA's 2008 Code of Ethics for Registered Nurses has recognized the importance of conscientious objection in nursing and has created key guidelines for the registered nurse to follow when a conflict in conscience is being considered or declared. Nurse leaders need to further develop the understanding of conflicts of conscience through education, well-written guidelines for conscientious objection in workplaces and engagement in research to uncover underlying barriers to the enactment of conscientious objections. With advancements in technology, changing healthcare policies and increasing scope of practice, both reflection and dialogue on conscientious objection are critical for the continuing moral development of nurses in Canada.

  15. When should conscientious objection be accepted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magelssen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This paper makes two main claims: first, that the need to protect health professionals' moral integrity is what grounds the right to conscientious objection in health care; and second, that for a given claim of conscientious objection to be acceptable to society, a certain set of criteria should be fulfilled. The importance of moral integrity for individuals and society, including its special role in health care, is advocated. Criteria for evaluating the acceptability of claims to conscientious objection are outlined. The precise content of the criteria is dictated by the two main interests that are at stake in the dilemma of conscientious objection: the patient's interests and the health professional's moral integrity. Alternative criteria proposed by other authors are challenged. The bold claim is made that conscientious objection should be recognised by society as acceptable whenever the five main criteria of the proposed set are met.

  16. Adolescent conscientiousness predicts lower lifetime unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Mark; Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam; Boyce, Christopher J; Wood, Alex M

    2017-04-01

    Existing research on Big Five personality and unemployment has relied on personality measures elicited after the respondents had already spent years in the labor market, an experience that could change personality. We clarify the direction of influence by using the British Cohort Study (N = 4,206) to examine whether conscientiousness and other Big Five personality traits at age 16-17 predict unemployment over age 16-42. Our hypothesis that higher conscientiousness in adolescence would predict lower unemployment was supported. In analyses controlling for intelligence, gender, and parental socioeconomic status, the less conscientious (-1 SD) had a predicted probability of unemployment twice as high (3.4% vs. 1.7%) as the highly conscientious (+1 SD), an effect size comparable to intelligence. Mediation analysis revealed that academic motivation and educational attainment explained only 8.9% of this association. Fostering conscientiousness in early life may be an effective way to reduce unemployment throughout adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Learning the Art of Networking: A Critical Skill for Enhancing Social Capital and Career Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Janasz, Suzanne C.; Forret, Monica L.

    2008-01-01

    In this era of boundaryless careers, with individuals making frequent career moves and needing to get up-to-speed quickly, networking is seen as a critical competency. Developing and maintaining relationships with others for the purpose of mutual benefit can help individuals search for and secure employment opportunities, gain access to needed…

  18. An analysis of perfusion technology preadmission factors effects on academic success, perfusion certification achievement, and career placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David A

    2007-12-01

    This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the contribution of grade point average (GPA) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) practical scores toward predicting perfusion academic success, career placement as a clinical perfusionist, and certification success or failure. The files of 95 students enrolled in the perfusion technology program at Carlow University-University of Pittsburgh Medical Center School of Cardiovascular Perfusion (CARLOW-UPMC) from 1995 through 2005 were reviewed to obtain admission and academic data. The independent variables used were WAIS-R practical results of the picture completion (PC), picture arrangement (PA), block design (BD), object assembly (OA) and digit symbol (DS) tests, undergraduate grade point average (UGPA), science grade point average (SGPA), and anatomy and physiology grade point average (APGPA). The dependent variables used were perfusion grade point average (PGPA), career placement status as a clinical perfusionist (CAREER), and success or failure on the American Board of Cardiovascular Perfusion (ABCP) certification examination. The research plan consisted of logistic and multiple linear regression analyses to determine which of the WAIS-R and GPA independent variables were significantly associated with the dependent variables. UGPA, SGPA, and APGPA all correlate at the 5% level with success achieving high PGPA. WAIS-R measures were not significant indicators of academic success. PGPA, UGPA, SGPA, and APGPA did not significantly correlate with any of the tested WAIS-R scores. PC, BD, and OA scores correlate well with CAREER. OA and DS scores correlate at the p = 0.05 level with ABCP certification success.

  19. The Factors Affecting Women's Success in Museum Careers: A Discussion of the Reasons More Women Do Not Reach the Top, and of Strategies to Promote their Future Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Turner

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available This dissertation discusses the factors affecting women's success in museum careers. It draws on information gathered from interviews with successful women, to supplement existing information and statistics. Women are less successful than men, for they are underrepresented in the top jobs, and have lower average earnings. This is the result of a series of factors which hinder their career progression. Some emanate from the organizational culture of museums, which is often conservative and male-dominated. Others result from the clash between fulfilling family responsibilities and living up to current expectations in the workplace. A final set of factors concerns the typical attitudes and behaviour of individuals: the effects of women's own self-limitation, and men's, often unconsciously, pejorative viewpoint. The strategies for overcoming these barriers have also been assessed. Organizations are implementing equal opportunities programmes, including provisions for flexible working; for individuals, awareness is crucial, as well as profiting from networks, mentors, training and career planning. These strategies, however, are currently sufficient to help only the most exceptional women reach the top. The remaining problems are associated with deep-seated social stereotypes, and it will take a concerted effort by those in high status positions to help greater numbers of women overcome them.

  20. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious...... identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals’ conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment...

  1. Long term impact of emotional, social and cognitive intelligence competencies and GMAT on career and life satisfaction and career success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amdurer, Emily; Boyatzis, Richard E; Saatcioglu, Argun; Smith, Melvin L; Taylor, Scott N

    2014-01-01

    .... While success in various jobs has been predicted by intelligence and in other studies by competencies, especially in management, long term impact of having intelligence and using competencies has not been examined...

  2. Critical Success Factors to Improve Perception of Information Technology Careers: A Specific Case in a Mexican Higher Education Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Aldrette-Malacara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is a fact that fashion plays an important role to select a career, new options of careers from engineering are preferred by students instead of traditional options; for example, Mechatronics, Aeronautics, Automotive specializations, Bionics, Biomedical and others are so popular. Every day, new necessities are required in the world and it is necessary to find the way to solve them, for that reason these new majors are good options to students, however traditional areas are important too. Information Technology is not the exception because every enterprise, school, association and organization needs computers with systems that help to solve specific situations or to manage resources. In Mexico, Information Technology careers are been affected for low enrollment of students, of course private universities have suffered more this situation than public schools [1]. In this research work are shown the most important factors that have a real incidence to choose an Information Technology career. The methodology consisted in the design of a survey using seven points Likert´s scale where potential students could express more about their expectative, preferences and required abilities to study these majors. The mentioned survey had three versions and each one was validated through Cronbach’s Alpha. Data collected were analyzed using statistical software SPSS to obtain the critical success factors.

  3. Conscientiousness, extroversion, and action control: comparing moderate and vigorous physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; de Groot, Ruben; van den Putte, Bas; Rhodes, Ryan

    2009-12-01

    The present study explored the influence of the Big Five dimensions extroversion and conscientiousness on action control regarding both moderate and vigorous physical activity within the framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Prospective data were available from 186 respondents, who completed measures of intention, cognitive and affective attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, extroversion, conscientiousness, and physical activity at T1. Four weeks later, physical activity was assessed again. Respondents were grouped into four profiles: nonintenders, successful nonintenders, unsuccessful intenders, and successful intenders. Logistic regression analyses revealed that successful enactment in moderate physical activity was associated with extroversion, subjective norm, and affective attitude, whereas successful enactment in vigorous physical activity was associated with conscientiousness. Findings illustrate the differential role played by personality dimensions and TPB concepts in the explanation of moderate and vigorous physical activity action control.

  4. An exploration of the factors that contribute to the success of African American professionals in STEM-related careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander Nealy, Yolande Kristine

    This study examined factors that contribute to the success of African American professionals in STEM careers. Data were collected through a survey from 40 participants and in-depth interviews with eight of them. The survey was used to explore the participants' educational experiences from elementary school through college and on their STEM-related careers, whereas the individual interviews were used to gain insights into their perspectives as STEM professionals. The results of this study indicate that most of these African American STEM professionals attributed their choice of a STEM career to early exposure to and positive experiences in science and mathematics mediated by teachers and/or parents. Furthermore, the positive experiences and success in science and mathematics continued in high school and college, further solidifying their choice of a STEM career. However, for almost half of the participants, attending a HBCU seems to have played an important role in their enjoyment of and success in a STEM major. HBCUs provided them with role models and the necessary support and encouragement to succeed in their pursuit of a STEM degree. The results of this study illustrate the various factors that play a role in preventing leakage in the minority STEM pipeline: K-12 experiences mediated by parents and teachers; support systems in college and the workplace mediated by counselors, professors, peers, and administrators; and policies that facilitate integration and the development of such support systems. This study contributes to the current body of knowledge on minorities in STEM by focusing on what works, instead of focusing on the deficit model and what does not work. It is hoped that these results help validate the efforts of those who work towards a more equitable representation of the STEM fields.

  5. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals' conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment, and this requirement is found to create serious problems for those wishing to defend the idea under consideration. We conclude that the notion of a legal right to conscientious refusal for any profession is either fundamentally incompatible with elementary legal ethical requirements, or implausible because it undermines the functioning of a related professional sector (healthcare) or even of society as a whole.

  6. A Day in the Life of an Industrial Hearing Conservationist: A Template for Successful Career Education and Outreach Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Beth A.

    1997-01-01

    Whether in a classroom setting or at a local community meeting, opportunities for providing descriptive and positive information about our professions to an audience unfamiliar with acoustics, noise control or hearing conservation often call for alternatives to technical demonstrations that illustrate principles of acoustics or noise control. More importantly, successful outreach presentations must convey images of our day-to-day activities and the challenges we address, many of which are non-technical. One successful approach to career outreach presentations makes use of a collection of photo slides featuring the speaker, his colleagues, customers and workplaces to vividly illustrate the specific job tasks, people and environment of the speaker's job or career. Against this fluid and multi-dimensional visual backdrop, an accompanying script addresses the main theme. A comprehensive photo slide collection may be established gradually, often by making use of and adding to technical and personal slides already in the speaker's possession. Slide collections are portable, easily and quickly reconfigured for back-to-back or spontaneous engagements, and they are well suited to speaking opportunities where technical presentations or demonstrations are not practical or appropriate. A carefully chosen sequence of photo slides minimizes the need for speaker's notes, as each photo itself provides a visual prompt. Although photo slide presentations are appropriate to a variety of outreach and professional settings, the specific illustrative and explanatory material presented here illustrates their application in career education outreach activities, using industrial hearing conservation as an example.

  7. Successful Latina Scientists and Engineers: Their Lived Mentoring Experiences and Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, Anitza M.; Kim, Mikyong Minsun

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing a phenomenological perspective and method, this study aimed to reveal the lived career mentoring experiences of Latinas in science and engineering and to understand how selected Latina scientists and engineers achieved high-level positions. Our in-depth interviews revealed that (a) it is important to have multiple mentors for Latinas'…

  8. Support of Marginalized Students in Science: An Examination of Successful Lesbian Individuals in Science Career Paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Judith C.

    2009-01-01

    The initiative to increase highly qualified college STEM graduates coupled with the phrase "science for all" pushed by standards-based reform has opened an avenue for science education research. How can we increase students' interests in science careers? Specifically, do marginalized groups require differing instructional approaches to increase…

  9. Academic success and early career outcomes : Can honors alumni be distinguished from non-honors alumni?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, A.; Mainhard, M. T.; Brekelmans, M.; van Beukelen, P.; Jaarsma, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    This study compared Dutch alumni who previously participated in an honors program (n=72) to non-honors alumni who entered university as high-achieving high school students (n=72) with regard to (1) final university grade point average (GPA) and (2) early career outcomes. Final grades were drawn from

  10. Success in a Career-Technical Education Program: The Role of Individual Strengths and Contextual Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSouza, Lisette M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to assess student progress in and completion of a career-technical education (CTE) program. This study focused on the Williamson College of Trades (WC) in Media, PA and explored the relation between student strengths of school engagement and vocational identity, and contextual assets, of program quality and family…

  11. Defining, navigating, and negotiating success: the experiences of mid-career Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholar women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalet, Adina L; Fletcher, Kathlyn E; Ferdman, Dina J; Bickell, Nina A

    2006-09-01

    We studied female graduates of the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program (CSP, Class of 1984 to 1989) to explore and describe the complexity of creating balance in the life of mid-career academic woman physicians. We conducted and qualitatively analyzed (kappa 0.35 to 1.0 for theme identification among rater pairs) data from a semi-structured survey of 21 women and obtained their curricula vitae to quantify publications and grant support, measures of academic productivity. Sixteen of 21 (76%) women completed the survey. Mean age was 48 (range: 45 to 56). Three were full professors, 10 were associate professors, and 3 had left academic medicine. Eleven women had had children (mean 2.4; range: 1 to 3) and 3 worked part-time. From these data, the conceptual model expands on 3 key themes: (1) defining, navigating, and negotiating success, (2) making life work, and (3) making work work. The women who described themselves as satisfied with their careers (10/16) had clarity of values and goals and a sense of control over their time. Those less satisfied with their careers (6/16) emphasized the personal and professional costs of the struggle to balance their lives and described explicit institutional barriers to fulfillment of their potential. For this group of fellowship-prepared academic women physicians satisfaction is achieving professional and personal balance.

  12. Conscientiousness and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Douglas B; Widiger, Thomas A

    2011-07-01

    A dimensional perspective on personality disorder hypothesizes that the current diagnostic categories represent maladaptive variants of general personality traits. However, a fundamental foundation of this viewpoint is that dimensional models can adequately account for the pathology currently described by these categories. While most of the personality disorders have well established links to dimensional models that buttress this hypothesis, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has obtained only inconsistent support. The current study administered multiple measures of 1) conscientiousness-related personality traits, 2) DSM-IV OCPD, and 3) specific components of OCPD (e.g., compulsivity and perfectionism) to a sample of 536 undergraduates who were oversampled for elevated OCPD scores. Six existing measures of conscientiousness-related personality traits converged strongly with each other supporting their assessment of a common trait. These measures of conscientiousness correlated highly with scales assessing specific components of OCPD, but obtained variable relationships with measures of DSM-IV OCPD. More specifically, there were differences within the conscientiousness instruments such that those designed to assess general personality functioning had small to medium relationships with OCPD, but those assessing more maladaptive variants obtained large effect sizes. These findings support the view that OCPD does represent a maladaptive variant of normal-range conscientiousness.

  13. Conscientiousness in the classroom: a process explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, Katherine S; Oswald, Frederick L; Donnellan, M Brent

    2012-08-01

    Although the research literature has established that Conscientiousness predicts task performance across a variety of achievement contexts (e.g., ; ), comparatively less is known about the processes that underlie these relations. To the latter end, the current research examines effortful strategies and achievement goals as mediating factors that might explain why people with higher levels of Conscientiousness are predicted to reach higher levels of academic performance. In a longitudinal study, 347 college students completed measures of personality and achievement goals at the beginning of the class, followed by measures of effortful strategies multiple times throughout the semester. Results support the hypothesis that effortful strategies mediate the association between Conscientiousness and academic performance. Moreover, the statistical effects of Conscientiousness were generally independent of achievement goals, but a small portion of the effect was mediated through approach, not avoidance, achievement goals. These results highlight the importance of examining mediating processes between personality and outcomes, and in the case of Conscientiousness, our results suggest that effortful strategies might serve as a useful target for performance-enhancing interventions.

  14. Conscientiousness increases efficiency of multicomponent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian

    2015-10-27

    Many everyday situations require the flexible interruption and changing of different actions to achieve a goal. Several strategies can be applied to do so, but those requiring high levels of cognitive control seem to confer an efficiency (speed) advantage in situations requiring multi-component behavior. However, it is elusive in how far personality traits affect performance in such situations. Given that top-down control is an important aspect of personality and furthermore correlates with conscientiousness, N = 163 participants completed the NEO-FFI and performed an experimental (stop-change) paradigm assessing multicomponent behavior. Applying mathematical constraints to the behavioral data, we estimated the processing strategy of each individual. The results show that multicomponent behavior is selectively affected by conscientiousness which explained approximately 19% of the measured inter-individual behavioral variance. Conscientiousness should hence be seen as a major personality dimension modulating multicomponent behavior. Highly conscientious people showed a more effective, step-by-step processing strategy of different actions necessary to achieve a goal. In situations with simultaneous requirements, this strategy equipped them with an efficiency (speed) advantage towards individuals with lower conscientiousness. In sum, the results show that strategies and the efficiency with which people cope with situations requiring multicomponent behavior are strongly influenced by their personality.

  15. Conscientious refusals and reason-giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jason

    2014-07-01

    Some philosophers have argued for what I call the reason-giving requirement for conscientious refusal in reproductive healthcare. According to this requirement, healthcare practitioners who conscientiously object to administering standard forms of treatment must have arguments to back up their conscience, arguments that are purely public in character. I argue that such a requirement, though attractive in some ways, faces an overlooked epistemic problem: it is either too easy or too difficult to satisfy in standard cases. I close by briefly considering whether a version of the reason-giving requirement can be salvaged despite this important difficulty.

  16. Conscientious objection: reflections for nursing in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Paço

    Full Text Available Objective: to discuss conscientious objection in nursing, identifying the ethic and legal basis for this decision-making. Methodology: qualitative study in which the methodology used was ethical reflection based on a legal analysis of the laws in question, proceeding to a bibliographical and documentary research Conclusions: Portuguese law and ethical pillars that form the basis of the Code of Ethics of nurses in Portugal defend the freedom of conscience as a professional practice. However, the obligation to protect human life, which imposes the need for coordination between this protection and the exercise of the right to conscientious objection on the part of the nurse, is also clear.

  17. Kriegsdienstverweigerung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland Conscientious Objection in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Margarete Haberhauer; Helmut Maneval

    2000-01-01

    As to the right and the volume of conscientious objection Germany has an exceptional position. At first this paper deals with the legal basis of conscientious objection and presents the number of applications for recognition of conscientious objection from 1958 to 1998. Then hypotheses are formulated for the analysis of conscientious objection time series. In spite of difficulties regarding operationalisation and not completely satisfying data the empirical testing produces acceptable results.

  18. Navigating toward research success in times of uncertainty: funding opportunities for early career investigators in nephrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikizler, T Alp; Lovett, David H; Chertow, Glenn M; Mitch, William E; Schiller, Brigitte

    2015-03-01

    There is considerable concern within the nephrology community about recent federal budget cuts and the decreasing availability of funds for research. This is especially difficult for junior investigators who are about to start a career as physician-scientists. Accordingly, it is imperative that resources other than federal funds be made available to these individuals during this most delicate yet crucial transition period. This commentary aims to provide an overview of nonfederal funding resources, focusing on the Norman S. Coplon Extramural Grant Program. This program emphasizes support of investigators at the most fragile period in their development of an academic career; it has provided >$11 million of research funds to more than 80 individuals since 2000. The outcome has been stellar, with more than 130 publications originating from these projects and >90% of awardees staying in academia. We hope these accomplishments will encourage similar activities by other entities and scientific programs in addition to ones that are ongoing. Ultimately, these collective efforts will inspire young researchers to use their knowledge, passion, and dedication to advance research into kidney diseases. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 32 CFR 1636.2 - The claim of conscientious objection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The claim of conscientious objection. 1636.2 Section 1636.2 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION OF CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTORS § 1636.2 The claim of conscientious objection. A claim...

  20. Genetic Strategies for Probing Conscientiousness and Its Relationship to Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Susan C.; Krueger, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Conscientiousness is an important trait for understanding healthy aging. The present article addresses how behavioral and molecular genetics methodologies can aid in furthering explicating the link between conscientiousness and aspects of health and well-being in later life. We review the etiology of conscientiousness documented by both…

  1. Integrating Community in Culturally Conscientious Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Rebecca M.

    2008-01-01

    Developing a trusting community of learners is vital for critical, inclusive, culturally conscientious social studies teaching. Social studies teachers work to create meaningful relationships among their students and themselves. The classroom community serves as a place where students and teachers learn together; disagree with one another; and…

  2. Conscientious Non-objection in Intensive Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Dominic

    2017-01-01

    Discussions of conscientious objection (CO) in healthcare often concentrate on objections to interventions that relate to reproduction, such as termination of pregnancy or contraception. Nevertheless, questions of conscience can arise in other areas of medicine. For example, the intensive care unit is a locus of ethically complex and contested decisions. Ethical debate about CO usually concentrates on the issue of whether physicians should be permitted to object to particular courses of treatment; whether CO should be accommodated. In this article, I focus on the question of how clinicians ought to act: should they provide or support a course of action that is contrary to their deeply held moral beliefs? I discuss two secular examples of potential CO in intensive care, and propose that clinicians should adopt a norm of conscientious non-objection (CNO). In the face of divergent values and practice, physicians should set aside their personal moral beliefs and not object to treatment that is legally and professionally accepted and provided by their peers. Although there may be reason to permit conscientious objections in healthcare, conscientious non-objection should be encouraged, taught, and supported.

  3. Conscientiousness in Life Course Context: A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Philip R.

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, the common themes from the interesting articles in this special section of "Developmental Psychology" are considered as they illuminate the potential ontogenetic sources of the conscientiousness-well-being-longevity interconnections that have emerged in recent research. In particular, consideration is given to the…

  4. Conscientiousness in Life Course Context: A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Philip R.

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, the common themes from the interesting articles in this special section of "Developmental Psychology" are considered as they illuminate the potential ontogenetic sources of the conscientiousness-well-being-longevity interconnections that have emerged in recent research. In particular, consideration is given to the…

  5. Exploring the Relationship between Intrapersonal Intelligence and University Students' Career Confusion: Implications for Counseling, Academic Success, and School-to-Career Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, C. Branton

    2009-01-01

    The author describes the relationship between self-knowledge and career confusion among university students and discusses strategies to enhance career and academic planning. The multiple intelligences profiles of typical university students are compared with those of 82 students enrolled in 3 sequential semesters of a course titled Career…

  6. Career Performance Trajectories in Track and Field Jumping Events from Youth to Senior Success: The Importance of Learning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisè, Paolo; Franceschi, Alberto; Trova, Francesco; Panero, Davide; La Torre, Antonio; Rainoldi, Alberto; Schena, Federico; Cardinale, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The idea that early sport success can be detrimental for long-term sport performance is still under debate. Therefore, the aims of this study were to examine the career trajectories of Italian high and long jumpers to provide a better understanding of performance development in jumping events. Methods The official long-jump and high-jump rankings of the Italian Track and Field Federation were collected from the age of 12 to career termination, for both genders from the year 1994 to 2014. Top-level athletes were identified as those with a percentile of their personal best performance between 97 and 100. Results The age of entering competitions of top-level athletes was not different than the rest of the athletic population, whereas top-level athletes performed their personal best later than the rest of the athletes. Top-level athletes showed an overall higher rate of improvement in performance from the age of 13 to the age of 18 years when compared to all other individuals. Only 10–25% of the top-level adult athletes were top-level at the age of 16. Around 60% of the top-level young at the age of 16 did not maintain the same level of performance in adulthood. Female high-jump represented an exception from this trend since in this group most top-level young become top-level adult athletes. Conclusions These findings suggest that performance before the age of 16 is not a good predictor of adult performance in long and high jump. The annual rate of improvements from 13 to 18 years should be included as a predictor of success rather than performance per se. Coaches should be careful about predicting future success based on performances obtained during youth in jumping events. PMID:28129370

  7. Career Performance Trajectories in Track and Field Jumping Events from Youth to Senior Success: The Importance of Learning and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Gennaro; Moisè, Paolo; Franceschi, Alberto; Trova, Francesco; Panero, Davide; La Torre, Antonio; Rainoldi, Alberto; Schena, Federico; Cardinale, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The idea that early sport success can be detrimental for long-term sport performance is still under debate. Therefore, the aims of this study were to examine the career trajectories of Italian high and long jumpers to provide a better understanding of performance development in jumping events. The official long-jump and high-jump rankings of the Italian Track and Field Federation were collected from the age of 12 to career termination, for both genders from the year 1994 to 2014. Top-level athletes were identified as those with a percentile of their personal best performance between 97 and 100. The age of entering competitions of top-level athletes was not different than the rest of the athletic population, whereas top-level athletes performed their personal best later than the rest of the athletes. Top-level athletes showed an overall higher rate of improvement in performance from the age of 13 to the age of 18 years when compared to all other individuals. Only 10-25% of the top-level adult athletes were top-level at the age of 16. Around 60% of the top-level young at the age of 16 did not maintain the same level of performance in adulthood. Female high-jump represented an exception from this trend since in this group most top-level young become top-level adult athletes. These findings suggest that performance before the age of 16 is not a good predictor of adult performance in long and high jump. The annual rate of improvements from 13 to 18 years should be included as a predictor of success rather than performance per se. Coaches should be careful about predicting future success based on performances obtained during youth in jumping events.

  8. Conscientiousness and Public Health: Synthesizing Current Research to Promote Healthy Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, David; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Nielsen, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    In this special section, 9 studies and 6 commentaries make a unique contribution to the study of personality. They focus on the five-factor model and, in particular, one of those 5: conscientiousness. This trait has had astonishing success in the actuarial prediction of adaptive outcomes in adulthood and aging, but we have little understanding of…

  9. Maladaptive variants of conscientiousness and agreeableness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Douglas B; Gore, Whitney L

    2012-12-01

    Although reasonably strong support has been obtained for the Five-Factor Model's (FFM) ability to account for the existing personality disorder (PD) constructs, the support for obsessive-compulsive PD (OCPD) and dependent PD (DPD) has been relatively less consistent. Specifically, the expected correlation between OCPD and the FFM trait of Conscientiousness has varied in magnitude across studies while DPD has, at times, also evinced rather weak relationships with FFM Agreeableness. We determined that these inconsistencies were due primarily to the reliance on FFM measures that lack adequate fidelity to assess the maladaptive aspects of high Conscientiousness and Agreeableness. When alternative measures were utilized, the correlations were generally large and in line with expectations. We conclude that OCPD and DPD can be fruitfully conceptualized within the FFM but encourage the use of measures that provide a comprehensive assessment of both the adaptive and maladaptive aspects of the FFM traits.

  10. Legal briefing: conscience clauses and conscientious refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to conscience clauses and conscientious refusal. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it has also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions. Over the past several months, conscientious refusal disputes have had an unusually high profile not only in courthouses, but also in legislative and regulatory halls across the United States. Healthcare providers' own moral beliefs have been obstructing and are expected to increasingly obstruct patients' access to medical services. For example, some providers, on ethical or moral grounds, have denied: (1) sterilization procedures to pregnant patients, (2) pain medications in end-of-life situations, and (3) information about emergency contraception to rape victims. On the other hand, many healthcare providers have been forced to provide medical treatment that is inconsistent with their moral beliefs. There are two fundamental types of conscientious objection laws. First, there are laws that permit healthcare workers to refuse providing - on ethical, moral, or religious grounds healthcare services that they might otherwise have a legal or employer-mandated obligation to provide. Second, there are laws directed at forcing healthcare workers to provide services to which they might have ethical, moral, or religious objections. Both types of laws are rarely comprehensive, but instead target: (1) certain types of healthcare providers, (2) specific categories of healthcare services, (3) specific patient circumstances, and (4) certain conditions under which a right or obligation is triggered. For the sake of clarity, I have grouped recent legal developments concerning conscientious refusal into eight categories: 1. Abortion: right to refuse 2. Abortion: duty to provide 3. Contraception: right to refuse 4. Contraception: duty to provide 5. Sterilization: right to refuse 6. Fertility, HIV, vaccines

  11. Conscientious refusal to assist with abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, D

    1994-09-10

    Abortion is a moral issue affecting the identity and integrity of physicians and nurses. Ethical reasoning helps reasonable and sincere people who do not agree on abortion to understand the sources of disagreement and to explore shared principles in the differences. Discussions of abortion cannot be limited to the conflict between the rights of a woman to control her reproduction and the rights of a fetus to live. Religious, cultural, feminist, and political beliefs must also be considered. This complexity must be considered when examining whether physicians and nurses have rights to refuse to assist in abortion on conscientious grounds. People with fundamentally different moral outlooks already determine what is morally right or wrong, good or evil. Health professionals who refuse to assist in abortion base their decision on beliefs about moral duties, injunctions of natural law, and the essentially nonnegotiable rights of people to be protected from intentional harm. They know and regret the adverse effects for pregnant women but there is no compelling motivation to change their opposition to abortion. There is no morally neutral position from which to judge conscientious refusals in abortion. Society should develop a position that respects autonomy of belief and grants the right to physicians and nurses to conscientiously refuse to assist in abortions. In those countries where the abortion law grants physicians the right to refuse but not nurses, society needs to reflect on why nurses have been accorded second class professional and moral status. In those countries which have not yet formulated an abortion law, the government should consider how it can find enough health workers who will in good conscience assist in abortions. Governments must first seriously consider a presumptive right to conscientious refusal in abortion before health systems can redistribute sectors of responsibility among health workers and implement changes in recruitment policies for

  12. The conscientious objection: debate on emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari Vergallo, G; Zaami, S; Di Luca, N M; Marinelli, E

    2017-01-01

    The authors discuss the emergency contraception (EC) topic, assessing scientific and ethical aspects. The almost totality of the studies carried out tends to report on the use of drugs as an emergency measure to prevent pregnancy. However, it is not yet completely excluded that emergency contraceptives can induce medical abortion. The debate on side effects of EC continues to be a highly emotional and controversial issue both for advocates who believe they will lower considerably the number of unintended pregnancies and abortions, and for opponents who believe that using emergency contraception amounts to an abortion. This latter hypothesis highlights the conflicting aspect of the conscientious objection to abortion of physicians and pharmacists. This research work is aimed at investigating the emergency contraception issue, paying particular attention to the medico-legal and regulatory aspects of this subject. Particularly, the authors focus on the conscientious objection in order to assess, if any, legal protection for physicians and pharmacists who claim a right to conscientious objection. Inappropriate use of EC could be resolved through a registry of user. This registry, of course, would not have the intention of persecution, but would only serve to detect possible cases of subjugation, exploitation and harassment.

  13. Conscientious Objection in Healthcare and Moral Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicclair, Mark

    2017-01-01

    There are several reasons for accommodating health professionals' conscientious objections. However, several authors have argued that among the most important and compelling reasons is to enable health professionals to maintain their moral integrity. Accommodation is said to provide "moral space" in which health professionals can practice without compromising their moral integrity. There are, however, alternative conceptions of moral integrity and corresponding different criteria for moral-integrity-based claims. It is argued that one conception of moral integrity, the identity conception, is sound and suitable in the specific context of responding to health professionals' conscientious objections and their requests for accommodation. According to the identity conception, one maintains one's moral integrity if and only if one's actions are consistent with one's core moral convictions. The identity conception has been subject to a number of criticisms that might call into question its suitability as a standard for determining whether health professionals have genuine moral-integrity-based accommodation claims. The following five objections to the identity conception are critically examined: (1) it does not include a social component, (2) it is a conception of subjective rather than objective integrity, (3) it does not include a reasonableness condition, (4) it does not include any substantive moral constraints, and (5) it does not include any intellectual integrity requirement. In response to these objections, it is argued that none establishes the unsuitability of the identity conception in the specific context of responding to health professionals' conscientious objections and their requests for accommodation.

  14. Conscientious refusal in healthcare: the Swedish solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthe, Christian

    2017-04-01

    The Swedish solution to the legal handling of professional conscientious refusal in healthcare is described. No legal right to conscientious refusal for any profession or class of professional tasks exists in Sweden, regardless of the religious or moral background of the objection. The background of this can be found in strong convictions about the importance of public service provision and related civic duties, and ideals about rule of law, equality and non-discrimination. Employee's requests to change work tasks are handled on a case-by-case basis within the frames of labour law, ensuring full voluntariness, and also employer's privilege regarding the organisation and direction of work, and duties of public institutions to provide services. Two complicating aspects of this solution related to the inclusion of 'alternative medical' service providers in a national health service, and professional insistence on conscientious refusal rights to accept legalised assisted dying are discussed. The latter is found to undermine the pragmatic reasons behind recent attempts by prolife groups to challenge the Swedish solution related to legal abortion in courts.

  15. The Impact of Cooperative, Competitive, and Individualistic Experiences on Minority Individuals’ Educational and Career Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-16

    attribute failure to task difficulty and bad luck (Bird, Foster, & Maruyama, 1980; Bukowski & Moore, 1980; Iso-Ahola, 1977a, 1977b; Roberts, 1975...April. Bukowski , W., & Moore, D. (1980). Winners’ and losers’ attributions for success and failure in a series of athletic events. Journal of Sport...Social Organization of Schools The Johns Hopkins University 3505 North Charles Street Baltimore, MD 21218 Dr. John Campbell Department of

  16. The Relationship between College Student Success and the Student's Degree of Perceived Self-Efficacy, Career Focus, and Sense of Life Calling or Purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jacqueline Simone

    2012-01-01

    Though much research has been conducted about the factors that contribute to overall college student success, little research has been conducted which ties self-efficacy, career focus, and a critical third variable, sense of life calling or purpose to race or ethnicity and the relationship of college classification to this topic. Specifically, the…

  17. Modelling self-efficacy, self-regulation, self-directed learning and career processes of adult professionals and relations with learning outcomes and labour market success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijker, Monique; Van der Klink, Marcel; Boshuizen, Els

    2010-01-01

    Bijker, M. M., Van der Klink, M. R., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2010, 25-27 August). Modelling self-efficacy, self-regulation, self-directed learning and career processes of adult professionals and relations with learning outcomes and labour market success. Paper presented at the 5th EARLI-SIG14 Learnin

  18. Excellence and Success through Career Understanding and Enriched Language Activities (Project ESCUELA). Community School District 14, Brooklyn. Final Evaluation Report, 1992-93. OER Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Joanne

    This report presents an evaluation of the Excellence and Success through Career Understanding and Enriched Language Activities (Project ESCUELA), an Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title VII-funded project in its second year of operation at five schools in Brooklyn, New York. The project served 415 Spanish-speaking and 178 Yiddish-speaking…

  19. Modelling self-efficacy, self-regulation, self-directed learning and career processes of adult professionals and relations with learning outcomes and labour market success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijker, Monique; Van der Klink, Marcel; Boshuizen, Els

    2010-01-01

    Bijker, M. M., Van der Klink, M. R., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2010, 25-27 August). Modelling self-efficacy, self-regulation, self-directed learning and career processes of adult professionals and relations with learning outcomes and labour market success. Paper presented at the 5th EARLI-SIG14 Learnin

  20. An Investigation of Personality Traits in Relation to Career Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounsbury, John W.; Loveland, James M.; Sundstrom, Eric D.; Gibson, Lucy W.; Drost, Adam W.; Hamrick, Frances L.

    2003-01-01

    Personality traits related to career satisfaction for 5,932 individuals were measured for the group and in 14 occupations. Traits related to satisfaction across occupations were emotional resilience, optimism, and work drive. The Big Five traits of conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness were also correlated with career satisfaction.…

  1. An Investigation of Personality Traits in Relation to Career Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounsbury, John W.; Loveland, James M.; Sundstrom, Eric D.; Gibson, Lucy W.; Drost, Adam W.; Hamrick, Frances L.

    2003-01-01

    Personality traits related to career satisfaction for 5,932 individuals were measured for the group and in 14 occupations. Traits related to satisfaction across occupations were emotional resilience, optimism, and work drive. The Big Five traits of conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness were also correlated with career satisfaction.…

  2. The Correlation Between Personality Dimensions and Young People's Choice of a Medical Career

    OpenAIRE

    Popa Cosmin Octavian; Rus Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The research assumes that there is a correlation between personality dimensions Extraversion and Conscientiousness which mean autonomy, ambition and consistency of purpose, self-efficacy and determination for young people who want to aspire to a medical career.

  3. A mini-midwifery business institute in a midwifery professional roles course: an innovative teaching strategy for successful career planning and business management of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse, D Elizabeth; Dewees, Connie; McDowell, William C

    2015-01-01

    It is essential to include teaching strategies in midwifery education that address career planning and the business aspects of practice. This article presents the Mini-Midwifery Business Institute (M-MBI), an innovative teaching strategy for midwives that can also be applied to other advanced practice professions. The M-MBI can be integrated into a professional roles course. Before and after graduation, midwifery students and other advanced practice professionals can use the information to gain confidence and skills for successful career planning and the business management of practice.

  4. Explaining Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy: Personality, Cognitions, and Cultural Mistrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock-Yowell, Emily; Andrews, Lindsay; Buzzetta, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    The authors explore the hypothesis that career decision-making self-efficacy could be affected by negative career thoughts, Big Five personality factors, and cultural mistrust in a sample of African American and Caucasian college students. Findings demonstrated that negative career thinking, openness, and conscientiousness explained a significant…

  5. Hostile climate, abusive supervision, and employee coping: does conscientiousness matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawritz, Mary B; Dust, Scott B; Resick, Christian J

    2014-07-01

    The current study draws on the transactional theory of stress to propose that employees cope with hostile work environments by engaging in emotion-based coping in the forms of organization-directed deviance and psychological withdrawal. Specifically, we propose that supervisors' hostile organizational climate perceptions act as distal environmental stressors that are partially transmitted through supervisors' abusive actions and that conscientiousness moderates the proposed effects. First, we hypothesize that supervisor conscientiousness has a buffering effect by decreasing the likelihood of abusive supervision. Second, we hypothesize that highly conscientious employees cope differently from less conscientious employees. Among a sample of employees and their immediate supervisors, results indicated that while hostile climate perceptions provide a breeding ground for destructive behaviors, conscientious individuals are less likely to respond to perceived hostility with hostile acts. As supervisor conscientious levels increased, supervisors were less likely to engage in abusive supervision, which buffered employees from the negative effects of hostile climate perceptions. However, when working for less conscientious supervisors, employees experienced the effects of perceived hostile climates indirectly through abusive supervision. In turn, less conscientious employees tended to cope with the stress of hostile environments transmitted through abusive supervision by engaging in acts of organization-directed deviance. At the same time, all employees, regardless of their levels of conscientiousness, tended to cope with their hostile environments by psychologically withdrawing. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  6. Legal protection and limits of conscientious objection: when conscientious objection is unethical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Bernard M

    2009-03-01

    The right to conscientious objection is founded on human rights to act according to individuals' religious and other conscience. Domestic and international human rights laws recognize such entitlements. Healthcare providers cannot be discriminated against, for instance in employment, on the basis of their beliefs. They are required, however, to be equally respectful of rights to conscience of patients and potential patients. They cannot invoke their human rights to violate the human rights of others. There are legal limits to conscientious objection. Laws in some jurisdictions unethically abuse religious conscience by granting excessive rights to refuse care.. In general, healthcare providers owe duties of care to patients that may conflict with their refusal of care on grounds of conscience. The reconciliation of patients' rights to care and providers' rights of conscientious objection is in the duty of objectors in good faith to refer their patients to reasonably accessible providers who are known not to object. Conscientious objection is unethical when healthcare practitioners treat patients only as means to their own spiritual ends. Practitioners who would place their own spiritual or other interests above their patients' healthcare interests have a conflict of interest, which is unethical if not appropriately declared.

  7. MS PHD'S: Bridging the Gap of Academic and Career Success Through Educational and Professional Development for Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D.; Vargas, W.; Padilla, E.; Strickland, J.; Echols, E.; Johnson, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.; Ithier-Guzman, W.; Ricciardi, L.; Johnson, A.; Braxton, L.

    2011-12-01

    Historically, there has been a lack of ethnic and gender diversity in the geo-sciences. The Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success in Earth System Science (MS PHD'S) Professional Development Program provides a bridge to young scientists of diverse backgrounds who in turn will impact many. In a process of 3 phases, the program introduces the students to the scientific community through participation in professional and society meetings and networking with scientists and personnel within federal agencies, academic institutions and STEM-based industries. The program builds confidence, offers role models for professional development and provides students support during their education. Upon completion, students achieve a high level of self-actualization and self-esteem combined with individual growth. They become part of a community that continuously provides support and security to each other. This support is tangible through the mentor/mentee relationships which will help with individual growth throughout the mentoring cycle. Having role models and familiar faces to whom mentees can relate to will encourage our students to succeed in the STEM's field. To date, 159 students have participated in the program: 26 have successfully completed their PhD and 56 are currently enrolled in the PhD programs nationwide. The MS PHD'S Program creates a forum of diverse peoples by diverse peoples with diverse interest and strength, where the ongoing goal is to continually raise the bar for each individual. MS PHD'S establishes a nurturing goal-oriented environment for the geo scientist of the future who in turn will make profound contributions on a local, national and global scale. To conclude, MSPHD'S not only bridges the gap of unrepresented minorities in STEM careers, but also generates educational approaches to make the earth system sciences available to more, impacting all.

  8. Specificity matters: criterion-related validity of contextualized and facet measures of conscientiousness in predicting college student performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sang Eun; Jin, Jing; LeBreton, James M

    2015-01-01

    To enhance the predictive validity of self-report personality measures, 2 distinct ways of increasing specificity of personality measures have been proposed in the literature-contextual specificity (i.e., providing a contextual referent) and content specificity (i.e., focusing on more specific constructs such as the Big Five facets). This study extends this line of research by examining whether there is an optimal way to configure, align, or integrate contextual and content specificity using measures of conscientiousness to predict college student success. A sample of 478 undergraduate students completed 4 measures of conscientiousness that varied in the level of content and contextual specificity. These forms of specificity were crossed to yield 4 distinct measures of conscientiousness. We then evaluated and compared the relative importance and the incremental importance of these different measures in the prediction of academic success. Superior predictive validity was found for both contextualized and facet measures of conscientiousness compared to a measure of global conscientiousness in predicting grade-point average and a broader behavioral criterion of student performance. When contextual and content specificity approaches were compared and combined, we observed the strongest predictive validity when the level of specificity is appropriately matched between predictor and criterion.

  9. Project Career: An individualized postsecondary approach to promoting independence, functioning, and employment success among students with traumatic brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, Deborah; Elias, Eileen; Rumrill, Phillip; Hendricks, Deborah J; Jacobs, Karen; Leopold, Anne; Nardone, Amanda; Sampson, Elaine; Scherer, Marcia; Gee Cormier, Aundrea; Taylor, Aiyana; DeLatte, Caitlin

    2017-09-14

    Project Career is a five-year interdisciplinary demonstration project funded by NIDILRR. It provides technology-driven supports, merging Cognitive Support Technology (CST) evidence-based practices and rehabilitation counseling, to improve postsecondary and employment outcomes for veteran and civilian undergraduate students with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Provide a technology-driven individualized support program to improve career and employment outcomes for students with TBI. Project staff provide assessments of students' needs relative to assistive technology, academic achievement, and career preparation; provide CST training to 150 students; match students with mentors; provide vocational case management; deliver job development and placement assistance; and maintain an electronic portal regarding accommodation and career resources. Participating students receive cognitive support technology training, academic enrichment, and career preparatory assistance from trained professionals at three implementation sites. Staff address cognitive challenges using the 'Matching Person with Technology' assessment to accommodate CST use (iPad and selected applications (apps)). JBS International (JBS) provides the project's evaluation. To date, 117 students participate with 63% report improved life quality and 75% report improved academic performance. Project Career provides a national model based on best practices for enabling postsecondary students with TBI to attain academic, employment, and career goals.

  10. New Adolescent Money Attitude Scales: Entitlement and Conscientiousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutler, Ivan F.; Gudmunson, Clinton G.

    2012-01-01

    The development of two new money-attitude scales measuring entitlement and conscientiousness in adolescents are described. The scales were developed through student and focus group input and from a review of literature on entitlement and conscientiousness as a new adolescent financial education curriculum was being developed. The findings from 265…

  11. Empirical Identification of the Major Facets of Conscientiousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCann, Carolyn; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Roberts, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    Conscientiousness is often found to predict academic outcomes, but is defined differently by different models of personality. High school students (N = 291) completed a large number of Conscientiousness items from different models and the Big Five Inventory (BFI). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the items uncovered eight facets:…

  12. What Is Conscientiousness and How Can It Be Assessed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W.; Lejuez, Carl; Krueger, Robert F.; Richards, Jessica M.; Hill, Patrick L.

    2014-01-01

    Conscientiousness is a personality construct that is a core determinant of health, positive aging, and human capital. A large body of work has contributed to our understanding of this important aspect of personality, but there are multiple conceptual and methodological issues that complicate our understanding of conscientiousness. Toward this end,…

  13. [The conscientious objection among pharmacists in the Slovak Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, Tünde; Kolář, Jozef; Krempaská, Radka

    2016-01-01

    There were two primary objectives of this study: 1. bibliographic analysis of literature on pharmacists and conscientious objection, 2. analysis of present condition and attitudes of pharmacists (n = 100) and pharmacy students (n = 100) towards conscientious objection in the Slovak Republic. Data were obtained from the survey using by questionnaire.Almost all, 191 (95.5%) respondents knew the phrase "conscientious objection". The respondents claimed this right to refuse filling prescriptions written for emergency post-coital contraception in 43.5%, and dispensing of hormonal contraception in 26.5%. Most participants, 178 (89.0%) think that pharmacists have the right to conscientious objection. 65 respondents (32.5%) implement this right in their practice.Key words: conscientious objection pharmacists pharmacy students Pro-life pharmacies.

  14. The Conscientious Consumer : is there such a thing as a conscientious consumer in the fashion industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Júlíanna Ósk Hafberg 1992

    2016-01-01

    Without consumerism there would be no fashion industry. But with increasing awareness about the environmental issues that we are facing, buying to satisfy our longings isn’t as relevant as it once was. The consumer needs to start taking responsibility and stop hiding behind the statement that big companies are the ones doing all the harm. With conscientious decision-making and relevant information seeking, the consumer can make a difference: voting with their dollars. There are many diffe...

  15. Managing conscientious objection in health care institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicclair, Mark R

    2014-09-01

    It is argued that the primary aim of institutional management is to protect the moral integrity of health professionals without significantly compromising other important values and interests. Institutional policies are recommended as a means to promote fair, consistent, and transparent management of conscience-based refusals. It is further recommended that those policies include the following four requirements: (1) Conscience-based refusals will be accommodated only if a requested accommodation will not impede a patient's/surrogate's timely access to information, counseling, and referral. (2) Conscience-based refusals will be accommodated only if a requested accommodation will not impede a patient's timely access to health care services offered within the institution. (3) Conscience-based refusals will be accommodated only if the accommodation will not impose excessive burdens on colleagues, supervisors, department heads, other administrators, or the institution. (4) Whenever feasible, health professionals should provide advance notification to department heads or supervisors. Formal review may not be required in all cases, but when it is appropriate, several recommendations are offered about standards and the review process. A key recommendation is that when reviewing an objector's reasons, contrary to what some have proposed, it is not appropriate to adopt an adversarial approach modelled on military review boards' assessments of requests for conscientious objector status. According to the approach recommended, the primary function of reviews of objectors' reasons is to engage them in a process of reflecting on the nature and depth of their objections, with the objective of facilitating moral clarity on the part of objectors rather than enabling department heads, supervisors, or ethics committees to determine whether conscientious objections are sufficiently genuine.

  16. Conscientious objection in healthcare, referral and the military analogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Steve

    2017-04-01

    An analogy is sometimes drawn between the proper treatment of conscientious objectors in healthcare and in military contexts. In this paper, I consider an aspect of this analogy that has not, to my knowledge, been considered in debates about conscientious objection in healthcare. In the USA and elsewhere, tribunals have been tasked with the responsibility of recommending particular forms of alternative service for conscientious objectors. Military conscripts who have a conscientious objection to active military service, and whose objections are deemed acceptable, are required either to serve the military in a non-combat role, or assigned some form of community service that does not contribute to the effectiveness of the military. I argue that consideration of the role that military tribunals have played in determining the appropriate form of alternative service for conscripts who are conscientious objectors can help us to understand how conscientious objectors in healthcare ought to be treated. Additionally, I show that it helps us to address the vexed issue of whether or not conscientious objectors who refuse to provide a service requested by a patient should be required to refer that patient to another healthcare professional.

  17. Conscientious objection to abortion provision: Why context matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Laura Florence; Halpern, Jodi; Prata, Ndola; Chavkin, Wendy; Gerdts, Caitlin

    2016-09-12

    Conscientious objection to abortion - a clinician's refusal to perform abortions because of moral or religious beliefs - is a limited right, intended to protect clinicians' convictions while maintaining abortion access. This paper argues that conscientious objection policies and debates around the world generally do not take into account the social, political, and economic pressures that profoundly influence clinicians who must decide whether to claim objector status. Lack of clarity about abortion policies, high workload, low pay, and stigma towards abortion providers can discourage abortion provision. As the only legal way to refuse to provide abortions that are permitted by law, conscientious objection can become a safety valve for clinicians under pressure and may be claimed by clinicians who do not have moral or religious objections. Social factors including stigma also shape how stakeholders and policy-makers approach conscientious objection. To appropriately limit the scope of conscientious objection and make protection of conscience more meaningful, more information is needed about how conscientious objection is practised. Additionally, abortion trainings should include information about conscientious objection and its limits, reproductive rights, and creating an enabling environment for abortion provision. Policy-makers and all stakeholders should also focus on creating an enabling environment and reducing stigma.

  18. The association of 2-year-old training milestones with career length and racing success in a sample of Thoroughbred horses in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J C; Rogers, C W; Firth, E C

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that exercise early in life has a positive effect on musculoskeletal health. At present, there is little whole population research investigating the effect of racing as 2-year-olds on future racing career. To investigate the association between attaining training milestones as 2-year-olds with length of career and racing success in Thoroughbred horses in New Zealand. Retrospective data were obtained of the 2001/02-born Thoroughbred foal crop. The 3 training milestones were: registered with a trainer, trialled and raced. The association of the training milestones with career length was measured using the outcomes: number of race starts and number of years raced, in a Cox regression model. Logistic regression models analysed the association of the training milestones with the outcomes: won or placed in a race. Linear regression was performed to assess the association of training milestones with total career earnings. Of 4683 horses in the population; 3152 horses were registered with a trainer, 2661 horses trialled and 2109 horses raced. Horses that raced as 2-year-olds had significantly (Prace starts than those first raced as 3-year-olds or older, this was also true when the 2-year-old year data were omitted. Horses that raced as 2-year-olds had significantly (Pracing. Horses registered with a trainer, trialled or raced as 2-year-olds were more likely to have won or been placed in a race than those that achieved the milestones as 3-year-olds or older. Horses that first trialled and raced as 2-year-olds had greater total earnings than those that first trialled or raced at a later age. Two-year-old training milestones had a strong association with positive racing career outcomes. Horses in training or racing as 2-year-olds may have better musculoskeletal health throughout life than horses that are first in training or racing at a later age. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.

  19. Conscientiousness and fruit and vegetable consumption: exploring behavioural intention as a mediator

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, AE; O'Connor, DB; Lawton, R.; Hill, PL; Roberts, BW

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Clear associations have emerged between conscientiousness and health behaviours, such that higher levels of conscientiousness are predictive of beneficial health behaviours. This study investigated the conscientiousness-fruit and vegetable consumption relationship and whether behavioural intention mediated this relationship. A large sample of adults (N = 2136) completed an online battery of questionnaires measuring conscientiousness, behavioural intentions to consume fruit and vegeta...

  20. Community College Partnerships for Student and Career Success: Program Profile of "Carreras en Salud." Fact Sheet #C397

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrici, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Postsecondary students with children often need an array of supports to succeed in their studies, which can require significant coordination among new and existing services (Conway, Blair, and Helmer 2012; Henrici n.d.; Miller, Gault, and Thorman 2011). Such supports might include financial aid, academic and career counseling, job placement…

  1. Uncovering the affective core of conscientiousness: the role of self-conscious emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayard, Jennifer V; Roberts, Brent W; Robins, Richard W; Watson, David

    2012-02-01

    We conducted 3 studies to test the idea that guilt is a key affective component of Conscientiousness and that it can account for the relation between Conscientiousness and negative affect. Study 1 used meta-analysis to show that Conscientiousness was associated with specific emotions and overall negative affect but was most strongly associated with guilt. Conscientiousness was negatively related to guilt experience but positively related to guilt proneness. Also, guilt experience mediated the relation between Conscientiousness and negative affect. Study 2 (N = 142) examined the relation between facets of Conscientiousness and guilt. We replicated results from Study 1 and showed that the relation between Conscientiousness and guilt was not due to overlap with Extraversion and Neuroticism. Study 3 (n = 176) examined the interplay between Conscientiousness and guilt on grades in a short-term longitudinal study. These studies showed that Conscientiousness is primarily related to guilt and highlighted the importance of examining the emotional substrate of Conscientiousness.

  2. Conscientious objection in healthcare: why tribunals might be the answer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jonathan A

    2017-04-01

    A recent focus of the debate on conscientious objection in healthcare is the question of whether practitioners should have to justify their refusal to perform certain functions. A recent article by Cowley addresses a practical aspect of this controversy, namely the question of whether doctors claiming conscientious objector status in relation to abortion should be required, like their counterparts claiming exemption from military conscription, to defend their claim before a tribunal. Cowley argues against the use of tribunals in the medical case, on the grounds that there are likely to be fewer unjustified claims to conscientious objection in this context than in the military, and that in any case tribunals will not be an effective way of distinguishing genuine and false cases. I reject these arguments and propose a different conception of the role of a medical conscientious objection tribunal.

  3. The interactive effects of conscientiousness and agreeableness on job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, L A; Burke, Lisa A; Barrick, Murray R; Mount, Michael K

    2002-02-01

    The authors hypothesized that the relationship between conscientiousness and job performance would be stronger for persons high in agreeableness than for those low in agreeableness. Results of hierarchical moderated regression analyses for 7 independent samples of employees across diverse occupations provided support for the hypothesis in 5 of the samples. In samples supporting the hypothesis, among the highly conscientious workers, those low in agreeableness were found to receive lower ratings of job performance than workers high in agreeableness. One explanation for lack of an interaction between conscientiousness and agreeableness in the other 2 samples is that those jobs were not characterized by frequent, cooperative interactions with others. Overall, the results show that highly conscientious workers who lack interpersonal sensitivity may be ineffective, particularly in jobs requiring cooperative interchange with others.

  4. Personality-intelligence interface : the relationship between conscientiousness and intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between conscientiousness and intelligence. Specifically, this study intended to replicate a previous study by Moutafi et. al. (2004) that found conscientiousness to be negatively correlated with intelligence (Moutafi, Furnham, & Paltiel, 2004). It was proposed that this negative relationship could be explained by the theory of compensation, which hypothesized that individuals low on fluid intelligence could compensate for ...

  5. Protean career: perspectives of study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litvinova Ye.Yu.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes different approaches to study of models of constructing the employment career in current environment. The changes having taken place in interrelationsbetween employees and organizations over recent 15 years led to changes in their mutual expectations including the ones concerning the career development. Boundaryless career based on career mobility and protean career based on subjective understanding of career success are regarded as alternatives to traditional careers. The main attributes of “new careers” are: an increased independence in employee-organization dyads, low level of mutual obligations, freedom of choice, self-actualization, priority of career loyalty and self-management in contrast to organization loyalty. Changes in career conceptualizing inevitably led to revision of career competences. Traditional professional competences give way to career meta-competences like adaptiveness, capacity for education, self-management, taking responsibility. At the same time empirical studies displaya prematurity of statements about the expressed loss of interest to traditional careers.

  6. Conscientious objection and induced abortion in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heino, Anna; Gissler, Mika; Apter, Dan; Fiala, Christian

    2013-08-01

    The issue of conscientious objection (CO) arises in healthcare when doctors and nurses refuse to have any involvement in the provision of treatment of certain patients due to their religious or moral beliefs. Most commonly CO is invoked when it comes to induced abortion. Of the EU member states where induced abortion is legal, invoking CO is granted by law in 21 countries. The same applies to the non-EU countries Norway and Switzerland. CO is not legally granted in the EU member states Sweden, Finland, Bulgaria and the Czech Republic. The Icelandic legislation provides no right to CO either. European examples prove that the recommendation that CO should not prevent women from accessing services fails in a number of cases. CO puts women in an unequal position depending on their place of residence, socio-economic status and income. CO should not be presented as a question that relates only to health professionals and their rights. CO mainly concerns women as it has very real consequences for their reproductive health and rights. European countries should assess the laws governing CO and its effects on women's rights. CO should not be used as a subtle method for limiting the legal right to healthcare.

  7. Do Predictors of Career Success Differ between Swedish Women and Men? Data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nyberg

    Full Text Available The aim of this prospective study was to explore predictors of objective career success among Swedish women and men, focussing on gender differences. Data were drawn from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH with a total of 3670 female and 2773 male participants. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for job promotion and an above-average salary increase between 2008 and 2010 were obtained through binary logistic regression analyses. Individual and organisational factors measured in 2008 were used as predictors in analyses stratified by sex. Mutual adjustment was performed for these variables, as well as for labour market sector and staff category at baseline. In both sexes, younger age predicted both job promotion and an above-average salary increase. Job promotion was also in both sexes predicted by being part of decision-making processes, having conflicts with superiors, and being eager to advance. Furthermore, promotion was predicted by, among men, being educated to post-graduate level and having an open coping strategy and, among women, working >60 hours/week. An above-average salary increase was predicted in both sexes by having a university education. Postgraduate education, having children living at home, and being very motivated to advance predicted an above-average salary increase among women, as did working 51-60 hours/week and being part of decision-making processes in men. Gender differences were seen in several predictors. In conclusion, the results support previous findings of gender differences in predictors of career success. A high level of education, motivation to advance, and procedural justice appear to be more important predictors of career success among women, while open coping was a more important predictor among men.

  8. An Investigation of Big Five Personality Traits and Career Decidedness among Early and Middle Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounsbury, John W.; Hutchens, Teresa; Loveland, James M.

    2005-01-01

    Big Five personality traits were analyzed in relation to career decidedness among adolescents in middle and high school. Participants were 248 7th-grade, 321 10th-grade, and 282 12th-grade students. As hypothesized, Conscientiousness was positively and significantly correlated with career decidedness in all three grades. Openness and Agreeableness…

  9. Conscientiousness, dementia related pathology, and trajectories of cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert S; Boyle, Patricia A; Yu, Lei; Segawa, Eisuke; Sytsma, Joel; Bennett, David A

    2015-03-01

    The study aim was to determine the contribution of dementia related pathologies to the association of conscientiousness with late-life cognitive health. At enrollment in 2 longitudinal clinical-pathologic cohort studies, 309 older individuals without cognitive impairment completed a standard conscientiousness measure. Annually thereafter, they completed a battery of 17 cognitive tests. On death, they underwent a uniform neuropathologic examination from which measures of neurofibrillary tangles, Lewy bodies, chronic gross cerebral infarction, and hippocampal sclerosis were derived. The relation of conscientiousness and the neuropathologic markers to cognitive decline was assessed in mixed-effects change point models to accommodate nonlinear cognitive decline. During a mean of 10.7 years of follow-up, annual decline on a composite measure of global cognition (baseline M = 0.082, SD = 0.499) was gradual (estimated M = -0.036, 95% CI [-0.046, -0.025]) until a mean of 3.2 years before death (95% CI [-3.6, -2.8]) when it accelerated to a mean annual loss of 0.369 unit (95% CI [-0.426, -0.317]), a tenfold increase. Higher conscientiousness (baseline M = 33.6, SD = 5.1) was associated with slower terminal decline (estimate = 0.064, 95% CI [0.024, 0.103]) but not preterminal decline (estimate = 0.005, 95% CI [-0.003, 0.013]). After adjustment for neuropathologic burden, conscientiousness was still related to terminal decline (estimate = 0.057, 95% CI [0.019, 0.094]) and accounted for 4% of the variance in terminal slopes. In addition, the association of neocortical Lewy bodies with terminal cognitive decline was attenuated in those with higher conscientiousness. The results suggest that higher conscientiousness is protective of late-life cognitive health.

  10. 人格特质与职业成功的关系研究%The Study of the Relationship between Personality Traits and Career Success

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴磊

    2012-01-01

    论文首先对大五人格模型和职业成功的相关理论进行了简单的概述。之后对以前关于人格特质与职业成功的研究文献进行了回顾,并根据我国文化情境,对人格特质与主、客观职业成功的关系进行了分析和总结,提出了人格特质与职业成功之间的关系模型。最后简单介绍了研究这个问题的理论意义和实践意义。%Firstly, this article makes a simple overview about the relevant theories of the "Big-Five" model of personality and career success. After reviewing the previous research literature, the author makes an analysis and summary of the relationship between personality traits and subjective and objective career success based on our cultural context, then proposes the relationship model between them.Finally, a brief theoretical and practical significance about this issue is introduced.

  11. Successful recruiting strategies for geoscience degrees and careers at the two-year college: An example from Metropolitan Community College - Kansas City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, B.

    2012-12-01

    The overwhelming majority of students at 2-year colleges take geoscience courses (e.g. physical geology or physical geography) to fulfill part of the general education requirements of the Associates in Arts degree or General Education certificates for transfer to a 4-year school. It is common in community college earth science programs to have a relatively small number of students continuing on to major in geoscience programs at their transfer 4-year institution. To increase interest and retention in geosciences courses, we have developed a two prong approach - one aimed at students looking to transfer to a 4-year institution and the other aimed at students in the often overlooked career and technical education (CTE) programs. In the case of transfer students, we employ a "high touch" approach in introductory Physical Geology courses. This includes raising awareness of geoscience related careers combined with faculty mentor and advisor activities for students who express interest in science on their admission forms or in discussions of potential careers in science in first-year experience courses. Faculty mentorships have been very effective, not only in recruiting students to consider careers in geology, but also in advising a curriculum for students necessary to be successful upon transfer to a 4-year institution (such as completing college level chemistry, physics, and calculus courses prior to transfer). The second approach focuses on students pursuing certificates and degrees in CTE energy-related programs (such as HVAC, industrial engineering technology, electrician, and utility linemen). To increase awareness of vocational related geoscience careers, many of which require a good foundation in the vocational training students are currently pursing, we developed a foundation energy course - Energy and the Environment - which fulfills both the science general education component of the AA degree for students looking to transfer as well as CTE students. The

  12. Success as a Springboard for Novice Physical Education Teachers in Their Efforts to Develop a Professional Career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zach, Sima; Stein, Hanan; Nabel-Heller, Noa

    2015-01-01

    This article explored how 45 novice physical education teachers perceived success, and how success affected their motivation to continue teaching. Self-determination theory (SDT) was used to interpret the teachers' written reports, and focus group discussions were held concerning their success. Satisfaction with the competence, relatedness, and…

  13. Conscientiousness and externalizing psychopathology: overlap, developmental patterns, and etiology of two related constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W; Jackson, Joshua J; Berger, Jessica M; Burger, Jessica; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the trait domain of conscientiousness, its development, and its relation to psychopathology. The definition of conscientiousness and its interface with specific forms of psychopathology, such as externalizing psychopathology, are discussed first. Then an overview of the known developmental changes in conscientiousness across the life course is provided, as well as the potential shared developmental etiology of conscientiousness and externalizing psychopathology. Given the lack of data, testing etiological factors that may contribute to the development of both conscientiousness and externalizing disorders, we report on three studies examining the childhood experiences associated with both conscientiousness and externalizing behaviors. Last, future directions are discussed.

  14. Toward accommodating physicians' conscientious objections: an argument for public disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, Thomas D

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate how public disclosure can be used to balance physicians' conscientious objections with their professional obligations to patients--specifically respect for patient autonomy and informed consent. It is argued here that physicians should be permitted to exercise conscientious objections, but that they have a professional obligation to provide advance notification to patients about those objections. It is further argued here that public disclosure is an appropriate and ethically justifiable limit to the principle of advance notification. The argument for publicly disclosing physicians' conscientious objections is made in this paper by discussing three practical benefits of public disclosure in medicine, and then addressing how publicly disclosing physicians' conscientious objections is not an undue invasion of privacy. Three additional concerns with public disclosure of physicians' conscientious objections are briefly addressed--potential harassment of physicians, workplace discrimination, and mischaracterising physicians' professional aptitude--concluding that each of these concerns requires further deliberation in the realm of business ethics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Parental styles, conscientiousness, and academic performance in high school: a three-wave longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaven, Patrick C L; Ciarrochi, Joseph

    2008-04-01

    This article assesses whether perceived parental style influenced the extent to which adolescents became increasingly conscientious and whether changes in conscientiousness influenced academic grades 1 year later. Parental styles, conscientiousness, verbal, and numerical ability at Time 1 were measured. One year later conscientiousness was again assessed, and 1 year after that end-of-year exam results were obtained. More than 784 students (mean age=12.3 years, SD=0.49) participated in the 1st year. The data of 563 students were matched across the 3 years. Conscientiousness tended to decrease from Time 1 to Time 2. Structural equation modeling showed that adolescents with more authoritative parents experienced less of a decrease in conscientiousness at Time 2 than did students with less authoritative parents and the same baseline level of conscientiousness at Time 1. Additionally, the decrease in conscientiousness at Time 2 predicted worse grades at Time 3, even after controlling for baseline levels of academic achievement.

  16. Uncovering the Affective Core of Conscientiousness: The Role of Self-Conscious Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Fayard, Jennifer V.; Roberts, Brent W.; Robins, Richard W.; Watson, David

    2012-01-01

    We conducted 3 studies to test the idea that guilt is a key affective component of Conscientiousness and that it can account for the relation between Conscientiousness and negative affect. Study 1 used meta-analysis to show that Conscientiousness was associated with specific emotions and overall negative affect but was most strongly associated with guilt. Conscientiousness was negatively related to guilt experience but positively related to guilt proneness. Also, guilt experience mediated the...

  17. Career management: an active process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, J; Eckel, F M

    1985-03-01

    The self-assessment, goal-setting, and career-planning techniques of career management are discussed, and the organization's role in career management is discussed. Career management is a planned process, initiated and carried out by an individual with the assistance of others. Because work and nonwork activities are so interrelated, career and life management planning can maximize a pharmacist's personal success. The career- and life-management process begins with the development of a personal definition of success. A self-assessment must be made of one's values, needs, interests, and activities. The next step of the process involves setting goals and establishing a plan or strategy to achieve them. Establishing a career path requires researching alternate career goals. Career competencies are identified that can increase an employee's chances of success. The employer shares the responsibility for career development through coaching, job structuring, and keeping the employee aware of constraints. Through the integration of the roles of the individual and the organization in the career-management process, employees can optimize their contribution to an organization. Pharmacists can successfully manage their careers by applying the techniques of self-assessment, goal setting, and career planning.

  18. Conscientious Consumerism Project in an Undergraduate Quality Management Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Marilyn M.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a "conscientious consumerism" project that involves the student as the consumer to either commend or complain to a company about a recent product or service experience. This activity and presentation helps students develop an understanding of the commendation/complaint management process within organizations while…

  19. Work Engagement, Performance, and Active Learning: The Role of Conscientiousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Arnold B.; Demerouti, Evangelia; ten Brummelhuis, Lieke L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines whether the relationship between work engagement and job performance is moderated by the extent to which individuals are inclined to work hard, careful, and goal-oriented. On the basis of the literature, it was hypothesized that conscientiousness strengthens the relationship between work engagement and supervisor ratings…

  20. Conscientious Consumerism Project in an Undergraduate Quality Management Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Marilyn M.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a "conscientious consumerism" project that involves the student as the consumer to either commend or complain to a company about a recent product or service experience. This activity and presentation helps students develop an understanding of the commendation/complaint management process within organizations while…

  1. 无边界职业生涯时代科技工作者职业成功影响因素研究%Research of Science and Technology Worker Career Success Influencing Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁甜甜; 张再生

    2014-01-01

    Boundaryless career era which is different from traditional career time emphasizes self-career management.This directly leads to the change of career success measurement.Science and technology workers is the carrier of new and high technology, having strong job autonomy and self-development needs.This paper breakthroughed the past research perspec-tive from different levels, highlighting their job autonomy and internal occupation success needs, built a new career success factors theory model, and combined with the related data to test and verify.The results show that individual characteristic, boundaryless of career, career adaptability significantly influence the career success;work engagement as the intermediary variable has a significant impact on science and technology worker career success.%无边界职业生涯时代区别于传统的职业生涯时代,更加强调自身职业生涯的管理,职业成功的衡量标准随之变化。科技工作者是高新技术的载体,具有较强的工作自主性及自我发展需求。研究突破以往从不同层面对科技工作者职业成功进行研究的视角,凸显其工作自主性及内在职业成功需求,构建了全新的职业成功影响因素理论模型,并结合相关课题数据对其进行验证。结果显示:科技工作者的个体特征、职业生涯的无边界性、生涯适应力对其职业成功影响显著;工作敬业度作为个体特征、职业生涯无边界性、生涯适应力的中介变量对科技工作者的职业成功产生显著影响。

  2. Career Adaptability as a Strategic Competence for Career Development: An Exploratory Study of Its Key Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocciardi, Federica; Caputo, Andrea; Fregonese, Chiara; Langher, Viviana; Sartori, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In the current labour market, the competence to adapt is becoming significantly relevant for career development and career success. The construct of career adaptability, i.e. the capability to adapt to changing career-related circumstances and predict advancement in career development, seems to provide a fruitful scientific base for…

  3. Career Choice Status among Undergraduates and the Influence of Career Management Competencies and Perceived Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Denise; Wilton, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the influence of career management competencies and perceived employability on career choice status (CCS) among undergraduates. Making informed and appropriate career choices is positively linked with well-being, work performance and academic and career success. Early career decision-making is now critical if students wish to…

  4. Does High LMX Quality Benefit Subordinate's Career Success?A Moderated Mediation Study%与领导关系好就能获得职业成功吗?一项调节的中介效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕萍; 涂乙冬

    2011-01-01

    采用结构化问卷,在2个时点进行2轮问卷调查,共收集到206份问卷.根据Edwards和Lambert(2007)推荐的程序,检验了领导-部属交换与下属职业成功间的调节的中介效应模型.结果表明:(1)网络能力、人际影响、社会机敏性、外显真诚4种政治技能调节了领导-部属交换对下属职业成功的直接效应和总效应;(2)在上述4种政治技能的调节下,心理授权在领导-部属交换与下属职业成功之间起着部分中介作用或完全中介作用;(3)人际影响调节了领导-部属交换对下属心理授权的作用,外显真诚调节了心理授权对职业成功的作用.%Prior researches have presented the positive relation between leader-member exchange (LMX) and the subordinate's career success. However, we have little knowledge about the mechanisms of the relation. Based on the social exchange theory, this study examines a moderated mediation model which integrates the mediating effect of psychological empowerment and the moderating effect of political skill between LMX and the subordinate's career success.To reduce common method bias, two wave surveys were conducted to collect data. LMX, psychological empowerment and political skill were evaluated at the first wave, and the score of subordinate's career success was conducted 1-4 weeks later after the first wave. Finally, 206 participants completed two wave data collection. The results of statistical tests suggested that the structured measurement had good reliability and validity.The results of the moderated mediation model have showed that the psychological empowerment and political skill have integrated effects on the relation between LMX and the subordinate's career success: (1) The 4 kinds of political skill strengthened the direct effect and total effect of LMX on the subordinate's career success. (2) The psychological empowerment mediated the relation between LMX and the subordinate's career success. (3)The

  5. [Conscientious objection for health professionals in ethics and deontology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez León, Mercedes; Rabadán Jiménez, José

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to highlight the numerous conflicts enters the consciousness and the laws are becoming more frequent health professionals in daily clinical practice. Clarify and define concepts such as ″conscientious objection for health professionals, to avoid confusion with other terms. This is work that aims to address the objection of conscience, not from the law but from the ethics and deontology, reviewing existing regulations both internationally and nationally. In addition to complete the studio, in a last part we discuss the state of the ″conscientious objection″ tars the recent passage of the organic law 2 / 2010, 3 march, sexual and reproductive health and the interruption of pregnancy. As a final conclusion we can say that ″conscientious objection″ is recognized in international declarations and even in the european constitution. in spain, the code of ethics and medical ethics, is one of the places where the objection of conscience of health professionals has great development for years, states that the doctor can refrain from the practice of certain professional acts such as abortion, in vitro fertilization or sterilization, if they are in contradiction with its ethical and scientific beliefs. Also recently, the general assembly of october 24, 2009, the central committee of ethics has made a declaration on ″conscientious objection″, insisting on its recognition. Finally, the organic law 2 / 2010, 3 march, sexual and reproductive health and the interruption of pregnancy, seems to be recognized ″the right to exercise conscientious objection″ of health professionals directly involved in the voluntary termination of pregnancy, after much discussion, but it is still early to assess the implementation of this right because, until july 5, 2010, will come into force this law, what will the future that we clarify the development of this important right for health professionals.

  6. The Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition: A Career Development Framework for Succession Planning and Management in Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Ellis, Sylvia D.; Grealy, Deborah S.

    2013-01-01

    Succession planning and management are critical parts of strategic planning for libraries in the twenty-first century. Making certain that the right people are in place with the prerequisite training and experience to assume leadership positions is a vital part of strategic planning and talent management in libraries that rely on teams of people…

  7. The Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition: A Career Development Framework for Succession Planning and Management in Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Ellis, Sylvia D.; Grealy, Deborah S.

    2013-01-01

    Succession planning and management are critical parts of strategic planning for libraries in the twenty-first century. Making certain that the right people are in place with the prerequisite training and experience to assume leadership positions is a vital part of strategic planning and talent management in libraries that rely on teams of people…

  8. What Is "Career Ready"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for Career and Technical Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    All too often, the terms "career ready" and "college ready" are used interchangeably, and discussions around career readiness are limited to traditional academic skills that allow students to successfully enroll in postsecondary education. While there is no debate that a rigorous level of academic proficiency, especially in math and literacy, is…

  9. Career-Tech Time Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monberg, Greg; Bannourah, Riyad

    2011-01-01

    In the 1940s, 50s, and 60s, the skills needed to have a successful career were very different than they are today. This case study of the Hammond Area Career Center's Multimedia Broadcast Academy shows how one Rust Belt community has revamped its approach to career and technical education and is preparing students for jobs in the new economy. This…

  10. 主动性人格与职业成功关系研究--领导-成员交换关系中生涯适应力的作用%The Relationship between Proactive Personality and Career Success---Based on Career Adaptability and Leader-member Exchange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海波; 侯悦; 何雪梅

    2016-01-01

    Based on career construction theory, this paper constructed the moderated-mediation model of proactive personali-ty affecting career success, by taking the enterprise employees as research object. And then, it analyzed the mediating effect and the leader-member exchange moderating effect of career adaptability on proactive personality and career success. In the end, it explored the relationship between proactive personality and career success.%基于生涯建构理论,以企业员工为研究对象,构建主动性人格影响职业成功的有调节的中介模型,探讨生涯适应力在二者关系中的中介作用以及领导—成员交换关系在其中的调节作用,明晰个人特质影响职业成功的内在机制。

  11. Essential Characteristics of a Culturally Conscientious Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukpokodu, Omiunota

    2006-01-01

    The increasing ethnic and cultural diversity of American society demands that classroom teachers prepare students for national and global citizenship. Students of the twenty-first century need to cultivate transformative and reflective knowledge, intellectual skills, and democratic attitudes and values needed to successfully navigate diverse…

  12. Selling conscience short: a response to Schuklenk and Smalling on conscientious objections by medical professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclure, Jocelyn; Dumont, Isabelle

    2017-04-01

    In a thought-provoking paper, Schuklenk and Smalling argue that no right to conscientious objection should be granted to medical professionals. First, they hold that it is impossible to assess either the truth of conscience-based claims or the sincerity of the objectors. Second, even a fettered right to conscientious refusal inevitably has adverse effects on the rights of patients. We argue that the main problem with their position is that it is not derived from a broader reflection on the meaning and implications of freedom of conscience and reasonable accommodation. We point out that they collapse two related but distinct questions, that is, the subjective conception of freedom of conscience and the sincerity test. We note that they do not successfully show that the standard norm according to which exemption claims should not impose undue hardship on others is unworkable. We suggest that the main reason why arguments such as no one is forced to be a medical professional are flawed is that public norms should not constrain citizens to choose between two of their basic rights unless it is necessary. In fine, Schuklenk and Smalling, who see conscience claims as arbitrary dislikes, sell freedom of conscience short and forego any attempts at balancing the competing rights involved. We maintain the authors neglect that most of legal reasoning is contextual and that the blanket restriction of healthcare professionals' freedom of conscience is disproportionate.

  13. Conscientious objection to provision of legal abortion care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brooke R; Kismödi, Eszter; Dragoman, Monica V; Temmerman, Marleen

    2013-12-01

    Despite advances in scientific evidence, technologies, and human rights rationale for providing safe abortion, a broad range of cultural, regulatory, and health system barriers that deter access to abortion continues to exist in many countries. When conscientious objection to provision of abortion becomes one of these barriers, it can create risks to women's health and the enjoyment of their human rights. To eliminate this barrier, states should implement regulations for healthcare providers on how to invoke conscientious objection without jeopardizing women's access to safe, legal abortion services, especially with regard to timely referral for care and in emergency cases when referral is not possible. In addition, states should take all necessary measures to ensure that all women and adolescents have the means to prevent unintended pregnancies and to obtain safe abortion.

  14. Reasons, reasonability and establishing conscientious objector status in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Robert F

    2017-04-01

    This paper builds upon previous work in which I argue that we should assess a provider's reasons for his or her objection before granting a conscientious exemption. For instance, if the medical professional's reasoned basis involves an empirical mistake, an accommodation is not warranted. This article poses and begins to address several deep questions about the workings of what I call a reason-giving view: What standard should we use to assess reasons? What policy should we adopt in order to evaluate the reasons offered by medical practitioners in support of their objections? I argue for a reasonability standard to perform the essential function of assessing reasons, and I offer considerations in support of a policy establishing conscientious objector status in medicine.

  15. Conscientious Objection: Widening the Temporal and Organizational Horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antommaria, Armand H Matheny

    2016-01-01

    Conscience can influence physicians' interactions with patients in myriad ways and, by extension, can influence the interactions and internal dynamics of a health care team. The AMA's opinion around physicians' exercise of conscience appropriately balance the obligations physicians have to their patients and profession, and the rights of physicians as moral agents to exercise their conscience. While the opinion is an effective starting point, further guidance is necessary to clarify the process by which physicians should identify, manage, and, if necessary, report their conscientious refusals to patients, supervisors, or colleagues. In addition to laying out a proposed process for identifying and managing issues of conscience, this article will use relevant and timely examples to help clarify how a physician could apply this process in an instance of conscientious refusal.

  16. Conscientiousness and Extraversion relate to responsiveness to tempo in dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Emily; Burger, Birgitta; London, Justin; Thompson, Marc R; Toiviainen, Petri

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has shown broad relationships between personality and dance, but the relationship between personality and specific structural features of music has not been explored. The current study explores the influence of personality and trait empathy on dancers' responsiveness to small tempo differences between otherwise musically identical stimuli, measured by difference in the amount in acceleration of key joints. Thirty participants were recorded using motion capture while dancing to excerpts from six popular songs that were time-stretched to be slightly faster or slower than their original tempi. Analysis revealed that higher conscientiousness and lower extraversion both correlated with greater responsiveness to tempo change. Partial correlation analysis revealed that conscientiousness remained significantly correlated with responsiveness when extraversion was controlled, but not vice versa. No effect of empathy was found. Implications are discussed.

  17. Wrongness, Responsibility, and Conscientious Refusals in Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Alida

    2017-09-01

    In this article, I address what kinds of claims are of the right kind to ground conscientious refusals. Specifically, I investigate what conceptions of moral responsibility and moral wrongness can be permissibly presumed by conscientious objectors. I argue that we must permit HCPs to come to their own subjective conclusions about what they take to be morally wrong and what they take themselves to be morally responsible for. However, these subjective assessments of wrongness and responsibility must be constrained in several important ways: they cannot involve empirical falsehoods, objectionably discriminatory attitudes, or unreasonable normative beliefs. I argue that the sources of these constraints are the basic epistemic, relational, and normative competencies needed to function as a minimally decent health-care professional. Finally, I consider practical implications for my framework, and argue that it shows us that the objection raised by the plaintiffs in Zubik v. Burwell is of the wrong sort. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Conscientious objection and ideological impositions: The Drift of The Mayflower

    OpenAIRE

    Mora-Restrepo, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the problematic and evading development of conscientiousobjection in the context of the Colombian constitutional jurisprudence. From a historical allusion to the famous case of the “Mayflower Pilgrims” –which serve as areference to the central problems that faces the objector–, it seeks to define the scopeof conscientious objection as a fundamental right (as a fundamental justice claim)in regard to the “factual” and “legal” possibilities for its exercise, for which ther...

  19. Career Adaptability in Adult Vocational Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizzi, Joan Speight

    Until about two decades ago, researchers considered career maturity primarily in terms of adolescents who struggled with the tasks that, when successfully completed, resulted in a viable career choice. Previously it has been suggested that the term "career adaptability" should replace the term "career maturity" in the study of adult vocational…

  20. Conscientious objection: personal and professional ethics in the public square.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    English law expects health professionals to have, and act upon, consciences, but formal conscience clauses are not the main legal recognition of this expectation. Rather, they should be regarded as an anomaly with roots in very specific political settlements between society and health professions, whose legitimacy is historically contingent, and as an aspect of the 'price' to be paid for securing services. There are sound reasons for the protection of conscientious discretion as an aspect of professional identify, but specific rights of personal conscientious objection are difficult to reconcile with legitimate public expectations of comprehensive and non-discriminatory services. Professional identities include moral commitments, such as the privileging of patient safety over administrative convenience. These should not be permitted to be overridden by personal moralities during the course of service delivery (as opposed to debating in the abstract what the proper courses of action should be). Consequently, formal conscientious objection clauses should be reduced to a minimum and regularly revisited. It is generally more satisfactory to address clashes between the personal moralities of professionals and public expectations through more flexible means, enabling accommodation of a plurality of views where possible but acknowledging that this is a matter of striking an appropriate balance. Employment law rather than healthcare law provides the best mechanism for regulating this process.

  1. rganizational features as situational strength: engaging the low-conscientious employee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milam, A.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most robust findings in work psychology is the role that conscientiousness plays in performance; more recently, research indicates that conscientious employees are also the most engaged in their work. The present study examines whether the organization has any role in this relation, and if it is possible for individuals who are low in conscientiousness to also feel high levels of engagement. One hundred forty-one full-time Romanian workers and their peers, representing a variety of industries, were surveyed, revealing that features of the organization can actually attenuate the relation between conscientiousness and engagement. Specifically, when employees perceive that the organization is relatively formalized (i.e., where following rules is important, and in organizations where there is a perception that effort is rewarded, conscientiousness is not as strongly associated with engagement. These organizational features represent situational strength, and when situations are strong, scripts and rules tend to predict behavior, rather than personality. As such, it may be possible for low-conscientiousness individuals to actually become more engaged through organizational change. For those who are low in conscientiousness, for example, a formal work environment likely provides structure and decreases ambiguity, which aids in lower conscientious employees becoming more engaged. Similarly, when it is perceived that the organization rewards effort, those who are low in conscientiousness receive this reinforcement, and likely benefit the most, as their levels of engagement tend to approach those who are higher in conscientiousness.

  2. Career Development and Emerging Managerial Career Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzeda, Maurice

    1999-01-01

    Career-motivation theory provides a new framework for managerial careers in the context of contemporary career patterns. The framework includes the concepts of career resilience, career insight, and career identity. (SK)

  3. Career writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Frans Meijers; Reinekke Lengelle

    2015-01-01

    Career Writing is a narrative approach to qualitative career assessment whereby client (or student) groups use creative, reflective, and expressive forms of writing to foster an internal dialogue about career. It is intended to help individuals construct a career identity by uncovering life themes,

  4. Conscientious Objection: Understanding the Right of Conscience in Health and Healthcare Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Christina

    2016-04-01

    In situations of moral gravitas, healthcare professionals are largely protected in the Western world to invoke their right to conscientiously object to providing care that conflicts with their personal, moral, and religious beliefs. However, making a conscientious objection needs to be predicated by an understanding of conscience, and knowledge of conscience is largely absent in definition as well as discourse surrounding conscientious objection in healthcare practice. Moreover, current definitions of health do not place emphasis on the ethical well-being of patients as well as care providers. Exploring health as an ethical condition of wellness in the light of conscientious healthcare provision will be addressed in my paper. I will also discuss how a distance from conscience in conscientious objection could compromise a healthcare professional's right to conscientious objection, if the fundamental, human right to conscience is not protected in the first place, supported by a focus on the importance of health as a state of ethical well-being.

  5. Conscientiousness and stress exposure and reactivity: a prospective study of adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael L M; Miller, Gregory E; Wrosch, Carsten

    2013-04-01

    Conscientiousness is associated with health, but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. To explore the role that stress might play, this study examined whether conscientiousness was associated with exposure and reactivity to life stress. This study followed 133 adolescent women every 6 months for 2.5 years. Participants completed a baseline measure of conscientiousness, and at each visit underwent a structured interview to catalogue episodic and chronic stress and had blood drawn to assess inflammatory processes. Participants higher in conscientiousness experienced fewer self-dependent episodic stressors and less academic and interpersonal chronic stress throughout the study. However, at times when they experienced higher levels of chronic interpersonal stress, they became more resistant to glucocorticoids. Higher levels of conscientiousness may protect adolescent women from exposure to certain stressors. However, when stress occurs, highly conscientious individuals may become more resistant to glucocorticoids, increasing their risk for processes that influence inflammatory conditions.

  6. Using individual interest and conscientiousness to predict academic effort: Additive, synergistic, or compensatory effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautwein, Ulrich; Lüdtke, Oliver; Nagy, Nicole; Lenski, Anna; Niggli, Alois; Schnyder, Inge

    2015-07-01

    Although both conscientiousness and domain-specific interest are believed to be major determinants of academic effort, they have rarely been brought together in empirical studies. In the present research, it was hypothesized that both interest and conscientiousness uniquely predict academic effort and statistically interact with each other to predict academic effort. In 4 studies with 2,557, 415, 1,025, and 1,531 students, respectively, conscientiousness and interest meaningfully and uniquely predicted academic effort. In addition, conscientiousness interacted with interest in a compensatory pattern, indicating that conscientiousness is especially important when a student finds a school subject uninteresting and that domain-specific interest plays a particularly important role for students low in conscientiousness.

  7. Different Forces, Same Consequence: Conscientiousness and Competence Beliefs are Independent Predictors of Academic Effort and Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Trautwein, Ulrich; Lüdtke, Oliver; Roberts, Brent W.; Schnyder, Inge; Niggli, Alois

    2015-01-01

    Conscientiousness and domain-specific competence beliefs are known to be highly important predictors of academic effort and achievement. Given their basis in distinct research traditions, however, these constructs have rarely been examined simultaneously. Three studies with 571, 415, and 1,535 students, respectively, found a moderate association between conscientiousness and competence beliefs, but competence beliefs meaningfully predicted both conscientiousness and academic effort, irrespect...

  8. The Importance of Early Conscientiousness for Socio-Economic Outcomes: Evidence from the British Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Prevoo, Tyas; ter Weel, Bas

    2013-01-01

    This research estimates models of the importance of conscientiousness for socio-economic outcomes. We use measures of conscientiousness at age 16 to explain adult wages and other outcomes, such as crime, health and savings behaviour. We use several waves from the 1970 British Cohort Study. Our estimates suggest a significant and sizeable correlation between early conscientiousness and adult outcomes. Measurement error is corrected for by applying IV-techniques, errors-in-variables estimators ...

  9. Career adaptability and career entrenchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Ambiel, Rodolfo A.M.; Noronha, Ana Paula Porto

    2015-01-01

    Career adaptability constitutes a resource that can help employees to effectively manage career changes and challenges. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between the two higher-order constructs of career adaptability and career entrenchment (i.e., the perceived inability and

  10. The burden of conscientiousness? Examining brain activation and cortisol response during social evaluative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Anne-Sophie; Schmierer, Phöbe; Veer, Ilya M; Streit, Fabian; Görgen, Anna; Kruschwitz, Johann; Wüst, Stefan; Kirsch, Peter; Walter, Henrik; Erk, Susanne

    2017-04-01

    Although conscientiousness has for a long time been considered generally adaptive, there are findings challenging this view, suggesting that conscientiousness might be less advantageous during uncontrollable stress. We here examined the impact of conscientiousness on brain activation during and the cortisol response following an uncontrollable social evaluative stress task in order to test this hypothesis. Brain activation and cortisol levels were measured during an fMRI stress task, where subjects (n=86) performed cognitive tasks containing preprogrammed failure under time pressure, while being monitored by a panel of experts inducing social-evaluative threat. The degree of conscientiousness was measured using the NEO-FFI. We observed a positive correlation between conscientiousness and salivary cortisol levels in response to the stressful task in male subjects only. In male subjects conscientiousness correlated positively with activation in right amygdala and left insula, and, moreover, mediated the influence of amygdala and insula activation on cortisol output. This pattern of brain activation can be interpreted as a disadvantageous response to uncontrollable stress to which highly conscientious individuals might be predisposed. This is the first study showing the effect of conscientiousness on physiology and brain activation to an uncontrollable psychosocial stressor. Our results provide neurobiological evidence for the hypothesis that conscientiousness should not just be seen as beneficial, but rather as a trait associated with either costs or benefits depending on the extent to which one is in control of the situation.

  11. The Downsides of Extreme Conscientiousness for Psychological Well-being: The Role of Obsessive Compulsive Tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Nathan T; Guan, Li; Maples, Jessica L; Williamson, Rachel L; Miller, Joshua D

    2016-08-01

    Although conscientiousness exhibits positive relations with psychological well-being, theoretical and empirical work suggests individuals can be too conscientious, resulting in obsessive-compulsiveness, and therein less positive individual outcomes. However, the potential for curvilinearity between conscientiousness and well-being has been underexplored. We measured 912 subjects on facets of conscientiousness, obsessive-compulsive personality, and well-being variables (life satisfaction, job satisfaction, self-esteem, positive affect, negative affect, work stress). Methods of scoring included traditional sum-scoring, traditional item response theory (IRT), and a relatively new IRT approach. Structural models were estimated to evaluate curvilinearity. Results confirmed the curvilinear relationship between conscientiousness and well-being, and demonstrated that differential facet-level relationships underlie weaker curvilinearity at the general trait level. Consistency was found in the strength of relation between conscientiousness facets with their obsessive-compulsive variants and their contribution to decreased well-being. The most common association was that higher standing on conscientiousness facets was positively related to negative affect. Findings support the idea that extreme standing on facets of conscientiousness more strongly linked to their obsessive-compulsive variants contributed to lower well-being, highlighting the importance of considering alternative functional representations of the relationship between personality and other constructs. Future work should seek to further clarify the link between conscientiousness and negative affect.

  12. The Correlation Between Personality Dimensions and Young People's Choice of a Medical Career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Cosmin Octavian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The research assumes that there is a correlation between personality dimensions Extraversion and Conscientiousness which mean autonomy, ambition and consistency of purpose, self-efficacy and determination for young people who want to aspire to a medical career.

  13. Successes, Challenges and Lessons Learned for Recruiting, Engaging and Preparing a Diverse Student Population for 21st Century Careers in Ocean Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkston, B. E.; Garza, C.

    2015-12-01

    Diversity within the Ocean Sciences workforce is still underperforming relative to other scientific disciplines, a problem that will be only be solved by recruiting, engaging and retaining a more diverse student population. The Monterey Bay Regional Ocean Science Research Experiences for Undergraduates program is housed at California State University, Monterey Bay (CSUMB), an HSI with strong connections to multiple regional community colleges and other Predominantly Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) in the CSU system. From this unique position, 11 sophomore and junior-level undergraduate students are recruited per year from academic institutions where research opportunities in STEM are limited and from groups historically underrepresented in the Ocean Sciences, including women, underrepresented minorities, persons with disabilities, and veterans. During the program, students engage in a 10-week original research project guided by a faculty research mentor in one of four themes: Oceanography, Marine Biology and Ecology, Ocean Engineering, and Marine Geology. In addition to research, students engage in rigorous weekly professional development workshops in which they practice critical thinking, ethical decision-making, peer review, writing and oral communication skills. These workshops include tangible products such as an NSF-style proposal paper, Statement of Purpose and CV modelled for the SACNAS Travel Award Application, research abstract, scientific report and oral presentation. To help retain students in Ocean Sciences, students build community during the REU by living together in the CSUMB dormitories; post-REU, students stay connected through an online facebook group, LinkedIn page and group webinars. To date, the REU has supported 22 students in two cohorts (2014, 2015) and here we present successes, challenges and lessons learned for a program designed to prepare students for 21st century Ocean Science careers.

  14. The Challenges of Conscientious Objection in Health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanawani, Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Conscientious objection (CO) is the refusal to perform a legal role or responsibility because of personal beliefs. In health care, conscientious objection involves practitioners not providing certain treatments to their patients, based on reasons of morality or "conscience." The development of conscientious objection among providers is complex and challenging. While there may exist good reasons to accommodate COs of clinical providers, the exercise of rights and beliefs of the provider has an impact on a patient's health and/ or their access to care. For this reason, it is incumbent on the provider with a CO to minimize or eliminate the impact of their CO both on the delivery of care to the patients they serve and on the medical system in which they serve patients. The increasing exercise of CO, and its impact on large segments of the population, is made more complex by the provision of government-funded health care benefits by private entities. The result is a blurring of the lines between the public, civic space, where all people and corporate entities are expected to have similar rights and responsibilities, and the private space, where personal beliefs and restrictions are expected to be more tolerated. This paper considers the following questions: (1) What are the allowances or limits of the exercise a CO against the rights of a patient to receive care within accept practice? (2) In a society where there exist "private," personal rights and responsibilities, as well as "civil" or public/shared rights and responsibilities, what defines the boundaries of the public, civil, and private space? (3) As providers and patients face the exercise of CO, what roles, responsibilities, and rights do organizations and institutions have in this interaction?

  15. Women's Career Development at the Glass Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Pamela L.

    1998-01-01

    For women, success in shattering the glass ceiling lies not in adapting to a male workplace culture but in using career strategies such as self-knowledge, multiple mentors, integration of body and soul, and fluid, customized careers. (SK)

  16. A Career in Statistics Beyond the Numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Gerald J

    2012-01-01

    A valuable guide to a successful career as a statistician A Career in Statistics: Beyond the Numbers prepares readers for careers in statistics by emphasizing essential concepts and practices beyond the technical tools provided in standard courses and texts. This insider's guide from internationally recognized applied statisticians helps readers decide whether a career in statistics is right for them, provides hands-on guidance on how to prepare for such a career, and shows how to succeed on the job. The book provides non-technical guidance for a successful career. The authors' extensive indu

  17. Conscientious objections in pharmacy practice in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacists who refuse to provide certain services or treatment for reasons of conscience have been criticized for failing to fulfil their professional obligations. Currently, individual pharmacists in Great Britain can withhold services or treatment for moral or religious reasons, provided they refer the patient to an alternative source. The most high-profile cases have concerned the refusal to supply emergency hormonal contraception, which will serve as an example in this article. I propose that the pharmacy profession's policy on conscientious objections should be altered slightly. Building on the work of Brock and Wicclair, I argue that conscientious refusals should be acceptable provided that the patient is informed of the service, the patient is redirected to an alternative source, the refusal does not cause an unreasonable burden to the patient, and the reasons for the refusal are based on the core values of the profession. Finally, I argue that a principled categorical refusal by an individual pharmacist is not morally permissible. I claim that, contrary to current practice, a pharmacist cannot legitimately claim universal exemption from providing a standard service, even if that service is available elsewhere.

  18. Conscientious objection in healthcare and the duty to refer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    Although some healthcare professionals have the legal right to conscientiously object to authorise or perform certain lawful medical services, they have an associated duty to provide the patient with enough information to seek out another professional willing to authorise or provide the service (the 'duty to refer'). Does the duty to refer morally undermine the professional's conscientious objection (CO)? I narrow my discussion to the National Health Service in Britain, and the case of a general practitioner (GP) being asked by a pregnant woman to authorise an abortion. I will be careful not to enter the debate about whether abortion should be legalised, or the debate about whether CO should be permitted-I will take both as given. I defend the objecting GP's duty to refer against those I call the 'conscience absolutists', who would claim that if a state is serious enough in permitting the GP's objection in the first place (as is the UK), then it has to recognise the right to withhold any information about abortion.

  19. Task-Contingent Conscientiousness as a Unit of Personality at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minbashian, Amirali; Wood, Robert E.; Beckmann, Nadin

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the viability of incorporating task-contingent units into the study of personality at work, using conscientiousness as an illustrative example. We used experience-sampling data from 123 managers to show that (a) momentary conscientiousness at work is contingent on the difficulty and urgency demands of the tasks people…

  20. 32 CFR 1630.18 - Class 1-W: Conscientious objector ordered to perform alternative service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class 1-W: Conscientious objector ordered to perform alternative service. 1630.18 Section 1630.18 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.18 Class 1-W: Conscientious...

  1. 32 CFR 1630.16 - Class 1-O: Conscientious objector to all military service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class 1-O: Conscientious objector to all military service. 1630.16 Section 1630.16 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.16 Class 1-O: Conscientious objector to all...

  2. Task-Contingent Conscientiousness as a Unit of Personality at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minbashian, Amirali; Wood, Robert E.; Beckmann, Nadin

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the viability of incorporating task-contingent units into the study of personality at work, using conscientiousness as an illustrative example. We used experience-sampling data from 123 managers to show that (a) momentary conscientiousness at work is contingent on the difficulty and urgency demands of the tasks people…

  3. Assessing Conscientious Personality in Primary Care: An Opportunity for Prevention and Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Salomon; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2014-01-01

    The articles in this special section bolster the already strong evidence base that personality differences in the trait of conscientiousness predict health. What is now needed is a research agenda for translating documented risk associations between low conscientiousness and poor health into policies and interventions that improve health outcomes…

  4. The Careless or the Conscientious: Who Profits Most from Goal Progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsheger, Ute R.; Maier, Gunter W.

    2010-01-01

    Although research indicates that making progress on personal work goals predicts positive job attitudes, little is known about the role of conscientiousness in moderating this relationship. Congruence theories suggest that job attitudes will be more dependent on goal progress when employees are high in conscientiousness, whereas compensation…

  5. Conscientiousness and fruit and vegetable consumption: exploring behavioural intention as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Antonia E; O'Connor, Daryl B; Lawton, Rebecca; Hill, Patrick L; Roberts, Brent W

    2015-10-22

    Clear associations have emerged between conscientiousness and health behaviours, such that higher levels of conscientiousness are predictive of beneficial health behaviours. This study investigated the conscientiousness-fruit and vegetable consumption relationship and whether behavioural intention mediated this relationship. A large sample of adults (N = 2136) completed an online battery of questionnaires measuring conscientiousness, behavioural intentions to consume fruit and vegetables, together with self-reported behaviour. Correlation analysis revealed that conscientiousness and each of its facets were positively associated with behavioural intention and self-reported behaviour. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that after controlling for age, gender and education, total conscientiousness, and the facets of responsibility, industriousness, order and virtue predicted self-reported behaviour. Further analysis revealed that in line with the Theory of Planned Behaviour, behavioural intention fully mediated the conscientiousness-fruit and vegetable behaviour relationship. In conclusion, low levels of conscientiousness were found to be associated with lower fruit and vegetable intentions, with the latter also associated with fruit and vegetable consumption.

  6. Neuroticism and Conscientiousness as Moderators of the Relation Between Social Withdrawal and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kelly A; Barstead, Matthew G; Rubin, Kenneth H

    2017-04-01

    Social withdrawal, or refraining from social interaction in the presence of peers, places adolescents at risk of developing emotional problems like anxiety and depression. The personality traits of neuroticism and conscientiousness also relate to emotional difficulties. For example, high conscientiousness predicts lower incidence of anxiety disorders and depression, while high neuroticism relates to greater likelihood of these problems. Based on these associations, socially withdrawn adolescents high in conscientiousness or low in neuroticism were expected to have lower levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Participants included 103 adolescents (59 % female) who reported on their personality traits in 8th grade and their anxiety and depressive symptoms in 9th grade. Peer ratings of social withdrawal were collected within schools in 8th grade. A structural equation model revealed that 8th grade withdrawal positively predicted 9th grade anxiety and depressive symptoms controlling for 8th grade anxiety and depressive symptoms, but neuroticism did not. Conscientiousness moderated the relation of withdrawal with depressive symptoms but not anxiety, such that high levels of conscientiousness attenuated the association between withdrawal and depressive symptoms. This buffering effect may stem from the conceptual relation between conscientiousness and self-regulation. Conscientiousness did not, however, moderate the association between withdrawal and anxiety, which may be partly due to the role anxiety plays in driving withdrawal. Thus, a conscientious, well-regulated personality partially protects withdrawn adolescents from the increased risk of emotional difficulties.

  7. Career development

    OpenAIRE

    Langerová, Aneta

    2008-01-01

    Document (1) highlights some of the important career development factors connected with self management and (2) describes proposal, preparation and execution of socio-psychological trainning session of first career development which aims to help high school students find the way to start their working career correctly.

  8. Different forces, same consequence: conscientiousness and competence beliefs are independent predictors of academic effort and achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautwein, Ulrich; Lüdtke, Oliver; Roberts, Brent W; Schnyder, Inge; Niggli, Alois

    2009-12-01

    Conscientiousness and domain-specific competence beliefs are known to be highly important predictors of academic effort and achievement. Given their basis in distinct research traditions, however, these constructs have rarely been examined simultaneously. Three studies with 571, 415, and 1,535 students, respectively, found a moderate association between conscientiousness and competence beliefs. Both conscientiousness and competence beliefs meaningfully predicted academic effort, irrespective of how academic effort was measured (single-measurement questionnaire or diary data). The associations of competence beliefs with academic effort were highly domain specific, whereas conscientiousness was predictive of academic effort across a wide range of academic subjects. Conscientiousness and competence beliefs were also associated with academic achievement. Figural and verbal reasoning ability, although associated with academic achievement, only loosely predicted academic effort.

  9. Conscientiousness and mindfulness in midlife coping: An assessment based on MIDUS II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesker, Amanda A; Súilleabháin, Páraic Ó; Howard, Siobhán; Hughes, Brian M

    2016-02-01

    Research has demonstrated that conscientious individuals tend to engage in planful problem solving to cope with stressful situations. Likewise, mindful individuals tend to favour approach-based coping and are less likely to engage in avoidant coping strategies. To examine whether conscientiousness and mindfulness determined agentic coping behaviour, hierarchical linear regressions were conducted using data from 602 participants drawn from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) Study II and MIDUS II Biomarker Project. Personality responses were derived from the five-factor model inventory, gathered at a single time-point. Results revealed that conscientiousness predicted problem-focused coping (p conscientiousness and mindfulness may contribute to coping responses in potentially healthful ways, highlighting new evidence regarding the potential protective role of conscientiousness.

  10. Literary Careers: Breaks and Stalls

    OpenAIRE

    Crozier, W. Ray

    2001-01-01

    In his article, "Literary Careers: Breaks and Stalls," W. Ray Crozier argues that biographical evidence points to considerable individual variation in writers' output over the life span even when allowance is made for longevity and length of writing career. This issue has been neglected by psychological accounts of creativity. Crozier outlines a theoretical framework for understanding variation in terms of an "artistic career." This is conceptualised as a sequence of projects, the success of ...

  11. Career building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    In order to encourage young scientists to integrate their research into teaching and their innovative teaching ideas into formal research, the National Science Foundation (NSF) is offering Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) grants. Awarded to junior-level faculty at $200,000 to $500,000 for 4-5 years, CAREER grants are designed to allow scientists and engineers to simultaneously develop prowess in research and education early in their careers. NSF made 346 CAREER grants (including six for Earth sciences) totaling $40 million in 1996.

  12. 32 CFR 1630.17 - Class 1-O-S: Conscientious objector to all military service (separated).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class 1-O-S: Conscientious objector to all... National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.17 Class 1-O-S: Conscientious... (including their reserve components) by reason of conscientious objection to participation in both...

  13. A New Life-Span Approach to Conscientiousness and Health: Combining the Pieces of the Causal Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Howard S.; Kern, Margaret L.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Duckworth, Angela Lee

    2014-01-01

    Conscientiousness has been shown to predict healthy behaviors, healthy social relationships, and physical health and longevity. The causal links, however, are complex and not well elaborated. Many extant studies have used comparable measures for conscientiousness, and a systematic endeavor to build cross-study analyses for conscientiousness and…

  14. Insights on STEM Careers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelberger, Joanne Roth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-11-05

    This presentation will provide career advice for individuals seeking to go beyond just having a job to building a successful career in the areas of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Careful planning can be used to turn a job into a springboard for professional advancement and personal satisfaction. Topics to be addressed include setting priorities, understanding career ladders, making tough choices, overcoming stereotypes and assumptions by others, networking, developing a professional identify, and balancing a career with family and other personal responsibilities. Insights on the transition from individual technical work to leadership will also be provided. The author will draw upon experiences gained in academic, industrial, and government laboratory settings, as well as extensive professional service and community involvement.

  15. Conscientious Objection to Animal Experimentation in Italian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldelli, Ilaria; Massaro, Alma; Penco, Susanna; Bassi, Anna Maria; Patuzzo, Sara; Ciliberti, Rosagemma

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary This paper examines the trend of Italian academic faculties in complying with the obligation to inform university students of their right to exercise their conscientious objection to scientific or educational activities involving animals, hereafter written as “animal CO”, as established by Law 413/1993, “Norme sull’obiezione di coscienza alla sperimentazione animale” (“Rules on conscientious objection to animal experimentation”), thereafter “Law 413/1993”. Despite an increasing interest in the principles of animal ethics by the international community, this law is still largely disregarded more than 20 years after its enactment. The Ethics Committees, Animal Welfare Committees, as well as the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research should preside over and monitor the Universities’ compliance with the duty to disclose animal CO. Abstract In Italy, Law 413/1993 states that public and private Italian Institutions, including academic faculties, are obliged to fully inform workers and students about their right to conscientious objection to scientific or educational activities involving animals, hereafter written as “animal CO”. However, little monitoring on the faculties’ compliance with this law has been performed either by the government or other institutional bodies. Based on this premise, the authors have critically reviewed the existing data and compared them with those emerging from their own investigation to discuss limitations and inconsistencies. The results of this investigation revealed that less than half of Italian academic faculties comply with their duty to inform on animal CO. Non-compliance may substantially affect the right of students to make ethical choices in the field of animal ethics and undermines the fundamental right to express their own freedom of thought. The Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research, ethics committees and animal welfare bodies should cooperate to make

  16. Learning Style versus Time Spent Studying and Career Choice: Which Is Associated with Success in a Combined Undergraduate Anatomy and Physiology Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Gary J.; Mazurek, Ewa; Marone, Jane R.

    2016-01-01

    The VARK learning style is a pedagogical focus in health care education. This study examines relationships of course performance vs. VARK learning preference, study time, and career plan among students enrolled in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course at a large urban university. Students (n?=?492) from the fall semester course completed…

  17. Personality predictors of successful development: toddler temperament and adolescent personality traits predict well-being and career stability in middle adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Blatný

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to predict both adaptive psychological functioning (well-being and adaptive social functioning (career stability in middle adulthood based on behaviors observed in toddlerhood and personality traits measured in adolescence. 83 people participated in an ongoing longitudinal study started in 1961 (58% women. Based on children's behavior in toddlerhood, three temperamental dimensions were identified - positive affectivity, negative affectivity and disinhibition. In adolescence, extraversion and neuroticism were measured at the age of 16 years. Various aspects of well-being were used as indicators of adaptive psychological functioning in adulthood: life satisfaction, self-esteem and self-efficacy. Career stability was used as an indicator of adaptive social functioning. Job careers of respondents were characterized as stable, unstable or changeable. Extraversion measured at the age of 16 proved to be the best predictor of well-being indicators; in case of self-efficacy it was also childhood disinhibition. Extraversion in adolescence, childhood disinhibition and negative affectivity predicted career stability. Findings are discussed in the context of a theoretical framework of higher order factors of the Big Five personality constructs, stability and plasticity.

  18. Personality predictors of successful development: toddler temperament and adolescent personality traits predict well-being and career stability in middle adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatný, Marek; Millová, Katarína; Jelínek, Martin; Osecká, Terezie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to predict both adaptive psychological functioning (well-being) and adaptive social functioning (career stability) in middle adulthood based on behaviors observed in toddlerhood and personality traits measured in adolescence. 83 people participated in an ongoing longitudinal study started in 1961 (58% women). Based on children's behavior in toddlerhood, three temperamental dimensions were identified - positive affectivity, negative affectivity and disinhibition. In adolescence, extraversion and neuroticism were measured at the age of 16 years. Various aspects of well-being were used as indicators of adaptive psychological functioning in adulthood: life satisfaction, self-esteem and self-efficacy. Career stability was used as an indicator of adaptive social functioning. Job careers of respondents were characterized as stable, unstable or changeable. Extraversion measured at the age of 16 proved to be the best predictor of well-being indicators; in case of self-efficacy it was also childhood disinhibition. Extraversion in adolescence, childhood disinhibition and negative affectivity predicted career stability. Findings are discussed in the context of a theoretical framework of higher order factors of the Big Five personality constructs, stability and plasticity.

  19. Personality Predictors of Successful Development: Toddler Temperament and Adolescent Personality Traits Predict Well-Being and Career Stability in Middle Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to predict both adaptive psychological functioning (well-being) and adaptive social functioning (career stability) in middle adulthood based on behaviors observed in toddlerhood and personality traits measured in adolescence. 83 people participated in an ongoing longitudinal study started in 1961 (58% women). Based on children’s behavior in toddlerhood, three temperamental dimensions were identified – positive affectivity, negative affectivity and disinhibition. In adolescence, extraversion and neuroticism were measured at the age of 16 years. Various aspects of well-being were used as indicators of adaptive psychological functioning in adulthood: life satisfaction, self-esteem and self-efficacy. Career stability was used as an indicator of adaptive social functioning. Job careers of respondents were characterized as stable, unstable or changeable. Extraversion measured at the age of 16 proved to be the best predictor of well-being indicators; in case of self-efficacy it was also childhood disinhibition. Extraversion in adolescence, childhood disinhibition and negative affectivity predicted career stability. Findings are discussed in the context of a theoretical framework of higher order factors of the Big Five personality constructs, stability and plasticity. PMID:25919394

  20. Watch-wearing as a marker of conscientiousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Several aspects of an individual’s appearance have been shown to predict personality and related behaviour. While some of these cues are grounded in biology (e.g., the human face), other aspects of a person’s appearance can be actively controlled (e.g., clothing). In this paper, we consider a common fashion accessory, the wristwatch. In an exploratory sample (N > 100) and a confirmatory sample (N > 600), we compared big-five personality traits between individuals who do or do not regularly wear a standard wristwatch. Significantly higher levels of conscientiousness were observed in participants who wore a watch. In a third study (N = 85), watch wearers arrived significantly earlier to appointments in comparison to controls. These results are discussed in relation to enclothed cognition and the rise of wearable technology including smartwatches. PMID:26334540

  1. Coping with Daily Stress: The Role of Conscientiousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Carrie E.; Roesch, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined how specific coping strategies mediate the relationship between Conscientiousness (C) and positive affect (PA) in a large, multiethnic sample. Using an internet-based daily diary approach, 366 participants (37.6% Caucasian, 30.6% Asian American, 20.7% Hispanic, 9.1% African American) completed measures that assessed daily stressors, coping strategies used to deal with those stressors, and PA over the course of five days. In addition, participants completed a measure of the Five-Factor Model of Personality. Problem-Focused coping partially mediated the relationship between C and PA. Individuals higher in C used more problem-focused coping, which, in turn, was associated with higher PA. The findings of the current study suggest C serves as a protective factor from stress through its influence on coping strategy selection. Other possible mediators in the C-PA relationship are discussed. PMID:21076634

  2. Two conceptions of conscience and the problem of conscientious objection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Xavier

    2017-04-01

    Schuklenk and Smalling argue that it is practically impossible for civic institutions to meet the conditions necessary to ensure that conscientious objection does not conflict with the core principles of liberal democracies. In this response, I propose an alternative definition of conscience to that offered by Schuklenk and Smalling. I discuss what I call the 'traditional' notion of conscience, and contrast this with the existentialist conception of conscience (which I take to be a close cousin of the view targeted by Schuklenk and Smalling). I argue that the traditional notion, grounded in an objective moral order, avoids the criticisms advanced by Schuklenk and Smalling; the existentialist conception, in contrast, does not. I conclude by discussing the benefits and risks of a 'restricted view' of respect for conscience.

  3. Culturally Conscientious Pain Measurement in Older African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Staja Q; Herr, Keela A; Tripp-Reimer, Toni

    2016-10-01

    Despite considerable pain disparities across the care continuum, pain is an understudied health problem in older ethnic minority groups, such as African Americans. Quality pain measurement is a core task in pain management and a mechanism by which pain disparities may be reduced. Pain measurement includes the methods (e.g., assessment approaches, tools) and metrics that researchers and clinicians use to understand the characteristics of pain. However, there are significant issues and gaps that negatively affect pain measurement in older African Americans. Of concern is insufficient representation in pain research, which impedes the testing and refinement of many standardized self-report, behavioral and surrogate report, physiological, and composite measures of pain. The purposes for this article are to discuss the status of pain measurement and factors that affect our knowledge on pain measurement in older African Americans, and to provide guidance for culturally conscientious pain measurement using the available literature.

  4. [Conscientious objection and the values of medical profession].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besio, Mauricio

    2016-03-01

    It is usual to understand conscientious objection as a doctor’s refusal to perform a legitimate intervention, for subjective personal reasons unrelated to medicine. It is then accepted only by respect to professional autonomy and freedom of beliefs. Understood in that way it would be thus reasonable to limit it, curtail it or delete it, since the objector would not be willing to grant benefits that correspond to his medical profession. This work aims to show exactly the opposite, taking as an example the project of law that pretends to decriminalize abortion in some situations in Chile. Is the objector who defends medical activity relying on ethic codes that seek to preserve the values and principles of our profession.

  5. Watch-wearing as a marker of conscientiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David A; Jenkins, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Several aspects of an individual's appearance have been shown to predict personality and related behaviour. While some of these cues are grounded in biology (e.g., the human face), other aspects of a person's appearance can be actively controlled (e.g., clothing). In this paper, we consider a common fashion accessory, the wristwatch. In an exploratory sample (N > 100) and a confirmatory sample (N > 600), we compared big-five personality traits between individuals who do or do not regularly wear a standard wristwatch. Significantly higher levels of conscientiousness were observed in participants who wore a watch. In a third study (N = 85), watch wearers arrived significantly earlier to appointments in comparison to controls. These results are discussed in relation to enclothed cognition and the rise of wearable technology including smartwatches.

  6. Conscientiousness and agreeableness as predictors of rating leniency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardin, H J; Cooke, D K; Villanova, P

    2000-04-01

    The authors studied the relationship between the Big Five personality factors and rating elevation among 111 students making peer evaluations. It was hypothesized that Conscientiousness (C) scores would be negatively correlated with rating level and that Agreeableness (A) scores would be positively correlated with rating level. We further predicted that individuals who were low on C and high on A would produce the most elevated ratings. As predicted, A scores were positively related to rating level (.33, p < .01) and C scores were negatively correlated with rating level (-.37, p < .01). Using the strong hypothesis test (P. Bobko, 1986), the authors found that ratings by low C and high A individuals were more elevated than all other groups of students combined (p < .01).

  7. Watch-wearing as a marker of conscientiousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Ellis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several aspects of an individual’s appearance have been shown to predict personality and related behaviour. While some of these cues are grounded in biology (e.g., the human face, other aspects of a person’s appearance can be actively controlled (e.g., clothing. In this paper, we consider a common fashion accessory, the wristwatch. In an exploratory sample (N > 100 and a confirmatory sample (N > 600, we compared big-five personality traits between individuals who do or do not regularly wear a standard wristwatch. Significantly higher levels of conscientiousness were observed in participants who wore a watch. In a third study (N = 85, watch wearers arrived significantly earlier to appointments in comparison to controls. These results are discussed in relation to enclothed cognition and the rise of wearable technology including smartwatches.

  8. Medical Assistance in Dying in Canada: An Ethical Analysis of Conscientious and Religious Objections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christie, Timothy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Supreme Court of Canada (SCC has ruled that the federal government is required to remove the provisions of the Criminal Code of Canada that prohibit medical assistance in dying (MAID. The SCC has stipulated that individual physicians will not be required to provide MAID should they have a religious or conscientious objection. Therefore, the pending legislative response will have to balance the rights of the patients with the rights of physicians, other health care professionals, and objecting institutions. Objective: The objective of this paper is to critically assess, within the Canadian context, the moral probity of individual or institutional objections to MAID that are for either religious or conscientious reasons. Methods: Deontological ethics and the Doctrine of Double Effect. Results: The religious or conscientious objector has conflicting duties, i.e., a duty to respect the “right to life” (section 7 of the Charter and a duty to respect the tenets of his or her religious or conscientious beliefs (protected by section 2 of the Charter. Conclusion: The discussion of religious or conscientious objections to MAID has not explicitly considered the competing duties of the conscientious objector. It has focussed on the fact that a conscientious objection exists and has ignored the normative question of whether the duty to respect one’s conscience or religion supersedes the duty to respect the patient’s right to life.

  9. Conscientiousness mediates the relation between perceived parental socialisation and self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yusuke; Roberts, Brent W; Hoshino, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    The pathways between parenting behaviours, personality and physical health have all been separately studied. Prior research has paid little attention to the indirect effects of personality in the path between parenting behaviours and better health. The purpose of this study was to explore the mediational effects of conscientiousness on the relationships between parental socialisation of responsibility and self-rated health, and to examine potential age differences in this mediational pathway. In total, 736 female and 749 male members across Japan participated in this study. They were divided into three groups by age category: younger-, middle-aged and older-aged. Conscientiousness and health were concurrently rated, while parental socialisation of responsibility was retrospectively assessed. Our analyses revealed that parental socialisation of responsibility is positively associated with conscientiousness and self-rated health, that conscientiousness is positively associated with self-rated health, and that conscientiousness fully mediated the effect of parental socialisation of responsibility on self-rated health. The mediational links were consistent across younger, middle-aged and older-aged cohorts. Our findings suggest that greater parental socialisation of responsibility relates to higher conscientiousness, and consequently healthier adults. These findings imply that parental behaviours could be a plausible target for intervention to foster the development of conscientiousness and better health.

  10. Social Justice Competencies and Career Development Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Nancy; Collins, Sandra; Marshall, Catherine; McMahon, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The recent focus on social justice issues in career development is primarily conceptual in nature and few resources account for the challenges or successes experienced by career development practitioners. The purpose of this article is to report the results of a research study of career practitioners in Canada regarding the competencies they use…

  11. 护士的心理资本对工作绩效及职业生涯成功影响的研究%Study on influence of psychological capital of nurses on their job performance and career success

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    计琼玉; 马艳玲; 曹秋茹; 刘跟莉; 高敬书; 张杨; 弓箭; 赵士宏; 王晓慧; 于方; 马翀奕; 王硕; 刘娇

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To probe into influence of psychological capital of nurses on their job performance and career success. Methods: A cross - sectional questionnaire survey,the psychological capital scale,job performance and job satisfaction scale were used for survey of 428 nurses and the results were analyzed. Results: Psychological capital scale score was positively related to job performance and career success(P<0. 01). Self - efficacy and tenacity in psychological capital scale can predict job performance significantly, and hop to predict the career success. Conclusion psychological capital is the driving force inside heart of nurses,it has the important significance to enhance the nurses' psychological capital level for enhancing nurses' job performance and promoting the professional development of nurses.%[目的]探讨护士心理资本对工作绩效、职业生涯成功的影响.[方法]采用横断面问卷调查法,应用心理资本量表、工作绩效及职业满意度量表对428名护士进行调查,并对结果进行分析.[结果]心理资本量表得分与工作绩效、职业生涯成功呈正相关(P<0.01).心理资本量表维度中的自我效能和坚韧能显著预测工作绩效,希望能显著预测职业生涯成功.[结论]心理资本是护士内心深处的原动力,提高护士的心理资本水平对提升护士工作绩效和促进护士职业发展具有重要的积极意义.

  12. Conscientious objection and abortion: rights and duties of public sector physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Debora

    2011-10-01

    The paper analyzes conscientious objection by physicians, through the concrete situation of legal abortion in Brazil. It reviews the two main ethical frameworks about conscientious objection in public health, the incompatibility thesis and the integrity thesis, to analyze the reality of legal abortion services in the referral services of the Brazilian public health care system. From these two perspectives, a third perspective is proposed - the justification thesis, to manage the right to conscientious objection among physicians in referral services. This analysis may contribute to the organization of services for legal abortion and to the education of future physicians working in emergency obstetric care.

  13. Surviving an abusive supervisor: the joint roles of conscientiousness and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandkeolyar, Amit K; Shaffer, Jonathan A; Li, Andrew; Ekkirala, Srinivas; Bagger, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines a mediated moderation model of the effects of conscientiousness and coping strategies on the relationship between abusive supervision and employees' job performance. Across 2 studies conducted in India, we found evidence that the relationship between abusive supervision and job performance was weaker when employees were high in conscientiousness. In addition, we found that the use of an avoidance coping strategy facilitated a negative relationship between abusive supervision and performance. Finally, we found that the moderating effects of conscientiousness were mediated by the use of avoidance coping strategies. Our findings contribute to theories of abusive supervision, personality, coping strategies, and job performance.

  14. Grit, conscientiousness, and the transtheoretical model of change for exercise behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Justy; Pritschet, Brian L; Cutton, David M

    2013-05-01

    Grit and the Big Five Inventory (BFI) Conscientiousness dimension were examined with respect to the transtheoretical model (TTM) stages of change for exercise behavior. Participants (N = 1171) completed an online survey containing exercise-related TTM staging questions, the Short Grit Scale and BFI Conscientiousness. Ordinal regression analyses showed that grit significantly predicted high intensity and moderate intensity exercise TTM stage while BFI Conscientiousness did not. The results suggest that grit is a potentially important differentiator of TTM stage for moderate and high intensity exercise.

  15. Personality Predictors of Successful Development: Toddler Temperament and Adolescent Personality Traits Predict Well-Being and Career Stability in Middle Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Blatný; Katarína Millová; Martin Jelínek; Terezie Osecká

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to predict both adaptive psychological functioning (well-being) and adaptive social functioning (career stability) in middle adulthood based on behaviors observed in toddlerhood and personality traits measured in adolescence. 83 people participated in an ongoing longitudinal study started in 1961 (58% women). Based on children’s behavior in toddlerhood, three temperamental dimensions were identified – positive affectivity, negative affectivity and disinhibition. ...

  16. Learning style versus time spent studying and career choice: Which is associated with success in a combined undergraduate anatomy and physiology course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Gary J; Mazurek, Ewa; Marone, Jane R

    2016-01-01

    The VARK learning style is a pedagogical focus in health care education. This study examines relationships of course performance vs. VARK learning preference, study time, and career plan among students enrolled in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course at a large urban university. Students (n = 492) from the fall semester course completed a survey consisting of the VARK questionnaire, gender, academic year, career plans, and estimated hours spent per week in combined classroom and study time. Seventy-eight percent of students reported spending 15 or fewer hours per week studying. Study time and overall course score correlated significantly for the class as a whole (r = 0.111, P = 0.013), which was mainly due to lecture (r = 0.118, P = 0.009) performance. No significant differences were found among students grouped by learning styles. When corrected for academic year, overall course scores (mean ± SEM) for students planning to enter dentistry, medicine, optometry or pharmacy (79.89 ± 0.88%) were significantly higher than those of students planning to enter physical or occupational therapies (74.53 ± 1.15%; P = 0.033), as well as nurse/physician assistant programs (73.60 ± 1.3%; P = 0.040). Time spent studying was not significantly associated with either learning style or career choice. Our findings suggest that specific career goals and study time, not learning preferences, are associated with better performance among a diverse group of students in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course. However, the extent to which prior academic preparation, cultural norms, and socioeconomic factors influenced these results requires further investigation.

  17. Learning style versus time spent studying and career choice: Which is associated with success in a combined undergraduate anatomy and physiology course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Gary J.; Mazurek, Ewa; Marone, Jane R.

    2016-01-01

    The VARK learning style is a pedagogical focus in health care education. This study examines relationships of course performance vs. VARK learning preference, study time, and career plan among students enrolled in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course at a large urban university. Students (n = 492) from the fall semester course completed a survey consisting of the VARK questionnaire, gender, academic year, career plans, and estimated hours spent per week in combined classroom and study time. Seventy-eight percent of students reported spending 15 or fewer hours per week studying. Study time and overall course score correlated significantly for the class as a whole (r = 0.111, P = 0.013), which was mainly due to lecture (r = 0.118, P = 0.009) performance. No significant differences were found among students grouped by learning styles. When corrected for academic year, overall course scores (mean ± SEM) for students planning to enter “medicines” (79.89 ± 0.88%) were significantly higher than those of students planning to enter physical/occupational therapies (74.53 ± 1.15%; P = 0.033), as well as nurse/physician assistant programs (73.60 ± 1.3%; P = 0.040). Time spent studying was not significantly associated with either learning style or career choice. Our findings suggest that specific career goals and study time, not learning preferences, are associated with better performance among a diverse group of students in an undergraduate anatomy/physiology course. However, the extent to which prior academic preparation, cultural norms, and socioeconomic factors influenced these results requires further investigation. PMID:26301828

  18. Career Education: An Undergirding for Career Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, S. Norman

    1976-01-01

    This article defines career education and career counseling and attempts to delineate their functions. It then examines curriculum trends and developments in career education, and describes some innovative career education programs. (NG)

  19. A Meta-Analysis on Effects of Human, Social, and Psychological Capital on Career Success in Chinese Business Organizations%人力资本、社会资本和心理资本影响中国员工职业成功的元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文霞; 谢宝国; 辛迅; 白光林; 苗仁涛

    2015-01-01

    Career success is defined as the positive psychological or work-related achievements one obtains through work experiences. For individuals, career success reflects the self-actualization of individuals. In an organization, employees’ personal career success means the organization’s making the best of its human resources and eventually contributing to its success. As career success is of concern not only to individuals but also to organizations, many researchers continue to identify the individual and organizational factors that facilitate employees’ career success. At the individual level, demographic, social capital, human capital, motivational and work-family variables are possibly associated with career success. At the organizational level, organizational variables such as firm size, industry sector, organizational support and geographic location may also be related to career success. Though Chinese organizational researchers have identified many determinants of career success and some have qualitatively reviewed partially the related literature, no large-scale systematic attempt has been made to systematically summarize the existent literature. In order to quantitatively review the career success literature, we use meta-analysis which is of appropriate for several reasons. Firstly, meta-analysis is a quantitative review technique that can reduce the measurement error from sampling and unreliability in individual studies. Secondly, a critical review and synthesis of the related body of research can play an important role in theory development and building. Thirdly, as former scholars have already identified some factors that determined objective and subjective career success, it would, therefore, be theoretically valuable to review and compare the strength of predictors in determining the objective and subjective career success in order to guide future research and management practices. In this study, we use meta-analysis to examine the relative importance

  20. [Conscientious objection in the clinical setting. A proposal for its appropriate use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couceiro, A; Seoane, J A; Hernando, P

    2011-01-01

    Social changes and new technologies have brought new problems in doctor-patient relationships. In many clinical contexts conscientious objection is misused, with negative effects for patients, healthcare professionals and institutions. The paper aims to clarify what conscientious objection means in a plural society based on a deliberative democracy and to show the different ways of understanding this society in order to respect both the ethical reasons of individuals and the compulsory normative framework of the Rule of Law. Furthermore, the paper identifies some clinical settings where conscientious objection is often invoked by healthcare professionals, and points out and analyses the arguments that explain why this appeal for conscientious objection is neither legitimate nor correct. Finally, it provides examples of the legal basis and Spanish jurisprudence, as well as the relevant clinical and ethical literature on this topic.

  1. The BMA's guidance on conscientious objection may be contrary to human rights law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenitire, John Olusegun

    2017-04-01

    It is argued that the current policy of the British Medical Association (BMA) on conscientious objection is not aligned with recent human rights developments. These grant a right to conscientious objection to doctors in many more circumstances than the very few recognised by the BMA. However, this wide-ranging right may be overridden if the refusal to accommodate the conscientious objection is proportionate. It is shown that it is very likely that it is lawful to refuse to accommodate conscientious objections that would result in discrimination of protected groups. It is still uncertain, however, in what particular circumstances the objection may be lawfully refused, if it poses risks to the health and safety of patients. The BMA's policy has not caught up with these human rights developments and ought to be changed.

  2. How to Allow Conscientious Objection in Medicine While Protecting Patient Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancell, Aaron; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Paradigmatic cases of conscientious objection in medicine are those in which a physician refuses to provide a medical service or good because doing so would conflict with that physician's personal moral or religious beliefs. Should such refusals be allowed in medicine? We argue that (1) many conscientious objections to providing certain services must be allowed because they fall within the range of freedom that physicians have to determine which services to offer in their practices; (2) at least some conscientious objections to serving particular groups of patients should be allowed because they are not invidiously discriminatory; and (3) even in cases of invidiously discriminatory conscientious objections, legally prohibiting individual physicians from refusing to serve patients on the basis of such objections is not always the best solution.

  3. Conscientious objection to referrals for abortion: pragmatic solution or threat to women's rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordberg, Eva M Kibsgaard; Skirbekk, Helge; Magelssen, Morten

    2014-02-26

    Conscientious objection has spurred impassioned debate in many Western countries. Some Norwegian general practitioners (GPs) refuse to refer for abortion. Little is know about how the GPs carry out their refusals in practice, how they perceive their refusal to fit with their role as professionals, and how refusals impact patients. Empirical data can inform subsequent normative analysis. Qualitative research interviews were conducted with seven GPs, all Christians. Transcripts were analysed using systematic text condensation. Informants displayed a marked ambivalence towards their own refusal practices. Five main topics emerged in the interviews: 1) carrying out conscientious objection in practice, 2) justification for conscientious objection, 3) challenges when relating to colleagues, 4) ambivalence and consistency, 5) effects on the doctor-patient relationship. Norwegian GP conscientious objectors were given to consider both pros and cons when evaluating their refusal practices. They had settled on a practical compromise, the precise form of which would vary, and which was deemed an acceptable middle way between competing interests.

  4. Mobilization and Defense Management Technical Reports Series. Alternative Service for Conscientious Objectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    could be fullillment of the Conscientious * b th vrios oures oud b ~aciinistered to incoming Conscientious Objector’s obligation as a citizen.bynt the...and post-secondary *and auditing partimipatkag employems would be generated locally a result of education and with programs of norformsi Selective Ser...vime regiona offices would extensive contacts between area educAtion for aln age W M p to assist provide adimisstratve and logistical alternative

  5. Invoking conscientious objection in reproductive health care: evolving issues in Peru, Mexico and Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Lidia

    2009-11-01

    As Latin American countries seek to guarantee sexual and reproductive health and rights, opponents of women's rights and reproductive choice have become more strident in their opposition, and are increasingly claiming conscientious objection to providing these services. Conscientious objection must be seen in the context of the rights and interests at stake, including women's health needs and right to self-determination. An analysis of law and policy on conscientious objection in Peru, Mexico and Chile shows that it is being used to erode women's rights, especially where it is construed to have no limits, as in Peru. Conscientious objection must be distinguished from politically-motivated attempts to undermine the law; otherwise, the still fragile re-democratisation processes underway in Latin America may be placed at risk. True conscientious objection requires that a balance be struck between the rights of the objector and the health rights of patients, in this case women. Health care providers are entitled to their beliefs and to have those beliefs accommodated, but it is neither viable nor ethically acceptable for conscientious objectors to exercise this right without regard for the right to health care of others, or for policy and services to be rendered ineffectual because of individual objectors.

  6. Conscientious objection in reproductive health care: Analysis of Pichon and Sajous v. France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamacková, Adriana

    2008-05-01

    This article explores the issue of conscientious objection invoked by health professionals in the reproductive and sexual health care context and its impact on women's ability to access health services. The right to exercise conscientious objection has been recognized by many international and European scholars as being derived from the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. It is not, however, an absolute right. When the exercise of conscientious objection conflicts with other human rights and fundamental freedoms, a balance must be struck between the right to conscientious objection and other affected rights such as the right to respect for private life, the right to equality and non-discrimination, and the right to receive and impart information. Particularly in the reproductive health care context, states that allow health professionals to exercise conscientious objection must accommodate this in such a way that its exercise does not compromise women's access to health services. This article analyses the European Court of Human Rights' decision on admissibility in Pichon and Sajous v. France (2001) and argues that a balancing approach should be applied in cases of conscientious objection in the sexual and reproductive health care context.

  7. Contextualizing individual differences in error monitoring: Links with impulsivity, negative affect, and conscientiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kaylin E; Samuel, Douglas B; Foti, Dan

    2016-08-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is a neural measure of error processing that has been implicated as a neurobehavioral trait and has transdiagnostic links with psychopathology. Few studies, however, have contextualized this traitlike component with regard to dimensions of personality that, as intermediate constructs, may aid in contextualizing links with psychopathology. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the interrelationships between error monitoring and dimensions of personality within a large adult sample (N = 208). Building on previous research, we found that the ERN relates to a combination of negative affect, impulsivity, and conscientiousness. At low levels of conscientiousness, negative urgency (i.e., impulsivity in the context of negative affect) predicted an increased ERN; at high levels of conscientiousness, the effect of negative urgency was not significant. This relationship was driven specifically by the conscientiousness facets of competence, order, and deliberation. Links between personality measures and error positivity amplitude were weaker and nonsignificant. Post-error slowing was also related to conscientiousness, as well as a different facet of impulsivity: lack of perseverance. These findings suggest that, in the general population, error processing is modulated by the joint combination of negative affect, impulsivity, and conscientiousness (i.e., the profile across traits), perhaps more so than any one dimension alone. This work may inform future research concerning aberrant error processing in clinical populations.

  8. Conscientious Objection to Animal Experimentation in Italian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Baldelli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, Law 413/1993 states that public and private Italian Institutions, including academic faculties, are obliged to fully inform workers and students about their right to conscientious objection to scientific or educational activities involving animals, hereafter written as “animal CO”. However, little monitoring on the faculties’ compliance with this law has been performed either by the government or other institutional bodies. Based on this premise, the authors have critically reviewed the existing data and compared them with those emerging from their own investigation to discuss limitations and inconsistencies. The results of this investigation revealed that less than half of Italian academic faculties comply with their duty to inform on animal CO. Non-compliance may substantially affect the right of students to make ethical choices in the field of animal ethics and undermines the fundamental right to express their own freedom of thought. The Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research, ethics committees and animal welfare bodies should cooperate to make faculties respect this law. Further research is needed to better understand the reasons for the current trend, as well as to promote the enforcement of Law 413/1993 with particular regard to information on animal CO.

  9. Conscientious Objection to Animal Experimentation in Italian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldelli, Ilaria; Massaro, Alma; Penco, Susanna; Bassi, Anna Maria; Patuzzo, Sara; Ciliberti, Rosagemma

    2017-03-13

    In Italy, Law 413/1993 states that public and private Italian Institutions, including academic faculties, are obliged to fully inform workers and students about their right to conscientious objection to scientific or educational activities involving animals, hereafter written as "animal CO". However, little monitoring on the faculties' compliance with this law has been performed either by the government or other institutional bodies. Based on this premise, the authors have critically reviewed the existing data and compared them with those emerging from their own investigation to discuss limitations and inconsistencies. The results of this investigation revealed that less than half of Italian academic faculties comply with their duty to inform on animal CO. Non-compliance may substantially affect the right of students to make ethical choices in the field of animal ethics and undermines the fundamental right to express their own freedom of thought. The Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research, ethics committees and animal welfare bodies should cooperate to make faculties respect this law. Further research is needed to better understand the reasons for the current trend, as well as to promote the enforcement of Law 413/1993 with particular regard to information on animal CO.

  10. Conscientious Objection in Healthcare Provision: A New Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West-Oram, Peter; Buyx, Alena

    2016-06-01

    The right to conscientious objection in the provision of healthcare is the subject of a lengthy, heated and controversial debate. Recently, a new dimension was added to this debate by the US Supreme Court's decision in Burwell vs. Hobby Lobby et al. which effectively granted rights to freedom of conscience to private, for-profit corporations. In light of this paradigm shift, we examine one of the most contentious points within this debate, the impact of granting conscience exemptions to healthcare providers on the ability of women to enjoy their rights to reproductive autonomy. We argue that the exemptions demanded by objecting healthcare providers cannot be justified on the liberal, pluralist grounds on which they are based, and impose unjustifiable costs on both individual persons, and society as a whole. In doing so, we draw attention to a worrying trend in healthcare policy in Europe and the United States to undermine women's rights to reproductive autonomy by prioritizing the rights of ideologically motivated service providers to an unjustifiably broad form of freedom of conscience.

  11. Bottom Up Succession Planning Works Better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Paul

    Most succession planning practices are based on the premise that ambitious people have and want only one career direction--upwardly mobile. However, employees have 10 career direction options at any stage of their working lives. A minority want the career action requiring promotion. Employers with a comprehensive career planning support program…

  12. CAREER EDUCATION IN A GENERAL EDUCATION SCHOOL: CAREER EXPECTATIONS OF SENIOR FORM PUPILS

    OpenAIRE

    Jegelevičienė, Violeta; Merfeldaitė, Odeta; Railienė, Asta

    2016-01-01

    Career education is to be analysed as the factor of lifelong learning which promotes engagement, the adaption of labour force to the conditions of the market, entrepreneurship. It is the process of the acquisition and development  of  career competences  which enables a person to manage his career. appropriate career choices, which have been made, have a great influence over person‘s successful socialisation. Career expectations, their analysis is a part of career planning which is oriented t...

  13. Emerging Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Elizabeth

    1990-01-01

    Fields such as robotics, computer graphics, and health care are fostering the evolution of new occupations. Identifying these occupations is challenging because of the difficulty of distinguishing between new and existing careers. (Author)

  14. Conscientiousness and (un)healthy eating: the role of impulsive eating and age in the consumption of daily main meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Svein Ottar; Tuu, Ho Huy; Honkanen, Pirjo; Verplanken, Bas

    2015-08-01

    The present study aims to explore the relationship between conscientiousness and the consumption of healthy versus unhealthy main meals. Impulsive eating was tested as a mediator in this relationship, as well as direct effects of age on those constructs. A nationwide representative sample of 1,006 Norwegian adults (18-70 years) within a prospective design was used to test a theoretical model. The structural equation model (SEM), in combination with bootstrapping procedures in AMOS, was the principal analytical method. Conscientiousness was negatively associated with unhealthy and impulsive eating. Impulsive eating was a partial mediator between conscientiousness and unhealthy eating and a full mediator between conscientiousness and healthy eating. Age was positively correlated with conscientiousness and this relationship had an inverted U-shape form. Finally, age was negatively associated with unhealthy and impulsive eating, and positively associated with healthy eating. This study confirmed the relevance of conscientiousness for healthy, unhealthy, and impulsive eating.

  15. The effect of negative feedback on tension and subsequent performance: the main and interactive effects of goal content and conscientiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianci, Anna M; Klein, Howard J; Seijts, Gerard H

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to examine the interplay of goal content, conscientiousness, and tension on performance following negative feedback. Undergraduate students were assigned either a learning or performance goal and then were provided with false feedback indicating very poor performance on the task they performed. After assessing tension, participants performed the task again with the same learning or performance goal. A mediated moderation model was tested, and results were supportive of our hypotheses. Specifically, individuals assigned a learning goal experienced less tension and performed better following negative feedback than individuals assigned a performance goal. Individuals high in conscientiousness experienced greater tension than individuals low in conscientiousness. Conscientiousness and goal content interacted in relating to both tension and performance, with tension as a mediator, such that high conscientiousness amplified the detrimental effect of a performance goal on tension following negative feedback leading to lower performance. High conscientiousness facilitated performance for participants with a learning goal.

  16. Personality traits and career satisfaction of health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, John D; Lounsbury, John W; Bhaskar, Tripti; Gibson, Lucy W; Drost, Adam W

    2009-01-01

    Based on Holland's theorizing that vocational satisfaction arises from a good match between one's personality and career choice, one purpose of the study was to examine broad and narrow personality traits that characterize health care workers in comparison with professionals from other occupations. Also investigated were ways in which characteristic traits of health care workers were related to career satisfaction. Professionals utilizing the services of eCareerfit.com responded to online surveys that have been demonstrated to produce reliable and valid measures of broad and narrow personality traits and levels of career satisfaction. An independent sample t test was used to compare means of health care workers with those from other occupations. Pearson product-moment correlations were then computed to assess relationships between the traits and career satisfaction of health care professionals. Two traits that were particularly strong among health care workers were also significantly correlated with career satisfaction: work drive and conscientiousness. Other traits were found to be significantly related to career satisfaction in health care but were not uniquely high in the sample of health care professionals. To increase career satisfaction of health care professionals and thus to improve retention rates, administrators should consider focusing on recruiting and selecting individuals with higher levels of key personality traits.

  17. Work-family conflict and work engagement among mothers: Conscientiousness and neuroticism as moderators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy J. Opie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The study investigates factors that impact work-family conflict and work engagement among working mothers.Research purpose: The job demand-resources model is utilised to investigate the moderating role of conscientiousness and neuroticism on the relationship between work-family conflict and work engagement.Motivation for the study: Working mothers are challenged to establish a balance between work and family life. The resulting work-family conflict can negatively affect well-being. It is thus necessary to explore personal factors that relate to work-family conflict, particularly in the South African context.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative, cross-sectional survey design was used. The sample (N = 267 was comprised of working mothers from several organisations. Data was gathered using the work-to-family conflict questionnaire, the Basic Traits Inventory and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale.Main findings: The results indicated that work-family conflict negatively predicts work engagement. Conscientiousness positively predicts work engagement, and neuroticism negatively predicts work engagement. A significant interaction effect was found for conscientiousness but not for neuroticism. The findings showed that for participants with high levels of conscientiousness, work engagement decreases significantly more with an increase in work-family conflict than for participants with low levels of conscientiousness.Practical/Managerial implications: Organisations should consider those individuals who have high levels of conscientiousness and low levels of neuroticism in the selection and placement of employees. In addition, organisations have a responsibility to provide conscientious women, particularly mothers, with adequate support to ensure that work-family conflict does not adversely impact their levels of work engagement.

  18. A Career Roles Model of Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Hans A.

    2011-01-01

    Career development is described as the interactive progression of internal career identity formation and the growth of external career significance. Argued is the need for a content model of career development where the field is dominated by process theories. A theory is put forward of career development crystallizing in the acquisition of career…

  19. A career roles model of career development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Hans A.

    2011-01-01

    Career development is described as the interactive progression of internal career identity formation and the growth of external career significance. Argued is the need for a content model of career development where the field is dominated by process theories. A theory is put forward of career develo

  20. A career roles model of career development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Hans A.

    Career development is described as the interactive progression of internal career identity formation and the growth of external career significance. Argued is the need for a content model of career development where the field is dominated by process theories. A theory is put forward of career

  1. A career roles model of career development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Hans A.

    2011-01-01

    Career development is described as the interactive progression of internal career identity formation and the growth of external career significance. Argued is the need for a content model of career development where the field is dominated by process theories. A theory is put forward of career develo

  2. A Defence of Conscientious Objection in Medicine: A Reply to Schuklenk and Savulescu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Christopher

    2016-06-01

    In a recent (2015) Bioethics editorial, Udo Schuklenk argues against allowing Canadian doctors to conscientiously object to any new euthanasia procedures approved by Parliament. In this he follows Julian Savulescu's 2006 BMJ paper which argued for the removal of the conscientious objection clause in the 1967 UK Abortion Act. Both authors advance powerful arguments based on the need for uniformity of service and on analogies with reprehensible kinds of personal exemption. In this article I want to defend the practice of conscientious objection in publicly-funded healthcare systems (such as those of Canada and the UK), at least in the area of abortion and end-of-life care, without entering either of the substantive moral debates about the permissibility of either. My main claim is that Schuklenk and Savulescu have misunderstood the special nature of medicine, and have misunderstood the motivations of the conscientious objectors. However, I acknowledge Schuklenk's point about differential access to lawful services in remote rural areas, and I argue that the health service should expend more to protect conscientious objection while ensuring universal access.

  3. Public reason and the limited right to conscientious objection: a response to Magelssen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblum, Jake

    2017-09-14

    In a recent article for this journal, Morten Magelssen argues that the right to conscientious objection in healthcare is grounded in the moral integrity of healthcare professionals, a good for both professionals and society. In this paper, I argue that there is no right to conscientious objection in healthcare, at least as Magelssen conceives of it. Magelssen's conception of the right to conscientious objection is too expansive in nature. Although I will assume that there is a right to conscientious objection, it does not extend to objections that are purely religious in nature.(i) Thus, this right is considerably more restricted than Magelssen thinks. In making my case, I draw on John Rawls's later work in arguing for the claim that conscientious objection based on purely religious considerations fails to benefit society in the appropriate way. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. The Validity of Conscientiousness Is Overestimated in the Prediction of Job Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Kepes

    Full Text Available Sensitivity analyses refer to investigations of the degree to which the results of a meta-analysis remain stable when conditions of the data or the analysis change. To the extent that results remain stable, one can refer to them as robust. Sensitivity analyses are rarely conducted in the organizational science literature. Despite conscientiousness being a valued predictor in employment selection, sensitivity analyses have not been conducted with respect to meta-analytic estimates of the correlation (i.e., validity between conscientiousness and job performance.To address this deficiency, we reanalyzed the largest collection of conscientiousness validity data in the personnel selection literature and conducted a variety of sensitivity analyses.Publication bias analyses demonstrated that the validity of conscientiousness is moderately overestimated (by around 30%; a correlation difference of about .06. The misestimation of the validity appears to be due primarily to suppression of small effects sizes in the journal literature. These inflated validity estimates result in an overestimate of the dollar utility of personnel selection by millions of dollars and should be of considerable concern for organizations.The fields of management and applied psychology seldom conduct sensitivity analyses. Through the use of sensitivity analyses, this paper documents that the existing literature overestimates the validity of conscientiousness in the prediction of job performance. Our data show that effect sizes from journal articles are largely responsible for this overestimation.

  5. The effect of response style on self-reported Conscientiousness across 20 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mõttus, René; Allik, Jüri; Realo, Anu; Rossier, Jérôme; Zecca, Gregory; Ah-Kion, Jennifer; Amoussou-Yéyé, Dénis; Bäckström, Martin; Barkauskiene, Rasa; Barry, Oumar; Bhowon, Uma; Björklund, Fredrik; Bochaver, Aleksandra; Bochaver, Konstantin; de Bruin, Gideon; Cabrera, Helena F; Chen, Sylvia Xiaohua; Church, A Timothy; Cissé, Daouda Dougoumalé; Dahourou, Donatien; Feng, Xiaohang; Guan, Yanjun; Hwang, Hyi-Sung; Idris, Fazilah; Katigbak, Marcia S; Kuppens, Peter; Kwiatkowska, Anna; Laurinavicius, Alfredas; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Matsumoto, David; Riemann, Rainer; Schug, Joanna; Simpson, Brian; Tseung-Wong, Caroline Ng; Johnson, Wendy

    2012-11-01

    Rankings of countries on mean levels of self-reported Conscientiousness continue to puzzle researchers. Based on the hypothesis that cross-cultural differences in the tendency to prefer extreme response categories of ordinal rating scales over moderate categories can influence the comparability of self-reports, this study investigated possible effects of response style on the mean levels of self-reported Conscientiousness in 22 samples from 20 countries. Extreme and neutral responding were estimated based on respondents' ratings of 30 hypothetical people described in short vignettes. In the vignette ratings, clear cross-sample differences in extreme and neutral responding emerged. These responding style differences were correlated with mean self-reported Conscientiousness scores. Correcting self-reports for extreme and neutral responding changed sample rankings of Conscientiousness, as well as the predictive validities of these rankings for external criteria. The findings suggest that the puzzling country rankings of self-reported Conscientiousness may to some extent result from differences in response styles.

  6. Trait conscientiousness and the personality meta-trait stability are associated with regional white matter microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gary J; Cox, Simon R; Booth, Tom; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Royle, Natalie A; Valdés Hernández, Maria; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Bastin, Mark E; Deary, Ian J

    2016-08-01

    Establishing the neural bases of individual differences in personality has been an enduring topic of interest. However, while a growing literature has sought to characterize grey matter correlates of personality traits, little attention to date has been focused on regional white matter correlates of personality, especially for the personality traits agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness. To rectify this gap in knowledge we used a large sample (n > 550) of older adults who provided data on both personality (International Personality Item Pool) and white matter tract-specific fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion tensor MRI. Results indicated that conscientiousness was associated with greater FA in the left uncinate fasciculus (β = 0.17, P conscientiousness, and neuroticism/emotional stability. We observed an association between left uncinate fasciculus FA and stability (β = 0.27, P conscientiousness. In sum, these results provide novel evidence for links between regional white matter microstructure and key traits of human personality, specifically conscientiousness and the meta-trait, stability. Future research is recommended to replicate and address the causal directions of these associations.

  7. Proposal to inform European institutions regarding the regulation of conscientious objection to abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertxundi, Roberto; Ibarrondo, Oliver; Merki-Feld, Gabriele S; Rey-Novoa, Modesto; Rowlands, Sam; Mar, Javier

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to define a set of proposals to inform European institutions in the regulation of Conscientious Objection to abortion. The board of the European Society of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care (ESC) was informed on the elements that should in the opinion of the authors be included in a future regulation of Conscientious Objection to abortion in Europe. These elements are outlined in this paper and the debate about them could form the basis for recommendations to the international scientific community and the European institutions. As current measures governing the principle of conscientious objection result in negative consequences regarding women's access to sexual and reproductive health services, they should be changed. Healthcare services should adopt measures to guarantee that a woman's right to voluntary abortion is not limited by the practitioner's stance on the principle of conscientious objection. In the countries where conscientious objection is allowed, the regulation must clearly delineate the extent of the duties and the exemptions of professionals based on the principles of established social consensus. The recommendations included in this document specify measures on the rights of women, the rights and duties of the practitioner, the role of institutions and the role of professional associations.

  8. NASA Early Career Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Early Career Fellowship program was established in 2005 to facilitate the integration of outstanding early career planetary science researchers into established research funding programs by providing tools and experience useful to maintain a successful research program. Executing a successful research program requires a few key elements such as: successful proposal writing; adequate (paid) research time; management of a laboratory; collaboration and networking; frequent and high-quality publications; and adequate start-up equipment funds. These elements may be particularly critical for early career researchers searching for a tenure- track or equivalent position. The Early Career Fellowship program recognizes the importance of these skills and provides extra funding and resources to begin a successful research program. For consideration into The Early Career Fellowship program, the candidate needs to be the P. I. or Science P.I. of a funded research proposal from one of the participating R&A program areas, be within 7 years of earning a PhD, hold a non-tenure track position, and indicate the early career candidacy when submitting the research proposal. If the research proposal is funded and the discipline scientist nominates the candidate as an early career fellow, the candidate is then considered a Fellow and eligible to propose for Step 2. Upon obtaining a tenure-track equivalent position the Fellow submits a Step 2 proposal for up to one hundred thousand dollars in start-up funds. Start-up funds may be used for salary; undergraduate and/or graduate research assistants; supplies and instrument upgrades; travel to conferences, meetings, and advisory groups; time and travel for learning new skills; publication page charges; books and journal subscriptions; computer time and/or specialized software; and other justified research-specific needs. The early career fellowship program provides resources that a more established scientist would have acquired allowing

  9. Assessing Career Indecision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipow, Samuel H.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the history of career decision-making measures such as My Vocational Situation, Career Decision Scale, Career Factors Inventory, and others. Assesses Holland's contribution to the accurate measurement of career indecision. (SK)

  10. 100 years of applied psychology research on individual careers: From career management to retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo; Wanberg, Connie R

    2017-03-01

    This article surveys 100 years of research on career management and retirement, with a primary focus on work published in the Journal of Applied Psychology. Research on career management took off in the 1920s, with most attention devoted to the development and validation of career interest inventories. Over time, research expanded to attend to broader issues such as the predictors and outcomes of career interests and choice; the nature of career success and who achieves it; career transitions and adaptability to change; retirement decision making and adjustment; and bridge employment. In this article, we provide a timeline for the evolution of the career management and retirement literature, review major theoretical perspectives and findings on career management and retirement, and discuss important future research directions. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. The Continuum of Conscientiousness: The Antagonistic Interests among Obsessive and Antisocial Personalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hertler Steven C.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The five factor trait of conscientiousnessis a supertrait, denoting on one hand a pattern of excessive labor, rigidity, orderliness and compulsivity,and on the other hand a pattern of strict rectitude, scrupulosity, dutifulness and morality. In both respects the obsessive-compulsive personality is conscientious; indeed, it has been labeled a disorder of extreme conscientiousness (Widiger et al., 2009. Antisocial personality disorder, in the present paper, is described as occupying the opposite end of the conscientiousness continuum. The antisocial is impulsive rather than compulsive, illicit rather than licit, and furtive rather than forthright.After clinically comparing the obsessive and antisocial personalities, the present paper invokes evolutionary theory to explain their resultant behavioral, ideological, political and demographic differences.

  12. Why medical professionals have no moral claim to conscientious objection accommodation in liberal democracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuklenk, Udo; Smalling, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    We describe a number of conscientious objection cases in a liberal Western democracy. These cases strongly suggest that the typical conscientious objector does not object to unreasonable, controversial professional services-involving torture, for instance-but to the provision of professional services that are both uncontroversially legal and that patients are entitled to receive. We analyse the conflict between these patients' access rights and the conscientious objection accommodation demanded by monopoly providers of such healthcare services. It is implausible that professionals who voluntarily join a profession should be endowed with a legal claim not to provide services that are within the scope of the profession's practice and that society expects them to provide. We discuss common counterarguments to this view and reject all of them.

  13. The two faces of conscientiousness: duty and achievement striving in escalation of commitment dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, H

    2001-06-01

    The author proposes that 2 facets of conscientiousness, duty and achievement striving, affect decision makers in escalation of commitment dilemmas in opposing ways, thus masking the predictive ability of a broad measure of conscientiousness. It is proposed that duty is associated with an other-centered orientation and that achievement striving is associated with a self-centered orientation. Analyses of decisions from 360 respondents showed that duty was associated with a deescalation of commitment, achievement striving was associated with an escalation of commitment, and the broad measure of conscientiousness was unassociated with commitment. The author advocates the utility of understanding potential self-centered versus other-centered aspects of the criterion of interest when conducting personality-based research.

  14. Pupillary response predicts multiple object tracking load, error rate, and conscientiousness, but not inattentional blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Timothy J; Boot, Walter R; Morgan, Chelsea S

    2013-09-01

    Research on inattentional blindness (IB) has uncovered few individual difference measures that predict failures to detect an unexpected event. Notably, no clear relationship exists between primary task performance and IB. This is perplexing as better task performance is typically associated with increased effort and should result in fewer spare resources to process the unexpected event. We utilized a psychophysiological measure of effort (pupillary response) to explore whether differences in effort devoted to the primary task (multiple object tracking) are related to IB. Pupillary response was sensitive to tracking load and differences in primary task error rates. Furthermore, pupillary response was a better predictor of conscientiousness than primary task errors; errors were uncorrelated with conscientiousness. Despite being sensitive to task load, individual differences in performance and conscientiousness, pupillary response did not distinguish between those who noticed the unexpected event and those who did not. Results provide converging evidence that effort and primary task engagement may be unrelated to IB.

  15. Personality and Substance Use in Midlife: Conscientiousness as a Moderator and the Effects of Trait Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turiano, Nicholas A; Whiteman, Shawn D; Hampson, Sarah E; Roberts, Brent W; Mroczek, Daniel K

    2012-06-01

    Personality traits predict substance use in adolescence, but less is known about prospective substance use in middle age and beyond. Moreover, there is growing interest in how personality change and the multiplicative effects among personality traits relate to substance use. Participants included approximately 4,000 adults aged 25-74 who participated in two waves of the Midlife in the U.S. (MIDUS) study. Higher levels of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, and lower levels of conscientiousness and agreeableness predicted longitudinal substance use. Increases in neuroticism and openness predicted increased substance use while increases in conscientiousness and agreeableness predicted decreased substance use. Higher levels of conscientiousness moderated two of the other trait main effects. Personality, trait change, and interactions among traits reliably forecasted 10-year substance-use behaviors.

  16. Career cartography: a conceptualization of career development to advance health and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feetham, Suzanne; Doering, Jennifer J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose a conceptualization of career development that emphasizes the interdependence between research, practice, and policy. Career cartography applies three decades of career development experience to lay out a systematic, comprehensive, and iterative approach for planning and communicating the outcomes of science at any career stage. To inform practice and policy, nurse researchers must be clear on the intended destination and trajectory of the science, and be skilled in communicating that science and vision to diverse stakeholders. Career cartography builds on the science of cartography, is developed within the context of public and health policy, and is composed of several components, including a destination statement, career mapping, a supportive career cartography team, and use of communication and dissemination strategies. The successful utilization of career cartography may accelerate advancement of individual careers, scientific impact, and the discipline as a whole by guiding nurse researchers to be deliberative in career planning and to communicate successfully the outcomes of research across a wide variety of stakeholders. Career cartography provides a framework for planning a nurse researcher's program of research and scholarship to advance science, policy, and health of the public. Career cartography guides nurse researchers to realize their full potential to advance the health of the public and inform public and health policy in academic and practice environments. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  17. Accommodating Conscientious Objection in Medicine-Private Ideological Convictions Must Not Trump Professional Obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuklenk, Udo

    2016-01-01

    The opinion of the American Medical Association (AMA) Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs (CEJA) on the accommodation of conscientious objectors among medical doctors aims to balance fairly patients' rights of access to care and accommodating doctors' deeply held personal beliefs. Like similar documents, it fails. Patients will not find it persuasive, and neither should they. The lines drawn aim at a reasonable compromise between positions that are not amenable to compromise. They are also largely arbitrary. This article explains why that is the case. The view that conscientious objection accommodation has no place in modern medicine is defended.

  18. Smoking mediates the effect of conscientiousness on mortality: The Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turiano, Nicholas A; Hill, Patrick L; Roberts, Brent W; Spiro, Avron; Mroczek, Daniel K

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between conscientiousness and mortality over 18 years and whether smoking behavior mediated this relationship. We utilized data from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study on 1349 men who completed the Goldberg (1992) adjectival markers of the Big Five. Over the 18-year follow-up, 547 (41%) participants died. Through proportional hazards modeling in a structural equation modeling framework, we found that higher levels of conscientiousness significantly predicted longer life, and that this effect was mediated by current smoking status at baseline. Methodologically, we also demonstrate the effectiveness of using a structural equation modeling framework to evaluate mediation when using a censored outcome such as mortality.

  19. 32 CFR 1630.11 - Class 1-A-0: Conscientious objector available for noncombatant military service only.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class 1-A-0: Conscientious objector available for noncombatant military service only. 1630.11 Section 1630.11 National Defense Other Regulations...: Conscientious objector available for noncombatant military service only. In accord with part 1636 of...

  20. 32 CFR 1636.8 - Considerations relevant to granting or denying a claim for classification as a conscientious...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... claim for classification as a conscientious objector. 1636.8 Section 1636.8 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION OF CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTORS § 1636.8 Considerations relevant to granting or denying a claim for classification as a...

  1. Conscientiousness, Achievement Striving, and Intelligence as Performance Predictors in a Sample of German Psychology Students: Always a Linear Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Matthias; Knogler, Maximilian; Buhner, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Studies on the interface between cognitive ability (intelligence) and personality in the prediction of academic performance have yielded mixed results so far. Especially an interaction between conscientiousness (and its facet achievement striving) and intelligence has been investigated. The hypothesis is that conscientiousness enhances the impact…

  2. The effects of verbal encouragement and conscientiousness on maximal voluntary contraction of the triceps surae muscle in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binboğa, Erdal; Tok, Serdar; Catikkas, Fatih; Guven, Senol; Dane, Senol

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effect of verbal encouragement on maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) level of the triceps surae muscle group. Our secondary focus was to examine whether the effect of verbal encouragement on MVC level varies as a result of conscientiousness. While the participants performed plantar flexion, MVCs of the triceps surae muscle group were measured using rectified and smoothed surface electromyography (rsEMG) during the absence and presence of verbal encouragement. Participants completed questions from the Five Factor Personality Inventory concerning conscientiousness and were divided into high- and low-conscientiousness groups according to a median split. The sample included 30 female and 53 male elite athletes. In the entire cohort, there was no significant difference in MVCs with and without verbal encouragement. When the sample was partitioned by conscientiousness scores, verbal encouragement led to a significant increase in MVC in the low-conscientiousness group, whereas verbal encouragement led to a non-significant decrease in MVC in the high-conscientiousness group. Percentage change in MVC across experimental conditions was significantly different between the groups, with a 9.72% increase during verbal encouragement of the low-conscientiousness group, and a 2.47% decrease during verbal encouragement of the high-conscientiousness group.

  3. Performance Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Jason; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The field of music performance offers as many opportunities as there are individuals willing to attempt a breakthrough. Yet, this is one of the most difficult careers to succeed in. Here are eight varied articles on being a pop/rock/jazz instrumentalist or vocalist, a classical music instrumentalist or vocalist, a studio musician, a conductor, a…

  4. CAREER DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Baltimore Summit Project on Career Development/PERFORMS Enhancement/360 Evaluations for All has made some progress. We have identified the fact that we cannot change the current Pass/Fail PERFORMS system to a tiered system. The current pass/fail system does not have a mechani...

  5. Career writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rob Poell; dr. Frans Meijers; Mijke Post; Reinekke Lengelle

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether creative, expressive, and reflective writing contributes to the formation of a narrative career identity that offers students in higher education a sense of meaning and direction. The contents of writing done by students who participated in 2 two-day writing courses b

  6. Management Career in Education

    OpenAIRE

    Zaharia Valentina; Dogaru Mirela

    2012-01-01

    The concept of career has many meanings, generally being associated with the idea of moving up or advancement of a person in a particular field. Career Management career planning and development includes integration involves multiple functional interdependence of individual career planning, career planning and career development organization in education. Management planning and modeling career while individuals progress in an organization according to organizational needs assessments, and pe...

  7. Criminal Careers and "Career Criminals"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blumstein, Alfred; Cohen, Jacqueline; Roth, Jeffrey A; Visher, Christy A

    1986-01-01

    ..., and Christy A. Visher, editors Panel on Research on Criminal Careers Committee on Research on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C.1986 i Copyrighttrue Please breaks inserted. are Page files. accidentally typesetting be...

  8. An inner barrier to career development: Preconditions of the impostor phenomenon and consequences for career development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam eNeureiter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The impostor phenomenon is increasingly recognized as an important psychological construct for career development, yet empirical research on how it functions in this domain is sparse. We investigated in what way impostor feelings are related to the fear of failure, fear of success, self-esteem, and the career-development aspects career planning, career striving, and the motivation to lead. We conducted two studies with independent samples of university students (N = 212 in a laboratory study and working professionals (N = 110 in an online study. In both samples, impostor feelings were fostered by fear of failure, fear of success, and self-esteem and they decreased career planning, career striving, and motivation to lead. A path analysis showed that impostor feelings had the most negative effects on career planning and career striving in students and on the motivation to lead in working professionals. The results suggest that the impostor phenomenon is relevant to career development in different ways at different career stages. Practical implications and interventions to reduce the negative effects of impostor feelings on career development are discussed.

  9. An Inner Barrier to Career Development: Preconditions of the Impostor Phenomenon and Consequences for Career Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neureiter, Mirjam; Traut-Mattausch, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The impostor phenomenon (IP) is increasingly recognized as an important psychological construct for career development, yet empirical research on how it functions in this domain is sparse. We investigated in what way impostor feelings are related to the fear of failure, fear of success, self-esteem, and the career-development aspects career planning, career striving, and the motivation to lead. We conducted two studies with independent samples of university students (N = 212) in a laboratory study and working professionals (N = 110) in an online study. In both samples, impostor feelings were fostered by fear of failure, fear of success, and low self-esteem and they decreased career planning, career striving, and the motivation to lead. A path analysis showed that impostor feelings had the most negative effects on career planning and career striving in students and on the motivation to lead in working professionals. The results suggest that the IP is relevant to career development in different ways at different career stages. Practical implications and interventions to reduce the negative effects of impostor feelings on career development are discussed.

  10. Voices in Transition: Lessons on Career Adaptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebberwein, Christopher A.; Krieshok, Thomas S.; Ulven, Jon C.; Prosser, Ellie C.

    2004-01-01

    Occupational problems have negative consequences across life domains, yet relatively little research addresses the psychological resources necessary for the adult career transition. Considering Super's concept of career adaptability, the authors outline what they believe adults need to successfully manage the transition. Individuals in transition…

  11. Career Readiness: Are We There Yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidry, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    ACT is committed to working with career and technical educators in order to prepare students to meet the standards of the high-performance workplace. In short, prepare them to be career- and job-ready. This commitment is a reflection of ACT's mission: "helping people achieve education and workplace success." After devoting more than two decades of…

  12. Novice Career Changers Weather the Classroom Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, James; Snyder, Mary Grace; Cuddapah, Jennifer Locraft

    2013-01-01

    A close look at one professional's career change into teaching illustrates unique challenges and qualities, showing in stark relief what makes the induction smoother and the experience more successful. This article presents the story of a novice career changer teacher that illustrates their unique problems and dispositions, as well as…

  13. Abortion: at the still point of the turning conscientious objection debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Elliott Louis

    2012-06-01

    Abortion is the central issue in the conscientious objection debate. In this article I demonstrate why this is so for two philosophical viewpoints prominent in American culture. One, represented by Patrick Lee and Robert P. George, holds that the fundamental moral value of being human can be found in bare life and the other, represented by Tom Beauchamp and James Childress, holds that this fundamental value is found in the life that can choose and determine itself. First, I articulate Lee and George's philosophical theory and demonstrate how the fundamental moral value of their theory, personhood, is represented in the issue of abortion. Second, I examine Beauchamp and Childress' theoretical vision and demonstrate how their fundamental moral value, the right to autonomous self-determination, is represented in abortion. Third, I sketch the theoretical and practical dynamics of the conscientious objection debate as well as each author's understanding of conscience. Fourth, I demonstrate how abortion, which represents their respective fundamental value, shapes each perspectives' approach to the conscientious objection debate. I conclude that because each theory finds its fundamental value represented in the issue of abortion, each perspective is bound to engage the conscientious objection debate in a way that centers on the issue of abortion.

  14. Conscientious objection or fear of social stigma and unawareness of ethical obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndes, Anibal; Duarte, Graciana Alves; Osis, Maria José Duarte

    2013-12-01

    Conscientious objection is a legitimate right of physicians to reject the practice of actions that violate their ethical or moral principles. The application of that principle is being used in many countries as a justification to deny safe abortion care to women who have the legal right to have access to safe termination of pregnancy. The problem is that, often, this concept is abused by physicians who camouflage under the guise of conscientious objection their fear of experiencing discrimination and social stigma if they perform legal abortions. These colleagues seem to ignore the ethical principle that the primary conscientious duty of OB/GYNs is-at all times-to treat, or provide benefit and prevent harm to, the patients for whose care they are responsible. Any conscientious objection to treating a patient is secondary to this primary duty. One of the jobs of the FIGO Working Group for the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion is to change this paradigm and make our colleagues proud of providing legal abortion services that protect women's life and health, and concerned about disrespecting the human rights of women and professional ethical principles.

  15. The role of chronotype, gender, test anxiety, and conscientiousness in academic achievement of high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahafar, Arash; Maghsudloo, Mahdis; Farhangnia, Sajedeh; Vollmer, Christian; Randler, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Previous findings have demonstrated that chronotype (morningness/intermediate/eveningness) is correlated with cognitive functions, that is, people show higher mental performance when they do a test at their preferred time of day. Empirical studies found a relationship between morningness and higher learning achievement at school and university. However, only a few of them controlled for other moderating and mediating variables. In this study, we included chronotype, gender, conscientiousness and test anxiety in a structural equation model (SEM) with grade point average (GPA) as academic achievement outcome. Participants were 158 high school students and results revealed that boys and girls differed in GPA and test anxiety significantly, with girls reporting better grades and higher test anxiety. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between conscientiousness and GPA (r = 0.17) and morningness (r = 0.29), respectively, and a negative correlation between conscientiousness and test anxiety (r = -0.22). The SEM demonstrated that gender was the strongest predictor of academic achievement. Lower test anxiety predicted higher GPA in girls but not in boys. Additionally, chronotype as moderator revealed a significant association between gender and GPA for evening types and intermediate types, while intermediate types showed a significant relationship between test anxiety and GPA. Our results suggest that gender is an essential predictor of academic achievement even stronger than low or absent test anxiety. Future studies are needed to explore how gender and chronotype act together in a longitudinal panel design and how chronotype is mediated by conscientiousness in the prediction of academic achievement.

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Internet Addiction: The Role of Conscientiousness and Classroom Hostility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Vasilis; Kuss, Daria; Griffiths, Mark; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, research on Internet addiction (IA) has increased. However, almost all studies in the area are cross-sectional and do not examine the context in which Internet use takes place. Therefore, a longitudinal study examined the role of conscientiousness (as a personality trait) and classroom hostility (as a contextual factor) in…

  17. The Relationship between the Conscientiousness Trait and Use of the English Language Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Seyed Hossein

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to find out the relationship between the Conscientiousness trait and English Language Learning Strategies (ELLSs) for learners of English as a foreign language. Four instruments were used, which were Persian adapted Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL), A Background Questionnaire, NEO-Five Factors Inventory…

  18. The Mediating Role of Conscientiousness Personality Characteristic in Relationship between Attitude toward Addiction and Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rezaei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study is aimed at examining the mediating role of personality trait of conscientiousness in the relationship between attitudes towards addiction (which is considered to be a barrier to educational achievement and students’ academic performance. Method: As a cross sectional study lying within the range of descriptive studies, 106 students of Guilan University of medical sciences in 2010-2011 were randomly selected as the study sample and responded to the items of subscale conscientiousnessof NEO Personality Inventory and attitude measurement questionnaire toward addiction. Recent acquired total averages of students were considered as academic performance. Findings: In the first step, the academic performance regression was significant aboard tendency towards addiction. In the second step, however, with entry of conscientiousness as a mediator variable , there was observed a significant decrease in the β coefficient of attitude toward addiction and lost its significance. In other words, the mediator variable, consciousness, plays a mediating part in the relationship between tendency to addiction and educational performance. In general, these two variables could moderately explain 12% of the variance in academic performance to make the adjustment. Conclusion: Conscientious people enjoy higher achievement and lower degree often tendency toward addiction due to such factors as self-regulation, perseverance, and resistance against harmful impulses. Therefore,the personality trait of conscientiousness can counteract the detrimental effect of attitude toward addiction on academic performance through performing a protective role.

  19. Conscientiousness, extroversion, and action control: Comparing moderate and vigorous physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, G.J.; de Groot, R.; van den Putte, B.; Rhodes, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    The present study explored the influence of the Big Five dimensions extroversion and conscientiousness on action control regarding both moderate and vigorous physical activity within the framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Prospective data were available from 186 respondents, who comp

  20. Agreeableness and Conscientiousness as Predictors of University Students' Self/Peer-Assessment Rating Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birjandi, Parviz; Siyyari, Masood

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation into the role of two personality traits (i.e. Agreeableness and Conscientiousness from the Big Five personality traits) in predicting rating error in the self-assessment and peer-assessment of composition writing. The average self/peer-rating errors of 136 Iranian English major undergraduates…

  1. Openness and conscientiousness predict 34-week patterns of Interleukin-6 in older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin P; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Seplaki, Christopher L; Talbot, Nancy; Duberstein, Paul; Moynihan, Jan

    2011-05-01

    Studies have indicated that personality may be associated with inflammatory markers such as Interleukin (IL)-6. One pathway between personality and IL-6 may be health behaviors and conditions resulting in inflammation, while an alternate pathway involves activation of stress-response systems. In a clinical trial sample of 200 older adults, we examined associations between personality traits at baseline and three measures of IL-6 spanning 34 weeks of follow-up. Results indicate that IL-6 remained very stable over time, and that higher Conscientiousness and Openness were associated with lower IL-6 across the entire 34 week period. Goal striving was the active subcomponent of Conscientiousness, while aesthetic interests was the active subcomponent of Openness in IL-6 associations. Common health behaviors and chronic illness accounted for only a portion of these effects, suggesting that other behavioral and/or physiological processes may also predispose some persons to inflammation. Personality phenotype may provide useful prognostic information for inflammation. Older adults lower in Conscientiousness and Openness constitute a target population for anti-inflammatory interventions. Openness and Conscientiousness predicts 32-week patterns of Interleukin-6 in older persons.

  2. Uncovering curvilinear relationships between conscientiousness and job performance: how theoretically appropriate measurement makes an empirical difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Nathan T; Dalal, Dev K; Boyce, Anthony S; O'Connell, Matthew S; Kung, Mei-Chuan; Delgado, Kristin M

    2014-07-01

    The personality trait of conscientiousness has seen considerable attention from applied psychologists due to its efficacy for predicting job performance across performance dimensions and occupations. However, recent theoretical and empirical developments have questioned the assumption that more conscientiousness always results in better job performance, suggesting a curvilinear link between the 2. Despite these developments, the results of studies directly testing the idea have been mixed. Here, we propose this link has been obscured by another pervasive assumption known as the dominance model of measurement: that higher scores on traditional personality measures always indicate higher levels of conscientiousness. Recent research suggests dominance models show inferior fit to personality test scores as compared to ideal point models that allow for curvilinear relationships between traits and scores. Using data from 2 different samples of job incumbents, we show the rank-order changes that result from using an ideal point model expose a curvilinear link between conscientiousness and job performance 100% of the time, whereas results using dominance models show mixed results, similar to the current state of the literature. Finally, with an independent cross-validation sample, we show that selection based on predicted performance using ideal point scores results in more favorable objective hiring outcomes. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

  3. Individual differences and self-regulatory fatigue: optimism, conscientiousness, and self-consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nes, Lise Solberg; Carlson, Charles R; Crofford, Leslie J; de Leeuw, Reny; Segerstrom, Suzanne C

    2011-04-01

    Ability to self-regulate varies and self-regulatory strength is a limited source that can be depleted or fatigued. Research on the impact of individual differences on self-regulatory capacity is still scarce, and this study aimed to examine whether personality factors such as dispositional optimism, conscientiousness, and self-consciousness can impact or buffer self-regulatory fatigue. Participants were patients diagnosed with chronic multi-symptom illnesses (N = 50), or pain free matched controls (N = 50), randomly assigned to either a high or low self-regulation task, followed by a persistence task. Higher optimism predicted longer persistence (p = .04), and there was a trend towards the same effect for conscientiousness (p = .08). The optimism by self-regulation interaction was significant (p = .01), but rather than persisting despite self-regulatory effort, optimists persisted longer only when not experiencing self-regulatory fatigue. The effects of optimism were stronger for controls than patients. There was also a trend towards a similar conscientiousness by self-regulation interaction (p = .06). These results suggest that the well-established positive impact of optimism and conscientiousness on engagement and persistence may be diminished or reversed in the presence of self-regulatory effort or fatigue, adding an important new chapter to the self-regulation, personality, and pain literature.

  4. Child maltreatment and risk behaviors: The roles of callous/unemotional traits and conscientiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Matthew; Oshri, Assaf; Kwon, Josephine

    2015-12-01

    Child maltreatment poses significant risk to the development of callous/unemotional traits as well as risk behaviors such as engaging in violence, having sex with strangers, and binge drinking. In the current study, the indirect pathway from child maltreatment to risk behaviors was examined via callous/unemotional traits; whereas the conscientious personality trait was tested as a moderator of this indirect pathway. Young adults and parents (N=361; Mage=19.14, SD=1.44) completed questionnaires on child maltreatment histories, callousness/unemotional traits, personality characteristics, and risk behaviors. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypothesized direct, indirect and conditional indirect effects. Findings showed indirect links between the child maltreatment latent factor and physical fighting, having sex with strangers, and binge drinking via callous/unemotional traits. Furthermore, the conscientiousness personality type significantly buffered the connection between callous/unemotional traits and physical fighting, supporting a conditional indirect effects. Callous/unemotional traits are important factors in the underlying mechanism between child maltreatment and risk behaviors among young adults, and conscientiousness serves as a protective factor against violence. Preventive intervention programs and clinicians may benefit from focusing in addressing callous/unemotional traits among youth who report childhood maltreatment experiences as well as targeting conscientiousness as a protective factor.

  5. Student Conscientiousness, Self-Regulated Learning, and Science Achievement: An Explorative Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilam, Billie; Zeidner, Moshe; Aharon, Irit

    2009-01-01

    This explorative field study examined the mediating role of self-regulated learning (SRL) in the relationship between the personality trait of conscientiousness, SRL, and science achievement in a sample of junior high school students. Over the course of an entire academic year, data on enacted SRL were collected each week for 52 eighth-grade…

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Internet Addiction: The Role of Conscientiousness and Classroom Hostility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Vasilis; Kuss, Daria; Griffiths, Mark; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, research on Internet addiction (IA) has increased. However, almost all studies in the area are cross-sectional and do not examine the context in which Internet use takes place. Therefore, a longitudinal study examined the role of conscientiousness (as a personality trait) and classroom hostility (as a contextual factor) in…

  7. Six Opinion Magazines' Coverage of Conscientious Objectors to the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, Stuart W.

    Six opinion magazines ("Christian Century,""Commonweal,""Christianity Today,""Nation,""National Review," and "New Republic") were analyzed for their treatment of legally recognized conscientious objectors during the Vietnam War era, 1964-72. The purpose of the study was to find how these…

  8. The Influence of Core Self-Evaluation, and Organizational Support on Subjective/Objective Career Success: An Interactionist Perspective%核心自我评价、组织支持对主客观职业成功的影响:人-情境互动的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王震; 孙健敏

    2012-01-01

    The influences of core self-evaluation, organizational support, and their interaction on subjective/objective career success are examined in this study by using a sample of 212 employees from 3 organizations. The results indicate that subjective (job, career and life satisfaction) and objective career success (income level, the number and speed of promotions) are two related but separate types within career success system. Both are positively correlated with core self-evaluation and organizational support, but the objective career success is more strongly related to socio-demographic and human capital variables. Consistent with trait activation theory, organizational support strengthens the positive effect of core self-evaluation on career success in such a way that career success would be highest for employees higher in both core self-evaluation and perceived organizational support.%以212名企业员工为研究对象,考察了核心自我评价、组织支持以及二者的交互作用对主客观职业成功的影响.研究结果表明:主观职业成功(工作、职业和生活满意度)和客观职业成功(收入、晋升次数和速度)是2种相关但不同的职业成功类型;核心自我评价和组织支持对主客观职业成功均有一定的影响,但它们对客观职业成功的影响效果弱于社会-人口和人力资本特征;与特质激发理论相一致,核心自我评价和组织支持在对职业成功的影响上存在一定的交互效应,表现为组织支持会强化核心自我评价对职业成功的正向影响,且高核心自我评价的员工在得到高组织支持时有最高的职业成功水平.

  9. Conscientiousness is Negatively Associated with Grey Matter Volume in Young APOE ɛ4-Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Lukas; Reuter, Martin; Axmacher, Nikolai; Montag, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The etiology of late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) depends on multiple factors, among which the APOE ɛ4 allele is the most adverse genetic determinant and conscientiousness represents an influential personality trait. A potential association of both factors with brain structure in young adulthood may constitute a constellation that sets the course toward or against the subtle disease progression of LOAD that starts decades before clinical manifestation. Hence, in the present study, we examined the modulating effects of APOE ɛ4 on the relation between personality dimensions, including conscientiousness, and total grey matter volume (GMV) in young healthy adults using an a priori genotyping design. 105 participants completed an inventory assessing the Five Factor Model of Personality (NEO-FFI) and a structural MRI scan. Total GMV was estimated using both Freesurfer as well as VBM8. Across all participants, total GMV was positively associated with extraversion and negatively related to age. In APOE ɛ4-carriers- but not in APOE ɛ4-non-carriers- conscientiousness was negatively associated with total GMV. In line with the hypothesis of antagonistic pleiotropy of the APOE ɛ4 allele, this result suggests that young APOE ɛ4-carriers with increased total GMV may particularly benefit from cognitive advantages and thus have a lower need to engage in conscientious behavior. In this subset of young APOE ɛ4-carriers, the reduction in conscientiousness could then bring along adverse health behavior in the long run, potentiating the risk for LOAD. Hence, young APOE ɛ4-carriers with increased total GMV may be at a particularly high risk for LOAD.

  10. Exemplary Career Guidance Programs 1995: Secondary and Postsecondary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunanan, Esmeralda S.; Maddy-Bernstein, Carolyn

    This document presents nine exemplary career guidance and counseling programs identified by the National Center for Research in Vocational Education's Office of Student Services. Chapter 1 presents a synthesis of the nationally recognized career guidance programs successful in assisting students in their career development. It provides a…

  11. Childhood Conscientiousness and Leukocyte Telomere Length 40 Years Later in Adult Women--Preliminary Findings of a Prospective Association.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant W Edmonds

    Full Text Available Leukocyte telomere length (LTL shortens with age, and is a prospective marker of mortality related to cardiovascular disease. Many health behaviors and social environmental factors have been found to be associated with LTL. Several of these are also associated with conscientiousness, a dispositional personality trait. Conscientiousness is a propensity to be planful, adhere to social norms, and inhibit pre-potent responses. Like LTL, conscientiousness is prospectively related to mortality, possibly through cumulative effects on health over the life course via multiple pathways. As a result, we hypothesized that childhood levels of conscientiousness would predict LTL prospectively in adulthood. We selected a sample of 60 women in the Hawaii Personality and Health Cohort; 30 described by their teachers as high on conscientiousness in childhood and 30 described as low on the trait. Dried blood spot samples collected in adulthood 40 years later were used as sources of DNA for the LTL assay. Conscientiousness was associated with longer LTL (p = .02. Controlling for age did not account for this association. Controlling for education and physiological dysregulation partially attenuated the association, and the effect remained significant when accounting for differences in LTL across cultural groups. These results represent the first evidence that childhood personality prospectively predicts LTL 40 years later in adulthood. Our findings would be consistent with a mediation hypothesis whereby conscientiousness predicts life paths and trajectories of health that are reflected in rates of LTL erosion across the lifespan.

  12. Specifying Associations Between Conscientiousness and Executive Functioning: Mental Set Shifting, Not Prepotent Response Inhibition or Working Memory Updating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Kimberly A; Heintzelman, Samantha J; Bartholow, Bruce D

    2016-06-01

    Conscientiousness is characterized by self-control, organization, and goal orientation and is positively related to a number of health and professional outcomes. Thus, it is commonly suggested that conscientiousness should be related to superior executive functioning (EF) abilities, especially prepotent response inhibition. However, little empirical support for this notion has emerged, perhaps due to oversimplified and underspecified modeling of EF. The current study sought to fill this gap by testing relations between conscientiousness and three facets of EF using a nested factors latent variable approach. Participants (N = 420; Mage  = 22.5; 50% male; 91% Caucasian) completed a measure of conscientiousness and nine EF tasks designed to tap three related yet distinguishable facets of EF: working memory updating, mental set shifting, and prepotent response inhibition. Structural equation models showed that conscientiousness is positively associated with the EF facet of mental set shifting but not response inhibition or working memory updating. Despite the common notion that conscientiousness is associated with cognitive abilities related to rigid control over impulses (i.e., inhibition), the current results suggest the cognitive ability most associated with conscientiousness is characterized by flexibility and the ability to adapt to changing environmental contingencies and task demands.

  13. Childhood Conscientiousness and Leukocyte Telomere Length 40 Years Later in Adult Women--Preliminary Findings of a Prospective Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Grant W; Côté, Hélène C F; Hampson, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortens with age, and is a prospective marker of mortality related to cardiovascular disease. Many health behaviors and social environmental factors have been found to be associated with LTL. Several of these are also associated with conscientiousness, a dispositional personality trait. Conscientiousness is a propensity to be planful, adhere to social norms, and inhibit pre-potent responses. Like LTL, conscientiousness is prospectively related to mortality, possibly through cumulative effects on health over the life course via multiple pathways. As a result, we hypothesized that childhood levels of conscientiousness would predict LTL prospectively in adulthood. We selected a sample of 60 women in the Hawaii Personality and Health Cohort; 30 described by their teachers as high on conscientiousness in childhood and 30 described as low on the trait. Dried blood spot samples collected in adulthood 40 years later were used as sources of DNA for the LTL assay. Conscientiousness was associated with longer LTL (p = .02). Controlling for age did not account for this association. Controlling for education and physiological dysregulation partially attenuated the association, and the effect remained significant when accounting for differences in LTL across cultural groups. These results represent the first evidence that childhood personality prospectively predicts LTL 40 years later in adulthood. Our findings would be consistent with a mediation hypothesis whereby conscientiousness predicts life paths and trajectories of health that are reflected in rates of LTL erosion across the lifespan.

  14. General job performance of first-line supervisors: the role of conscientiousness in determining its effects on subordinate exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sara Jansen; Rubino, Cristina; Witt, L A

    2011-04-01

    In an integrated test of the job demands-resources model and trait activation theory, we predicted that the general job performance of employees who also hold supervisory roles may act as a demand to subordinates, depending on levels of subordinate conscientiousness. In a sample of 313 customer service call centre employees, we found that high-conscientiousness individuals were more likely to experience emotional exhaustion, and low-conscientiousness individuals were less likely as the general job performance of their supervisor improved. The results were curvilinear, such that high-conscientiousness individuals' exhaustion levelled off with very high supervisor performance (two standard deviations above the mean), and low-conscientiousness individuals' exhaustion levelled off as supervisor performance improved from moderate to high. These findings suggest high-conscientiousness employees may efficiently handle demands presented by a low-performing coworker who is their boss, but when performance expectations are high (i.e. high-performing boss), these achievement-oriented employees may direct their resources (i.e. energy and time) towards performance-related efforts at the expense of their well-being. Conversely, low-conscientiousness employees suffer when paired with a low-performing boss, but benefit from a supervisor who demonstrates at least moderate job performance.

  15. Women's Career Investment and the Returns: Career Benefits and Barriers in the 21st Century Green Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philomena M.

    2010-01-01

    The key to building successful strategies as a higher education practitioner promoting 21st century green economy career awareness for women attending urban universities, demands advocating for benefits, and subverting potential barriers, to positively influence career choices. Women's career investment and returns increase when proper strategies…

  16. Career counseling in the new career era: A study about the influence of career types, career satisfaction and career management on the need for career counseling.

    OpenAIRE

    Forrier, Anneleen; Sels, Luc; Verbruggen, Marijke

    2005-01-01

    We investigate whether the perceived need for employer-independent career counseling differs between individuals according to their career type. We identify six different career types, basically varying in terms of career path and career aspirations: the bounded, boundaryless, staying, homeless, trapped and released career type. We investigate moreover (1) whether career satisfaction mediates the relationship between career types and the perceived need for career counseling and (2) whether th...

  17. Women's Career Development Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Pamela J.

    1998-01-01

    Women's career development is characterized by balance of work and family, career interruptions, and diverse career paths. Alternative work arrangements such as flexible schedules, telecommuting, and entrepreneurial opportunities may offer women more options for work. (SK)

  18. College and Career Readiness: What Do We Mean?--Maria's Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darche, Svetlana; Stam, Brad

    2012-01-01

    WestEd, a research and development agency, and ConnectEd: The California Center for College and Career have partnered to develop a framework for college and career readiness. In this article, the authors look at one student's successful journey from high school to college to career, and highlights a career-readiness framework to ensure more…

  19. Airport Careers. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in airports. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers at airports, while the main part of the booklet outlines the following nine job categories: airport director, assistant airport director, engineers, support personnel,…

  20. Airline Careers. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in airlines. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the airline industry, including salaries, working conditions, job requirements, and projected job opportunities. In the main part of the booklet, the following 22 job…

  1. Career competencies for the modern career

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, M.A.C.T.; Scheerens, J.

    2006-01-01

    Career development gains new meaning in the context of employability demands in a knowledge economy. In this context, increased mobility, a dynamic work environment, and an increased level of career support from employers are seen as characteristics of a modern career. All of these characteristics p

  2. Career competencies for the modern career

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, Marinka; Scheerens, Jaap

    2006-01-01

    Career development gains new meaning in the context of employability demands in a knowledge economy. In this context, increased mobility, a dynamic work environment, and an increased level of career support from employers are seen as characteristics of a modern career. All of these characteristics

  3. Against the accommodation of subjective healthcare provider beliefs in medicine: counteracting supporters of conscientious objector accommodation arguments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Ricardo; Schuklenk, Udo

    2017-04-01

    We respond in this paper to various counter arguments advanced against our stance on conscientious objection accommodation. Contra Maclure and Dumont, we show that it is impossible to develop reliable tests for conscientious objectors' claims with regard to the reasonableness of the ideological basis of their convictions, and, indeed, with regard to whether they actually hold they views they claim to hold. We demonstrate furthermore that, within the Canadian legal context, the refusal to accommodate conscientious objectors would not constitute undue hardship for such objectors. We reject concerns that refusing to accommodate conscientious objectors would limit the equality of opportunity for budding professionals holding particular ideological positions. We also clarify various misrepresentations of our views by respondents Symons, Glick and Jotkowitz, and Lyus.

  4. Conscientious, therefore engaged in work? Don’t take it for granted: the moderating role of workplace mistreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralia Sulea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on work engagement has mostly examined the relationship of personal resources and work characteristics with work engagement. In this study, the authors focus on the moderating role of one work characteristic, namely workplace mistreatment (i.e., abusive supervision and incivility, on the relationship between a personal resource (i.e., conscientiousness and work engagement dimensions. Using a convenience sample of employees from various organizations, the authors found support for the hypotheses that abusive supervision and incivility moderated the relationship between conscientiousness and work engagement. Specifically, the relationship between conscientiousness and two work engagement dimensions (dedication and absorption is weaker for employees experiencing abusive supervision, whereas the relationship between conscientiousness and two work engagement dimensions (vigor and dedication is weaker for employees experiencing incivility.

  5. The role of executive function and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in the expression of neuroticism and conscientiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Chad E; Poore, Joshua C; Krueger, Frank; Barbey, Aron K; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined how specific neurological systems contribute to the expression of multiple personality dimensions. We used individuals with traumatic brain injuries to examine the contribution of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)--a region important for executive function and attention-to the expression of neuroticism and conscientiousness factors and facets. Results from Voxel-Based Lesion-Symptom Mapping analyses revealed that focal damage to the left DLPFC (Brodmann's area 9) was associated with high neuroticism and low conscientious factor and facet scores (anxiety and self-discipline, respectively). Compared with lesioned and normal controls, veterans with damage in left DLPFC also reported higher neuroticism and lower conscientiousness facet scores, slower reaction times on the California Computerized Assessment Package assessment, and lower scores on the Delis-Kaplan executive function battery. Findings suggest that while neuroticism and conscientiousness remain psychometrically independent personality dimensions, their component facets may rely on a common neurocognitive infrastructure and executive function resources in general.

  6. Conscientious Objection, Complicity in Wrongdoing, and a Not-So-Moderate Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerva, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the problem of complicity in wrongdoing in the case of healthcare practitioners (and in particular Roman Catholic ones) who refuse to perform abortions, but who are nonetheless required to facilitate abortions by informing their patients about this option and by referring them to a willing colleague. Although this solution is widely supported in the literature and is also widely represented in much legislation, the argument here is that it fails to both (1) safeguard the well-being of the patients, and (2) protect the moral integrity of healthcare practitioners. Finally, the article proposes a new solution to this problem that is based on a desirable ratio of conscientious objectors to non-conscientious objectors in a hospital or in a given geographic area.

  7. Striking a balance: conscientious objection and reproductive health care from the Colombian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabal, Luisa; Olaya, Monica Arango; Robledo, Valentina Montoya

    2014-12-11

    Conscientious Objection or conscientious refusal (CO) in access to reproductive health care is at the center of current legal debates worldwide. In countries such as the US and the UK, constitutional dilemmas surrounding CO in the context of reproductive health services reveal inadequate policy frameworks for balancing CO rights with women's rights to access contraception and abortion. The Colombian Constitutional Court's holistic jurisprudence regarding CO standards has applied international human rights norms so as to not only protect women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights, but to also introduce clear limits for the exercise of CO in health care settings. This paper reviews Latin American lines of regulation in Argentina, Uruguay, and Mexico City to argue that the Colombian Court's jurisprudence offers a strong guidance for future comprehensive policy approaches that aim to effectively balance tensions between CO and women's reproductive rights.

  8. The work-family interface and job performance: moderating effects of conscientiousness and perceived organizational support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, L A; Carlson, Dawn S

    2006-10-01

    Based on conservation of resources (COR) theory, the authors hypothesized that two aspects of the work-family interface--family-to-work conflict (FWC) and family-to-work enrichment (FWE)--are related to job performance. The authors also hypothesized that two variables moderate those relationships--individual differences in conscientiousness and aspects of the work environment in terms of perceived organizational support (POS). Data collected from a matched set of 136 private sector workers and their respective supervisors revealed that high FWC was more strongly related to lower job performance: (1) among high- than low-conscientiousness workers and (2) among workers reporting low rather than high levels of organizational support. However, FWE was unrelated to job performance.

  9. Pathological eating behaviors, BMI, and facet-level traits: the roles of conscientiousness, neuroticism, and impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellickson-Larew, Stephanie; Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Watson, David

    2013-12-01

    The current study examined the bivariate and multivariate associations of personality with Body Mass Index (BMI) and several eating behavior inventories, focusing on facets of Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, and Impulsivity. Simultaneous multiple regressions showed that the facets Traditionalism, Urgency, and low Vulnerability were significant predictors of BMI. A factor analysis of the eating behavior scales revealed two dimensions: (a) Food and Body Preoccupation and (b) Cued Eating; Neuroticism, low Conscientiousness, and Perfectionism were significant predictors of both eating behavior factors. In addition, the Depression facet predicted Food and Body Preoccupation, and low Temperance predicted Cued Eating. Implications are discussed for the structure of eating pathology and the specificity of facet traits to eating behaviors and obesity.

  10. Influencers of ethical beliefs and the impact on moral distress and conscientious objection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Shoni; Schrader, Vivian; Belcheir, Marcia J

    2012-11-01

    Considering a growing nurse shortage and the need for qualified nurses to handle increasingly complex patient care situations, how ethical beliefs are influenced and the consequences that can occur when moral conflicts of right and wrong arise need to be explored. The aim of this study was to explore influencers identified by nurses as having the most impact on the development of their ethical beliefs and whether these influencers might impact levels of moral distress and the potential for conscientious objection. Nurses whose ethical beliefs were most influenced by their religious beliefs scored higher in levels of moral distress and demonstrated greater differences in areas of conscientious objection than did nurses who developed their ethical beliefs from influencers such as family values, life and work experience, political views or the professional code of ethics.

  11. Conscientious metabolic monitoring on a patient with hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome undergoing anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühling, J; Dehne, M G; Fuchs, M; Sablotzki, A; Weiss, S; Spatz, J; Hempelmann, G

    2001-01-01

    Currently we know not more than 50 patients who show an interesting combination of increased plasma ornithine concentrations, postprandial hyperammonemia, and homocitrullinuria (HHH-syndrome). Since exact knowledge of this severe, although rare syndrome is important for any perioperative or intensive medical treatment concerning therapy and progression of the disease, we report a comprehensive study on a 32-year old woman with this rare multifaceted disorder who had to undergo general anaesthesia. For the first time amino acid status in plasma, urine, cerebrospinal fluid and especially polymorphonuclear leucocytes, which in the investigation showed to be valuable tool for evaluating amino acid metabolism in nucleated cells in HHH-syndrome, and further important pathophysiologic indicators of cellular and metabolic function have been conscientiously investigated and compared. The pathophysiological repercussions of our results as well as the recommendations for conscientious therapeutical management are discussed.

  12. Personality Factors and Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Initial License Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVita-Cochrane, Cynthia

    Commercial nuclear power utilities are under pressure to effectively recruit and retain licensed reactor operators in light of poor candidate training completion rates and recent candidate failures on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license exam. One candidate failure can cost a utility over $400,000, making the successful licensing of new operators a critical path to operational excellence. This study was designed to discover if the NEO-PI-3, a 5-factor measure of personality, could improve selection in nuclear utilities by identifying personality factors that predict license candidate success. Two large U.S. commercial nuclear power corporations provided potential participant contact information and candidate results on the 2014 NRC exam from their nuclear power units nation-wide. License candidates who participated (n = 75) completed the NEO-PI-3 personality test and results were compared to 3 outcomes on the NRC exam: written exam, simulated operating exam, and overall exam result. Significant correlations were found between several personality factors and both written and operating exam outcomes on the NRC exam. Further, a regression analysis indicated that personality factors, particularly Conscientiousness, predicted simulated operating exam scores. The results of this study may be used to support the use of the NEO-PI-3 to improve operator selection as an addition to the current selection protocol. Positive social change implications from this study include support for the use of a personality measure by utilities to improve their return-on-investment in candidates and by individual candidates to avoid career failures. The results of this study may also positively impact the public by supporting the safe and reliable operation of commercial nuclear power utilities in the United States.

  13. Conscientious objection to same-sex marriages: beyond the limits of toleration

    OpenAIRE

    Smet, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    When civil servants conscientiously refuse to register same-sex marriages, a clash arises between freedom of religion and same-sex equality. The scholarly world is divided on the optimal way to tackle this human rights clash. States, however, are not. Courts and legislators in the US, the UK and the Netherlands—among others—have decisively and unequivocally sided with same-sex equality. This article contributes to the debate by presenting an alternative to existing scholarly analyses, whic...

  14. Self-compassion and relationship maintenance: the moderating roles of conscientiousness and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Levi R; McNulty, James K

    2011-05-01

    Should intimates respond to their interpersonal mistakes with self-criticism or with self-compassion? Although it is reasonable to expect self-compassion to benefit relationships by promoting self-esteem, it is also reasonable to expect self-compassion to hurt relationships by removing intimates' motivation to correct their interpersonal mistakes. Two correlational studies, 1 experiment, and 1 longitudinal study demonstrated that whether self-compassion helps or hurts relationships depends on the presence versus absence of dispositional sources of the motivation to correct interpersonal mistakes. Among men, the implications of self-compassion were moderated by conscientiousness. Among men high in conscientiousness, self-compassion was associated with greater motivation to correct interpersonal mistakes (Studies 1 and 3), observations of more constructive problem-solving behaviors (Study 2), reports of more accommodation (Study 3), and fewer declines in marital satisfaction that were mediated by decreases in interpersonal problem severity (Study 4); among men low in conscientiousness, self-compassion was associated with these outcomes in the opposite direction. Among women, in contrast, likely because women are inherently more motivated than men to preserve their relationships for cultural and/or biological reasons, self-compassion was never harmful to the relationship. Instead, women's self-compassion was positively associated with the motivation to correct their interpersonal mistakes (Study 1) and changes in relationship satisfaction (Study 4), regardless of conscientiousness. Accordingly, theoretical descriptions of the implications of self-promoting thoughts for relationships may be most complete to the extent that they consider the presence versus absence of other sources of the motivation to correct interpersonal mistakes.

  15. Conscientious objection to referrals for abortion: pragmatic solution or threat to women's rights?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Conscientious objection has spurred impassioned debate in many Western countries. Some Norwegian general practitioners (GPs) refuse to refer for abortion. Little is know about how the GPs carry out their refusals in practice, how they perceive their refusal to fit with their role as professionals, and how refusals impact patients. Empirical data can inform subsequent normative analysis. Methods Qualitative research interviews were conducted with seven GPs, all Christians. Transcrip...

  16. Welcome to the wild, wild north: conscientious objection policies governing Canada's medical, nursing, pharmacy, and dental professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jacquelyn; Downie, Jocelyn

    2014-01-01

    In Canada, as in many developed countries, healthcare conscientious objection is growing in visibility, if not in incidence. Yet the country's health professional policies on conscientious objection are in disarray. The article reports the results of a comprehensive review of policies relevant to conscientious objection for four Canadian health professions: medicine, nursing, pharmacy and dentistry. Where relevant policies exist in many Canadian provinces, there is much controversy and potential for confusion, due to policy inconsistencies and terminological vagueness. Meanwhile, in Canada's three most northerly territories with significant Aboriginal populations, whose already precarious health is influenced by funding and practitioner shortages, there are major policy gaps applicable to conscientious objection. In many parts of the country, as a result of health professionals' conscientious refusals, access to some legal health services - including but not limited to reproductive health services such as abortion - has been seriously impeded. Although policy reform on conscientious conflicts may be difficult, and may generate strenuous opposition from some professional groups, for the sake of both patients and providers, such policy change must become an urgent priority.

  17. The paradox of conscientious objection and the anemic concept of 'conscience': downplaying the role of moral integrity in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giubilini, Alberto

    2014-06-01

    Conscientious objection in health care is a form of compromise whereby health care practitioners can refuse to take part in safe, legal, and beneficial medical procedures to which they have a moral opposition (for instance abortion). Arguments in defense of conscientious objection in medicine are usually based on the value of respect for the moral integrity of practitioners. I will show that philosophical arguments in defense of conscientious objection based on respect for such moral integrity are extremely weak and, if taken seriously, lead to consequences that we would not (and should not) accept. I then propose that the best philosophical argument that defenders of conscientious objection in medicine can consistently deploy is one that appeals to (some form of) either moral relativism or subjectivism. I suggest that, unless either moral relativism or subjectivism is a valid theory--which is exactly what many defenders of conscientious objection (as well as many others) do not think--the role of moral integrity and conscientious objection in health care should be significantly downplayed and left out of the range of ethically relevant considerations.

  18. Conscientiousness Moderates the Relationship Between Perceived Stress and Depressive Symptoms Among U.S. Chinese Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiwei; Peng, Yisheng; Ma, Xiaodong; Dong, Xinqi

    2017-07-01

    The present study examined whether individuals' personality traits, Neuroticism and Conscientiousness, moderated the relationship between perceived stress and depressive symptoms among U.S. Chinese older adults. Data analysis was based on the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE). Three thousand one hundred and fifty-nine Chinese adults aged 60 years and older participated in the PINE study. They completed scales that assessed their personality (ie, Neuroticism and Conscientiousness of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory), perceived stress (the Chinese Perceived Stress Scale), and depressive symptoms (the Patient Health Questionnaire). Perceived stress was positively related to depressive symptoms among U.S. Chinese older adults. No moderation effects were found for Neuroticism. Conscientiousness significantly moderated the perceived stress-depressive symptom relationship. The positive relationship between perceived stress and depressive symptoms was weaker for people who were higher in Conscientiousness than those who were lower in Conscientiousness. Conscientiousness mitigated the stress-depressive symptom relationship among U.S. Chinese older adults. Future research is needed to identify the psychological and sociocultural profiles of individuals who show stress resilience and those who are vulnerable. Social services and psychological interventions are needed to promote health and well-being among U.S. Chinese older adults.

  19. The Inevitability of Assessing Reasons in Debates about Conscientious Objection in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Robert F

    2017-01-01

    This article first critically reviews the major philosophical positions in the literature on conscientious objection and finds that they possess significant flaws. A substantial number of these problems stem from the fact that these views fail to assess the reasons offered by medical professionals in support of their objections. This observation is used to motivate the reasonability view, one part of which states: A practitioner who lodges a conscientious refusal must publicly state his or her objection as well as the reasoned basis for the objection and have these subjected to critical evaluation before a conscientious exemption can be granted (the reason-giving requirement). It is then argued that when defenders of the other philosophical views attempt to avoid granting an accommodation to spurious objections based on discrimination, empirically mistaken beliefs, or other unjustified biases, they are implicitly committed to the reason-giving requirement. This article concludes that based on these considerations, a reason-giving position such as the reasonability view possesses a decisive advantage in this debate.

  20. Conscientious objection and reproductive health service delivery in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lema, V M

    2012-03-01

    Lack of access to quality reproductive health services is the main contributor to the high maternal mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This is partly due to a shortage of qualified and experienced health care providers. However conscientious objection amongst the available few is a hitherto undocumented potential factor influencing access to health care in SSA. Provision of certain reproductive health services goes counter to some individual's religious and moral beliefs and practices. Health providers sometimes refuse to participate in or provide such services to clients/patients on moral and/or religious grounds. While the rights to do so are protected by the principles of freedom of religion, among other documents, their refusal exposes clients/patients to the risk of reproductive health morbidity as well as mortality. Such providers are required to refer the clients/patients to other equally qualified and experienced providers who do not hold similar conscientious objection. Access to high quality and evidence-based reproductive health services by all in need is critical to attaining MDG5. In addressing factors contributing to delay in attaining MDG5 in SSA it is instructive to consider the role of conscientious objection in influencing access to quality reproductive health care services and strategies to address it.

  1. Neuroticism, conscientiousness and fruit consumption: exploring mediator and moderator effects in the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Brug, Johannes; Van Lenthe, Frank J

    2009-11-01

    Integrating the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) with the five-factor model (FFM) of personality may provide insight into the cognitive and motivational mechanisms linking personality with health behaviour, but this issue has received very little attention regarding fruit consumption. Mediator effects of TPB concepts in the personality-fruit consumption link, as well as moderator effects of personality in the intention-fruit consumption link, were therefore investigated in the present study. Data on fruit consumption, TPB concepts and FFM dimensions were gathered among 405 respondents in face-to-face interviews using questionnaires. Structural equation modelling was used to investigate the mediator and moderator effects. The direct effect of conscientiousness on fruit consumption was mediated by attitude and perceived behavioural control, while no direct effect of neuroticism on fruit consumption was found. Neuroticism moderated the intention-fruit consumption relationship with the weakest relationship for those scoring high on neuroticism. Conscientiousness did not moderate the intention-fruit consumption relationship. TPB variables are mediators in the conscientiousness-fruit consumption link. Whether fruit consumption is intentional may be dependent upon the personality dimension neuroticism. Personality dimensions may be a useful addition to the TPB and should be considered in health behaviour change interventions.

  2. Participation in Organized Activities Protects Against Adolescents' Risky Substance Use, Even Beyond Development in Conscientiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Kira O; Modecki, Kathryn L; Barber, Bonnie L

    2016-11-01

    Adolescents are at a significant risk for binge drinking and illicit drug use. One way to protect against these behaviors is through participation in extracurricular activities. However, there is a debate about whether highly conscientious adolescents are more likely to participate in activities, which raises the concern of a confound. To disentangle these relationships, we tested the latent trajectories of substance use and personality across 3 years, with participation in activities and sports as time-varying predictors. We surveyed 687 adolescents (55 % female, 85.4 % Caucasian) in Western Australia schools across 3 years. At Time 1, the students were in Year 10 1 (mean age 15 years). The results showed that participation in activities and conscientiousness are related, but each uniquely predicts slower growth in substance use. Across waves, participation in activities predicted less risky substance use a year later, over and above conscientiousness development. These results suggest that there may be unique benefits of participation in activities that protect against risky substance use.

  3. LGBT Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedro, Julie

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I would like to open a conversation with my HRD colleagues about the issues related to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) career development. This paper provides some insights about LGBT career development, analyzing the factors that distinguish LGBT career development from heterosexual career development.

  4. Beyond the boys' club: strategies for achieving career success as a woman working in a male-dominated field Suzanne Doyle-Morris Beyond the boys' club: strategies for achieving career success as a woman working in a male-dominated field Wit and Wisdom Press £13.99 298pp 9780956268808 0956268803 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ALTHOUGH THIS book is not intended for any specific group of healthcare professionals, its subject matter, including mentorship, the need to master presentation skills such as public speaking, and why it is good to share workplace success, should all be of interest to nurses.

  5. Internal Labour Market as Factor in the Career Success Perceived by an Engineer

    Mercado Interno de Trabalho como Fator de Sucesso na Carreira Percebido pelo Engenheiro

    Mercado Interno de Trabajo como Factor de Éxito en la Carrera Percibido por Ingeniero

    OpenAIRE

    HEREDIA, Alberto Ismael Bejarano; MACHUCA, Kety Lourdes Jauregui

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe phenomenon of the global crisis in both the financial energy sectors as well as the emergence of new technologies companies consider their success or failure depending on the ability to respond quickly to opportunities in their competitive environment. This competitiveness is found especially in the capacity of their technical professionals. On the other hand career is characterized as protean, boundaryless and directed mainly by the individual. Given this scenario, organizations ...

  6. Complementary Person-Culture Values Fit and Hierarchical Career Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtschlag, Claudia; Morales, Carlos E.; Masuda, Aline D.; Maydeu-Olivares, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Although career success is an issue of global concern, few studies have examined the antecedents of career success across cultures. In this study we test whether the relationship between individuals' self-enhancement values (achievement and power) and hierarchical status differs across 29 countries and whether this variation depends on countries'…

  7. How To Stay Stuck in the Wrong Career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Herminia

    2002-01-01

    An effective midlife career change is challenging to bring about successfully. Identity and its relationship to work are key factors. A three-point plan to a successful career change includes the following: know thyself, consult trusted advisors, and think big. (JOW)

  8. How To Stay Stuck in the Wrong Career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Herminia

    2002-01-01

    An effective midlife career change is challenging to bring about successfully. Identity and its relationship to work are key factors. A three-point plan to a successful career change includes the following: know thyself, consult trusted advisors, and think big. (JOW)

  9. The effect of career planning education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Turnšek Mikačič

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: We employed a qualitative approach to study the effects of career planning education, perceiving it as an effective way to gain a deeper understanding of introductorily-organised career education. Purpose: We researched important areas to formulate a questionnaire for quantitative analysis. Method: We used a qualitative research approach in order to develop a theoretical framework for the exploration, interpretation and identification of the impact of education on career plans, on the changing attitudes towards careers, the raising of self-esteem and perception of personal growth. We used Neuro-linguistic programming as a tool to develop and achieve personal excellence within the career planning. Results: We constructed a paradigmatic model and developed the final theory. By means of qualitative analysis, we identified the elements of design criteria for the construction of the questionnaire; we measured the effects of education on career plans. Organization: The findings of the research will prove useful in personal management and career management in the process of planning and organizing the promotion of individuals within the organizations in accordance with the needs of those organizations. Originality: A career plan as a building block of personal growth, based on the model of career education with the in-built elements and tools of NLP, has been confirmed by the most recent studies in neuroscience. This represents a novelty, and, therefore, this study offers a genuine contribution, and is an indicator of contemporary knowledge, based on the results of the research. Limitations/Future Research: The model of career education and the results of this study open new directions for further research of the influence of career planning on the organisation of companies and their success, which is the phase of the study which was not carried out.

  10. A STUDY ON PARENTAL AND SOCIAL INFLUENCE ON CAREER CHOICE AS ENGINEER

    OpenAIRE

    Swaha Bhattacharya

    2013-01-01

    A career is traditionally seen as a course of successive situation that make up a person's work life. Students in the modern and fast changing world are trying to seek for those careers which would ultimately led them to achieve fairly in life. Career choice is a major life decision. The choice of career by an individual sometimes is influenced by parents and society. The present investigation has been designed to study the impact of parental and social influence on career choice. Accordingly...

  11. The career distress scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creed, Peter; Hood, Michelle; Praskova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Career distress is a common and painful outcome of many negative career experiences, such as career indecision, career compromise, and discovering career barriers. However, there are very few scales devised to assess career distress, and the two existing scales identified have psychometric...... weaknesses. The absence of a practical, validated scale to assess this construct restricts research related to career distress and limits practitioners who need to assess and treat it. Using a sample of 226 young adults (mean age 20.5 years), we employed item response theory to assess 12 existing career......, which we combined into a scale labelled the Career Distress Scale, demonstrated excellent psychometric properties, meaning that both researchers and practitioners can use it with confidence, although continued validation is required, including testing its relationship to other nomological net variables...

  12. Conscientious objection to sexual and reproductive health services: international human rights standards and European law and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampas, Christina; Andión-Ibañez, Ximena

    2012-06-01

    The practice of conscientious objection often arises in the area of individuals refusing to fulfil compulsory military service requirements and is based on the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion as protected by national, international and regional human rights law. The practice of conscientious objection also arises in the field of health care, when individual health care providers or institutions refuse to provide certain health services based on religious, moral or philosophical objections. The use of conscientious objection by health care providers to reproductive health care services, including abortion, contraceptive prescriptions, and prenatal tests, among other services is a growing phenomena throughout Europe. However, despite recent progress from the European Court of Human Rights on this issue (RR v. Poland, 2011), countries and international and regional bodies generally have failed to comprehensively and effectively regulate this practice, denying many women reproductive health care services they are legally entitled to receive. The Italian Ministry of Health reported that in 2008 nearly 70% of gynaecologists in Italy refuse to perform abortions on moral grounds. It found that between 2003 and 2007 the number of gynaecologists invoking conscientious objection in their refusal to perform an abortion rose from 58.7 percent to 69.2 percent. Italy is not alone in Europe, for example, the practice is prevalent in Poland, Slovakia, and is growing in the United Kingdom. This article outlines the international and regional human rights obligations and medical standards on this issue, and highlights some of the main gaps in these standards. It illustrates how European countries regulate or fail to regulate conscientious objection and how these regulations are working in practice, including examples of jurisprudence from national level courts and cases before the European Court of Human Rights. Finally, the article will provide recommendations

  13. Özgür Heval Çınar and Coşkun Üsterci, Conscientious Objection, Resisting Militarized Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sümbül Kaya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Conscientious Objection, Resisting Militarized Society is an original book that includes 27 contributions from a variety of academics and militants on conscientious objection (CO in the world and especially in Turkey. The book is divided into four parts. The first part offers a historical and philosophical approach to conscription and the motivations for resisting conscription in a “militarized society”. The second part of the book introduces a gender analysis of conscientious objection and ...

  14. Mechanisms of health: Education and health-related behaviours partially mediate the relationship between conscientiousness and self-reported physical health

    OpenAIRE

    Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Jackson, Joshua; Bogg, Tim; Walton, Kate; Wood, Dustin; Harms, Peter; Roberts, Brent W.

    2010-01-01

    The personality trait of conscientiousness is an important predictor of health and longevity. The present research examined how conscientiousness, in combination with educational attainment and health-related behaviours, predicted self-reported physical health across adulthood. These relations were investigated in two studies, one using a large, representative sample of Illinois residents (N = 617) and the other using a community sample with a multi-method assessment of conscientiousness (N =...

  15. Research Funding Opportunities for Early Career Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Richard

    2009-10-01

    This talk will describe opportunities for early career faculty members in the physical sciences to obtain funding for scientific research and educational projects. I will discuss programs offered by Research Corporation for Science Advancement, a private nonprofit foundation, which include opportunities for scientists at primarily undergraduate institutions and at research universities. I will emphasize strategies for successful grant writing. The target audience is early career academic scientists in Astronomy, Physics, and related fields, as well as graduate students and postdoctoral researchers considering careers in these academic disciplines.

  16. The "CEO" of women's work lives: how Big Five Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Openness predict 50 years of work experiences in a changing sociocultural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Linda G; Helson, Ravenna; John, Oliver P

    2011-10-01

    Few long-term longitudinal studies have examined how dimensions of personality are related to work lives, especially in women. We propose a life-course framework for studying work over time, from preparatory activities (in the 20s) to descending work involvement (after age 60), using 50 years of life data from the women in the Mills Longitudinal Study. We hypothesized differential work effects for Extraversion (work as pursuit of rewards), Openness (work as self-actualization), and Conscientiousness (work as duty) and measured these 3 traits as predictor variables when the women were still in college. In a prospective longitudinal design, we then studied how these traits predicted the women's subsequent work lives from young adulthood to age 70 and how these effects depended on the changing sociocultural context. Specifically, the young adulthood of the Mills women in the mid-1960s was rigidly gender typed and family oriented; neither work nor education variables at that time were predicted from earlier personality traits. However, as women's roles changed, later work variables became related to all 3 traits, as expected from current Big Five theory and research. For example, early personality traits predicted the timing of involvement in work, the kinds of jobs chosen, and the status and satisfaction achieved, as well as continued work participation and financial security in late adulthood. Early traits were also linked to specific cultural influences, such as the traditional feminine role, the women's movement, and graduate education for careers.

  17. Ensuring Students' Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblinger, James L.

    2006-01-01

    James L. Oblinger, Chancellor of North Carolina State University, argues that higher education must continually evolve new methods of teaching and learning to support students' lifelong skills and impending careers. Part of ensuring students' success lies in finding alternative learning models, such as the Student-Centered Activities for Large…

  18. Ensuring Students' Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblinger, James L.

    2006-01-01

    James L. Oblinger, Chancellor of North Carolina State University, argues that higher education must continually evolve new methods of teaching and learning to support students' lifelong skills and impending careers. Part of ensuring students' success lies in finding alternative learning models, such as the Student-Centered Activities for Large…

  19. Undergraduate Breakfast, Career Workshop, and Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate students can enjoy a hearty breakfast and learn about how to prepare for a wide variety of careers in physics outside of academia. Topics of this interactive workshop will include planning and self-assessment, inventorying transferable skills, finding out more about career opportunities, and successfully applying for jobs. Immediately following the workshop, top presenters from the Undergraduate Research/SPS sessions will be recognized. All presenters in the undergraduate sessions will receive certificates acknowledging their scientific accomplishments.

  20. Applications of Motivational Interviewing in Career Counseling: Facilitating Career Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltz, Kevin B.; Young, Tabitha L.

    2013-01-01

    The Protean and Boundaryless career paradigms are calling for new ways to provide career counseling to clients. Career counselors need methods for facilitating client's career transition across all stages of career development. This facilitation requires career counselors to be armed with methods for promoting client's autonomy,…

  1. The Relationship between Disability Status, Career Beliefs, and Career Indecision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Mary Schaefer

    1996-01-01

    Tests two hypotheses: (1) career beliefs are related to career indecision, and (2) disability status influences the relationship between career beliefs and career indecision. Results yielded significant correlations between self-doubting career beliefs and career indecision, suggesting that disability may limit an individual's opportunity to…

  2. CareerConnector

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CareerConnector is USAID's premiere recruiting tool. It is powered by Monster and integrated with www.usajobs.gov. CareerConnector tracks the progression of a...

  3. Improving Career Exploration. Implementation Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwest Iowa Learning Resources Center, Red Oak.

    This junior high/middle school career exploration implementation manual is designed to assist in implementing a comprehensive career exploration program using four career exploration components developed in the Improving Career Exploration project. The first of six sections addresses career exploration and career/vocational development. Basic…

  4. Die Verschränkung von Arbeitskultur, beruflichem Erfolg und Geschlecht in technik- und naturwissenschaftlichen Berufen The Entanglement of Work Culture, Career Success, and Gender in Technical and Natural Scientific Professions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inken Lind

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In dem Band geht die Autorin Dr. Yvonne Haffner, Wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin am Institut für Soziologie der Universität Darmstadt, den strukturellen Barrieren für eine gleichberechtigte Karriere von Frauen und Männern im Beruf nach. Dabei werden vor allem gängige Leistungskriterien in den Blick genommen und die verbreitete Vorstellung von der auf individuellen Leistungen beruhenden Karriere hinterfragt. Die Ergebnisse verdeutlichen, dass karriererelevante Anforderungen nur in relativ geringem Maße an objektivierbare Leistungskriterien gebunden sind und impliziten, wenig objektivierbaren Kriterien eine besondere Bedeutung für den Karriereverlauf zukommt. Diese impliziten Kriterien beziehen sich auf die moderne Arbeitskultur mit ihrem hohen Verfügbarkeitsanspruch, der sich wiederum geschlechtsspezifisch unterschiedlich auswirkt.This author of this book, Dr. Yvonne Haffner, research assistant at the Institute for Sociology at the University of Darmstadt, inspects the structural barriers for equal career opportunities for women and men in the work force. She examines the general criteria for achievement as well as the widespread idea that careers are dependant on individual performance. The results merely underscore the fact that demands relevant to the career are rarely bound to objective performance criteria. Conversely, implied criteria, which are rarely objective, have taken on important meaning for career paths. These implied criteria are often related to modern working cultures with high demands in terms of availability. This has a varied gender-specific effect.

  5. General surgery career resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsee, Ana M; Ross, Sharona B; Gantt, Nancy L; Kichler, Kandace; Hollands, Celeste

    2013-11-01

    General surgery residency training can lead to a rewarding career in general surgery and serve as the foundation for careers in several surgical subspecialties. It offers broad-based training with exposure to the cognitive and technical aspects of several surgical specialties and prepares graduating residents for a wide range of career paths. This career development resource discusses the training aspects of general surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Promoting sustainable excellence through diversity in research careers

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Dr. Vinkenburg, Claartje; Guinot, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    Excellence is a non-negotiable in science, a necessary condition for a successful careers as well as the funding of research projects. Scientific excellence is the sole criterion used by the European Research Council (ERC) to award frontier research grants. However, statistics show that there are still persistent inequalities between men and women scientists in ERC funding success as well as other career outcomes. Dr. Claartje Vinkenburg, of the VU University of Amsterdam, will illustrate two projects commissioned by the ERC Gender Balance Working Group to uncover and address this phenomenon. The first project [ERCAREER (Vinkenburg PI, 2012-2014)] is about unconventional careers and career breaks, and studies the gendered nature of career paths of ERC applicants. Findings show that “conventional careers” in science are inextricably tied to normative beliefs about the ideal academic, mobility, independence, and excellence. Allowing unconventional careers to address the issue results in ir...

  7. The Dual Career Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtin, Lee

    1980-01-01

    The dual career couple is forced to make a series of choices and compromises that impact the realms of marriage and career. The dilemmas that confront dual career marriages can be overcome only by compromise, accommodation, and mutual understanding on the part of the individuals involved. A revamping of human resources and recruitment programs is…

  8. Sustainable careers: Introductory chapter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Vos, A de

    2015-01-01

    In this introductory chapter we will introduce the concept of ‘sustainable careers’ within the broader framework of contemporary careers. Departing from changes in the career context with regard to the dimensions of time, social space, agency and meaning, we advocate a fresh perspective on careers t

  9. Individual Differences in Loss Aversion: Conscientiousness Predicts How Life Satisfaction Responds to Losses Versus Gains in Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Christopher J; Wood, Alex M; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2016-04-01

    Loss aversion is considered a general pervasive bias occurring regardless of the context or the person making the decision. We hypothesized that conscientiousness would predict an aversion to losses in the financial domain. We index loss aversion by the relative impact of income losses and gains on life satisfaction. In a representative German sample (N = 105,558; replicated in a British sample, N = 33,848), with conscientiousness measured at baseline, those high on conscientiousness have the strongest reactions to income losses, suggesting a pronounced loss aversion effect, whereas for those moderately unconscientious, there is no loss aversion effect. Our research (a) provides the first evidence of personality moderation of any loss aversion phenomena, (b) supports contextual perspectives that both personality and situational factors need to be examined in combination, (c) shows that the small but robust relationship between income and life satisfaction is driven primarily by a subset of people experiencing highly impactful losses.

  10. Career Awareness, Career Planning, and Career Transition Needs among Sports Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallee, David

    2006-01-01

    This study is conducted with 56 recently retired full-time sports coaches to examine the importance of career awareness, postsport career planning, and career transition needs. Results indicate that the individuals do not have a high level of career awareness, have done relatively little postsport career planning during their coaching careers, and…

  11. "If You Look the Part You'll Get the Job": Should Career Professionals Help Clients to Enhance Their Career Image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooley, Tristram; Yates, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a critical exploration of the role of career professionals in supporting people to reflect on and enhance their appearance, attractiveness and self-presentation (career image). The article is conceptual and based on a review of the broader literature on career success, appearance and attractiveness. It explores the evidence…

  12. Conscientious Objection to Harmful Animal Use within Veterinary and Other Biomedical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew

    2014-01-21

    Laboratory classes in which animals are seriously harmed or killed, or which use cadavers or body parts from ethically debatable sources, are controversial within veterinary and other biomedical curricula. Along with the development of more humane teaching methods, this has increasingly led to objections to participation in harmful animal use. Such cases raise a host of issues of importance to universities, including those pertaining to curricular design and course accreditation, and compliance with applicable animal welfare and antidiscrimination legislation. Accordingly, after detailed investigation, some universities have implemented formal policies to guide faculty responses to such cases, and to ensure that decisions are consistent and defensible from legal and other policy perspectives. However, many other institutions have not yet done so, instead dealing with such cases on an ad hoc basis as they arise. Among other undesirable outcomes this can lead to insufficient student and faculty preparation, suboptimal and inconsistent responses, and greater likelihood of legal challenge. Accordingly, this paper provides pertinent information about the evolution of conscientious objection policies within Australian veterinary schools, and about the jurisprudential bases for conscientious objection within Australia and the USA. It concludes with recommendations for the development and implementation of policy within this arena.

  13. [Position paper from the Department of Ethics of the Chilean College of Physicians about conscientious objection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Sofía P; Besio, Mauricio; Bórquez Estefó, Gladys; Salinas, Rodrigo A; Valenzuela, Carlos Y; Micolich, Constanza; Novoa Sotta, Fernando; Bernier Villarroel, Lioniel; Montt M, Julio; Misseroni Raddatz, Adelio

    2016-03-01

    The Chilean bill that regulates abortion for three cases (Bulletin Nº 9895-11) includes the possibility that health professionals may manifest their conscientious objection (CO) to perform this procedure. Due to the broad impact that the issue of C O had, the Ethics Department of the Chilean College of Physicians considered important to review this concept and its ethical and legal basis, especially in the field of sexual and reproductive health. In the present document, we define the practical limit s of CO, both for the proper fulfillment of the medical profession obligations, and for the due respect and non-discrimination that the professional objector deserves. We analyze the denial of some health institutions to perform abortions if it is legalize d, and we end with recommendations adjusted to the Chilean reality. Specifically, we recognize the right to conscientious objection that all physicians who directly participate in a professional act have. But we a lso recognize that physicians have ineludib le obligations towards their patients, including the obligation to inform about the existence of this service, how to access to it and -as set out in our code of ethics- to ensure that another colleague will continue attending the patient.

  14. Conscientious Objection to Harmful Animal Use within Veterinary and Other Biomedical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Knight

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory classes in which animals are seriously harmed or killed, or which use cadavers or body parts from ethically debatable sources, are controversial within veterinary and other biomedical curricula. Along with the development of more humane teaching methods, this has increasingly led to objections to participation in harmful animal use. Such cases raise a host of issues of importance to universities, including those pertaining to curricular design and course accreditation, and compliance with applicable animal welfare and antidiscrimination legislation. Accordingly, after detailed investigation, some universities have implemented formal policies to guide faculty responses to such cases, and to ensure that decisions are consistent and defensible from legal and other policy perspectives. However, many other institutions have not yet done so, instead dealing with such cases on an ad hoc basis as they arise. Among other undesirable outcomes this can lead to insufficient student and faculty preparation, suboptimal and inconsistent responses, and greater likelihood of legal challenge. Accordingly, this paper provides pertinent information about the evolution of conscientious objection policies within Australian veterinary schools, and about the jurisprudential bases for conscientious objection within Australia and the USA. It concludes with recommendations for the development and implementation of policy within this arena.

  15. Can you have your meat and eat it too? Conscientious omnivores, vegetarians, and adherence to diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothgerber, Hank

    2015-01-01

    As criticisms of factory farming continue to mount, an increasing number of individuals have changed their existing dietary practices. Perhaps the two most important food movements reacting against industrial farming are (1) vegetarianism, the avoidance of animal flesh; and (2) conscientious omnivorism (CO), the consumption of meat or fish only when it satisfies certain ethical standards. While the former group has been well-studied in the social science literature, there have been few, if any, studies specifically examining those who identify themselves as ethical meat eaters. The present research sought to determine if one particular diet was more greatly adhered to by its followers. Results revealed that COs were less likely to perceive their diet as something that they absolutely needed to follow, reported violating their diet more, felt less guilty when doing so, believed less in animal rights, were less disgusted by factory-farmed meat, rated its sensory characteristics more favorably, and were lower in ingroup identification than vegetarians. Mediation analysis demonstrated that differences in the amount of violations and guilt associated with these violations could in part be traced to practical and psychological factors, making it more difficult to follow conscientious omnivorism.

  16. 良法标准初探%On The Criterion of Conscientious Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李龙; 汪进元

    2001-01-01

    良法,特别是中国社会主义良法善性的基本标准是:在指导思想上,应始终坚持以邓小平理论为指导;在价值建构上,应确立以正义为轴心、以秩序为外化、以平等为基础、以利益为归属的价值体系;在规范结构上,应进一步完善立法过程的民主化、立法表达的规范化、立法体系的科学化;在文化精神上,应建立公民权利主导型的立法模式。%This article stresses the conscientious law, especially the basic conscientious criterions of Chinese socialist law. First of all, we should adhere to Deng Xiao ping's Theory as the guiding ideology; secondly, we should establish the system of value which take justice as axis, order as external form, equality as basis, interest as end-result; once more, in the structure of roles, we should further perfect the democratization in the process of legislation, the standardization in the manifestation of legislation, rationalization in the system of legislation; fmally, in cultural spirit, we should establish the model of legislation guided by civil's rights.

  17. The clinical conscientiousness index: a valid tool for exploring professionalism in the clinical undergraduate setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Martina; O'Flynn, Siun; McLachlan, John; Sawdon, Marina A

    2012-09-01

    The need to develop effective tools to measure professionalism continues to challenge medical educators; thus, as a follow-up to a recent examination of the "Conscientiousness Index" (CI, a novel measure of one facet of professionalism) in one setting with preclinical medical students, the authors aimed to investigate the validity of the CI as a proxy measure of professionalism in a different context and in the clinical phase of undergraduate medical education. In academic year 2009-2010, the authors collected data similar to those collected for the original preclinical study. In an effort to create a Clinical Conscientiousness Index (CCI) score, they collected the following information on 124 third-year medical students completing their clinical rotations: attendance, timeliness of assessment submissions, and completion of rotation evaluations. Then, they compared the resultant CCI scores with faculty views on professionalism and with formal assessments of students' professionalism (i.e., their portfolios and objective structured clinical examinations [OSCEs]). The authors demonstrate significant correlations between CCI scores and faculty views on professionalism (rS = 0.3; P = .001), and between CCI scores and OSCE score (rS = 0.237; P = .008), but not between CCI scores and portfolio assessment (rS = 0.084; P = .354). The authors also present relationships between CCI scores and demographics. The CCI is a practical, valid proxy measure of professionalism, achieving good correlation with faculty views on professionalism and clinical competency examinations, but not portfolio assessment, in one clinical undergraduate setting.

  18. Reasonability and conscientious objection in medicine: a reply to Marsh and an elaboration of the reason-giving requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Robert F

    2014-07-01

    In this paper I defend the Reasonability View: the position that medical professionals seeking a conscientious exemption must state reasons in support of their objection and allow those reasons to be subject to evaluation. Recently, this view has been criticized by Jason Marsh as proposing a standard that is either too difficult to meet or too easy to satisfy. First, I defend the Reasonability View from this proposed dilemma. Then, I develop this view by presenting and explaining some of the central criteria it uses to assess whether a conscientious objection is proper grounds for extending an exemption to a medical practitioner.

  19. Response to: 'Why medical professionals have no moral claim to conscientious objection accommodation in liberal democracies' by Schuklenk and Smalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyus, Richard John

    2017-04-01

    Bioethicists commenting on conscientious objection and abortion should consider the empirical data on abortion providers. Abortion providers do not fall neatly into groups of providers and objectors, and ambivalence is a key theme in their experience. Practical details of abortion services further upset the dichotomy. These empirical facts are important because they demonstrate that the way the issue is described in analytical bioethics does not reflect reality. Addressing conscientious objection as a barrier to patient access requires engaging with those who provide the service and those who are able to but do not. The experiences of doctors facing these decisions potentially challenge and expand our understanding of the issue as an ethical concern.

  20. Navigating the Path to a Biomedical Science Career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Andrea McNeely

    The number of biomedical PhD scientists being trained and graduated far exceeds the number of academic faculty positions and academic research jobs. If this trend is compelling biomedical PhD scientists to increasingly seek career paths outside of academia, then more should be known about their intentions, desires, training experiences, and career path navigation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to understand the process through which biomedical PhD scientists are trained and supported for navigating future career paths. In addition, the study sought to determine whether career development support efforts and opportunities should be redesigned to account for the proportion of PhD scientists following non-academic career pathways. Guided by the social cognitive career theory (SCCT) framework this study sought to answer the following central research question: How does a southeastern tier 1 research university train and support its biomedical PhD scientists for navigating their career paths? Key findings are: Many factors influence PhD scientists' career sector preference and job search process, but the most influential were relationships with faculty, particularly the mentor advisor; Planned activities are a significant aspect of the training process and provide skills for career success; and Planned activities provided skills necessary for a career, but influential factors directed the career path navigated. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

  1. The Effects of Positive and Negative Feedback on Maximal Voluntary Contraction Level of the Biceps Brachii Muscle: Moderating Roles of Gender and Conscientiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarıkabak, Murat; Yaman, Çetin; Tok, Serdar; Binboga, Erdal

    2016-11-02

    We investigated the effect of positive and negative feedback on maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the biceps brachii muscle and explored the mediating effects of gender and conscientiousness. During elbow flexion, MVCs were measured in positive, negative, and no-feedback conditions. Participants were divided into high- and low-conscientiousness groups based on the median split of their scores on Tatar's five-factor personality inventory. Considering all participants 46 college student athletes (21 female, 28 male), positive feedback led to a greater MVC percentage change (-5.76%) than did negative feedback (2.2%). MVC percentage change in the positive feedback condition differed significantly by gender, but the negative feedback condition did not. Thus, positive feedback increased female athletes' MVC level by 3.49%, but decreased male athletes' MVC level by 15.6%. For conscientiousness, MVC percentage change in the positive feedback condition did not differ according to high and low conscientiousness. However, conscientiousness interacted with gender in the positive feedback condition, increasing MVC in high-conscientiousness female athletes and decreasing MVC in low-conscientiousness female athletes. Positive feedback decreased MVC in both high- and low-conscientiousness male athletes.

  2. Mechanisms of health: Education and health-related behaviours partially mediate the relationship between conscientiousness and self-reported physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Jackson, Joshua; Bogg, Tim; Walton, Kate; Wood, Dustin; Harms, Peter; Roberts, Brent W

    2010-03-01

    The personality trait of conscientiousness is an important predictor of health and longevity. The present research examined how conscientiousness, in combination with educational attainment and health-related behaviours, predicted self-reported physical health across adulthood. These relations were investigated in two studies, one using a large, representative sample of Illinois residents (N = 617) and the other using a community sample with a multi-method assessment of conscientiousness (N = 274). Across both studies, structural path analyses provided evidence for a model wherein conscientiousness predicted health, in part, through its relationship to both educational attainment and health-related behaviours. The findings suggest conscientiousness predicts health through a diverse set of mechanisms including, but not limited to, educational attainment and health-related behaviours.

  3. Relation of Depression and Dysfunctional Career Thinking to Career Indecision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Denise E.; Peterson, Gary W.; Reardon, Robert C.; Sampson, James P., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    A study of 215 students who completed career indecision, career thoughts, and depression measures showed that dysfunctional career thoughts were significant components of career indecision. Depression was significantly associated with career indecision, but it did not capture a significant independent variation in regression analyses. (SK)

  4. Career Assessment and Planning Strategies for Postsecondary Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Richard T.; Hennessey, Mary L.; Hogan, Ebony M.; Savickas, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Career assessment and planning services that enable students with disabilities to make successful transitions from higher education to careers are an important component often missing in the postsecondary educational experience. Comprehensive services in this regard involve students in considering how to incorporate their preferences, assets, and…

  5. Career Aspirations of Non-Managerial Women: Adjustment and Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hite, Linda M.; McDonald, Kimberly S.

    2003-01-01

    Focus group data from 26 nonmanagerial women indicated that they often adapted their career goals due to life circumstances. Family responsibilities, job security, and organizational support systems (e.g., job flexibility, tuition reimbursement, mentoring) influenced career success and satisfaction. (Contains 29 references.) (SK)

  6. Women in Nontraditional Careers: Setting Them Up to Succeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Laurie; Tuchscherer, Jerry

    1992-01-01

    Idaho's Nontraditional-by-Gender Scholarship Program includes the following elements of success: provision of realistic information to women about jobs, support groups and peer advisors, placement, career fairs and on-campus interviews, business-labor-education partnerships, and career guidance and counseling. (SK)

  7. Special Issue: Building Your Career Development e-Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Career Planning and Adult Development Journal, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Nine articles in this issue discuss how to develop a career development e-business, how e-business has expanded, creating a successful Web presence, doing business on the Internet, and how to take control of your career and future. (JOW)

  8. The Career Satisfaction Scale: Response Bias among Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmans, Joeri; Dries, Nicky; Pepermans, Roland

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrate an increasing emphasis on subjective career success. This construct is typically measured using self-report scales, with the most used instrument being the Career Satisfaction Scale of Greenhaus, Parasuraman, and Wormley [Greenhaus, J. H., Parasuraman, S., & Wormley, W. M. (1990). "Effects of race on organizational…

  9. ICT-- The New Frontier? Pushing the Boundaries of Careers Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimrose, Jenny; Kettunen, Jaana; Goddard, Tannis

    2015-01-01

    Much progress has been made in integrating information and communications technology (ICT) into careers practice, but there is still room for improvement. An international lens is adopted to examine some key elements that contribute to the successful integration of ICT into careers practice. We start by exploring the role of policy, using the UK…

  10. The organizational predictors of executive career advancement in career moves across employers

    OpenAIRE

    MONIKA HAMORI

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the career moves of executives between two different organizations and looks at the characteristics of executives´ employing organizations as a predictor of the success of the moves. The paper uses a proprietary data set of a retained executive search firm that contains information on the career paths of executives in the financial services industry. The results show that the perceived operational excellence of executives´ employing organization has a significant signali...

  11. The impact of conscientiousness, mastery, and work circumstances on subsequent absenteeism in employees with and without affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Almar A L; Plaisier, Inger; Smit, Johannes H; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2017-03-29

    High numbers of employees are coping with affective disorders. At the same time, ambitiousness, achievement striving and a strong sense of personal control and responsibility are personality characteristics that are nowadays regarded as key to good work functioning, whereas social work circumstances tend to be neglected. However, it is largely unkown how personality characteristics and work circumstances affect work functioning when facing an affective disorder. Given the high burden of affective disorders on occupational health, we investigate these issues in the context of affective disorders and absenteeism from work. The principal aim of this paper is to examine whether particular personality characteristics that reflect self-governance (conscientiousness and mastery) and work circumstances (demands, control, support) influence the impact of affective disorders on long-term absenteeism (>10 working days). Baseline and 1-year follow-up data from 1249 participants in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) in 2004-2006 was employed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed, including interaction effects between depressive, anxiety, and comorbid disorders and personality and work circumstances. In general, mastery and conscientiousness increased nor diminished odds of subsequent long-term absenteeism, whereas higher job support significantly decreased these odds. Interaction effects showed that the impact of affective disorders on absenteeism was stronger for highly conscientious employees and for employees who experienced high job demands. Affective disorders may particularly severely affect work functioning of employees who are highly conscientious or face high psychological job demands. Adjusting working conditions to their individual needs may prevent excessive work absence.

  12. Fundamentos Basicos de Career Education. Monografia en Career Education. [Basic Fundamentals of Career Education. Monograph in Career Education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This document is the Spanish translation of ED 145 222, A Primer for Career Education. In this monograph, a view of the basic nature of the career education effort is discussed under the following topics: the basis of need for career education; the meaning and goals of career education; the difference between career education and vocational…

  13. Telling Stories of Career Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Mary; Watson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In the field of career development, there is an acknowledged relationship between career assessment and career counseling. Traditional career assessment and more recent narrative approaches to career counseling are perceived as having an uneasy relationship because of their different philosophical bases. A sustainable future story for the field…

  14. Empowering High-Risk Clients to Attain a Better Quality of Life: A Career Resiliency Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickwood, Rory R.; Roberts, Jillian; Batten, Suzanne; Marshall, Anne; Massie, Kendra

    2004-01-01

    Career counselors frequently encounter clients who are at high risk for career and life development difficulties. Research suggests there is a connection between resiliency and successful career development in high-risk clients. Many high-risk individuals have poor decision-making skills and lack motivation to succeed in life and career…

  15. Developing Career Management Competencies among Undergraduates and the Role of Work-Integrated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Denise; Wilton, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores undergraduate capabilities in career self-management and the influence of work-integrated learning (WIL). Career management competencies are an important aspect of individual employability and impact on wellbeing, graduate job attainment and long-term career success. Enhanced competencies among graduates can assist Faculty in…

  16. Developing Career Management Competencies among Undergraduates and the Role of Work-Integrated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Denise; Wilton, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores undergraduate capabilities in career self-management and the influence of work-integrated learning (WIL). Career management competencies are an important aspect of individual employability and impact on wellbeing, graduate job attainment and long-term career success. Enhanced competencies among graduates can assist Faculty in…

  17. A Phenomenological Exploration of the Experiences of Dual-Career Lesbian and Gay Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Ryan, Leslie W.; McFarland, William P.

    2010-01-01

    Dual-career lesbian and gay couples face unique struggles as they encounter relational and workplace discrimination. This phenomenological study explored how relationship and career intersect for lesbian and gay couples. Three themes emerged that described how couples successfully blended relationship and career: planfulness, creating positive…

  18. Testing Times: Careers Market Policies and Practices in England and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Deirdre; Meijers, Frans; Kuijpers, Marinka

    2015-01-01

    Careers work is a very political business. Since the early 1990s, successive governments in England and the Netherlands have persistently challenged those working in the careers sector to demonstrate the educational, social and economic value and impact of their work. In this context, the marketisation of career guidance policies and practices has…

  19. Designing IB Curricula for Future Global Careerists: A Boundaryless Career Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suutari, Vesa; Smale, Adam

    2008-01-01

    New career realities appear to be reshaping the necessary tools, skills and attitudes individuals must possess in order to establish a successful career in the international business arena. In particular, the boundaryless career perspective provides an interesting point of departure from which to analyze the kinds of competences future global…

  20. Career satisfaction of women in surgery: perceptions, factors, and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadiyeh, Nasim; Cho, Nancy L; Kellogg, Katherine C; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Moore, Francis D; Ashley, Stanley W; Zinner, Michael J; Breen, Elizabeth M

    2010-01-01

    With the current and projected shortages of general surgeons, more attention is being paid to the increasing pool of women physicians. This study seeks to understand the variables leading to career satisfaction for women surgeons to better recruit, retain, and support them. Eighteen semi-structured interviews of 12 female and 6 male surgeons 2 to 12 years into practice were qualitatively analyzed and converted to coded, categorized data. Significance was derived by Fisher's exact test. Participants were recruited by snowball sampling. Our sample represents a highly satisfied group of female and male surgeons. Although both women and men describe with equal frequency having made career tradeoffs for personal and family time, and vice versa, women far more frequently than men cite reasons related to their personal time, predictable time, and family relationships as why they are currently satisfied with their career (34.1% versus 8.7%; p career content equally. When describing strategies used in developing a successful surgical career, women most frequently cite social networks as a key to success (88% versus 12% by men; p career for family and family for career, women's perception of satisfaction comes from viewing their surgical career within the broader context of their lives. Women might be attracted to a career that acknowledges and values the whole person beyond the surgeon, and could benefit from work infrastructures that enhance networking. Copyright (c) 2010 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.