WorldWideScience

Sample records for connectivity mapping assessment

  1. Mapping functional connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Vogt; Joseph R. Ferrari; Todd R. Lookingbill; Robert H. Gardner; Kurt H. Riitters; Katarzyna Ostapowicz

    2009-01-01

    An objective and reliable assessment of wildlife movement is important in theoretical and applied ecology. The identification and mapping of landscape elements that may enhance functional connectivity is usually a subjective process based on visual interpretations of species movement patterns. New methods based on mathematical morphology provide a generic, flexible,...

  2. Mapping a Careflow Network to assess the connectedness of Connected Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Noel; Richardson, Ita

    2017-04-01

    Connected Health is an emerging and rapidly developing field which has the potential to transform healthcare service systems by increasing its safety, quality and overall efficiency. From a healthcare perspective, process improvement models have mainly focused on the static workflow viewpoint. The objective of this article is to study and model the dynamic nature of healthcare delivery, allowing us to identify where potential issues exist within the service system and to examine how Connected Health technological solutions may support service efficiencies. We explore the application of social network analysis (SNA) as a modelling technique which captures the dynamic nature of a healthcare service. We demonstrate how it can be used to map the 'Careflow Network' and guide Connected Health innovators to examine specific opportunities within the healthcare service. Our results indicate that healthcare technology must be correctly identified and implemented within the Careflow Network to enjoy improvements in service delivery. Oftentimes, prior to making the transformation to Connected Health, researchers use various modelling techniques that fail to identify where Connected Health innovation is best placed in a healthcare service network. Using SNA allows us to develop an understanding of the current operation of healthcare system within which they can effect change. It is important to identify and model the resource exchanges to ensure that the quality and safety of care are enhanced, efficiencies are increased and the overall healthcare service system is improved. We have shown that dynamic models allow us to study the exchange of resources. These are often intertwined within a socio-technical context in an informal manner and not accounted for in static models, yet capture a truer insight on the operations of a Careflow Network.

  3. Symposium 20 - PABMB: Teaching biochemistry in a connected world: How Apps-Embedded Assessment can contribute to learning outcomes mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Galembeck

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Symposium 20 - PABMB: Teaching biochemistry in a connected world Chair: Miguel Castanho, Universidade de Lisboa, PortugalAbstract:Apps can be designed to provide usage data, and most of them do. These usage data are usually used to map users interests and to deliver more effective ads that are more likely to result in clicks, and sales. We have applied some of these metrics to understand how it can be used to map students’ behavior using educational software. We tested both Google Analytics, and a system we have developed to map learning outcomes and students engagement. Embedded assessment were implemented in app used to teach: 1 Metabolic Pathways; 2 Protein Synthesis, 3 Cell Structure, and 4 Concepts from techniques used in a Biochemistry Lab course. Our preliminary results show that this approach provides valuable information about class outcomes that can be used for both summative and formative assessments.

  4. Knowledge synthesis with maps of neural connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallis, Marcelo; Thompson, Richard; Russ, Thomas A; Burns, Gully A P C

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes software for neuroanatomical knowledge synthesis based on neural connectivity data. This software supports a mature methodology developed since the early 1990s. Over this time, the Swanson laboratory at USC has generated an account of the neural connectivity of the sub-structures of the hypothalamus, amygdala, septum, hippocampus, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. This is based on neuroanatomical data maps drawn into a standard brain atlas by experts. In earlier work, we presented an application for visualizing and comparing anatomical macro connections using the Swanson third edition atlas as a framework for accurate registration. Here we describe major improvements to the NeuARt application based on the incorporation of a knowledge representation of experimental design. We also present improvements in the interface and features of the data mapping components within a unified web-application. As a step toward developing an accurate sub-regional account of neural connectivity, we provide navigational access between the data maps and a semantic representation of area-to-area connections that they support. We do so based on an approach called "Knowledge Engineering from Experimental Design" (KEfED) model that is based on experimental variables. We have extended the underlying KEfED representation of tract-tracing experiments by incorporating the definition of a neuronanatomical data map as a measurement variable in the study design. This paper describes the software design of a web-application that allows anatomical data sets to be described within a standard experimental context and thus indexed by non-spatial experimental design features.

  5. Knowledge synthesis with maps of neural connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo eTallis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes software for neuroanatomical knowledge synthesis based on high-quality neural connectivity data. This software supports a mature neuroanatomical methodology developed since the early 1990s. Over this time, the Swanson laboratory at USC has generated an account of the neural connectivity of the sub-structures of the hypothalamus, amygdala, septum, hippocampus and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. This is based on neuroanatomical data maps drawn into a standard brain atlas by experts. In earlier work, we presented an application for visualizing and comparing anatomical macroconnections using the Swanson 3rd edition atlas as a framework for accurate registration. Here we describe major improvements to the NeuARt application based on the incorporation of a knowledge representation of experimental design. We also present improvements in the interface and features of the neuroanatomical data mapping components within a unified web-application. As a step towards developing an accurate sub-regional account of neural connectivity, we provide navigational access between the neuroanatomical data maps and a semantic representation of area-to-area connections that they support. We do so based on an approach called ’Knowledge Engineering from Experimental Design’ (KEfED model that is based on experimental variables. We have extended the underlying KEfED representation of tract-tracing experiments by incorporating the definition of a neuronanatomical data map as a measurement variable in the study design. This paper describes the software design of a web application that allows anatomical data sets to be described within a standard experimental context and thus incorporated with non-spatial data sets.

  6. Concept mapping learning strategy to enhance students' mathematical connection ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, M.; Kadir, Fatra, Maifalinda

    2017-05-01

    The concept mapping learning strategy in teaching and learning mathematics has been investigated by numerous researchers. However, there are still less researchers who have scrutinized about the roles of map concept which is connected to the mathematical connection ability. Being well understood on map concept, it may help students to have ability to correlate one concept to other concept in order that the student can solve mathematical problems faced. The objective of this research was to describe the student's mathematical connection ability and to analyze the effect of using concept mapping learning strategy to the students' mathematical connection ability. This research was conducted at senior high school in Jakarta. The method used a quasi-experimental with randomized control group design with the total number was 72 students as the sample. Data obtained through using test in the post-test after giving the treatment. The results of the research are: 1) Students' mathematical connection ability has reached the good enough level category; 2) Students' mathematical connection ability who had taught with concept mapping learning strategy is higher than who had taught with conventional learning strategy. Based on the results above, it can be concluded that concept mapping learning strategycould enhance the students' mathematical connection ability, especially in trigonometry.

  7. Metabolic connectivity mapping reveals effective connectivity in the resting human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Valentin; Utz, Lukas; Castrillón, Gabriel; Grimmer, Timo; Rauschecker, Josef P; Ploner, Markus; Friston, Karl J; Drzezga, Alexander; Sorg, Christian

    2016-01-12

    Directionality of signaling among brain regions provides essential information about human cognition and disease states. Assessing such effective connectivity (EC) across brain states using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) alone has proven difficult, however. We propose a novel measure of EC, termed metabolic connectivity mapping (MCM), that integrates undirected functional connectivity (FC) with local energy metabolism from fMRI and positron emission tomography (PET) data acquired simultaneously. This method is based on the concept that most energy required for neuronal communication is consumed postsynaptically, i.e., at the target neurons. We investigated MCM and possible changes in EC within the physiological range using "eyes open" versus "eyes closed" conditions in healthy subjects. Independent of condition, MCM reliably detected stable and bidirectional communication between early and higher visual regions. Moreover, we found stable top-down signaling from a frontoparietal network including frontal eye fields. In contrast, we found additional top-down signaling from all major clusters of the salience network to early visual cortex only in the eyes open condition. MCM revealed consistent bidirectional and unidirectional signaling across the entire cortex, along with prominent changes in network interactions across two simple brain states. We propose MCM as a novel approach for inferring EC from neuronal energy metabolism that is ideally suited to study signaling hierarchies in the brain and their defects in brain disorders.

  8. Chimera states in networks of logistic maps with hierarchical connectivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    zur Bonsen, Alexander; Omelchenko, Iryna; Zakharova, Anna; Schöll, Eckehard

    2018-04-01

    Chimera states are complex spatiotemporal patterns consisting of coexisting domains of coherence and incoherence. We study networks of nonlocally coupled logistic maps and analyze systematically how the dilution of the network links influences the appearance of chimera patterns. The network connectivities are constructed using an iterative Cantor algorithm to generate fractal (hierarchical) connectivities. Increasing the hierarchical level of iteration, we compare the resulting spatiotemporal patterns. We demonstrate that a high clustering coefficient and symmetry of the base pattern promotes chimera states, and asymmetric connectivities result in complex nested chimera patterns.

  9. cudaMap: a GPU accelerated program for gene expression connectivity mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArt, Darragh G; Bankhead, Peter; Dunne, Philip D; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Hamilton, Peter; Zhang, Shu-Dong

    2013-10-11

    Modern cancer research often involves large datasets and the use of sophisticated statistical techniques. Together these add a heavy computational load to the analysis, which is often coupled with issues surrounding data accessibility. Connectivity mapping is an advanced bioinformatic and computational technique dedicated to therapeutics discovery and drug re-purposing around differential gene expression analysis. On a normal desktop PC, it is common for the connectivity mapping task with a single gene signature to take > 2h to complete using sscMap, a popular Java application that runs on standard CPUs (Central Processing Units). Here, we describe new software, cudaMap, which has been implemented using CUDA C/C++ to harness the computational power of NVIDIA GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) to greatly reduce processing times for connectivity mapping. cudaMap can identify candidate therapeutics from the same signature in just over thirty seconds when using an NVIDIA Tesla C2050 GPU. Results from the analysis of multiple gene signatures, which would previously have taken several days, can now be obtained in as little as 10 minutes, greatly facilitating candidate therapeutics discovery with high throughput. We are able to demonstrate dramatic speed differentials between GPU assisted performance and CPU executions as the computational load increases for high accuracy evaluation of statistical significance. Emerging 'omics' technologies are constantly increasing the volume of data and information to be processed in all areas of biomedical research. Embracing the multicore functionality of GPUs represents a major avenue of local accelerated computing. cudaMap will make a strong contribution in the discovery of candidate therapeutics by enabling speedy execution of heavy duty connectivity mapping tasks, which are increasingly required in modern cancer research. cudaMap is open source and can be freely downloaded from http://purl.oclc.org/NET/cudaMap.

  10. Computational brain connectivity mapping: A core health and scientific challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deriche, Rachid

    2016-10-01

    One third of the burden of all the diseases in Europe is due to problems caused by diseases affecting brain. Although exceptional progress have been obtained for exploring the brain during the past decades, it is still terra-incognita and calls for specific efforts in research to better understand its architecture and functioning. To take up this great challenge of modern science and to solve the limited view of the brain provided just by one imaging modality, this article advocates the idea developed in my research group of a global approach involving new generation of models for brain connectivity mapping and strong interactions between structural and functional connectivities. Capitalizing on the strengths of integrated and complementary non invasive imaging modalities such as diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dMRI) and Electro & Magneto-Encephalography (EEG & MEG) will contribute to achieve new frontiers for identifying and characterizing structural and functional brain connectivities and to provide a detailed mapping of the brain connectivity, both in space and time. Thus leading to an added clinical value for high impact diseases with new perspectives in computational neuro-imaging and cognitive neuroscience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Highlighting landslides and other geomorphological features using sediment connectivity maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, Giulia; Crema, Stefano; Cavalli, Marco; Marcato, Gianluca; Pasuto, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Landslide identification is usually made through interpreting geomorphological features in the field or with remote sensing imagery. In recent years, airborne laser scanning (LiDAR) has enhanced the potentiality of geomorphological investigations by providing a detailed and diffuse representation of the land surface. The development of algorithms for geomorphological analysis based on LiDAR derived high-resolution Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) is increasing. Among them, the sediment connectivity index (IC) has been used to quantify sediment dynamics in alpine catchments. In this work, maps of the sediment connectivity index are used for detecting geomorphological features and processes not exclusively related to water-laden processes or debris flows. The test area is located in the upper Passer Valley in South Tyrol (Italy). Here a 4 km2 Deep-seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DGSD) with several secondary phenomena has been studied for years. The connectivity index was applied to a well-known study area in order to evaluate its effectiveness as an interpretative layer to assist geomorphological analysis. Results were cross checked with evidence previously identified by means of in situ investigations, photointerpretation and monitoring data. IC was applied to a 2.5 m LiDAR derived DTM using two different scenarios in order to test their effectiveness: i) IC derived on the hydrologically correct DTM; ii) IC derived on the original DTM. In the resulting maps a cluster of low-connectivity areas appears as the deformation of the DGSD induce a convexity in the central part of the phenomenon. The double crests, product of the sagging of the landslide, are extremely evident since in those areas the flow directions diverge from the general drainage pattern, which is directed towards the valley river. In the crown area a rock-slab that shows clear evidence of incumbent detachment is clearly highlighted since the maps emphasize the presence of traction trenches and

  12. Spatial assessment of landscape ecological connectivity in different urban gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun

    2015-07-01

    Urbanization has resulted in remnant natural patches within cities that often have no connectivity among themselves and to natural reserves outside the urban area. Protecting ecological connectivity in fragmented urban areas is becoming crucial in maintaining urban biodiversity and securing critical habitat levels and configurations under continual development pressures. Nevertheless, few studies have been undertaken for urban landscapes. This study aims to assess ecological connectivity for a group of species that represent the urban desert landscape in the Phoenix metropolitan area and to compare the connectivity values along the different urban gradient. A GIS-based landscape connectivity model which relies upon ecological connectivity index (ECI) was developed and applied to this region. A GIS-based concentric buffering technique was employed to delineate conceptual boundaries for urban, suburban, and rural zones. The research findings demonstrated that urban habitats and potential habitat patches would be significantly influenced by future urban development. Particularly, the largest loss of higher connectivity would likely to be anticipated in the "in-between areas" where urban, suburban, and rural zones overlap one another. The connectivity maps would be useful to provide spatial identification regarding connectivity patterns and vulnerability for urban and suburban activities in this area. This study provides planners and landscape architects with a spatial guidance to minimize ecological fragmentation, which ultimately leads to urban landscape sustainability. This study suggests that conventional planning practices which disregard the ecological processes in urban landscapes need to integrate landscape ecology into planning and design strategies.

  13. Numerical conformal mapping methods for exterior and doubly connected regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLillo, T.K. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States); Pfaltzgraff, J.A. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Methods are presented and analyzed for approximating the conformal map from the exterior of the disk to the exterior a smooth, simple closed curve and from an annulus to a bounded, doubly connected region with smooth boundaries. The methods are Newton-like methods for computing the boundary correspondences and conformal moduli similar to Fornberg`s method for the interior of the disk. We show that the linear systems are discretizations of the identity plus a compact operator and, hence, that the conjugate gradient method converges superlinearly.

  14. Potential use and challenges of functional connectivity mapping in intractable epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Todd Constable

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the use of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data to assess functional connectivity in the human brain for surgical planning in intractable epilepsy. This approach has the potential to predict outcomes for a given surgical procedure based on the pre-surgical functional organization of the brain. Functional connectivity can also identify cortical regions that are organized differently in epilepsy patients either as a direct function of the disease or through indirect compensatory responses. Functional connectivity mapping can also potentially help identify epileptogenic tissue, whether this is a single focal location or a network of seizure-generating tissues and this information can assist in guiding the implantation of electrodes for invasive monitoring. This review covers the basics of connectivity analysis and discusses particular issues associated with analyzing such data. These issues include how to define nodes, as well as differences between connectivity analyses of individual nodes, groups of nodes, and whole-brain assessment at the voxel level. The need for arbitrary thresholds in some connectivity analyses is discussed and a solution to this problem is reviewed. Overall, functional connectivity analysis is becoming an important tool for assessing functional brain organization in surgical planning in epilepsy.

  15. Effects of Field-Map Distortion Correction on Resting State Functional Connectivity MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Togo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic field inhomogeneities cause geometric distortions of echo planar images used for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. To reduce this problem, distortion correction (DC with field map is widely used for both task and resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI. Although DC with field map has been reported to improve the quality of task fMRI, little is known about its effects on rs-fMRI. Here, we tested the influence of field-map DC on rs-fMRI results using two rs-fMRI datasets derived from 40 healthy subjects: one with DC (DC+ and the other without correction (DC−. Independent component analysis followed by the dual regression approach was used for evaluation of resting-state functional connectivity networks (RSN. We also obtained the ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency signal power (0.01–0.1 Hz and above 0.1 Hz, respectively; LFHF ratio to assess the quality of rs-fMRI signals. For comparison of RSN between DC+ and DC− datasets, the default mode network showed more robust functional connectivity in the DC+ dataset than the DC− dataset. Basal ganglia RSN showed some decreases in functional connectivity primarily in white matter, indicating imperfect registration/normalization without DC. Supplementary seed-based and simulation analyses supported the utility of DC. Furthermore, we found a higher LFHF ratio after field map correction in the anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, ventral striatum, and cerebellum. In conclusion, field map DC improved detection of functional connectivity derived from low-frequency rs-fMRI signals. We encourage researchers to include a DC step in the preprocessing pipeline of rs-fMRI analysis.

  16. Student Assessment in the Ubiquitously Connected World

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Student cheating on university assessments from entrance exams to finals and from contract cheating on coursework to requesting exam answers using a mobile phone during the exam, has received more and more attention of late. As connection to the Internet becomes ubiquitous and computing and communications technology more embedded in our environment, it is argued that a re-focussing on providing educational opportunities is needed in higher education, rather than chasing the ever-retreating p...

  17. Towards mapping the brain connectome in depression: functional connectivity by perfusion SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Ann; Åstrand, Disa; Öberg, Johanna; Jacobsson, Hans; Jonsson, Cathrine; Larsson, Stig; Pagani, Marco

    2014-08-30

    Several studies have demonstrated altered brain functional connectivity in the resting state in depression. However, no study has investigated interregional networking in patients with persistent depressive disorder (PDD). The aim of this study was to assess differences in brain perfusion distribution and connectivity between large groups of patients and healthy controls. Participants comprised 91 patients with PDD and 65 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Resting state perfusion was investigated by single photon emission computed tomography, and group differences were assessed by Statistical Parametric Mapping. Brain connectivity was explored through a voxel-wise interregional correlation analysis using as covariate of interest the normalized values of clusters of voxels in which perfusion differences were found in group analysis. Significantly increased regional brain perfusion distribution covering a large part of the cerebellum was observed in patients as compared with controls. Patients showed a significant negative functional connectivity between the cerebellar cluster and caudate, bilaterally. This study demonstrated inverse relative perfusion between the cerebellum and the caudate in PDD. Functional uncoupling may be associated with a dysregulation between the role of the cerebellum in action control and of the caudate in action selection, initiation and decision making in the patients. The potential impact of the resting state condition and the possibility of mitochondrial impairment are discussed. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. The constellation of dietary factors in adolescent acne: a semantic connectivity map approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, E; Cazzaniga, S; Crotti, S; Naldi, L; Di Landro, A; Ingordo, V; Cusano, F; Atzori, L; Tripodi Cutrì, F; Musumeci, M L; Pezzarossa, E; Bettoli, V; Caproni, M; Bonci, A

    2016-01-01

    Different lifestyle and dietetic factors have been linked with the onset and severity of acne. To assess the complex interconnection between dietetic variables and acne. This was a reanalysis of data from a case-control study by using a semantic connectivity map approach. 563 subjects, aged 10-24 years, involved in a case-control study of acne between March 2009 and February 2010, were considered in this study. The analysis evaluated the link between a moderate to severe acne and anthropometric variables, family history and dietetic factors. Analyses were conducted by relying on an artificial adaptive system, the Auto Semantic Connectivity Map (AutoCM). The AutoCM map showed that moderate-severe acne was closely associated with family history of acne in first degree relatives, obesity (BMI ≥ 30), and high consumption of milk, in particular skim milk, cheese/yogurt, sweets/cakes, chocolate, and a low consumption of fish, and limited intake of fruits/vegetables. Our analyses confirm the link between several dietetic items and acne. When providing care, dermatologists should also be aware of the complex interconnection between dietetic factors and acne. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  19. Mapping by monoclonal antibody detection of glycosaminoglycans in connective tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Caterson, B; Christner, J E

    1984-01-01

    Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans are widespread connective tissue components and chemical analysis of cartilage and other proteoglycans has demonstrated molecular speciation involving the degree and position of sulphation of the carbohydrate chains. This may, in turn, affect the properties...... of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG), particularly with respect to self-association and interactions with other extracellular matrix components. Interactions with specific molecules from different connective tissue types, such as the collagens and their associated glycoproteins, could be favoured by particular charge...... and dermatan sulphate. These provide novel opportunities to study the in vivo distribution of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans. We demonstrate that chondroitin sulphates exhibit remarkable connective tissue specificity and furthermore provide evidence that some proteoglycans may predominantly carry only one...

  20. Assessing habitat connectivity for ground-dwelling animals in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaker, S; Moretti, M; Boesch, R; Ghazoul, J; Obrist, M K; Bontadina, F

    To ensure viable species populations in fragmented landscapes, individuals must be able to move between suitable habitat patches. Despite the increased interest in biodiversity assessment in urban environments, the ecological relevance of habitat connectivity in highly fragmented landscapes remains largely unknown. The first step to understanding the role of habitat connectivity in urban ecology is the challenging task of assessing connectivity in the complex patchwork of contrasting habitats that is found in cities. We developed a data-based framework, minimizing the use of subjective assumptions, to assess habitat connectivity that consists of the following sequential steps: (1) identification of habitat preference based on empirical habitat-use data; (2) derivation of habitat resistance surfaces evaluating various transformation functions; (3) modeling of different connectivity maps with electrical circuit theory (Circuitscape), a method considering all possible pathways across the landscape simultaneously; and (4) identification of the best connectivity map with information-theoretic model selection. We applied this analytical framework to assess habitat connectivity for the European hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus, a model species for ground-dwelling animals, in the city of Zurich, Switzerland, using GPS track points from 40 individuals. The best model revealed spatially explicit connectivity “pinch points,” as well as multiple habitat connections. Cross-validation indicated the general validity of the selected connectivity model. The results show that both habitat connectivity and habitat quality affect the movement of urban hedgehogs (relative importance of the two variables was 19.2% and 80.8%, respectively), and are thus both relevant for predicting urban animal movements. Our study demonstrates that even in the complex habitat patchwork of cities, habitat connectivity plays a major role for ground-dwelling animal movement. Data-based habitat connectivity

  1. Assessing connectivity in salmonid fishes with DNA microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helen Neville; Jason Dunham; Mary Peacock

    2006-01-01

    Connectivity is a key consideration for the management and conservation of any species, but empirical characterizations of connectivity can be extremely challenging. Assessments of connectivity require biologically realistic classifications of landscape structure (Kotliar and Wiens 1990), and an understanding of how landscape structure affects migration, dispersal, and...

  2. Charting Monosynaptic Connectivity Maps by Two-Color Light-Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian J. Niedworok

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellular resolution three-dimensional (3D visualization of defined, fluorescently labeled long-range neuronal networks in the uncut adult mouse brain has been elusive. Here, a virus-based strategy is described that allowed fluorescent labeling of centrifugally projecting neuronal populations in the ventral forebrain and their directly, monosynaptically connected bulbar interneurons upon a single stereotaxic injection into select neuronal populations. Implementation of improved tissue clearing combined with light-sheet fluorescence microscopy permitted imaging of the resulting connectivity maps in a single whole-brain scan. Subsequent 3D reconstructions revealed the exact distribution of the diverse neuronal ensembles monosynaptically connected with distinct bulbar interneuron populations. Moreover, rehydratation of brains after light-sheet fluorescence imaging enabled the immunohistochemical identification of synaptically connected neurons. Thus, this study describes a method for identifying monosynaptic connectivity maps from distinct, virally labeled neuronal populations that helps in better understanding of information flow in neural systems.

  3. The LncRNA Connectivity Map: Using LncRNA Signatures to Connect Small Molecules, LncRNAs, and Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haixiu; Shang, Desi; Xu, Yanjun; Zhang, Chunlong; Feng, Li; Sun, Zeguo; Shi, Xinrui; Zhang, Yunpeng; Han, Junwei; Su, Fei; Li, Chunquan; Li, Xia

    2017-07-27

    Well characterized the connections among diseases, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and drugs are important for elucidating the key roles of lncRNAs in biological mechanisms in various biological states. In this study, we constructed a database called LNCmap (LncRNA Connectivity Map), available at http://www.bio-bigdata.com/LNCmap/ , to establish the correlations among diseases, physiological processes, and the action of small molecule therapeutics by attempting to describe all biological states in terms of lncRNA signatures. By reannotating the microarray data from the Connectivity Map database, the LNCmap obtained 237 lncRNA signatures of 5916 instances corresponding to 1262 small molecular drugs. We provided a user-friendly interface for the convenient browsing, retrieval and download of the database, including detailed information and the associations of drugs and corresponding affected lncRNAs. Additionally, we developed two enrichment analysis methods for users to identify candidate drugs for a particular disease by inputting the corresponding lncRNA expression profiles or an associated lncRNA list and then comparing them to the lncRNA signatures in our database. Overall, LNCmap could significantly improve our understanding of the biological roles of lncRNAs and provide a unique resource to reveal the connections among drugs, lncRNAs and diseases.

  4. Evaluation of phenoxybenzamine in the CFA model of pain following gene expression studies and connectivity mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Meiping; Smith, Sarah; Thorpe, Andrew; Barratt, Michael J; Karim, Farzana

    2010-09-16

    We have previously used the rat 4 day Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) model to screen compounds with potential to reduce osteoarthritic pain. The aim of this study was to identify genes altered in this model of osteoarthritic pain and use this information to infer analgesic potential of compounds based on their own gene expression profiles using the Connectivity Map approach. Using microarrays, we identified differentially expressed genes in L4 and L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from rats that had received intraplantar CFA for 4 days compared to matched, untreated control animals. Analysis of these data indicated that the two groups were distinguishable by differences in genes important in immune responses, nerve growth and regeneration. This list of differentially expressed genes defined a "CFA signature". We used the Connectivity Map approach to identify pharmacologic agents in the Broad Institute Build02 database that had gene expression signatures that were inversely related ('negatively connected') with our CFA signature. To test the predictive nature of the Connectivity Map methodology, we tested phenoxybenzamine (an alpha adrenergic receptor antagonist) - one of the most negatively connected compounds identified in this database - for analgesic activity in the CFA model. Our results indicate that at 10 mg/kg, phenoxybenzamine demonstrated analgesia comparable to that of Naproxen in this model. Evaluation of phenoxybenzamine-induced analgesia in the current study lends support to the utility of the Connectivity Map approach for identifying compounds with analgesic properties in the CFA model.

  5. A posteriori model validation for the temporal order of directed functional connectivity maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltz, Adriene M; Molenaar, Peter C M

    2015-01-01

    A posteriori model validation for the temporal order of neural directed functional connectivity maps is rare. This is striking because models that require sequential independence among residuals are regularly implemented. The aim of the current study was (a) to apply to directed functional connectivity maps of functional magnetic resonance imaging data an a posteriori model validation procedure (i.e., white noise tests of one-step-ahead prediction errors combined with decision criteria for revising the maps based upon Lagrange Multiplier tests), and (b) to demonstrate how the procedure applies to single-subject simulated, single-subject task-related, and multi-subject resting state data. Directed functional connectivity was determined by the unified structural equation model family of approaches in order to map contemporaneous and first order lagged connections among brain regions at the group- and individual-levels while incorporating external input, then white noise tests were run. Findings revealed that the validation procedure successfully detected unmodeled sequential dependencies among residuals and recovered higher order (greater than one) simulated connections, and that the procedure can accommodate task-related input. Findings also revealed that lags greater than one were present in resting state data: With a group-level network that contained only contemporaneous and first order connections, 44% of subjects required second order, individual-level connections in order to obtain maps with white noise residuals. Results have broad methodological relevance (e.g., temporal validation is necessary after directed functional connectivity analyses because the presence of unmodeled higher order sequential dependencies may bias parameter estimates) and substantive implications (e.g., higher order lags may be common in resting state data).

  6. A posteriori model validation for the temporal order of directed functional connectivity maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriene M. Beltz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A posteriori model validation for the temporal order of neural directed functional connectivity maps is rare. This is striking because models that require sequential independence among residuals are regularly implemented. The aim of the current study was (a to apply to directed functional connectivity maps of functional magnetic resonance imaging data an a posteriori model validation procedure (i.e., white noise tests of one-step-ahead prediction errors combined with decision criteria for revising the maps based upon Lagrange Multiplier tests, and (b to demonstrate how the procedure applies to single-subject simulated, single-subject task-related, and multi-subject resting state data. Directed functional connectivity was determined by the unified structural equation model family of approaches in order to map contemporaneous and first order lagged connections among brain regions at the group- and individual-levels while incorporating external input, then white noise tests were run. Findings revealed that the validation procedure successfully detected unmodeled sequential dependencies among residuals and recovered higher order (greater than one simulated connections, and that the procedure can accommodate task-related input. Findings also revealed that lags greater than one were present in resting state data: With a group-level network that contained only contemporaneous and first order connections, 44% of subjects required second order, individual-level connections in order to obtain maps with white noise residuals. Results have broad methodological relevance (e.g., temporal validation is necessary after directed functional connectivity analyses because the presence of unmodeled higher order sequential dependencies may bias parameter estimates and substantive implications (e.g., higher order lags may be common in resting state data.

  7. Assessing catchment connectivity using hysteretic loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jason; Masselink, Rens; Goni, Mikel; Gimenez, Rafael; Casali, Javier; Seeger, Manuel; Keesstra, Saskia

    2017-04-01

    Storm events mobilize large proportions of sediments in catchment systems. Therefore understanding catchment sediment dynamics throughout the continuity of storms and how initial catchment states act as controls on the transport of sediment to catchment outlets is important for effective catchment management. Sediment connectivity is a concept which can explain the origin, pathways and sinks of sediments within catchments (Baartman et al., 2013; Parsons et al., 2015; Masselink et al., 2016a,b; Mekonnen et al., 2016). However, sediment connectivity alone does not provide a practicable mechanism by which the catchment's initial state - and thus the location of entrained sediment in the sediment transport cascade - can be characterized. Studying the dynamic relationship between water discharge (Q) and suspended sediment (SS) at the catchment outlet can provide a valuable research tool to infer the likely source areas and flow pathways contributing to sediment transport because the relationship can be characterized by predictable hysteresis patterns. Hysteresis is observed when the sediment concentration associated with a certain flow rate is different depending on the direction in which the analysis is performed - towards the increase or towards the diminution of the flow. However, the complexity of the phenomena and factors which determine the hysteresis make its interpretation ambiguous. Previous work has described various types of hysteretic loops as well as the cause for the shape of the loop, mainly pointing to the origin of the sediments. The data set for this study comes from four experimental watersheds in Navarre (Spain), owned and maintained by the Government of Navarre. These experimental watersheds have been monitored and studied since 1996 (La Tejería and Latxaga) and 2001 (Oskotz principal and Oskotz woodland). La Tejería and Latxaga watersheds are similar to each other regarding size (approximately 200 ha), geology (marls and sandstones), soils (fine

  8. On Attribute Thresholding and Data Mapping Functions in a Supervised Connected Component Segmentation Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoff Fourie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Search-centric, sample supervised image segmentation has been demonstrated as a viable general approach applicable within the context of remote sensing image analysis. Such an approach casts the controlling parameters of image processing—generating segments—as a multidimensional search problem resolvable via efficient search methods. In this work, this general approach is analyzed in the context of connected component segmentation. A specific formulation of connected component labeling, based on quasi-flat zones, allows for the addition of arbitrary segment attributes to contribute to the nature of the output. This is in addition to core tunable parameters controlling the basic nature of connected components. Additional tunable constituents may also be introduced into such a framework, allowing flexibility in the definition of connected component connectivity, either directly via defining connectivity differently or via additional processes such as data mapping functions. The relative merits of these two additional constituents, namely the addition of tunable attributes and data mapping functions, are contrasted in a general remote sensing image analysis setting. Interestingly, tunable attributes in such a context, conjectured to be safely useful in general settings, were found detrimental under cross-validated conditions. This is in addition to this constituent’s requiring substantially greater computing time. Casting connectivity definitions as a searchable component, here via the utilization of data mapping functions, proved more beneficial and robust in this context. The results suggest that further investigations into such a general framework could benefit more from focusing on the aspects of data mapping and modifiable connectivity as opposed to the utility of thresholding various geometric and spectral attributes.

  9. Adding biological realism to assessments of landscape connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have long appreciated the practical value of connectivity and source-sink analyses. The importance of these assessments for conservation, planning, and reserve design has motivated many empirical and simulation studies. But there are few modeling tools available that ...

  10. Analysis of connectivity map: Control to glutamate injured and phenobarbital treated neuronal network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Hassan; Kanhirodan, Rajan; Srinivas, Kalyan V.; Sikdar, Sujit K.

    2010-04-01

    We study the responses of a cultured neural network when it is exposed to epileptogenesis glutamate injury causing epilepsy and subsequent treatment with phenobarbital by constructing connectivity map of neurons using correlation matrix. This study is particularly useful in understanding the pharmaceutical drug induced changes in the neuronal network properties with insights into changes at the systems biology level.

  11. Exploring the molecular mechanisms of Traditional Chinese Medicine components using gene expression signatures and connectivity map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Minjae; Shin, Jimin; Kim, Hyunmin; Kim, Jihye; Kang, Jaewoo; Tan, Aik Choon

    2018-04-04

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been practiced over thousands of years in China and other Asian countries for treating various symptoms and diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of TCM are poorly understood, partly due to the "multi-component, multi-target" nature of TCM. To uncover the molecular mechanisms of TCM, we perform comprehensive gene expression analysis using connectivity map. We interrogated gene expression signatures obtained 102 TCM components using the next generation Connectivity Map (CMap) resource. We performed systematic data mining and analysis on the mechanism of action (MoA) of these TCM components based on the CMap results. We clustered the 102 TCM components into four groups based on their MoAs using next generation CMap resource. We performed gene set enrichment analysis on these components to provide additional supports for explaining these molecular mechanisms. We also provided literature evidence to validate the MoAs identified through this bioinformatics analysis. Finally, we developed the Traditional Chinese Medicine Drug Repurposing Hub (TCM Hub) - a connectivity map resource to facilitate the elucidation of TCM MoA for drug repurposing research. TCMHub is freely available in http://tanlab.ucdenver.edu/TCMHub. Molecular mechanisms of TCM could be uncovered by using gene expression signatures and connectivity map. Through this analysis, we identified many of the TCM components possess diverse MoAs, this may explain the applications of TCM in treating various symptoms and diseases. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. State space modeling of time-varying contemporaneous and lagged relations in connectivity maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Peter C M; Beltz, Adriene M; Gates, Kathleen M; Wilson, Stephen J

    2016-01-15

    Most connectivity mapping techniques for neuroimaging data assume stationarity (i.e., network parameters are constant across time), but this assumption does not always hold true. The authors provide a description of a new approach for simultaneously detecting time-varying (or dynamic) contemporaneous and lagged relations in brain connectivity maps. Specifically, they use a novel raw data likelihood estimation technique (involving a second-order extended Kalman filter/smoother embedded in a nonlinear optimizer) to determine the variances of the random walks associated with state space model parameters and their autoregressive components. The authors illustrate their approach with simulated and blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 30 daily cigarette smokers performing a verbal working memory task, focusing on seven regions of interest (ROIs). Twelve participants had dynamic directed functional connectivity maps: Eleven had one or more time-varying contemporaneous ROI state loadings, and one had a time-varying autoregressive parameter. Compared to smokers without dynamic maps, smokers with dynamic maps performed the task with greater accuracy. Thus, accurate detection of dynamic brain processes is meaningfully related to behavior in a clinical sample. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. QUADrATiC: scalable gene expression connectivity mapping for repurposing FDA-approved therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Paul G; Wen, Qing; Bankhead, Peter; Dunne, Philip D; McArt, Darragh G; McPherson, Suzanne; Hamilton, Peter W; Mills, Ken I; Zhang, Shu-Dong

    2016-05-04

    Gene expression connectivity mapping has proven to be a powerful and flexible tool for research. Its application has been shown in a broad range of research topics, most commonly as a means of identifying potential small molecule compounds, which may be further investigated as candidates for repurposing to treat diseases. The public release of voluminous data from the Library of Integrated Cellular Signatures (LINCS) programme further enhanced the utilities and potentials of gene expression connectivity mapping in biomedicine. We describe QUADrATiC ( http://go.qub.ac.uk/QUADrATiC ), a user-friendly tool for the exploration of gene expression connectivity on the subset of the LINCS data set corresponding to FDA-approved small molecule compounds. It enables the identification of compounds for repurposing therapeutic potentials. The software is designed to cope with the increased volume of data over existing tools, by taking advantage of multicore computing architectures to provide a scalable solution, which may be installed and operated on a range of computers, from laptops to servers. This scalability is provided by the use of the modern concurrent programming paradigm provided by the Akka framework. The QUADrATiC Graphical User Interface (GUI) has been developed using advanced Javascript frameworks, providing novel visualization capabilities for further analysis of connections. There is also a web services interface, allowing integration with other programs or scripts. QUADrATiC has been shown to provide an improvement over existing connectivity map software, in terms of scope (based on the LINCS data set), applicability (using FDA-approved compounds), usability and speed. It offers potential to biological researchers to analyze transcriptional data and generate potential therapeutics for focussed study in the lab. QUADrATiC represents a step change in the process of investigating gene expression connectivity and provides more biologically-relevant results than

  14. Mapping the changed hubs and corresponding functional connectivity in idiopathic restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Jiaojian; Hou, Yue; Qi, Zhigang; Wang, Li; Zhan, Shuqin; Wang, Rong; Wang, Yuping

    2018-05-01

    The hubs of the brain network play a key role in integrating and transferring information between different functional modules. However, whether the changed pattern in functional network hubs contributes to the onset of leg discomfort symptoms in restless legs syndrome (RLS) patients remains unclear. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and graph theory methods, we investigated whether alterations of hubs can be detected in RLS. First, we constructed the whole-brain voxelwise functional connectivity and calculated a functional connectivity strength (FCS) map in each of 16 drug-naive idiopathic RLS patients and 26 gender- and age-matched healthy control (HC) subjects. Next, a two-sample t test was applied to compare the FCS maps between HC and RLS patients, and to identify significant changes in FCS in RLS patients. To further elucidate the corresponding changes in the functional connectivity patterns of the aberrant hubs in RLS patients, whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity analyses for the hub areas were performed. The hub analysis revealed decreased FCS in the cuneus, fusiform gyrus, paracentral lobe, and precuneus, and increased FCS in the superior frontal gyrus and thalamus in idiopathic drug-naive RLS patients. Subsequent functional connectivity analyses revealed decreased functional connectivity in sensorimotor and visual processing networks and increased functional connectivity in the affective cognitive network and cerebellar-thalamic circuit. Furthermore, the mean FCS value in the superior frontal gyrus was significantly correlated with Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale scores in RLS patients, and the mean FCS value in the fusiform gyrus was significantly correlated with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores. These findings may provide novel insight into the pathophysiology of RLS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 2011 FEMA Risk Mapping, Assessment, and Planning (Risk MAP) Lidar: Nashua River Watershed (Massachusetts, New Hampshire)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are the lidar points collected for FEMA Risk Mapping, Assessment, and Planning (Risk MAP) for the Nashua River Watershed. This area falls in portions of...

  16. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and connectivity mapping: tools for studying the neural bases of brain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, M; Hoffman, R E

    2010-01-01

    There has been an increasing emphasis on characterizing pathophysiology underlying psychiatric and neurological disorders in terms of altered neural connectivity and network dynamics. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) provides a unique opportunity for investigating connectivity in the human brain. TMS allows researchers and clinicians to directly stimulate cortical regions accessible to electromagnetic coils positioned on the scalp. The induced activation can then propagate through long-range connections to other brain areas. Thus, by identifying distal regions activated during TMS, researchers can infer connectivity patterns in the healthy human brain and can examine how those patterns may be disrupted in patients with different brain disorders. Conversely, connectivity maps derived using neuroimaging methods can identify components of a dysfunctional network. Nodes in this dysfunctional network accessible as targets for TMS by virtue of their proximity to the scalp may then permit TMS-induced alterations of components of the network not directly accessible to TMS via propagated effects. Thus TMS can provide a portal for accessing and altering neural dynamics in networks that are widely distributed anatomically. Finally, when long-term modulation of network dynamics is induced by trains of repetitive TMS, changes in functional connectivity patterns can be studied in parallel with changes in patient symptoms. These correlational data can elucidate neural mechanisms underlying illness and recovery. In this review, we focus on the application of these approaches to the study of psychiatric and neurological illnesses.

  17. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and connectivity mapping: tools for studying the neural bases of brain disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Hampson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increasing emphasis on characterizing pathophysiology underlying psychiatric and neurological disorders in terms of altered neural connectivity and network dynamics. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS provides a unique opportunity for investigating connectivity in the human brain. TMS allows researchers and clinicians to directly stimulate cortical regions accessible to electromagnetic coils positioned on the scalp. The induced activation can then propagate through long-range connections to other brain areas. Thus, by identifying distal regions activated during TMS, researchers can infer connectivity patterns in the healthy human brain and can examine how those patterns may be disrupted in patients with different brain disorders. Conversely, connectivity maps derived using neuroimaging methods can identify components of a dysfunctional network. Nodes in this dysfunctional network accessible as targets for TMS by virtue of their proximity to the scalp may then permit TMS-induced alterations of components of the network not directly accessible to TMS via propagated effects. Thus TMS can provide a portal for accessing and altering neural dynamics in networks that are widely distributed anatomically. Finally, when long-term modulation of network dynamics is induced by trains of repetitive TMS, changes in functional connectivity patterns can be studied in parallel with changes in patient symptoms. These correlational data can elucidate neural mechanisms underlying illness and recovery. In this review, we focus on the application of these approaches to the study of psychiatric and neurological illnesses.

  18. NeuroLines: A Subway Map Metaphor for Visualizing Nanoscale Neuronal Connectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Awami, Ali K.

    2014-12-31

    We present NeuroLines, a novel visualization technique designed for scalable detailed analysis of neuronal connectivity at the nanoscale level. The topology of 3D brain tissue data is abstracted into a multi-scale, relative distance-preserving subway map visualization that allows domain scientists to conduct an interactive analysis of neurons and their connectivity. Nanoscale connectomics aims at reverse-engineering the wiring of the brain. Reconstructing and analyzing the detailed connectivity of neurons and neurites (axons, dendrites) will be crucial for understanding the brain and its development and diseases. However, the enormous scale and complexity of nanoscale neuronal connectivity pose big challenges to existing visualization techniques in terms of scalability. NeuroLines offers a scalable visualization framework that can interactively render thousands of neurites, and that supports the detailed analysis of neuronal structures and their connectivity. We describe and analyze the design of NeuroLines based on two real-world use-cases of our collaborators in developmental neuroscience, and investigate its scalability to large-scale neuronal connectivity data.

  19. NeuroLines: A Subway Map Metaphor for Visualizing Nanoscale Neuronal Connectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Awami, Ali K.; Beyer, Johanna; Strobelt, Hendrik; Kasthuri, Narayanan; Lichtman, Jeff W.; Pfister, Hanspeter; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-01-01

    We present NeuroLines, a novel visualization technique designed for scalable detailed analysis of neuronal connectivity at the nanoscale level. The topology of 3D brain tissue data is abstracted into a multi-scale, relative distance-preserving subway map visualization that allows domain scientists to conduct an interactive analysis of neurons and their connectivity. Nanoscale connectomics aims at reverse-engineering the wiring of the brain. Reconstructing and analyzing the detailed connectivity of neurons and neurites (axons, dendrites) will be crucial for understanding the brain and its development and diseases. However, the enormous scale and complexity of nanoscale neuronal connectivity pose big challenges to existing visualization techniques in terms of scalability. NeuroLines offers a scalable visualization framework that can interactively render thousands of neurites, and that supports the detailed analysis of neuronal structures and their connectivity. We describe and analyze the design of NeuroLines based on two real-world use-cases of our collaborators in developmental neuroscience, and investigate its scalability to large-scale neuronal connectivity data.

  20. NeuroLines: A Subway Map Metaphor for Visualizing Nanoscale Neuronal Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Awami, Ali K; Beyer, Johanna; Strobelt, Hendrik; Kasthuri, Narayanan; Lichtman, Jeff W; Pfister, Hanspeter; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-12-01

    We present NeuroLines, a novel visualization technique designed for scalable detailed analysis of neuronal connectivity at the nanoscale level. The topology of 3D brain tissue data is abstracted into a multi-scale, relative distance-preserving subway map visualization that allows domain scientists to conduct an interactive analysis of neurons and their connectivity. Nanoscale connectomics aims at reverse-engineering the wiring of the brain. Reconstructing and analyzing the detailed connectivity of neurons and neurites (axons, dendrites) will be crucial for understanding the brain and its development and diseases. However, the enormous scale and complexity of nanoscale neuronal connectivity pose big challenges to existing visualization techniques in terms of scalability. NeuroLines offers a scalable visualization framework that can interactively render thousands of neurites, and that supports the detailed analysis of neuronal structures and their connectivity. We describe and analyze the design of NeuroLines based on two real-world use-cases of our collaborators in developmental neuroscience, and investigate its scalability to large-scale neuronal connectivity data.

  1. Mapping cell-specific functional connections in the mouse brain using ChR2-evoked hemodynamics (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Adam Q.; Kraft, Andrew; Baxter, Grant A.; Bruchas, Michael; Lee, Jin-Moo; Culver, Joseph P.

    2017-02-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has transformed our understanding of the brain's functional organization. However, mapping subunits of a functional network using hemoglobin alone presents several disadvantages. Evoked and spontaneous hemodynamic fluctuations reflect ensemble activity from several populations of neurons making it difficult to discern excitatory vs inhibitory network activity. Still, blood-based methods of brain mapping remain powerful because hemoglobin provides endogenous contrast in all mammalian brains. To add greater specificity to hemoglobin assays, we integrated optical intrinsic signal(OIS) imaging with optogenetic stimulation to create an Opto-OIS mapping tool that combines the cell-specificity of optogenetics with label-free, hemoglobin imaging. Before mapping, titrated photostimuli determined which stimulus parameters elicited linear hemodynamic responses in the cortex. Optimized stimuli were then scanned over the left hemisphere to create a set of optogenetically-defined effective connectivity (Opto-EC) maps. For many sites investigated, Opto-EC maps exhibited higher spatial specificity than those determined using spontaneous hemodynamic fluctuations. For example, resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) patterns exhibited widespread ipsilateral connectivity while Opto-EC maps contained distinct short- and long-range constellations of ipsilateral connectivity. Further, RS-FC maps were usually symmetric about midline while Opto-EC maps displayed more heterogeneous contralateral homotopic connectivity. Both Opto-EC and RS-FC patterns were compared to mouse connectivity data from the Allen Institute. Unlike RS-FC maps, Thy1-based maps collected in awake, behaving mice closely recapitulated the connectivity structure derived using ex vivo anatomical tracer methods. Opto-OIS mapping could be a powerful tool for understanding cellular and molecular contributions to network dynamics and processing in the mouse brain.

  2. Novel in silico multivariate mapping of intrinsic and anticorrelated connectivity to neurocognitive functional maps supports the maturational hypothesis of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lacy, Nina; Kodish, Ian; Rachakonda, Srinivas; Calhoun, Vince D

    2018-04-22

    From childhood to adolescence, strengthened coupling in frontal, striatal and parieto-temporal regions associated with cognitive control, and increased anticorrelation between task-positive and task-negative circuits, subserve the reshaping of behavior. ADHD is a common condition peaking in adolescence and regressing in adulthood, with a wide variety of cognitive control deficits. Alternate hypotheses of ADHD emphasize lagging circuitry refinement versus categorical differences in network function. However, quantifying the individual circuit contributions to behavioral findings, and relative roles of maturational versus categorical effects, is challenging in vivo or in meta-analyses using task-based paradigms within the same pipeline, given the multiplicity of neurobehavioral functions implicated. To address this, we analyzed 46 positively-correlated and anticorrelated circuits in a multivariate model in resting-state data from 504 age- and gender-matched youth, and created a novel in silico method to map individual quantified effects to reverse inference maps of 8 neurocognitive functions consistently implicated in ADHD, as well as dopamine and hyperactivity. We identified only age- and gender-related effects in intrinsic connectivity, and found that maturational refinement of circuits in youth with ADHD occupied 3-10x more brain locations than in typical development, with the footprint, effect size and contribution of individual circuits varying substantially. Our analysis supports the maturational hypothesis of ADHD, suggesting lagging connectivity reorganization within specific subnetworks of fronto-parietal control, ventral attention, cingulo-opercular, temporo-limbic and cerebellar sub-networks contribute across neurocognitive findings present in this complex condition. We present the first analysis of anti-correlated connectivity in ADHD and suggest new directions for exploring residual and non-responsive symptoms. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Possibility of laboratory assessment of the state of connective tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Berezovskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the possibilities of laboratory assessment of the state of the connective tissue. It contains brief information about its structure, functions and roles of the various components in the development of pathological processes, and provides laboratory diagnostic methods of these changes.

  4. Influence of Stress Connected with Moving to a New Farm on Potentially MAP-Infected Mouflons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribylova-Dziedzinska, Radka; Slana, Iva; Lamka, Jiri; Pavlik, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    There is no European legislation concerning paratuberculosis that requires that imported animals be kept in quarantine and commonly they are directly released into areas with other animals. In this study, detection of latent infection of paratuberculosis in healthy mouflons previously diagnosed as paratuberculosis-free, but originating from a real time quantitative PCR- (qPCR-) positive herd, occurred after their transport to a new farm. During a twelve-day quarantine period, all mouflons irregularly shed Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in faeces, and in a small number of cases also in milk. After the animals were released from quarantine, MAP was detected for a further two days, after which, testing was negative, except in one case. Therefore, the stress connected with transport, novel environment, dietary change, or limited area with high density of animals might have contributed to the induction of paratuberculosis and the shedding of MAP from the animals, previously diagnosed as MAP-negative. According to these results, the keeping of imported animals in quarantine and their examination for MAP presence not only before the transport but also afterwards should be recommended. The designation of a particular area of a farm as a quarantine enclosure could help to mitigate the impact of stress caused by a confined space with a high density of animals.

  5. Drought assessment by evapotranspiration mapping in Twente

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, U.; Timmermans, J.; van der Velde, R.; Su, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Drought is a reoccurring worldwide problem with impacts ranging from food production to infrastructure. Droughts are different from other natural hazards (floods, hurricanes, and earthquakes) because the effects can only be witnessed slowly and with a time delay. Effects of droughts are diverse, like famine and migration of people. Droughts are caused by natural causes but also by interaction between the natural events and water demand. Not only typical dry regions, like the Horn of Africa, are affected, but even semi-humid environments, like Europe. Temperature rise and precipitation deficit in the summers of 2003 and 2006 caused substantial crop losses in the agricultural sector in the Netherlands. In addition increased river water temperatures and low water levels caused cooling problems for power plants. Heat waves and prolonged absence of precipitation is expected to increase due to climate change. Therefore assessing and monitoring drought in the Netherlands is thus very important. Various drought indices are available to assess the severity, duration and spatial extend of the drought. Some of the commonly indices used are Standardized precipitation index (SPI) and the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). However each of these indices do not take into account the actual state of the land surface in respect to the dryness. By analysing drought through actual evapotranspiration (ET) estimations from remote sensing this can be circumvented. The severity of the droughts was quantified by ET-mapping from 2003-2010. The assessment was based on the spatial and temporal distribution of ET using the Evapotranspiration Deficit Index (ETDI) drought index. Surface energy fluxes, like ET, were estimated using WACMOS methodology. The input data consisted of remote sensing products like land surface temperature, LAI, and albedo from MODIS; and meteorological data like air-temperature, humidity and wind speed from the European Centre for Medium weather forecast (ECMWF

  6. RESEARCH PROBLEM DESCRIPTION AND DEFINITION: FROM MENTAL MAP TO CONNECTION CIRCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mildeová, Stanislava

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the research problem (question as one of the first methodological steps that has to be accurately and clearly defined. The necessity of modern scientific work is to understand and analyse problems holistically, to see it as a network of interconnected parts. In this sense we show that combination of mental mapping and connection circle may be a way that will be beneficial defining the research problem. There is some evidence from interviews held with PhD students, who were participated in the course Research Methods for Managers at the University of Economics in Prague from 2012-2013.

  7. Revisiting the Therapeutic Potential of Bothrops jararaca Venom: Screening for Novel Activities Using Connectivity Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Alves Nicolau

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Snake venoms are sources of molecules with proven and potential therapeutic applications. However, most activities assayed in venoms (or their components are of hemorrhagic, hypotensive, edematogenic, neurotoxic or myotoxic natures. Thus, other relevant activities might remain unknown. Using functional genomics coupled to the connectivity map (C-map approach, we undertook a wide range indirect search for biological activities within the venom of the South American pit viper Bothrops jararaca. For that effect, venom was incubated with human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7 followed by RNA extraction and gene expression analysis. A list of 90 differentially expressed genes was submitted to biosimilar drug discovery based on pattern recognition. Among the 100 highest-ranked positively correlated drugs, only the antihypertensive, antimicrobial (both antibiotic and antiparasitic, and antitumor classes had been previously reported for B. jararaca venom. The majority of drug classes identified were related to (1 antimicrobial activity; (2 treatment of neuropsychiatric illnesses (Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, depression, and epilepsy; (3 treatment of cardiovascular diseases, and (4 anti-inflammatory action. The C-map results also indicated that B. jararaca venom may have components that target G-protein-coupled receptors (muscarinic, serotonergic, histaminergic, dopaminergic, GABA, and adrenergic and ion channels. Although validation experiments are still necessary, the C-map correlation to drugs with activities previously linked to snake venoms supports the efficacy of this strategy as a broad-spectrum approach for biological activity screening, and rekindles the snake venom-based search for new therapeutic agents.

  8. A strategy to load balancing for non-connectivity MapReduce job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huaping; Liu, Guangzong; Gui, Haixia

    2017-09-01

    MapReduce has been widely used in large scale and complex datasets as a kind of distributed programming model. Original Hash partitioning function in MapReduce often results the problem of data skew when data distribution is uneven. To solve the imbalance of data partitioning, we proposes a strategy to change the remaining partitioning index when data is skewed. In Map phase, we count the amount of data which will be distributed to each reducer, then Job Tracker monitor the global partitioning information and dynamically modify the original partitioning function according to the data skew model, so the Partitioner can change the index of these partitioning which will cause data skew to the other reducer that has less load in the next partitioning process, and can eventually balance the load of each node. Finally, we experimentally compare our method with existing methods on both synthetic and real datasets, the experimental results show our strategy can solve the problem of data skew with better stability and efficiency than Hash method and Sampling method for non-connectivity MapReduce task.

  9. Urban underground infrastructure mapping and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Dryver; Xia, Tian; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Taian; Orfeo, Dan; Razinger, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    This paper outlines and discusses a few associated details of a smart cities approach to the mapping and condition assessment of urban underground infrastructure. Underground utilities are critical infrastructure for all modern cities. They carry drinking water, storm water, sewage, natural gas, electric power, telecommunications, steam, etc. In most cities, the underground infrastructure reflects the growth and history of the city. Many components are aging, in unknown locations with congested configurations, and in unknown condition. The technique uses sensing and information technology to determine the state of infrastructure and provide it in an appropriate, timely and secure format for managers, planners and users. The sensors include ground penetrating radar and buried sensors for persistent sensing of localized conditions. Signal processing and pattern recognition techniques convert the data in information-laden databases for use in analytics, graphical presentations, metering and planning. The presented data are from construction of the St. Paul St. CCTA Bus Station Project in Burlington, VT; utility replacement sites in Winooski, VT; and laboratory tests of smart phone position registration and magnetic signaling. The soil conditions encountered are favorable for GPR sensing and make it possible to locate buried pipes and soil layers. The present state of the art is that the data collection and processing procedures are manual and somewhat tedious, but that solutions for automating these procedures appear to be viable. Magnetic signaling with moving permanent magnets has the potential for sending lowfrequency telemetry signals through soils that are largely impenetrable by other electromagnetic waves.

  10. Structure-Function Network Mapping and Its Assessment via Persistent Homology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between brain structure and function is a fundamental problem in network neuroscience. This work deals with the general method of structure-function mapping at the whole-brain level. We formulate the problem as a topological mapping of structure-function connectivity via matrix function, and find a stable solution by exploiting a regularization procedure to cope with large matrices. We introduce a novel measure of network similarity based on persistent homology for assessing the quality of the network mapping, which enables a detailed comparison of network topological changes across all possible thresholds, rather than just at a single, arbitrary threshold that may not be optimal. We demonstrate that our approach can uncover the direct and indirect structural paths for predicting functional connectivity, and our network similarity measure outperforms other currently available methods. We systematically validate our approach with (1) a comparison of regularized vs. non-regularized procedures, (2) a null model of the degree-preserving random rewired structural matrix, (3) different network types (binary vs. weighted matrices), and (4) different brain parcellation schemes (low vs. high resolutions). Finally, we evaluate the scalability of our method with relatively large matrices (2514x2514) of structural and functional connectivity obtained from 12 healthy human subjects measured non-invasively while at rest. Our results reveal a nonlinear structure-function relationship, suggesting that the resting-state functional connectivity depends on direct structural connections, as well as relatively parsimonious indirect connections via polysynaptic pathways. PMID:28046127

  11. Concept Maps: An Alternative Methodology to Assess Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiles, Julia T.; Dominique-Maikell, Nikole; McKean, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigated the utility and efficacy of using concepts maps as a research tool to assess young children. Pre- and post- concept maps have been used as an assessment and evaluation tool with teachers and with older students, typically children who can read and write; this article summarizes an investigation into the utility of using…

  12. Perceptual Mapping: A Methodology in the Assessment of Environmental Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergent, Marie T.; Sedlacek, William E.

    1989-01-01

    Describes perceptual mapping, a newly developed method for assessing perceptions of campus environments. Describes evaluation of a student union by students using this method. Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of this perceptual mapping method for assessing college environments. (Author/ABL)

  13. Hybrid ICA-Seed-Based Methods for fMRI Functional Connectivity Assessment: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain functional connectivity (FC is often assessed from fMRI data using seed-based methods, such as those of detecting temporal correlation between a predefined region (seed and all other regions in the brain; or using multivariate methods, such as independent component analysis (ICA. ICA is a useful data-driven tool, but reproducibility issues complicate group inferences based on FC maps derived with ICA. These reproducibility issues can be circumvented with hybrid methods that use information from ICA-derived spatial maps as seeds to produce seed-based FC maps. We report results from five experiments to demonstrate the potential advantages of hybrid ICA-seed-based FC methods, comparing results from regressing fMRI data against task-related a priori time courses, with “back-reconstruction” from a group ICA, and with five hybrid ICA-seed-based FC methods: ROI-based with (1 single-voxel, (2 few-voxel, and (3 many-voxel seed; and dual-regression-based with (4 single ICA map and (5 multiple ICA map seed.

  14. Assessing temporal variations in connectivity through suspended sediment hysteresis analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff, Sophie; Rowan, John; Fenton, Owen; Jordan, Phil; Melland, Alice; Mellander, Per-Erik; hUallacháin, Daire Ó.

    2016-04-01

    Connectivity provides a valuable concept for understanding catchment-scale sediment dynamics. In intensive agricultural catchments, land management through tillage, high livestock densities and extensive land drainage practices significantly change hydromorphological behaviour and alter sediment supply and downstream delivery. Analysis of suspended sediment-discharge hysteresis has offered insights into sediment dynamics but typically on a limited selection of events. Greater availability of continuous high-resolution discharge and turbidity data and qualitative hysteresis metrics enables assessment of sediment dynamics during more events and over time. This paper assesses the utility of this approach to explore seasonal variations in connectivity. Data were collected from three small (c. 10 km2) intensive agricultural catchments in Ireland with contrasting morphologies, soil types, land use patterns and management practices, and are broadly defined as low-permeability supporting grassland, moderate-permeability supporting arable and high-permeability supporting arable. Suspended sediment concentration (using calibrated turbidity measurements) and discharge data were collected at 10-min resolution from each catchment outlet and precipitation data were collected from a weather station within each catchment. Event databases (67-90 events per catchment) collated information on sediment export metrics, hysteresis category (e.g., clockwise, anti-clockwise, no hysteresis), numeric hysteresis index, and potential hydro-meteorological controls on sediment transport including precipitation amount, duration, intensity, stream flow and antecedent soil moisture and rainfall. Statistical analysis of potential controls on sediment export was undertaken using Pearson's correlation coefficient on separate hysteresis categories in each catchment. Sediment hysteresis fluctuations through time were subsequently assessed using the hysteresis index. Results showed the numeric

  15. Function-specific and Enhanced Brain Structural Connectivity Mapping via Joint Modeling of Diffusion and Functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shu-Hsien; Parhi, Keshab K; Lenglet, Christophe

    2018-03-16

    A joint structural-functional brain network model is presented, which enables the discovery of function-specific brain circuits, and recovers structural connections that are under-estimated by diffusion MRI (dMRI). Incorporating information from functional MRI (fMRI) into diffusion MRI to estimate brain circuits is a challenging task. Usually, seed regions for tractography are selected from fMRI activation maps to extract the white matter pathways of interest. The proposed method jointly analyzes whole brain dMRI and fMRI data, allowing the estimation of complete function-specific structural networks instead of interactively investigating the connectivity of individual cortical/sub-cortical areas. Additionally, tractography techniques are prone to limitations, which can result in erroneous pathways. The proposed framework explicitly models the interactions between structural and functional connectivity measures thereby improving anatomical circuit estimation. Results on Human Connectome Project (HCP) data demonstrate the benefits of the approach by successfully identifying function-specific anatomical circuits, such as the language and resting-state networks. In contrast to correlation-based or independent component analysis (ICA) functional connectivity mapping, detailed anatomical connectivity patterns are revealed for each functional module. Results on a phantom (Fibercup) also indicate improvements in structural connectivity mapping by rejecting false-positive connections with insufficient support from fMRI, and enhancing under-estimated connectivity with strong functional correlation.

  16. Assessment and Mapping of Forest Parcel Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett J. Butler; Susan L. King

    2005-01-01

    A method for analyzing and mapping forest parcel sizes in the Northeastern United States is presented. A decision tree model was created that predicts forest parcel size from spatially explicit predictor variables: population density, State, percentage forest land cover, and road density. The model correctly predicted parcel size for 60 percent of the observations in a...

  17. A Road Map for Improving Geography Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, Jill A.; Edelson, Daniel C.; Hildebrant, Barbara; Hinde, Elizabeth; Kenney, Marianne; Kolvoord, Robert; Lanegran, David; Marcello, Jody Smothers; Morrill, Robert; Ruiz-Primo, Maria; Seixas, Peter; Shavelson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In late 2012, both the second edition of the "Geography for Life: National Geography Standards" and the National Science Foundation-funded "Road Map for Geography Education Project" reports were released; the former document describes the conceptual goals for K-12 geography education, and the latter, a route to coordinating reform efforts to…

  18. Connected Classroom Technology Facilitates Multiple Components of Formative Assessment Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Melissa L.; Irving, Karen E.

    2015-02-01

    Formative assessment has been demonstrated to result in increased student achievement across a variety of educational contexts. When using formative assessment strategies, teachers engage students in instructional tasks that allow the teacher to uncover levels of student understanding so that the teacher may change instruction accordingly. Tools that support the implementation of formative assessment strategies are therefore likely to enhance student achievement. Connected classroom technologies (CCTs) include a family of devices that show promise in facilitating formative assessment. By promoting the use of interactive student tasks and providing both teachers and students with rapid and accurate data on student learning, CCT can provide teachers with necessary evidence for making instructional decisions about subsequent lessons. In this study, the experiences of four middle and high school science teachers in their first year of implementing the TI-Navigator™ system, a specific type of CCT, are used to characterize the ways in which CCT supports the goals of effective formative assessment. We present excerpts of participant interviews to demonstrate the alignment of CCT with several main phases of the formative assessment process. CCT was found to support implementation of a variety of instructional tasks that generate evidence of student learning for the teacher. The rapid aggregation and display of student learning evidence provided teachers with robust data on which to base subsequent instructional decisions.

  19. Design and analysis for thematic map accuracy assessment: Fundamental principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen V. Stehman; Raymond L. Czaplewski

    1998-01-01

    Land-cover maps are used in numerous natural resource applications to describe the spatial distribution and pattern of land-cover, to estimate areal extent of various cover classes, or as input into habitat suitability models, land-cover change analyses, hydrological models, and risk analyses. Accuracy assessment quantifies data quality so that map users may evaluate...

  20. Network analysis of mesoscale optical recordings to assess regional, functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Diana H; LeDue, Jeffrey M; Murphy, Timothy H

    2015-10-01

    With modern optical imaging methods, it is possible to map structural and functional connectivity. Optical imaging studies that aim to describe large-scale neural connectivity often need to handle large and complex datasets. In order to interpret these datasets, new methods for analyzing structural and functional connectivity are being developed. Recently, network analysis, based on graph theory, has been used to describe and quantify brain connectivity in both experimental and clinical studies. We outline how to apply regional, functional network analysis to mesoscale optical imaging using voltage-sensitive-dye imaging and channelrhodopsin-2 stimulation in a mouse model. We include links to sample datasets and an analysis script. The analyses we employ can be applied to other types of fluorescence wide-field imaging, including genetically encoded calcium indicators, to assess network properties. We discuss the benefits and limitations of using network analysis for interpreting optical imaging data and define network properties that may be used to compare across preparations or other manipulations such as animal models of disease.

  1. Going Deeper or Flatter: Connecting Deep Mapping, Flat Ontologies and the Democratizing of Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Springett

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “deep mapping”, as an approach to place, has been deployed as both a descriptor of a specific suite of creative works and as a set of aesthetic practices. While its definition has been amorphous and adaptive, a number of distinct, yet related, manifestations identify as, or have been identified by, the term. In recent times, it has garnered attention beyond literary discourse, particularly within the “spatial” turn of representation in the humanities and as a result of expanded platforms of data presentation. This paper takes a brief look at the practice of “deep mapping”, considering it as a consciously performative act and tracing a number of its various manifestations. It explores how deep mapping is a reflection of epistemological trends in ontological practices of connectivity and the “flattening” of knowledge systems. In particular those put forward by post structural and cultural theorists, such as Bruno Latour, Gilles Deleuze, and Felix Guattari, as well as by theorists who associate with speculative realism. The concept of deep mapping as an aesthetic, methodological, and ideological tool, enables an approach to place that democratizes knowledge by crossing temporal, spatial, and disciplinary boundaries.

  2. Geomorphological hazards and environmental impact: Assessment and mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizza, Mario

    In five sections the author develops the methods for the integration of geomorphological concepts into Environmental Impact and Mapping. The first section introduces the concepts of Impact and Risk through the relationships between Geomorphological Environment and Anthropical Element. The second section proposes a methodology for the determination of Geomorphological Hazard and the identification of Geomorphological Risk. The third section synthesizes the procedure for the compilation of a Geomorphological Hazards Map. The fourth section outlines the concepts of Geomorphological Resource Assessment for the analysis of the Environmental Impact. The fifth section considers the contribution of geomorphological studies and mapping in the procedure for Environmental Impact Assessment.

  3. Assessing Impacts of Hydropower Regulation on Salmonid Habitat Connectivity to Guide River Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddendorf, Bas; Geris, Josie; Malcolm, Iain; Wilkinson, Mark; Soulsby, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic activity in riverine ecosystems has led to a substantial divergence from the natural state of many rivers globally. Many of Scotland's rivers have been regulated for hydropower with increasing intensity since the 1890s. At the same time they sustain substantial populations of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.), which have a range of requirements in terms of flow and access to habitat, depending on the different life-stages. River barriers for hydropower regulation can change the spatial and temporal connectivity within river networks, the impacts of which on salmon habitat are not fully understood. Insight into such changes in connectivity, and the link with the distribution and accessibility of suitable habitat and areas of high productivity, are essential to aid restoration and/or conservation efforts. This is because they indicate where such efforts might have a higher chance of being successful in terms of providing suitable habitat and increasing river productivity. In this study we applied a graph theory approach to assess historic (natural) and contemporary (regulated) in-stream habitat connectivity of the River Lyon, an important UK salmon river that is moderately regulated for hydropower. Historic maps and GIS techniques were used to construct the two contrasting river networks (i.e., natural vs. regulated). Subsequently, connectivity metrics were used to assess the impacts of hydropower infrastructure on upstream and downstream migration possibilities for adults and juveniles, respectively. A national juvenile salmon production model was used to weight the importance of reaches for juvenile salmon production. Results indicate that the impact of barriers in the Lyon on the connectivity indices depends on the type of barrier and its location within the network, but is generally low for both adults and juveniles, and that compared to the historic river network the reduction in the amount of suitable habitat and juvenile production is most marked

  4. Predictive assessment of models for dynamic functional connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Føns Vind; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2018-01-01

    represent functional brain networks as a meta-stable process with a discrete number of states; however, there is a lack of consensus on how to perform model selection and learn the number of states, as well as a lack of understanding of how different modeling assumptions influence the estimated state......In neuroimaging, it has become evident that models of dynamic functional connectivity (dFC), which characterize how intrinsic brain organization changes over time, can provide a more detailed representation of brain function than traditional static analyses. Many dFC models in the literature...... dynamics. To address these issues, we consider a predictive likelihood approach to model assessment, where models are evaluated based on their predictive performance on held-out test data. Examining several prominent models of dFC (in their probabilistic formulations) we demonstrate our framework...

  5. Numerical conformal mapping and its inverse of unbounded multiply connected regions onto logarithmic spiral slit regions and straight slit regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, A A M; Murid, A H M; Nasser, M M S

    2014-02-08

    This paper presents a boundary integral equation method with the adjoint generalized Neumann kernel for computing conformal mapping of unbounded multiply connected regions and its inverse onto several classes of canonical regions. For each canonical region, two integral equations are solved before one can approximate the boundary values of the mapping function. Cauchy's-type integrals are used for computing the mapping function and its inverse for interior points. This method also works for regions with piecewise smooth boundaries. Three examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Functional connectivity density mapping of depressive symptoms and loneliness in non-demented elderly male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chia eLan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression and loneliness are prevalent and highly correlated phenomena among the elderly and influence both physical and mental health. Brain functional connectivity changes associated with depressive symptoms and loneliness are not fully understood.Methods: A cross-sectional functional MRI study was conducted among 85 non-demented male elders. Geriatric depression scale-short form and loneliness scale were used to evaluate the severity of depressive symptoms and loneliness, respectively. Whole brain voxel-wise resting-state functional connectivity density (FCD mapping was performed to delineate short-range FCD (SFCD and long-range FCD (LFCD. Regional correlations between depressive symptoms or loneliness and SFCD or LFCD were examined using general linear model, with age incorporated as a covariate and depressive symptoms and loneliness as predictors.Results: Positive correlations between depressive symptoms and LFCD were observed in left rectal gyrus, left superior frontal gyrus, right supraorbital gyrus, and left inferior temporal gyrus. Positive correlations between depressive symptoms and SFCD were observed in left middle frontal gyrus, left superior frontal gyrus, bilateral superior medial frontal gyrus, left inferior temporal gyrus, and left middle occipital region. Positive correlations between SFCD and loneliness were centered over bilateral lingual gyrus.Conclusion: Depressive symptoms are associated with FCD changes over frontal and temporal regions, which may involve the cognitive control, affective regulation, and default mode networks. Loneliness is associated with FCD changes in bilateral lingual gyri that are known to be important in social cognition. Depressive symptoms and loneliness may be associated with different brain regions in non-demented elderly male.

  7. DESIGNA ND ANALYSIS FOR THEMATIC MAP ACCURACY ASSESSMENT: FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Before being used in scientific investigations and policy decisions, thematic maps constructed from remotely sensed data should be subjected to a statistically rigorous accuracy assessment. The three basic components of an accuracy assessment are: 1) the sampling design used to s...

  8. Accuracy assessment of cadastral maps using high resolution aerial photos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwan Imzahim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A cadastral map is a map that shows the boundaries and ownership of land parcels. Some cadastral maps show additional details, such as survey district names, unique identifying numbers for parcels, certificate of title numbers, positions of existing structures, section or lot numbers and their respective areas, adjoining and adjacent street names, selected boundary dimensions and references to prior maps. In Iraq / Baghdad Governorate, the main problem is that the cadastral maps are georeferenced to a local geodetic datum known as Clark 1880 while the widely used reference system for navigation purpose (GPS and GNSS and uses Word Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84 as a base reference datum. The objective of this paper is to produce a cadastral map with scale 1:500 (metric scale by using aerial photographs 2009 with high ground spatial resolution 10 cm reference WGS84 system. The accuracy assessment for the cadastral maps updating approach to urban large scale cadastral maps (1:500-1:1000 was ± 0.115 meters; which complies with the American Social for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Standards (ASPRS.

  9. Rchemcpp: a web service for structural analoging in ChEMBL, Drugbank and the Connectivity Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klambauer, Günter; Wischenbart, Martin; Mahr, Michael; Unterthiner, Thomas; Mayr, Andreas; Hochreiter, Sepp

    2015-10-15

    We have developed Rchempp, a web service that identifies structurally similar compounds (structural analogs) in large-scale molecule databases. The service allows compounds to be queried in the widely used ChEMBL, DrugBank and the Connectivity Map databases. Rchemcpp utilizes the best performing similarity functions, i.e. molecule kernels, as measures for structural similarity. Molecule kernels have proven superior performance over other similarity measures and are currently excelling at machine learning challenges. To considerably reduce computational time, and thereby make it feasible as a web service, a novel efficient prefiltering strategy has been developed, which maintains the sensitivity of the method. By exploiting information contained in public databases, the web service facilitates many applications crucial for the drug development process, such as prioritizing compounds after screening or reducing adverse side effects during late phases. Rchemcpp was used in the DeepTox pipeline that has won the Tox21 Data Challenge and is frequently used by researchers in pharmaceutical companies. The web service and the R package are freely available via http://shiny.bioinf.jku.at/Analoging/ and via Bioconductor. hochreit@bioinf.jku.at Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Maps of Information Spaces: Assessments from Astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poincot, Philippe; Lesteven, Soizick; Murtagh, Fionn

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the implementation of a cartographic user interface to bibliographic and other information sub-spaces in astronomy. Presents a range of comparative assessments, in operational frameworks, of this approach to accessing and retrieving astronomical information. Discusses the particular role that such cartographic user interfaces can play in…

  11. Metabolic connectivity by interregional correlation analysis using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and FDG brain PET; methodological development and patterns of metabolic connectivity in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Soo; Oh, Jungsu S.; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea); Kang, Hyejin [Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University, Programs in Brain and Neuroscience, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Heejung; Park, Hyojin [Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University, Interdisciplinary Program in Cognitive Science, Seoul (Korea)

    2008-09-15

    Regionally connected areas of the resting brain can be detected by fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Voxel-wise metabolic connectivity was examined, and normative data were established by performing interregional correlation analysis on statistical parametric mapping of FDG-PET data. Characteristics of seed volumes of interest (VOIs) as functional brain units were represented by their locations, sizes, and the independent methods of their determination. Seed brain areas were identified as population-based gyral VOIs (n=70) or as population-based cytoarchitectonic Brodmann areas (BA; n=28). FDG uptakes in these areas were used as independent variables in a general linear model to search for voxels correlated with average seed VOI counts. Positive correlations were searched in entire brain areas. In normal adults, one third of gyral VOIs yielded correlations that were confined to themselves, but in the others, correlated voxels extended to adjacent areas and/or contralateral homologous regions. In tens of these latter areas with extensive connectivity, correlated voxels were found across midline, and asymmetry was observed in the patterns of connectivity of left and right homologous seed VOIs. Most of the available BAs yielded correlations reaching contralateral homologous regions and/or neighboring areas. Extents of metabolic connectivity were not found to be related to seed VOI size or to the methods used to define seed VOIs. These findings indicate that patterns of metabolic connectivity of functional brain units depend on their regional locations. We propose that interregional correlation analysis of FDG-PET data offers a means of examining voxel-wise regional metabolic connectivity of the resting human brain. (orig.)

  12. Metabolic connectivity by interregional correlation analysis using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and FDG brain PET; methodological development and patterns of metabolic connectivity in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Soo; Oh, Jungsu S.; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Myung Chul; Kang, Hyejin; Kim, Heejung; Park, Hyojin

    2008-01-01

    Regionally connected areas of the resting brain can be detected by fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Voxel-wise metabolic connectivity was examined, and normative data were established by performing interregional correlation analysis on statistical parametric mapping of FDG-PET data. Characteristics of seed volumes of interest (VOIs) as functional brain units were represented by their locations, sizes, and the independent methods of their determination. Seed brain areas were identified as population-based gyral VOIs (n=70) or as population-based cytoarchitectonic Brodmann areas (BA; n=28). FDG uptakes in these areas were used as independent variables in a general linear model to search for voxels correlated with average seed VOI counts. Positive correlations were searched in entire brain areas. In normal adults, one third of gyral VOIs yielded correlations that were confined to themselves, but in the others, correlated voxels extended to adjacent areas and/or contralateral homologous regions. In tens of these latter areas with extensive connectivity, correlated voxels were found across midline, and asymmetry was observed in the patterns of connectivity of left and right homologous seed VOIs. Most of the available BAs yielded correlations reaching contralateral homologous regions and/or neighboring areas. Extents of metabolic connectivity were not found to be related to seed VOI size or to the methods used to define seed VOIs. These findings indicate that patterns of metabolic connectivity of functional brain units depend on their regional locations. We propose that interregional correlation analysis of FDG-PET data offers a means of examining voxel-wise regional metabolic connectivity of the resting human brain. (orig.)

  13. Mapping Priorities to Focus Cropland Mapping Activities: Fitness Assessment of Existing Global, Regional and National Cropland Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Waldner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Timely and accurate information on the global cropland extent is critical for applications in the fields of food security, agricultural monitoring, water management, land-use change modeling and Earth system modeling. On the one hand, it gives detailed location information on where to analyze satellite image time series to assess crop condition. On the other hand, it isolates the agriculture component to focus food security monitoring on agriculture and to assess the potential impacts of climate change on agricultural lands. The cropland class is often poorly captured in global land cover products due to its dynamic nature and the large variety of agro-systems. The overall objective was to evaluate the current availability of cropland datasets in order to propose a strategic planning and effort distribution for future cropland mapping activities and, therefore, to maximize their impact. Following a very comprehensive identification and collection of national to global land cover maps, a multi-criteria analysis was designed at the country level to identify the priority areas for cropland mapping. As a result, the analysis highlighted priority regions, such as Western Africa, Ethiopia, Madagascar and Southeast Asia, for the remote sensing community to focus its efforts. A Unified Cropland Layer at 250 m for the year 2014 was produced combining the fittest products. It was assessed using global validation datasets and yields an overall accuracy ranging from 82%–94%. Masking cropland areas with a global forest map reduced the commission errors from 46% down to 26%. Compared to the GLC-Share and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis-International Food Policy Research Institute (IIASA-IFPRI cropland maps, significant spatial disagreements were found, which might be attributed to discrepancies in the cropland definition. This advocates for a shared definition of cropland, as well as global validation datasets relevant for the

  14. SedInConnect: a stand-alone, free and open source tool for the assessment of sediment connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crema, Stefano; Cavalli, Marco

    2018-02-01

    There is a growing call, within the scientific community, for solid theoretic frameworks and usable indices/models to assess sediment connectivity. Connectivity plays a significant role in characterizing structural properties of the landscape and, when considered in combination with forcing processes (e.g., rainfall-runoff modelling), can represent a valuable analysis for an improved landscape management. In this work, the authors present the development and application of SedInConnect: a free, open source and stand-alone application for the computation of the Index of Connectivity (IC), as expressed in Cavalli et al. (2013) with the addition of specific innovative features. The tool is intended to have a wide variety of users, both from the scientific community and from the authorities involved in the environmental planning. Thanks to its open source nature, the tool can be adapted and/or integrated according to the users' requirements. Furthermore, presenting an easy-to-use interface and being a stand-alone application, the tool can help management experts in the quantitative assessment of sediment connectivity in the context of hazard and risk assessment. An application to a sample dataset and an overview on up-to-date applications of the approach and of the tool shows the development potential of such analyses. The modelled connectivity, in fact, appears suitable not only to characterize sediment dynamics at the catchment scale but also to integrate prediction models and as a tool for helping geomorphological interpretation.

  15. Developmental changes in brain connectivity assessed using the sleep EEG.

    OpenAIRE

    Tarokh L; Carskadon M A; Achermann P

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence represents a time of significant cortical restructuring. Current theories posit that during this period connections between frequently utilized neural networks are strengthened while underutilized synaptic connections are discarded. The aim of the present study was to examine the developmental evolution of connectivity between brain regions using the sleep EEG. All night sleep EEG recordings in two longitudinal cohorts (children and teens) followed at 1.5 3 year intervals and one ...

  16. Implementation of laser speckle contrast analysis as connection kit for mobile phone for assessment of skin blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovels, Dainis; Saknite, Inga; Spigulis, Janis

    2014-05-01

    Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) offers a non-contact, full-field, and real-time mapping of capillary blood flow and can be considered as an alternative method to Laser Doppler perfusion imaging. LASCA technique has been implemented in several commercial instruments. However, these systems are still too expensive and bulky to be widely available. Several optical techniques have found new implementations as connection kits for mobile phones thus offering low cost screening devices. In this work we demonstrate simple implementation of LASCA imaging technique as connection kit for mobile phone for primary low-cost assessment of skin blood flow. Stabilized 650 nm and 532 nm laser diode modules were used for LASCA illumination. Dual wavelength illumination could provide additional information about skin hemoglobin and oxygenation level. The proposed approach was tested for arterial occlusion and heat test. Besides, blood flow maps of injured and provoked skin were demonstrated.

  17. Performance assessment on high strength steel endplate connections after fire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiang, X.; Wu, N.; Jiang, X.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.; Kolstein, M.H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – This study aims to reveal more information and understanding on performance and failure mechanisms of high strength steel endplate connections after fire. Design/methodology/approach – An experimental and numerical study on seven endplate connections after

  18. Mapping human environment connections on the Olympic Peninsula: an atlas of landscape values

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. McLain; L. Cerveny; Paul M. Montesano; André Beaudoin; Guoqing Sun; Hans-Erik Andersen; Michael A. Wulder; S. Rohdy

    2015-01-01

    The advent of computerized mapping has greatly expanded the ability of land managers to map many aspects of ecological systems, such as tree species, soil types, wildlife habitat, air quality, and water conditions. Mapping the social and cultural aspects of ecological systems, however, has proved much more challenging. This atlas uses the Olympic Peninsula in western...

  19. Representing connectivity: quantifying effective habitat availability based on area and connectivity for conservation status assessment and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, Maile; Tumas, Hayley R; Marsden, Brittany W

    2014-01-01

    We apply a comprehensive suite of graph theoretic metrics to illustrate how landscape connectivity can be effectively incorporated into conservation status assessments and in setting conservation objectives. These metrics allow conservation practitioners to evaluate and quantify connectivity in terms of representation, resiliency, and redundancy and the approach can be applied in spite of incomplete knowledge of species-specific biology and dispersal processes. We demonstrate utility of the graph metrics by evaluating changes in distribution and connectivity that would result from implementing two conservation plans for three endangered plant species (Erigeron parishii, Acanthoscyphus parishii var. goodmaniana, and Eriogonum ovalifolium var. vineum) relative to connectivity under current conditions. Although distributions of the species differ from one another in terms of extent and specific location of occupied patches within the study landscape, the spatial scale of potential connectivity in existing networks were strikingly similar for Erigeron and Eriogonum, but differed for Acanthoscyphus. Specifically, patches of the first two species were more regularly distributed whereas subsets of patches of Acanthoscyphus were clustered into more isolated components. Reserves based on US Fish and Wildlife Service critical habitat designation would not greatly contribute to maintain connectivity; they include 83-91% of the extant occurrences and >92% of the aerial extent of each species. Effective connectivity remains within 10% of that in the whole network for all species. A Forest Service habitat management strategy excluded up to 40% of the occupied habitat of each species resulting in both range reductions and loss of occurrences from the central portions of each species' distribution. Overall effective network connectivity was reduced to 62-74% of the full networks. The distance at which each CHMS network first became fully connected was reduced relative to the full

  20. Assessing IT Projects Success with Extended Fuzzy Cognitive Maps & Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps in comparison to Fuzzy Cognitive Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Bhutani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available IT projects hold a huge importance to economic growth. Today, half of the capital investments are in IT technology. IT systems and projects are extensive and time consuming; thus implying that its failure is not affordable, so proper feasibility study of assessing project success factors is required. A current methodology like Fuzzy Cognitive Maps has been experimented for identifying and evaluating the success factors in IT projects, but this technique has certain limitations. This paper discusses two new approaches to evaluate IT project success: Extended Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (E-FCM & Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps (NCM.The limitations of FCM like non consideration for non-linear, conditional, time delay weights and indeterminate relations are targeted using E-FCM and NCM in this paper.

  1. ASSESSING STUDENTS’ COMPETENCE IN DEVELOPING CHOROPLETH MAPS COMBINED WITH DIAGRAM MAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA OSACI-COSTACHE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Choropleth maps combined with diagram maps are frequently used in geography. For this reason, based on the maps developed by students, the study aims at the following: identifying and analyzing the errors made by the students; establishing and analyzing the competence level of the students; identifying the causes that led to these errors; and finding the best solutions to improve both the educational process aiming at the formation of this kind of competences and the students’ results. The map assessment was accomplished during two academic years (2013-2014 and 2014-2015, in the aftermath of the activities meant to train the competence. We assessed 105 maps prepared by the students in Cartography (Faculty of Geography, University of Bucharest based on an analytical evaluation grid, with dichotomous scale, comprising 15 criteria. This tool helped us identify the errors made by the students, as well as their competence level. By applying a questionnaire, we identified the source of the errors from the students’ perspective, while by comparing the errors and the competence levels at the end of the two academic years we were able to come up with potential solutions for the improvement of the teaching and learning process.

  2. Linking the Virginia SOL Assessments to NWEA MAP Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Northwest Evaluation Association™ (NWEA™) is committed to providing partners with useful tools to help make inferences from the Measures of Academic Progress® (MAP®) interim assessment scores. Recently, NWEA completed a concordance study to connect the scales of the Virginia Standards of Learning (SOL) reading and math tests with those of the MAP…

  3. Mapping of health technology assessment in selected countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oortwijn, W.; Broos, P.; Vondeling, Hindrik; Banta, D.; Todorova, L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop and apply an instrument to map the level of health technology assessment (HTA) development at country level in selected countries. We examined middle-income countries (Argentina, Brazil, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, and Russia) and countries

  4. Asset Mapping: A Course Assignment and Community Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Mary; Melchior, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Asset mapping is a relatively new data collection strategy to identify services, staff capacity, programs, resources, values, and other protective factors in a geographic area that can be juxtaposed to risk factors when initiating community planning. A substance abuse prevention course for undergraduates added an assignment of assessing community…

  5. Content Maps: A Teaching and Assessment Tool for Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Phillip; Lehwald, Harry; Lee, Yun Soo

    2015-01-01

    Developing content knowledge in teachers presents a constant challenge for teacher educators. This article introduces a teaching and assessment tool called a "content map," which allows teacher educators, teachers, and coaches to conceptualize the scope, sequence, and relational characteristics of the content being taught. Content maps…

  6. Resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging integrated with intraoperative neuronavigation for functional mapping after aborted awake craniotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Prag; Bandt, S. Kathleen; Leuthardt, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Awake craniotomy is currently the gold standard for aggressive tumor resections in eloquent cortex. However, a significant subset of patients is unable to tolerate this procedure, particularly the very young or old or those with psychiatric comorbidities, cardiopulmonary comorbidities, or obesity, among other conditions. In these cases, typical alternative procedures include biopsy alone or subtotal resection, both of which are associated with diminished surgical outcomes. Case Description: Here, we report the successful use of a preoperatively obtained resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) integrated with intraoperative neuronavigation software in order to perform functional cortical mapping in the setting of an aborted awake craniotomy due to loss of airway. Conclusion: Resting state functional connectivity MRI integrated with intraoperative neuronavigation software can provide an alternative option for functional cortical mapping in the setting of an aborted awake craniotomy. PMID:26958419

  7. On optical detection of densely labeled synapses in neuropil and mapping connectivity with combinatorially multiplexed fluorescent synaptic markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Mishchenko

    Full Text Available We propose a new method for mapping neural connectivity optically, by utilizing Cre/Lox system Brainbow to tag synapses of different neurons with random mixtures of different fluorophores, such as GFP, YFP, etc., and then detecting patterns of fluorophores at different synapses using light microscopy (LM. Such patterns will immediately report the pre- and post-synaptic cells at each synaptic connection, without tracing neural projections from individual synapses to corresponding cell bodies. We simulate fluorescence from a population of densely labeled synapses in a block of hippocampal neuropil, completely reconstructed from electron microscopy data, and show that high-end LM is able to detect such patterns with over 95% accuracy. We conclude, therefore, that with the described approach neural connectivity in macroscopically large neural circuits can be mapped with great accuracy, in scalable manner, using fast optical tools, and straightforward image processing. Relying on an electron microscopy dataset, we also derive and explicitly enumerate the conditions that should be met to allow synaptic connectivity studies with high-resolution optical tools.

  8. Optical mapping of prefrontal brain connectivity and activation during emotion anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng-Yun; Lu, Feng-Mei; Hu, Zhishan; Zhang, Juan; Yuan, Zhen

    2018-09-17

    Accumulated neuroimaging evidence shows that the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) is activated during emotion anticipation. The aim of this work is to examine the brain connectivity and activation differences in dlPFC between the positive, neutral and negative emotion anticipation by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The hemodynamic responses were first assessed for all subjects during the performance of various emotion anticipation tasks. And then small-world analysis was performed, in which the small-world network indicators including the clustering coefficient, average path length, average node degree, and measure of small-world index were calculated for the functional brain networks associated with the positive, neutral and negative emotion anticipation, respectively. We discovered that compared to negative and neutral emotion anticipation, the positive one exhibited enhanced brain activation in the left dlPFC. Although the functional brain networks for the three emotion anticipation cases manifested the small-world properties regarding the clustering coefficient, average path length, average node degree, and measure of small-world index, the positive one showed significantly higher clustering coefficient and shorter average path length than those from the neutral and negative cases. Consequently, the small-world network indicators and brain activation in dlPPC were able to distinguish well between the positive, neutral and negative emotion anticipation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Connectivity Mapping: Tools for Studying the Neural Bases of Brain Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hampson, M.; Hoffman, R. E.

    2010-01-01

    There has been an increasing emphasis on characterizing pathophysiology underlying psychiatric and neurological disorders in terms of altered neural connectivity and network dynamics. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) provides a unique opportunity for investigating connectivity in the human brain. TMS allows researchers and clinicians to directly stimulate cortical regions accessible to electromagnetic coils positioned on the scalp. The induced activation can then propagate through...

  10. Preservice Teachers Map Compassion: Connecting Social Studies and Literacy through Nonfictional Animal Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.; Montgomery, Sarah E.; Vander Zanden, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Nonfiction stories of animal compassion were used in this literacy-social studies integrated lesson to address both efferent and aesthetic stances in transmediation of text from picture books to maps. Preservice early childhood and elementary teachers chose places from the nine recent children's stories, symbolizing them on a map while…

  11. Connecting Practice and Research: Integrated Reading and Writing Instruction Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caverly, David C.; Taylor, Judi Salsburg; Dimino, Renee K.; Lampi, Jodi P.

    2016-01-01

    The first "Connecting Practice and Research" column (Lampi, Dimino, & Salsburg Taylor, 2015), introduced a Research-to-Practice partnership (Coburn & Penuel, 2016) between two faculty from a community college and a university professor who were aiming to develop effective integrated reading and writing (IRW) instruction through a…

  12. Tropical forest carbon assessment: integrating satellite and airborne mapping approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asner, Gregory P

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale carbon mapping is needed to support the UNFCCC program to reduce deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). Managers of forested land can potentially increase their carbon credits via detailed monitoring of forest cover, loss and gain (hectares), and periodic estimates of changes in forest carbon density (tons ha -1 ). Satellites provide an opportunity to monitor changes in forest carbon caused by deforestation and degradation, but only after initial carbon densities have been assessed. New airborne approaches, especially light detection and ranging (LiDAR), provide a means to estimate forest carbon density over large areas, which greatly assists in the development of practical baselines. Here I present an integrated satellite-airborne mapping approach that supports high-resolution carbon stock assessment and monitoring in tropical forest regions. The approach yields a spatially resolved, regional state-of-the-forest carbon baseline, followed by high-resolution monitoring of forest cover and disturbance to estimate carbon emissions. Rapid advances and decreasing costs in the satellite and airborne mapping sectors are already making high-resolution carbon stock and emissions assessments viable anywhere in the world.

  13. Multimodal mapping of the brain's functional connectivity and the adult outcome of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudre, Gustavo; Szekely, Eszter; Sharp, Wendy; Kasparek, Steven; Shaw, Philip

    2017-10-31

    We have a limited understanding of why many children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder do not outgrow the disorder by adulthood. Around 20-30% retain the full syndrome as young adults, and about 50% show partial, rather than complete, remission. Here, to delineate the neurobiology of this variable outcome, we ask if the persistence of childhood symptoms into adulthood impacts on the brain's functional connectivity. We studied 205 participants followed clinically since childhood. In early adulthood, participants underwent magnetoencephalography (MEG) to measure neuronal activity directly and functional MRI (fMRI) to measure hemodynamic activity during a task-free period (the "resting state"). We found that symptoms of inattention persisting into adulthood were associated with disrupted patterns of typical functional connectivity in both MEG and fMRI. Specifically, those with persistent inattention lost the typical balance of connections within the default mode network (DMN; prominent during introspective thought) and connections between this network and those supporting attention and cognitive control. By contrast, adults whose childhood inattentive symptoms had resolved did not differ significantly from their never-affected peers, both hemodynamically and electrophysiologically. The anomalies in functional connectivity tied to clinically significant inattention centered on midline regions of the DMN in both MEG and fMRI, boosting confidence in a possible pathophysiological role. The findings suggest that the clinical course of this common childhood onset disorder impacts the functional connectivity of the adult brain. Published under the PNAS license.

  14. Functional connectivity mapping of regions associated with self- and other-processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Ryan J; Debbané, Martin; Fox, Peter T; Bzdok, Danilo; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2015-04-01

    Neuroscience literature increasingly suggests a conceptual self composed of interacting neural regions, rather than independent local activations, yet such claims have yet to be investigated. We, thus, combined task-dependent meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) with task-independent resting-state (RS) connectivity analysis to delineate the neural network of the self, across both states. Given psychological evidence implicating the self's interdependence on social information, we also delineated the neural network underlying conceptual other-processing. To elucidate the relation between the self-/other-networks and their function, we mined the MACM metadata to generate a cognitive-behavioral profile for an empirically identified region specific to conceptual self, the pregenual anterior cingulate (pACC), and conceptual other, posterior cingulate/precuneus (PCC/PC). Mining of 7,200 published, task-dependent, neuroimaging studies, using healthy human subjects, yielded 193 studies activating the self-related seed and were conjoined with RS connectivity analysis to delineate a differentiated self-network composed of the pACC (seed) and anterior insula, relative to other functional connectivity. Additionally, 106 studies activating the other-related seed were conjoined with RS connectivity analysis to delineate a differentiated other-network of PCC/PC (seed) and angular gyrus/temporoparietal junction, relative to self-functional connectivity. The self-network seed related to emotional conflict resolution and motivational processing, whereas the other-network seed related to socially oriented processing and contextual information integration. Notably, our findings revealed shared RS connectivity between ensuing self-/other-networks within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and medial orbitofrontal cortex, suggesting self-updating via integration of self-relevant social information. We, therefore, present initial neurobiological evidence corroborating the increasing

  15. Resting state cortico-cerebellar functional connectivity networks: A comparison of anatomical and self-organizing map approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Bernard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum plays a role in a wide variety of complex behaviors. In order to better understand the role of the cerebellum in human behavior, it is important to know how this structure interacts with cortical and other subcortical regions of the brain. To date, several studies have investigated the cerebellum using resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI; Buckner et al., 2011; Krienen & Buckner, 2009; O’Reilly et al., 2009. However, none of this work has taken an anatomically-driven approach. Furthermore, though detailed maps of cerebral cortex and cerebellum networks have been proposed using different network solutions based on the cerebral cortex (Buckner et al., 2011, it remains unknown whether or not an anatomical lobular breakdown best encompasses the networks of the cerebellum. Here, we used fcMRI to create an anatomically-driven cerebellar connectivity atlas. Timecourses were extracted from the lobules of the right hemisphere and vermis. We found distinct networks for the individual lobules with a clear division into motor and non-motor regions. We also used a self-organizing map algorithm to parcellate the cerebellum. This allowed us to investigate redundancy and independence of the anatomically identified cerebellar networks. We found that while anatomical boundaries in the anterior cerebellum provide functional subdivisions of a larger motor grouping defined using our self-organizing map algorithm, in the posterior cerebellum, the lobules were made up of sub-regions associated with distinct functional networks. Together, our results indicate that the lobular boundaries of the human cerebellum are not indicative of functional boundaries, though anatomical divisions can be useful, as is the case of the anterior cerebellum. Additionally, driving the analyses from the cerebellum is key to determining the complete picture of functional connectivity within the structure.

  16. Assessing local knowledge use in agroforestry management with cognitive maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Marney E; Dawoe, Evans; Sieciechowicz, Krystyna

    2009-06-01

    Small-holder farmers often develop adaptable agroforestry management techniques to improve and diversify crop production. In the cocoa growing region of Ghana, local knowledge on such farm management holds a noteworthy role in the overall farm development. The documentation and analysis of such knowledge use in cocoa agroforests may afford an applicable framework to determine mechanisms driving farmer preference and indicators in farm management. This study employed 12 in-depth farmer interviews regarding variables in farm management as a unit of analysis and utilized cognitive mapping as a qualitative method of analysis. Our objectives were (1) to illustrate and describe agroforestry management variables and associated farm practices, (2) to determine the scope of decision making of individual farmers, and (3) to investigate the suitability of cognitive mapping as a tool for assessing local knowledge use. Results from the cognitive maps revealed an average of 16 +/- 3 variables and 19 +/- 3 links between management variables in the farmer cognitive maps. Farmer use of advantageous ecological processes was highly central to farm management (48% of all variables), particularly manipulation of organic matter, shade and food crop establishment, and maintenance of a tree stratum as the most common, highly linked variables. Over 85% of variables included bidirectional arrows, interpreted as farm management practices dominated by controllable factors, insofar as farmers indicated an ability to alter most farm characteristics. Local knowledge use on cocoa production revealed detailed indicators for site evaluation, thus affecting farm preparation and management. Our findings suggest that amid multisourced information under conditions of uncertainty, strategies for adaptable agroforestry management should integrate existing and localized management frameworks and that cognitive mapping provides a tool-based approach to advance such a management support system.

  17. Assessing Local Knowledge Use in Agroforestry Management with Cognitive Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Marney E.; Dawoe, Evans; Sieciechowicz, Krystyna

    2009-06-01

    Small-holder farmers often develop adaptable agroforestry management techniques to improve and diversify crop production. In the cocoa growing region of Ghana, local knowledge on such farm management holds a noteworthy role in the overall farm development. The documentation and analysis of such knowledge use in cocoa agroforests may afford an applicable framework to determine mechanisms driving farmer preference and indicators in farm management. This study employed 12 in-depth farmer interviews regarding variables in farm management as a unit of analysis and utilized cognitive mapping as a qualitative method of analysis. Our objectives were (1) to illustrate and describe agroforestry management variables and associated farm practices, (2) to determine the scope of decision making of individual farmers, and (3) to investigate the suitability of cognitive mapping as a tool for assessing local knowledge use. Results from the cognitive maps revealed an average of 16 ± 3 variables and 19 ± 3 links between management variables in the farmer cognitive maps. Farmer use of advantageous ecological processes was highly central to farm management (48% of all variables), particularly manipulation of organic matter, shade and food crop establishment, and maintenance of a tree stratum as the most common, highly linked variables. Over 85% of variables included bidirectional arrows, interpreted as farm management practices dominated by controllable factors, insofar as farmers indicated an ability to alter most farm characteristics. Local knowledge use on cocoa production revealed detailed indicators for site evaluation, thus affecting farm preparation and management. Our findings suggest that amid multisourced information under conditions of uncertainty, strategies for adaptable agroforestry management should integrate existing and localized management frameworks and that cognitive mapping provides a tool-based approach to advance such a management support system.

  18. Assessment of myocardial fibrosis with T1 mapping MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, R.J.; Stirrat, C.G.; Semple, S.I.R.; Newby, D.E.; Dweck, M.R.; Mirsadraee, S.

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial fibrosis can arise from a range of pathological processes and its presence correlates with adverse clinical outcomes. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) can provide a non-invasive assessment of cardiac structure, function, and tissue characteristics, which includes late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) techniques to identify focal irreversible replacement fibrosis with a high degree of accuracy and reproducibility. Importantly the presence of LGE is consistently associated with adverse outcomes in a range of common cardiac conditions; however, LGE techniques are qualitative and unable to detect diffuse myocardial fibrosis, which is an earlier form of fibrosis preceding replacement fibrosis that may be reversible. Novel T1 mapping techniques allow quantitative CMR assessment of diffuse myocardial fibrosis with the two most common measures being native T1 and extracellular volume (ECV) fraction. Native T1 differentiates normal from infarcted myocardium, is abnormal in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and may be particularly useful in the diagnosis of Anderson–Fabry disease and amyloidosis. ECV is a surrogate measure of the extracellular space and is equivalent to the myocardial volume of distribution of the gadolinium-based contrast medium. It is reproducible and correlates well with fibrosis on histology. ECV is abnormal in patients with cardiac failure and aortic stenosis, and is associated with functional impairment in these groups. T1 mapping techniques promise to allow earlier detection of disease, monitor disease progression, and inform prognosis; however, limitations remain. In particular, reference ranges are lacking for T1 mapping values as these are influenced by specific CMR techniques and magnetic field strength. In addition, there is significant overlap between T1 mapping values in healthy controls and most disease states, particularly using native T1, limiting the clinical application of these techniques at present.

  19. Assessment of myocardial fibrosis with T1 mapping MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, R J; Stirrat, C G; Semple, S I R; Newby, D E; Dweck, M R; Mirsadraee, S

    2016-08-01

    Myocardial fibrosis can arise from a range of pathological processes and its presence correlates with adverse clinical outcomes. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) can provide a non-invasive assessment of cardiac structure, function, and tissue characteristics, which includes late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) techniques to identify focal irreversible replacement fibrosis with a high degree of accuracy and reproducibility. Importantly the presence of LGE is consistently associated with adverse outcomes in a range of common cardiac conditions; however, LGE techniques are qualitative and unable to detect diffuse myocardial fibrosis, which is an earlier form of fibrosis preceding replacement fibrosis that may be reversible. Novel T1 mapping techniques allow quantitative CMR assessment of diffuse myocardial fibrosis with the two most common measures being native T1 and extracellular volume (ECV) fraction. Native T1 differentiates normal from infarcted myocardium, is abnormal in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and may be particularly useful in the diagnosis of Anderson-Fabry disease and amyloidosis. ECV is a surrogate measure of the extracellular space and is equivalent to the myocardial volume of distribution of the gadolinium-based contrast medium. It is reproducible and correlates well with fibrosis on histology. ECV is abnormal in patients with cardiac failure and aortic stenosis, and is associated with functional impairment in these groups. T1 mapping techniques promise to allow earlier detection of disease, monitor disease progression, and inform prognosis; however, limitations remain. In particular, reference ranges are lacking for T1 mapping values as these are influenced by specific CMR techniques and magnetic field strength. In addition, there is significant overlap between T1 mapping values in healthy controls and most disease states, particularly using native T1, limiting the clinical application of these techniques at present. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College

  20. Control over the Strength of Connections Between Modules: A Double Dissociation Between Stimulus Format and Task Revealed by Granger Causality Mapping in fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt eAnderson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on theoretical and computational work with the localist Dual Route reading model and results from behavioral studies, Besner, Moroz, and O'Malley (2011 proposed that the ability to perform tasks that require overriding stimulus-specific defaults (e.g., semantics when naming Arabic numerals, and phonology when evaluating the parity of number words necessitate the ability to modulate the strength of connections between cognitive modules for lexical representation, semantics, and phonology on a task- and stimulus-specific basis. We used fMRI to evaluate this account by assessing changes in functional connectivity while participants performed tasks that did and did not require such stimulus-task default overrides. The occipital region showing the greatest modulation of BOLD signal strength for the two stimulus types was used as the seed region for Granger Causality Mapping (GCM. Our GCM analysis revealed a region of rostromedial frontal cortex with a crossover interaction. When participants performed tasks that required overriding stimulus type defaults (i.e., parity judgments of number words and naming Arabic numerals functional connectivity between the occipital region and rostromedial frontal cortex was present. Statistically significant functional connectivity was absent when the tasks were the default for the stimulus type (i.e., parity judgments of Arabic numerals and reading number words. This frontal region (BA 10 has previously been shown to be involved in goal-directed behaviour and maintenance of a specific task-set. We conclude that overriding stimulus-task defaults requires a modulation of connection strengths between cognitive modules and that the override mechanism predicted from cognitive theory is instantiated by frontal modulation of neural activity of brain regions specialized for sensory processing.

  1. Student Connections of Linear Algebra Concepts: An Analysis of Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapp, Douglas A.; Nyman, Melvin A.; Berry, John S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the connections of linear algebra concepts in a first course at the undergraduate level. The theoretical underpinnings of this study are grounded in the constructivist perspective (including social constructivism), Vernaud's theory of conceptual fields and Pirie and Kieren's model for the growth of mathematical understanding.…

  2. Validity and Responsiveness of Concept Map Assessment Scores in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Soo; Jang, Yongkyu; Kang, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    Concept map assessment has been applied to many education areas to measure students' knowledge structure. However, the proper and valid use of concept map assessment has not been examined in physical education. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the evidence of validity and responsiveness of the concept map assessment scores in physical…

  3. Connectivity maps based analysis of EEG for the advanced diagnosis of schizophrenia attributes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zack Dvey-Aharon

    Full Text Available This article presents a novel connectivity analysis method that is suitable for multi-node networks such as EEG, MEG or EcOG electrode recordings. Its diagnostic power and ability to interpret brain states in schizophrenia is demonstrated on a set of 50 subjects that constituted of 25 healthy and 25 diagnosed with schizophrenia and treated with medication. The method can also be used for the automatic detection of schizophrenia; it exhibits higher sensitivity than state-of-the-art methods with no false positives. The detection is based on an analysis from a minute long pattern-recognition computer task. Moreover, this connectivity analysis leads naturally to an optimal choice of electrodes and hence to highly statistically significant results that are based on data from only 3-5 electrodes. The method is general and can be used for the diagnosis of other psychiatric conditions, provided an appropriate computer task is devised.

  4. All-optical functional synaptic connectivity mapping in acute brain slices using the calcium integrator CaMPARI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnik, Timothy A; Sha, Fern; Johenning, Friedrich W; Schreiter, Eric R; Looger, Loren L; Larkum, Matthew E; Sachdev, Robert N S

    2017-03-01

    The genetically encoded fluorescent calcium integrator calcium-modulated photoactivatable ratiobetric integrator (CaMPARI) reports calcium influx induced by synaptic and neural activity. Its fluorescence is converted from green to red in the presence of violet light and calcium. The rate of conversion - the sensitivity to activity - is tunable and depends on the intensity of violet light. Synaptic activity and action potentials can independently initiate significant CaMPARI conversion. The level of conversion by subthreshold synaptic inputs is correlated to the strength of input, enabling optical readout of relative synaptic strength. When combined with optogenetic activation of defined presynaptic neurons, CaMPARI provides an all-optical method to map synaptic connectivity. The calcium-modulated photoactivatable ratiometric integrator (CaMPARI) is a genetically encoded calcium integrator that facilitates the study of neural circuits by permanently marking cells active during user-specified temporal windows. Permanent marking enables measurement of signals from large swathes of tissue and easy correlation of activity with other structural or functional labels. One potential application of CaMPARI is labelling neurons postsynaptic to specific populations targeted for optogenetic stimulation, giving rise to all-optical functional connectivity mapping. Here, we characterized the response of CaMPARI to several common types of neuronal calcium signals in mouse acute cortical brain slices. Our experiments show that CaMPARI is effectively converted by both action potentials and subthreshold synaptic inputs, and that conversion level is correlated to synaptic strength. Importantly, we found that conversion rate can be tuned: it is linearly related to light intensity. At low photoconversion light levels CaMPARI offers a wide dynamic range due to slower conversion rate; at high light levels conversion is more rapid and more sensitive to activity. Finally, we employed Ca

  5. Quantitative Chemical-Genetic Interaction Map Connects Gene Alterations to Drug Responses | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a recent Cancer Discovery report, CTD2 researchers at the University of California in San Francisco developed a new quantitative chemical-genetic interaction mapping approach to evaluate drug sensitivity or resistance in isogenic cell lines. Performing a high-throughput screen with isogenic cell lines allowed the researchers to explore the impact of a panel of emerging and established drugs on cells overexpressing a single cancer-associated gene in isolation.

  6. The semantic connectivity map: an adapting self-organising knowledge discovery method in data bases. Experience in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscema, Massimo; Grossi, Enzo

    2008-01-01

    We describe here a new mapping method able to find out connectivity traces among variables thanks to an artificial adaptive system, the Auto Contractive Map (AutoCM), able to define the strength of the associations of each variable with all the others in a dataset. After the training phase, the weights matrix of the AutoCM represents the map of the main connections between the variables. The example of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease data base is extremely useful to figure out how this new approach can help to re-design the overall structure of factors related to complex and specific diseases description.

  7. Student Engagement and Blended Learning: Making the Assessment Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Norman

    2014-01-01

    There is an increased focus on student engagement and blended approaches to learning in higher education. This article demonstrates how collaborative learning applications and a blended approach to learning can be used to design and support assessment activities that increase levels of student engagement with course concepts, their peers, faculty…

  8. Left Ventricular Electromechanical Mapping: A Case Study of Functional Assessment in Coronary Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Perin, Emerson C.; Silva, Guilherme V.; Sarmento-Leite, Rogerio

    2000-01-01

    Electromechanical mapping is a new diagnostic tool that can be used to identify viable myocardium. In the case reported here, the technique was used before intervention to map areas of viable myocardium; post-intervention mapping showed improved mechanical function of the revascularized areas. Electromechanical mapping offers the potential of assessing left ventricular function in the cardiac catheterization laboratory before and after interventional procedures.

  9. Connecting single-stock assessment models through correlated survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Christoffer Moesgaard; Nielsen, Anders; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    2017-01-01

    times. We propose a simple alternative. In three case studies each with two stocks, we improve the single-stock models, as measured by Akaike information criterion, by adding correlation in the cohort survival. To limit the number of parameters, the correlations are parameterized through...... the corresponding partial correlations. We consider six models where the partial correlation matrix between stocks follows a band structure ranging from independent assessments to complex correlation structures. Further, a simulation study illustrates the importance of handling correlated data sufficiently...... by investigating the coverage of confidence intervals for estimated fishing mortality. The results presented will allow managers to evaluate stock statuses based on a more accurate evaluation of model output uncertainty. The methods are directly implementable for stocks with an analytical assessment and do...

  10. Assessment of the thematic accuracy of land cover maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høhle, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    were applied (‘Decision Tree’ and ‘Support Vector Machine’) using only two attributes (height above ground and normalized difference vegetation index) which both are derived from the images. The assessment of the thematic accuracy applied a stratified design and was based on accuracy measures...... methods perform equally for five classes. Trees are classified with a much better accuracy and a smaller confidence interval by means of the decision tree method. Buildings are classified by both methods with an accuracy of 99% (95% CI: 95%-100%) using independent 3D checkpoints. The average width......Several land cover maps are generated from aerial imagery and assessed by different approaches. The test site is an urban area in Europe for which six classes (‘building’, ‘hedge and bush’, ‘grass’, ‘road and parking lot’, ‘tree’, ‘wall and car port’) had to be derived. Two classification methods...

  11. Self-Organizing Maps for Fingerprint Image Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Martin Aastrup; Tabassi, Elham; Makarov, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Fingerprint quality assessment is a crucial task which needs to be conducted accurately in various phases in the biometric enrolment and recognition processes. Neglecting quality measurement will adversely impact accuracy and efficiency of biometric recognition systems (e.g. verification and iden......Fingerprint quality assessment is a crucial task which needs to be conducted accurately in various phases in the biometric enrolment and recognition processes. Neglecting quality measurement will adversely impact accuracy and efficiency of biometric recognition systems (e.g. verification...... machine learning techniques. We train a self-organizing map (SOM) to cluster blocks of fingerprint images based on their spatial information content. The output of the SOM is a high-level representation of the finger image, which forms the input to a Random Forest trained to learn the relationship between...

  12. Spatial mapping of wind parks in Republic of Macedonia from aspect of power generation and connection to power grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janchevska, Melita

    2012-01-01

    The master thesis “Spatial mapping of wind parks in Republic of Macedonia from aspect of power generation and connection to power grid” presents spatial aspects for setting of wind parks at favourable locations. The thesis presents a comprehensive analysis how to carry out the administrative procedures that are in force in Republic of Macedonia, a range of minimum allowed distances in setting of each of the wind plants within a wind parks, but also requirements for fulfilling the basic human rights in preserving quality of life of the people in rural areas where the wind parks are build. As a result, a compromise in setting of wind parks and a suitable solution of sustainable development should be reached. Therefore, the decision making process should be based on the following key factors: environmental, social and economic development of the area of concern. The production of wind power is strongly influenced by meteorological conditions and has an average factor of utilization of up to 30%. This low factor of utilization cannot be used for planning of the basic energy needs of the country, but it can contribute certainly towards the reduction of the participation of conventional power plants. Republic of Macedonia introduced feed-in tariffs as a subsiding mechanism for building and strong penetration of wind parks. Additional funding mechanisms include carbon financing and green-field credits, through development of projects in the framework of Clean Development Mechanism, which improves the economic feasibility of the project and increases the interest of the investors. The analysis of the relevant spatial aspects of setting wind parks in Republic of Macedonia based on balanced and sustainable spatial development is made with regards to the following thematic areas: exploiting the potential of wind energy, climate issues, geo morphological and geo seismically aspects, rational use of land, protection of agricultural land and forests, spatial allocation of

  13. Therapeutic assessment with an adolescent: choosing connections over substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Cynthia A; Krumholz, Lauren S; Tharinger, Deborah J

    2012-01-01

    This case study provides an in-depth example of a comprehensive therapeutic assessment with an adolescent (TA-A) and his parents. The TA-A addressed parental concerns about their son's drug experimentation as well as the adolescent's own private questions about his distinctiveness from others, all set against a backdrop of ongoing parental conflict and poor communication. The TA-A process and how it is specifically tailored to balance the needs of adolescents and their parents is discussed. Subsequently, each step of TA-A is illustrated through the case study. Research findings at the conclusion of the assessment and at follow-up indicated significant decreases in internalizing symptomology and school problems, increases in self-esteem and self-reliance, and improved family functioning as reported by the adolescent. At follow-up, the father spoke of developing a more assertive parenting approach and successful follow-through on recommendations. This case study provides a template for clinicians interested in conducting TA-A.

  14. Making connections for life: an in vivo map of the yeast interactome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Juergen

    2008-10-01

    Proteins are the true workhorses of any cell. To carry out specific tasks, they frequently bind other molecules in their surroundings. Due to their structural complexity and flexibility, the most diverse array of interactions is seen with other proteins. The different geometries and affinities available for such interactions typically bestow specific functions on proteins. Having available a map of protein-protein interactions is therefore of enormous importance for any researcher interested in gaining insight into biological systems at the level of cells and organisms. In a recent report, a novel approach has been employed that relies on the spontaneous folding of complementary enzyme fragments fused to two different proteins to test whether these interact in their actual cellular context [Tarassov et al., Science 320, 1465-1470 (2008)]. Genome-wide application of this protein-fragment complementation assay has resulted in the first map of the in vivo interactome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The current data show striking similarities but also significant differences to those obtained using other large-scale approaches for the same task. This warrants a general discussion of the current state of affairs of protein-protein interaction studies and foreseeable future trends, highlighting their significance for a variety of applications and their potential to revolutionize our understanding of the architecture and dynamics of biological systems.

  15. Mapping effective connectivity in the human brain with concurrent intracranial electrical stimulation and BOLD-fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, Hiroyuki; Howard, Matthew A; Magnotta, Vincent A; Kruger, Anton; Griffiths, Timothy D; Lemieux, Louis; Carmichael, David W; Petkov, Christopher I; Kawasaki, Hiroto; Kovach, Christopher K; Sutterer, Matthew J; Adolphs, Ralph

    2017-02-01

    Understanding brain function requires knowledge of how one brain region causally influences another. This information is difficult to obtain directly in the human brain, and is instead typically inferred from resting-state fMRI. Here, we demonstrate the safety and scientific promise of a novel and complementary approach: concurrent electrical stimulation and fMRI (es-fMRI) at 3T in awake neurosurgical patients with implanted depth electrodes. We document the results of safety testing, actual experimental setup, and stimulation parameters, that safely and reliably evoke activation in distal structures through stimulation of amygdala, cingulate, or prefrontal cortex. We compare connectivity inferred from the evoked patterns of activation with that estimated from standard resting-state fMRI in the same patients: while connectivity patterns obtained with each approach are correlated, each method produces unique results. Response patterns were stable over the course of 11min of es-fMRI runs. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHOD: es-fMRI in awake humans yields unique information about effective connectivity, complementing resting-state fMRI. Although our stimulations were below the level of inducing any apparent behavioral or perceptual effects, a next step would be to use es-fMRI to modulate task performances. This would reveal the acute network-level changes induced by the stimulation that mediate the behavioral and cognitive effects seen with brain stimulation. es-fMRI provides a novel and safe approach for mapping effective connectivity in the human brain in a clinical setting, and will inform treatments for psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders that use deep brain stimulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Brain-wide mapping of axonal connections: workflow for automated detection and spatial analysis of labeling in microscopic sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Agnes ePapp

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Axonal tracing techniques are powerful tools for exploring the structural organization of neuronal connections. Tracers such as biotinylated dextran amine (BDA and Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (Pha-L allow brain-wide mapping of connections through analysis of large series of histological section images. We present a workflow for efficient collection and analysis of tract-tracing datasets with a focus on newly developed modules for image processing and assignment of anatomical location to tracing data. New functionality includes automatic detection of neuronal labeling in large image series, alignment of images to a volumetric brain atlas, and analytical tools for measuring the position and extent of labeling. To evaluate the workflow, we used high-resolution microscopic images from axonal tracing experiments in which different parts of the rat primary somatosensory cortex had been injected with BDA or Pha-L. Parameters from a set of representative images were used to automate detection of labeling in image series covering the entire brain, resulting in binary maps of the distribution of labeling. For high to medium labeling densities, automatic detection was found to provide reliable results when compared to manual analysis, whereas weak labeling required manual curation for optimal detection. To identify brain regions corresponding to labeled areas, section images were aligned to the Waxholm Space (WHS atlas of the Sprague Dawley rat brain (v2 by custom-angle slicing of the MRI template to match individual sections. Based on the alignment, WHS coordinates were obtained for labeled elements and transformed to stereotaxic coordinates. The new workflow modules increase the efficiency and reliability of labeling detection in large series of images from histological sections, and enable anchoring to anatomical atlases for further spatial analysis and comparison with other data.

  17. Flood risk assessment and mapping for the Lebanese watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Chadi; Hdeib, Rouya

    2016-04-01

    Of all natural disasters, floods affect the greatest number of people worldwide and have the greatest potential to cause damage. Nowadays, with the emerging global warming phenomenon, this number is expected to increase. The Eastern Mediterranean area, including Lebanon (10452 Km2, 4.5 M habitant), has witnessed in the past few decades an increase frequency of flooding events. This study profoundly assess the flood risk over Lebanon covering all the 17 major watersheds and a number of small sub-catchments. It evaluate the physical direct tangible damages caused by floods. The risk assessment and evaluation process was carried out over three stages; i) Evaluating Assets at Risk, where the areas and assets vulnerable to flooding are identified, ii) Vulnerability Assessment, where the causes of vulnerability are assessed and the value of the assets are provided, iii) Risk Assessment, where damage functions are established and the consequent damages of flooding are estimated. A detailed Land CoverUse map was prepared at a scale of 1/ 1 000 using 0.4 m resolution satellite images within the flood hazard zones. The detailed field verification enabled to allocate and characterize all elements at risk, identify hotspots, interview local witnesses, and to correlate and calibrate previous flood damages with the utilized models. All filed gathered information was collected through Mobile Application and transformed to be standardized and classified under GIS environment. Consequently; the general damage evaluation and risk maps at different flood recurrence periods (10, 50, 100 years) were established. Major results showed that floods in a winter season (December, January, and February) of 10 year recurrence and of water retention ranging from 1 to 3 days can cause total damages (losses) that reach 1.14 M for crop lands and 2.30 M for green houses. Whereas, it may cause 0.2 M to losses in fruit trees for a flood retention ranging from 3 to 5 days. These numbers differs

  18. A Concept-Mapping Strategy for Assessing Conceptual Change in a Student-Directed, Research-Based Geoscience Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebich, S.

    2003-12-01

    The concept mapping technique has been proposed as a method for examining the evolving nature of students' conceptualizations of scientific concepts, and promises insight into a dimension of learning different from the one accessible through more conventional classroom testing techniques. The theory behind concept mapping is based on an assumption that knowledge acquisition is accomplished through "linking" of new information to an existing knowledge framework, and that meaningful (as opposed to arbitrary or verbatim) links allow for deeper understanding and conceptual change. Reflecting this theory, concept maps are constructed as a network of related concepts connected by labeled links that illustrate the relationship between the concepts. Two concepts connected by one such link make up a "proposition", the basic element of the concept map structure. In this paper, we examine the results of a pre- and post-test assessment program for an upper-division undergraduate geography course entitled "Mock Environmental Summit," which was part of a research project on assessment. Concept mapping was identified as a potentially powerful assessment tool for this course, as more conventional tools such as multiple-choice tests did not seem to provide a reliable indication of the learning students were experiencing as a result of the student-directed research, presentations, and discussions that make up a substantial portion of the course. The assessment program began at the beginning of the course with a one-hour training session during which students were introduced to the theory behind concept mapping, provided with instructions and guidance for constructing a concept map using the CMap software developed and maintained by the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition at the University of West Florida, and asked to collaboratively construct a concept map on a topic not related to the one to be assessed. This training session was followed by a 45-minute "pre-test" on the

  19. DESERT ECOSYSTEMS: MAPPING, MONITORING & ASSESSMENT USING SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Arya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Desert ecosystems are unique but fragile ecosystems , mostly vulnerable to a variety of degradational processes like water erosion, vegetal degradation, salinity, wind erosion , water logging etc. Some researchers consider desertification to be a process of change, while others view it as the end result of a process of change. There is an urgent need to arrest the process of desertification and combat land degradation. Under the auspices of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD, Space Applications Centre, Ahmedabad has undertaken the task of mapping, monitoring and assessment of desertification carrying out pilot project in hot and cold desert regions in drylands on 1:50,000 scale followed by systematic Desertification Status Mappaing (DSM of India on 1:500,000 scale.

  20. Harmonic resonance assessment of multiple paralleled grid-connected inverters system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanbo; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an eigenvalue-based impedance stability analytical method of multiple paralleled grid-connected inverter system. Different from the conventional impedance-based stability criterion, this work first built the state-space model of paralleled grid-connected inverters. On the basis...... of this, a bridge between the state-space-based modelling and impedance-based stability criterion is presented. The proposed method is able to perform stability assessment locally at the connection points of the component. Meanwhile, the eigenvalue-based sensitivity analysis is adopted to identify...

  1. The T-TEL Method for Assessing Water, Sediment, and Chemical Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Genevieve; Oswald, Claire; Spence, Christopher; Wellen, Christopher

    2018-02-01

    The concept of connectivity has been the subject of a great deal of recent research and provided new insights and breakthroughs on runoff generation processes and watershed biogeochemistry. However, a consensus definition and cohesive mathematical framework that would permit the consistent quantification of hydrologic connectivity, the examination of the interrelationships between water and material (e.g., sediment and chemicals) connectivity, or rigorous study intercomparison, have not been presented by the water resource community. Building on previous conceptualizations and site-specific or process-specific metrics, this paper aimed to review the current state of science on hydrologic connectivity and its role in water-mediated connectivity of material such as solutes and sediment before introducing a conceptual and a mathematical connectivity assessment framework. These frameworks rely on the quantification of Time scales, Thresholds, Excesses and Losses related to water and water-mediated material transport dynamics and are referred to as the T-TEL method. Through a small case study, we show how the T-TEL method allows a wide range of properties to be quantified, namely the occurrence, frequency, duration, magnitude, and spatial extent of water and water-mediated material connectivity. We also propose a research agenda to refine the T-TEL method and ensure its usefulness for facilitating the research and management of connectivity in pristine and human-impacted landscapes.

  2. Eigenvector centrality mapping for analyzing connectivity patterns in fMRI data of the human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Lohmann

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance data acquired in a task-absent condition ("resting state" require new data analysis techniques that do not depend on an activation model. In this work, we introduce an alternative assumption- and parameter-free method based on a particular form of node centrality called eigenvector centrality. Eigenvector centrality attributes a value to each voxel in the brain such that a voxel receives a large value if it is strongly correlated with many other nodes that are themselves central within the network. Google's PageRank algorithm is a variant of eigenvector centrality. Thus far, other centrality measures - in particular "betweenness centrality" - have been applied to fMRI data using a pre-selected set of nodes consisting of several hundred elements. Eigenvector centrality is computationally much more efficient than betweenness centrality and does not require thresholding of similarity values so that it can be applied to thousands of voxels in a region of interest covering the entire cerebrum which would have been infeasible using betweenness centrality. Eigenvector centrality can be used on a variety of different similarity metrics. Here, we present applications based on linear correlations and on spectral coherences between fMRI times series. This latter approach allows us to draw conclusions of connectivity patterns in different spectral bands. We apply this method to fMRI data in task-absent conditions where subjects were in states of hunger or satiety. We show that eigenvector centrality is modulated by the state that the subjects were in. Our analyses demonstrate that eigenvector centrality is a computationally efficient tool for capturing intrinsic neural architecture on a voxel-wise level.

  3. Improvement of a free software tool for the assessment of sediment connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crema, Stefano; Lanni, Cristiano; Goldin, Beatrice; Marchi, Lorenzo; Cavalli, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Sediment connectivity expresses the degree of linkage that controls sediment fluxes throughout landscape, in particular between sediment sources and downstream areas. The assessment of sediment connectivity becomes a key issue when dealing with risk mitigation and priorities of intervention in the territory. In this work, the authors report the improvements made to an open source and stand-alone application (SedInConnect, http://www.sedalp.eu/download/tools.shtml), along with extensive applications to alpine catchments. SedInConnect calculates a sediment connectivity index as expressed in Cavalli et al. (2013); the software improvements consisted primarily in the introduction of the sink feature, i.e. areas that act as traps for sediment produced upstream (e.g., lakes, sediment traps). Based on user-defined sinks, the software decouples those parts of the catchment that do not deliver sediment to a selected target of interest (e.g., fan apex, main drainage network). In this way the assessment of sediment connectivity is achieved by taking in consideration effective sediment contributing areas. Sediment connectivity analysis has been carried out on several catchments in the South Tyrol alpine area (Northern Italy) with the goal of achieving a fast and objective characterization of the topographic control on sediment transfer. In addition to depicting the variability of sediment connectivity inside each basin, the index of connectivity has proved to be a valuable indicator of the dominant process characterizing the basin sediment dynamics (debris flow, bedload, mixed behavior). The characterization of the dominant process is of great importance for the hazard and risk assessment in mountain areas, and for choice and design of structural and non-structural intervention measures. The recognition of the dominant sediment transport process by the index of connectivity is in agreement with evidences arising from post-event field surveys and with the application of

  4. Mapping the criminal mind: idiographic assessment of criminal belief systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D

    2005-02-01

    An idiographic procedure designed to assess the belief systems of criminal offenders is described, investigated, and clarified. This measure, the Cognitive Map of Major Belief Systems (CMMBS), assesses the five belief systems (self-view, world-view, past-view, present-view, future-view) held to occupy the higher echelons of human cognition. Modest to moderate test-retest reliability was achieved when 19 inmates, enrolled in one of three drug-counseling groups, completed the CMMBS on two separate occasions, 2 weeks apart. It was also ascertained that the drug treatment specialist who served as therapist for all three groups "blindly" matched the 19 CMMBS records to the inmates who produced them. A case study of one of the 19 participants was used to illustrate how the CMMBS is employed with individual offenders and how belief systems interact with major schematic subnetworks such as attributions, outcome expectancies, efficacy expectancies, goals, values, and thinking styles to create crime-supporting lifestyles.

  5. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps for Glacier Hazards Assessment: Application to Predicting the Potential for Glacier Lake Outbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furfaro, R.; Kargel, J. S.; Fink, W.; Bishop, M. P.

    2010-12-01

    Potential and Impound Water Upstream Flow Potential. The FCM is constructed using what is currently our understanding of how glacier lake outbursts occur, whereas the causal connection between concepts is defined to capture the expertise of glacier scientists. The proposed graph contains 27 nodes and a network of connections that represent the causal link between concepts. To test the developed FCM, we defined three scenarios representing glacier lake environmental conditions that either occurred or that are likely to occur in such highly dynamic environments. For each case, the FCM has been initialized using observables extracted from hypothesized remote sensing imagery. The map, which converges to a fixed point for all of the test scenarios within 15 iterations, shows reasoning consistent with that of glacier experts. The FCM-based cognitive approach has the potential to be the AI core of real-time operational hazards assessment and detection systems.

  6. Passivity-Based Stability Assessment of Grid-Connected VSCs - An Overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harnefors, Lennart; Wang, Xiongfei; Yepes, Alejandro G.

    2016-01-01

    The interconnection stability of a grid-connected voltage-source converter (VSC) can be assessed by the passivity properties of the VSC input admittance. If critical grid resonances fall within regions where the input admittance acts passively, i.e., has nonnegative real part, then their destabil......The interconnection stability of a grid-connected voltage-source converter (VSC) can be assessed by the passivity properties of the VSC input admittance. If critical grid resonances fall within regions where the input admittance acts passively, i.e., has nonnegative real part...

  7. Radiographic assessment of welding connections defectiveness, state of art in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiatkowski, R.

    1995-01-01

    The assessment of welding connections defectiveness according to Polish regulations has been performed. The European regulations in interested matter and their relationships to Polish ones have been shown. The differences have been pointed out and discussed from the view point of law adaptation process preceding joining of Poland with the European Community. 12 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Assessment Of Accuracies Of Remote-Sensing Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Don H.; Strong, Laurence L.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes study of accuracies of classifications of picture elements in map derived by digital processing of Landsat-multispectral-scanner imagery of coastal plain of Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Accuracies of portions of map analyzed with help of statistical sampling procedure called "stratified plurality sampling", in which all picture elements in given cluster classified in stratum to which plurality of them belong.

  9. Spatial Mapping of Structural and Connectional Imaging Data for the Developing Human Brain with Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Austin; Jeon, Tina; Sunkin, Susan M.; Pletikos, Mihovil; Sedmak, Goran; Sestan, Nenad; Lein, Ed S.; Huang, Hao

    2014-01-01

    During human brain development from fetal stage to adulthood, the white matter (WM) tracts undergo dramatic changes. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a widely used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modality, offers insight into the dynamic changes of WM fibers as these fibers can be noninvasively traced and three-dimensionally (3D) reconstructed with DTI tractography. The DTI and conventional T1 weighted MRI images also provide sufficient cortical anatomical details for mapping the cortical regions of interests (ROIs). In this paper, we described basic concepts and methods of DTI techniques that can be used to trace major WM tracts noninvasively from fetal brain of 14 postconceptional weeks (pcw) to adult brain. We applied these techniques to acquire DTI data and trace, reconstruct and visualize major WM tracts during development. After categorizing major WM fiber bundles into five unique functional tract groups, namely limbic, brain stem, projection, commissural and association tracts, we revealed formation and maturation of these 3D reconstructed WM tracts of the developing human brain. The structural and connectional imaging data offered by DTI provides the anatomical backbone of transcriptional atlas of the developing human brain. PMID:25448302

  10. Spatial mapping of structural and connectional imaging data for the developing human brain with diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Austin; Jeon, Tina; Sunkin, Susan M; Pletikos, Mihovil; Sedmak, Goran; Sestan, Nenad; Lein, Ed S; Huang, Hao

    2015-02-01

    During human brain development from fetal stage to adulthood, the white matter (WM) tracts undergo dramatic changes. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a widely used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modality, offers insight into the dynamic changes of WM fibers as these fibers can be noninvasively traced and three-dimensionally (3D) reconstructed with DTI tractography. The DTI and conventional T1 weighted MRI images also provide sufficient cortical anatomical details for mapping the cortical regions of interests (ROIs). In this paper, we described basic concepts and methods of DTI techniques that can be used to trace major WM tracts noninvasively from fetal brain of 14 postconceptional weeks (pcw) to adult brain. We applied these techniques to acquire DTI data and trace, reconstruct and visualize major WM tracts during development. After categorizing major WM fiber bundles into five unique functional tract groups, namely limbic, brain stem, projection, commissural and association tracts, we revealed formation and maturation of these 3D reconstructed WM tracts of the developing human brain. The structural and connectional imaging data offered by DTI provides the anatomical backbone of transcriptional atlas of the developing human brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Systematic drug safety evaluation based on public genomic expression (Connectivity Map) data: myocardial and infectious adverse reactions as application cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kejian; Weng, Zuquan; Sun, Liya; Sun, Jiazhi; Zhou, Shu-Feng; He, Lin

    2015-02-13

    Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is of great importance to both regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. Various techniques, such as quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) and animal toxicology, are widely used to identify potential risks during the preclinical stage of drug development. Despite these efforts, drugs with safety liabilities can still pass through safety checkpoints and enter the market. This situation raises the concern that conventional chemical structure analysis and phenotypic screening are not sufficient to avoid all clinical adverse events. Genomic expression data following in vitro drug treatments characterize drug actions and thus have become widely used in drug repositioning. In the present study, we explored prediction of ADRs based on the drug-induced gene-expression profiles from cultured human cells in the Connectivity Map (CMap) database. The results showed that drugs inducing comparable ADRs generally lead to similar CMap expression profiles. Based on such ADR-gene expression association, we established prediction models for various ADRs, including severe myocardial and infectious events. Drugs with FDA boxed warnings of safety liability were effectively identified. We therefore suggest that drug-induced gene expression change, in combination with effective computational methods, may provide a new dimension of information to facilitate systematic drug safety evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Connecting People to Place: Stories, Science, Deep Maps, and Geo-Quests for Place-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagley, C. A.; Silbernagel, J.; Host, G.; Hart, D. A.; Axler, R.; Fortner, R. W.; Axler, M.; Smith, V.; Drewes, A.; Bartsch, W.; Danz, N.; Mathews, J.; Wagler, M.

    2016-02-01

    The St. Louis River Estuary project (stlouisriverestuary.org) is about connecting the stories with the science of this special place to enhance spatial awareness and stewardship of the estuary. The stories, or spatial narratives, are told through vignettes of local resource activities, framed by perspectives of local people. The spatial narratives, developed through interviews and research, target six key activities of the estuary. The science is based on stressor gradients research, incorporating factors such as population and road density, pollutant point source density, and land use. The stressor gradient developed based on these factors was used as a basis for sampling water quality and plant and macroinvertebrate communities, with the intent of quantifying relationships between land-based stressors and aquatic ecosystem indicators of condition. The stories and science are interwoven, located in place on a Deep Map, and played out in GeoQuests to illustrate the complexity and multiple perspectives within the estuary's social, economic and ecological systems. Students, decision-makers, and Lake Superior enthusiasts can engage more deeply in the complexity of the stories and science by challenging themselves with these GeoQuests played on mobile devices. We hope these place-based learning tools will be valuable in advancing spatial literacy and conversation around environmental sustainability in coastal communities.

  13. Seizure-Onset Mapping Based on Time-Variant Multivariate Functional Connectivity Analysis of High-Dimensional Intracranial EEG: A Kalman Filter Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Octavian V; van Mierlo, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    The visual interpretation of intracranial EEG (iEEG) is the standard method used in complex epilepsy surgery cases to map the regions of seizure onset targeted for resection. Still, visual iEEG analysis is labor-intensive and biased due to interpreter dependency. Multivariate parametric functional connectivity measures using adaptive autoregressive (AR) modeling of the iEEG signals based on the Kalman filter algorithm have been used successfully to localize the electrographic seizure onsets. Due to their high computational cost, these methods have been applied to a limited number of iEEG time-series (Kalman filter implementations, a well-known multivariate adaptive AR model (Arnold et al. 1998) and a simplified, computationally efficient derivation of it, for their potential application to connectivity analysis of high-dimensional (up to 192 channels) iEEG data. When used on simulated seizures together with a multivariate connectivity estimator, the partial directed coherence, the two AR models were compared for their ability to reconstitute the designed seizure signal connections from noisy data. Next, focal seizures from iEEG recordings (73-113 channels) in three patients rendered seizure-free after surgery were mapped with the outdegree, a graph-theory index of outward directed connectivity. Simulation results indicated high levels of mapping accuracy for the two models in the presence of low-to-moderate noise cross-correlation. Accordingly, both AR models correctly mapped the real seizure onset to the resection volume. This study supports the possibility of conducting fully data-driven multivariate connectivity estimations on high-dimensional iEEG datasets using the Kalman filter approach.

  14. Assessing Volunteered Geographic Information (vgi) Quality Based on CONTRIBUTORS' Mapping Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégin, D.; Devillers, R.; Roche, S.

    2013-05-01

    VGI changed the mapping landscape by allowing people that are not professional cartographers to contribute to large mapping projects, resulting at the same time in concerns about the quality of the data produced. While a number of early VGI studies used conventional methods to assess data quality, such approaches are not always well adapted to VGI. Since VGI is a user-generated content, we posit that features and places mapped by contributors largely reflect contributors' personal interests. This paper proposes studying contributors' mapping processes to understand the characteristics and quality of the data produced. We argue that contributors' behaviour when mapping reflects contributors' motivation and individual preferences in selecting mapped features and delineating mapped areas. Such knowledge of contributors' behaviour could allow for the derivation of information about the quality of VGI datasets. This approach was tested using a sample area from OpenStreetMap, leading to a better understanding of data completeness for contributor's preferred features.

  15. A Framework to Assess Where and How Children Connect to Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Matteo; Svane, Ulrika; Raymond, Christopher M.; Beery, Thomas H.

    2018-01-01

    The design of the green infrastructure in urban areas largely ignores how people's relation to nature, or human-nature connection (HNC), can be nurtured. One practical reason for this is the lack of a framework to guide the assessment of where people, and more importantly children, experience significant nature situations and establish nature routines. This paper develops such a framework. We employed a mixed-method approach to understand what qualities of nature situations connect children to nature (RQ1), what constitutes children's HNC (RQ2), and how significant nature situations and children's HNC relate to each other over time (RQ3). We first interviewed professionals in the field of connecting children to nature (N = 26), performed inductive thematic analysis of these interviews, and then further examined the inductive findings by surveying specialists (N = 275). We identified 16 qualities of significant nature situations (e.g., “awe,” “engagement of senses,” “involvement of mentors”) and 10 abilities that constitute children's HNC (e.g., “feeling comfortable in natural spaces,” “feeling attached to natural spaces,” “taking care of nature”). We elaborated three principles to answer our research questions: (1) significant nature situations are various and with differing consequences for children's HNC; (2) children's HNC is a complex embodied ability; (3) children's HNC progresses over time through diverse nature routines. Together, these findings form the Assessment framework for Children's Human Nature Situations (ACHUNAS). ACHUNAS is a comprehensive framework that outlines what to quantify or qualify when assessing “child-nature connecting” environments. It guides the assessment of where and how children connect to nature, stimulating both the design of nature-connecting human habitats as well as pedagogical approaches to HNC. PMID:29354088

  16. A Framework to Assess Where and How Children Connect to Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Giusti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of the green infrastructure in urban areas largely ignores how people's relation to nature, or human-nature connection (HNC, can be nurtured. One practical reason for this is the lack of a framework to guide the assessment of where people, and more importantly children, experience significant nature situations and establish nature routines. This paper develops such a framework. We employed a mixed-method approach to understand what qualities of nature situations connect children to nature (RQ1, what constitutes children's HNC (RQ2, and how significant nature situations and children's HNC relate to each other over time (RQ3. We first interviewed professionals in the field of connecting children to nature (N = 26, performed inductive thematic analysis of these interviews, and then further examined the inductive findings by surveying specialists (N = 275. We identified 16 qualities of significant nature situations (e.g., “awe,” “engagement of senses,” “involvement of mentors” and 10 abilities that constitute children's HNC (e.g., “feeling comfortable in natural spaces,” “feeling attached to natural spaces,” “taking care of nature”. We elaborated three principles to answer our research questions: (1 significant nature situations are various and with differing consequences for children's HNC; (2 children's HNC is a complex embodied ability; (3 children's HNC progresses over time through diverse nature routines. Together, these findings form the Assessment framework for Children's Human Nature Situations (ACHUNAS. ACHUNAS is a comprehensive framework that outlines what to quantify or qualify when assessing “child-nature connecting” environments. It guides the assessment of where and how children connect to nature, stimulating both the design of nature-connecting human habitats as well as pedagogical approaches to HNC.

  17. Use of linkage mapping and centrality analysis across habitat gradients to conserve connectivity of gray wolf populations in western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Carlos; McRae, Brad H; Brookes, Allen

    2012-02-01

    Centrality metrics evaluate paths between all possible pairwise combinations of sites on a landscape to rank the contribution of each site to facilitating ecological flows across the network of sites. Computational advances now allow application of centrality metrics to landscapes represented as continuous gradients of habitat quality. This avoids the binary classification of landscapes into patch and matrix required by patch-based graph analyses of connectivity. It also avoids the focus on delineating paths between individual pairs of core areas characteristic of most corridor- or linkage-mapping methods of connectivity analysis. Conservation of regional habitat connectivity has the potential to facilitate recovery of the gray wolf (Canis lupus), a species currently recolonizing portions of its historic range in the western United States. We applied 3 contrasting linkage-mapping methods (shortest path, current flow, and minimum-cost-maximum-flow) to spatial data representing wolf habitat to analyze connectivity between wolf populations in central Idaho and Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming). We then applied 3 analogous betweenness centrality metrics to analyze connectivity of wolf habitat throughout the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada to determine where it might be possible to facilitate range expansion and interpopulation dispersal. We developed software to facilitate application of centrality metrics. Shortest-path betweenness centrality identified a minimal network of linkages analogous to those identified by least-cost-path corridor mapping. Current flow and minimum-cost-maximum-flow betweenness centrality identified diffuse networks that included alternative linkages, which will allow greater flexibility in planning. Minimum-cost-maximum-flow betweenness centrality, by integrating both land cost and habitat capacity, allows connectivity to be considered within planning processes that seek to maximize species protection at minimum cost

  18. AN ASSESSMENT OF CITIZEN CONTRIBUTED GROUND REFERENCE DATA FOR LAND COVER MAP ACCURACY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Foody

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is now widely accepted that an accuracy assessment should be part of a thematic mapping programme. Authoritative good or best practices for accuracy assessment have been defined but are often impractical to implement. Key reasons for this situation are linked to the ground reference data used in the accuracy assessment. Typically, it is a challenge to acquire a large sample of high quality reference cases in accordance to desired sampling designs specified as conforming to good practice and the data collected are normally to some degree imperfect limiting their value to an accuracy assessment which implicitly assumes the use of a gold standard reference. Citizen sensors have great potential to aid aspects of accuracy assessment. In particular, they may be able to act as a source of ground reference data that may, for example, reduce sample size problems but concerns with data quality remain. The relative strengths and limitations of citizen contributed data for accuracy assessment are reviewed in the context of the authoritative good practices defined for studies of land cover by remote sensing. The article will highlight some of the ways that citizen contributed data have been used in accuracy assessment as well as some of the problems that require further attention, and indicate some of the potential ways forward in the future.

  19. Systematic drug safety evaluation based on public genomic expression (Connectivity Map) data: Myocardial and infectious adverse reactions as application cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kejian, E-mail: kejian.wang.bio@gmail.com [Bio-X Institutes, Key Laboratory for the Genetics of Developmental and Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Weng, Zuquan [Japan National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Kawasaki (Japan); Sun, Liya [Bio-X Institutes, Key Laboratory for the Genetics of Developmental and Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Sun, Jiazhi; Zhou, Shu-Feng [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); He, Lin, E-mail: helin@Bio-X.com [Bio-X Institutes, Key Laboratory for the Genetics of Developmental and Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-02-13

    Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is of great importance to both regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. Various techniques, such as quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) and animal toxicology, are widely used to identify potential risks during the preclinical stage of drug development. Despite these efforts, drugs with safety liabilities can still pass through safety checkpoints and enter the market. This situation raises the concern that conventional chemical structure analysis and phenotypic screening are not sufficient to avoid all clinical adverse events. Genomic expression data following in vitro drug treatments characterize drug actions and thus have become widely used in drug repositioning. In the present study, we explored prediction of ADRs based on the drug-induced gene-expression profiles from cultured human cells in the Connectivity Map (CMap) database. The results showed that drugs inducing comparable ADRs generally lead to similar CMap expression profiles. Based on such ADR-gene expression association, we established prediction models for various ADRs, including severe myocardial and infectious events. Drugs with FDA boxed warnings of safety liability were effectively identified. We therefore suggest that drug-induced gene expression change, in combination with effective computational methods, may provide a new dimension of information to facilitate systematic drug safety evaluation. - Highlights: • Drugs causing common toxicity lead to similar in vitro gene expression changes. • We built a model to predict drug toxicity with drug-specific expression profiles. • Drugs with FDA black box warnings were effectively identified by our model. • In vitro assay can detect severe toxicity in the early stage of drug development.

  20. Systematic drug safety evaluation based on public genomic expression (Connectivity Map) data: Myocardial and infectious adverse reactions as application cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Kejian; Weng, Zuquan; Sun, Liya; Sun, Jiazhi; Zhou, Shu-Feng; He, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is of great importance to both regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. Various techniques, such as quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) and animal toxicology, are widely used to identify potential risks during the preclinical stage of drug development. Despite these efforts, drugs with safety liabilities can still pass through safety checkpoints and enter the market. This situation raises the concern that conventional chemical structure analysis and phenotypic screening are not sufficient to avoid all clinical adverse events. Genomic expression data following in vitro drug treatments characterize drug actions and thus have become widely used in drug repositioning. In the present study, we explored prediction of ADRs based on the drug-induced gene-expression profiles from cultured human cells in the Connectivity Map (CMap) database. The results showed that drugs inducing comparable ADRs generally lead to similar CMap expression profiles. Based on such ADR-gene expression association, we established prediction models for various ADRs, including severe myocardial and infectious events. Drugs with FDA boxed warnings of safety liability were effectively identified. We therefore suggest that drug-induced gene expression change, in combination with effective computational methods, may provide a new dimension of information to facilitate systematic drug safety evaluation. - Highlights: • Drugs causing common toxicity lead to similar in vitro gene expression changes. • We built a model to predict drug toxicity with drug-specific expression profiles. • Drugs with FDA black box warnings were effectively identified by our model. • In vitro assay can detect severe toxicity in the early stage of drug development

  1. Numerical and experimental investigations into life assessment of blade-disc connections of gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issler, Stephan; Roos, Eberhard

    2003-01-01

    The positively engaged connection between blade and disc of a gas turbine s highly stressed by fatigue and creep fatigue loadings. For this purpose, a ew calculating method based on inelastic finite element analyses considering he main influences on damage was developed at MPA Stuttgart. Low cycle fatigue (LCF) tests with component-like specimens have been conducted for verification. Experimental data and life assessment results based on the Smith, Watson and Topper parameters were compared well

  2. Assessment of the Medial Longitudinal Arch in children with Flexible Pes Planus by Plantar Pressure Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmoatasem, E M; Eid, M A

    2016-12-01

    Plantar Pressure mapping was introduced as a new modality for assessment of the height of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot. Therefore, the aim of this study is to correlate the plantar pressure mapping readings of arch index contact force ratio (AICFR) in children with flexible pes planus with radiographic measurements and static plantar footprints in order to determine the reliability of pressure mapping as a modality for the assessment and follow up of the flat foot deformity. Radiographic measurements, foot prints, and pressure mapping scans were recorded for each foot at initial presentation and at latest follow up in 28 children (56 feet) with flexible pes planus. A positive correlation of pressure mapping results was found with the talo-first metatarsal angle, the calcaneal pitch angle, as well as the footprint scans (P plantar pressure mapping is a reliable and effective tool in screening, diagnosis, and follow up of children with flexible pes planus.

  3. Intraoperative subcortical mapping of a language-associated deep frontal tract connecting the superior frontal gyrus to Broca's area in the dominant hemisphere of patients with glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Masazumi; Maesawa, Satoshi; Motomura, Kazuya; Futamura, Miyako; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Koba, Itsuko; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2015-06-01

    The deep frontal pathway connecting the superior frontal gyrus to Broca's area, recently named the frontal aslant tract (FAT), is assumed to be associated with language functions, especially speech initiation and spontaneity. Injury to the deep frontal lobe is known to cause aphasia that mimics the aphasia caused by damage to the supplementary motor area. Although fiber dissection and tractography have revealed the existence of the tract, little is known about its function. The aim of this study was to determine the function of the FAT via electrical stimulation in patients with glioma who underwent awake surgery. The authors analyzed the data from subcortical mapping with electrical stimulation in 5 consecutive cases (3 males and 2 females, age range 40-54 years) with gliomas in the left frontal lobe. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography of the FAT were performed in all cases. A navigation system and intraoperative MRI were used in all cases. During the awake phase of the surgery, cortical mapping was performed to find the precentral gyrus and Broca's area, followed by tumor resection. After the cortical layer was removed, subcortical mapping was performed to assess language-associated fibers in the white matter. In all 5 cases, positive responses were obtained at the stimulation sites in the subcortical area adjacent to the FAT, which was visualized by the navigation system. Speech arrest was observed in 4 cases, and remarkably slow speech and conversation was observed in 1 case. The location of these sites was also determined on intraoperative MR images and estimated on preoperative MR images with DTI tractography, confirming the spatial relationships among the stimulation sites and white matter tracts. Tumor removal was successfully performed without damage to this tract, and language function did not deteriorate in any of the cases postoperatively. The authors identified the left FAT and confirmed that it was associated with language functions. This

  4. Assessing System Thinking through Different Concept-Mapping Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstadter, Kristina; Harms, Ute; Grossschedl, Jorg

    2012-01-01

    System thinking is usually investigated by using questionnaires, video analysis, or interviews. Recently, concept-mapping (CM) was suggested as an adequate instrument for analysing students' system thinking. However, there are different ways with which to use this method. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether particular…

  5. Theoretical reflections on the connection between environmental assessment methods and conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Today there is a great variety of methods for evaluating the environmental impact of plans, programs and projects. But which of these methods should planners and managers choose? This theoretical article explores the connection between conflicts, communication and rationality in assessment methods. It focuses on the form (rationality) and substance of communication, i.e. what we should communicate about. The outcome supports the view that environmental assessments should be based on value- and interest-focused thinking, following a teleological ethic, when goals, alternatives and compensations are to be developed and impacts evaluated

  6. Geoethical and socio-political aspects of seismic and tsunami hazard assessment, quantification and mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Seismic hazard and, more recently, tsunami hazard assessments have been undertaken in several countries of the world and globally for the whole Earth planet with the aim of providing a scientifically sound basis to the engineers, technicians, urban and industrial planners, politicians, civil protection operators and in general to the authorities for devising rational risk mitigation strategies and corresponding adequate policies. The main point of this presentation is that the chief-value of all seismic and tsunami hazard studies (including theory, concept, quantification and mapping) resides in the social and political values of the provided products, which is a standpoint entailing a number of relevant geoethical implications. The most relevant implication regards geoscientists who are the subjects mainly involved in carrying out hazard evaluations. Viewed from the classical perspective, the main ethical obligations of geoscientists are restricted to performing hazard estimations in the best possible way from a scientific point of view, which means selecting the "best" available data, adopting sound theoretical models, making use of rigorous methods… What is outlined here, is that this is an insufficient minimalistic position, since it overlooks the basic socio-political and therefore practical value of the hazard-analysis final products. In other words, if one views hazard assessment as a production process leading from data and theories (raw data and production means) to hazard maps (products), the criterion to judge whether it is good or bad needs also to include the usability factor. Seismic and tsunami hazard reports and maps are products that should be usable, which means that they should meet user needs and requirements, and therefore they should be evaluated according to how much they are clearly understandable to, and appropriate for, making-decision users. In the traditional view of a science serving the society, one could represent the interaction

  7. Joining the Pieces: Using Concept Maps for Integrated Learning and Assessment in an Introductory Management Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Heather; Spiller, Dorothy

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on and evaluates the use of concept mapping as a learning tool in a large first year Management course. The goal was to help students make personal sense of course learning and to build their understanding of links and relationships between key course ideas. Concept mapping was used for three summative assessment pieces,…

  8. Evaluation of connectivity map-discovered celastrol as a radiosensitizing agent in a murine lung carcinoma model: Feasibility study of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Young Jun

    Full Text Available This study was designed to identify potential radiosensitizing (RS agents for combined radio- and chemotherapy in a murine model of human lung carcinoma, and to evaluate the in vivo effect of the RS agents using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI. Radioresistance-associated genes in A549 and H460 cells were isolated on the basis of their gene expression profiles. Celastrol was selected as a candidate RS by using connectivity mapping, and its efficacy in lung cancer radiotherapy was tested. Mice inoculated with A549 carcinoma cells were treated with single ionizing radiation (SIR, single celastrol (SC, or celastrol-combined ionizing radiation (CCIR. Changes in radiosensitization over time were assessed using DW-MRI before and at 3, 6, and 12 days after therapy initiation. The tumors were stained with hematoxylin and eosin at 6 and 12 days after therapy. The percentage change in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC value in the CCIR group was significantly higher than that in the SC and SIR group on the 12th day (Mann-Whitney U-test, p = 0.05; Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.05. A significant correlation (Spearman's rho correlation coefficient of 0.713, p = 0.001 was observed between the mean percentage tumor necrotic area and the mean ADC values after therapy initiation. These results suggest that the novel radiosensitizing agent celastrol has therapeutic effects when combined with ionizing radiation (IR, thereby maximizing the therapeutic effect of radiation in non-small cell lung carcinoma. In addition, DW-MRI is a useful noninvasive tool to monitor the effects of RS agents by assessing cellularity changes and sequential therapeutic responses.

  9. Assessment of cerebral perfusional and functional connectivity in schizophrenia using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Ícaro A. F.; Guimarães, Tiago M.; Souza, Roberto M.; Santos, Antônio C. dos; Leoni, Renata F.; Machado-Sousa, João Paulo; Hallak, Jaime E.C.

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a significant mental disorder that compromises structural and functional aspects of the brain, with an extreme effect on the patient’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior. Physiologically, changes in neuronal activity are reported besides functional and structural abnormalities. Since the cerebral blood flow (CBF) is directly related to neuronal activity, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique called arterial spin labeling (ASL), which allows the quantification of CBF, is a useful tool in brain perfusional evaluation. In addition, ASL can be used to assess functional connectivity, which is efficient in investigating functional impairment between regions of the brain. Pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) images were acquired from 28 schizophrenia patients in treatment and 28 age-matched healthy controls. Static CBF and connectivity patterns were assessed in both groups. Decreased CBF and functional connectivity were observed in regions that form two resting brain networks, default mode (DMN) and salience (SN), for schizophrenia patients. Previous studies related the features of this pathology with altered resting CBF and functional disconnections. Therefore, using a noninvasive technique, it was possible to find CBF deficits and altered functional organization of the brain in schizophrenia patients that are associated with the symptoms and characteristics of the disorder. (author)

  10. Development of a new quantitative gas permeability method for dental implant-abutment connection tightness assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Most dental implant systems are presently made of two pieces: the implant itself and the abutment. The connection tightness between those two pieces is a key point to prevent bacterial proliferation, tissue inflammation and bone loss. The leak has been previously estimated by microbial, color tracer and endotoxin percolation. Methods A new nitrogen flow technique was developed for implant-abutment connection leakage measurement, adapted from a recent, sensitive, reproducible and quantitative method used to assess endodontic sealing. Results The results show very significant differences between various sealing and screwing conditions. The remaining flow was lower after key screwing compared to hand screwing (p = 0.03) and remained different from the negative test (p = 0.0004). The method reproducibility was very good, with a coefficient of variation of 1.29%. Conclusions Therefore, the presented new gas flow method appears to be a simple and robust method to compare different implant systems. It allows successive measures without disconnecting the abutment from the implant and should in particular be used to assess the behavior of the connection before and after mechanical stress. PMID:21492459

  11. Assessment of cerebral perfusional and functional connectivity in schizophrenia using magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ícaro A. F.; Guimarães, Tiago M.; Souza, Roberto M.; Santos, Antônio C. dos; Leoni, Renata F.; Machado-Sousa, João Paulo; Hallak, Jaime E.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Schizophrenia is a significant mental disorder that compromises structural and functional aspects of the brain, with an extreme effect on the patient’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior. Physiologically, changes in neuronal activity are reported besides functional and structural abnormalities. Since the cerebral blood flow (CBF) is directly related to neuronal activity, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique called arterial spin labeling (ASL), which allows the quantification of CBF, is a useful tool in brain perfusional evaluation. In addition, ASL can be used to assess functional connectivity, which is efficient in investigating functional impairment between regions of the brain. Pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) images were acquired from 28 schizophrenia patients in treatment and 28 age-matched healthy controls. Static CBF and connectivity patterns were assessed in both groups. Decreased CBF and functional connectivity were observed in regions that form two resting brain networks, default mode (DMN) and salience (SN), for schizophrenia patients. Previous studies related the features of this pathology with altered resting CBF and functional disconnections. Therefore, using a noninvasive technique, it was possible to find CBF deficits and altered functional organization of the brain in schizophrenia patients that are associated with the symptoms and characteristics of the disorder. (author)

  12. Intrinsic optical signal imaging of the blood volume changes is sufficient for mapping the resting state functional connectivity in the rodent cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kura, Sreekanth; Xie, Hongyu; Fu, Buyin; Ayata, Cenk; Boas, David A.; Sakadžić, Sava

    2018-06-01

    Objective. Resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) allows the study of functional organization in normal and diseased brain by measuring the spontaneous brain activity generated under resting conditions. Intrinsic optical signal imaging (IOSI) based on multiple illumination wavelengths has been used successfully to compute RSFC maps in animal studies. The IOSI setup complexity would be greatly reduced if only a single wavelength can be used to obtain comparable RSFC maps. Approach. We used anesthetized mice and performed various comparisons between the RSFC maps based on single wavelength as well as oxy-, deoxy- and total hemoglobin concentration changes. Main results. The RSFC maps based on IOSI at a single wavelength selected for sensitivity to the blood volume changes are quantitatively comparable to the RSFC maps based on oxy- and total hemoglobin concentration changes obtained by the more complex IOSI setups. Moreover, RSFC maps do not require CCD cameras with very high frame acquisition rates, since our results demonstrate that they can be computed from the data obtained at frame rates as low as 5 Hz. Significance. Our results will have general utility for guiding future RSFC studies based on IOSI and making decisions about the IOSI system designs.

  13. Bio-Energy Connectivity And Ecosystem Services. An Assessment by Pandora 3.0 Model for Land Use Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Pelorosso

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Landscape connectivity is one of the major issues related to biodiversity conservation and to the delivery of Ecosystem Services (ES. Several models were developed to assess landscape connectivity but lack of data and mismatching scale of analysis often represent insurmountable constraints for the correct evaluation and integration of ecological connectivity into plans and assessment procedures. In this paper a procedure for ES assessment related with Habitat and Bio-Energy Landscape Connectivity (BELC is proposed. The method is based on the connectivity measure furnished by the last version of PANDORA model and uses a modified formulation of current ES evaluation. The implementation of the model in a real case has highlighted its potential multi-scale workability. The spatial approach of the model aims at furnishing a further tool for the spread of ES and landscape ecology concepts into procedures of assessment (e.g. EIA, SEA and land use planning at different administrative scales.

  14. Mapping with Small UAS: A Point Cloud Accuracy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Charles; Jozkow, Grzegorz; Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota

    2015-12-01

    Interest in using inexpensive Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) technology for topographic mapping has recently significantly increased. Small UAS platforms equipped with consumer grade cameras can easily acquire high-resolution aerial imagery allowing for dense point cloud generation, followed by surface model creation and orthophoto production. In contrast to conventional airborne mapping systems, UAS has limited ground coverage due to low flying height and limited flying time, yet it offers an attractive alternative to high performance airborne systems, as the cost of the sensors and platform, and the flight logistics, is relatively low. In addition, UAS is better suited for small area data acquisitions and to acquire data in difficult to access areas, such as urban canyons or densely built-up environments. The main question with respect to the use of UAS is whether the inexpensive consumer sensors installed in UAS platforms can provide the geospatial data quality comparable to that provided by conventional systems. This study aims at the performance evaluation of the current practice of UAS-based topographic mapping by reviewing the practical aspects of sensor configuration, georeferencing and point cloud generation, including comparisons between sensor types and processing tools. The main objective is to provide accuracy characterization and practical information for selecting and using UAS solutions in general mapping applications. The analysis is based on statistical evaluation as well as visual examination of experimental data acquired by a Bergen octocopter with three different image sensor configurations, including a GoPro HERO3+ Black Edition, a Nikon D800 DSLR and a Velodyne HDL-32. In addition, georeferencing data of varying quality were acquired and evaluated. The optical imagery was processed by using three commercial point cloud generation tools. Comparing point clouds created by active and passive sensors by using different quality sensors, and finally

  15. Mapping the Delivery of Societal Benefit through the International Arctic Observations Assessment Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, S. M.; Gallo, J.

    2017-12-01

    The international Arctic scientific community has identified the need for a sustained and integrated portfolio of pan-Arctic Earth-observing systems. In 2017, an international effort was undertaken to develop the first ever Value Tree framework for identifying common research and operational objectives that rely on Earth observation data derived from Earth-observing systems, sensors, surveys, networks, models, and databases to deliver societal benefits in the Arctic. A Value Tree Analysis is a common tool used to support decision making processes and is useful for defining concepts, identifying objectives, and creating a hierarchical framework of objectives. A multi-level societal benefit area value tree establishes the connection from societal benefits to the set of observation inputs that contribute to delivering those benefits. A Value Tree that relies on expert domain knowledge from Arctic and non-Arctic nations, international researchers, Indigenous knowledge holders, and other experts to develop a framework to serve as a logical and interdependent decision support tool will be presented. Value tree examples that map the contribution of Earth observations in the Arctic to achieving societal benefits will be presented in the context of the 2017 International Arctic Observations Assessment Framework. These case studies will highlight specific observing products and capability groups where investment is needed to contribute to the development of a sustained portfolio of Arctic observing systems.

  16. Life Cycle Assessment of Connected and Automated Vehicles: Sensing and Computing Subsystem and Vehicle Level Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron, James H; Keoleian, Gregory A; De Kleine, Robert D; Wallington, Timothy J; Kim, Hyung Chul

    2018-03-06

    Although recent studies of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) have begun to explore the potential energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts from an operational perspective, little is known about how the full life cycle of the vehicle will be impacted. We report the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of Level 4 CAV sensing and computing subsystems integrated into internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) and battery electric vehicle (BEV) platforms. The results indicate that CAV subsystems could increase vehicle primary energy use and GHG emissions by 3-20% due to increases in power consumption, weight, drag, and data transmission. However, when potential operational effects of CAVs are included (e.g., eco-driving, platooning, and intersection connectivity), the net result is up to a 9% reduction in energy and GHG emissions in the base case. Overall, this study highlights opportunities where CAVs can improve net energy and environmental performance.

  17. Combining a dispersal model with network theory to assess habitat connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lookingbill, Todd R; Gardner, Robert H; Ferrari, Joseph R; Keller, Cherry E

    2010-03-01

    Assessing the potential for threatened species to persist and spread within fragmented landscapes requires the identification of core areas that can sustain resident populations and dispersal corridors that can link these core areas with isolated patches of remnant habitat. We developed a set of GIS tools, simulation methods, and network analysis procedures to assess potential landscape connectivity for the Delmarva fox squirrel (DFS; Sciurus niger cinereus), an endangered species inhabiting forested areas on the Delmarva Peninsula, USA. Information on the DFS's life history and dispersal characteristics, together with data on the composition and configuration of land cover on the peninsula, were used as input data for an individual-based model to simulate dispersal patterns of millions of squirrels. Simulation results were then assessed using methods from graph theory, which quantifies habitat attributes associated with local and global connectivity. Several bottlenecks to dispersal were identified that were not apparent from simple distance-based metrics, highlighting specific locations for landscape conservation, restoration, and/or squirrel translocations. Our approach links simulation models, network analysis, and available field data in an efficient and general manner, making these methods useful and appropriate for assessing the movement dynamics of threatened species within landscapes being altered by human and natural disturbances.

  18. Crossing lines: a multidisciplinary framework for assessing connectivity of hammerhead sharks across jurisdictional boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, A; Simpfendorfer, C A; White, W T; Johnson, G J; McAuley, R B; Heupel, M R

    2017-04-21

    Conservation and management of migratory species can be complex and challenging. International agreements such as the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) provide policy frameworks, but assessments and management can be hampered by lack of data and tractable mechanisms to integrate disparate datasets. An assessment of scalloped (Sphyrna lewini) and great (Sphyrna mokarran) hammerhead population structure and connectivity across northern Australia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea (PNG) was conducted to inform management responses to CMS and Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species listings of these species. An Integrated Assessment Framework (IAF) was devised to systematically incorporate data across jurisdictions and create a regional synopsis, and amalgamated a suite of data from the Australasian region. Scalloped hammerhead populations are segregated by sex and size, with Australian populations dominated by juveniles and small adult males, while Indonesian and PNG populations included large adult females. The IAF process introduced genetic and tagging data to produce conceptual models of stock structure and movement. Several hypotheses were produced to explain stock structure and movement patterns, but more data are needed to identify the most likely hypothesis. This study demonstrates a process for assessing migratory species connectivity and highlights priority areas for hammerhead management and research.

  19. Crossing lines: a multidisciplinary framework for assessing connectivity of hammerhead sharks across jurisdictional boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, A.; Simpfendorfer, C. A.; White, W. T.; Johnson, G. J.; McAuley, R. B.; Heupel, M. R.

    2017-04-01

    Conservation and management of migratory species can be complex and challenging. International agreements such as the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) provide policy frameworks, but assessments and management can be hampered by lack of data and tractable mechanisms to integrate disparate datasets. An assessment of scalloped (Sphyrna lewini) and great (Sphyrna mokarran) hammerhead population structure and connectivity across northern Australia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea (PNG) was conducted to inform management responses to CMS and Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species listings of these species. An Integrated Assessment Framework (IAF) was devised to systematically incorporate data across jurisdictions and create a regional synopsis, and amalgamated a suite of data from the Australasian region. Scalloped hammerhead populations are segregated by sex and size, with Australian populations dominated by juveniles and small adult males, while Indonesian and PNG populations included large adult females. The IAF process introduced genetic and tagging data to produce conceptual models of stock structure and movement. Several hypotheses were produced to explain stock structure and movement patterns, but more data are needed to identify the most likely hypothesis. This study demonstrates a process for assessing migratory species connectivity and highlights priority areas for hammerhead management and research.

  20. Accuracy assessment of topographic mapping using UAV image integrated with satellite images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmi, S M; Ahmad, Baharin; Ahmad, Anuar

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle or UAV is extensively applied in various fields such as military applications, archaeology, agriculture and scientific research. This study focuses on topographic mapping and map updating. UAV is one of the alternative ways to ease the process of acquiring data with lower operating costs, low manufacturing and operational costs, plus it is easy to operate. Furthermore, UAV images will be integrated with QuickBird images that are used as base maps. The objective of this study is to make accuracy assessment and comparison between topographic mapping using UAV images integrated with aerial photograph and satellite image. The main purpose of using UAV image is as a replacement for cloud covered area which normally exists in aerial photograph and satellite image, and for updating topographic map. Meanwhile, spatial resolution, pixel size, scale, geometric accuracy and correction, image quality and information contents are important requirements needed for the generation of topographic map using these kinds of data. In this study, ground control points (GCPs) and check points (CPs) were established using real time kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK-GPS) technique. There are two types of analysis that are carried out in this study which are quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment is carried out by calculating root mean square error (RMSE). The outputs of this study include topographic map and orthophoto. From this study, the accuracy of UAV image is ± 0.460 m. As conclusion, UAV image has the potential to be used for updating of topographic maps

  1. Missouri Assessment Program (MAP), Spring 2000: Secondary Science, Released Items, Grade 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City.

    This assessment sample provides information on the Missouri Assessment Program (MAP) for grade 10 science. The sample consists of six items taken from the test booklet and scoring guides for the six items. The items assess ecosystems, mechanics, and data analysis. (MM)

  2. Pulmonary MR imaging with ultra-short TEs: Utility for disease severity assessment of connective tissue disease patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Nishio, Mizuho; Koyama, Hisanobu; Takenaka, Daisuke; Takahashi, Masaya; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Sumiaki; Obara, Makoto; Cauteren, Marc van; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of pulmonary magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with ultra-short echo times (UTEs) at a 3.0 T MR system for pulmonary functional loss and disease severity assessments of connective tissue disease (CTD) patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). Materials and methods: This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained from 18 CTD patients (eight men and ten women) and eight normal subjects with suspected chest disease (three men and five women). All subjects underwent thin-section MDCT, pulmonary MR imaging with UTEs, pulmonary function test and serum KL-6. Regional T2* maps were generated from each MR data set, and mean T2* values were determined from ROI measurements. From each thin-section MDCT data set, CT-based disease severity was evaluated with a visual scoring system. Mean T2* values for normal and CTD subjects were statistically compared by using Student's t-test. To assess capability for pulmonary functional loss and disease severity assessments, mean T2* values were statistically correlated with pulmonary functional parameters, serum KL-6 and CT-based disease severity. Results: Mean T2* values for normal and CTD subjects were significantly different (p = 0.0019) and showed significant correlations with %VC, %DL CO , serum KL-6 and CT-based disease severity of CTD patients (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Pulmonary MR imaging with UTEs is useful for pulmonary functional loss and disease severity assessments of CTD patients with ILD

  3. Pulmonary MR imaging with ultra-short TEs: Utility for disease severity assessment of connective tissue disease patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, Yoshiharu, E-mail: yosirad@kobe-u.ac.jp [Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Nishio, Mizuho [Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Koyama, Hisanobu [Division of Radiology, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Takenaka, Daisuke [Division of Radiology, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Department of Radiology, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi, Hyogo (Japan); Takahashi, Masaya [Advanced Imaging Research Center, Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Houston, TX (United States); Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Sumiaki [Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Obara, Makoto; Cauteren, Marc van [Philips Electronics Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro [Division of Radiology, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of pulmonary magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with ultra-short echo times (UTEs) at a 3.0 T MR system for pulmonary functional loss and disease severity assessments of connective tissue disease (CTD) patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). Materials and methods: This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained from 18 CTD patients (eight men and ten women) and eight normal subjects with suspected chest disease (three men and five women). All subjects underwent thin-section MDCT, pulmonary MR imaging with UTEs, pulmonary function test and serum KL-6. Regional T2* maps were generated from each MR data set, and mean T2* values were determined from ROI measurements. From each thin-section MDCT data set, CT-based disease severity was evaluated with a visual scoring system. Mean T2* values for normal and CTD subjects were statistically compared by using Student's t-test. To assess capability for pulmonary functional loss and disease severity assessments, mean T2* values were statistically correlated with pulmonary functional parameters, serum KL-6 and CT-based disease severity. Results: Mean T2* values for normal and CTD subjects were significantly different (p = 0.0019) and showed significant correlations with %VC, %DL{sub CO}, serum KL-6 and CT-based disease severity of CTD patients (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Pulmonary MR imaging with UTEs is useful for pulmonary functional loss and disease severity assessments of CTD patients with ILD.

  4. Flow mapping for assessment of native and repaired valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felner, J.; Pollack, S.; McMillan, S.; Yoganathan, A.; Knopf, W.; Craver, J.

    1986-01-01

    Color Doppler flow mapping (CDFM) was performed in 47 normal women ages 18-41 mean (m) 28 to determine the normal flow phenomena across each of the 4 heart valves. The group included: 15 elite marathon runners average run (ave.) 70 miles/week, heart rate (HR) 35-54 (m 45); 14 joggers ave. 40 mi/wkm HR 40-69 (m 53); and 17 controls 0 mi/wk, HR 49-93 (m 77). 2-D echo and CDFM defined the motion of each valve, including the presence of mitral valve prolapse (MVP), the ventricular inflow and outflow patterns and the presence of regurgitation

  5. Error and Uncertainty in the Accuracy Assessment of Land Cover Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Pedro Alexandre Reis

    Traditionally the accuracy assessment of land cover maps is performed through the comparison of these maps with a reference database, which is intended to represent the "real" land cover, being this comparison reported with the thematic accuracy measures through confusion matrixes. Although, these reference databases are also a representation of reality, containing errors due to the human uncertainty in the assignment of the land cover class that best characterizes a certain area, causing bias in the thematic accuracy measures that are reported to the end users of these maps. The main goal of this dissertation is to develop a methodology that allows the integration of human uncertainty present in reference databases in the accuracy assessment of land cover maps, and analyse the impacts that uncertainty may have in the thematic accuracy measures reported to the end users of land cover maps. The utility of the inclusion of human uncertainty in the accuracy assessment of land cover maps is investigated. Specifically we studied the utility of fuzzy sets theory, more precisely of fuzzy arithmetic, for a better understanding of human uncertainty associated to the elaboration of reference databases, and their impacts in the thematic accuracy measures that are derived from confusion matrixes. For this purpose linguistic values transformed in fuzzy intervals that address the uncertainty in the elaboration of reference databases were used to compute fuzzy confusion matrixes. The proposed methodology is illustrated using a case study in which the accuracy assessment of a land cover map for Continental Portugal derived from Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) is made. The obtained results demonstrate that the inclusion of human uncertainty in reference databases provides much more information about the quality of land cover maps, when compared with the traditional approach of accuracy assessment of land cover maps. None

  6. A multi-scale assessment of population connectivity in African lions (Panthera leo) in response to landscape change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Nicholas B. Elliot; David W. Macdonald; Andrew J. Loveridge

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are among the major drivers of population declines and extinction, particularly in large carnivores. Connectivity models provide practical tools for assessing fragmentation effects and developing mitigation or conservation responses. To be useful to conservation practitioners, connectivity models need to incorporate multiple scales and...

  7. Interrater reliability of the mind map assessment rubric in a cohort of medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zipp Genevieve

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Learning strategies are thinking tools that students can use to actively acquire information. Examples of learning strategies include mnemonics, charts, and maps. One strategy that may help students master the tsunami of information presented in medical school is the mind map learning strategy. Currently, there is no valid and reliable rubric to grade mind maps and this may contribute to their underutilization in medicine. Because concept maps and mind maps engage learners similarly at a metacognitive level, a valid and reliable concept map assessment scoring system was adapted to form the mind map assessment rubric (MMAR. The MMAR can assess mind map depth based upon concept-links, cross-links, hierarchies, examples, pictures, and colors. The purpose of this study was to examine interrater reliability of the MMAR. Methods This exploratory study was conducted at a US medical school as part of a larger investigation on learning strategies. Sixty-six (N = 66 first-year medical students were given a 394-word text passage followed by a 30-minute presentation on mind mapping. After the presentation, subjects were again given the text passage and instructed to create mind maps based upon the passage. The mind maps were collected and independently scored using the MMAR by 3 examiners. Interrater reliability was measured using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC statistic. Statistics were calculated using SPSS version 12.0 (Chicago, IL. Results Analysis of the mind maps revealed the following: concept-links ICC = .05 (95% CI, -.42 to .38, cross-links ICC = .58 (95% CI, .37 to .73, hierarchies ICC = .23 (95% CI, -.15 to .50, examples ICC = .53 (95% CI, .29 to .69, pictures ICC = .86 (95% CI, .79 to .91, colors ICC = .73 (95% CI, .59 to .82, and total score ICC = .86 (95% CI, .79 to .91. Conclusion The high ICC value for total mind map score indicates strong MMAR interrater reliability. Pictures and colors demonstrated moderate

  8. Interrater reliability of the mind map assessment rubric in a cohort of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antoni, Anthony V; Zipp, Genevieve Pinto; Olson, Valerie G

    2009-04-28

    Learning strategies are thinking tools that students can use to actively acquire information. Examples of learning strategies include mnemonics, charts, and maps. One strategy that may help students master the tsunami of information presented in medical school is the mind map learning strategy. Currently, there is no valid and reliable rubric to grade mind maps and this may contribute to their underutilization in medicine. Because concept maps and mind maps engage learners similarly at a metacognitive level, a valid and reliable concept map assessment scoring system was adapted to form the mind map assessment rubric (MMAR). The MMAR can assess mind map depth based upon concept-links, cross-links, hierarchies, examples, pictures, and colors. The purpose of this study was to examine interrater reliability of the MMAR. This exploratory study was conducted at a US medical school as part of a larger investigation on learning strategies. Sixty-six (N = 66) first-year medical students were given a 394-word text passage followed by a 30-minute presentation on mind mapping. After the presentation, subjects were again given the text passage and instructed to create mind maps based upon the passage. The mind maps were collected and independently scored using the MMAR by 3 examiners. Interrater reliability was measured using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) statistic. Statistics were calculated using SPSS version 12.0 (Chicago, IL). Analysis of the mind maps revealed the following: concept-links ICC = .05 (95% CI, -.42 to .38), cross-links ICC = .58 (95% CI, .37 to .73), hierarchies ICC = .23 (95% CI, -.15 to .50), examples ICC = .53 (95% CI, .29 to .69), pictures ICC = .86 (95% CI, .79 to .91), colors ICC = .73 (95% CI, .59 to .82), and total score ICC = .86 (95% CI, .79 to .91). The high ICC value for total mind map score indicates strong MMAR interrater reliability. Pictures and colors demonstrated moderate to strong interrater reliability. We conclude that the

  9. Effects of gender, digit ratio, and menstrual cycle on intrinsic brain functional connectivity: A whole-brain, voxel-wise exploratory study using simultaneous local and global functional connectivity mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donishi, Tomohiro; Terada, Masaki; Kaneoke, Yoshiki

    2018-01-01

    Gender and sex hormones influence brain function, but their effects on functional network organization within the brain are not yet understood. We investigated the influence of gender, prenatal sex hormones (estimated by the 2D:4D digit ratio), and the menstrual cycle on the intrinsic functional network organization of the brain (as measured by 3T resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI)) using right-handed, age-matched university students (100 males and 100 females). The mean (± SD ) age was 20.9 ± 1.5 (range: 18-24) years and 20.8 ± 1.3 (range: 18-24) years for males and females, respectively. Using two parameters derived from the normalized alpha centrality analysis (one for local and another for global connectivity strength), we created mean functional connectivity strength maps. There was a significant difference between the male mean map and female mean map in the distributions of network properties in almost all cortical regions and the basal ganglia but not in the medial parietal, limbic, and temporal regions and the thalamus. A comparison between the mean map for the low 2D:4D digit ratio group (indicative of high exposure to testosterone during the prenatal period) and that for the high 2D:4D digit ratio group revealed a significant difference in the network properties of the medial parietal region for males and in the temporal region for females. The menstrual cycle affected network organization in the brain, which varied with the 2D:4D digit ratio. Most of these findings were reproduced with our other datasets created with different preprocessing steps. The results suggest that differences in gender, prenatal sex hormone exposure, and the menstrual cycle are useful for understanding the normal brain and investigating the mechanisms underlying the variable prevalence and symptoms of neurological and psychiatric diseases.

  10. Ecocity mapping using GIS: introducing a planning method for assessing and improving neighborhood vitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard; Miller, Kirstin

    2013-01-01

    Assessing neighborhood vitality is important to understanding how to improve quality of life and health outcomes. The ecocity model recognizes that cities are part of natural systems and favors walkable neighborhoods. This article introduces ecocity mapping, an innovative planning method, to the public health literature on community engagement by describing a pilot project with a new affordable housing development in Oakland, California between 2007 and 2009. Although ecocity mapping began as a paper technology, advances in geographic information systems (GIS) moved it forward. This article describes how Ecocity Builders used GIS to conduct ecocity mapping to (1) assess vitality of neighborhoods and urban centers to prioritize community health intervention pilot sites and (2) create scenario maps for use in community health planning. From fall 2007 to summer 2008, Ecocity Builders assessed neighborhood vitality using walking distance from parks, schools, rapid transit stops, grocery stores, and retail outlets. In 2008, ecocity maps were shared with residents to create a neighborhood health and sustainability plan. In 2009, Ecocity Builders developed scenario maps to show how changes to the built environment would improve air quality by reducing greenhouse gas emissions from vehicles, while increasing access to basic services and natural amenities. Community organizing with GIS was more useful than GIS alone for final site selection. GIS was useful in mapping scenarios after residents shared local neighborhood knowledge and ideas for change. Residents were interested in long-term environmental planning, provided they could meet immediate needs.

  11. Assessment of Problem Gambling in a Chinese Context: The Chinese G-MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a severe lack of instruments to assess problem gambling in Chinese people. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Maroondah Assessment Profile for Problem Gambling (Chinese G-MAP, based on the responses of eight problem gamblers and 125 pathological gamblers seeking help from a problem gambling treatment center. Reliability analyses showed that the G-MAP and its related domains and scales were generally internally consistent. There are also several lines of evidence suggesting that the Chinese G-MAP and the various domains are valid: (a the various G-MAP domain and scale measures were significantly correlated among themselves, (b the G-MAP measures were significantly correlated with pathological gambling behavior assessed by the 4th Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, and (c the G-MAP total scale and domain measures were able to discriminate problem gamblers and pathological gamblers. The present study suggests that the Chinese G-MAP possesses acceptable psychometric properties that can be used in research and practice settings.

  12. A biological tool to assess flow connectivity in reference temporary streams from the Mediterranean Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cid, N., E-mail: ncid@ub.edu [Grup de Recerca “Freshwater Ecology and Management (FEM)”, Departament d' Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Verkaik, I. [Grup de Recerca “Freshwater Ecology and Management (FEM)”, Departament d' Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); García-Roger, E.M. [Grup de Recerca “Freshwater Ecology and Management (FEM)”, Departament d' Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Institut Cavanilles de Biodiversitat i Biologia Evolutiva, Universitat de València (Spain); Rieradevall, M.; Bonada, N. [Grup de Recerca “Freshwater Ecology and Management (FEM)”, Departament d' Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Sánchez-Montoya, M.M. [Department of Ecology and Hydrology, Regional Campus of International Excellence “Campus Mare Nostrum”—University of Murcia (Spain); Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB), Berlin (Germany); Gómez, R.; Suárez, M.L.; Vidal-Abarca, M.R. [Department of Ecology and Hydrology, Regional Campus of International Excellence “Campus Mare Nostrum”—University of Murcia (Spain); Demartini, D.; Buffagni, A.; Erba, S. [Instituto di Ricerca Sulle Acque (CNR-IRSA) (Italy); Karaouzas, I.; Skoulikidis, N. [Hellenic Center for Marine Research (HCMR) (Greece); Prat, N. [Grup de Recerca “Freshwater Ecology and Management (FEM)”, Departament d' Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2016-01-01

    Many streams in the Mediterranean Basin have temporary flow regimes. While timing for seasonal drought is predictable, they undergo strong inter-annual variability in flow intensity. This high hydrological variability and associated ecological responses challenge the ecological status assessment of temporary streams, particularly when setting reference conditions. This study examined the effects of flow connectivity in aquatic macroinvertebrates from seven reference temporary streams across the Mediterranean Basin where hydrological variability and flow conditions are well studied. We tested for the effect of flow cessation on two streamflow indices and on community composition, and, by performing random forest and classification tree analyses we identified important biological predictors for classifying the aquatic state either as flowing or disconnected pools. Flow cessation was critical for one of the streamflow indices studied and for community composition. Macroinvertebrate families found to be important for classifying the aquatic state were Hydrophilidae, Simuliidae, Hydropsychidae, Planorbiidae, Heptageniidae and Gerridae. For biological traits, trait categories associated to feeding habits, food, locomotion and substrate relation were the most important and provided more accurate predictions compared to taxonomy. A combination of selected metrics and associated thresholds based on the most important biological predictors (i.e. Bio-AS Tool) were proposed in order to assess the aquatic state in reference temporary streams, especially in the absence of hydrological data. Although further development is needed, the tool can be of particular interest for monitoring, restoration, and conservation purposes, representing an important step towards an adequate management of temporary rivers not only in the Mediterranean Basin but also in other regions vulnerable to the effects of climate change. - Highlights: • The effect of flow connectivity on macroinvertebrate

  13. Stress assessment based on EEG univariate features and functional connectivity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, J F; Romero, S; Ballester, M R; Antonijoan, R M; Mañanas, M A

    2015-07-01

    The biological response to stress originates in the brain but involves different biochemical and physiological effects. Many common clinical methods to assess stress are based on the presence of specific hormones and on features extracted from different signals, including electrocardiogram, blood pressure, skin temperature, or galvanic skin response. The aim of this paper was to assess stress using EEG-based variables obtained from univariate analysis and functional connectivity evaluation. Two different stressors, the Stroop test and sleep deprivation, were applied to 30 volunteers to find common EEG patterns related to stress effects. Results showed a decrease of the high alpha power (11 to 12 Hz), an increase in the high beta band (23 to 36 Hz, considered a busy brain indicator), and a decrease in the approximate entropy. Moreover, connectivity showed that the high beta coherence and the interhemispheric nonlinear couplings, measured by the cross mutual information function, increased significantly for both stressors, suggesting that useful stress indexes may be obtained from EEG-based features.

  14. Accuracy Assessment Field Data for Benthic Habitat Maps of Palau

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  15. Assessing the impacts of climate change and dams on floodplain inundation and wetland connectivity in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Fazlul; Dutta, Dushmanta; Marvanek, Steve; Petheram, Cuan; Ticehurst, Catherine; Lerat, Julien; Kim, Shaun; Yang, Ang

    2015-03-01

    Floodplain wetlands and their hydrological connectivity with main river channels in the Australian wet-dry tropics are under increasing pressure from global climate change and water resource development, and there is a need for modelling tools to estimate the time dynamics of connectivity. This paper describes an integrated modelling framework combining conceptual rainfall-runoff modelling, river system modelling and hydrodynamic (HD) modelling to estimate hydrological connectivity between wetlands and rivers in the Flinders and Gilbert river catchments in northern Australia. Three historical flood events ranging from a mean annual flood to a 35-year return period flood were investigated using a two dimensional HD model (MIKE 21). Inflows from upstream catchments were estimated using a river network model. Local runoff within the HD modelling domain was simulated using the Sacramento rainfall-runoff model. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) derived 30 m DEM was used to reproduce floodplain topography, stream networks and wetlands in the HD model. The HD model was calibrated using stream gauge data and inundation maps derived from satellite (MODIS: MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) imagery. An algorithm was developed to combine the simulated water heights with the DEM to quantify inundation and flow connection between wetlands and rivers. The connectivity of 18 ecologically important wetlands on the Flinders floodplain and 7 on the Gilbert floodplain were quantified. The impacts of climate change and water resource development on connectivity to individual wetlands were assessed under a projected dry climate (2nd driest of 15 GCMs), wet climate (2nd wettest of 15 GCMs) and dam conditions. The results indicate that changes in rainfall under a wetter and drier future climate could have large impacts on area, duration and frequency of inundation and connectivity. Topographic relief, river bank elevation and flood magnitude were found to be the key

  16. Assessment of radiation maps during activated divertor moving in the ITER building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Dongchuan; Zeng Qin; Qiu Yuefeng; Dang Tongqiang; Wu Yican; Loughlin, Michael

    2011-01-01

    As the main interface components between plasma and vacuum vessel, the divertor is foreseen to be removed to the hot cell for refurbishment during the 20 years of ITER operation. During this process, the activated divertor will cause a large increase of radiation in the ITER building. 3D analysis has been performed to assess the radiation maps throughout the ITER building for assisting the shielding design for personnel and sensitive equipment. The activation of the divertor has been determined by coupled neutron transport and inventory calculations, radiation maps have been obtained from gamma transport calculations. The neutron and gamma transport calculations have been performed by MCNP5 code with FENDL2.1library. The inventory calculations have been performed by FISPACT2007 code with EAF-2007 library. The results of these 3D decay gamma radiation maps are presented by pictures in this paper, including the biological dose maps and maps of heat deposition in electronic equipment.

  17. Accuracy assessment of planimetric large-scale map data for decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doskocz Adam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents decision-making risk estimation based on planimetric large-scale map data, which are data sets or databases which are useful for creating planimetric maps on scales of 1:5,000 or larger. The studies were conducted on four data sets of large-scale map data. Errors of map data were used for a risk assessment of decision-making about the localization of objects, e.g. for land-use planning in realization of investments. An analysis was performed for a large statistical sample set of shift vectors of control points, which were identified with the position errors of these points (errors of map data.

  18. Generation and Assessment of Urban Land Cover Maps Using High-Resolution Multispectral Aerial Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhle, Joachim; Höhle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    a unique method for the automatic generation of urban land cover maps. In the present paper, imagery of a new medium-format aerial camera and advanced geoprocessing software are applied to derive normalized digital surface models and vegetation maps. These two intermediate products then become input...... to a tree structured classifier, which automatically derives land cover maps in 2D or 3D. We investigate the thematic accuracy of the produced land cover map by a class-wise stratified design and provide a method for deriving necessary sample sizes. Corresponding survey adjusted accuracy measures...... and their associated confidence intervals are used to adequately reflect uncertainty in the assessment based on the chosen sample size. Proof of concept for the method is given for an urban area in Switzerland. Here, the produced land cover map with six classes (building, wall and carport, road and parking lot, hedge...

  19. Connectivity maps for biosimilar drug discovery in venoms: the case of Gila monster venom and the anti-diabetes drug Byetta®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramadhaka, Lavakumar Reddy; Prorock, Alyson; Dragulev, Bojan; Bao, Yongde; Fox, Jay W

    2013-07-01

    Like most natural product libraries animal venoms have long been recognized as potentially rich source of biologically active molecules with the potential to be mined for the discovery of drugs, drug leads and/or biosimilars. In this work we demonstrate as a proof of concept a novel approach to explore venoms for potential biosimilarity to other drugs based on their ability to alter the transcriptomes of test cell lines followed by informatic searches and Connectivity Mapping to match the action of the venom on the cell gene expression to that of other drugs in the Connectivity Map (C-Map) database. As our test animal venom we chose Heloderma suspectum venom (Gila monster) since exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist, isolated from the venom is currently on the market to treat type 2 diabetes. The action of Byetta(®) (exentide, synthetic exendin-4), was also used in transcriptome studies. Analysis of transcriptomes from cells treated with the venom or the drug showed similarities as well as differences. The former case was primarily attributed to the fact that Gila monster venom likely contains a variety of biologically active molecules that could alter the MCF7 cell transcriptome compared to that of the single perturbant Byetta(®). Using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling was identified in the category of "Top Canonical Pathways" for both the venom and Byetta(®). In the category of "Top Molecules" up-regulated, both venom and Byetta(®) shared IL-8, cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor 3 (ATF-3), neuron-derived orphan receptor 1 (NR4A3), dexamethasone-induced Ras-related protein 1 (RASD1) and early growth response protein 1, (EGR-1) all with potential relevance in diabetes. Using Connectivity Mapping, Gila monster venom showed positive correlation with 1732 instances and negative correlation with 793 instances in the Connectivity database whereas Byetta(®) showed positive correlation with 1692

  20. Cognitive Maps and the Structure of Observed Learning Outcome Assessment of Physiotherapy Students' Ethical Reasoning Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mark; van Kessel, Gisela; Swisher, Laura; Beckstead, Jason; Edwards, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of student learning in complex areas is challenging, particularly when there is interest in students' deeper understanding and connectivity of concepts. Assessment of ethics learning has been limited by lack of consensus regarding what is effective and an overfocus on quantification at the expense of clinical or ethical relevance.…

  1. Assessing connectivity of estuarine fishes based on stable isotope ratio analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzka, Sharon Z.

    2005-07-01

    Assessing connectivity is fundamental to understanding the population dynamics of fishes. I propose that isotopic analyses can greatly contribute to studies of connectivity in estuarine fishes due to the high diversity of isotopic signatures found among estuarine habitats and the fact that variations in isotopic composition at the base of a food web are reflected in the tissues of consumers. Isotopic analysis can be used for identifying nursery habitats and estimating their contribution to adult populations. If movement to a new habitat is accompanied by a shift to foods of distinct isotopic composition, recent immigrants and residents can be distinguished based on their isotopic ratios. Movement patterns thus can be reconstructed based on information obtained from individuals. A key consideration is the rate of isotopic turnover, which determines the length of time that an immigrant to a given habitat will be distinguishable from a longtime resident. A literature survey indicated that few studies have measured turnover rates in fishes and that these have focused on larvae and juveniles. These studies reveal that biomass gain is the primary process driving turnover rates, while metabolic turnover is either minimal or undetectable. Using a simple dilution model and biomass-specific growth rates, I estimated that young fishes with fast growth rates will reflect the isotopic composition of a new diet within days or weeks. Older or slower-growing individuals may take years or never fully equilibrate. Future studies should evaluate the factors that influence turnover rates in fishes during various stages of the life cycle and in different tissues, as well as explore the potential for combining stable isotope and otolith microstructure analyses to examine the relationship between demographic parameters, movement and connectivity.

  2. Assessment of Genetic Connectivity between Sudan and Saudi Arabia for Commercially Important Fish Species

    KAUST Repository

    Wilson, Sara N.

    2017-12-01

    Patterns of genetic connectivity can help answer key questions about the evolutionary ecology of fishes. This knowledge is particularly useful when considering the management and conservation of species that are impacted by fisheries. Population connectivity in ocean habitats is heavily influenced by environmental and oceanographic factors. These factors can lead to strong genetic differences within populations, causing fragmentation into smaller subpopulations. The Red Sea exhibits pronounced oceanographic gradients in temperature, chlorophyll, and salinity, which have been assessed in various species’ populations and which have been found to have potential impacts on gene flow. The Red Sea also features strong cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies that may facilitate, or possibly inhibit, the transport of larvae throughout the Red Sea, potentially influencing gene flow themselves. The ability of oceanographic factors like eddies to structure wild fisheries populations in this region has yet to be fully determined. To address this, the genetic composition of two of the most highly fished species, (Plectropomus areolatus and Plectropomus pessuliferus marisrubri), in the Red Sea were evaluated utilizing genetic markers (polymorphic microsatellite loci). Samples from three geographically separate regions along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coastline, as well as from Sudan, were analyzed to address latitudinal and cross-sea connectivity. I was able to determine that little genetic differentiation exists within Plectropomus species across all regions of the Red Sea, indicating high gene flow for these species throughout. These findings highlight the ability of currents and eddies to transport larvae along and across the Red Sea. The results from this study also indicate that a single population of P. areolatus and a single population of P. pessuliferus marisrubri occurs in the Red Sea. The high degree of genetic flow suggests that each species should be managed as individual

  3. Ecosystem Services Mapping Uncertainty Assessment: A Case Study in the Fitzroy Basin Mining Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services mapping is becoming increasingly popular through the use of various readily available mapping tools, however, uncertainties in assessment outputs are commonly ignored. Uncertainties from different sources have the potential to lower the accuracy of mapping outputs and reduce their reliability for decision-making. Using a case study in an Australian mining region, this paper assessed the impact of uncertainties on the modelling of the hydrological ecosystem service, water provision. Three types of uncertainty were modelled using multiple uncertainty scenarios: (1 spatial data sources; (2 modelling scales (temporal and spatial and (3 parameterization and model selection. We found that the mapping scales can induce significant changes to the spatial pattern of outputs and annual totals of water provision. In addition, differences in parameterization using differing sources from the literature also led to obvious differences in base flow. However, the impact of each uncertainty associated with differences in spatial data sources were not so great. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of uncertainty assessment and highlight that any conclusions drawn from ecosystem services mapping, such as the impacts of mining, are likely to also be a property of the uncertainty in ecosystem services mapping methods.

  4. A systematic map of ecosystem services assessments around European agroforestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerholm, Nora; Torralba Viorreta, Mario; Burgess, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    the knowledge field and provide the first systematic synthesis of ecosystem services research in relation to European agroforestry. We reviewed 71 scientific publications from studies conducted in farmland and forest ecosystems with various types of agroforestry management. Each publication was systematically......, typical clusters of similar research approaches were identified. The results show that ecosystem service assessment of European agroforestry is currently focused on the spatially extensive wood pastures in the Mediterranean, Atlantic, and Continental agricultural mosaic landscapes. A specific emphasis has...

  5. Network robustness assessed within a dual connectivity framework: joint dynamics of the Active and Idle Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Alejandro; Longjas, Anthony; Zaliapin, Ilya; Ambroj, Samuel; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2017-08-17

    Network robustness against attacks has been widely studied in fields as diverse as the Internet, power grids and human societies. But current definition of robustness is only accounting for half of the story: the connectivity of the nodes unaffected by the attack. Here we propose a new framework to assess network robustness, wherein the connectivity of the affected nodes is also taken into consideration, acknowledging that it plays a crucial role in properly evaluating the overall network robustness in terms of its future recovery from the attack. Specifically, we propose a dual perspective approach wherein at any instant in the network evolution under attack, two distinct networks are defined: (i) the Active Network (AN) composed of the unaffected nodes and (ii) the Idle Network (IN) composed of the affected nodes. The proposed robustness metric considers both the efficiency of destroying the AN and that of building-up the IN. We show, via analysis of well-known prototype networks and real world data, that trade-offs between the efficiency of Active and Idle Network dynamics give rise to surprising robustness crossovers and re-rankings, which can have significant implications for decision making.

  6. Failure Monitoring and Condition Assessment of Steel-Concrete Adhesive Connection Using Ultrasonic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Rucka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Adhesive bonding is increasingly being incorporated into civil engineering applications. Recently, the use of structural adhesives in steel-concrete composite systems is of particular interest. The aim of the study is an experimental investigation of the damage assessment of the connection between steel and concrete during mechanical degradation. Nine specimens consisted of a concrete cube and two adhesively bonded steel plates were examined. The inspection was based on the ultrasound monitoring during push-out tests. Ultrasonic waves were excited and registered by means of piezoelectric transducers every two seconds until the specimen failure. To determine the slip between the steel and concrete a photogrammetric method was applied. The procedure of damage evaluation is based on the monitoring of the changes in the amplitude and phase shift of signals measured during subsequent phases of degradation. To quantify discrepancies between the reference signal and other registered signals, the Sprague and Gears metric was applied. The results showed the possibilities and limitations of the proposed approach in diagnostics of adhesive connections between steel and concrete depending on the failure modes.

  7. Simultaneous comparison and assessment of eight remotely sensed maps of Philippine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estoque, Ronald C.; Pontius, Robert G.; Murayama, Yuji; Hou, Hao; Thapa, Rajesh B.; Lasco, Rodel D.; Villar, Merlito A.

    2018-05-01

    This article compares and assesses eight remotely sensed maps of Philippine forest cover in the year 2010. We examined eight Forest versus Non-Forest maps reclassified from eight land cover products: the Philippine Land Cover, the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) Land Cover, the Landsat Vegetation Continuous Fields (VCF), the MODIS VCF, the MODIS Land Cover Type product (MCD12Q1), the Global Tree Canopy Cover, the ALOS-PALSAR Forest/Non-Forest Map, and the GlobeLand30. The reference data consisted of 9852 randomly distributed sample points interpreted from Google Earth. We created methods to assess the maps and their combinations. Results show that the percentage of the Philippines covered by forest ranges among the maps from a low of 23% for the Philippine Land Cover to a high of 67% for GlobeLand30. Landsat VCF estimates 36% forest cover, which is closest to the 37% estimate based on the reference data. The eight maps plus the reference data agree unanimously on 30% of the sample points, of which 11% are attributable to forest and 19% to non-forest. The overall disagreement between the reference data and Philippine Land Cover is 21%, which is the least among the eight Forest versus Non-Forest maps. About half of the 9852 points have a nested structure such that the forest in a given dataset is a subset of the forest in the datasets that have more forest than the given dataset. The variation among the maps regarding forest quantity and allocation relates to the combined effects of the various definitions of forest and classification errors. Scientists and policy makers must consider these insights when producing future forest cover maps and when establishing benchmarks for forest cover monitoring.

  8. USING STROKE-BASED OR CHARACTER-BASED SELF-ORGANIZING MAPS IN THE RECOGNITION OF ONLINE, CONNECTED CURSIVE SCRIPT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHOMAKER, L

    Comparisons are made between a number of stroke-based and character-based recognizers of connected cursive script. In both approaches a Kohonen self-organizing neural network is used as a feature-vector quantizer. It is found that a ''best match only'' character-based recognizer performs better than

  9. Cross-hole fracture connectivity assessed using hydraulic responses during liner installations in crystalline bedrock boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Elisha; Levison, Jana; Pehme, Peeter; Novakowski, Kentner; Parker, Beth

    2018-01-01

    In order to continually improve the current understanding of flow and transport in crystalline bedrock environments, developing and improving fracture system characterization techniques is an important area of study. The presented research examines the installation of flexible, impermeable FLUTe™ liners as a means for assessing cross-hole fracture connectivity. FLUTe™ liners are used to generate a new style of hydraulic pulse, with pressure response monitored in a nearby network of open boreholes drilled in gneissic rock of the Canadian Shield in eastern Ontario, Canada. Borehole liners were installed in six existing 10-15 cm diameter boreholes located 10-35 m apart and drilled to depths ranging between 25-45 m. Liner installation tests were completed consecutively with the number of observation wells available for each test ranging between one and six. The collected pressure response data have been analyzed to identify significant groundwater flow paths between source and observation boreholes as well as to estimate inter-well transmissivity and storativity using a conventional type-curve analysis. While the applied solution relies on a number of general assumptions, it has been found that reasonable comparison can be made to previously completed pulse interference and pumping tests. Results of this research indicate areas where method refinement is necessary, but, nonetheless, highlight the potential for use in crystalline bedrock environments. This method may provide value to future site characterization efforts given that it is complementary to, and can be used in conjunction with, other currently employed borehole liner applications, such as the removal of cross-connection at contaminated sites and the assessment of discrete fracture distributions when boreholes are sealed, recreating natural hydraulic gradient conditions.

  10. Assessment of tropospheric delay mapping function models in Egypt: Using PTD database model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfatah, M. A.; Mousa, Ashraf E.; El-Fiky, Gamal S.

    2018-06-01

    For space geodetic measurements, estimates of tropospheric delays are highly correlated with site coordinates and receiver clock biases. Thus, it is important to use the most accurate models for the tropospheric delay to reduce errors in the estimates of the other parameters. Both the zenith delay value and mapping function should be assigned correctly to reduce such errors. Several mapping function models can treat the troposphere slant delay. The recent models were not evaluated for the Egyptian local climate conditions. An assessment of these models is needed to choose the most suitable one. The goal of this paper is to test the quality of global mapping function which provides high consistency with precise troposphere delay (PTD) mapping functions. The PTD model is derived from radiosonde data using ray tracing, which consider in this paper as true value. The PTD mapping functions were compared, with three recent total mapping functions model and another three separate dry and wet mapping function model. The results of the research indicate that models are very close up to zenith angle 80°. Saastamoinen and 1/cos z model are behind accuracy. Niell model is better than VMF model. The model of Black and Eisner is a good model. The results also indicate that the geometric range error has insignificant effect on slant delay and the fluctuation of azimuth anti-symmetric is about 1%.

  11. Quantitative assessment of errors in monitoring landcover changes by comparison of maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Francois Mas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Many studies aimed at assessing land-cover changes are based upon the comparison of maps elaborated in different dates. This comparison allows the calculation of change rates as well as to generate more detailed data such as the transition matrix and the change map. In this study, we evaluated the errors incurred when comparing maps elaborated at different scales, obtained through independent digitalisation processes, elaborated using different classification schemes or when the maps were elaborated with inputs from different dates. Errors derived from the difference of scale or from the map-digitalisation processes led to false changes with a similar or greater scale to that of true changes. The comparison of maps based on different classification schemes invalidated the results of the comparison. By contrast, the different approaches used to tackle the issue of maps with multiple dates produced similar results. The paper discusses some methods aimed at reducing these problems and evaluating the reliability of multi-temporal databases.

  12. Concepts of soil mapping as a basis for the assessment of soil functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Soil mapping systems in Europe have been designed mainly as a tool for the description of soil characteristics from a morphogenetic viewpoint. Contrasting to the American or FAO system, the soil development has been in the main focus of European systems. Nevertheless , recent developments in soil science stress the importance of the functions of soils with respect to the ecosystems. As soil mapping systems usually offer a sound and extensive database, the deduction of soil functions from "classic" mapping parameters can be used for local and regional assessments. According to the used pedo-transfer functions and mapping systems, tailored approaches can be chosen for different applications. In Austria, a system mainly for spatial planning purposes has been developed that will be presented and illustrated by means of best practice examples.

  13. Mapping Dynamics of Inundation Patterns of Two Largest River-Connected Lakes in China: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Guiping Wu; Yuanbo Liu

    2016-01-01

    Poyang Lake and Dongting Lake are the two largest freshwater lakes in China. The lakes are located approximately 300 km apart on the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and are differently connected through their respective tributary systems, which will lead to different river–lake water exchanges and discharges. Thus, differences in their morphological and hydrological conditions should induce individual lake spatio-temporal inundation patterns. Quantitative comparative analyses of the dynam...

  14. Statistical parametric mapping for effects of verapamil on olfactory connections of rat brain in vivo using manganese-enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soma, Tsutomu; Kurakawa, Masami; Koto, Daichi

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effect of verapamil on the transport of manganese in the olfactory connections of rat brains in vivo using statistical parametric mapping and manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We divided 12 7-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats into 2 groups of six and injected 10 μL of saline into the right nasal cavities of the first group and 10 μL of verapamil (2.5 mg/mL) into the other group. Twenty minutes after the initial injection, we injected 10 μL of MnCl 2 (1 mol/L) into the right nasal cavities of both groups. We obtained serial T 1 -weighted MR images before administering the verapamil or saline and at 0.5, one, 24, 48, and 72 hours and 7 days after administering the MnCl 2 , spatially normalized the MR images on the rat brain atlas, and analyzed the data using voxel-based statistical comparison. Statistical parametric maps demonstrated the transport of manganese. Manganese ions created significant enhancement (t-score=36.6) 24 hours after MnCl 2 administration in the group administered saline but not at the same time point in the group receiving verapamil. The extent of significantly enhanced regions peaked at 72 hours in both groups and both sides of the brain. The peak of extent in the right side brain in the group injected with saline was 70.2 mm 3 and in the group with verapamil, 92.4 mm 3 . The extents in the left side were 64.0 mm 3 for the group with saline and 53.2 mm 3 for the group with verapamil. We applied statistical parametric mapping using manganese-enhanced MR imaging to demonstrate in vivo the transport of manganese in the olfactory connections of rat brains with and without verapamil and found that verapamil did affect this transport. (author)

  15. Assessing ionospheric activity by long time series of GNSS signals: the search of possible connection with seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeandro, Angelo; Mancini, Francesco; De Giglio, Michaela; Barbarella, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    The modifications of some atmospheric physical properties prior to a high magnitude earthquake were recently debated in the frame of the Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere (LAI) Coupling model. Among this variety of phenomena, the ionization of air at the ionospheric levels due to leaking of gases from earth crust through the analysis of long time series of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) signals was investigated in this work. Several authors used the dispersive properties of the ionospheric strata towards the GNSS signals to detect possible ionospheric anomalies over areas affected by earthquakes and some evidences were encountered. However, the spatial scale and temporal domains over which such disturbances come into evidence is still a controversial item. Furthermore, the correspondence by chance between ionospheric disturbances and relevant seismic activity is even more difficult to model whenever the reference time period and spatial extent of investigation are confined. Problems could also arise from phenomena due to solar activity (now at culmination within the 11 years-long solar cycle) because such global effects could reduce the ability to detect disturbances at regional or local spatial scale. In this work, two case studies were investigated. The first one focuses on the M = 6.3 earthquake occurred on April 6, 2009, close to the city of L'Aquila (Abruzzo, Italy). The second concerns the M = 5.9 earthquake occurred on May 20, 2012, between the cities of Ferrara and Modena (Emilia Romagna, Italy). To investigate possible connections between the ionospheric activity and seismicity for such events, a five-year (2008-2012) long series of high resolution ionospheric maps was used. These maps were produced by authors from GNSS data collected by permanent stations uniformly distributed around the epicenters and allowed to assess the ionospheric activity through the analysis of the TEC (Total Electron Content). To avoid the influence of solar activity

  16. From theoretical to actual ecosystem services: mapping beneficiaries and spatial flows in ecosystem service assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. Bagstad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services mapping and modeling has focused more on supply than demand, until recently. Whereas the potential provision of economic benefits from ecosystems to people is often quantified through ecological production functions, the use of and demand for ecosystem services has received less attention, as have the spatial flows of services from ecosystems to people. However, new modeling approaches that map and quantify service-specific sources (ecosystem capacity to provide a service, sinks (biophysical or anthropogenic features that deplete or alter service flows, users (user locations and level of demand, and spatial flows can provide a more complete understanding of ecosystem services. Through a case study in Puget Sound, Washington State, USA, we quantify and differentiate between the theoretical or in situ provision of services, i.e., ecosystems' capacity to supply services, and their actual provision when accounting for the location of beneficiaries and the spatial connections that mediate service flows between people and ecosystems. Our analysis includes five ecosystem services: carbon sequestration and storage, riverine flood regulation, sediment regulation for reservoirs, open space proximity, and scenic viewsheds. Each ecosystem service is characterized by different beneficiary groups and means of service flow. Using the ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES methodology we map service supply, demand, and flow, extending on simpler approaches used by past studies to map service provision and use. With the exception of the carbon sequestration service, regions that actually provided services to people, i.e., connected to beneficiaries via flow paths, amounted to 16-66% of those theoretically capable of supplying services, i.e., all ecosystems across the landscape. These results offer a more complete understanding of the spatial dynamics of ecosystem services and their effects, and may provide a sounder basis for

  17. From theoretical to actual ecosystem services: mapping beneficiaries and spatial flows in ecosystem service assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Villa, Ferdinando; Batker, David; Harrison-Cox, Jennifer; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem services mapping and modeling has focused more on supply than demand, until recently. Whereas the potential provision of economic benefits from ecosystems to people is often quantified through ecological production functions, the use of and demand for ecosystem services has received less attention, as have the spatial flows of services from ecosystems to people. However, new modeling approaches that map and quantify service-specific sources (ecosystem capacity to provide a service), sinks (biophysical or anthropogenic features that deplete or alter service flows), users (user locations and level of demand), and spatial flows can provide a more complete understanding of ecosystem services. Through a case study in Puget Sound, Washington State, USA, we quantify and differentiate between the theoretical or in situ provision of services, i.e., ecosystems’ capacity to supply services, and their actual provision when accounting for the location of beneficiaries and the spatial connections that mediate service flows between people and ecosystems. Our analysis includes five ecosystem services: carbon sequestration and storage, riverine flood regulation, sediment regulation for reservoirs, open space proximity, and scenic viewsheds. Each ecosystem service is characterized by different beneficiary groups and means of service flow. Using the ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) methodology we map service supply, demand, and flow, extending on simpler approaches used by past studies to map service provision and use. With the exception of the carbon sequestration service, regions that actually provided services to people, i.e., connected to beneficiaries via flow paths, amounted to 16-66% of those theoretically capable of supplying services, i.e., all ecosystems across the landscape. These results offer a more complete understanding of the spatial dynamics of ecosystem services and their effects, and may provide a sounder basis for economic

  18. Challenges to assessing connectivity between massive populations of the Australian plague locust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuis, Marie-Pierre; Popple, Julie-Anne M.; Berthier, Karine; Simpson, Stephen J.; Deveson, Edward; Spurgin, Peter; Steinbauer, Martin J.; Sword, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Linking demographic and genetic dispersal measures is of fundamental importance for movement ecology and evolution. However, such integration can be difficult, particularly for highly fecund species that are often the target of management decisions guided by an understanding of population movement. Here, we present an example of how the influence of large population sizes can preclude genetic approaches from assessing demographic population structuring, even at a continental scale. The Australian plague locust, Chortoicetes terminifera, is a significant pest, with populations on the eastern and western sides of Australia having been monitored and managed independently to date. We used microsatellites to assess genetic variation in 12 C. terminifera population samples separated by up to 3000 km. Traditional summary statistics indicated high levels of genetic diversity and a surprising lack of population structure across the entire range. An approximate Bayesian computation treatment indicated that levels of genetic diversity in C. terminifera corresponded to effective population sizes conservatively composed of tens of thousands to several million individuals. We used these estimates and computer simulations to estimate the minimum rate of dispersal, m, that could account for the observed range-wide genetic homogeneity. The rate of dispersal between both sides of the Australian continent could be several orders of magnitude lower than that typically considered as required for the demographic connectivity of populations. PMID:21389030

  19. Contribution of transcranial magnetic stimulation to assessment of brain connectivity and networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Mark; Di Iorio, Riccardo; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Park, Jung E; Chen, Robert; Celnik, Pablo; Strafella, Antonio P; Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2017-11-01

    The goal of this review is to show how transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) techniques can make a contribution to the study of brain networks. Brain networks are fundamental in understanding how the brain operates. Effects on remote areas can be directly observed or identified after a period of stimulation, and each section of this review will discuss one method. EEG analyzed following TMS is called TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs). A conditioning TMS can influence the effect of a test TMS given over the motor cortex. A disynaptic connection can be tested also by assessing the effect of a pre-conditioning stimulus on the conditioning-test pair. Basal ganglia-cortical relationships can be assessed using electrodes placed in the process of deep brain stimulation therapy. Cerebellar-cortical relationships can be determined using TMS over the cerebellum. Remote effects of TMS on the brain can be found as well using neuroimaging, including both positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The methods complement each other since they give different views of brain networks, and it is often valuable to use more than one technique to achieve converging evidence. The final product of this type of work is to show how information is processed and transmitted in the brain. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Mapping regional livelihood benefits from local ecosystem services assessments in rural Sahel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Malmborg

    Full Text Available Most current approaches to landscape scale ecosystem service assessments rely on detailed secondary data. This type of data is seldom available in regions with high levels of poverty and strong local dependence on provisioning ecosystem services for livelihoods. We develop a method to extrapolate results from a previously published village scale ecosystem services assessment to a higher administrative level, relevant for land use decision making. The method combines remote sensing (using a hybrid classification method and interviews with community members. The resulting landscape scale maps show the spatial distribution of five different livelihood benefits (nutritional diversity, income, insurance/saving, material assets and energy, and crops for consumption that illustrate the strong multifunctionality of the Sahelian landscapes. The maps highlight the importance of a diverse set of sub-units of the landscape in supporting Sahelian livelihoods. We see a large potential in using the resulting type of livelihood benefit maps for guiding future land use decisions in the Sahel.

  1. Mapping regional livelihood benefits from local ecosystem services assessments in rural Sahel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmborg, Katja; Sinare, Hanna; Enfors Kautsky, Elin; Ouedraogo, Issa; Gordon, Line J

    2018-01-01

    Most current approaches to landscape scale ecosystem service assessments rely on detailed secondary data. This type of data is seldom available in regions with high levels of poverty and strong local dependence on provisioning ecosystem services for livelihoods. We develop a method to extrapolate results from a previously published village scale ecosystem services assessment to a higher administrative level, relevant for land use decision making. The method combines remote sensing (using a hybrid classification method) and interviews with community members. The resulting landscape scale maps show the spatial distribution of five different livelihood benefits (nutritional diversity, income, insurance/saving, material assets and energy, and crops for consumption) that illustrate the strong multifunctionality of the Sahelian landscapes. The maps highlight the importance of a diverse set of sub-units of the landscape in supporting Sahelian livelihoods. We see a large potential in using the resulting type of livelihood benefit maps for guiding future land use decisions in the Sahel.

  2. Mapping regional livelihood benefits from local ecosystem services assessments in rural Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinare, Hanna; Enfors Kautsky, Elin; Ouedraogo, Issa; Gordon, Line J.

    2018-01-01

    Most current approaches to landscape scale ecosystem service assessments rely on detailed secondary data. This type of data is seldom available in regions with high levels of poverty and strong local dependence on provisioning ecosystem services for livelihoods. We develop a method to extrapolate results from a previously published village scale ecosystem services assessment to a higher administrative level, relevant for land use decision making. The method combines remote sensing (using a hybrid classification method) and interviews with community members. The resulting landscape scale maps show the spatial distribution of five different livelihood benefits (nutritional diversity, income, insurance/saving, material assets and energy, and crops for consumption) that illustrate the strong multifunctionality of the Sahelian landscapes. The maps highlight the importance of a diverse set of sub-units of the landscape in supporting Sahelian livelihoods. We see a large potential in using the resulting type of livelihood benefit maps for guiding future land use decisions in the Sahel. PMID:29389965

  3. Hybrid geomorphological maps as the basis for assessing geoconservation potential in Lech, Vorarlberg (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seijmonsbergen, Harry; de Jong, Mat; Anders, Niels; de Graaff, Leo; Cammeraat, Erik

    2013-04-01

    Geoconservation potential is, in our approach, closely linked to the spatial distribution of geomorphological sites and thus, geomorphological inventories. Detailed geomorphological maps are translated, using a standardized workflow, into polygonal maps showing the potential geoconservation value of landforms. A new development is to semi-automatically extract in a GIS geomorphological information from high resolution topographical data, such as LiDAR, and combine this with conventional data types (e.g. airphotos, geological maps) into geomorphological maps. Such hybrid digital geomorphological maps are also easily translated into digital information layers which show the geoconservation potential in an area. We present a protocol for digital geomorphological mapping illustrated with an example for the municipality of Lech in Vorarlberg (Austria). The protocol consists of 5 steps: 1. data preparation, 2. generating training and validation samples, 3. parameterization, 4. feature extraction, and 5. assessing classification accuracy. The resulting semi-automated digital geomorphological map is then further validated, in two ways. Firstly, the map is manually checked with the help of a series of digital datasets (e.g. airphotos) in a digital 3D environment, such as ArcScene. The second validation is field visit, which preferably occurs in parallel to the digital evaluation, so that updates are quickly achieved. The final digital and coded geomorphological information layer is converted into a potential geoconservation map by weighting and ranking the landforms based on four criteria: scientific relevance, frequency of occurrence, disturbance, and environmental vulnerability. The criteria with predefined scores for the various landform types are stored in a separate GIS attribute table, which is joined to the attribute table of the hybrid geomorphological information layer in an automated procedure. The results of the assessment can be displayed as the potential

  4. MR relaxometry in chronic liver diseases: Comparison of T1 mapping, T2 mapping, and diffusion-weighted imaging for assessing cirrhosis diagnosis and severity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassinotto, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.cassinotto@chu-bordeaux.fr [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Hôpital Haut-Lévêque, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire et Université de Bordeaux, 1 Avenue de Magellan, 33604 Pessac (France); INSERM U1053, Université Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); Feldis, Matthieu, E-mail: matthieu.feldis@chu-bordeaux.fr [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Hôpital Haut-Lévêque, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire et Université de Bordeaux, 1 Avenue de Magellan, 33604 Pessac (France); Vergniol, Julien, E-mail: julien.vergniol@chu-bordeaux.fr [Centre D’investigation de la Fibrose Hépatique, Hôpital Haut-Lévêque, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux, 1 Avenue de Magellan, 33604 Pessac (France); Mouries, Amaury, E-mail: amaury.mouries@chu-bordeaux.fr [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Hôpital Haut-Lévêque, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire et Université de Bordeaux, 1 Avenue de Magellan, 33604 Pessac (France); Cochet, Hubert, E-mail: hubert.cochet@chu-bordeaux.fr [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Hôpital Haut-Lévêque, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire et Université de Bordeaux, 1 Avenue de Magellan, 33604 Pessac (France); and others

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The use of MR to classify cirrhosis in different stages is a new interesting field. • We compared liver and spleen T1 mapping, T2 mapping and diffusion-weighted imaging. • MR relaxometry using liver T1 mapping is accurate for the diagnosis of cirrhosis. • Liver T1 mapping shows that values increase with the severity of cirrhosis. • Diffusion-weighted imaging is less accurate than T1 mapping while T2 mapping is not reliable. - Abstract: Background: MR relaxometry has been extensively studied in the field of cardiac diseases, but its contribution to liver imaging is unclear. We aimed to compare liver and spleen T1 mapping, T2 mapping, and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) for assessing the diagnosis and severity of cirrhosis. Methods: We prospectively included 129 patients with normal (n = 40) and cirrhotic livers (n = 89) from May to September 2014. Non-enhanced liver T1 mapping, splenic T2 mapping, and liver and splenic DWI were measured and compared for assessing cirrhosis severity using Child-Pugh score, MELD score, and presence or not of large esophageal varices (EVs) and liver stiffness measurements using Fibroscan{sup ®} as reference. Results: Liver T1 mapping was the only variable demonstrating significant differences between normal patients (500 ± 79 ms), Child-Pugh A patients (574 ± 84 ms) and Child-Pugh B/C patients (690 ± 147 ms; all p-values <0.00001). Liver T1 mapping had a significant correlation with Child-Pugh score (Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.46), MEDL score (0.30), and liver stiffness measurement (0.52). Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of liver T1 mapping for the diagnosis of cirrhosis (O.85; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 0.77–0.91), Child-Pugh B/C cirrhosis (0.87; 95%CI, 0.76–0.93), and large EVs (0.75; 95%CI, 0.63–0.83) were greater than that of spleen T2 mapping, liver and spleen DWI (all p-values < 0.01). Conclusion: Liver T1 mapping is a promising new diagnostic

  5. MR relaxometry in chronic liver diseases: Comparison of T1 mapping, T2 mapping, and diffusion-weighted imaging for assessing cirrhosis diagnosis and severity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassinotto, Christophe; Feldis, Matthieu; Vergniol, Julien; Mouries, Amaury; Cochet, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The use of MR to classify cirrhosis in different stages is a new interesting field. • We compared liver and spleen T1 mapping, T2 mapping and diffusion-weighted imaging. • MR relaxometry using liver T1 mapping is accurate for the diagnosis of cirrhosis. • Liver T1 mapping shows that values increase with the severity of cirrhosis. • Diffusion-weighted imaging is less accurate than T1 mapping while T2 mapping is not reliable. - Abstract: Background: MR relaxometry has been extensively studied in the field of cardiac diseases, but its contribution to liver imaging is unclear. We aimed to compare liver and spleen T1 mapping, T2 mapping, and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) for assessing the diagnosis and severity of cirrhosis. Methods: We prospectively included 129 patients with normal (n = 40) and cirrhotic livers (n = 89) from May to September 2014. Non-enhanced liver T1 mapping, splenic T2 mapping, and liver and splenic DWI were measured and compared for assessing cirrhosis severity using Child-Pugh score, MELD score, and presence or not of large esophageal varices (EVs) and liver stiffness measurements using Fibroscan ® as reference. Results: Liver T1 mapping was the only variable demonstrating significant differences between normal patients (500 ± 79 ms), Child-Pugh A patients (574 ± 84 ms) and Child-Pugh B/C patients (690 ± 147 ms; all p-values <0.00001). Liver T1 mapping had a significant correlation with Child-Pugh score (Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.46), MEDL score (0.30), and liver stiffness measurement (0.52). Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of liver T1 mapping for the diagnosis of cirrhosis (O.85; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 0.77–0.91), Child-Pugh B/C cirrhosis (0.87; 95%CI, 0.76–0.93), and large EVs (0.75; 95%CI, 0.63–0.83) were greater than that of spleen T2 mapping, liver and spleen DWI (all p-values < 0.01). Conclusion: Liver T1 mapping is a promising new diagnostic tool for

  6. Assessment of landslide distribution map reliability in Niigata prefecture - Japan using frequency ratio approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahardianto, Trias; Saputra, Aditya; Gomez, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    Research on landslide susceptibility has evolved rapidly over the few last decades thanks to the availability of large databases. Landslide research used to be focused on discreet events but the usage of large inventory dataset has become a central pillar of landslide susceptibility, hazard, and risk assessment. Indeed, extracting meaningful information from the large database is now at the forth of geoscientific research, following the big-data research trend. Indeed, the more comprehensive information of the past landslide available in a particular area is, the better the produced map will be, in order to support the effective decision making, planning, and engineering practice. The landslide inventory data which is freely accessible online gives an opportunity for many researchers and decision makers to prevent casualties and economic loss caused by future landslides. This data is advantageous especially for areas with poor landslide historical data. Since the construction criteria of landslide inventory map and its quality evaluation remain poorly defined, the assessment of open source landslide inventory map reliability is required. The present contribution aims to assess the reliability of open-source landslide inventory data based on the particular topographical setting of the observed area in Niigata prefecture, Japan. Geographic Information System (GIS) platform and statistical approach are applied to analyze the data. Frequency ratio method is utilized to model and assess the landslide map. The outcomes of the generated model showed unsatisfactory results with AUC value of 0.603 indicate the low prediction accuracy and unreliability of the model.

  7. Assessing the utility of the spot 6 sensor in detecting and mapping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lantana camara is a significant weed in South Africa which is causing severe impacts on agriculture by reducing grazing areas. This study assessed the potential of the SPOT 6 multispectral sensor and two broadband vegetation indices (NDVI and SR) for detecting and mapping Lantana camara in a community grazing ...

  8. A GIS application for assessing, mapping, and quantifying the social values of ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrouse, Benson C.; Clement, Jessica M.; Semmens, Darius J.

    2011-01-01

    As human pressures on ecosystems continue to increase, research involving the effective incorporation of social values information into the context of comprehensive ecosystem services assessments is becoming more important. Including quantified, spatially explicit social value metrics in such assessments will improve the analysis of relative tradeoffs among ecosystem services. This paper describes a GIS application, Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES), developed to assess, map, and quantify the perceived social values of ecosystem services by deriving a non-monetary Value Index from responses to a public attitude and preference survey. SolVES calculates and maps the Value Index for social values held by various survey subgroups, as distinguished by their attitudes regarding ecosystem use. Index values can be compared within and among survey subgroups to explore the effect of social contexts on the valuation of ecosystem services. Index values can also be correlated and regressed against landscape metrics SolVES calculates from various environmental data layers. Coefficients derived through these analyses were applied to their corresponding data layers to generate a predicted social value map. This map compared favorably with other SolVES output and led to the addition of a predictive mapping function to SolVES for value transfer to areas where survey data are unavailable. A more robust application is being developed as a public domain tool for decision makers and researchers to map social values of ecosystem services and to facilitate discussions among diverse stakeholders involving relative tradeoffs among different ecosystem services in a variety of physical and social contexts.

  9. Severe Loading Assessment of Modern and New Proposed Beam to Column Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Faridmehr

    Full Text Available AbstractThe performance of two different steel beam to column connections known as SidePlateTM and a new proposed connection by seismic loading and progressive collapse were investigated in this research. Seismic performance evaluated included consideration of interstory drift angles and flexural strengths based on 2010 AISC Seismic Provisions while investigation of progressive collapse was conducted through satisfaction of acceptance criteria by rotational capacities of the connections provided in UFC 4-023-03 guideline. The results indicated that both SidePlate and the new proposed moment connection were capable of achieving adequate rotational capacity and developing full inelastic capacity of the connecting beam. Also, an excellent performance was exhibited by the connections in terms of keeping the plastic hinges away from the connection and exceeding interstory drift angle of 0.06 rad without fracture developments in beam flange groove-welded joints. Based on results, it was concluded that the SidePlate and the new proposed connection possess sufficient stiffness, strength and ductility to be classified as rigid, full-strength and ductile connections.

  10. Pyrite deformation and connections to gold mobility: Insight from micro-structural analysis and trace element mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubosq, R.; Lawley, C. J. M.; Rogowitz, A.; Schneider, D. A.; Jackson, S.

    2018-06-01

    The metamorphic transition of pyrite to pyrrhotite results in the liberation of lattice-bound and nano-particulate metals initially hosted within early sulphide minerals. This process forms the basis for the metamorphic-driven Au-upgrading model applied to many orogenic Au deposits, however the role of syn-metamorphic pyrite deformation in controlling the retention and release of Au and related pathfinder elements is poorly understood. The lower amphibolite facies metamorphic mineral assemblage (Act-Bt-Pl-Ep-Alm ± Cal ± Qz ± Ilm; 550 °C) of Canada's giant Detour Lake deposit falls within the range of pressure-temperature conditions (450 °C) for crystal plastic deformation of pyrite. We have applied a complementary approach of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) mapping and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) 2D element mapping on pyrite from the Detour Lake deposit. Chemical element maps document an early generation of Au-rich sieve textured pyrite domains and a later stage of syn-metamorphic oscillatory-zoned Au-poor pyrite. Both pyrite types are cut by Au-rich fractures as a consequence of remobilization of Au with trace element enrichment of first-row transition elements, post-transition metals, chalcogens and metalloids during a late brittle deformation stage. However, similar enrichment in trace elements and Au can be observed along low-angle grain boundaries within otherwise Au-poor pyrite, indicating that heterogeneous microstructural misorientation patterns and higher strain domains are also relatively Au-rich. We therefore propose that the close spatial relationship between pyrite and Au at the microscale, features typical of orogenic Au deposits, reflects the entrapment of Au within deformation-induced microstructures in pyrite rather than the release of Au during the metamorphic transition from pyrite to pyrrhotite. Moreover, mass balance calculations at the deposit scale suggest that only a small percentage

  11. About Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen S Rockland

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the attention attracted by connectomics, one can lose sight of the very real questions concerning What are connections? In the neuroimaging community, structural connectivity is ground truth and underlying constraint on functional or effective connectivity. It is referenced to underlying anatomy; but, as increasingly remarked, there is a large gap between the wealth of human brain mapping and the relatively scant data on actual anatomical connectivity. Moreover, connections have typically been discussed as pairwise, point x projecting to point y (or: to points y and z, or more recently, in graph theoretical terms, as nodes or regions and the interconnecting edges. This is a convenient shorthand, but tends not to capture the richness and nuance of basic anatomical properties as identified in the classic tradition of tracer studies. The present short review accordingly revisits connectional weights, heterogeneity, reciprocity, topography, and hierarchical organization, drawing on concrete examples. The emphasis is on presynaptic long-distance connections, motivated by the intention to probe current assumptions and promote discussions about further progress and synthesis.

  12. Oxygen-enhanced MRI for patients with connective tissue diseases: Comparison with thin-section CT of capability for pulmonary functional and disease severity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, Yoshiharu, E-mail: yosirad@kobe-u.ac.jp [Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Nishio, Mizuho [Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Koyama, Hisanobu [Division of Radiology, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Sumiaki [Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Seki, Shinichiro [Division of Radiology, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Tsubakimoto, Maho [Division of Radiology, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, Nakagami-Gun, Okinawa (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro [Division of Radiology, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To prospectively and directly compare oxygen-enhanced (O{sub 2}-enhanced) MRI with thin-section CT for pulmonary functional loss and disease severity assessment in connective tissue disease (CTD) patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). Materials and methods: Thin-section CT, O{sub 2}-enhanced MRI, pulmonary function test and serum KL-6 were administered to 36 CTD patients with ILD (23 men, 13 women; mean age: 63.9 years) and nine CTD patients without ILD (six men, and three women; mean age: 62.0 years). A relative-enhancement ratio (RER) map was generated from O{sub 2}-enhanced MRI and mean relative enhancement ratio (MRER) for each subject was calculated from all ROI measurements. CT-assessed disease severity was evaluated with a visual scoring system from each of the thin-section CT data. MRER and CT-assessed disease severities of CTD patients with and without ILD were then statistically compared. To assess capability for pulmonary functional loss and disease severity assessment in CTD patients, correlations of MRER and CT-assessed disease severity with pulmonary functional parameters and serum KL-6 in all subjects were statistically determined. Results: MRER and CT-assessed disease severity showed significant differences between CTD patients with (MRER: 0.15 ± 0.08, CT-assessed disease severity: 13.0 ± 7.4%) and without ILD (MRER: 0.25 ± 0.06, p = 0.0011; CT-assessed disease severity: 1.6 ± 1.6%, p < 0.0001). MRER and CT-assessed disease severity correlated significantly with pulmonary functional parameters and serum KL-6 in all subjects (0.61 ≤ r ≤ 0.79, p < 0.05). Conclusion: O{sub 2}-enhanced MRI was found to be as useful as thin-section CT for pulmonary functional loss and disease severity assessment of CTD patients with ILD.

  13. Oxygen-enhanced MRI for patients with connective tissue diseases: Comparison with thin-section CT of capability for pulmonary functional and disease severity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Nishio, Mizuho; Koyama, Hisanobu; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Sumiaki; Seki, Shinichiro; Tsubakimoto, Maho; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively and directly compare oxygen-enhanced (O 2 -enhanced) MRI with thin-section CT for pulmonary functional loss and disease severity assessment in connective tissue disease (CTD) patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). Materials and methods: Thin-section CT, O 2 -enhanced MRI, pulmonary function test and serum KL-6 were administered to 36 CTD patients with ILD (23 men, 13 women; mean age: 63.9 years) and nine CTD patients without ILD (six men, and three women; mean age: 62.0 years). A relative-enhancement ratio (RER) map was generated from O 2 -enhanced MRI and mean relative enhancement ratio (MRER) for each subject was calculated from all ROI measurements. CT-assessed disease severity was evaluated with a visual scoring system from each of the thin-section CT data. MRER and CT-assessed disease severities of CTD patients with and without ILD were then statistically compared. To assess capability for pulmonary functional loss and disease severity assessment in CTD patients, correlations of MRER and CT-assessed disease severity with pulmonary functional parameters and serum KL-6 in all subjects were statistically determined. Results: MRER and CT-assessed disease severity showed significant differences between CTD patients with (MRER: 0.15 ± 0.08, CT-assessed disease severity: 13.0 ± 7.4%) and without ILD (MRER: 0.25 ± 0.06, p = 0.0011; CT-assessed disease severity: 1.6 ± 1.6%, p < 0.0001). MRER and CT-assessed disease severity correlated significantly with pulmonary functional parameters and serum KL-6 in all subjects (0.61 ≤ r ≤ 0.79, p < 0.05). Conclusion: O 2 -enhanced MRI was found to be as useful as thin-section CT for pulmonary functional loss and disease severity assessment of CTD patients with ILD

  14. Resting-state functional connectivity assessed with two diffuse optical tomographic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Haijing; Khadka, Sabin; Tian, Fenghua; Lin, Zi-Jing; Lu, Chunming; Zhu, Chaozhe; Liu, Hanli

    2011-04-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is recently utilized as a new approach to assess resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in the human brain. For any new technique or new methodology, it is necessary to be able to replicate similar experiments using different instruments in order to establish its liability and reproducibility. We apply two different diffuse optical tomographic (DOT) systems (i.e., DYNOT and CW5), with various probe arrangements to evaluate RSFC in the sensorimotor cortex by utilizing a previously published experimental protocol and seed-based correlation analysis. Our results exhibit similar spatial patterns and strengths in RSFC between the bilateral motor cortexes. The consistent observations are obtained from both DYNOT and CW5 systems, and are also in good agreement with the previous fNIRS study. Overall, we demonstrate that the fNIRS-based RSFC is reproducible by various DOT imaging systems among different research groups, enhancing the confidence of neuroscience researchers and clinicians to utilize fNIRS for future applications.

  15. Family Nurture Intervention in preterm infants alters frontal cortical functional connectivity assessed by EEG coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, M M; Grieve, P G; Stark, R I; Isler, J R; Hofer, M A; Yang, J; Ludwig, R J; Welch, M G

    2015-07-01

    To assess the impact of Family Nurture Intervention (FNI) on cortical function in preterm infants at term age. Family Nurture Intervention is a NICU-based intervention designed to establish emotional connection between mothers and preterm infants. Infants born at 26-34 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) were divided into two groups, standard care (SC, N = 49) and FNI (FNI, N = 56). Infants had EEG recordings of ~one hour duration with 124 lead nets between 37 and 44 weeks PMA. Coherence was measured between all pairs of electrodes in ten frequency bands. Data were summarised both within and between 12 regions during two sleep states (active, quiet). Coherence levels were negatively correlated with PMA age in both groups. As compared to SC infants, FNI infants showed significantly lower levels of EEG coherence (1-18 Hz) largely within and between frontal regions. Coherence in FNI infants was decreased in regions where we previously found robust increases in EEG power. As coherence decreases with age, results suggest that FNI may accelerate brain maturation particularly in frontal brain regions, which have been shown in research by others to be involved in regulation of attention, cognition and emotion regulation; domains deficient in preterm infants. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Mechanisms of population heterogeneity among molting common mergansers on Kodiak Island, Alaska: Implications for genetic assessments of migratory connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, John M.; Zwiefelhofer, Denny; Maryanski, Nate

    2009-01-01

    Quantifying population genetic heterogeneity within nonbreeding aggregations can inform our understanding of patterns of site fidelity, migratory connectivity, and gene flow between breeding and nonbreeding areas. However, characterizing mechanisms that contribute to heterogeneity, such as migration and dispersal, is required before site fidelity and migratory connectivity can be assessed accurately. We studied nonbreeding groups of Common Mergansers (Mergus merganser) molting on Kodiak Island, Alaska, from 2005 to 2007, using banding data to assess rates of recapture, mitochondrial (mt) DNA to determine natal area, and nuclear microsatellite genotypes to assess dispersal. Using baseline information from differentiated mtDNA haplogroups across North America, we were able to assign individuals to natal regions and document population genetic heterogeneity within and among molting groups. Band-recovery and DNA data suggest that both migration from and dispersal among natal areas contribute to admixed groups of males molting on Kodiak Island. A lack of differentiation in the Common Merganser's nuclear, bi-parentally inherited DNA, observed across North America, implies that dispersal can mislead genetic assessments of migratory connectivity and assignments of nonbreeding individuals to breeding areas. Thus multiple and independent data types are required to account for such behaviors before accurate assessments of migratory connectivity can be made.

  17. A biological tool to assess flow connectivity in reference temporary streams from the Mediterranean Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, N; Verkaik, I; García-Roger, E M; Rieradevall, M; Bonada, N; Sánchez-Montoya, M M; Gómez, R; Suárez, M L; Vidal-Abarca, M R; Demartini, D; Buffagni, A; Erba, S; Karaouzas, I; Skoulikidis, N; Prat, N

    2016-01-01

    Many streams in the Mediterranean Basin have temporary flow regimes. While timing for seasonal drought is predictable, they undergo strong inter-annual variability in flow intensity. This high hydrological variability and associated ecological responses challenge the ecological status assessment of temporary streams, particularly when setting reference conditions. This study examined the effects of flow connectivity in aquatic macroinvertebrates from seven reference temporary streams across the Mediterranean Basin where hydrological variability and flow conditions are well studied. We tested for the effect of flow cessation on two streamflow indices and on community composition, and, by performing random forest and classification tree analyses we identified important biological predictors for classifying the aquatic state either as flowing or disconnected pools. Flow cessation was critical for one of the streamflow indices studied and for community composition. Macroinvertebrate families found to be important for classifying the aquatic state were Hydrophilidae, Simuliidae, Hydropsychidae, Planorbiidae, Heptageniidae and Gerridae. For biological traits, trait categories associated to feeding habits, food, locomotion and substrate relation were the most important and provided more accurate predictions compared to taxonomy. A combination of selected metrics and associated thresholds based on the most important biological predictors (i.e. Bio-AS Tool) were proposed in order to assess the aquatic state in reference temporary streams, especially in the absence of hydrological data. Although further development is needed, the tool can be of particular interest for monitoring, restoration, and conservation purposes, representing an important step towards an adequate management of temporary rivers not only in the Mediterranean Basin but also in other regions vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The great melting pot. Common sole population connectivity assessed by otolith and water fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morat, Fabien; Letourneur, Yves; Dierking, Jan; Pécheyran, Christophe; Bareille, Gilles; Blamart, Dominique; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the scale and importance of individual dispersion between populations and life stages is a key challenge in marine ecology. The common sole (Solea solea), an important commercial flatfish in the North Sea, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, has a marine pelagic larval stage, a benthic juvenile stage in coastal nurseries (lagoons, estuaries or shallow marine areas) and a benthic adult stage in deeper marine waters on the continental shelf. To date, the ecological connectivity among these life stages has been little assessed in the Mediterranean. Here, such an assessment is provided for the first time for the Gulf of Lions, NW Mediterranean, based on a dataset on otolith microchemistry and stable isotopic composition as indicators of the water masses inhabited by individual fish. Specifically, otolith Ba/Ca and Sr/Ca profiles, and δ(13)C and δ(18)O values of adults collected in four areas of the Gulf of Lions were compared with those of young-of-the-year collected in different coastal nurseries. Results showed that a high proportion of adults (>46%) were influenced by river inputs during their larval stage. Furthermore Sr/Ca ratios and the otolith length at one year of age revealed that most adults (∼70%) spent their juvenile stage in nurseries with high salinity, whereas the remainder used brackish environments. In total, data were consistent with the use of six nursery types, three with high salinity (marine areas and two types of highly saline lagoons) and three brackish (coastal areas near river mouths, and two types of brackish environments), all of which contributed to the replenishment of adult populations. These finding implicated panmixia in sole population in the Gulf of Lions and claimed for a habitat integrated management of fisheries.

  19. Web GIS in practice IV: publishing your health maps and connecting to remote WMS sources using the Open Source UMN MapServer and DM Solutions MapLab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honda Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Open Source Web GIS software systems have reached a stage of maturity, sophistication, robustness and stability, and usability and user friendliness rivalling that of commercial, proprietary GIS and Web GIS server products. The Open Source Web GIS community is also actively embracing OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium standards, including WMS (Web Map Service. WMS enables the creation of Web maps that have layers coming from multiple different remote servers/sources. In this article we present one easy to implement Web GIS server solution that is based on the Open Source University of Minnesota (UMN MapServer. By following the accompanying step-by-step tutorial instructions, interested readers running mainstream Microsoft® Windows machines and with no prior technical experience in Web GIS or Internet map servers will be able to publish their own health maps on the Web and add to those maps additional layers retrieved from remote WMS servers. The 'digital Asia' and 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami experiences in using free Open Source Web GIS software are also briefly described.

  20. Assessment of Three Flood Hazard Mapping Methods: A Case Study of Perlis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizat, Nazirah; Omar, Wan Mohd Sabki Wan

    2018-03-01

    Flood is a common natural disaster and also affect the all state in Malaysia. Regarding to Drainage and Irrigation Department (DID) in 2007, about 29, 270 km2 or 9 percent of region of the country is prone to flooding. Flood can be such devastating catastrophic which can effected to people, economy and environment. Flood hazard mapping can be used is an important part in flood assessment to define those high risk area prone to flooding. The purposes of this study are to prepare a flood hazard mapping in Perlis and to evaluate flood hazard using frequency ratio, statistical index and Poisson method. The six factors affecting the occurrence of flood including elevation, distance from the drainage network, rainfall, soil texture, geology and erosion were created using ArcGIS 10.1 software. Flood location map in this study has been generated based on flooded area in year 2010 from DID. These parameters and flood location map were analysed to prepare flood hazard mapping in representing the probability of flood area. The results of the analysis were verified using flood location data in year 2013, 2014, 2015. The comparison result showed statistical index method is better in prediction of flood area rather than frequency ratio and Poisson method.

  1. Connectivity dynamics since the Last Glacial Maximum in the northern Andes: a pollen-driven framework to assess potential migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flantua, S.G.A.; Hooghiemstra, H.; van Boxel, J.H.; Cabrera, M.; González-Carranza, Z.; González-Arango, C.; Stevens, W.D.; Montiel, O.M.; Raven, P.H.

    2014-01-01

    We provide an innovative pollen-driven connectivity framework of the dynamic altitudinal distribution of North Andean biomes since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Altitudinally changing biome distributions reconstructed from a pollen record from Lake La Cocha (2780 m) are assessed in terms of their

  2. Linking movement and reproductive history of brook trout to assess habitat connectivity in a heterogeneous stream network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoichiro Kanno; Benjamin H. Letcher; Jason A. Coombs; Keith H. Nislow; Andrew R. Whiteley

    2014-01-01

    Defining functional connectivity between habitats in spatially heterogeneous landscapes is a particular challenge for small-bodied aquatic species. Traditional approaches (e.g. mark-recapture studies) preclude an assessment of animal movement over the life cycle (birth to reproduction), and movement of individuals may not represent the degree of gene movement for...

  3. Linking movement and reproductive history of brook trout to assess habitat connectivity in a heterogeneous stream network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Yoichiro; Letcher, Benjamin H.; Coombs, Jason A.; Nislow, Keith H.; Whiteley, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    1. Defining functional connectivity between habitats in spatially heterogeneous landscapes is a particular challenge for small-bodied aquatic species. Traditional approaches (e.g. mark–recapture studies) preclude an assessment of animal movement over the life cycle (birth to reproduction), and movement of individuals may not represent the degree of gene movement for fecund species.

  4. DISTRIBUTED GRID-CONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEM EMISSION OFFSET ASSESSMENT: STATISTICAL TEST OF SIMULATED- AND MEASURED-BASED DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study assessed the pollutant emission offset potential of distributed grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power systems. Computer-simulated performance results were utilized for 211 PV systems located across the U.S. The PV systems' monthly electrical energy outputs were based ...

  5. Tsunami vulnerability assessment mapping for the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia using a geographical information system (GIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najihah, R; Effendi, D M; Hairunnisa, M A; Masiri, K

    2014-01-01

    The catastrophic Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004 raised a number of questions for scientist and politicians on how to deal with the tsunami risk and assessment in coastal regions. This paper discusses the challenges in tsunami vulnerability assessment and presents the result of tsunami disaster mapping and vulnerability assessment study for West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The spatial analysis was carried out using Geographical Information System (GIS) technology to demarcate spatially the tsunami affected village's boundary and suitable disaster management program can be quickly and easily developed. In combination with other thematic maps such as road maps, rail maps, school maps, and topographic map sheets it was possible to plan the accessibility and shelter to the affected people. The tsunami vulnerability map was used to identify the vulnerability of villages/village population to tsunami. In the tsunami vulnerability map, the intensity of the tsunami was classified as hazard zones based on the inundation level in meter (contour). The approach produced a tsunami vulnerability assessment map consists of considering scenarios of plausible extreme, tsunami-generating events, computing the tsunami inundation levels caused by different events and scenarios and estimating the possible range of casualties for computing inundation levels. The study provides an interactive means to identify the tsunami affected areas after the disaster and mapping the tsunami vulnerable village before for planning purpose were the essential exercises for managing future disasters

  6. Tsunami vulnerability assessment mapping for the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia using a geographical information system (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najihah, R.; Effendi, D. M.; Hairunnisa, M. A.; Masiri, K.

    2014-02-01

    The catastrophic Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004 raised a number of questions for scientist and politicians on how to deal with the tsunami risk and assessment in coastal regions. This paper discusses the challenges in tsunami vulnerability assessment and presents the result of tsunami disaster mapping and vulnerability assessment study for West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The spatial analysis was carried out using Geographical Information System (GIS) technology to demarcate spatially the tsunami affected village's boundary and suitable disaster management program can be quickly and easily developed. In combination with other thematic maps such as road maps, rail maps, school maps, and topographic map sheets it was possible to plan the accessibility and shelter to the affected people. The tsunami vulnerability map was used to identify the vulnerability of villages/village population to tsunami. In the tsunami vulnerability map, the intensity of the tsunami was classified as hazard zones based on the inundation level in meter (contour). The approach produced a tsunami vulnerability assessment map consists of considering scenarios of plausible extreme, tsunami-generating events, computing the tsunami inundation levels caused by different events and scenarios and estimating the possible range of casualties for computing inundation levels. The study provides an interactive means to identify the tsunami affected areas after the disaster and mapping the tsunami vulnerable village before for planning purpose were the essential exercises for managing future disasters.

  7. A systematic review of concept mapping-based formative assessment processes in primary and secondary science education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmeyer, Rikke; Stevenson, Matt P.; Bentsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    assessment: firstly, concept mapping should be constructed in teaching, preferably on repeated occasions. Secondly, concept mapping should be carried out individually if personal understanding is to be elicited; however, collaborative concept mapping might foster discussions valuable for developing students......’ understanding and for activating them as instructional resources and owners of their own learning. Thirdly, low-directed mapping seems most suitable for formative assessment. Fourthly, technology-based or peer assessments are useful strategies likely to reduce the load of interpretation for the educator......In this paper, we present and discuss the results of a systematic review of concept mapping-based interventions in primary and secondary science education. We identified the following recommendations for science educators on how to successfully apply concept mapping as a method for formative...

  8. Characterizing Signals within Lesions and Mapping Brain Network Connectivity After Traumatic Axonal Injury: A 7 Tesla Resting-State FMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seul; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Price, Collin M; Edlow, Brian L; McNab, Jennifer A

    2018-04-18

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-FMRI) has been widely used to map brain functional connectivity, but it is unclear how to probe connectivity within and around lesions. Here we characterize RS-FMRI signal time-course properties and evaluate different seed placements within and around hemorrhagic traumatic axonal injury lesions. RS-FMRI was performed on a 7 Tesla scanner in a patient who recovered consciousness after traumatic coma and in three healthy controls. Eleven lesions in the patient were characterized in terms of: 1) temporal signal-to-noise ratio (tSNR); 2) physiological noise, through comparison of noise regressors derived from the white matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and gray matter (GM); and 3) seed-based functional connectivity. Temporal SNR at the center of the lesions was 38.3% and 74.1% lower compared to the same region in the contralesional hemisphere of the patient and in the ipsilesional hemispheres of the controls, respectively. Within the lesions, WM noise was more prominent than CSF and GM noise. Lesional seeds did not produce discernable networks, but seeds in the contralesional hemisphere revealed networks whose nodes appeared to be shifted or obscured due to overlapping or nearby lesions. Single-voxel seed analysis demonstrated that placing a seed within a lesion's periphery was necessary to identify networks associated with the lesion region. These findings provide evidence of resting-state network changes in the human brain after recovery from traumatic coma. Further, we show that seed placement within a lesion's periphery or in the contralesional hemisphere may be necessary for network identification in patients with hemorrhagic traumatic axonal injury.

  9. Polaris Undergraduates Connecting With K-12 Students Though Story Telling-Learning About Climate Change Using Web-Mapping Based Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J. H.; Natali, S.; Schade, J. D.; Fiske, G. J.; Linder, C.; Ramos, E.; Weber, L. R.; Kuhn, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Polaris Project is a unique undergraduate education, research, and outreach initiative that examines global climate change in the Siberian Arctic. The program focuses on permafrost and carbon processes in the boreal and tundra ecosystems of the Kolyma Watershed, the largest watershed underlain by continuous permafrost. Each summer, a diverse group of undergraduate students and faculty mentors spends one month living on the Kolyma River, developing independent projects that engage the students directly in the biogeosciences through authentic scientific research experiences in remote field sites. In all cases the student projects contribute to the overall goal of the Polaris Project to investigate the transport and transformations of carbon and nutrients as they move among terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and the atmosphere. Through the use of online interactive ArcGIS maps the students share their experiences and learning, while posing questions in a format that can be used to engage K-12 learners in the classroom. By embedding information; including databases, photographs and video, informational text, and geospatial data; into user-friendly maps the Polaris Project students will "tell the story" of studying climate change in the Siberian tundra in a way that allows the users to explore climate science through inquiry and web-map based investigation. Through performance expectation topics including Weather and Climate, Interactions, Earth's Systems, and Human impacts, this investigation uses consideration of the vast amounts of ancient organic matter locked up in permafrost in the region, and concerns about the fate of this ancient organic carbon as temperatures warm and permafrost thaws, to make K-12 climate change connections with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS).

  10. Connecting smoke plumes to sources using Hazard Mapping System (HMS) smoke and fire location data over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, Steven J.; Ruminski, Mark; Atwood, Samuel A.; Fischer, Emily V.

    2018-02-01

    Fires represent an air quality challenge because they are large, dynamic and transient sources of particulate matter and ozone precursors. Transported smoke can deteriorate air quality over large regions. Fire severity and frequency are likely to increase in the future, exacerbating an existing problem. Using the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) Hazard Mapping System (HMS) smoke data for North America for the period 2007 to 2014, we examine a subset of fires that are confirmed to have produced sufficient smoke to warrant the initiation of a U.S. National Weather Service smoke forecast. We find that gridded HMS-analyzed fires are well correlated (r = 0.84) with emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Inventory Database 4s (GFED4s). We define a new metric, smoke hours, by linking observed smoke plumes to active fires using ensembles of forward trajectories. This work shows that the Southwest, Northwest, and Northwest Territories initiate the most air quality forecasts and produce more smoke than any other North American region by measure of the number of HYSPLIT points analyzed, the duration of those HYSPLIT points, and the total number of smoke hours produced. The average number of days with smoke plumes overhead is largest over the north-central United States. Only Alaska, the Northwest, the Southwest, and Southeast United States regions produce the majority of smoke plumes observed over their own borders. This work moves a new dataset from a daily operational setting to a research context, and it demonstrates how changes to the frequency or intensity of fires in the western United States could impact other regions.

  11. Condition Assessment of PC Tendon Duct Filling by Elastic Wave Velocity Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit Fook Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging techniques are high in demand for modern nondestructive evaluation of large-scale concrete structures. The travel-time tomography (TTT technique, which is based on the principle of mapping the change of propagation velocity of transient elastic waves in a measured object, has found increasing application for assessing in situ concrete structures. The primary aim of this technique is to detect defects that exist in a structure. The TTT technique can offer an effective means for assessing tendon duct filling of prestressed concrete (PC elements. This study is aimed at clarifying some of the issues pertaining to the reliability of the technique for this purpose, such as sensor arrangement, model, meshing, type of tendon sheath, thickness of sheath, and material type as well as the scale of inhomogeneity. The work involved 2D simulations of wave motions, signal processing to extract travel time of waves, and tomography reconstruction computation for velocity mapping of defect in tendon duct.

  12. Assessment of Genetic Connectivity between Sudan and Saudi Arabia for Commercially Important Fish Species

    KAUST Repository

    Wilson, Sara N.

    2017-01-01

    loci). Samples from three geographically separate regions along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coastline, as well as from Sudan, were analyzed to address latitudinal and cross-sea connectivity. I was able to determine that little genetic differentiation

  13. Assessing the role of landscape connectivity on Opisthorchis viverrini transmission dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Chen; Yuen, Roy; Feng, Chen-Chieh; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Kim, Ick-Hoi

    2017-08-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov) is one of the most important human parasitic diseases in Southeast Asia. Although the concept of connectivity is widely used to comprehend disease dispersal, knowledge of the influences of landscape connectivity on Ov transmission is still rudimentary. This study aimed to investigate the role of landscape connectivity in Ov transmission between the human and the first intermediate snail hosts. Fieldwork was conducted in three villages respectively in Kamalasai District, Kalasin Province, Phu Wiang District, Khon Kaen Province, and Nong Saeng District, Udon Thani Province. Bithynia snails were collected to examine parasitic infections, water samples were analyzed for fecal contamination, and locations of septic tanks and connections between habitat patches with observable water movement were surveyed. Euclidean distance, topological link and distance, and graph measures were employed to quantify the connectivity between human and snail habitats. The findings showed that snail patches with higher fecal contents were generally located nearer to septic tanks. The statistically significant results for the topological link and distance measures highlighted the importance of water in functionally facilitating Ov transmission. Graph measures revealed differences in landscape connectivity across the sites. The site with the largest landscape component size and the most mutually connected snail patches coincided with the presence of Ov parasite, reinforcing its higher risk for human to snail transmission. The site with the dissected landscape structure potentially limited the transmission. This study underscored the potential effect of landscape connectivity on Ov transmission, contributing to the understanding of the spatial variation of Ov infection risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental and Numerical Assessment of a New Alternative of RBS Moment Connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirghaderi, Rasoul; Imanpour, Ali; Keshavarzi, Farhad; Torabian, Shahab

    2008-01-01

    Reduced beam section (RBS) connection has been known as a famous connection for steel moment-resisting seismic frames in high-rise buildings, because of their economical advantages and seismic ductility. In the ordinary RBS connection, often portions of the beam flanges are selectively trimmed in the region adjacent to the beam-to-column connection, and beam section is weakened in the plastic hinge region; section weakening concept in the plastic hinge region of beam cause to reduction of beam plastic section modulus in this region, and force plastic hinge to occur within the reduced section.This paper presents a new alternative of RBS connection that has been used aforesaid weakening concept in it, with this difference that corrugated steel plate webs instead of beam flange cutting has been used in limited specific length near the column face. Corrugated steel plates because of their accordion effect don't have bending rigidity, then using of these plates in plastic hinge region reduces the beam plastic section modulus and plastic hinge is formed in corrugated region. For investigating the seismic behavior and performance of new RBS moment connection, experimental specimen of new RBS connection were subjected to cyclic load, and finite element analysis were executed. The result of cyclic test and numerical analysis specified that the corrugated webs improved the plastic stability and provided capability of large plastic rotation at the plastic hinge location without any appreciable buckling and brittle fractures in this region. The test observations also showed that the specimens' plastic rotations exceeded 0.04 rad without any local and global buckling. All of the analytical results for proposed connection are generally in good agreement with the test observations

  15. KEY FUNDAMENTAL ASPECTS FOR MAPPING AND ASSESSING ECOSYSTEM SERVICES: PREDICTABILITY OF ECOSYSTEM SERVICE PROVIDERS AT SCALES FROM LOCAL TO GLOBAL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zurlini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available How an apparent static and ordered landscape condition in social ecological landscapes (SELs, can be made sustainable in terms of maintenance and improvement of the provision of ecosystem services (ESs in face of unpredictable disturbance and change? Our contribution to the Mapping and Assessment of Ecosystem Services (MAES working group is to advance some recommendations on how to approach the dynamic analysis of complex adaptive systems to improve ecosystem resilience, habitat connectivity and the delivery of ESs. We show exemplary cases where we utilize the NDVI provided by remote sensing to evaluate land cover transformations and processes and ES provisioning. We focus on NDVI because it allows the supply of information on net primary production, i.e., the energetic foundation of nearly all ecosystems and that provides the basis of most of ESs. The use of spectral entropy, and nonlinear analysis of spatial temporal dynamics to investigate trajectory predictability of SELs provide very useful insight into the dynamics of SELs and can assist in the characterization of the links between land cover patterns with ecological processes to support more reliable assessments and accountings of ESs.

  16. Urban growth and landscape connectivity threats assessment at Saguaro National Park, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkl, Ryan; Norman, Laura M.; Mitchell, David; Feller, Mark R.; Smith, Garrett; Wilson, Natalie R.

    2018-01-01

    Urban and exurban expansion results in habitat and biodiversity loss globally. We hypothesize that a coupled-model approach could connect urban planning for future cities with landscape ecology to consider wildland habitat connectivity. Our work combines urban growth simulations with models of wildlife corridors to examine how species will be impacted by development to test this hypothesis. We leverage a land use change model (SLEUTH) with structural and functional landscape-connectivity modeling techniques to ascertain the spatial extent and locations of connectivity related threats to a national park in southern Arizona, USA, and describe how protected areas might be impacted by urban expansion. Results of projected growth significantly altered structural connectivity (80%) when compared to current (baseline) corridor conditions. Moreover, projected growth impacted functional connectivity differently amongst species, indicating resilience of some species and near-complete displacement of others. We propose that implementing a geospatial-design-based model will allow for a better understanding of the impacts management decisions have on wildlife populations. The application provides the potential to understand both human and environmental impacts of land-system dynamics, critical for long-term sustainability.

  17. An Experiment in Mind-Mapping and Argument-Mapping: Tools for Assessing Outcomes in the Business Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Chanaz; Naatus, Mary Kate

    2017-01-01

    Distinguished from other teaching-learning tools, such as mind and concept mapping in which students draw pictures and concepts and show relationships and correlation between them to demonstrate their own understanding of complex concepts, argument mapping is used to demonstrate clarity of reasoning, based on supporting evidence, and come to a…

  18. A large-area, spatially continuous assessment of land cover map error and its impact on downstream analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Lyndon; Chen, Peng; Debats, Stephanie; Evans, Tom; Ferreira, Stefanus; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Ragazzo, Gabrielle; Sheffield, Justin; Wolf, Adam; Wood, Eric; Caylor, Kelly

    2018-01-01

    Land cover maps increasingly underlie research into socioeconomic and environmental patterns and processes, including global change. It is known that map errors impact our understanding of these phenomena, but quantifying these impacts is difficult because many areas lack adequate reference data. We used a highly accurate, high-resolution map of South African cropland to assess (1) the magnitude of error in several current generation land cover maps, and (2) how these errors propagate in downstream studies. We first quantified pixel-wise errors in the cropland classes of four widely used land cover maps at resolutions ranging from 1 to 100 km, and then calculated errors in several representative "downstream" (map-based) analyses, including assessments of vegetative carbon stocks, evapotranspiration, crop production, and household food security. We also evaluated maps' spatial accuracy based on how precisely they could be used to locate specific landscape features. We found that cropland maps can have substantial biases and poor accuracy at all resolutions (e.g., at 1 km resolution, up to ∼45% underestimates of cropland (bias) and nearly 50% mean absolute error (MAE, describing accuracy); at 100 km, up to 15% underestimates and nearly 20% MAE). National-scale maps derived from higher-resolution imagery were most accurate, followed by multi-map fusion products. Constraining mapped values to match survey statistics may be effective at minimizing bias (provided the statistics are accurate). Errors in downstream analyses could be substantially amplified or muted, depending on the values ascribed to cropland-adjacent covers (e.g., with forest as adjacent cover, carbon map error was 200%-500% greater than in input cropland maps, but ∼40% less for sparse cover types). The average locational error was 6 km (600%). These findings provide deeper insight into the causes and potential consequences of land cover map error, and suggest several recommendations for land

  19. The World Stress Map - A Freely Accessible Tool For Geohazard Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Birgit; Heidbach, Oliver; Tingay, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The World Stress Map (WSM) database contains over 16,000 indicators on contemporary crustal tectonic stress and provides an essential parameter for geohazard assessment. This paper focuses on the importance of database accessibility for geohazard assessment and presents the basic concepts and availability of the WSM. The WSM can be applied to several key aspects of geohazard assessment, in particular the mapping of stress patterns and places of stress concentration for improved delineation of zones of seismic hazard. Furthermore, contemporary tectonic stresses can be used in combination with numerical modeling to identify faults or sections of fault systems with high failure potential and can help to predict the likely type of fault reactivation. This approach is especially valuable for assessing the likelihood of strong and rare seismic events for which probabilistic hazard assessment will fail and physically based methodologies are required. Herein, we use the Caspian-Caucasian region as an example to apply WSM data for geohazard assessment. The Caspian-Caucasian area is characterized by the occurrence of a number of stress related geohazards on different spatial scales, in particular crustal earthquakes, seismically triggered landslides and mud volcanism

  20. Interictal functional connectivity of human epileptic networks assessed by intracerebral EEG and BOLD signal fluctuations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaelle Bettus

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to demonstrate whether spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal derived from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI reflect spontaneous neuronal activity in pathological brain regions as well as in regions spared by epileptiform discharges. This is a crucial issue as coherent fluctuations of fMRI signals between remote brain areas are now widely used to define functional connectivity in physiology and in pathophysiology. We quantified functional connectivity using non-linear measures of cross-correlation between signals obtained from intracerebral EEG (iEEG and resting-state functional MRI (fMRI in 5 patients suffering from intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. Functional connectivity was quantified with both modalities in areas exhibiting different electrophysiological states (epileptic and non affected regions during the interictal period. Functional connectivity as measured from the iEEG signal was higher in regions affected by electrical epileptiform abnormalities relative to non-affected areas, whereas an opposite pattern was found for functional connectivity measured from the BOLD signal. Significant negative correlations were found between the functional connectivities of iEEG and BOLD signal when considering all pairs of signals (theta, alpha, beta and broadband and when considering pairs of signals in regions spared by epileptiform discharges (in broadband signal. This suggests differential effects of epileptic phenomena on electrophysiological and hemodynamic signals and/or an alteration of the neurovascular coupling secondary to pathological plasticity in TLE even in regions spared by epileptiform discharges. In addition, indices of directionality calculated from both modalities were consistent showing that the epileptogenic regions exert a significant influence onto the non epileptic areas during the interictal period. This study shows that functional

  1. On the Application of Joint-Domain Dictionary Mapping for Multiple Power Disturbance Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delong Cai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a joint-domain dictionary mapping method to obtain high assessment accuracy of multiple power disturbances. Firstly, in order to achieve resolutions in both the time and frequency domains, a joint-domain dictionary is proposed which consists of a discrete Hartley base and an identity matrix. Due to the low correlation between the discrete Hartley base and the identity matrix, the joint-domain dictionary mapping can separately capture the approximations of the sinusoidal components and transients. Since the mapping coefficients contain the physical quantities, the eigenvalues of each component can be effectively estimated. A quantified eigenvalue classifier was designed for identifying power disturbances using the estimated eigenvalues. The proposed method was compared with several advanced methods through simulated power disturbances under different noise conditions, and actual data from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Power and Energy Society database. The results reveal that the joint-domain dictionary mapping technique shows good performance on parameter estimation and recognition precision, even dealing with complicated multiple power disturbances.

  2. Utility assessment of a map-based online geo-collaboration tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidlar, Christopher L; Rinner, Claus

    2009-05-01

    Spatial group decision-making processes often include both informal and analytical components. Discussions among stakeholders or planning experts are an example of an informal component. When participants discuss spatial planning projects they typically express concerns and comments by pointing to places on a map. The Argumentation Map model provides a conceptual basis for collaborative tools that enable explicit linkages of arguments to the places to which they refer. These tools allow for the input of explicitly geo-referenced arguments as well as the visual access to arguments through a map interface. In this paper, we will review previous utility studies in geo-collaboration and evaluate a case study of a Web-based Argumentation Map application. The case study was conducted in the summer of 2005 when student participants discussed planning issues on the University of Toronto St. George campus. During a one-week unmoderated discussion phase, 11 participants wrote 60 comments on issues such as safety, facilities, parking, and building aesthetics. By measuring the participants' use of geographic references, we draw conclusions on how well the software tool supported the potential of the underlying concept. This research aims to contribute to a scientific approach to geo-collaboration in which the engineering of novel spatial decision support methods is complemented by a critical assessment of their utility in controlled, realistic experiments.

  3. History of Modern Earthquake Hazard Mapping and Assessment in California Using a Deterministic or Scenario Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mualchin, Lalliana

    2011-03-01

    Modern earthquake ground motion hazard mapping in California began following the 1971 San Fernando earthquake in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of southern California. Earthquake hazard assessment followed a traditional approach, later called Deterministic Seismic Hazard Analysis (DSHA) in order to distinguish it from the newer Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA). In DSHA, seismic hazard in the event of the Maximum Credible Earthquake (MCE) magnitude from each of the known seismogenic faults within and near the state are assessed. The likely occurrence of the MCE has been assumed qualitatively by using late Quaternary and younger faults that are presumed to be seismogenic, but not when or within what time intervals MCE may occur. MCE is the largest or upper-bound potential earthquake in moment magnitude, and it supersedes and automatically considers all other possible earthquakes on that fault. That moment magnitude is used for estimating ground motions by applying it to empirical attenuation relationships, and for calculating ground motions as in neo-DSHA (Z uccolo et al., 2008). The first deterministic California earthquake hazard map was published in 1974 by the California Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG) which has been called the California Geological Survey (CGS) since 2002, using the best available fault information and ground motion attenuation relationships at that time. The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) later assumed responsibility for printing the refined and updated peak acceleration contour maps which were heavily utilized by geologists, seismologists, and engineers for many years. Some engineers involved in the siting process of large important projects, for example, dams and nuclear power plants, continued to challenge the map(s). The second edition map was completed in 1985 incorporating more faults, improving MCE's estimation method, and using new ground motion attenuation relationships from the latest published

  4. Esthetic assessment of immediately restored implants combined with GBR and free connective tissue graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolerman, Roni; Nissan, Joseph; Mijiritsky, Eitan; Hamoudi, Nasreen; Mangano, Carlo; Tal, Haim

    2016-11-01

    Esthetic assessment of immediately restored implants combined with GBR and free connective tissue (CT) graft METHODS: A case-control, retrospective study involving 34 patients treated with maxillary anterior single implants, immediately placed and restored. Clinical and esthetic results were analyzed using standard clinical examination and a comprehensive index, comprising pink esthetic and white esthetic scores (PES/WES). The height of the implant crown and the corresponding height of the contralateral tooth crown were measured to identify mucosal recessions. The distance from the mucosal margin to the implant shoulder (DIM) was measured on the master model. Thirty of 34 implants fulfilled the strict success criteria set for dental implants with regard to osseointegration. Success was defined as implants with bone loss not exceeding 1.5 mm during the first year and loosing not more than 0.2 for each successive year. The other four implants were stable but did not meet the bone loss criteria mentioned above and defined as survived implants. Mean PES/WES was 14.44 ± 2.34 (range: 9-20). Mean PES was 7.12 ± 1.89 (range: 1-10). The highest mean values were achieved for the variable of root convexity/soft tissue color and texture (1.71 ± 0.46) whereas the mesial papilla (1.09 ± 0.62) proved to be the least pleasing. The mean WES was 7.32 ± 1.25 (range: 5-10). The difference between IC and contralateral TC was 0.54 mm. The mean value for the facial DIM was 3.82 ± 0.87 mm. An evaluation of soft and hard tissue augmentation in immediately restored immediate implant procedures was employed to obtain stable hard and soft tissues. The combined GBR and CT graft procedure achieved favorable peri-implant soft tissue condition and esthetic results. However, recession and incomplete papillas were frequently observed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Risk assessment of 170 kV GIS connected to combined cable/OHL network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; Kessel, Jakob; Atlason, Vidir

    2009-01-01

    performance, compared to a system consisting solely of AIS connected through overhead lines. The main purpose is to investigate whether overvoltage protection is necessary at the GIS busbar. The analysis is conducted by implementing a simulation model in PSCAD/EMTDC. Simulations are conducted for both SF......This paper concerns different investigations of lightning simulation of a combined 170 kV overhead line/cable connected GIS. This is interesting due to the increasing amount of underground cables and GIS in the Danish transmission system. This creates a different system with respect to lightning...... and BFO. Overvoltages are evaluated for varying front times of the lightning surge, different soil resistivities at the surge arrester grounding in the overhead line/cable transition point and a varying length of the connection cable between the transformer and the GIS busbar with a SA implemented...

  6. Severity mapping of the proximal femur: a new method for assessing hip osteoarthritis with computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmezei, T D; Lomas, D J; Hopper, M A; Poole, K E S

    2014-10-01

    Plain radiography has been the mainstay of imaging assessment in osteoarthritis for over 50 years, but it does have limitations. Here we present the methodology and results of a new technique for identifying, grading, and mapping the severity and spatial distribution of osteoarthritic disease features at the hip in 3D with clinical computed tomography (CT). CT imaging of 456 hips from 230 adult female volunteers (mean age 66 ± 17 years) was reviewed using 3D multiplanar reformatting to identify bone-related radiological features of osteoarthritis, namely osteophytes, subchondral cysts and joint space narrowing. Scoresheets dividing up the femoral head, head-neck region and the joint space were used to register the location and severity of each feature (scored from 0 to 3). Novel 3D cumulative feature severity maps were then created to display where the most severe disease features from each individual were anatomically located across the cohort. Feature severity maps showed a propensity for osteophytes at the inferoposterior and superolateral femoral head-neck junction. Subchondral cysts were a less common and less localised phenomenon. Joint space narrowing osteophytes and joint space narrowing for the first time. We believe this technique can perform several important roles in future osteoarthritis research, including phenotyping and sensitive disease assessment in 3D. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Epitope mapping of the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and mixed connective tissue disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somarelli, J A; Mesa, A; Rodriguez, R; Avellan, R; Martinez, L; Zang, Y J; Greidinger, E L; Herrera, R J

    2011-03-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) are autoimmune illnesses characterized by the presence of high titers of autoantibodies directed against a wide range of 'self ' antigens. Proteins of the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (U1 snRNP) are among the most immunogenic molecules in patients with SLE and MCTD. The recent release of a crystallized U1 snRNP provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the effects of tertiary and quaternary structures on autoantigenicity within the U1 snRNP. In the present study, an epitope map was created using the U1 snRNP crystal structure. A total of 15 peptides were tested in a cohort of 68 patients with SLE, 29 with MCTD and 26 healthy individuals and mapped onto the U1 snRNP structure. Antigenic sites were detected in a variety of structures and appear to include RNA binding domains, but mostly exclude regions necessary for protein-protein interactions. These data suggest that while some autoantibodies may target U1 snRNP proteins as monomers or apoptosis-induced, protease-digested fragments, others may recognize epitopes on assembled protein subcomplexes of the U1 snRNP. Although nearly all of the peptides are strong predictors of autoimmune illness, none were successful at distinguishing between SLE and MCTD. The antigenicity of some peptides significantly correlated with several clinical symptoms. This investigation implicitly highlights the complexities of autoimmune epitopes, and autoimmune illnesses in general, and demonstrates the variability of antigens in patient populations, all of which contribute to difficult clinical diagnoses.

  8. A microRNA activity map of human mesenchymal tumors: connections to oncogenic pathways; an integrative transcriptomic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fountzilas Elena

    2012-07-01

    . Finally, our study highlights the value of systems level integrative miRNA/mRNA assessment with high-throughput genomic data, and the applicability of paraffin-tissue-derived RNA for validation of novel findings.

  9. No-reference image quality assessment based on statistics of convolution feature maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiaoxin; Qin, Min; Chen, Xiaohui; Wei, Guo

    2018-04-01

    We propose a Convolutional Feature Maps (CFM) driven approach to accurately predict image quality. Our motivation bases on the finding that the Nature Scene Statistic (NSS) features on convolution feature maps are significantly sensitive to distortion degree of an image. In our method, a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) is trained to obtain kernels for generating CFM. We design a forward NSS layer which performs on CFM to better extract NSS features. The quality aware features derived from the output of NSS layer is effective to describe the distortion type and degree an image suffered. Finally, a Support Vector Regression (SVR) is employed in our No-Reference Image Quality Assessment (NR-IQA) model to predict a subjective quality score of a distorted image. Experiments conducted on two public databases demonstrate the promising performance of the proposed method is competitive to state of the art NR-IQA methods.

  10. T2* mapping for articular cartilage assessment: principles, current applications, and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesper, Tobias; Bittersohl, Daniela; Krauspe, Ruediger; Zilkens, Christoph [University Duesseldorf, Department of Orthopaedics Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Hosalkar, Harish S. [Center of Hip Preservation and Children' s Orthopaedics, San Diego, CA (United States); Welsch, Goetz H. [Medical University of Vienna, MR Center, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Bittersohl, Bernd [University Duesseldorf, Department of Orthopaedics Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Heinrich-Heine University, Medical School, Department of Orthopaedics, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    With advances in joint preservation surgery that are intended to alter the course of osteoarthritis by early intervention, accurate and reliable assessment of the cartilage status is critical. Biochemically sensitive MRI techniques can add robust biomarkers for disease onset and progression, and therefore, could be meaningful assessment tools for the diagnosis and follow-up of cartilage abnormalities. T2* mapping could be a good alternative because it would combine the benefits of biochemical cartilage evaluation with remarkable features including short imaging time and the ability of high-resolution three-dimensional cartilage evaluation - without the need for contrast media administration or special hardware. Several in vitro and in vivo studies, which have elaborated on the potential of cartilage T2* assessment in various cartilage disease patterns and grades of degeneration, have been reported. However, much remains to be understood and certain unresolved questions have become apparent with these studies that are crucial to the further application of this technique. This review summarizes the principles of the technique and current applications of T2* mapping for articular cartilage assessment. Limitations of recent studies are discussed and the potential implications for patient care are presented. (orig.)

  11. Assessment of detection limits of fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing for detection of illicit connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuis, J.; De Haan, C.; Langeveld, J.G.; Klootwijk, M.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) with fiber-optic cables is a powerful tool to detect illicit connections in storm sewer systems. High frequency temperature measurements along the in-sewer cable create a detailed representation of temperature anomalies due to illicit discharges. The detection

  12. Synovitis maps for the assessment of inflammatory diseases of the hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlo, Christoph; Zanetti, Marco; Stolzmann, Paul; Hodler, Juerg; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Steurer-Dober, Isabelle; Brunner, Florian

    2011-01-01

    To compare accuracy and review times of FLASH-MRI-derived synovitis maps (SM) with conventional MR images (cMRI) in the assessment of articular synovitis and tenosynovitis of the hand. 80 hands in 40 patients (mean age, 48 years; range, 15-72 years) were assessed for synovitis on cMRI and SM by two readers independently. Reporting times and diagnostic confidence (scale: 1 = least, 5 = most confident) were measured. Results from an assessment of a panel of senior musculoskeletal radiologists served as the standard of reference. Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of articular synovitis were 0.91/1.00 (R1) and 1.00/0.67 (R2) on cMRI and 0.87/0.75 (R1) and 0.91/0.45 (R2) on SM and for the detection of tenosynovitis 0.95/0.63 (R1) and 0.67/0.79 (R2) on cMRI and 0.67/0.89 (R1) and 0.38/1.00 (R2) on SM. Mean review times (cMRI/SM, sec) were 142/37 (R1) and 167/25 (R2). Mean diagnostic confidence (cMRI/SM) was 3.7/3.4 (R1) and 3.2/3.5 (R2) for articular synovitis and 4.0/4.0 (R1), 3.3/3.7 (R2) for tenosynovitis. Synovitis maps provide a comparable diagnostic accuracy to conventional MR images in the assessment of articular synovitis and tenosynovitis of the hand. Because of short review times, synovitis maps provide a fast overview of locations with synovial enhancement. (orig.)

  13. Synovitis maps for the assessment of inflammatory diseases of the hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlo, Christoph [Kantonsspital Luzern, Department of Radiology, Luzern (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Zanetti, Marco; Stolzmann, Paul; Hodler, Juerg; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A. [University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Steurer-Dober, Isabelle [University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Kantonsspital Luzern, Department of Radiology, Luzern (Switzerland); Brunner, Florian [University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Rheumatology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-07-15

    To compare accuracy and review times of FLASH-MRI-derived synovitis maps (SM) with conventional MR images (cMRI) in the assessment of articular synovitis and tenosynovitis of the hand. 80 hands in 40 patients (mean age, 48 years; range, 15-72 years) were assessed for synovitis on cMRI and SM by two readers independently. Reporting times and diagnostic confidence (scale: 1 = least, 5 = most confident) were measured. Results from an assessment of a panel of senior musculoskeletal radiologists served as the standard of reference. Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of articular synovitis were 0.91/1.00 (R1) and 1.00/0.67 (R2) on cMRI and 0.87/0.75 (R1) and 0.91/0.45 (R2) on SM and for the detection of tenosynovitis 0.95/0.63 (R1) and 0.67/0.79 (R2) on cMRI and 0.67/0.89 (R1) and 0.38/1.00 (R2) on SM. Mean review times (cMRI/SM, sec) were 142/37 (R1) and 167/25 (R2). Mean diagnostic confidence (cMRI/SM) was 3.7/3.4 (R1) and 3.2/3.5 (R2) for articular synovitis and 4.0/4.0 (R1), 3.3/3.7 (R2) for tenosynovitis. Synovitis maps provide a comparable diagnostic accuracy to conventional MR images in the assessment of articular synovitis and tenosynovitis of the hand. Because of short review times, synovitis maps provide a fast overview of locations with synovial enhancement. (orig.)

  14. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Assess Landslide Characteristics and Devlelop Susceptibility and Exposure Maps in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, M.; Cissell, J.; Grossman, M.

    2017-12-01

    Malawi has become increasingly prone to landslides in the past few decades. This can be attributed to the terrain, types of soil and vegetation, increased human interference, and heavy flooding after long periods of drought. In addition to the floods and droughts, landslides cause extra stress to farmlands, thus exacerbating the current food security crisis in the country. It can be difficult to pinpoint just how many people are affected by landslides in Malawi because landslides often occur in rural areas or are grouped with other disasters, such as floods or earthquakes. This project created a Landslide Susceptibility Map to assess landslide-prone areas in Malawi using variables such as slope, distance to roads, distance to streams, soil type, and precipitation. These variables were derived using imagery from Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Version 3 (SRTM-v3), Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM), and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellites. Furthermore, this project created a Landslide Exposure Map to estimate how much of the local population lives in susceptible areas by intersecting population data with the Landslide Susceptibility Map. Additionally, an assessment of GPM and TRMM precipitation measurements was generated to better understand the reliability of both measurements for landslide monitoring. Finally, this project updated NASA SERVIR's Global Landslide Catalog (GLC) for Malawi by using WorldView data from Google Earth and Landsat 8 OLI. These end products were used by NASA SERVIR and the Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) for aiding in disaster management throughout Malawi.

  15. Uncertainty on shallow landslide hazard assessment: from field data to hazard mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefolini, Emanuele; Tolo, Silvia; Patelli, Eduardo; Broggi, Matteo; Disperati, Leonardo; Le Tuan, Hai

    2015-04-01

    empirical relations with geotechnical index properties. Site specific information was regionalized at map scale by (hard and fuzzy) clustering analysis taking into account spatial variables such as: geology, geomorphology and hillslope morphometric variables (longitudinal and transverse curvature, flow accumulation and slope), the latter derived by a DEM with 10 m cell size. In order to map shallow landslide hazard, Monte Carlo simulation was performed for some common physically based models available in literature (eg. SINMAP, SHALSTAB, TRIGRS). Furthermore, a new approach based on the use of Bayesian Network was proposed and validated. Different models, such as Intervals, Convex Models and Fuzzy Sets, were adopted for the modelling of input parameters. Finally, an accuracy assessment was carried out on the resulting maps and the propagation of uncertainty of input parameters into the final shallow landslide hazard estimation was estimated. The outcomes of the analysis are compared and discussed in term of discrepancy among map pixel values and related estimated error. The novelty of the proposed method is on estimation of the confidence of the shallow landslides hazard mapping at regional level. This allows i) to discriminate regions where hazard assessment is robust from areas where more data are necessary to increase the confidence level and ii) to assess the reliability of the procedure used for hazard assessment.

  16. Application of the Risk Map for Assessment Destructive Effects of Essential Environment on the Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladlena Sergeevna Atkina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of the business continuity as a necessary element of the strategy of information security. The analysis of the requirements of federal legislation, standards, recommendations and guidelines to ensure the availability, disaster recovery, and recovery of data and information structures of organizations in their operation was conducted. The proposed approach to assessing the possible destabilizing factors and emergency situations includes the model of the environment where the information systems are operational processing key business processes of the organization, and the method for risk assessment to each of the destabilizing effects. Technique of risk assessment expects to use quantitative and qualitative approach to drawing three zone risk maps.

  17. Assessment of the hydraulic connection between ground water and the Peace River, west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewelling, B.R.; Tihansky, A.B.; Kindinger, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The hydraulic connection between the Peace River and the underlying aquifers along the length of the Peace River from Bartow to Arcadia was assessed to evaluate flow exchanges between these hydrologic systems. Methods included an evaluation of hydrologic and geologic records and seismic-reflection profiles, seepage investigations, and thermal infrared imagery interpretation. Along the upper Peace River, a progressive long-term decline in streamflow has occurred since 1931 due to a lowering of the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer by as much as 60 feet because of intensive ground-water withdrawals for phosphate mining and agriculture. Another effect from lowering the potentiometric surface has been the cessation of flow at several springs located near and within the Peace River channel, including Kissengen Spring, that once averaged a flow of about 19 million gallons a day. The lowering of ground-water head resulted in flow reversals at locations where streamflow enters sinkholes along the streambed and floodplain. Hydrogeologic conditions along the Peace River vary from Bartow to Arcadia. Three distinctive hydrogeologic areas along the Peace River were delineated: (1) the upper Peace River near Bartow, where ground-water recharge occurs; (2) the middle Peace River near Bowling Green, where reversals of hydraulic gradients occur; and (3) the lower Peace River near Arcadia, where ground-water discharge occurs. Seismic-reflection data were used to identify geologic features that could serve as potential conduits for surface-water and ground-water exchange. Depending on the hydrologic regime, this exchange could be recharge of surface water into the aquifer system or discharge of ground water into the stream channel. Geologic features that would provide pathways for water movement were identified in the seismic record; they varied from buried irregular surfaces to large-scale subsidence flexures and vertical fractures or enlarged solution conduits

  18. Accuracy assessment of vegetation community maps generated by aerial photography interpretation: perspective from the tropical savanna, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Donna L.; Phinn, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Aerial photography interpretation is the most common mapping technique in the world. However, unlike an algorithm-based classification of satellite imagery, accuracy of aerial photography interpretation generated maps is rarely assessed. Vegetation communities covering an area of 530 km2 on Bullo River Station, Northern Territory, Australia, were mapped using an interpretation of 1:50,000 color aerial photography. Manual stereoscopic line-work was delineated at 1:10,000 and thematic maps generated at 1:25,000 and 1:100,000. Multivariate and intuitive analysis techniques were employed to identify 22 vegetation communities within the study area. The accuracy assessment was based on 50% of a field dataset collected over a 4 year period (2006 to 2009) and the remaining 50% of sites were used for map attribution. The overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient for both thematic maps was 66.67% and 0.63, respectively, calculated from standard error matrices. Our findings highlight the need for appropriate scales of mapping and accuracy assessment of aerial photography interpretation generated vegetation community maps.

  19. A techno-economic assessment of grid connected photovoltaic system for hospital building in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Isa, Normazlina; Tan, Chee Wei; Yatim, AHM

    2017-07-01

    Conventionally, electricity in hospital building are supplied by the utility grid which uses mix fuel including coal and gas. Due to enhancement in renewable technology, many building shall moving forward to install their own PV panel along with the grid to employ the advantages of the renewable energy. This paper present an analysis of grid connected photovoltaic (GCPV) system for hospital building in Malaysia. A discussion is emphasized on the economic analysis based on Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) and total Net Present Post (TNPC) in regards with the annual interest rate. The analysis is performed using Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER) software which give optimization and sensitivity analysis result. An optimization result followed by the sensitivity analysis also being discuss in this article thus the impact of the grid connected PV system has be evaluated. In addition, the benefit from Net Metering (NeM) mechanism also discussed.

  20. Mapping eco-environmental vulnerability patterns: An assessment framework based on remote sensing, GIS, and AHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, N. K.; Liou, Y. A.; Li, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    The motivation for this study is assessment of the eco-environment vulnerability based on four independent determinants: hydro-meteorology, topography, land resources, and human activities. An assessment framework is proposed to assess the vulnerable eco-environment by using 16 variables with 6 of them constructed from Landsat 8 satellite images. The remaining variables were extracted from digital maps. Each variable was evaluated and spatially mapped with the aid of an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and geographical information system (GIS). The Thua Thien - Hue Province that has been experiencing natural disasters and urbanization in the recent decades is selected as our study area. An eco-environmental vulnerability map is assorted into six vulnerable levels consisting of potential, slight, light, medium, heavy, and very heavy vulnerabilities, representing 14%, 27%, 17%, 26%, 13%, 3% of the study area, respectively. It is found that heavy and very heavy vulnerable areas appear mainly in the low and medium lands with high intensification of social-economic activities and often suffer from flooding. Tiny percentages of medium and heavy vulnerable levels occur in high land areas probably caused by agricultural practices in highlands, slash and burn cultivation and removal of natural forests with new plantation forests and these regions are usually influenced by landslides, flash flooding. Based on our results, three ecological zones requiring different development and protection solutions are proposed to restore local eco-environment toward sustainable development. Our findings support the idea that eco-environmental vulnerability is driven by anthropogenic processes and enhanced by natural disaster in the Thua Thien-Hue Province.

  1. Urban Land Cover Mapping Accuracy Assessment - A Cost-benefit Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, T.

    2012-12-01

    One of the most important components in urban land cover mapping is mapping accuracy assessment. Many statistical models have been developed to help design simple schemes based on both accuracy and confidence levels. It is intuitive that an increased number of samples increases the accuracy as well as the cost of an assessment. Understanding cost and sampling size is crucial in implementing efficient and effective of field data collection. Few studies have included a cost calculation component as part of the assessment. In this study, a cost-benefit sampling analysis model was created by combining sample size design and sampling cost calculation. The sampling cost included transportation cost, field data collection cost, and laboratory data analysis cost. Simple Random Sampling (SRS) and Modified Systematic Sampling (MSS) methods were used to design sample locations and to extract land cover data in ArcGIS. High resolution land cover data layers of Denver, CO and Sacramento, CA, street networks, and parcel GIS data layers were used in this study to test and verify the model. The relationship between the cost and accuracy was used to determine the effectiveness of each sample method. The results of this study can be applied to other environmental studies that require spatial sampling.

  2. Environmental sensitivity mapping and risk assessment for oil spill along the Chennai Coast in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankara, R S; Arockiaraj, S; Prabhu, K

    2016-05-15

    Integration of oil spill modeling with coastal resource information could be useful for protecting the coastal environment from oil spills. A scenario-based risk assessment and sensitivity indexing were performed for the Chennai coast by integrating a coastal resource information system and an oil spill trajectory model. The fate analysis of spilled oil showed that 55% of oil out of a total volume of 100m(3) remained in the water column, affecting 800m of the shoreline. The seasonal scenarios show major impact during the southwest (SW) and northeast (NE) monsoons and more fatal effects on marine pelagic organisms during SW monsoon. The Oil Spill Risk Assessment Modeler tool was constructed in a geographic information systems (GIS) platform to analyze the risks, sensitivity mapping, and priority indexing of resources that are likely to be affected by oil spills along the Chennai coast. The results of sensitivity mapping and the risk assessment results can help organizations take measures to combat oil spills in a timely manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mapping Common Aphasia Assessments to Underlying Cognitive Processes and Their Neural Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Elizabeth H; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M; Xing, Shihui; Fama, Mackenzie E; Turkeltaub, Peter E

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the relationships between clinical tests, the processes they measure, and the brain networks underlying them, is critical in order for clinicians to move beyond aphasia syndrome classification toward specification of individual language process impairments. To understand the cognitive, language, and neuroanatomical factors underlying scores of commonly used aphasia tests. Twenty-five behavioral tests were administered to a group of 38 chronic left hemisphere stroke survivors and a high-resolution magnetic resonance image was obtained. Test scores were entered into a principal components analysis to extract the latent variables (factors) measured by the tests. Multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to localize lesions associated with the factor scores. The principal components analysis yielded 4 dissociable factors, which we labeled Word Finding/Fluency, Comprehension, Phonology/Working Memory Capacity, and Executive Function. While many tests loaded onto the factors in predictable ways, some relied heavily on factors not commonly associated with the tests. Lesion symptom mapping demonstrated discrete brain structures associated with each factor, including frontal, temporal, and parietal areas extending beyond the classical language network. Specific functions mapped onto brain anatomy largely in correspondence with modern neural models of language processing. An extensive clinical aphasia assessment identifies 4 independent language functions, relying on discrete parts of the left middle cerebral artery territory. A better understanding of the processes underlying cognitive tests and the link between lesion and behavior may lead to improved aphasia diagnosis, and may yield treatments better targeted to an individual's specific pattern of deficits and preserved abilities.

  4. A Photogrammetric Approach for Assessing Positional Accuracy of OpenStreetMap© Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Doucette

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As open source volunteered geographic information continues to gain popularity, the user community and data contributions are expected to grow, e.g., CloudMade, Apple, and Ushahidi now provide OpenStreetMap© (OSM as a base layer for some of their mapping applications. This, coupled with the lack of cartographic standards and the expectation to one day be able to use this vector data for more geopositionally sensitive applications, like GPS navigation, leaves potential users and researchers to question the accuracy of the database. This research takes a photogrammetric approach to determining the positional accuracy of OSM road features using stereo imagery and a vector adjustment model. The method applies rigorous analytical measurement principles to compute accurate real world geolocations of OSM road vectors. The proposed approach was tested on several urban gridded city streets from the OSM database with the results showing that the post adjusted shape points improved positionally by 86%. Furthermore, the vector adjustment was able to recover 95% of the actual positional displacement present in the database. To demonstrate a practical application, a head-to-head positional accuracy assessment between OSM, the USGS National Map (TNM, and United States Census Bureau’s Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding Referencing (TIGER 2007 roads was conducted.

  5. Assessment of theoretical flow pattern maps for vertical upward two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khare, Rajesh; Vijayan, P.K.; Saha, D.; Venkat Raj, V.

    1997-04-01

    Taitel-Dukler (1980), Mishima-Ishii (1984) and Solbrig (1986) flow pattern maps have been assessed against an experimental data bank compiled from different sources. The data bank consisted of a total of 1411 data points with 368 bubbly, 474 slug/churn and 545 annular flow points, the rest being transition points. The data bank consisted of mainly steam water data; some amount of air-water data are included as there were no steam-water data at low pressure ( gs - U ls plane. (author)

  6. Mapping of soil organic carbon stocks for spatially explicit assessments of climate change mitigation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vågen, Tor-Gunnar; Winowiecki, Leigh A

    2013-01-01

    Current methods for assessing soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks are generally not well suited for understanding variations in SOC stocks in landscapes. This is due to the tedious and time-consuming nature of the sampling methods most commonly used to collect bulk density cores, which limits repeatability across large areas, particularly where information is needed on the spatial dynamics of SOC stocks at scales relevant to management and for spatially explicit targeting of climate change mitigation options. In the current study, approaches were explored for (i) field-based estimates of SOC stocks and (ii) mapping of SOC stocks at moderate to high resolution on the basis of data from four widely contrasting ecosystems in East Africa. Estimated SOC stocks for 0–30 cm depth varied both within and between sites, with site averages ranging from 2 to 8 kg m −2 . The differences in SOC stocks were determined in part by rainfall, but more importantly by sand content. Results also indicate that managing soil erosion is a key strategy for reducing SOC loss and hence in mitigation of climate change in these landscapes. Further, maps were developed on the basis of satellite image reflectance data with multiple R-squared values of 0.65 for the independent validation data set, showing variations in SOC stocks across these landscapes. These maps allow for spatially explicit targeting of potential climate change mitigation efforts through soil carbon sequestration, which is one option for climate change mitigation and adaptation. Further, the maps can be used to monitor the impacts of such mitigation efforts over time. (letter)

  7. Procedural Documentation and Accuracy Assessment of Bathymetric Maps and Area/Capacity Tables for Small Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Gary L.; Richards, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    Because of the increasing use and importance of lakes for water supply to communities, a repeatable and reliable procedure to determine lake bathymetry and capacity is needed. A method to determine the accuracy of the procedure will help ensure proper collection and use of the data and resulting products. It is important to clearly define the intended products and desired accuracy before conducting the bathymetric survey to ensure proper data collection. A survey-grade echo sounder and differential global positioning system receivers were used to collect water-depth and position data in December 2003 at Sugar Creek Lake near Moberly, Missouri. Data were collected along planned transects, with an additional set of quality-assurance data collected for use in accuracy computations. All collected data were imported into a geographic information system database. A bathymetric surface model, contour map, and area/capacity tables were created from the geographic information system database. An accuracy assessment was completed on the collected data, bathymetric surface model, area/capacity table, and contour map products. Using established vertical accuracy standards, the accuracy of the collected data, bathymetric surface model, and contour map product was 0.67 foot, 0.91 foot, and 1.51 feet at the 95 percent confidence level. By comparing results from different transect intervals with the quality-assurance transect data, it was determined that a transect interval of 1 percent of the longitudinal length of Sugar Creek Lake produced nearly as good results as 0.5 percent transect interval for the bathymetric surface model, area/capacity table, and contour map products.

  8. The Study of Enhancing Plans on Korean Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map (ECVAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, M.; Choi, Y.; Hwang, J.; Jeon, S. W.

    2016-12-01

    With the limitation of land area in the Republic of Korea, land use and excessive development in Korea is one of the huge socio-environmental problems. Plethora of land owners, government, and enterprises to develop land cover are still struggling for maintaining balance between efficient land utilization and sufficient land conservation. For the feasible management and land use in the future, ECVAM(as known as Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map) was created, accompanied with objective environmental grading of land in South Korea as well as integrated environmental information. ECVAM is the mapping system expressed by five-graded quality whether to develop or conserve in given land area with different colours. This map was primarily produced as the version 1.0 to ultimately use land eco-friendly and thoroughly which contains legally considered grade factors, environmental and ecological factors since 2001. From 2013, this project has planned to renovate the version 2.0 in more precise methods - strengthening legal support for user expansion, more amplified scale to 1:5,000, and the wide-spread supply such as education for those who demands ECVAM to adjust other fields like Environmental Impact Assessment to cope with land developers. For this year, we framed the official guideline to facilitate governments to design their newly-upgraded ECVAM but also to encourage local governors to utilize this figure for given land assessments. This assessment system also include the theoretical concept called natural asset valuation and the base study plan analyzing Vertical Vegetation Profile in the grading element of Stability of Community Structure. For the further study, it needs to reorganize the assessment factors to make the linkage between the ministry of environment and the ministry of land, infrastructure and transport in Korea for sustainable land use as well as to satisfy the grading ones in other nations' environmental conservation assessments such as

  9. Assessing strain mapping by electron backscatter diffraction and confocal Raman microscopy using wedge-indented Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Lawrence H.; Vaudin, Mark D.; Stranick, Stephan J.; Stan, Gheorghe; Gerbig, Yvonne B.; Osborn, William; Cook, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) for small-scale strain mapping are assessed using the multi-axial strain field surrounding a wedge indentation in Si as a test vehicle. The strain field is modeled using finite element analysis (FEA) that is adapted to the near-indentation surface profile measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The assessment consists of (1) direct experimental comparisons of strain and deformation and (2) comparisons in which the modeled strain field is used as an intermediate step. Direct experimental methods (1) consist of comparisons of surface elevation and gradient measured by AFM and EBSD and of Raman shifts measured and predicted by CRM and EBSD, respectively. Comparisons that utilize the combined FEA–AFM model (2) consist of predictions of distortion, strain, and rotation for comparison with EBSD measurements and predictions of Raman shift for comparison with CRM measurements. For both EBSD and CRM, convolution of measurements in depth-varying strain fields is considered. The interconnected comparisons suggest that EBSD was able to provide an accurate assessment of the wedge indentation deformation field to within the precision of the measurements, approximately 2×10"−"4 in strain. CRM was similarly precise, but was limited in accuracy to several times this value. - Highlights: • We map strain by electron backscatter diffraction and confocal Raman microscopy. • The test vehicle is the multi-axial strain field of wedge-indented silicon. • Strain accuracy is assessed by direct experimental intercomparison. • Accuracy is also assessed by atomic force microscopy and finite element analyses. • Electron diffraction measurements are accurate; Raman measurements need refinement.

  10. Assessing strain mapping by electron backscatter diffraction and confocal Raman microscopy using wedge-indented Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Lawrence H.; Vaudin, Mark D.; Stranick, Stephan J.; Stan, Gheorghe; Gerbig, Yvonne B.; Osborn, William; Cook, Robert F., E-mail: robert.cook@nist.gov

    2016-04-15

    The accuracy of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) for small-scale strain mapping are assessed using the multi-axial strain field surrounding a wedge indentation in Si as a test vehicle. The strain field is modeled using finite element analysis (FEA) that is adapted to the near-indentation surface profile measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The assessment consists of (1) direct experimental comparisons of strain and deformation and (2) comparisons in which the modeled strain field is used as an intermediate step. Direct experimental methods (1) consist of comparisons of surface elevation and gradient measured by AFM and EBSD and of Raman shifts measured and predicted by CRM and EBSD, respectively. Comparisons that utilize the combined FEA–AFM model (2) consist of predictions of distortion, strain, and rotation for comparison with EBSD measurements and predictions of Raman shift for comparison with CRM measurements. For both EBSD and CRM, convolution of measurements in depth-varying strain fields is considered. The interconnected comparisons suggest that EBSD was able to provide an accurate assessment of the wedge indentation deformation field to within the precision of the measurements, approximately 2×10{sup −4} in strain. CRM was similarly precise, but was limited in accuracy to several times this value. - Highlights: • We map strain by electron backscatter diffraction and confocal Raman microscopy. • The test vehicle is the multi-axial strain field of wedge-indented silicon. • Strain accuracy is assessed by direct experimental intercomparison. • Accuracy is also assessed by atomic force microscopy and finite element analyses. • Electron diffraction measurements are accurate; Raman measurements need refinement.

  11. Effect of thematic map misclassification on landscape multi-metric assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleindl, William J; Powell, Scott L; Hauer, F Richard

    2015-06-01

    Advancements in remote sensing and computational tools have increased our awareness of large-scale environmental problems, thereby creating a need for monitoring, assessment, and management at these scales. Over the last decade, several watershed and regional multi-metric indices have been developed to assist decision-makers with planning actions of these scales. However, these tools use remote-sensing products that are subject to land-cover misclassification, and these errors are rarely incorporated in the assessment results. Here, we examined the sensitivity of a landscape-scale multi-metric index (MMI) to error from thematic land-cover misclassification and the implications of this uncertainty for resource management decisions. Through a case study, we used a simplified floodplain MMI assessment tool, whose metrics were derived from Landsat thematic maps, to initially provide results that were naive to thematic misclassification error. Using a Monte Carlo simulation model, we then incorporated map misclassification error into our MMI, resulting in four important conclusions: (1) each metric had a different sensitivity to error; (2) within each metric, the bias between the error-naive metric scores and simulated scores that incorporate potential error varied in magnitude and direction depending on the underlying land cover at each assessment site; (3) collectively, when the metrics were combined into a multi-metric index, the effects were attenuated; and (4) the index bias indicated that our naive assessment model may overestimate floodplain condition of sites with limited human impacts and, to a lesser extent, either over- or underestimated floodplain condition of sites with mixed land use.

  12. Assessment of permafrost distribution maps in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region using rock glaciers mapped in Google Earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, M.O.; Baral, P.; Gruber, S.; Shahi, S.; Shrestha, T.; Stumm, D.; Wester, P.

    2015-01-01

    The extent and distribution of permafrost in the mountainous parts of the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region are largely unknown. A long tradition of permafrost research, predominantly on rather gentle relief, exists only on the Tibetan Plateau. Two permafrost maps are available digitally that

  13. RAPID-N: Assessing and mapping the risk of natural-hazard impact at industrial installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgin, Serkan; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Natural hazard-triggered technological accidents (so-called Natech accidents) at hazardous installations can have major consequences due to the potential for release of hazardous materials, fires and explosions. Effective Natech risk reduction requires the identification of areas where this risk is high. However, recent studies have shown that there are hardly any methodologies and tools that would allow authorities to identify these areas. To work towards closing this gap, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre has developed the rapid Natech risk assessment and mapping framework RAPID-N. The tool, which is implemented in an online web-based environment, is unique in that it contains all functionalities required for running a full Natech risk analysis simulation (natural hazards severity estimation, equipment damage probability and severity calculation, modeling of the consequences of loss of containment scenarios) and for visualizing its results. The output of RAPID-N are risk summary reports and interactive risk maps which can be used for decision making. Currently, the tool focuses on Natech risk due to earthquakes at industrial installations. However, it will be extended to also analyse and map Natech risk due to floods in the near future. RAPID-N is available at http://rapidn.jrc.ec.europa.eu. This presentation will discuss the results of case-study calculations performed for selected flammable and toxic substances to test the capabilities of RAPID-N both for single- and multi-site earthquake Natech risk assessment. For this purpose, an Istanbul earthquake scenario provided by the Turkish government was used. The results of the exercise show that RAPID-N is a valuable decision-support tool that assesses the Natech risk and maps the consequence end-point distances. These end-point distances are currently defined by 7 kPa overpressure for Vapour Cloud Explosions, 2nd degree burns for pool fire (which is equivalent to a heat radiation of 5 kW/m2 for 40s

  14. A method to assess longitudinal riverine connectivity in tropical streams dominated by migratory biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, K.E.; Pringle, C.M.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2009-01-01

    1. One way in which dams affect ecosystem function is by altering the distribution and abundance of aquatic species. 2. Previous studies indicate that migratory shrimps have significant effects on ecosystem processes in Puerto Rican streams, but are vulnerable to impediments to upstream or downstream passage, such as dams and associated water intakes where stream water is withdrawn for human water supplies. Ecological effects of dams and water withdrawals from streams depend on spatial context and temporal variability of flow in relation to the amount of water withdrawn. 3. This paper presents a conceptual model for estimating the probability that an individual shrimp is able to migrate from a stream's headwaters to the estuary as a larva, and then return to the headwaters as a juvenile, given a set of dams and water withdrawals in the stream network. The model is applied to flow and withdrawal data for a set of dams and water withdrawals in the Caribbean National Forest (CNF) in Puerto Rico. 4. The index of longitudinal riverine connectivity (ILRC), is used to classify 17 water intakes in streams draining the CNF as having low, moderate, or high connectivity in terms of shrimp migration in both directions. An in-depth comparison of two streams showed that the stream characterized by higher water withdrawal had low connectivity, even during wet periods. Severity of effects is illustrated by a drought year, where the most downstream intake caused 100% larval shrimp mortality 78% of the year. 5. The ranking system provided by the index can be used as a tool for conservation ecologists and water resource managers to evaluate the relative vulnerability of migratory biota in streams, across different scales (reach-network), to seasonally low flows and extended drought. This information can be used to help evaluate the environmental tradeoffs of future water withdrawals. ?? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Mapping EORTC QLQ-C30 onto EQ-5D for the assessment of cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Seon Ha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30 is the instrument most frequently used to measure quality of life in cancer patients, whereas the EQ-5D is widely used to measure and evaluate general health status. Although the EORTC QLQ-C30 has been mapped to EQ-5D utilities, those studies were limited to patients with a single type of cancer. The present study aimed to develop a mapping relationship between the EORTC QLQ-C30 and EQ-5D-based utility values at the individual level. Methods The model was derived using patients with different types of cancer who were receiving chemotherapy. The external validation set comprised outpatients with colon cancer. Ordinary least squares regression was used to estimate the EQ-5D index from the EORTC QLQ-C30 results. The predictability, goodness of fit, and signs of the estimated coefficients of the model were assessed. Predictive ability was determined by calculating the mean absolute error, the estimated proportions with absolute errors > 0.05 and > 0.1, and the root-mean-squared error (RMSE. Results A model that included global health, physical, role, emotional functions, and pain was optimal, with a mean absolute error of 0.069 and an RMSE of 0.095 (normalized RMSE, 8.1%. The explanatory power of this model was 51.6%. The mean absolute error was higher for modeled patients in poor health. Conclusions This mapping algorithm enabled the EORTC QLQ-C30 to be converted to the EQ-5D utility index to assess cancer patients in Korea.

  16. Characterization and assessment of voltage and power constraints of DFIG WT connected to a weak network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abulanwar, Elsayed; Hu, Weihao; Iov, Florin

    2014-01-01

    This article thoroughly investigates the challenges and constraints raised by the integration of a Doubly-fed Induction generator wind turbine, DFIG WT, into an ac network of extensively varying parameters and very weak conditions. The objective is to mitigate the voltage variations at the point...... of common coupling, PCC, and maximize the wind power penetration into weak networks. As a basis of investigation, a simplified system model is utilized and the respective PCC voltage, active and reactive power stability issues are identified. Besides, a steady-state study for DFIG WT connected to a weak...

  17. Using causal maps to support ex-post assessment of social impacts of dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aledo, Antonio; García-Andreu, Hugo; Pinese, José

    2015-01-01

    - Highlights: • We defend the usefulness of causal maps (CM) for ex-post impact assessment of dams. • Political decisions are presented as unavoidable technical measures. • CM enable the identification of multiple causes involved in the dam impacts. • An alternative management of the dams is shown from the precise tracking of the causes. • Participatory CM better the quality of information and the governance of the research. This paper presents the results of an ex-post assessment of two important dams in Brazil. The study follows the principles of Social Impact Management, which offer a suitable framework for analyzing the complex social transformations triggered by hydroelectric dams. In the implementation of this approach, participative causal maps were used to identify the ex-post social impacts of the Porto Primavera and Rosana dams on the community of Porto Rico, located along the High Paraná River. We found that in the operation of dams there are intermediate causes of a political nature, stemming from decisions based on values and interests not determined by neutral, exclusively technical reasons; and this insight opens up an area of action for managing the negative impacts of dams

  18. Using causal maps to support ex-post assessment of social impacts of dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aledo, Antonio, E-mail: Antonio.Aledo@ua.es [Departamento de Sociología 1, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante 03080 (Spain); García-Andreu, Hugo, E-mail: Hugo.Andreu@ua.es [Departamento de Sociología 1, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante 03080 (Spain); Pinese, José, E-mail: pinese@uel.br [Centro de Ciências Exatas, UEL, Rodovia Celso Cid, Km 380, Campus Universitário, Londrina, PR 86057-970 (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    - Highlights: • We defend the usefulness of causal maps (CM) for ex-post impact assessment of dams. • Political decisions are presented as unavoidable technical measures. • CM enable the identification of multiple causes involved in the dam impacts. • An alternative management of the dams is shown from the precise tracking of the causes. • Participatory CM better the quality of information and the governance of the research. This paper presents the results of an ex-post assessment of two important dams in Brazil. The study follows the principles of Social Impact Management, which offer a suitable framework for analyzing the complex social transformations triggered by hydroelectric dams. In the implementation of this approach, participative causal maps were used to identify the ex-post social impacts of the Porto Primavera and Rosana dams on the community of Porto Rico, located along the High Paraná River. We found that in the operation of dams there are intermediate causes of a political nature, stemming from decisions based on values and interests not determined by neutral, exclusively technical reasons; and this insight opens up an area of action for managing the negative impacts of dams.

  19. Assessing and Optimizing Argo profile mapping : An example in the Equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparin, Florent; Roemmich, Dean; Gilson, John; Sprintall, Janet

    2014-05-01

    Estimation of subsurface temperature, salinity and velocity has been revolutionized over the last decade as a result of development and deployment of the Argo Program. Argo products have become one of the major observational tools in Oceanography, used in a wide range of basic research, operational models, and education applications. To assess the skill of Argo in estimating oceanic conditions at different scales of variability in the Equatorial Pacific, we optimize Argo profile mapping by focusing on the covariance function. Decorrelation scales are discussed as well as impacts of several different interpolation schemes. The optimization is based on three points 1) Functional representation of the Argo sampled covariance, 2) Realism/Accuracy of the mapping errors and 3) Comparison with independent data such as TAO moorings and sea surface height. The last points show that Argo can represent more than 90% of the total TAO variance and around 80% of the intraseasonal TAO variability (between 10 and 100 days) at the Equator. As an illustration of the improvement, we show how Argo profiles can reveal the vertical structure and vertical phase propagation corresponding to the steric height annual cycle. We also discuss how this unique equatorial wave phenomena is modified during El Nino/La Nina events. This work anticipates a field experiment beginning in early 2014 and can be used for assessing and adapting the equatorial observational network.

  20. Focus maps: a means of prioritizing data collection for efficient geo-risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Pittore

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available  Efficient Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR management constantly calls upon high-quality information to be collected or updated for vulnerability monitoring and risk assessment. This process is often resource- and time-intensive, which many economically developing states (including most Central Asian countries can seldom afford. In this paper, we introduce the concept of focus maps as a useful tool to quantify the spatial probability of sampling. Focus maps allow for a data collection prioritization scheme to be put in place, enabling the realization of optimized spatial sampling which assigns a higher priority to locations where the need for high-quality information is greater. In practice, smaller samples can be drawn with the same (or better resulting accuracy of the estimates, resulting in a more efficient use of time and resources. The factors that affect such a spatial sampling scheme include the usual components of risk assessment (hazard, exposure, vulnerability where available, as well as other potentially critical factors, such as the extent and quality of previously collected data. The practical application of the proposed approach to the case of Central Asia will be exemplified and discussed.

  1. Weighted-MSE based on saliency map for assessing video quality of H.264 video streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujut, H.; Benois-Pineau, J.; Hadar, O.; Ahmed, T.; Bonnet, P.

    2011-01-01

    Human vision system is very complex and has been studied for many years specifically for purposes of efficient encoding of visual, e.g. video content from digital TV. There have been physiological and psychological evidences which indicate that viewers do not pay equal attention to all exposed visual information, but only focus on certain areas known as focus of attention (FOA) or saliency regions. In this work, we propose a novel based objective quality assessment metric, for assessing the perceptual quality of decoded video sequences affected by transmission errors and packed loses. The proposed method weights the Mean Square Error (MSE), Weighted-MSE (WMSE), according to the calculated saliency map at each pixel. Our method was validated trough subjective quality experiments.

  2. Comparative Assessment of Three Nonlinear Approaches for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping in a Coal Mine Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaomei Su

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Landslide susceptibility mapping is the first and most important step involved in landslide hazard assessment. The purpose of the present study is to compare three nonlinear approaches for landslide susceptibility mapping and test whether coal mining has a significant impact on landslide occurrence in coal mine areas. Landslide data collected by the Bureau of Land and Resources are represented by the X, Y coordinates of its central point; causative factors were calculated from topographic and geologic maps, as well as satellite imagery. The five-fold cross-validation method was adopted and the landslide/non-landslide datasets were randomly split into a ratio of 80:20. From this, five subsets for 20 times were acquired for training and validating models by GIS Geostatistical analysis methods, and all of the subsets were employed in a spatially balanced sample design. Three landslide models were built using support vector machine (SVM, logistic regression (LR, and artificial neural network (ANN models by selecting the median of the performance measures. Then, the three fitted models were compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves (AUC and the performance measures. The results show that the prediction accuracies are between 73.43% and 87.45% in the training stage, and 67.16% to 73.13% in the validating stage for the three models. AUCs vary from 0.807 to 0.906 and 0.753 to 0.944 in the two stages, respectively. Additionally, three landslide susceptibility maps were obtained by classifying the range of landslide probabilities into four classes representing low (0–0.02, medium (0.02–0.1, high (0.1–0.85, and very high (0.85–1 probabilities of landslides. For the distributions of landslide and area percentages under different susceptibility standards, the SVM model has more relative balance in the four classes compared to the LR and the ANN models. The result reveals that the SVM model possesses better

  3. Limitations in the Use of Archived Vent Mussel Samples to Assess Genetic Connectivity Among Seafloor Massive Sulfide Deposits: A Case Study with Implications for Environmental Management

    OpenAIRE

    Boschen, Rachel E.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Clark, Malcolm R.; Gardner, Jonathan P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic connectivity studies can inform the design of mitigation strategies used in environmental management. However, the expense of developing species-specific molecular markers and collecting samples at appropriate spatial and temporal scales can be prohibitive. Using archived material and existing molecular markers may provide a cost-effective way to assess population connectivity. Genetic connectivity studies are increasingly in demand in the deep sea in response to mounting anthropogeni...

  4. Landslide Hazard Assessment and Mapping in the Guil Catchment (Queyras, Southern French Alps): From Landslide Inventory to Susceptibility Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulleau, Louise; Bétard, François; Carlier, Benoît; Lissak, Candide; Fort, Monique

    2016-04-01

    Landslides are common natural hazards in the Southern French Alps, where they may affect human lives and cause severe damages to infrastructures. As a part of the SAMCO research project dedicated to risk evaluation in mountain areas, this study focuses on the Guil river catchment (317 km2), Queyras, to assess landslide hazard poorly studied until now. In that area, landslides are mainly occasional, low amplitude phenomena, with limited direct impacts when compared to other hazards such as floods or snow avalanches. However, when interacting with floods during extreme rainfall events, landslides may have indirect consequences of greater importance because of strong hillslope-channel connectivity along the Guil River and its tributaries (i.e. positive feedbacks). This specific morphodynamic functioning reinforces the need to have a better understanding of landslide hazards and their spatial distribution at the catchment scale to prevent local population from disasters with multi-hazard origin. The aim of this study is to produce a landslide susceptibility mapping at 1:50 000 scale as a first step towards global estimation of landslide hazard and risk. The three main methodologies used for assessing landslide susceptibility are qualitative (i.e. expert opinion), deterministic (i.e. physics-based models) and statistical methods (i.e. probabilistic models). Due to the rapid development of geographical information systems (GIS) during the last two decades, statistical methods are today widely used because they offer a greater objectivity and reproducibility at large scales. Among them, multivariate analyses are considered as the most robust techniques, especially the logistic regression method commonly used in landslide susceptibility mapping. However, this method like others is strongly dependent on the accuracy of the input data to avoid significant errors in the final results. In particular, a complete and accurate landslide inventory is required before the modelling

  5. Grounding formative assessment in high-school chemistry classrooms: Connections between professional development and teacher practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisterna Alburquerque, Dante Igor

    This study describes and analyzes the experiences of two high-school chemistry teachers who participated in a team-based professional development program to learn about and enact formative assessment in their classrooms. The overall purpose of this study is to explain how participation in this professional development influenced both teachers' classroom enactment of formative assessment practices. This study focuses on 1) teachers' participation in the professional development program, 2) teachers' enactment of formative assessment, and 3) factors that enabled or hindered enactment of formative assessment. Drawing on cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) and using evidence from teacher lessons, teacher interviews, professional development meetings as data sources, this single embedded case study analyzes how these two teachers who participated in the same learning team and have similar characteristics (i.e., teaching in the same school, teaching the same courses and population of students, and using the same materials) differentially used the professional development learning about formative assessment as mediating tools to improve their classroom instruction. The learning team experience contributed to both teachers' development of a better understanding of formative assessment---especially in recognizing that their current grading and assessment practices were not appropriate to promote student learning---and the co-creation of artifacts to gather evidence of students' ideas. Although both teachers demonstrated understanding about how formative assessment may serve to promote student learning and had a set of tools available to utilize for formative assessment use, they did not enact these tools in the same way. One teacher appropriated formative assessment as mediating tool to verify if the students were following her explanations, and to check if the students were able to provide the correct response. The other teacher used the mediating tool to promote

  6. COMPARING IMAGE-BASED METHODS FOR ASSESSING VISUAL CLUTTER IN GENERALIZED MAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Touya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Map generalization abstracts and simplifies geographic information to derive maps at smaller scales. The automation of map generalization requires techniques to evaluate the global quality of a generalized map. The quality and legibility of a generalized map is related to the complexity of the map, or the amount of clutter in the map, i.e. the excessive amount of information and its disorganization. Computer vision research is highly interested in measuring clutter in images, and this paper proposes to compare some of the existing techniques from computer vision, applied to generalized maps evaluation. Four techniques from the literature are described and tested on a large set of maps, generalized at different scales: edge density, subband entropy, quad tree complexity, and segmentation clutter. The results are analyzed against several criteria related to generalized maps, the identification of cluttered areas, the preservation of the global amount of information, the handling of occlusions and overlaps, foreground vs background, and blank space reduction.

  7. Assessment and application of national environmental databases and mapping tools at the local level to two community case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Davyda; Conlon, Kathryn; Barzyk, Timothy; Chahine, Teresa; Zartarian, Valerie; Schultz, Brad

    2011-03-01

    Communities are concerned over pollution levels and seek methods to systematically identify and prioritize the environmental stressors in their communities. Geographic information system (GIS) maps of environmental information can be useful tools for communities in their assessment of environmental-pollution-related risks. Databases and mapping tools that supply community-level estimates of ambient concentrations of hazardous pollutants, risk, and potential health impacts can provide relevant information for communities to understand, identify, and prioritize potential exposures and risk from multiple sources. An assessment of existing databases and mapping tools was conducted as part of this study to explore the utility of publicly available databases, and three of these databases were selected for use in a community-level GIS mapping application. Queried data from the U.S. EPA's National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment, Air Quality System, and National Emissions Inventory were mapped at the appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions for identifying risks of exposure to air pollutants in two communities. The maps combine monitored and model-simulated pollutant and health risk estimates, along with local survey results, to assist communities with the identification of potential exposure sources and pollution hot spots. Findings from this case study analysis will provide information to advance the development of new tools to assist communities with environmental risk assessments and hazard prioritization. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Assessment of body mapping sportswear using a manikin operated in constant temperature mode and thermoregulatory model control mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Faming; Del Ferraro, Simona; Molinaro, Vincenzo; Morrissey, Matthew; Rossi, René

    2014-09-01

    Regional sweating patterns and body surface temperature differences exist between genders. Traditional sportswear made from one material and/or one fabric structure has a limited ability to provide athletes sufficient local wear comfort. Body mapping sportswear consists of one piece of multiple knit structure fabric or of different fabric pieces that may provide athletes better wear comfort. In this study, the `modular' body mapping sportswear was designed and subsequently assessed on a `Newton' type sweating manikin that operated in both constant temperature mode and thermophysiological model control mode. The performance of the modular body mapping sportswear kit and commercial products were also compared. The results demonstrated that such a modular body mapping sportswear kit can meet multiple wear/thermal comfort requirements in various environmental conditions. All body mapping clothing (BMC) presented limited global thermophysiological benefits for the wearers. Nevertheless, BMC showed evident improvements in adjusting local body heat exchanges and local thermal sensations.

  9. Reliability assessment of single-phase grid-connected PV microinverters considering mission profile and uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zare, Mohammad Hadi; Mohamadian, Mustafa; Wang, Huai

    2017-01-01

    Microinverters usually connect a PV panel to a Single-phase power grid. In such system, the input power is constant while the output power oscillates twice the line frequency. Thus, the input and output power differences should be stored in a storage component, which is typically an electrolytic ...... irritation of two different places on the micro inverter lifetime is studied....... capacitor. However, electrolytic capacitors are usually blamed for their short lifetime. Recently, some active power decoupling methods are introduced in the literature which can takes advantage of high reliable film capacitors. However, some extra switches and diodes are added to the microinverter which...... can influence the microinverter lifetime. This paper investigates the microinverter reliability according to mission profile where it is installed. To get more accurate results, uncertainties in both lifetime model and manufacturing process are considered. The effect of ambient temperature and solar...

  10. Quantitative assessment of CA1 local circuits: knowledge base for interneuron-pyramidal cell connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezaire, Marianne J; Soltesz, Ivan

    2013-09-01

    In this work, through a detailed literature review, data-mining, and extensive calculations, we provide a current, quantitative estimate of the cellular and synaptic constituents of the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus. Beyond estimating the cell numbers of GABAergic interneuron types, we calculate their convergence onto CA1 pyramidal cells and compare it with the known input synapses on CA1 pyramidal cells. The convergence calculation and comparison are also made for excitatory inputs to CA1 pyramidal cells. In addition, we provide a summary of the excitatory and inhibitory convergence onto interneurons. The quantitative knowledge base assembled and synthesized here forms the basis for data-driven, large-scale computational modeling efforts. Additionally, this work highlights specific instances where the available data are incomplete, which should inspire targeted experimental projects toward a more complete quantification of the CA1 neurons and their connectivity. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Connectivity reliability and topological controllability of infrastructure networks: A comparative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jian; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo; Chen, Changkun; Shi, Congling

    2016-01-01

    As infrastructure systems evolve, their design, maintenance, and optimal performance require mature tools from system reliability theory, as well as principles to handle emerging system features, such as controllability. This paper conducts a comparative study of the connectivity reliability (CR) and topological controllability (TC) of infrastructure systems in terms of three aspects: topology, robustness, and node importance. Taking eight city-level power transmission networks and thousands of artificial networks as examples, this paper reveals that a dense and homogeneous network topology is better to satisfy CR and TC requirements, than more common sparse and heterogeneous networks when node attributes are generic. It is observed that the average degree's impact on CR is more significant than on TC, while degree heterogeneity is more significant on TC. When node attributes are accounted for, for generators the reliability-based node importance measure may underestimate some important nodes in terms of TC, and vice versa—an issue not observed for substation nodes. The findings in this paper suggest a potential new direction to enhance reliability-based design by integrating it with emerging controllability-based measures relevant in the future as infrastructure networks increase reliance on information systems. - Highlights: • Compares connectivity reliability (CR) and topological controllability (TC) metrics. • Develops a controllability index and a controllability-based node importance metric. • CR is more sensitive to degree while TC is more sensitive to degree heterogeneity. • CR-based importance measures match TC-based measures for substation nodes. • CR- and TC-based measures are complementary to identify important generator nodes.

  12. Fluvial Connectivity and Sediment Dispersal within Continental Extensional Basins; Assessment of Controlling Factors using Numerical Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, A., Jr.; Cowie, P. A.; Gawthorpe, R.; Huismans, R. S.; Pedersen, V. K.

    2017-12-01

    Progressive integration of drainage networks has been documented in many regional-scale studies of extensional continental systems. While endorheic drainage and lake sedimentation are common features observed in basin stratigraphy, they often disappear from the record due to the development of a through-going river network. Because changes in the fluvial connectivity of extensional basins have profound impact on erosion and sediment dispersal, and thus the feedback between surface processes and tectonics, it is of great importance to understand what controls them. Headward erosion (also called headward capture or river piracy) is often suggested to be the main mechanism causing basins to become interconnected over time with one another and with the regional/coastal drainage network. We show that overspill mechanisms (basin over-filling or lake over-spilling) play a key role in the actively extending central Italian Apennines, even though this area is theoretically favorable for headward erosion (short distances to the coast in combination with rapid surface uplift). In other tectonic settings (e.g. contractional basins and high plateaux) the role of headward erosion in transverse drainage development and integrating endorheic basins has also been increasingly questioned. These two mechanisms predict very different spatio-temporal patterns of sediment dispersal and thus timing of sediment loading (or erosional unloading) along active normal faults, which in turn may influence the locus of subsequent extensional deformation. By means of surface process modelling we develop a process-based understanding of the controls on fluvial connectivity between extensional basins in the central Italian Apennines. We focus on which conditions (tectonic and erosional) favour headward erosion versus overspill and compare our model results with published field evidence for drainage integration and the timing of basin sedimentation/incision.

  13. Reliability assessment platform for the power semiconductor devices - Study case on 3-phase grid-connected inverter application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernica, Ionut; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    provide valuable reliability information based on given mission profiles and system specification is first developed and its main concept is presented. In order to facilitate the test and access to the loading and lifetime information of the power devices, a novel mission profile based stress emulator...... experimental setup is proposed and designed. The link between the stress emulator setup and the reliability tool software is highlighted. Finally, the reliability assessment platform is demonstrated on a 3-phase grid-connected inverter application study case....

  14. Fracturing mapping and rockfall susceptibility assessment in Yosemite Valley (California, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matasci, B.; Carrea, D.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Stock, G. M.; Collins, B. D.; Putnam, R.

    2013-12-01

    In Yosemite Valley rockfall hazard and risk are high due to the presence of tall, steep granitic cliffs and to the large number of visitors. The main information needed to assess rockfall hazard is the location of the most probable rockfall source areas and the establishment of the frequency of activity from these areas. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) has been widely deployed to collect very accurate point clouds of vertical and overhanging rock faces. This provided the necessary data to identify the main joint sets, perform spacing and trace length measurements, identify the failure mechanisms and calculate rockfalls volumes. The presence of surface parallel sheeting or exfoliation joints is widespread in the granitic faces of Yosemite Valley, contributing significantly to the occurrence of rockfalls. Thus, through TLS, sheeting joints have been mapped and characterized in 3D. Rock type is another important parameter that must be constrained to identify potential rockfall sources. Therefore, we have focused on the precise mapping of the vertical geologic limits in the field, on high resolution photographs and on the basis of the intensity value associated to TLS point clouds. A methodology has been developed to carry out kinematic tests on full 3D TLS point clouds, taking into account for each joint set the orientation, spacing and persistence measured on the TLS data. The areas of a cliff with the highest density of potential failure mechanisms are shown to be the most susceptible to rockfalls. These advances in remote sensing methods provide new tools to locate the most probable future rockfall sources and provide key elements needed to evaluate the potential rockfall hazard of the cliffs in Yosemite Valley and elsewhere. 3D rockfall susceptibility mapping.

  15. Mapa conceitual: seu potencial como instrumento avaliativo Conceptual map: its potential as an assessment instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Aparecida de Souza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Os instrumentos avaliativos são numerosos; dentre eles, o mapa conceitual é uma das alternativas. Entretanto, cumpre questionar: quais as vantagens e as limitações do mapa conceitual como instrumento avaliativo? Assim, o presente trabalho objetivou delinear e analisar as vantagens e as limitações inerentes ao uso do mapa conceitual como instrumento avaliativo. A pesquisa privilegiou a abordagem qualitativa, na forma do estudo de caso. Desenvolvido durante o primeiro semestre de 2006 com 32 alunas do 3º ano de um curso de Pedagogia de uma universidade pública paranaense, o estudo utilizou questionário, entrevista e observação para a coleta de dados. A análise de conteúdo clássica facultou determinar as aprendizagens decorrentes da vivência, bem como a incidência de diferentes aspectos enunciados como facilitadores ou limitadores na utilização do mapa conceitual como instrumento avaliativo. Estes foram analisados não como antagônicos, mas como facetas de um mesmo fenômeno e, por isso, complementares e interdependentes.There is a great variety of instruments to assess learning. Conceptual maps are questioned in this text, as one of these possibilities. The objectives of this study are to identify and analyze the advantages and limitations inherent to the use of conceptual maps as assessment instruments. In the study, especially the qualitative approach is used in a case study. It was carried out during the first semester of 2006, involving 32 3rd-year students of a pedagogy course at a public university in the state of Paraná. The research was based on a questionnaire, an interview and observation for data collection. The analysis of the material allowed us to determine the actual learning emerging from the experience, as well as the incidence of different aspects which might have facilitated or hindered the use of conceptual maps as assessment instruments. These aspects were analyzed, not as opposites, but as complementary

  16. Assessment of acute kidney injury with T1 mapping MRI following solid organ transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peperhove, Matti; Vo Chieu, Van Dai; Gutberlet, Marcel; Hartung, Dagmar; Tewes, Susanne; Wacker, Frank; Hueper, Katja [Hannover Medical School, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover (Germany); Jang, Mi-Sun; Gwinner, Wilfried; Haller, Hermann; Gueler, Faikah [Nephrology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany); Warnecke, Gregor; Fegbeutel, Christiane; Haverich, Axel [Hannover Medical School, Cardiothoracic, Transplantation and Vascular Surgery, Hannover (Germany); Lehner, Frank [Hannover Medical School, General, Abdominal and Transplant Surgery, Hannover (Germany); Braesen, Jan Hinrich [Pathology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany)

    2018-01-15

    To evaluate T1 mapping as a non-invasive, functional MRI biomarker in patients shortly after solid organ transplantation to detect acute postsurgical kidney damage and to correlate T1 times with renal function. 101 patients within 2 weeks after solid organ transplantation (49 kidney transplantation, 52 lung transplantation) and 14 healthy volunteers were examined by MRI between July 2012 and April 2015 using the modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence. T1 times in renal cortex and medulla and the corticomedullary difference were compared between groups using one-way ANOVA adjusted for multiple comparison with the Tukey test, and T1 times were correlated with renal function using Pearson's correlation. Compared to healthy volunteers T1 times were significantly increased after solid organ transplantation in the renal cortex (healthy volunteers 987 ± 102 ms; kidney transplantation 1299 ± 101 ms, p < 0.001; lung transplantation 1058 ± 96 ms, p < 0.05) and to a lesser extent in the renal medulla. Accordingly, the corticomedullary difference was diminished shortly after solid organ transplantation. T1 changes were more pronounced following kidney compared to lung transplantation, were associated with the stage of renal impairment and significantly correlated with renal function. T1 mapping may be helpful for early non-invasive assessment of acute kidney injury and renal pathology following major surgery such as solid organ transplantation. (orig.)

  17. Mapping soil organic carbon content and composition across Australia to assess vulnerability to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscarra Rossel, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    We can effectively monitor soil condition—and develop sound policies to offset the emissions of greenhouse gases—only with accurate data from which to define baselines. Currently, estimates of soil organic C for countries or continents are either unavailable or largely uncertain because they are derived from sparse data, with large gaps over many areas of the Earth. Here, we derive spatially explicit estimates, and their uncertainty, of the distribution and stock of organic C content and composition in the soil of Australia. The composition of soil organic C may be characterized by chemical separation or physical fractionation based on either particle size or particle density (Skjemstad et al., 2004; Gregorich et al., 2006; Kelleher&Simpson, 2006; Zimmermann et al., 2007). In Australia, for example, Skjemstad et al. (2004) used physical separation of soil samples into 50-2000 and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, giving the three OC pools, particulate organic carbon (POC), humic organic carbon (HOC) and resistant organic carbon (ROC; charcoal or char-carbon). We assembled and harmonized data from several sources to produce the most comprehensive set of data on the current stock of organic C in soil of the continent. Using them, we have produced a fine spatial resolution baseline map of organic C, POC, HOC and ROC at the continental scale. In this presentation I will describe how we made the maps and how we use them to assess the vulnerability of soil organic C to for instance climate change.

  18. Assessment of acute kidney injury with T1 mapping MRI following solid organ transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peperhove, Matti; Vo Chieu, Van Dai; Gutberlet, Marcel; Hartung, Dagmar; Tewes, Susanne; Wacker, Frank; Hueper, Katja; Jang, Mi-Sun; Gwinner, Wilfried; Haller, Hermann; Gueler, Faikah; Warnecke, Gregor; Fegbeutel, Christiane; Haverich, Axel; Lehner, Frank; Braesen, Jan Hinrich

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate T1 mapping as a non-invasive, functional MRI biomarker in patients shortly after solid organ transplantation to detect acute postsurgical kidney damage and to correlate T1 times with renal function. 101 patients within 2 weeks after solid organ transplantation (49 kidney transplantation, 52 lung transplantation) and 14 healthy volunteers were examined by MRI between July 2012 and April 2015 using the modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence. T1 times in renal cortex and medulla and the corticomedullary difference were compared between groups using one-way ANOVA adjusted for multiple comparison with the Tukey test, and T1 times were correlated with renal function using Pearson's correlation. Compared to healthy volunteers T1 times were significantly increased after solid organ transplantation in the renal cortex (healthy volunteers 987 ± 102 ms; kidney transplantation 1299 ± 101 ms, p < 0.001; lung transplantation 1058 ± 96 ms, p < 0.05) and to a lesser extent in the renal medulla. Accordingly, the corticomedullary difference was diminished shortly after solid organ transplantation. T1 changes were more pronounced following kidney compared to lung transplantation, were associated with the stage of renal impairment and significantly correlated with renal function. T1 mapping may be helpful for early non-invasive assessment of acute kidney injury and renal pathology following major surgery such as solid organ transplantation. (orig.)

  19. Rail environmental impact: energy consumption and noise pollution assessment of different transport modes connecting Big Ben (London, UK and Eiffel Tower (Paris, FR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto PALACIN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is set within the framework of the RailNewcastle Summer School program 2014 run by Newcastle University. It attempts to explore the sustainability credentials of railways when compared with other transport modes connecting central London with central Paris, two of Europe’s largest metropolis. Specifically, the study compares the energy consumption and noise pollution of a rail-only travel option with two other alternatives using a combination of public transport modes. The analysis includes defining the regulatory framework, sourcing and aggregating energy consumption from a number of references as well as creating noise maps for key nodes using validated tools available. The results suggest that the rail-only option has the best performance of the three options in terms of energy consumption while a bus-coach-metro combination seems to have lower noise levels than the rest. Assumptions due to lack of meaningful data made in the calculation of underground rail services are thought to have influence on the lower than expected performance of rails systems in terms of noise. The authors conclude that considering the combined outcomes of both assessments, the rail-only option is the preferred choice from a sustainability credentials perspective.

  20. Assessing Brain–Muscle Connectivity in Human Locomotion through Mobile Brain/Body Imaging: Opportunities, Pitfalls, and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Gennaro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the cortical role during bipedalism has been a methodological challenge. While surface electroencephalography (EEG is capable of non-invasively measuring cortical activity during human locomotion, it is associated with movement artifacts obscuring cerebral sources of activity. Recently, statistical methods based on blind source separation revealed potential for resolving this issue, by segregating non-cerebral/artifactual from cerebral sources of activity. This step marked a new opportunity for the investigation of the brains’ role while moving and was tagged mobile brain/body imaging (MoBI. This methodology involves simultaneous mobile recording of brain activity with several other body behavioral variables (e.g., muscle activity and kinematics, through wireless recording wearable devices/sensors. Notably, several MoBI studies using EEG–EMG approaches recently showed that the brain is functionally connected to the muscles and active throughout the whole gait cycle and, thus, rejecting the long-lasting idea of a solely spinal-driven bipedalism. However, MoBI and brain/muscle connectivity assessments during human locomotion are still in their fledgling state of investigation. Mobile brain/body imaging approaches hint toward promising opportunities; however, there are some remaining pitfalls that need to be resolved before considering their routine clinical use. This article discusses several of these pitfalls and proposes research to address them. Examples relate to the validity, reliability, and reproducibility of this method in ecologically valid scenarios and in different populations. Furthermore, whether brain/muscle connectivity within the MoBI framework represents a potential biomarker in neuromuscular syndromes where gait disturbances are evident (e.g., age-related sarcopenia remains to be determined.

  1. Assessment of the safety benefits of vehicles' advanced driver assistance, connectivity and low level automation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Lishengsa; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Wu, Yina; Wang, Ling

    2018-04-11

    The Connected Vehicle (CV) technologies together with other Driving Assistance (DA) technologies are believed to have great effects on traffic operation and safety, and they are expected to impact the future of our cities. However, few research has estimated the exact safety benefits when all vehicles are equipped with these technologies. This paper seeks to fill the gap by using a general crash avoidance effectiveness framework for major CV&DA technologies to make a comprehensive crash reduction estimation. Twenty technologies that were tested in recent studies are summarized and sensitivity analysis is used for estimating their total crash avoidance effectiveness. The results show that crash avoidance effectiveness of CV&DA technology is significantly affected by the vehicle type and the safety estimation methodology. A 70% crash avoidance rate seems to be the highest effectiveness for the CV&DA technologies operating in the real-world environment. Based on the 2005-2008 U.S. GES Crash Records, this research found that the CV&DA technologies could lead to the reduction of light vehicles' crashes and heavy trucks' crashes by at least 32.99% and 40.88%, respectively. The rear-end crashes for both light vehicles and heavy trucks have the most expected crash benefits from the technologies. The paper also studies the effectiveness of Forward Collision Warning technology (FCW) under fog conditions, and the results show that FCW could reduce 35% of the near-crash events under fog conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Students’ Perception on Formative and Shared Assessment: Connecting two Universities through the Blogosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Martos-Garcia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in physical education students’ perception on an educational innovation based on formative and peer assessment through the blogosphere. The sample was made up of 253 students from two Spanish universities. Data was collected using a self-reported questionnaire and t tests were employed in order to find differences among students’ groups. Results show significant differences in almost all of the items on which the students were questioned. Basque students were more satisfied with the assessment tool used than the Valencian students. Students found the blogosphere more active, meaningful, functional and motivating and that it made for collaborative learning in comparison to other traditional evaluation methods. They also showed disapproval related to the demands on attendance, continuity and the greater effort required. For future occasions, negotiation about assessment criteria with the students should be implemented right at the very start of the course.

  3. Mineral and energy resource assessment maps of the Mount Katmai, Naknek, and western Afognak quadrangles, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, S.E.; Riehle, J.R.; Magoon, L.B.; Campbell, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    On the basis of new geologic mapping and exploration geochemical studies, we have provided a mineral and energy resource assessment of the Mount Katmai, Naknek, and western Afognak quadrangles, Alaska. We delineate four tracts of ground that have metallic mineral resources. The mineral deposit types considered in each tract are summarized in table 4. Estimates of the number of undiscovered mineral deposits have been made for porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits. We estimate that one undiscovered porphyry copper deposit is present in the Katmai study area at the ten percent probability level. Although the sampling density may be too low to give an accurate estimate of the number of undiscovered polymetallic vein deposits, we suggest that, at a minimum, there is a five percent probability for five or more undiscovered polymetallic vein deposits in the Katmai study area. In addition, several areas have potential for undiscovered porphyry molybdenum, massive sulfide, and epithermal gold and mercury deposits.

  4. Economic and Environmental Assessment of a 1 MW Grid Connected Rooftop Solar PV System for Energy Efficient Building in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sanjib; Hosain, Rubayet; Rahman, Toufiqur; Rabbi, Ahmead Fazle

    This paper evaluates the potentiality of a 1 MW grid connected rooftop solar PV system for an Energy Efficient Building in Bangladesh, which was estimated by utilizing NASA SSE solar radiation data, PVsyst simulation software and RETScreen simulation software. Economic and environmental viability for a ten-storied building with roof area of 6,500 m2 in the Capital City of Bangladesh, Dhaka was assessed by using the RETScreen simulation software. The yearly electricity production of the proposed system was 1,581 MWh estimated by PVsyst where the technical prospective of gird-connected solar PV in Bangladesh was calculated as about 50,174 MW. The economic assessments were determined the simple payback in such a way that the generated electricity first fulfills the demand of the building, and then the rest of the energy is supplied to the grid. The result indicates that the roof top solar PV system for an Energy efficient building in Dhaka city has a favorable condition for development both in economic and environmental point of view.

  5. Assessing the Crop-Water Status in Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill. Trees via Thermal Imaging Camera Connected to Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Francisco García-Tejero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Different tools are being implemented in order to improve the water management in agricultural irrigated areas of semiarid environments. Thermography has been progressively introduced as a promising technique for irrigation scheduling and the assessing of crop-water status, especially when deficit irrigation is being implemented. However, an important limitation is related to the cost of the actual cameras, this being a severe limitation to its practical usage by farmers and technicians. This work evaluates the potential and the robustness of a thermal imaging camera that is connected to smartphone (Flir One recently developed by Flir Systems Inc. as a first step to assess the crop water status. The trial was developed in mature almond (Prunus dulcis Mill. trees that are subjected to different irrigation treatments. Thermal information obtained by the Flir One camera was deal with the thermal information obtained with a conventional Thermal Camera (Flir SC660 with a high resolution, and subsequently, confronted with other related plant physiological parameters (leaf water potential, Ψleaf, and stomatal conductance, gs. Thermal imaging camera connected to smartphone provided useful information in estimating the crop-water status in almond trees, being a potential promising tool to accelerate the monitoring process and thereby enhance water-stress management of almond orchards.

  6. Assessing the Crop-Water Status in Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) Trees via Thermal Imaging Camera Connected to Smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Tejero, Iván Francisco; Ortega-Arévalo, Carlos José; Iglesias-Contreras, Manuel; Moreno, José Manuel; Souza, Luciene; Tavira, Simón Cuadros; Durán-Zuazo, Víctor Hugo

    2018-03-31

    Different tools are being implemented in order to improve the water management in agricultural irrigated areas of semiarid environments. Thermography has been progressively introduced as a promising technique for irrigation scheduling and the assessing of crop-water status, especially when deficit irrigation is being implemented. However, an important limitation is related to the cost of the actual cameras, this being a severe limitation to its practical usage by farmers and technicians. This work evaluates the potential and the robustness of a thermal imaging camera that is connected to smartphone (Flir One) recently developed by Flir Systems Inc. as a first step to assess the crop water status. The trial was developed in mature almond ( Prunus dulcis Mill.) trees that are subjected to different irrigation treatments. Thermal information obtained by the Flir One camera was deal with the thermal information obtained with a conventional Thermal Camera (Flir SC660) with a high resolution, and subsequently, confronted with other related plant physiological parameters (leaf water potential, Ψ leaf , and stomatal conductance, g s ). Thermal imaging camera connected to smartphone provided useful information in estimating the crop-water status in almond trees, being a potential promising tool to accelerate the monitoring process and thereby enhance water-stress management of almond orchards.

  7. Sample heterogeneity in unipolar depression as assessed by functional connectivity analyses is dominated by general disease effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, Stephan; Sundermann, Benedikt; Wersching, Heike; Teuber, Anja; Kugel, Harald; Teismann, Henning; Heindel, Walter; Berger, Klaus; Pfleiderer, Bettina

    2017-11-01

    Combinations of resting-state fMRI and machine-learning techniques are increasingly employed to develop diagnostic models for mental disorders. However, little is known about the neurobiological heterogeneity of depression and diagnostic machine learning has mainly been tested in homogeneous samples. Our main objective was to explore the inherent structure of a diverse unipolar depression sample. The secondary objective was to assess, if such information can improve diagnostic classification. We analyzed data from 360 patients with unipolar depression and 360 non-depressed population controls, who were subdivided into two independent subsets. Cluster analyses (unsupervised learning) of functional connectivity were used to generate hypotheses about potential patient subgroups from the first subset. The relationship of clusters with demographical and clinical measures was assessed. Subsequently, diagnostic classifiers (supervised learning), which incorporated information about these putative depression subgroups, were trained. Exploratory cluster analyses revealed two weakly separable subgroups of depressed patients. These subgroups differed in the average duration of depression and in the proportion of patients with concurrently severe depression and anxiety symptoms. The diagnostic classification models performed at chance level. It remains unresolved, if subgroups represent distinct biological subtypes, variability of continuous clinical variables or in part an overfitting of sparsely structured data. Functional connectivity in unipolar depression is associated with general disease effects. Cluster analyses provide hypotheses about potential depression subtypes. Diagnostic models did not benefit from this additional information regarding heterogeneity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Towards a virtual hub approach for landscape assessment and multimedia ecomuseum using multitemporal-maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Brumana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Landscapes are dynamic entities, stretching and transforming across space and time, and need to be safeguarded as living places for the future, with interaction of human, social and economic dimensions. To have a comprehensive landscape evaluation several open data are needed, each one characterized by its own protocol, service interface, limiting or impeding this way interoperability and their integration. Indeed, nowadays the development of websites targeted to landscape assessment and touristic purposes requires many resources in terms of time, cost and IT skills to be implemented at different scales. For this reason these applications are limited to few cases mainly focusing on worldwide known touristic sites. The capability to spread the development of web-based multimedia virtual museum based on geospatial data relies for the future being on the possibility to discover the needed geo-spatial data through a single point of access in an homogenous way. In this paper the proposed innovative approach may facilitate the access to open data in a homogeneous way by means of specific components (the brokers performing interoperability actions required to interconnect heterogeneous data sources. In the specific case study here analysed it has been implemented an interface to migrate a geo-swat chart based on local and regional geographic information into an user friendly Google Earth©-based infrastructure, integrating ancient cadastres and modern cartography, accessible by professionals and tourists via web and also via portable devices like tables and smartphones. The general aim of this work on the case study on the Lake of Como (Tremezzina municipality, is to boost the integration of assessment methodologies with digital geo-based technologies of map correlation for the multimedia ecomuseum system accessible via web. The developed WebGIS system integrates multi-scale and multi-temporal maps with different information (cultural, historical

  9. Automating Flood Hazard Mapping Methods for Near Real-time Storm Surge Inundation and Vulnerability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, A. M.; Griffin, R.; Gallagher, D.

    2015-12-01

    Storm surge has enough destructive power to damage buildings and infrastructure, erode beaches, and threaten human life across large geographic areas, hence posing the greatest threat of all the hurricane hazards. The United States Gulf of Mexico has proven vulnerable to hurricanes as it has been hit by some of the most destructive hurricanes on record. With projected rises in sea level and increases in hurricane activity, there is a need to better understand the associated risks for disaster mitigation, preparedness, and response. GIS has become a critical tool in enhancing disaster planning, risk assessment, and emergency response by communicating spatial information through a multi-layer approach. However, there is a need for a near real-time method of identifying areas with a high risk of being impacted by storm surge. Research was conducted alongside Baron, a private industry weather enterprise, to facilitate automated modeling and visualization of storm surge inundation and vulnerability on a near real-time basis. This research successfully automated current flood hazard mapping techniques using a GIS framework written in a Python programming environment, and displayed resulting data through an Application Program Interface (API). Data used for this methodology included high resolution topography, NOAA Probabilistic Surge model outputs parsed from Rich Site Summary (RSS) feeds, and the NOAA Census tract level Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI). The development process required extensive data processing and management to provide high resolution visualizations of potential flooding and population vulnerability in a timely manner. The accuracy of the developed methodology was assessed using Hurricane Isaac as a case study, which through a USGS and NOAA partnership, contained ample data for statistical analysis. This research successfully created a fully automated, near real-time method for mapping high resolution storm surge inundation and vulnerability for the

  10. Towards a virtual hub approach for landscape assessment and multimedia ecomuseum using multitemporal-maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumana, R.; Santana Quintero, M.; Barazzetti, L.; Previtali, M.; Banfi, F.; Oreni, D.; Roels, D.; Roncoroni, F.

    2015-08-01

    Landscapes are dynamic entities, stretching and transforming across space and time, and need to be safeguarded as living places for the future, with interaction of human, social and economic dimensions. To have a comprehensive landscape evaluation several open data are needed, each one characterized by its own protocol, service interface, limiting or impeding this way interoperability and their integration. Indeed, nowadays the development of websites targeted to landscape assessment and touristic purposes requires many resources in terms of time, cost and IT skills to be implemented at different scales. For this reason these applications are limited to few cases mainly focusing on worldwide known touristic sites. The capability to spread the development of web-based multimedia virtual museum based on geospatial data relies for the future being on the possibility to discover the needed geo-spatial data through a single point of access in an homogenous way. In this paper the proposed innovative approach may facilitate the access to open data in a homogeneous way by means of specific components (the brokers) performing interoperability actions required to interconnect heterogeneous data sources. In the specific case study here analysed it has been implemented an interface to migrate a geo-swat chart based on local and regional geographic information into an user friendly Google Earth©-based infrastructure, integrating ancient cadastres and modern cartography, accessible by professionals and tourists via web and also via portable devices like tables and smartphones. The general aim of this work on the case study on the Lake of Como (Tremezzina municipality), is to boost the integration of assessment methodologies with digital geo-based technologies of map correlation for the multimedia ecomuseum system accessible via web. The developed WebGIS system integrates multi-scale and multi-temporal maps with different information (cultural, historical, landscape levels

  11. Detecting Functional Connectivity During Audiovisual Integration with MEG: A Comparison of Connectivity Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ard, Tyler; Carver, Frederick W; Holroyd, Tom; Horwitz, Barry; Coppola, Richard

    2015-08-01

    In typical magnetoencephalography and/or electroencephalography functional connectivity analysis, researchers select one of several methods that measure a relationship between regions to determine connectivity, such as coherence, power correlations, and others. However, it is largely unknown if some are more suited than others for various types of investigations. In this study, the authors investigate seven connectivity metrics to evaluate which, if any, are sensitive to audiovisual integration by contrasting connectivity when tracking an audiovisual object versus connectivity when tracking a visual object uncorrelated with the auditory stimulus. The authors are able to assess the metrics' performances at detecting audiovisual integration by investigating connectivity between auditory and visual areas. Critically, the authors perform their investigation on a whole-cortex all-to-all mapping, avoiding confounds introduced in seed selection. The authors find that amplitude-based connectivity measures in the beta band detect strong connections between visual and auditory areas during audiovisual integration, specifically between V4/V5 and auditory cortices in the right hemisphere. Conversely, phase-based connectivity measures in the beta band as well as phase and power measures in alpha, gamma, and theta do not show connectivity between audiovisual areas. The authors postulate that while beta power correlations detect audiovisual integration in the current experimental context, it may not always be the best measure to detect connectivity. Instead, it is likely that the brain utilizes a variety of mechanisms in neuronal communication that may produce differential types of temporal relationships.

  12. MAPPING AND ASSESSING MULTIPLE ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN AN ALPINE REGION: A STUDY IN TRENTINO, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ferrari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to identify ecosystem services relevant for Trentino (a region in the Italian Alps, and to assess them through spatial indicators. 51 experts were involved in the identification of relevant ecosystem services and appropriate indicators to represent them. Indicators were computed using the database available at administrative level. Indicators represent the actual or the potential supply of ecosystem services, expressed in terms of either stock or flow. Moreover, indicators may refer to biophysical, economic or socio-cultural values. In total, the experts selected 25 ecosystem services and 57 assessment indicators. Accordingly, the selected indicators were mapped over different spatial units of ecosystem services representation, including land use and forest types. This research was the first attempt to assess a multiple set of ecosystem services for Trentino. The results provide new information that can be used to achieve the objectives of the EU Biodiversity Strategy by 2014. The proposed approach can be reasonably extended to other Alpine areas with similar morphology, land cover and land use.

  13. Link Data to Learning Goals: Common District Assessments Connect Teaching Effectiveness to Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psencik, Kay; Baldwin, Rhonda

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, district leaders of Douglas County Public Schools, Douglasville, Georgia, launched an ambitious initiative to ensure that teachers set goals that focus on increasing their effectiveness and show student growth. To achieve this goal, the district leadership team focused on common district assessments to establish common learning…

  14. Fatigue assessment for selected connections of structural steel bridge components using the finite elements method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śledziewski, Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    Material fatigue it is one of the most frequent causes of steel bridge failures, particularly the bridges already existing. Thus, the procedure of fatigue life assessment is one of the most relevant procedures in a comprehensive assessment of load-carrying capacity and service life of the structure. A reliable assessment of the fatigue life is predominantly decisive for estimation of the remaining service life. Hitherto, calculation methods of welded joints took into account only stresses occurring in cross sections of whole elements and did not take into account stress concentration occurring in the vicinity of the weld, caused by geometrical aspects of the detail. At present, use of the Finite Element Analysis, makes possible looking for more accurate approach to the fatigue design of steel structures. The method of geometrical stresses is just such approach which is based on definition of stresses which take into account geometry of the detail. The study presents fatigue assessment of a representative type of welded joint in welded bridge structures. The testing covered longitudinal attachments. The main analyses were carried out on the basis of FEM and the method of local stresses, so-called "hot-spot" stresses. The obtained values of stresses were compared with the values obtained in accordance with the method of nominal stress.

  15. Landslides in Nicaragua - Mapping, Inventory, Hazard Assessment, Vulnerability Reduction, and Forecasting Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dévoli, G.; Strauch, W.; Álvarez, A.; Muñoz, A.; Kjekstad, O.

    2009-04-01

    access, manage, update and distribute in a short time to all sectors and users; and finally, the need of a comprehensive understanding of landslide processes. Many efforts have been made in the last 10 years to gain a more comprehensive and predictive understanding of landslide processes in Nicaragua. Since 1998, landslide inventory GIS based maps have been produced in different areas of the country, as part of international and multidisciplinary development projects. Landslide susceptibility and hazard maps are available now at INETEŔs Website for all municipalities of the country. The insights on landslide hazard have been transmitted to governmental agencies, local authorities, NGÓs, international agencies to be used in measures for risk reduction. A massive application example was the integration of hazard assessment studies in a large house building program in Nicaragua. Hazards of landslides, and other dangerous phenomena, were evaluated in more than 90 house building projects, each with 50 - 200 houses to be build, sited mainly in rural areas of the country. For more than 7000 families, this program could finally assure that their new houses were build in safe areas. Attempts have been made to develop a strategy for early warning of landslides in Nicaragua. First approaches relied on precipitation gauges with satellite based telemetry which were installed in some Nicaraguan volcanoes where lahars occur frequently. The occurrence of lahars in certain gullies could be detected by seismic stations. A software system gave acoustic alarm at INETEŔs Monitoring Centre when certain trigger levels of the accumulated precipitation were reached. The monitoring and early warning for all areas under risk would have required many rain gauges. A new concept is tested which uses near real time precipitation estimates from NOAA meteorological satellite data. A software system sends out alarm messages if strong or long lasting rains are observed over certain landslide "hot spots

  16. Concept mapping for learners of all ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy L. Gallenstein

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Concept mapping is an inquiry technique that provides students at all ages with opportunities to demonstrate learning through performance. A concept map refers to a graphic/visual representation of concepts with linking connections that show various relationships between concepts (Novak & Gowin, 1984. Assessment is an ongoing process integrated with instruction across subject areas. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM emphasizes that assessment should focus on both the enhancement of student learning as well as serve as a valuable tool for making instructional decisions (NCTM, 2000. Assessment activities can take on a variety of forms, one being performance tasks. In this manuscript, an explanation of concept mapping is provided for learners ages 3 – 12 along with several examples of concept maps for young learners, including examples from an assessment project in the subject area of mathematics. Also presented are the numerous benefits of the concept mapping technique for both students and teachers.

  17. The Salient Map Analysis for Research and Teaching (SMART) method: Powerful potential as a formative assessment in the biomedical sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathcart, Laura Anne

    This dissertation consists of two studies: 1) development and characterization of the Salient Map Analysis for Research and Teaching (SMART) method as a formative assessment tool and 2) a case study exploring how a paramedic instructor's beliefs about learners affect her utilization of the SMART method and vice versa. The first study explored: How can a novel concept map analysis method be designed as an effective formative assessment tool? The SMART method improves upon existing concept map analysis methods because it does not require hierarchically structured concept maps and it preserves the rich content of the maps instead of reducing each map down to a numerical score. The SMART method is performed by comparing a set of students' maps to each other and to an instructor's map. The resulting composite map depicts, in percentages and highlighted colors, the similarities and differences between all of the maps. Some advantages of the SMART method as a formative assessment tool include its ability to highlight changes across time, problematic or alternative conceptions, and patterns of student responses at a glance. Study two explored: How do a paramedic instructor's beliefs about students and learning affect---and become affected by---her use of the SMART method as a formative assessment tool? This case study of Angel, an expert paramedic instructor, begins to address a gap in the emergency medical services (EMS) education literature, which contains almost no research on teachers or pedagogy. Angel and I worked together as participant co-researchers (Heron & Reason, 1997) exploring the affordances of the SMART method. This study, based on those interactions with Angel, involved using open coding to identify themes (Strauss & Corbin, 1998) from Angel's views of students and use of the SMART method. Angel views learning as a sense-making process. She has a multi-faceted view of her students as novices and invests substantial time trying to understand their concept

  18. The Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe - A Mission to Discover the Origin of Particle Acceleration and its Fundamental Connection to the Global Interstellar Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwadron, N.

    2017-12-01

    Our piece of cosmic real-estate, the heliosphere, is the domain of all human existence - an astrophysical case-history of the successful evolution of life in a habitable system. The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) was the first mission to explore the global heliosphere and in concert with Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 is discovering a fundamentally new and uncharted physical domain of the outer heliosphere. In parallel, Cassini/INCA maps the global heliosphere at energies ( 5-55 keV) above those measured by IBEX. The enigmatic IBEX ribbon and the INCA belt were unanticipated discoveries demonstrating that much of what we know or think we understand about the outer heliosphere needs to be revised. The global structure of the heliosphere is highly complex and influenced by competing factors ranging from the local interstellar magnetic field, suprathermal populations both within and beyond the heliopause, and the detailed flow properties of the LISM. Global heliospheric structure and microphysics in turn influences the acceleration of energetic particles and creates feedbacks that modify the interstellar interaction as a whole. The next quantum leap enabled by IMAP will open new windows on the frontier of Heliophysics and probe the acceleration of suprathermal and higher energy particles at a time when the space environment is rapidly evolving. IMAP ultimately connects the acceleration processes observed directly at 1 AU with unprecedented sensitivity and temporal resolution with the global structure of our heliosphere. The remarkable synergy between IMAP, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 will remain for at least the next decade as Voyager 1 pushes further into the interstellar domain and Voyager 2 moves through the heliosheath. IMAP, like ACE before it, will be a keystone of the Heliophysics System Observatory by providing comprehensive energetic particle, pickup ion, suprathermal ion, neutral atom, solar wind, solar wind heavy ion, and magnetic field observations to diagnose

  19. Rapid geodesic mapping of brain functional connectivity: implementation of a dedicated co-processor in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and application to resting state functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, Ludovico; Cercignani, Mara; Chan, Dennis

    2013-10-01

    Graph theory-based analyses of brain network topology can be used to model the spatiotemporal correlations in neural activity detected through fMRI, and such approaches have wide-ranging potential, from detection of alterations in preclinical Alzheimer's disease through to command identification in brain-machine interfaces. However, due to prohibitive computational costs, graph-based analyses to date have principally focused on measuring connection density rather than mapping the topological architecture in full by exhaustive shortest-path determination. This paper outlines a solution to this problem through parallel implementation of Dijkstra's algorithm in programmable logic. The processor design is optimized for large, sparse graphs and provided in full as synthesizable VHDL code. An acceleration factor between 15 and 18 is obtained on a representative resting-state fMRI dataset, and maps of Euclidean path length reveal the anticipated heterogeneous cortical involvement in long-range integrative processing. These results enable high-resolution geodesic connectivity mapping for resting-state fMRI in patient populations and real-time geodesic mapping to support identification of imagined actions for fMRI-based brain-machine interfaces. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An analysis of mathematical connection ability based on student learning style on visualization auditory kinesthetic (VAK) learning model with self-assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apipah, S.; Kartono; Isnarto

    2018-03-01

    This research aims to analyze the quality of VAK learning with self-assessment toward the ability of mathematical connection performed by students and to analyze students’ mathematical connection ability based on learning styles in VAK learning model with self-assessment. This research applies mixed method type with concurrent embedded design. The subject of this research consists of VIII grade students from State Junior High School 9 Semarang who apply visual learning style, auditory learning style, and kinesthetic learning style. The data of learning style is collected by using questionnaires, the data of mathematical connection ability is collected by performing tests, and the data of self-assessment is collected by using assessment sheets. The quality of learning is qualitatively valued from planning stage, realization stage, and valuation stage. The result of mathematical connection ability test is analyzed quantitatively by mean test, conducting completeness test, mean differentiation test, and mean proportional differentiation test. The result of the research shows that VAK learning model results in well-qualified learning regarded from qualitative and quantitative sides. Students with visual learning style perform the highest mathematical connection ability, students with kinesthetic learning style perform average mathematical connection ability, and students with auditory learning style perform the lowest mathematical connection ability.

  1. Conceptualizing sustainable development. An assessment methodology connecting values, knowledge, worldviews and scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, Bert J.M.; Petersen, Arthur C.

    2009-01-01

    Sustainability science poses severe challenges to classical disciplinary science. To bring the perspectives of diverse disciplines together in a meaningful way, we describe a novel methodology for sustainability assessment of a particular social-ecological system, or country. Starting point is that a sustainability assessment should investigate the ability to continue and develop a desirable way of living vis-a-vis later generations and life elsewhere on the planet. Evidently, people hold different values and beliefs about the way societies sustain quality of life for their members. The first step, therefore, is to analyze people's value orientations and the way in which they interpret sustainability problems i.e. their beliefs. The next step is to translate the resulting worldviews into model-based narratives, i.e. scenarios. The qualitative and quantitative outcomes are then investigated in terms of associated risks and opportunities and robustness of policy options. The Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) has followed this methodology, using extensive surveys among the Dutch population. In its First Sustainability Outlook (2004), the resulting archetypical worldviews became the basis for four different scenarios for policy analysis, with emphases on the domains of transport, energy and food. The goal of the agency's Sustainability Outlooks is to show that choices are inevitable in policy making for sustainable development, to indicate which positive and negative impacts one can expect of these choices (trade-offs), and to identify options that may be robust under several worldviews. The conceptualization proposed here is both clear and applicable in practical sustainability assessments for policy making. (author)

  2. Mapping the EORTC QLQ-C30 onto the EQ-5D-3L: assessing the external validity of existing mapping algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doble, Brett; Lorgelly, Paula

    2016-04-01

    To determine the external validity of existing mapping algorithms for predicting EQ-5D-3L utility values from EORTC QLQ-C30 responses and to establish their generalizability in different types of cancer. A main analysis (pooled) sample of 3560 observations (1727 patients) and two disease severity patient samples (496 and 93 patients) with repeated observations over time from Cancer 2015 were used to validate the existing algorithms. Errors were calculated between observed and predicted EQ-5D-3L utility values using a single pooled sample and ten pooled tumour type-specific samples. Predictive accuracy was assessed using mean absolute error (MAE) and standardized root-mean-squared error (RMSE). The association between observed and predicted EQ-5D utility values and other covariates across the distribution was tested using quantile regression. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were calculated using observed and predicted values to test responsiveness. Ten 'preferred' mapping algorithms were identified. Two algorithms estimated via response mapping and ordinary least-squares regression using dummy variables performed well on number of validation criteria, including accurate prediction of the best and worst QLQ-C30 health states, predicted values within the EQ-5D tariff range, relatively small MAEs and RMSEs, and minimal differences between estimated QALYs. Comparison of predictive accuracy across ten tumour type-specific samples highlighted that algorithms are relatively insensitive to grouping by tumour type and affected more by differences in disease severity. Two of the 'preferred' mapping algorithms suggest more accurate predictions, but limitations exist. We recommend extensive scenario analyses if mapped utilities are used in cost-utility analyses.

  3. Digital soil mapping in assessment of land suitability for organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi; Kentchiashvili, Naira; Tarkhnishvili, Maia; Jolokhava, Tamar; Meskhi, Tea

    2017-04-01

    Digital soil mapping (DSM) is a fast-developing sub discipline of soil science which gets more importance along with increased availability of spatial data. DSM is based on three main components: the input in the form of field and laboratory observational methods, the process used in terms of spatial and non-spatial soil inference systems, and the output in the form of spatial soil information systems, which includes outputs in the form of rasters of prediction along with the uncertainty of prediction. Georgia is one of the countries who are under the way of spatial data infrastructure development, which includes soil related spatial data also. Therefore, it is important to demonstrate the capacity of DSM technics for planning and decision making process, in which assessment of land suitability is a major interest for those willing to grow agricultural crops. In that term land suitability assessment for establishing organic farms is in high demand as market for organically produced commodities is still increasing. It is the first attempt in Georgia to use DSM to predict areas with potential for organic farming development. Current approach is based on risk assessment of soil pollution with toxic elements (As, Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr) and prediction of bio-availability of those elements to plants on example of the region of Western Georgia, where detailed soil survey was conducted and spatial database of soil was created. The results of the study show the advantages of DSM at early stage assessment and depending on availability and quality of the input data, it can achieve acceptable accuracy.

  4. Life cycle assessment of grid-connected photovoltaic power generation from crystalline silicon solar modules in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Guofu; Sun, Honghang; Jiang, Ziying; Pan, Ziqiang; Wang, Yibo; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Ying; Yao, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Comparison of life cycle GHG emissions of various power sources. - Highlights: • The LCA study of grid-connected PV generation with silicon solar modules in China has been performed. • The energy payback times range from 1.6 to 2.3 years. • The GHG emissions are in the range of 60.1–87.3 g-CO_2,eq/kW h. • The PV manufacturing process occupied about 85% or higher of total energy usage and total GHG emission. • The SoG-Si production process accounted for more than 35% of total energy consumption and GHG emissions. - Abstract: The environmental impacts of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power generation from crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar modules in China have been investigated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The life cycle inventory was first analyzed. Then the energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission during every process were estimated in detail, and finally the life-cycle value was calculated. The results showed that the energy payback time (T_E_P_B_T) of grid-connected PV power with crystalline silicon solar modules ranges from 1.6 to 2.3 years, while the GHG emissions now range from 60.1 to 87.3 g-CO_2,eq/kW h depending on the installation methods. About 84% or even more of the total energy consumption and total GHG emission occupied during the PV manufacturing process. The solar grade silicon (SoG-Si) production is the most energy-consuming and GHG-emitting process, which accounts for more than 35% of the total energy consumption and the total GHG emission. The results presented in this study are expected to provide useful information to enact reasonable policies, development targets, as well as subsidies for PV technology in China.

  5. Assessment and visualization of uncertainty for countrywide soil organic matter map of Hungary using local entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatmári, Gábor; Pásztor, László

    2016-04-01

    Uncertainty is a general term expressing our imperfect knowledge in describing an environmental process and we are aware of it (Bárdossy and Fodor, 2004). Sampling, laboratory measurements, models and so on are subject to uncertainty. Effective quantification and visualization of uncertainty would be indispensable to stakeholders (e.g. policy makers, society). Soil related features and their spatial models should be stressfully targeted to uncertainty assessment because their inferences are further used in modelling and decision making process. The aim of our present study was to assess and effectively visualize the local uncertainty of the countrywide soil organic matter (SOM) spatial distribution model of Hungary using geostatistical tools and concepts. The Hungarian Soil Information and Monitoring System's SOM data (approximately 1,200 observations) and environmental related, spatially exhaustive secondary information (i.e. digital elevation model, climatic maps, MODIS satellite images and geological map) were used to model the countrywide SOM spatial distribution by regression kriging. It would be common to use the calculated estimation (or kriging) variance as a measure of uncertainty, however the normality and homoscedasticity hypotheses have to be refused according to our preliminary analysis on the data. Therefore, a normal score transformation and a sequential stochastic simulation approach was introduced to be able to model and assess the local uncertainty. Five hundred equally probable realizations (i.e. stochastic images) were generated. The number of the stochastic images is fairly enough to provide a model of uncertainty at each location, which is a complete description of uncertainty in geostatistics (Deutsch and Journel, 1998). Furthermore, these models can be applied e.g. to contour the probability of any events, which can be regarded as goal oriented digital soil maps and are of interest for agricultural management and decision making as well. A

  6. Multiscale visual quality assessment for cluster analysis with self-organizing maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jürgen; von Landesberger, Tatiana; Bremm, Sebastian; Schreck, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Cluster analysis is an important data mining technique for analyzing large amounts of data, reducing many objects to a limited number of clusters. Cluster visualization techniques aim at supporting the user in better understanding the characteristics and relationships among the found clusters. While promising approaches to visual cluster analysis already exist, these usually fall short of incorporating the quality of the obtained clustering results. However, due to the nature of the clustering process, quality plays an important aspect, as for most practical data sets, typically many different clusterings are possible. Being aware of clustering quality is important to judge the expressiveness of a given cluster visualization, or to adjust the clustering process with refined parameters, among others. In this work, we present an encompassing suite of visual tools for quality assessment of an important visual cluster algorithm, namely, the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) technique. We define, measure, and visualize the notion of SOM cluster quality along a hierarchy of cluster abstractions. The quality abstractions range from simple scalar-valued quality scores up to the structural comparison of a given SOM clustering with output of additional supportive clustering methods. The suite of methods allows the user to assess the SOM quality on the appropriate abstraction level, and arrive at improved clustering results. We implement our tools in an integrated system, apply it on experimental data sets, and show its applicability.

  7. Glioma grade assessment by using histogram analysis of diffusion tensor imaging-derived maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakab, Andras; Berenyi, Ervin; Molnar, Peter; Emri, Miklos

    2011-01-01

    Current endeavors in neuro-oncology include morphological validation of imaging methods by histology, including molecular and immunohistochemical techniques. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an up-to-date methodology of intracranial diagnostics that has gained importance in studies of neoplasia. Our aim was to assess the feasibility of discriminant analysis applied to histograms of preoperative diffusion tensor imaging-derived images for the prediction of glioma grade validated by histomorphology. Tumors of 40 consecutive patients included 13 grade II astrocytomas, seven oligoastrocytomas, six grade II oligodendrogliomas, three grade III oligoastrocytomas, and 11 glioblastoma multiformes. Preoperative DTI data comprised: unweighted (B 0 ) images, fractional anisotropy, longitudinal and radial diffusivity maps, directionally averaged diffusion-weighted imaging, and trace images. Sampling consisted of generating histograms for gross tumor volumes; 25 histogram bins per scalar map were calculated. The histogram bins that allowed the most precise determination of low-grade (LG) or high-grade (HG) classification were selected by multivariate discriminant analysis. Accuracy of the model was defined by the success rate of the leave-one-out cross-validation. Statistical descriptors of voxel value distribution did not differ between LG and HG tumors and did not allow classification. The histogram model had 88.5% specificity and 85.7% sensitivity in the separation of LG and HG gliomas; specificity was improved when cases with oligodendroglial components were omitted. Constructing histograms of preoperative radiological images over the tumor volume allows representation of the grade and enables discrimination of LG and HG gliomas which has been confirmed by histopathology. (orig.)

  8. Assessment Study of Using Online (CSRS) GPS-PPP Service for Mapping Applications in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elazeem, Mohamed; Farah, Ashraf; Farrag, Farrag

    2011-09-01

    Many applications in navigation, land surveying, land title definitions and mapping have been made simpler and more precise due to accessibility of Global Positioning System (GPS) data, and thus the demand for using advanced GPS techniques in surveying applications has become essential. The differential technique was the only source of accurate positioning for many years, and remained in use despite of its cost. The precise point positioning (PPP) technique is a viable alternative to the differential positioning method in which a user with a single receiver can attain positioning accuracy at the centimeter or decimeter scale. In recent years, many organizations introduced online (GPS-PPP) processing services capable of determining accurate geocentric positions using GPS observations. These services provide the user with receiver coordinates in free and unlimited access formats via the internet. This paper investigates the accuracy of the Canadian Spatial Reference System (CSRS) Precise Point Positioning (PPP) (CSRS-PPP) service supervised by the Geodetic Survey Division (GSD), Canada. Single frequency static GPS observations have been collected at three points covering time spans of 60, 90 and 120 minutes. These three observed sites form baselines of 1.6, 7, and 10 km, respectively. In order to assess the CSRS-PPP accuracy, the discrepancies between the CSRS-PPP estimates and the regular differential GPS solutions were computed. The obtained results illustrate that the PPP produces a horizontal error at the scale of a few decimeters; this is accurate enough to serve many mapping applications in developing countries with a savings in both cost and experienced labor.

  9. Isointegral analysis of body surface maps for the assessment of location and size of myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonooka, I.; Kubota, I.; Watanabe, Y.; Tsuiki, K.; Yasui, S.

    1983-01-01

    To estimate the location and size of myocardial infarction (MI), an isointegral mapping technique was adopted from among various body surface electrocardiographic mapping techniques. QRS isointegral and departure maps were made in 35 patients with MI. These patients were separated into 3 groups, based on the location of MI: anterior, inferior, and anterior plus inferior. The severity and location of MI were estimated by thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging and the degree of scintigraphic defect was represented by a defect score. The extent of MI was expected to be reflected on the QRS isointegral maps as a distribution of negative QRS complex time-integral values. However, the extent and the location of MI were hardly detectable by the original maps. A departure mapping technique was then devised to observe the distribution of departure index on the body surface. Particular attention was given to the area where the departure index was less than -2, and this area was expected to reflect the location and size of specific abnormality of isointegral map due to MI. There were strong correlations between departure area and defect score in the anterior and inferior MI cases (r . 0.88 and r . 0.79, respectively). However, patients with anterior MI plus inferior MI showed no such correlation. Q-wave mapping was compared with QRS isointegral mapping, and QRS isointegral mapping was found to be more accurate in the estimation of the location and size of MI than Q wave mapping. Thus, QRS isointegral mapping, especially departure mapping, is more useful and convenient for detecting the location and size of MI than methods such as isopotential and Q wave mapping

  10. Impedance Stability Assessment of Active Damping Strategies for LCL Grid-Connected Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz, Enrique Rodriguez; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    as a countermeasure. This paper analyses the robustness of the closed-loop dynamics when different active damping strategies are implemented. Due to their readiness and simplicity, the following schemes are considered: 1) filtered capacitor voltage feed-forward and 2) notch filters in cascade with the main current......The use of LCL filters is a well accepted solution to attenuate the harmonics created by the pulsewidth modulation (PWM). However, inherently LCL filters have a resonance region where the unwanted harmonics are amplified, which can compromise instability. Active damping strategies are implemented...... controller. The impedance/admittance stability formulation is used to model the system, which has been proven to be very convenient for the assessment of robustness. The design case study shows that the filtered capacitor voltage feed-forward provides a more robust implementation than the one based...

  11. A multi-scale qualitative approach to assess the impact of urbanization on natural habitats and their connectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scolozzi, Rocco, E-mail: rocco.scolozzi@fmach.it [Sustainable Agro-ecosystems and Bioresources Department, IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, Via E. Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all& #x27; Adige, (Italy); Geneletti, Davide, E-mail: geneletti@ing.unitn.it [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Trento, Trento (Italy)

    2012-09-15

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are often concurrent to land conversion and urbanization. Simple application of GIS-based landscape pattern indicators may be not sufficient to support meaningful biodiversity impact assessment. A review of the literature reveals that habitat definition and habitat fragmentation are frequently inadequately considered in environmental assessment, notwithstanding the increasing number of tools and approaches reported in the landscape ecology literature. This paper presents an approach for assessing impacts on habitats on a local scale, where availability of species data is often limited, developed for an alpine valley in northern Italy. The perspective of the methodology is multiple scale and species-oriented, and provides both qualitative and quantitative definitions of impact significance. A qualitative decision model is used to assess ecological values in order to support land-use decisions at the local level. Building on recent studies in the same region, the methodology integrates various approaches, such as landscape graphs, object-oriented rule-based habitat assessment and expert knowledge. The results provide insights into future habitat loss and fragmentation caused by land-use changes, and aim at supporting decision-making in planning and suggesting possible ecological compensation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Many environmental assessments inadequately consider habitat loss and fragmentation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Species-perspective for defining habitat quality and connectivity is claimed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Species-based tools are difficult to be applied with limited availability of data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose a species-oriented and multiple scale-based qualitative approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Advantages include being species-oriented and providing value-based information.

  12. A multi-scale qualitative approach to assess the impact of urbanization on natural habitats and their connectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scolozzi, Rocco; Geneletti, Davide

    2012-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are often concurrent to land conversion and urbanization. Simple application of GIS-based landscape pattern indicators may be not sufficient to support meaningful biodiversity impact assessment. A review of the literature reveals that habitat definition and habitat fragmentation are frequently inadequately considered in environmental assessment, notwithstanding the increasing number of tools and approaches reported in the landscape ecology literature. This paper presents an approach for assessing impacts on habitats on a local scale, where availability of species data is often limited, developed for an alpine valley in northern Italy. The perspective of the methodology is multiple scale and species-oriented, and provides both qualitative and quantitative definitions of impact significance. A qualitative decision model is used to assess ecological values in order to support land-use decisions at the local level. Building on recent studies in the same region, the methodology integrates various approaches, such as landscape graphs, object-oriented rule-based habitat assessment and expert knowledge. The results provide insights into future habitat loss and fragmentation caused by land-use changes, and aim at supporting decision-making in planning and suggesting possible ecological compensation. - Highlights: ► Many environmental assessments inadequately consider habitat loss and fragmentation. ► Species-perspective for defining habitat quality and connectivity is claimed. ► Species-based tools are difficult to be applied with limited availability of data. ► We propose a species-oriented and multiple scale-based qualitative approach. ► Advantages include being species-oriented and providing value-based information.

  13. Assessing disruption of longitudinal connectivity on macroinvertebrate assemblages in a semiarid lowland river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Leiva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: Our aim in this study was evaluate the effects of flow regulation for irrigation on the macroinvertebrate assemblages in a semiarid river. Methods We sampled two reaches in Dulce River; one placed upstream a weir that diverts flow into a network of irrigation channels and the other downstream that weir, in the assessment of the fluvial discontinuity. We assess the differences among reaches and sites, environmental variables, invertebrate density, richness and Shannon-Wiener index applying non-parametric analyses of variance Kruskal Wallis. The similarity percentage analysis (SIMPER was used to identify which species contributed to the dissimilarities on macroinvertebrate assemblage structure. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA was performed with the total set of samples to explore macroinvertebrate distribution in reaches and associations of the assemblages with habitat variables. Results The density, richness and Shannon index values did not show differences between the reaches located upstream and downstream. Beta diversity (Whittaker was 0.72 among upstream sites, 0.56 among downstream sites and higher species turnover (0.73 was obtained between both reaches. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis explained 46.71% of the variance differentiating upstream sites explained by higher values of organic matter of bottom sediments and discharge, high density of Nais communis, Bothrioneurum americanum, Pelomus, Stephensoniana trivandrana, Pristina menoni, P. jenkinae, P.longidentata, P. americana, Dero obtusa, Endotribelos, Heleobia and Turbellaria. The downstream sites were associated to coarser substratum and higher density of Lopescladius, Polypedilum, Cricotopus, Thienamaniella, Cryptochironomus, Baetidae, Nematoda and Corbicula fluminea. Conclusions The low-flow disturbance had effects on the composition of the benthic invertebrate assemblages, but attributes (such as density and richness showed a lower variability probably

  14. Optometry and ophthalmology: the Internet connection--assessing consumer health web sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, M; Schachne, E; Saludes, I

    2001-11-01

    The Internet is a major conduit of health information. Consumers frequently rely on it without verifying its validity. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy and currency of Internet-based information on the roles and practice of optometrists, which has been found to be misleading, inaccurate, and often outdated. Using search engines and ranking directories, 16 popular health Web sites were examined for differentiation between optometry and ophthalmology. Each site's eye care content was reviewed for syndication, definitions, provider directories, linkages to eye organizations, and provider recommendations in treatment of certain conditions. Many Web sites use a syndicated source for their health content and several use Merriam-Webster as their primary dictionary. A majority of sites provided poor definitions for optometry. Most Web sites were biased in recommending ophthalmologists and do not include optometrists as licensed providers in treatment of certain eye diseases. For example, Intelihealth, Aetnaushc, and Noah-Health recommend only ophthalmologists for the treatment of conjunctivitis. Inaccuracies and misleading information about optometry do exist and undermine the role of optometrists in delivery of eye care. When alerted, several Web sites were receptive to proposed changes. While some efforts have been undertaken to monitor Web sites, the profession must develop a concrete effort to ensure that it is correctly represented on the Internet.

  15. Application of statistical parametric mapping to SPET in the assessment of intractable childhood epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggemann, Jason M.; Lawson, John A.; Cunningham, Anne M.; Som, Seu S.; Haindl, Walter; Bye, Ann M.E.

    2004-01-01

    Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) quantification and analysis has been successfully applied to functional imaging studies of partial epilepsy syndromes in adults. The present study evaluated whether localisation of the epileptogenic zone (determined by SPM) improves upon visually examined single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging in presurgical assessment of children with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). The patient sample consisted of 24 children (15 males) aged 2.1-17.8 years (9.8±4.3 years; mean±SD) with intractable TLE or FLE. SPET imaging was acquired routinely in presurgical evaluation. All patient images were transformed into the standard stereotactic space of the adult SPM SPET template prior to SPM statistical analysis. Individual patient images were contrasted with an adult control group of 22 healthy adult females. Resultant statistical parametric maps were rendered over the SPM canonical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two corresponding sets of ictal and interictal SPM and SPET images were then generated for each patient. Experienced clinicians independently reviewed the image sets, blinded to clinical details. Concordance of the reports between SPM and SPET images, syndrome classification and MRI abnormality was studied. A fair level of inter-rater reliability (kappa=0.73) was evident for SPM localisation. SPM was concordant with SPET in 71% of all patients, the majority of the discordance being from the FLE group. SPM and SPET localisation were concordant with epilepsy syndrome in 80% of the TLE cases. Concordant localisation to syndrome was worse for both SPM (33%) and SPET (44%) in the FLE group. Data from a small sample of patients with varied focal structural pathologies suggested that SPM performed poorly relative to SPET in these cases. Concordance of SPM and SPET with syndrome was lower in patients younger than 6 years than in those aged 6 years and above. SPM is effective in localising the potential

  16. Application of statistical parametric mapping to SPET in the assessment of intractable childhood epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruggemann, Jason M.; Lawson, John A.; Cunningham, Anne M. [Department of Neurology, Sydney Children' s Hospital and School of Women' s and Children' s Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Randwick, New South Wales (Australia); Som, Seu S.; Haindl, Walter [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, New South Wales (Australia); Bye, Ann M.E. [Department of Neurology, Sydney Children' s Hospital and School of Women' s and Children' s Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Randwick, New South Wales (Australia); Department of Neurology, Sydney Children' s Hospital, High Street, 2031, Randwick, NSW (Australia)

    2004-03-01

    Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) quantification and analysis has been successfully applied to functional imaging studies of partial epilepsy syndromes in adults. The present study evaluated whether localisation of the epileptogenic zone (determined by SPM) improves upon visually examined single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging in presurgical assessment of children with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). The patient sample consisted of 24 children (15 males) aged 2.1-17.8 years (9.8{+-}4.3 years; mean{+-}SD) with intractable TLE or FLE. SPET imaging was acquired routinely in presurgical evaluation. All patient images were transformed into the standard stereotactic space of the adult SPM SPET template prior to SPM statistical analysis. Individual patient images were contrasted with an adult control group of 22 healthy adult females. Resultant statistical parametric maps were rendered over the SPM canonical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two corresponding sets of ictal and interictal SPM and SPET images were then generated for each patient. Experienced clinicians independently reviewed the image sets, blinded to clinical details. Concordance of the reports between SPM and SPET images, syndrome classification and MRI abnormality was studied. A fair level of inter-rater reliability (kappa=0.73) was evident for SPM localisation. SPM was concordant with SPET in 71% of all patients, the majority of the discordance being from the FLE group. SPM and SPET localisation were concordant with epilepsy syndrome in 80% of the TLE cases. Concordant localisation to syndrome was worse for both SPM (33%) and SPET (44%) in the FLE group. Data from a small sample of patients with varied focal structural pathologies suggested that SPM performed poorly relative to SPET in these cases. Concordance of SPM and SPET with syndrome was lower in patients younger than 6 years than in those aged 6 years and above. SPM is effective in localising the

  17. Assessment of factors connected with radiotherapy influencing the cosmetic effect in breast conserving therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaszczyk, P.; Roszkowski, K.; Blaszczyk, E.; Kowalewski, J.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To compare cosmetic results of different radiotherapy schedules used in the treatment of breast cancer after breast radiotherapy and to identify factors affecting cosmetic outcomes. Material and methods: Ninety-four patients irradiated. Median follow-up of 29 months (range 18-154 mo.). Patients were treated with standard fractionation 45-50 Gy/20-25 fx/4-5 weeks. Boost up to 10 Gy. Late effects were evaluated using the LENT-SOMA scoring scale. The cosmetic results were assessed on a four-point scale and presence of concomitant chemotherapy. Results: LENT-SOMA grade 3 toxicity was observed only in 8 (8,5%) patients. The factor associated with hyperpigmentation is large breast size. The significant risk factors for teleangiectasia are high dose and use photon energy 1,33 MeV beam. Factors found to impact significantly cosmetics adversely fibrosis was large breast size. Breast fibrosis were more frequent observed in woman after whole dose 50 Gy. There were no differences in breast skin thick between analysed factors. Conclusions: After irradiating large breasts more often than one observes the fibrosis of the breast in the case of small and average breasts and discolour of the skin. Irradiating photons from the cobalt source in the comparison with photons about higher energy at women with large breasts, there is the reason more frequent occurrence of the skin angioma. For the final cosmetic effect of radiotherapy in saving treatment, they do not have the impact: tumor size, boost method, chemical treatment, patients age. (authors)

  18. Accuracy assessment of the National Forest Inventory map of Mexico: sampling designs and the fuzzy characterization of landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Couturier

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available There is no record so far in the literature of a comprehensive method to assess the accuracy of regional scale Land Cover/ Land Use (LCLU maps in the sub-tropical belt. The elevated biodiversity and the presence of highly fragmented classes hamper the use of sampling designs commonly employed in previous assessments of mainly temperate zones. A sampling design for assessing the accuracy of the Mexican National Forest Inventory (NFI map at community level is presented. A pilot study was conducted on the Cuitzeo Lake watershed region covering 400 000 ha of the 2000 Landsat-derived map. Various sampling designs were tested in order to find a trade-off between operational costs, a good spatial distribution of the sample and the inclusion of all scarcely distributed classes (‘rare classes’. A two-stage sampling design where the selection of Primary Sampling Units (PSU was done under separate schemes for commonly and scarcely distributed classes, showed best characteristics. A total of 2 023 punctual secondary sampling units were verified against their NFI map label. Issues regarding the assessment strategy and trends of class confusions are devised.

  19. Integrating Landsat-derived disturbance maps with FIA inventory data: Applications for state-Level forest resource assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonja Oswalt; Chengquan Huang; Hua Shi; James Vogelmann; Zhiliang Zhu; Samuel N. Goward; John Coulston

    2009-01-01

    Landsat images have been widely used for assessing forest characteristics and dynamics. Recently, significant progress has been made towards indepth exploration of the rich Landsat archive kept by the U.S. Geological Survey to improve our under standing of forest disturbance and recovery processes. In this study, we used Landsat images to map forest disturbances at...

  20. Internal ODOT survey on attitudes and readiness for connected and autonomous vehicles as part of preparing a possible Oregon road map for connected vehicle/cooperative systems deployment scenarios : task 1 report : SPR 764.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this project was to lay the groundwork for Oregon to be prepared to lead in the : implementation of a connected vehicle/cooperative systems transportation portfolio, and/or to avoid being caught : by surprise as developments in this area ...

  1. An effective self-assessment based on concept map extraction from test-sheet for personalized learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Keng-Hou; Lin, Yu-Shih; Chang, Yi-Chun; Chu, Chih-Ping

    2013-12-01

    Examination is a traditional way to assess learners' learning status, progress and performance after a learning activity. Except the test grade, a test sheet hides some implicit information such as test concepts, their relationships, importance, and prerequisite. The implicit information can be extracted and constructed a concept map for considering (1) the test concepts covered in the same question means these test concepts have strong relationships, and (2) questions in the same test sheet means the test concepts are relative. Concept map has been successfully employed in many researches to help instructors and learners organize relationships among concepts. However, concept map construction depends on experts who need to take effort and time for the organization of the domain knowledge. In addition, the previous researches regarding to automatic concept map construction are limited to consider all learners of a class, which have not considered personalized learning. To cope with this problem, this paper proposes a new approach to automatically extract and construct concept map based on implicit information in a test sheet. Furthermore, the proposed approach also can help learner for self-assessment and self-diagnosis. Finally, an example is given to depict the effectiveness of proposed approach.

  2. Spatial analysis and modeling to assess and map current vulnerability to extreme weather events in the Grijalva - Usumacinta watershed, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez L, D

    2009-01-01

    One of the major concerns over a potential change in climate is that it will cause an increase in extreme weather events. In Mexico, the exposure factors as well as the vulnerability to the extreme weather events have increased during the last three or four decades. In this study spatial analysis and modeling were used to assess and map settlement and crop systems vulnerability to extreme weather events in the Grijalva - Usumacinta watershed. Sensitivity and coping adaptive capacity maps were constructed using decision models; these maps were then combined to produce vulnerability maps. The most vulnerable area in terms of both settlement and crop systems is the highlands, where the sensitivity is high and the adaptive capacity is low. In lowlands, despite the very high sensitivity, the higher adaptive capacity produces only moderate vulnerability. I conclude that spatial analysis and modeling are powerful tools to assess and map vulnerability. These preliminary results can guide the formulation of adaptation policies to an increasing risk of extreme weather events.

  3. Spatial analysis and modeling to assess and map current vulnerability to extreme weather events in the Grijalva - Usumacinta watershed, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez L, D, E-mail: dlopez@centrogeo.org.m [Centro de Investigacion en GeografIa y Geomatica, Ing. Jorge L. Tamayo A.C., Contoy 137, col. Lomas de Padierna, del Tlalpan, Maxico D.F (Mexico)

    2009-11-01

    One of the major concerns over a potential change in climate is that it will cause an increase in extreme weather events. In Mexico, the exposure factors as well as the vulnerability to the extreme weather events have increased during the last three or four decades. In this study spatial analysis and modeling were used to assess and map settlement and crop systems vulnerability to extreme weather events in the Grijalva - Usumacinta watershed. Sensitivity and coping adaptive capacity maps were constructed using decision models; these maps were then combined to produce vulnerability maps. The most vulnerable area in terms of both settlement and crop systems is the highlands, where the sensitivity is high and the adaptive capacity is low. In lowlands, despite the very high sensitivity, the higher adaptive capacity produces only moderate vulnerability. I conclude that spatial analysis and modeling are powerful tools to assess and map vulnerability. These preliminary results can guide the formulation of adaptation policies to an increasing risk of extreme weather events.

  4. Assessing Landslide Characteristics and Developing a Landslide Potential Hazard Map in Rwanda and Uganda Using NASA Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, L.; Conner, P.; le Roux, J.; Finley, T.

    2015-12-01

    The International Emergency Disasters Database indicates that a total of 482 people have been killed and another 27,530 have been affected by landslides in Rwanda and Uganda, although the actual numbers are thought to be much higher. Data for individual countries are poorly tracked, but hotspots for devastating landslides occur throughout Rwanda and Uganda due to the local topography and soil type, intense rainfall events, and deforestation. In spite of this, there has been little research in this region that utilizes satellite imagery to estimate areas susceptible to landslides. This project utilized Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data and Google Earth to identify landslides that occurred within the study area. These landslides were then added to SERVIR's Global Landslide Catalog (GLC). Next, Landsat 8 OLI, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM), and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Version 2 (SRTM V2) data were used to create a Landslide Susceptibility Map. This was combined with population data from the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) to create a Landslide Hazard map. A preliminary assessment of the relative performance of GPM and TRMM in identifying landslide conditions was also performed. The additions to the GLC, the Landslide Susceptibility Map, the Landslide Hazard Map, and the preliminary assessment of satellite rainfall performance will be used by SERVIR and the Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) for disaster risk management, land use planning, and determining landslide conditions and moisture thresholds.

  5. Performance Comparison of Reputation Assessment Techniques Based on Self-Organizing Maps in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Sicari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many solutions based on machine learning techniques have been proposed in literature aimed at detecting and promptly counteracting various kinds of malicious attack (data violation, clone, sybil, neglect, greed, and DoS attacks, which frequently affect Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. Besides recognizing the corrupted or violated information, also the attackers should be identified, in order to activate the proper countermeasures for preserving network’s resources and to mitigate their malicious effects. To this end, techniques adopting Self-Organizing Maps (SOM for intrusion detection in WSN were revealed to represent a valuable and effective solution to the problem. In this paper, the mechanism, namely, Good Network (GoNe, which is based on SOM and is able to assess the reliability of the sensor nodes, is compared with another relevant and similar work existing in literature. Extensive performance simulations, in terms of nodes’ classification, attacks’ identification, data accuracy, energy consumption, and signalling overhead, have been carried out in order to demonstrate the better feasibility and efficiency of the proposed solution in WSN field.

  6. Fuzzy logic-based assessment for mapping potential infiltration areas in low-gradient watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz Londoño, Orlando Mauricio; Romanelli, Asunción; Lima, María Lourdes; Massone, Héctor Enrique; Martínez, Daniel Emilio

    2016-07-01

    This paper gives an account of the design a logic-based approach for identifying potential infiltration areas in low-gradient watersheds based on remote sensing data. This methodological framework is applied in a sector of the Pampa Plain, Argentina, which has high level of agricultural activities and large demands for groundwater supplies. Potential infiltration sites are assessed as a function of two primary topics: hydrologic and soil conditions. This model shows the state of each evaluated subwatershed respecting to its potential contribution to infiltration mainly based on easily measurable and commonly used parameters: drainage density, geomorphologic units, soil media, land-cover, slope and aspect (slope orientation). Mapped outputs from the logic model displayed 42% very low-low, 16% moderate, 41% high-very high contribution to potential infiltration in the whole watershed. Subwatersheds in the upper and lower section were identified as areas with high to very high potential infiltration according to the following media features: low drainage density (drainage plain and, dunes and beaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Social Identity Mapping: A procedure for visual representation and assessment of subjective multiple group memberships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruwys, Tegan; Steffens, Niklas K; Haslam, S Alexander; Haslam, Catherine; Jetten, Jolanda; Dingle, Genevieve A

    2016-12-01

    In this research, we introduce Social Identity Mapping (SIM) as a method for visually representing and assessing a person's subjective network of group memberships. To provide evidence of its utility, we report validating data from three studies (two longitudinal), involving student, community, and clinical samples, together comprising over 400 participants. Results indicate that SIM is easy to use, internally consistent, with good convergent and discriminant validity. Each study also illustrates the ways that SIM can be used to address a range of novel research questions. Study 1 shows that multiple positive group memberships are a particularly powerful predictor of well-being. Study 2 shows that social support is primarily given and received within social groups and that only in-group support is beneficial for well-being. Study 3 shows that improved mental health following a social group intervention is attributable to an increase in group compatibility. In this way, the studies demonstrate the capacity for SIM to make a contribution both to the development of social-psychological theory and to its practical application. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  8. A Multiscale Mapping Assessment of Lake Champlain Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Torbick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lake Champlain has bays undergoing chronic cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms that pose a public health threat. Monitoring and assessment tools need to be developed to support risk decision making and to gain a thorough understanding of bloom scales and intensities. In this research application, Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI, Rapid Eye, and Proba Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (CHRIS images were obtained while a corresponding field campaign collected in situ measurements of water quality. Models including empirical band ratio regressions were applied to map chlorophylla and phycocyanin concentrations; all sensors performed well with R2 and root-mean-square error (RMSE ranging from 0.76 to 0.88 and 0.42 to 1.51, respectively. The outcomes showed spatial patterns across the lake with problematic bays having phycocyanin concentrations >25 μg/L. An alert status metric tuned to the current monitoring protocol was generated using modeled water quality to illustrate how the remote sensing tools can inform a public health monitoring system. Among the sensors utilized in this study, Landsat 8 OLI holds the most promise for providing exposure information across a wide area given the resolutions, systematic observation strategy and free cost.

  9. From Risk Assessment to Knowledge Mapping: Science, Precaution, and Participation in Disease Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy C. Stirling

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Governance of infectious disease risks requires understanding of often indeterminate interactions between diverse, complex, open, and dynamic human and natural systems. In the face of these challenges, worldwide policy making affords disproportionate status to " science-based" risk-assessment methods. These reduce multiple, complex dimensions to simple quantitative parameters of "outcomes" and "probabilities," and then re-aggregate across diverse metrics, contexts, and perspectives to yield a single ostensibly definitive picture of risk. In contrast, more precautionary or participatory approaches are routinely portrayed as less rigorous, complete, or robust. Yet, although conventional reductive-aggregative techniques provide powerful responses to a narrow state of risk, they are not applicable to less tractable conditions of uncertainty, ambiguity, and ignorance. Strong sensitivities to divergent framings can render results highly variable. Reductive aggregation can marginalize important perspectives and compound exposure to surprise. The value of more broad-based precautionary and participatory approaches may be appreciated. These offer ways to be more rigorous and complete in the mapping of different framings. They may also be more robust than reductive-aggregative appraisal methods, in "opening up" greater accountability for intrinsically normative judgements in decision making on threats like pandemic avian influenza.

  10. Mapping the integration of social and ethical issues in health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoux, Pascale; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2007-01-01

    Since its inception, the field of health technology assessment (HTA) has stressed the need for consideration of ethical and social issues. However, few concepts or analytic tools have been developed, and because of the complexity of the endeavor and a lack of integration of work already produced, such concepts remain difficult to apply in HTA. Through a descriptive "map" of concepts, tools, and processes, we summarize the most tangible efforts on the part of HTA producers to address social and ethical issues. A literature review and content analysis of HTA reports in the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database enables a synthesis of the reflections on, initiatives around, and gaps in knowledge related to the integration of social and ethical issues in HTA. We examine: (i) the aim of integrating ethical and social issues in HTA, (ii) the theoretical approaches used, (iii) the methods and processes applied, and (iv) the implications for HTA producers. We highlight two levels at which social and ethical issues can be considered: throughout the production process of HTA reports and as part of the organizational structure of HTA agencies. Given the profound societal changes that occur in relation to healthcare technology development, HTA producers have a responsibility to inform and enlighten technology-related public and policy debates. Fulfilling this role, though, requires that socioethical dimensions of technology and HTA are made explicit.

  11. Mapping causal functional contributions derived from the clinical assessment of brain damage after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Zavaglia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lesion analysis reveals causal contributions of brain regions to mental functions, aiding the understanding of normal brain function as well as rehabilitation of brain-damaged patients. We applied a novel lesion inference technique based on game theory, Multi-perturbation Shapley value Analysis (MSA, to a large clinical lesion dataset. We used MSA to analyze the lesion patterns of 148 acute stroke patients together with their neurological deficits, as assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS. The results revealed regional functional contributions to essential behavioral and cognitive functions as reflected in the NIHSS, particularly by subcortical structures. There were also side specific differences of functional contributions between the right and left hemispheric brain regions which may reflect the dominance of the left hemispheric syndrome aphasia in the NIHSS. Comparison of MSA to established lesion inference methods demonstrated the feasibility of the approach for analyzing clinical data and indicated its capability for objectively inferring functional contributions from multiple injured, potentially interacting sites, at the cost of having to predict the outcome of unknown lesion configurations. The analysis of regional functional contributions to neurological symptoms measured by the NIHSS contributes to the interpretation of this widely used standardized stroke scale in clinical practice as well as clinical trials and provides a first approximation of a ‘map of stroke’.

  12. Mapping causal functional contributions derived from the clinical assessment of brain damage after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavaglia, Melissa; Forkert, Nils D; Cheng, Bastian; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz; Hilgetag, Claus C

    2015-01-01

    Lesion analysis reveals causal contributions of brain regions to mental functions, aiding the understanding of normal brain function as well as rehabilitation of brain-damaged patients. We applied a novel lesion inference technique based on game theory, Multi-perturbation Shapley value Analysis (MSA), to a large clinical lesion dataset. We used MSA to analyze the lesion patterns of 148 acute stroke patients together with their neurological deficits, as assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The results revealed regional functional contributions to essential behavioral and cognitive functions as reflected in the NIHSS, particularly by subcortical structures. There were also side specific differences of functional contributions between the right and left hemispheric brain regions which may reflect the dominance of the left hemispheric syndrome aphasia in the NIHSS. Comparison of MSA to established lesion inference methods demonstrated the feasibility of the approach for analyzing clinical data and indicated its capability for objectively inferring functional contributions from multiple injured, potentially interacting sites, at the cost of having to predict the outcome of unknown lesion configurations. The analysis of regional functional contributions to neurological symptoms measured by the NIHSS contributes to the interpretation of this widely used standardized stroke scale in clinical practice as well as clinical trials and provides a first approximation of a 'map of stroke'.

  13. Mapping causal functional contributions derived from the clinical assessment of brain damage after stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavaglia, Melissa; Forkert, Nils D.; Cheng, Bastian; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz; Hilgetag, Claus C.

    2015-01-01

    Lesion analysis reveals causal contributions of brain regions to mental functions, aiding the understanding of normal brain function as well as rehabilitation of brain-damaged patients. We applied a novel lesion inference technique based on game theory, Multi-perturbation Shapley value Analysis (MSA), to a large clinical lesion dataset. We used MSA to analyze the lesion patterns of 148 acute stroke patients together with their neurological deficits, as assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The results revealed regional functional contributions to essential behavioral and cognitive functions as reflected in the NIHSS, particularly by subcortical structures. There were also side specific differences of functional contributions between the right and left hemispheric brain regions which may reflect the dominance of the left hemispheric syndrome aphasia in the NIHSS. Comparison of MSA to established lesion inference methods demonstrated the feasibility of the approach for analyzing clinical data and indicated its capability for objectively inferring functional contributions from multiple injured, potentially interacting sites, at the cost of having to predict the outcome of unknown lesion configurations. The analysis of regional functional contributions to neurological symptoms measured by the NIHSS contributes to the interpretation of this widely used standardized stroke scale in clinical practice as well as clinical trials and provides a first approximation of a ‘map of stroke’. PMID:26448908

  14. Deriving soil function maps to assess related ecosystem services using imaging spectroscopy in the Lyss agricultural area, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diek, Sanne; de Jong, Rogier; Braun, Daniela; Böhler, Jonas; Schaepman, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Soils play an important role in the benefits offered by ecosystems services. In densely populated Switzerland soils are a scarce resource, with high pressure on services ranging from urban expansion to over-utilization. Key change drivers include erosion, soil degradation, land management change and (chemical) pollution, which should be taken into consideration. Therefore there is an emerging need for an integrated, sustainable and efficient system assessing the management of soil and land as a resource. The use of remote sensing can offer spatio-temporal and quantitative information of extended areas. In particular imaging spectroscopy has shown to perfectly complement existing sampling schemes as secondary information for digital soil mapping. Although only the upper-most layer of soil interacts with light when using reflectance spectroscopy, it still can offer valuable information that can be utilized by farmers and decision makers. Fully processed airborne imaging spectrometer data from APEX as well as land cover classification for the agricultural area in Lyss were available. Based on several spectral analysis methods we derived multiple soil properties, including soil organic matter, soil texture, and mineralogy; complemented by vegetation parameters, including leaf area index, chlorophyll content, pigment distribution, and water content. The surface variables were retrieved using a combination of index-based and physically-based retrievals. Soil properties in partly to fully vegetated areas were interpolated using regression kriging based methods. This allowed the continuous assessment of potential soil functions as well as non-contiguous maps of abundances of combined soil and vegetation parameters. Based on a simple regression model we could make a rough estimate of ecosystem services. This provided the opportunity to look at the differences between the interpolated soil function maps and the non-contiguous (but combined) vegetation and soil function maps

  15. Using GIS Mapping to Assess Foster Care: A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rine, Christine M.; Morales, Jocelyn; Vanyukevych, Anastasiya B.; Durand, Emily G.; Schroeder, Kurt A.

    2012-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have become widely used outside of traditional mapping applications, expanding their reach to social service organizations. The purpose of this article is to describe and explore the benefits of GIS mapping in identifying strengths and needs of foster care systems in rural settings through graphically assessing…

  16. Use of Concept Maps as an Assessment Tool in Mechanical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembe, B. L.; Kamble, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study to investigate, how third year mechanical engineering students are able to use their knowledge of concept maps in their study of the topic of "Introduction to the Internal Combustion Engines (IICE)". 41 students participated in this study. Firstly, the students were taught about concept maps and then asked to…

  17. Comparison and assessment of coarse resolution land cover maps for Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirk Pflugmacher; Olga N. Krankina; Warren B. Cohen; Mark A. Friedl; Damien Sulla-Menashe; Robert E. Kennedy; Peder Nelson; Tatiana V. Loboda; Tobias Kuemmerle; Egor Dyukarev; Vladimir Elsadov; Viacheslav I. Kharuk

    2011-01-01

    Information on land cover at global and continental scales is critical for addressing a range of ecological, socioeconomic and policy questions. Global land cover maps have evolved rapidly in the last decade, but efforts to evaluate map uncertainties have been limited, especially in remote areas like Northern Eurasia. Northern Eurasia comprises a particularly diverse...

  18. Mapping snags and understory shrubs for LiDAR based assessment of wildlife habitat suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Martinuzzi; Lee A. Vierling; William A. Gould; Michael J. Falkowski; Jeffrey S. Evans; Andrew T. Hudak; Kerri T. Vierling

    2009-01-01

    The lack of maps depicting forest three-dimensional structure, particularly as pertaining to snags and understory shrub species distribution, is a major limitation for managing wildlife habitat in forests. Developing new techniques to remotely map snags and understory shrubs is therefore an important need. To address this, we first evaluated the use of LiDAR data for...

  19. Developing a fuzzy rule based cognitive map for total system safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Francisco Luiz de; Sullivan, Terry

    2007-01-01

    Total System Performance Assessment, TSPA, for radioactive waste disposal is a multi and interdisciplinary task that is characterized by complex interactions between parameters and processes; lack of data; and ignorance regarding natural processes and conditions. The vagueness in the determination of ranges of values of parameters and identification of interacting processes pose further difficulties to the analysts with regard to the establishment of the relations between processes and parameters. More specifically the vagueness makes uncertainty propagation and sensitivity analysis challenging to analyze. To cope with these difficulties experts often use simplifications and linguistic terms to express their state of knowledge about a certain situation. For example, experts use terms such as 'low pH', 'very unlikely', etc to describe their perception about natural processes or conditions. In this work we propose the use of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps, FCM, for representation of interrelation between processes and parameters as well as to promote a better understanding of the system performance. Fuzzy cognitive maps are suited for the case where the causal relations are not clearly defined and, therefore, can not be represented by crisp values. In other words, instead of representing the quality of the interactions by crisp values, they are assigned degrees of truth. For example, we can assign values to the effect of one process on another such that (+) 1 corresponds to positive, (-) 1 to negative and 0 to neutral effects respectively. In this case the effect of a process A, on a process, B, can be depicted as function of the membership to the fuzzy set 'causal effect' of the cause process to the target one. One of the main advantages of this methodology would be that it allows one to aggregate the linguistic expressions as descriptions of processes. For example, a process can be known to have a 'very strong' positive effect on another one, or using fuzzy sets terminology

  20. Regional assessment of groundwater resources (hydrogeological map of Younggwang area, Korea vol.8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, S H; Kim, Y K; Hong, Y K; Cho, M J; Lee, D W; Bae, D J; Lee, C W; Kim, H C; Kim, S J; Park, S W; Lee, P K; Yum, B W; Moon, S H; Lee, S K; Lee, S R; Park, Y S; Lim, M T; Sung, K S; Park, I H; Ham, S Y; Kim, Y J; Woo, N C [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    This study is objected to characterize groundwater resources, to assess groundwater contamination, and to produce hydrogeological and related thematic maps of the study area. The study area, Younggwang County, Chonnam Province, covers the area of 460 km{sup 2}. To accomplish the objectives various studies have been carried out including general and structural geology, GIS, hydrogeology, geophysics and hydrogeochemical analysis. Geophysical explorations, dipole-dipole resistivity, Schulumberger sounding and magnetic method, were executed for investigating geologic structure and determining test borehole sites. Some test boreholes such as, Honggok, Donggan, Weolsan and Seolmae hit aquifer structures. Geophysical logging, such as gamma ray, temperature, water conductivity, electrical resistivity, self-potential were also executed for petrological differentiation and in out flow of groundwater. The recharge rate of granitic region is more than the others, which derived by the analysis of 7 low-flow measurements in 10 small watersheds in the area. The recharge rate has been estimated at 7.2%(99.3 mm/year) in the vicinity. Well inventory of the area included 197 deep wells and 43 shallow wells. In addition, 10 stream samples and one spring were surveyed for water level, water temperature, pH, EC, TDS and the concentration of dissolved oxygen(DO). Regional groundwater pollution susceptibility was analyzed using GIS technique. A standard method, `DRASTIC` developed by US EPA, was applied to evaluate groundwater pollution potential and aquifer susceptibility. Resulting DRASTIC indices ranged from 52 to 141, and the Pesticide indices from 61 to 187. Seawater intrusion phenomena in Sangsari-Hasari are considered and evaluated by well inventory and the selected borehole`s electric conductivity(EC) logging. Seawater intrusion to the vulnerable coastal alluvium aquifers is generally depleted with time. The amount of potential groundwater resources in the study area is estimated

  1. Mapping to assess feasibility of using subsurface intakes for SWRO, Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah

    2013-11-19

    Use of subsurface intakes for seawater reverse osmosis desalination (SWRO) systems is known to improve raw water quality, reduce use of chemicals, improve operational reliability, and reduce the life cycle cost of desalination. A key issue in planning for the development of a SWRO facility that would potentially use a subsurface intake is the characterization of the coastal and nearshore geology of a region to ascertain the types of subsurface intakes that could be used and their respective costs. It is the purpose of this research to document a new methodology that can be used for planning and assessment of the feasibility of using subsurface intake systems for SWRO facilities at any location in the world. The Red Sea shoreline and nearshore area of Saudi Arabia were mapped and sediments were sampled from the Yemen border north of the Jordan border, a distance of about 1,950 km. Seventeen different coastal environments were defined, mapped, and correlated to the feasibility of using various types of subsurface intake systems. Six environments were found to have favorable characteristics for development of large-scale subsurface intakes. The most favorable of these coastal environments includes: (1) beaches and nearshore areas containing carbonate or siliciclastic sands with minimum mud concentrations and environmentally sensitive bottom community biota or fauna (A1, A2, and A3), limestone rocky shorelines with an offshore carbonate or siliciclastic sand bottom underlain by soft limestone and a barren area lying between the shoreline and the offshore reef (B1, B5), and wadi sediments on the beach (mixture of pebbles, gravel, and sand) with a corresponding nearshore area containing either siliciclastic sand and/or a marine hard ground (soft limestone or sandstone) (C2). It was found that seabed galleries were the subsurface intake type with the highest feasibility for development of large-capacity intakes. The geological characteristics of the offshore sea bottom

  2. Risk Assessment and Mapping of Fecal Contamination in the Ohio River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, A.; Morehead, D.; Teklitz, A.; Yeghiazarian, L.

    2014-12-01

    Decisions in many problems in engineering planning are invariably made under conditions of uncertainty imposed by the inherent randomness of natural phenomena. Water quality is one such problem. For example, the leading cause of surface-water impairment in the US is fecal microbial contamination, which can potentially trigger massive outbreaks of gastrointestinal disease. It is well known that the difficulty in prediction of water contamination is rooted in the stochastic variability of microbes in the environment, and in the complexity of environmental systems.To address these issues, we employ a risk-based design format to compute the variability in microbial concentrations and the probability of exceeding the E. Coli target in the Ohio River Basin (ORB). This probability is then mapped onto the basin's stream network within the ArcGIS environment. We demonstrate how spatial risk maps can be used in support of watershed management decisions, in particular in the assessment of best management practices for reduction of E. Coli load in surface water. The modeling environment selected for the analysis is the Schematic Processor (SP), a suite of geoprocessing ArcGIS tools. SP operates on a schematic, link-and-node network model of the watershed. The National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) is used as the basis for this representation, as it provides the stream network, lakes, and catchment definitions. Given the schematic network of the watershed, SP adds the capability to perform mathematical computations along the links and at the nodes. This enables modeling fate and transport of any entity over the network. Data from various sources have been integrated for this analysis. Catchment boundaries, lake locations, the stream network and flow data have been retrieved from the NHDPlus. Land use data come from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD), and microbial observations data from the Ohio River Sanitation Committee. The latter dataset is a result of a 2003

  3. Functional connectivity of coral reef fishes in a tropical seascape assessed by compound-specific stable isotope analyses

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Kelton W.

    2011-01-01

    The ecological integrity of tropical habitats, including mangroves, seagrass beds and coral reefs, is coming under increasing pressure from human activities. Many coral reef fish species are thought to use mangroves and seagrass beds as juvenile nurseries before migrating to coral reefs as adults. Identifying essential habitats and preserving functional linkages among these habitats is likely necessary to promote ecosystem health and sustainable fisheries on coral reefs. This necessitates quantitative assessment of functional connectivity among essential habitats at the seascape level. This thesis presents the development and first application of a method for tracking fish migration using amino acid (AA) δ13C analysis in otoliths. In a controlled feeding experiment with fish reared on isotopically distinct diets, we showed that essential AAs exhibited minimal trophic fractionation between consumer and diet, providing a δ13C record of the baseline isoscape. We explored the potential for geochemical signatures in otoliths of snapper to act as natural tags of residency in seagrass beds, mangroves and coral reefs in the Red Sea, Caribbean Sea and Eastern Pacific Ocean. The δ13C values of otolith essential AAs varied as a function of habitat type and provided a better tracer of residence in juvenile nursery habitats than conventional bulk stable isotope analyses (SIA). Using our otolith AA SIA approach, we quantified the relative contribution of coastal wetlands and reef habitats to Lutjanus ehrenbergii populations on coastal, shelf and oceanic coral reefs in the Red Sea. L. ehrenbergii made significant ontogenetic migrations, traveling more than 30 km from juvenile nurseries to coral reefs and across deep open water. Coastal wetlands were important nurseries for L. ehrenbergii; however, there was significant plasticity in L. ehrenbergii juvenile habitat requirements. Seascape configuration played an important role in determining the functional connectivity of L

  4. The assessment of pore connectivity in hierarchical zeolites using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy: instrumental and morphological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubiaga, Asier; Warringham, Robbie; Boltz, Marilyne; Cooke, David; Crivelli, Paolo; Gidley, David; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier; Mitchell, Sharon

    2016-04-07

    Recent studies demonstrated the power of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) to characterise the connectivity and corresponding effectiveness of hierarchical pore networks in zeolites. This was based on the fractional escape of ortho-positronium (Ps), formed within the micropore framework, to vacuum. To further develop this technique, here we assess the impact of the positron implantation energy and of the zeolite crystal size and the particle morphology. Conventional measurements using fast positrons and beam measurements applying moderated positrons both readily distinguish purely microporous ZSM-5 zeolites comprised of single crystals or crystal aggregates. Unlike beam measurements, however, conventional measurements fail to discriminate model hierarchical zeolites with open or constricted mesopore architectures. Several steps are taken to rationalise these observations. The dominant contribution of Ps diffusion to the PALS response is confirmed by capping the external surface of the zeolite crystals with tetraethylorthosilicate, which greatly enhances the sensitivity to the micropore network. A one-dimensional model is constructed to predict the out-diffusion of Ps from a zeolite crystal, which is validated experimentally by comparing coffin-shaped single crystals of varying size. Calculation of the trends expected on the application of fast or moderated positrons indicates that the distinctions in the initial distribution of Ps at the crystal level cannot explain the limited sensitivity of the former to the mesopore architecture. Instead, we propose that the greater penetration of fast positrons within the sample increases the probability of Ps re-entry from intercrystalline voids into mesopores connected with the external surface of zeolite crystals, thereby reducing their fractional escape.

  5. Regional analysis assessment of landslide hazard and zoning map for transmission line route selection using GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baharuddin, I N Z; Omar, R C; Usman, F; Mejan, M A; Halim, M K Abd; Zainol, M A; Zulkarnain, M S

    2013-01-01

    The stability of ground as foundation for infrastructure development is always associated with geology and geomorphology aspects. Failure to carefully analyze these aspects may induce ground instability such subsidence and landslide which eventually can cause catastrophe to the infrastructure i.e. instability of transmission tower. However, in some cases such as the study area this is unavoidable. A GIS system for analysis of route was favoured to perform optimal route predictions based selection by incorporating multiple influence factors into its analysis by incorporating the Landslide Hazard Map (LHM) that was produced on basis of slope map, aspect map, land use map and geological map with the help of ArcGIS using weighted overlay method. Based on LHM it is safe to conclude that the proposed route for Ulu Jelai- Neggiri-Lebir-LILO transmission line has very low risk in term of landslides.

  6. Reproducibility of polar map generation and assessment of defect severity and extent assessment in myocardial perfusion imaging using positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekolla, S.G.; Miethaner, C.; Nguyen, N.; Ziegler, S.I.; Schwaiger, M.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of new software developed for the analysis of cardiac tomographic data. The algorithm delineates the long axis and defines the basal plane and subsequently generates polar maps to quantitatively and reproducibly assess the size and severity of perfusion defects. The developed technique requires an initial manual estimate of the left ventricular long axis and calculates the volumetric maximum myocardial activity distribution. This surface is used to map three-dimensional tracer accumulation onto a two-dimensional representation (polar map), which is the basis for further processing. The spatial information is used to compute geometrical and mechanical properties of a solid model of the left ventricle including the left heart chamber. A new estimate of the axis is determined from this model, and the previously outlined procedure is repeated together with an automated definition of the valve plane until differences between the polar maps can be neglected. This quantitative analysis software was validated in phantom studies with defects of known masses and in ten data sets from normals and patients with coronary artery disease of various severity. We investigated the reproducibility of the maps with the introduction of a similarity criterion where the ratio of two corresponding polar map elements lies within a 10% interval. The maps were also used to measure intra-and interobserver variability in respect of defect size and severity. In the phantom studies, it was possible to reliably assess mass information over a wide range of defects from 5 to 60 g (slope: 1.02, offset -0.68, r = 0.972). Patient studies revealed a statistically significant increase in the reproducibility of the automatic technique compared with the manual approach: 54%±19% (manual) compared with 88%±9% (automatic) for observer 1 and 61%±20% vs 82%±5% for observer 2, respectively. The intervariability analysis showed a significant

  7. Assessment of training needs and preferences for geographic information systems (GIS) mapping in state comprehensive cancer-control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfer, Suellen; Chadwick, Amy E; Parrott, Roxanne L; Ghetian, Christie B; Lengerich, Eugene J

    2009-10-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) mapping technologies have potential to advance public health promotion by mapping regional differences in attributes (e.g., disease burden, environmental exposures, access to health care services) to suggest priorities for public health interventions. Training in GIS for comprehensive cancer control (CCC) has been overlooked. State CCC programs' GIS training needs were assessed by interviewing 49 state CCC directors. A majority perceived a need for GIS training, slightly more than half of state CCC programs had access to geocoded data, and the majority of programs did not require continuing education credits of their staff. CCC directors perceived judging maps and realizing their limitations as important skills and identified epidemiologists, CCC staff, public health officials, policy makers, and cancer coalition members as training audiences. They preferred in-class training sessions that last a few hours to a day. Lessons learned are shared to develop training programs with translatable GIS skills for CCC.

  8. In-situ biofouling assessment in spacer filled channels using optical coherence tomography (OCT): 3D biofilm thickness mapping

    KAUST Repository

    Fortunato, Luca

    2017-01-13

    Membrane systems for water purification can be seriously hampered by biofouling. The use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to investigate biofilms in membrane systems has recently increased due to the ability to do the characterization in-situ and non-destructively The OCT biofilm thickness map is presented for the first time as a tool to assess biofilm spatial distribution on a surface. The map allows the visualization and evaluation of the biofilm formation and growth in membrane filtration systems through the use of a false color scale. The biofilm development was monitored with OCT to evaluate the suitability of the proposed approach. A 3D time series analysis of biofilm development in a spacer filled channel representative of a spiral-wound membrane element was performed. The biofilm thickness map enables the time-resolved and spatial-resolved evaluation and visualization of the biofilm deposition pattern in-situ non-destructively.

  9. Top-down and bottom-up attention-to-memory: mapping functional connectivity in two distinct networks that underlie cued and uncued recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burianová, Hana; Ciaramelli, Elisa; Grady, Cheryl L; Moscovitch, Morris

    2012-11-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the functional connectivity of brain regions active during cued and uncued recognition memory to test the idea that distinct networks would underlie these memory processes, as predicted by the attention-to-memory (AtoM) hypothesis. The AtoM hypothesis suggests that dorsal parietal cortex (DPC) allocates effortful top-down attention to memory retrieval during cued retrieval, whereas ventral parietal cortex (VPC) mediates spontaneous bottom-up capture of attention by memory during uncued retrieval. To identify networks associated with these two processes, we conducted a functional connectivity analysis of a left DPC and a left VPC region, both identified by a previous analysis of task-related regional activations. We hypothesized that the two parietal regions would be functionally connected with distinct neural networks, reflecting their engagement in the differential mnemonic processes. We found two spatially dissociated networks that overlapped only in the precuneus. During cued trials, DPC was functionally connected with dorsal attention areas, including the superior parietal lobules, right precuneus, and premotor cortex, as well as relevant memory areas, such as the left hippocampus and the middle frontal gyri. During uncued trials, VPC was functionally connected with ventral attention areas, including the supramarginal gyrus, cuneus, and right fusiform gyrus, as well as the parahippocampal gyrus. In addition, activity in the DPC network was associated with faster response times for cued retrieval. This is the first study to show a dissociation of the functional connectivity of posterior parietal regions during episodic memory retrieval, characterized by a top-down AtoM network involving DPC and a bottom-up AtoM network involving VPC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. User Preferences in Image Map Using

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondráková, A.; Vozenilek, V.

    2016-06-01

    In the process of map making, the attention is given to the resulting image map (to be accurate, readable, and suit the primary purpose) and its user aspects. Current cartography understands the user issues as all matters relating to user perception, map use and also user preferences. Most commercial cartographic production is strongly connected to economic circumstances. Companies are discovering user's interests and market demands. However, is it sufficient to focus just on the user's preferences? Recent research on user aspects at Palacký University Olomouc addresses a much wider scope of user aspects. The user's preferences are very often distorting - the users think that the particular image map is kind, beautiful, and useful and they wants to buy it (or use it - it depends on the form of the map production). But when the same user gets the task to use practically this particular map (such as finding the shortest way), so the user concludes that initially preferred map is useless, and uses a map, that was worse evaluated according to his preferences. It is, therefore, necessary to evaluate not only the correctness of image maps and their aesthetics but also to assess the user perception and other user issues. For the accomplishment of such testing, eye-tracking technology is a useful tool. The research analysed how users read image maps, or if they prefer image maps over traditional maps. The eye tracking experiment on the comparison of the conventional and image map reading was conducted. The map readers were asked to solve few simple tasks with either conventional or image map. The readers' choice of the map to solve the task was one of investigated aspect of user preferences. Results demonstrate that the user preferences and user needs are often quite different issues. The research outcomes show that it is crucial to implement map user testing into the cartographic production process.

  11. Regional assessment of boreal forest productivity using an ecological process model and remote sensing parameter maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, J. S.; Keyser, A. R.; Running, S. W.; Saatchi, S. S.

    2000-06-01

    An ecological process model (BIOME-BGC) was used to assess boreal forest regional net primary production (NPP) and response to short-term, year-to-year weather fluctuations based on spatially explicit, land cover and biomass maps derived by radar remote sensing, as well as soil, terrain and daily weather information. Simulations were conducted at a 30-m spatial resolution, over a 1205 km(2) portion of the BOREAS Southern Study Area of central Saskatchewan, Canada, over a 3-year period (1994-1996). Simulations of NPP for the study region were spatially and temporally complex, averaging 2.2 (+/- 0.6), 1.8 (+/- 0.5) and 1.7 (+/- 0.5) Mg C ha(-1) year(-1) for 1994, 1995 and 1996, respectively. Spatial variability of NPP was strongly controlled by the amount of aboveground biomass, particularly photosynthetic leaf area, whereas biophysical differences between broadleaf deciduous and evergreen coniferous vegetation were of secondary importance. Simulations of NPP were strongly sensitive to year-to-year variations in seasonal weather patterns, which influenced the timing of spring thaw and deciduous bud-burst. Reductions in annual NPP of approximately 17 and 22% for 1995 and 1996, respectively, were attributed to 3- and 5-week delays in spring thaw relative to 1994. Boreal forest stands with greater proportions of deciduous vegetation were more sensitive to the timing of spring thaw than evergreen coniferous stands. Similar relationships were found by comparing simulated snow depth records with 10-year records of aboveground NPP measurements obtained from biomass harvest plots within the BOREAS region. These results highlight the importance of sub-grid scale land cover complexity in controlling boreal forest regional productivity, the dynamic response of the biome to short-term interannual climate variations, and the potential implications of climate change and other large-scale disturbances.

  12. Flood-risk mapping: contributions towards an enhanced assessment of extreme events and associated risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Büchele

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a shift from classical flood protection as engineering task towards integrated flood risk management concepts can be observed. In this context, a more consequent consideration of extreme events which exceed the design event of flood protection structures and failure scenarios such as dike breaches have to be investigated. Therefore, this study aims to enhance existing methods for hazard and risk assessment for extreme events and is divided into three parts. In the first part, a regionalization approach for flood peak discharges was further developed and substantiated, especially regarding recurrence intervals of 200 to 10 000 years and a large number of small ungauged catchments. Model comparisons show that more confidence in such flood estimates for ungauged areas and very long recurrence intervals may be given as implied by statistical analysis alone. The hydraulic simulation in the second part is oriented towards hazard mapping and risk analyses covering the whole spectrum of relevant flood events. As the hydrodynamic simulation is directly coupled with a GIS, the results can be easily processed as local inundation depths for spatial risk analyses. For this, a new GIS-based software tool was developed, being presented in the third part, which enables estimations of the direct flood damage to single buildings or areas based on different established stage-damage functions. Furthermore, a new multifactorial approach for damage estimation is presented, aiming at the improvement of damage estimation on local scale by considering factors like building quality, contamination and precautionary measures. The methods and results from this study form the base for comprehensive risk analyses and flood management strategies.

  13. Literature review and desk scan : task 2 of preparing a possible Oregon road map for connected vehicle/cooperative systems deployment scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this project was to lay the groundwork for Oregon to be prepared to lead in the : implementation of a connected vehicle/cooperative systems transportation portfolio, and/or to avoid being caught by : surprise as developments in this area ...

  14. ‘’Mapping Self- and Co-regulation Approaches in the EU Context’’ : Explorative Study for the European Commission, DG Connect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senden, L.A.J.; Kica, E.; Klinger, Kilian; Hiemstra, M.I.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a first mapping or inventory of the different approaches to self- and co- regulation (SCR) that can be found within the EU context, in a number of Member States (MS) and international organizations. The report consists of four sections. Whereas the first section provides an

  15. Nielsen PrimeLocation Web/Desktop: Assessing and GIS Mapping Market Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Nielsen PrimeLocation Web and Desktop Software Licensed for Internal Use only: Pop-Facts Demographics Database, Geographic Mapping Data Layers, Geo-Coding locations.

  16. Carbon Assessment of Hawaii Land Cover Map (CAH_LandCover)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — While there have been many maps produced that depict vegetation for the state of Hawai‘i only a few of these display land cover for all of the main Hawaiian Islands,...

  17. Mapping cultural ecosystem services: A framework to assess the potential for outdoor recreation across the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paracchini, M.L.; Zulian, G.; Kopperoinen, L.; Maes, J.; Schagner, J.P.; Termansen, M.; Zandersen, M.; Perez-Soba, M.; Scholefield, P.A.; Bidoglio, G.

    2014-01-01

    Research on ecosystem services mapping and valuing has increased significantly in recent years. However, compared to provisioning and regulating services, cultural ecosystem services have not yet been fully integrated into operational frameworks. One reason for this is that transdisciplinarity is

  18. Digital mapping of corrosion risk in coastal urban areas using remote sensing and structural condition assessment: case study in cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neocleous Kyriacos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric corrosion is one of the main factors leading to performance deterioration of reinforced concrete buildings; and, hence, periodic structural condition monitoring is required to assess and repair the adverse effects of corrosion. However, this can become a cumbersome and expensive task to undertake for large populations of buildings, scattered in large urban areas. To optimize the use of available resources, appropriate tools are required for the assessment of corrosion risk of reinforced concrete construction. This paper proposes a framework for the production of digital corrosion risk maps for urban areas; Cyprus was used as a case study. This framework explored multi-temporal satellite remote sensing data from the Landsat sensors as well as corrosion risk factors derived from the results of a recently completed research project, entitled “STEELCOR”. This framework was used to develop two corrosion risk scenarios within Geographical Information Systems, and to produce corrosion risk maps for three coastal cities of Cyprus. The thematic maps indicated that, for slight corrosion damage, the distance of reinforced concrete buildings from the coast was more influential than the building age. While, for significant corrosion damage, the maps indicated that the age of RC buildings was more influential than the distance from the coast.

  19. Improving language mapping in clinical fMRI through assessment of grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Połczyńska, Monika; Japardi, Kevin; Curtiss, Susan; Moody, Teena; Benjamin, Christopher; Cho, Andrew; Vigil, Celia; Kuhn, Taylor; Jones, Michael; Bookheimer, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Brain surgery in the language dominant hemisphere remains challenging due to unintended post-surgical language deficits, despite using pre-surgical functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) and intraoperative cortical stimulation. Moreover, patients are often recommended not to undergo surgery if the accompanying risk to language appears to be too high. While standard fMRI language mapping protocols may have relatively good predictive value at the group level, they remain sub-optimal on an individual level. The standard tests used typically assess lexico-semantic aspects of language, and they do not accurately reflect the complexity of language either in comprehension or production at the sentence level. Among patients who had left hemisphere language dominance we assessed which tests are best at activating language areas in the brain. We compared grammar tests (items testing word order in actives and passives, wh -subject and object questions, relativized subject and object clauses and past tense marking) with standard tests (object naming, auditory and visual responsive naming), using pre-operative fMRI. Twenty-five surgical candidates (13 females) participated in this study. Sixteen patients presented with a brain tumor, and nine with epilepsy. All participants underwent two pre-operative fMRI protocols: one including CYCLE-N grammar tests (items testing word order in actives and passives, wh-subject and object questions, relativized subject and object clauses and past tense marking); and a second one with standard fMRI tests (object naming, auditory and visual responsive naming). fMRI activations during performance in both protocols were compared at the group level, as well as in individual candidates. The grammar tests generated more volume of activation in the left hemisphere (left/right angular gyrus, right anterior/posterior superior temporal gyrus) and identified additional language regions not shown by the standard tests (e.g., left anterior

  20. Soil Fertility Assessment and Mapping of Regional Agricultural Research Station, Parwanipur, Bara, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Khadka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil fertility assessment is a key for sustainable planning of a particular area. Thus, the present study was conducted to assess the soil fertility status of the Regional Agricultural Research Station, Parwanipur, Bara, Nepal. The study area is situated at the latitude 27°4’40.9’’N and longitude 84°56’9.85”E at 75masl altitude. Altogether 76 soil samples were collected based on the variability of land at 0-20 cm depth. The texture, pH, OM, total N, available P2O5, K2O, Ca, Mg, S, B, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn content in the samples were determined following standard analytical methods. Arc-GIS 10.1 was used for soil fertility mapping. The soil structure was angular blocky, and varied between grayish brown (10YR 5/2 and dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2 in color. The sand, silt and clay content were 24.41±0.59%, 54.57±0.44% and 21.03±0.32%, respectively and categorized as silt loam and loam in texture. The soil was moderately acidic in pH (5.67±0.09, low in organic matter (0.74±0.04% and available Sulphur (0.8± 0.1 ppm. The total nitrogen (0.06±0.001%, available boron (0.59±0.08ppm and available zinc (0.51±0.05ppm were low. Furthermore, available potassium (50.26±2.95ppm, available calcium (1674.6±46.3ppm and available magnesium (175.43± 8.93ppm were medium. Moreover, available copper (1.36±0.06 ppm and available manganese (16.52±1.12 ppm were high, while, available phosphorus (77.55±6.65 ppm and available iron (85.88±7.05 ppm were found high. It is expected that the present study would help to guide practices required for sustainable soil fertility management and developing future agricultural research strategy in the farm.

  1. Quality assessment of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy transmission and reflection modes for graphene conductivity mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, David M.A.; Whelan, Patrick Rebsdorf; Bøggild, Peter

    2018-01-01

    We present a comparative study of electrical measurements of graphene using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in transmission and reflection mode, and compare the measured sheet conductivity values to electrical van der Pauw measurements made independently in three different laboratories. Overall......, while offering the additional advantages associated with contactless mapping, such as high throughput, no lithography requirement, and with the spatial mapping directly revealing the presence of any inhomogeneities or isolating defects. The confirmation of the accuracy of reflection-mode removes...

  2. A critical assessment on the role of sentinel node mapping in endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Ditto, Antonino; Martinelli, Fabio; Signorelli, Mauro; Perotto, Stefania; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the developed countries. Although the high incidence of this occurrence no consensus, about the role of retroperitoneal staging, still exists. Growing evidence support the safety and efficacy of sentinel lymph node mapping. This technique is emerging as a new standard for endometrial cancer staging procedures. In the present paper, we discuss the role of sentinel lymph node mapping in endometrial cancer, highlighting the most controversies features.

  3. Assessment of Photogrammetric Mapping Accuracy Based on Variation Flying Altitude Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udin, W S; Ahmad, A

    2014-01-01

    Photogrammetry is the earliest technique used to collect data for topographic mapping. The recent development in aerial photogrammetry is the used of large format digital aerial camera for producing topographic map. The aerial photograph can be in the form of metric or non-metric imagery. The cost of mapping using aerial photogrammetry is very expensive. In certain application, there is a need to map small area with limited budget. Due to the development of technology, small format aerial photogrammetry technology has been introduced and offers many advantages. Currently, digital map can be extracted from digital aerial imagery of small format camera mounted on light weight platform such as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). This study utilizes UAV system for large scale stream mapping. The first objective of this study is to investigate the use of light weight rotary-wing UAV for stream mapping based on different flying height. Aerial photograph were acquired at 60% forward lap and 30% sidelap specifications. Ground control points and check points were established using Total Station technique. The digital camera attached to the UAV was calibrated and the recovered camera calibration parameters were then used in the digital images processing. The second objective is to determine the accuracy of the photogrammetric output. In this study, the photogrammetric output such as stereomodel in three dimensional (3D), contour lines, digital elevation model (DEM) and orthophoto were produced from a small stream of 200m long and 10m width. The research output is evaluated for planimetry and vertical accuracy using root mean square error (RMSE). Based on the finding, sub-meter accuracy is achieved and the RMSE value decreases as the flying height increases. The difference is relatively small. Finally, this study shows that UAV is very useful platform for obtaining aerial photograph and subsequently used for photogrammetric mapping and other applications

  4. Assessment of global and individual reproducibility of projective mapping with consumers

    OpenAIRE

    VIDAL, LETICIA; CADENA, RAFAEL SILVA; CORREA, SILVANA; ÁBALOS, ROSA A.; GÓMEZ, BEATRIZ; GIMÉNEZ, ANA; Varela, Paula; Ares, Gaston

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of projective mapping with consumers for sensory characterization has markedly increased in the last 5 years. To have confidence in this methodology,it is necessary to ensure that a similar product profile would emerge if the test was repeated. Also, deciding whether the study should be replicated or not is a key issue in test implementation. In this context, the aim of the present work was to evaluate global and individual reproducibility of projective mapping for sensory char...

  5. Assessing the methods needed for improved dengue mapping: a SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaway, David Frost; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Falconer, Allan; Manca, Germana; Waters, Nigel M

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral infection, is a growing threat to human health in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide. There is a demand from public officials for maps that capture the current distribution of dengue and maps that analyze risk factors to predict the future burden of disease. To identify relevant articles, we searched Google Scholar, PubMed, BioMed Central, and WHOLIS (World Health Organization Library Database) for published articles with a specific set of dengue criteria between January 2002 and July 2013. After evaluating the currently available dengue models, we identified four key barriers to the creation of high-quality dengue maps: (1) data limitations related to the expense of diagnosing and reporting dengue cases in places where health information systems are underdeveloped; (2) issues related to the use of socioeconomic proxies in places with limited dengue incidence data; (3) mosquito ranges which may be changing as a result of climate changes; and (4) the challenges of mapping dengue events at a variety of scales. An ideal dengue map will present endemic and epidemic dengue information from both rural and urban areas. Overcoming the current barriers requires expanded collaboration and data sharing by geographers, epidemiologists, and entomologists. Enhanced mapping techniques would allow for improved visualizations of dengue rates and risks.

  6. On parabolic external maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomonaco, Luna; Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Shen, Weixiao

    2017-01-01

    We prove that any C1+BV degree d ≥ 2 circle covering h having all periodic orbits weakly expanding, is conjugate by a C1+BV diffeomorphism to a metrically expanding map. We use this to connect the space of parabolic external maps (coming from the theory of parabolic-like maps) to metrically expan...

  7. Use of stress-hormone levels and habitat selection to assess functional connectivity of a landscape for an amphibian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janin, Agnès; Léna, Jean-Paul; Deblois, Sandrine; Joly, Pierre

    2012-10-01

    The influence of landscape matrix on functional connectivity has been clearly established. Now methods to assess the effects of different land uses on species' movements are needed because current methods are often biased. The use of physiological parameters as indicators of the level of resistance to animal movement associated with different land uses (i.e., matrix resistance) could provide estimates of energetic costs and risks to animals migrating through the matrix. To assess whether corticosterone levels indicate matrix resistance, we conducted experiments on substrate choice and measured levels of corticosterone before and after exposure of toads (Bufo bufo) to 3 common substrates (ploughed soil, meadow, and forest litter). We expected matrix resistance and hormone levels to increase from forest litter (habitat of the toad) to meadows to ploughed soil. Adult toads had higher corticosterone levels on ploughed soil than on forest litter or meadow substrates. Hormone levels did not differ between forest litter and meadow. Toads avoided moving onto ploughed soil. Corticosterone levels in juvenile toads were not related to substrate type; however, hormone levels decreased as humidity increased. Juveniles, unlike adults, did not avoid moving over ploughed soil. The difference in responses between adult and juvenile toads may have been due to differences in experimental design (for juveniles, entire body used to measure corticosterone concentration; for adults, saliva alone); differences in the scale of sensory perception of the substrate (juveniles are much smaller than adults); or differences in cognitive processes between adult and juvenile toads. Adults probably had experience with different substrate types, whereas juveniles first emerging from the water probably did not. As a consequence, arable lands could act as ecological traps for juvenile toads. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Relationship between functional connectivity and motor function assessment in stroke patients with hemiplegia: a resting-state functional MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ye; Wang, Li; Zhang, Jingna; Sang, Linqiong; Li, Pengyue; Qiu, Mingguo [Third Military Medical University, Department of Medical Imaging, College of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing (China); Liu, Hongliang; Yan, Rubing [Third Military Medical University, Department of Rehabilitation, Southwest Hospital, Chongqing (China); Yang, Jun; Wang, Jian [Third Military Medical University, Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Chongqing (China)

    2016-05-15

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to examine the brain mechanisms of stroke patients with hemiplegia, but the relationship between functional connectivity (FC) and treatment-induced motor function recovery has not yet been fully investigated. This study aimed to identify the brain FC changes in stroke patients and study the relationship between FC and motor function assessment using the resting-state fMRI. Seventeen stroke patients with hemiplegia and fifteen healthy control subjects (HCSs) were recruited in this study. We compared the FC between the ipsilesional primary motor cortex (M1) and the whole brain of the patients with the FC of the HCSs and studied the FC changes in the patients before and after conventional rehabilitation and motor imagery therapy. Additionally, correlations between the FC change and motor function of the patients were studied. Compared to the HCSs, the FC in the patient group was significantly increased between the ipsilesional M1 and the ipsilesional inferior parietal cortex, frontal gyrus, supplementary motor area (SMA), and contralesional angular and decreased between the ipsilesional M1 and bilateral M1. After the treatment, the FC between the ipsilesional M1 and contralesional M1 increased while the FC between the ipsilesional M1 and ipsilesional SMA and paracentral lobule decreased. A statistically significant correlation was found between the FC change in the bilateral M1 and the Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) score change. Our results revealed an abnormal motor network after stroke and suggested that the FC could serve as a biomarker of motor function recovery in stroke patients with hemiplegia. (orig.)

  9. Relationship between functional connectivity and motor function assessment in stroke patients with hemiplegia: a resting-state functional MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ye; Wang, Li; Zhang, Jingna; Sang, Linqiong; Li, Pengyue; Qiu, Mingguo; Liu, Hongliang; Yan, Rubing; Yang, Jun; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to examine the brain mechanisms of stroke patients with hemiplegia, but the relationship between functional connectivity (FC) and treatment-induced motor function recovery has not yet been fully investigated. This study aimed to identify the brain FC changes in stroke patients and study the relationship between FC and motor function assessment using the resting-state fMRI. Seventeen stroke patients with hemiplegia and fifteen healthy control subjects (HCSs) were recruited in this study. We compared the FC between the ipsilesional primary motor cortex (M1) and the whole brain of the patients with the FC of the HCSs and studied the FC changes in the patients before and after conventional rehabilitation and motor imagery therapy. Additionally, correlations between the FC change and motor function of the patients were studied. Compared to the HCSs, the FC in the patient group was significantly increased between the ipsilesional M1 and the ipsilesional inferior parietal cortex, frontal gyrus, supplementary motor area (SMA), and contralesional angular and decreased between the ipsilesional M1 and bilateral M1. After the treatment, the FC between the ipsilesional M1 and contralesional M1 increased while the FC between the ipsilesional M1 and ipsilesional SMA and paracentral lobule decreased. A statistically significant correlation was found between the FC change in the bilateral M1 and the Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) score change. Our results revealed an abnormal motor network after stroke and suggested that the FC could serve as a biomarker of motor function recovery in stroke patients with hemiplegia. (orig.)

  10. Assessment of risk perception connected with exposure to indoor air pollution in the group of inhabitants of Silesian Voivodeship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Krupa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Population increasingly draws attention to the issues concerning the environment degraded by the progress of civilization and the impact of this process on health. However, public awareness of the risk exposure to indoor contaminants is lagging a long way behind knowledge regarding outdoor environmental hazards. The aim of the study was to assess the risk perception related to exposure to indoor environmental factors in the population of Silesia. Materials and methods. In this study the electronic version of a questionnaire survey – downloaded on the website www.moja-ankiety.pl. was used. During the 3-months duration of the project 552 subjects participated in the survey. In the study participated the Silesian Voivodeship inhabitants such as chat rooms users, newsgroups and online forum participants. Data analysis was performed by using statistical program – STATA Version 8 SE [9], where the Kruskall-Wallis test and χ2 test were applied. Statistical significance was assessed at p value *0.05. Results. Despite the low perception of environmental health hazards inside the dwellings, the majority of respondents were able to indentify health effects and ways to reduce exposure to indoor air pollution. Both gender, place of residence, education level and age significantly affected the level of perception of respondents on the risk connected with exposure to indoor air pollution. Conclusion. It is necessary to continuously work on raising public awareness of environmental health hazards in confined spaces, the causes of their occurrence, types, effects and above all the ways to counter these threats.

  11. In vitro and in vivo assessment of oral autologous artificial connective tissue characteristics that influence its performance as a graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanilla, Marta Raquel; Espinosa, Lady Giovanna

    2012-09-01

    Several studies have evaluated proteins secreted by fibroblasts comprising skin substitutes, finding that they are secreted in combinations and concentrations that promote wound healing. However, assessment of proteins secreted by oral fibroblasts forming a part of oral substitutes is scarce. In our previous work, collagen type-I scaffolds (CSs) and autologous artificial connective tissue (AACT) were produced and implanted in rabbit oral lesions, evidencing that AACT outperforms CS. The present work determined the secreted factor profile of AACT in the time of grafting as well as that of the AACT embedded in the clot. It also evaluated the proliferation and viability of AACT fibroblasts to establish the dwell time of these cells in the grafted area. Finally, it assessed whether CS, AACT, and clot-embedded AACT increase fibroblast recruitment induced by a fibrin clot, because the cell migratory response has been associated with the wound-healing outcome. We found that some of the factors secreted by AACT fibroblasts are significantly different from those secreted by clot-embedded AACT fibroblasts. Also, that the profile of proteins secreted by AACT fibroblasts and clot-embedded AACT fibroblasts is different from already reported protein secretion profiles of other engineered tissues used in treating oral mucosa wounds. It was also found that AACT fibroblasts are viable when grafted and remain in the treated area for almost 2 weeks, and that the migratory response of fibroblasts to tissue-substitute stimulus is significantly less than the migratory response induced by the clot alone. Overall, data suggest that AACT secretion of proteins is modulated by three-dimensionality and environment factors. This bioactivity and the fact that AACT does not increase fibroblast migration can be held accountable for AACT's good performance as a graft.

  12. Assessment of Convolution Neural Networks for Surficial Geology Mapping in the South Rae Geological Region, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasim Latifovic

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mapping of surficial geology is an important requirement for broadening the geoscience database of northern Canada. Surficial geology maps are an integral data source for mineral and energy exploration. Moreover, they provide information such as the location of gravels and sands, which are important for infrastructure development. Currently, surficial geology maps are produced through expert interpretation of aerial photography and field data. However, interpretation is known to be subjective, labour-intensive and difficult to repeat. The expert knowledge required for interpretation can be challenging to maintain and transfer. In this research, we seek to assess the potential of deep neural networks to aid surficial geology mapping by providing an objective surficial materials initial layer that experts can modify to speed map development and improve consistency between mapped areas. Such an approach may also harness expert knowledge in a way that is transferable to unmapped areas. For this purpose, we assess the ability of convolution neural networks (CNN to predict surficial geology classes under two sampling scenarios. In the first scenario, a CNN uses samples collected over the area to be mapped. In the second, a CNN trained over one area is then applied to locations where the available samples were not used in training the network. The latter case is important, as a collection of in situ training data can be costly. The evaluation of the CNN was carried out using aerial photos, Landsat reflectance, and high-resolution digital elevation data over five areas within the South Rae geological region of Northwest Territories, Canada. The results are encouraging, with the CNN generating average accuracy of 76% when locally trained. For independent test areas (i.e., trained over one area and applied over other, accuracy dropped to 59–70% depending on the classes selected for mapping. In the South Rae region, significant confusion was found

  13. Environmental Assessment for the Transfer of 1100 AREA, Southern Rail Connection and Rolling Stock, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1998-08-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the U.S. Department of Energy's proposed action: the transfer of the 1100 Area, southern rail connection and rolling stock to a non-federal entity. Impact information contained herein will be used by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office Manager, to determine if the proposed action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the proposed action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the proposed action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) will be issued and the action can proceed. Criteria used to evaluate significance can be found in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1508.27. This EA was prepared in compliance with the ''National Environmental Policy Act'' (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508), and the U.S. Department of Energy Implementing Procedures for NEPA (10 CFR 1021). The following is a description of each section of the EA. (1) Purpose and Need for Action. This provides a brief statement concerning the problem or opportunity the U.S. Department of Energy is addressing with the proposed action. As necessary, background information is provided. (2) Description of the Proposed Action. A description with sufficient detail to identify potential environmental impacts is provided. (3) Alternatives to the Proposed Action. Reasonable alternative actions, which would address the Purpose and Need, are described. A no action alternative, as required by 10 CFR 1021, also is described. (4) Affected Environment. This provides a brief description of the locale in which the proposed action takes place, and which may be environmentally

  14. Mapping surface disturbance of energy-related infrastructure in southwest Wyoming--An assessment of methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germaine, Stephen S.; O'Donnell, Michael S.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Baer, Lori; Fancher, Tammy; McBeth, Jamie; McDougal, Robert R.; Waltermire, Robert; Bowen, Zachary H.; Diffendorfer, James; Garman, Steven; Hanson, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated how well three leading information-extraction software programs (eCognition, Feature Analyst, Feature Extraction) and manual hand digitization interpreted information from remotely sensed imagery of a visually complex gas field in Wyoming. Specifically, we compared how each mapped the area of and classified the disturbance features present on each of three remotely sensed images, including 30-meter-resolution Landsat, 10-meter-resolution SPOT (Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre), and 0.6-meter resolution pan-sharpened QuickBird scenes. Feature Extraction mapped the spatial area of disturbance features most accurately on the Landsat and QuickBird imagery, while hand digitization was most accurate on the SPOT imagery. Footprint non-overlap error was smallest on the Feature Analyst map of the Landsat imagery, the hand digitization map of the SPOT imagery, and the Feature Extraction map of the QuickBird imagery. When evaluating feature classification success against a set of ground-truthed control points, Feature Analyst, Feature Extraction, and hand digitization classified features with similar success on the QuickBird and SPOT imagery, while eCognition classified features poorly relative to the other methods. All maps derived from Landsat imagery classified disturbance features poorly. Using the hand digitized QuickBird data as a reference and making pixel-by-pixel comparisons, Feature Extraction classified features best overall on the QuickBird imagery, and Feature Analyst classified features best overall on the SPOT and Landsat imagery. Based on the entire suite of tasks we evaluated, Feature Extraction performed best overall on the Landsat and QuickBird imagery, while hand digitization performed best overall on the SPOT imagery, and eCognition performed worst overall on all three images. Error rates for both area measurements and feature classification were prohibitively high on Landsat imagery, while QuickBird was time and cost prohibitive for

  15. Assessing the reduction of the hydrological connectivity of gully systems through vegetation restoration: field experiments and numerical modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Molina

    2009-10-01

    well, as the error on the simulated total outflow volumes is below 13% for 15 out of 16 cases. However, predicting infiltration amounts is difficult: the high sensitivity of model results to some crucial hydraulic parameters (runoff width, hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity is one of the reasons why the relationships between model parameter values and gully features are relatively weak.

    The results obtained from the field experiments show that gully systems are key elements in the hydrological connectivity of degraded landscapes. The transfer of overland flow and sediment from the slopes towards the river system highly depends on the presence/absence of vegetation in the gully beds and should therefore be accounted for in assessments of landscape degradation and/or recovery.

  16. Assessing the Suitability of Future Multi- and Hyperspectral Satellite Systems for Mapping the Spatial Distribution of Norway Spruce Timber Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Nink

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The availability of accurate and timely information on timber volume is important for supporting operational forest management. One option is to combine statistical concepts (e.g., small area estimates with specifically designed terrestrial sampling strategies to provide estimations also on the level of administrative units such as forest districts. This may suffice for economic assessments, but still fails to provide spatially explicit information on the distribution of timber volume within these management units. This type of information, however, is needed for decision-makers to design and implement appropriate management operations. The German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate is currently implementing an object-oriented database that will also allow the direct integration of Earth observation data products. This work analyzes the suitability of forthcoming multi- and hyperspectral satellite imaging systems for producing local distribution maps for timber volume of Norway spruce, one of the most economically important tree species. In combination with site-specific inventory data, fully processed hyperspectral data sets (HyMap were used to simulate datasets of the forthcoming EnMAP and Sentinel-2 systems to establish adequate models for estimating timber volume maps. The analysis included PLS regression and the k-NN method. Root Mean Square Errors between 21.6% and 26.5% were obtained, where k-NN performed slightly better than PLSR. It was concluded that the datasets of both simulated sensor systems fulfill accuracy requirements to support local forest management operations and could be used in synergy. Sentinel-2 can provide meaningful volume distribution maps in higher geometric resolution, while EnMAP, due to its hyperspectral coverage, can contribute complementary information, e.g., on biophysical conditions.

  17. Functional Clustering of the Human Inferior Parietal Lobule by Whole-Brain Connectivity Mapping of Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chiang-Shan R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The human inferior parietal lobule (IPL) comprised the lateral bank of the intraparietal sulcus, angular gyrus, and supramarginal gyrus, defined on the basis of anatomical landmarks and cytoarchitectural organization of neurons. However, it is not clear as to whether the three areas represent functional subregions within the IPL. For instance, imaging studies frequently identified clusters of activities that cut across areal boundaries. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to examine how individual voxels within the IPL are best clustered according to their connectivity to the whole brain. The results identified a best estimate of seven clusters that are hierarchically arranged as the anterior, middle, and posterior subregions. The anterior, middle, and posterior IPL are each significantly connected to the somatomotor areas, superior/middle/inferior frontal gyri, and regions of the default mode network. This functional segregation is supported by recent cytoarchitechtonics and tractography studies. IPL showed hemispheric differences in connectivity that accord with a predominantly left parietal role in tool use and language processing and a right parietal role in spatial attention and mathematical cognition. The functional clusters may also provide a more parsimonious and perhaps even accurate account of regional activations of the IPL during a variety of cognitive challenges, as reported in earlier fMRI studies. PMID:24308753

  18. Selection and quality assessment of Landsat data for the North American forest dynamics forest history maps of the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleeweis, Karen; Goward, Samuel N.; Huang, Chengquan; Dwyer, John L.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Lindsey, Mary A.; Michaelis, Andrew; Rishmawi, Khaldoun; Masek, Jeffery G.

    2016-01-01

    Using the NASA Earth Exchange platform, the North American Forest Dynamics (NAFD) project mapped forest history wall-to-wall, annually for the contiguous US (1986–2010) using the Vegetation Change Tracker algorithm. As with any effort to identify real changes in remotely sensed time-series, data gaps, shifts in seasonality, misregistration, inconsistent radiometry and cloud contamination can be sources of error. We discuss the NAFD image selection and processing stream (NISPS) that was designed to minimize these sources of error. The NISPS image quality assessments highlighted issues with the Landsat archive and metadata including inadequate georegistration, unreliability of the pre-2009 L5 cloud cover assessments algorithm, missing growing-season imagery and paucity of clear views. Assessment maps of Landsat 5–7 image quantities and qualities are presented that offer novel perspectives on the growing-season archive considered for this study. Over 150,000+ Landsat images were considered for the NAFD project. Optimally, one high quality cloud-free image in each year or a total of 12,152 images would be used. However, to accommodate data gaps and cloud/shadow contamination 23,338 images were needed. In 220 specific path-row image years no acceptable images were found resulting in data gaps in the annual national map products.

  19. Capability Assessment and Performance Metrics for the Titan Multispectral Mapping Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Fernandez-Diaz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a description of a new multispectral airborne mapping light detection and ranging (lidar along with performance results obtained from two years of data collection and test campaigns. The Titan multiwave lidar is manufactured by Teledyne Optech Inc. (Toronto, ON, Canada and emits laser pulses in the 1550, 1064 and 532 nm wavelengths simultaneously through a single oscillating mirror scanner at pulse repetition frequencies (PRF that range from 50 to 300 kHz per wavelength (max combined PRF of 900 kHz. The Titan system can perform simultaneous mapping in terrestrial and very shallow water environments and its multispectral capability enables new applications, such as the production of false color active imagery derived from the lidar return intensities and the automated classification of target and land covers. Field tests and mapping projects performed over the past two years demonstrate capabilities to classify five land covers in urban environments with an accuracy of 90%, map bathymetry under more than 15 m of water, and map thick vegetation canopies at sub-meter vertical resolutions. In addition to its multispectral and performance characteristics, the Titan system is designed with several redundancies and diversity schemes that have proven to be beneficial for both operations and the improvement of data quality.

  20. Suitability assessment and mapping of Oyo State, Nigeria, for rice cultivation using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoade, Modupe Alake

    2017-08-01

    Rice is one of the most preferred food crops in Nigeria. However, local rice production has declined with the oil boom of the 1970s causing demand to outstrip supply. Rice production can be increased through the integration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and crop-land suitability analysis and mapping. Based on the key predictor variables that determine rice yield mentioned in relevant literature, data on rainfall, temperature, relative humidity, slope, and soil of Oyo state were obtained. To develop rice suitability maps for the state, two MCE-GIS techniques, namely the Overlay approach and weighted linear combination (WLC), using fuzzy AHP were used and compared. A Boolean land use map derived from a landsat imagery was used in masking out areas currently unavailable for rice production. Both suitability maps were classified into four categories of very suitable, suitable, moderate, and fairly moderate. Although the maps differ slightly, the overlay and WLC (AHP) approach found most parts of Oyo state (51.79 and 82.9 % respectively) to be moderately suitable for rice production. However, in areas like Eruwa, Oyo, and Shaki, rainfall amount received needs to be supplemented by irrigation for increased rice yield.

  1. Correlation maps to assess soybean yield from EVI data in Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleyce Kelly Dantas Araújo Figueiredo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Vegetation indices are widely used to monitor crop development and generally used as input data in models to forecast yield. The first step of this study consisted of using monthly Maximum Value Composites to create correlation maps using Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor mounted on Terra satellite and historical yield during the soybean crop cycle in Paraná State, Brazil, from 2000/2001 to 2010/2011. We compared the ability of forecasting crop yield based on correlation maps and crop specific masks. We ran a preliminary regression model to test its ability on yield estimation for four municipalities during the soybean growing season. A regression model was developed for both methodologies to forecast soybean crop yield using leave-one-out cross validation. The Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE values in the implementation of the model ranged from 0.037 t ha−1 to 0.19 t ha−1 using correlation maps, while for crop specific masks, it varied from 0.21 t ha−1 to 0.35 t ha−1. The model was able to explain 96 % to 98 % of the variance in estimated yield from correlation maps, while it was able to explain only 2 % to 67 % for crop specific mask approach. The results showed that the correlation maps could be used to predict crop yield more effectively than crop specific masks. In addition, this method can provide an indication of soybean yield prior to harvesting.

  2. An assessment of high school students' conceptual structures of heat and temperature through concept maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykutlu, Isil; Bezen, Sevim; Bayrak, Celal

    2017-02-01

    This study is a qualitative one conducted in order to determine 9th, 10th, and 11th grade high school students' conceptual structures of heat and temperature through concept maps. The study was realized with the participation of a total of 80 students. As data gathering tool, a concept map developed by the researchers, which includes such items as heat, temperature, and matter, was used. Students were asked to form a concept map by using the concepts in the form and the concepts they thought were related with these. Data obtained from the research was analyzed via content analysis. As a result of the study, it was determined that students have misconceptions and lack of knowledge of heat and temperature. Lastly, the following can be given as examples of students' misconceptions or lack of knowledge: they think temperature comes into being as a result of heat and that heat is a kind of energy.

  3. Ultrasound assessment of fascial connectivity in the lower limb during maximal cervical flexion: technical aspects and practical application of automatic tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz-Montecinos, Carlos; Cerda, Mauricio; Sanzana-Cuche, Rodolfo; Mart?n-Mart?n, Jaime; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background The fascia provides and transmits forces for connective tissues, thereby regulating human posture and movement. One way to assess the myofascial interaction is a fascia ultrasound recording. Ultrasound can follow fascial displacement either manually or automatically through two-dimensional (2D) method. One possible method is the iterated Lucas-Kanade Pyramid (LKP) algorithm, which is based on automatic pixel tracking during passive movements in 2D fascial displacement assessments. ...

  4. Assessment of an Operational System for Crop Type Map Production Using High Temporal and Spatial Resolution Satellite Optical Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Inglada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Crop area extent estimates and crop type maps provide crucial information for agricultural monitoring and management. Remote sensing imagery in general and, more specifically, high temporal and high spatial resolution data as the ones which will be available with upcoming systems, such as Sentinel-2, constitute a major asset for this kind of application. The goal of this paper is to assess to what extent state-of-the-art supervised classification methods can be applied to high resolution multi-temporal optical imagery to produce accurate crop type maps at the global scale. Five concurrent strategies for automatic crop type map production have been selected and benchmarked using SPOT4 (Take5 and Landsat 8 data over 12 test sites spread all over the globe (four in Europe, four in Africa, two in America and two in Asia. This variety of tests sites allows one to draw conclusions applicable to a wide variety of landscapes and crop systems. The results show that a random forest classifier operating on linearly temporally gap-filled images can achieve overall accuracies above 80% for most sites. Only two sites showed low performances: Madagascar due to the presence of fields smaller than the pixel size and Burkina Faso due to a mix of trees and crops in the fields. The approach is based on supervised machine learning techniques, which need in situ data collection for the training step, but the map production is fully automatic.

  5. Uncertainty assessment of PM2.5 contamination mapping using spatiotemporal sequential indicator simulations and multi-temporal monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Christakos, George; Huang, Wei; Lin, Chengda; Fu, Peihong; Mei, Yang

    2016-04-01

    Because of the rapid economic growth in China, many regions are subjected to severe particulate matter pollution. Thus, improving the methods of determining the spatiotemporal distribution and uncertainty of air pollution can provide considerable benefits when developing risk assessments and environmental policies. The uncertainty assessment methods currently in use include the sequential indicator simulation (SIS) and indicator kriging techniques. However, these methods cannot be employed to assess multi-temporal data. In this work, a spatiotemporal sequential indicator simulation (STSIS) based on a non-separable spatiotemporal semivariogram model was used to assimilate multi-temporal data in the mapping and uncertainty assessment of PM2.5 distributions in a contaminated atmosphere. PM2.5 concentrations recorded throughout 2014 in Shandong Province, China were used as the experimental dataset. Based on the number of STSIS procedures, we assessed various types of mapping uncertainties, including single-location uncertainties over one day and multiple days and multi-location uncertainties over one day and multiple days. A comparison of the STSIS technique with the SIS technique indicate that a better performance was obtained with the STSIS method.

  6. Towards a comprehensive atlas of cortical connections in a primate brain: Mapping tracer injection studies of the common marmoset into a reference digital template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majka, Piotr; Chaplin, Tristan A; Yu, Hsin-Hao; Tolpygo, Alexander; Mitra, Partha P; Wójcik, Daniel K; Rosa, Marcello G P

    2016-08-01

    The marmoset is an emerging animal model for large-scale attempts to understand primate brain connectivity, but achieving this aim requires the development and validation of procedures for normalization and integration of results from many neuroanatomical experiments. Here we describe a computational pipeline for coregistration of retrograde tracing data on connections of cortical areas into a 3D marmoset brain template, generated from Nissl-stained sections. The procedure results in a series of spatial transformations that are applied to the coordinates of labeled neurons in the different cases, bringing them into common stereotaxic space. We applied this procedure to 17 injections, placed in the frontal lobe of nine marmosets as part of earlier studies. Visualizations of cortical patterns of connections revealed by these injections are supplied as Supplementary Materials. Comparison between the results of the automated and human-based processing of these cases reveals that the centers of injection sites can be reconstructed, on average, to within 0.6 mm of coordinates estimated by an experienced neuroanatomist. Moreover, cell counts obtained in different areas by the automated approach are highly correlated (r = 0.83) with those obtained by an expert, who examined in detail histological sections for each individual. The present procedure enables comparison and visualization of large datasets, which in turn opens the way for integration and analysis of results from many animals. Its versatility, including applicability to archival materials, may reduce the number of additional experiments required to produce the first detailed cortical connectome of a primate brain. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2161-2181, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of winter flounder otoliths assess connectivity between juvenile and adult habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter flounder populations (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) have significantly declined in recent years along the Rhode Island, USA coastline. The reasons for this decline are not completely clear; however, habitat loss may be a factor. Therefore, knowledge of connectivity betwee...

  8. Dynamic Assessment of EFL Learners' Listening Comprehension via Computerized Concept Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Saman; Latif, Shokoufeh Vakili

    2015-01-01

    In Vygotsky's theory, learner's Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) and autonomous performance could be further developed through social interaction with an expert. Computerized concept mapping enjoys the advantage of meeting learners' differences and therefore can be applied as a scaffold to support learning process.Taking a dynamic assessment…

  9. Mapping and assessing the environmental impacts of border tactical infrastructure in the Sky Island Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroline Patrick-Birdwell; Sergio Avila-Villegas; Jenny Neeley; Louise Misztal

    2013-01-01

    In this project we mapped the different types of border barriers, identified impacts of border infrastructure on public and private lands and conducted spatial analyses within the approximately 200 miles of international border in the Sky Island region. The Sky Island region, bisected by the U.S.-Mexico border, is critically important for its biodiversity and...

  10. Concept Map as an Assessment Tool in Secondary School Mathematics: An Analysis of Teachers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutodi, Paul; Chigonga, Benard

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on teachers' views on concept mapping: its applicability; reliability; advantages and; difficulties. A close-ended questionnaire was administered to 50 purposefully selected secondary school mathematics teachers from Sekhukhune District, Limpopo, South Africa. The findings indicate that mathematics teachers generally perceive…

  11. Integrating Concept Mapping into Information Systems Education for Meaningful Learning and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Yue, Kwok-Bun

    2017-01-01

    Concept map (CM) is a theoretically sound yet easy to learn tool and can be effectively used to represent knowledge. Even though many disciplines have adopted CM as a teaching and learning tool to improve learning effectiveness, its application in IS curriculum is sparse. Meaningful learning happens when one iteratively integrates new concepts and…

  12. Mapping landscape units in Galicia (Spain: A first step for assessment and management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbelle-Rico Eduardo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the beginning of 2015, the Regional Administration of Galicia (NW Spain set the requirements for a map of landscape units: it had to be produced in less than 3 months, it should cover the whole territory of the region (29,574 km², and it should be useful for management at a scale of 1:25,000. With these objectives in mind, we pro- posed a semiautomatic mapping methodology entirely based on the use of free software (GRASS GIS and already available cartographic information. Semi-automatic classification of different land-use patterns was at the heart of the proposed process. Consultation with experts of different academic background took place along the project. This consultation process allowed to identify both problems and opportunities. As it could be expected, the diverse epistemic community represented by the expert panel implied that one of the main challenges was to reach consensus on the understanding of the concept of landscape and the decisions leading to the mapping methodology proposed in this paper. This initiated a very interesting debate that, in our view, was centred around three main issues: the approach to the landscape, the purpose of the mapping exercise, and the ability to include subjectivity into the analysis.

  13. The Use of Geospatial Technologies in Flood Hazard Mapping and Assessment: Case Study from River Evros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzafou, Angeliki; Markogianni, Vasiliki; Dimitriou, Elias

    2017-02-01

    Many scientists link climate change to the increase of the extreme weather phenomena frequency, which combined with land use changes often lead to disasters with severe social and economic effects. Especially floods as a consequence of heavy rainfall can put vulnerable human and natural systems such as transboundary wetlands at risk. In order to meet the European Directive 2007/60/EC requirements for the development of flood risk management plans, the flood hazard map of Evros transboundary watershed was produced after a grid-based GIS modelling method that aggregates the main factors related to the development of floods: topography, land use, geology, slope, flow accumulation and rainfall intensity. The verification of this tool was achieved through the comparison between the produced hazard map and the inundation maps derived from the supervised classification of Landsat 5 and 7 satellite imageries of four flood events that took place at Evros delta proximity, a wetland of international importance. The comparison of the modelled output (high and very high flood hazard areas) with the extent of the inundated areas as mapped from the satellite data indicated the satisfactory performance of the model. Furthermore, the vulnerability of each land use against the flood events was examined. Geographically Weighted Regression has also been applied between the final flood hazard map and the major factors in order to ascertain their contribution to flood events. The results accredited the existence of a strong relationship between land uses and flood hazard indicating the flood susceptibility of the lowlands and agricultural land. A dynamic transboundary flood hazard management plan should be developed in order to meet the Flood Directive requirements for adequate and coordinated mitigation practices to reduce flood risk.

  14. a Study on the Introduction of Total Natural Resources Management System Using the Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J.; Lee, K.; Jang, R.; Jeon, S.

    2018-04-01

    The environmental impact assessment system and the environmental plan for the preservation of the land environment are carried out with the aim of preventing damage to the environment caused by human activities, improving the quality of life and creating a pleasant environment. However, despite these various systems, the natural resources have been continuously damaged, and the system to cope with them has been advanced, but there has been a limit to fully conserve natural resources from development. The total amount of natural resources is being promoted as a part of the purpose of supplementing the system, but the evaluation method of the total amount of natural resources suitable for domestic situation is not presented yet. Natural resources are diverse and complicated in their categories and elements, and their measurement units are also diverse, making it difficult to synthesize them into one unit. Therefore, in this study, we proposed a method to calculate the total amount by using the evaluation map of the Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map (ECVAM) which derives the final achievement with 5 grades using 65 evaluation items. However, we consistently applied the weight twice as much as the grade and did not utilize any information other than the map of ECVAM. The results of this study can be applied to the Total Natural Resources Management System through follow-up study such as application of various environmental information and weighting method.

  15. A STUDY ON THE INTRODUCTION OF TOTAL NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM USING THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION VALUE ASSESSMENT MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hwang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact assessment system and the environmental plan for the preservation of the land environment are carried out with the aim of preventing damage to the environment caused by human activities, improving the quality of life and creating a pleasant environment. However, despite these various systems, the natural resources have been continuously damaged, and the system to cope with them has been advanced, but there has been a limit to fully conserve natural resources from development. The total amount of natural resources is being promoted as a part of the purpose of supplementing the system, but the evaluation method of the total amount of natural resources suitable for domestic situation is not presented yet. Natural resources are diverse and complicated in their categories and elements, and their measurement units are also diverse, making it difficult to synthesize them into one unit. Therefore, in this study, we proposed a method to calculate the total amount by using the evaluation map of the Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map (ECVAM which derives the final achievement with 5 grades using 65 evaluation items. However, we consistently applied the weight twice as much as the grade and did not utilize any information other than the map of ECVAM. The results of this study can be applied to the Total Natural Resources Management System through follow-up study such as application of various environmental information and weighting method.

  16. Role of T1 mapping as a complementary tool to T2* for non-invasive cardiac iron overload assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torlasco, Camilla; Cassinerio, Elena; Roghi, Alberto; Faini, Andrea; Capecchi, Marco; Abdel-Gadir, Amna; Giannattasio, Cristina; Parati, Gianfranco; Moon, James C; Cappellini, Maria D; Pedrotti, Patrizia

    2018-01-01

    Iron overload-related heart failure is the principal cause of death in transfusion dependent patients, including those with Thalassemia Major. Linking cardiac siderosis measured by T2* to therapy improves outcomes. T1 mapping can also measure iron; preliminary data suggests it may have higher sensitivity for iron, particularly for early overload (the conventional cut-point for no iron by T2* is 20ms, but this is believed insensitive). We compared T1 mapping to T2* in cardiac iron overload. In a prospectively large single centre study of 138 Thalassemia Major patients and 32 healthy controls, we compared T1 mapping to dark blood and bright blood T2* acquired at 1.5T. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of T2* and T1. A "moving window" approach was taken to understand the strength of the association at different levels of iron overload. The relationship between T2* (here dark blood) and T1 is described by a log-log linear regression, which can be split in three different slopes: 1) T2* low, 30ms, weak relationship. All subjects with T2*20ms, 38% had low T1 with most of the subjects in the T2* range 20-30ms having a low T1. In established cardiac iron overload, T1 and T2* are concordant. However, in the 20-30ms T2* range, T1 mapping appears to detect iron. These data support previous suggestions that T1 detects missed iron in 1 out of 3 subjects with normal T2*, and that T1 mapping is complementary to T2*. The clinical significance of a low T1 with normal T2* should be further investigated.

  17. Connecting Grammaticalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård-Sørensen, Jens; Heltoft, Lars; Schøsler, Lene

    morphological, topological and constructional paradigms often connect to form complex paradigms. The book introduces the concept of connecting grammaticalisation to describe the formation, restructuring and dismantling of such complex paradigms. Drawing primarily on data from Germanic, Romance and Slavic...

  18. Coastal Mapping for Baseline Geoscience Knowledge to Support Community Hazard Assessment and Sustainable Development, Eastern Baffin Island, Nunavut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, D. L.; Bell, T.; Campbell, D. C.; Cowan, B.; Deering, R. L.; Hatcher, S. V.; Hughes Clarke, J. E.; Irvine, M.; Manson, G. K.; Smith, I. R.; Edinger, E.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2012 we have carried out extensive multibeam bathymetric and backscatter surveys in coastal waters of eastern Baffin Island, supplemented by sub-bottom imaging and coring. Shore-zone surveys have been undertaken in proximity to the communities of Iqaluit and Qikiqtarjuaq, following earlier work in Clyde River. These support benthic habitat mapping, geological exploration, analysis of past and present sea-level trends, and assessment of coastal hazards relating to climate change and seabed instability. Outputs include a seamless topographic-bathymetric digital elevation model (DEM) of extensive boulder-strewn tidal flats in the large tidal-range setting at Iqaluit, supporting analysis of coastal flooding, wave run-up, and sea-ice impacts on a rapidly developing urban waterfront in the context of climate change. Seabed mapping of inner Frobisher Bay seaward of Iqaluit reveals a potential local tsunami hazard in widespread submarine slope failures, the triggers, magnitudes, and ages of which are the subject of ongoing research. In fjords of the Cumberland Peninsula, this project has mapped numerous submerged delta terraces at 19 to 45 m present water depth. These attest to an early postglacial submerged shoreline, displaced by glacial-isostatic adjustment. It rises linearly over a distance of 100 km east to west, where a submerged boulder barricade on a -16 m shoreline was discovered at a proposed port site in Broughton Channel near Qikiqtarjuaq. Palaeotopographic mapping using the multibeam data revealed an enclosed estuarine environment quite different from the present-day open passage swept by tidal currents. At Clyde River, combined seabed and onshore DEMs with geohazard mapping provided foundation data for community assessment and planning under a local knowledge co-production initiative. The geohazard work identified portions of the town-site more vulnerable to both coastal flooding and potential thaw subsidence, while the shallow delta terrace suggested a

  19. Public Health and Epidemiological Considerations For Avian Influenza Risk Mapping and Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Dudley

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses are now widely recognized as important threats to agricultural biosecurity and public health, and as the potential source for pandemic human influenza viruses. Human infections with avian influenza viruses have been reported from Asia (H5N1, H5N2, H9N2, Africa (H5N1, H10N7, Europe (H7N7, H7N3, H7N2, and North America (H7N3, H7N2, H11N9. Direct and indirect public health risks from avian influenzas are not restricted to the highly pathogenic H5N1 "bird flu" virus, and include low pathogenic as well as high pathogenic strains of other avian influenza virus subtypes, e.g., H1N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7, and H9N2. Research has shown that the 1918 Spanish Flu pandemic was caused by an H1N1 influenza virus of avian origins, and during the past decade, fatal human disease and human-to-human transmission has been confirmed among persons infected with H5N1 and H7N7 avian influenza viruses. Our ability to accurately assess and map the potential economic and public health risks associated with avian influenza outbreaks is currently constrained by uncertainties regarding key aspects of the ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza viruses in birds and humans, and the mechanisms by which highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are transmitted between and among wild birds, domestic poultry, mammals, and humans. Key factors needing further investigation from a risk management perspective include identification of the driving forces behind the emergence and persistence of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses within poultry populations, and a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms regulating transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses between industrial poultry farms and backyard poultry flocks. More information is needed regarding the extent to which migratory bird populations to contribute to the transnational and transcontinental spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, and the potential for wild bird

  20. Multitemporal Accuracy and Precision Assessment of Unmanned Aerial System Photogrammetry for Slope-Scale Snow Depth Maps in Alpine Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Marc S.; Bühler, Yves; Fromm, Reinhard

    2017-12-01

    Reliable and timely information on the spatio-temporal distribution of snow in alpine terrain plays an important role for a wide range of applications. Unmanned aerial system (UAS) photogrammetry is increasingly applied to cost-efficiently map the snow depth at very high resolution with flexible applicability. However, crucial questions regarding quality and repeatability of this technique are still under discussion. Here we present a multitemporal accuracy and precision assessment of UAS photogrammetry for snow depth mapping on the slope-scale. We mapped a 0.12 km2 large snow-covered study site, located in a high-alpine valley in Western Austria. 12 UAS flights were performed to acquire imagery at 0.05 m ground sampling distance in visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths with a modified commercial, off-the-shelf sensor mounted on a custom-built fixed-wing UAS. The imagery was processed with structure-from-motion photogrammetry software to generate orthophotos, digital surface models (DSMs) and snow depth maps (SDMs). Accuracy of DSMs and SDMs were assessed with terrestrial laser scanning and manual snow depth probing, respectively. The results show that under good illumination conditions (study site in full sunlight), the DSMs and SDMs were acquired with an accuracy of ≤ 0.25 and ≤ 0.29 m (both at 1σ), respectively. In case of poorly illuminated snow surfaces (study site shadowed), the NIR imagery provided higher accuracy (0.19 m; 0.23 m) than VIS imagery (0.49 m; 0.37 m). The precision of the UASSDMs was 0.04 m for a small, stable area and below 0.33 m for the whole study site (both at 1σ).

  1. Irrigation salinity hazard assessment and risk mapping in the lower Macintyre Valley, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingyi; Prochazka, Melissa J; Triantafilis, John

    2016-05-01

    In the Murray-Darling Basin of Australia, secondary soil salinization occurs due to excessive deep drainage and the presence of shallow saline water tables. In order to understand the cause and best management, soil and vadose zone information is necessary. This type of information has been generated in the Toobeah district but owing to the state border an inconsistent methodology was used. This has led to much confusion from stakeholders who are unable to understand the ambiguity of the results in terms of final overall risk of salinization. In this research, a digital soil mapping method that employs various ancillary data is presented. Firstly, an electromagnetic induction survey using a Geonics EM34 and EM38 was used to characterise soil and vadose zone stratigraphy. From the apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) collected, soil sampling locations were selected and with laboratory analysis carried out to determine average (2-12m) clay and EC of a saturated soil-paste extract (ECe). EM34 ECa, land surface parameters derived from a digital elevation model and measured soil data were used to establish multiple linear regression models, which allowed for mapping of various hazard factors, including clay and ECe. EM38 ECa data were calibrated to deep drainage obtained from Salt and Leaching Fraction (SaLF) modelling of soil data. Expert knowledge and indicator kriging were used to determine critical values where the salinity hazard factors were likely to contribute to a shallow saline water table (i.e., clay ≤35%; ECe>2.5dS/m, and deep drainage >100mm/year). This information was combined to produce an overall salinity risk map for the Toobeah district using indicator kriging. The risk map shows potential salinization areas and where detailed information is required and where targeted research can be conducted to monitor soil conditions and water table heights and determine best management strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing Mild Cognitive Impairment Progression using a Spherical Brain Mapping of Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Murcia, Francisco Jesus; Górriz, Juan Manuel; Ramírez, Javier; Segovia, Fermín; Salas-Gonzalez, Diego; Castillo-Barnes, Diego; Ortiz, Andrés

    2018-04-04

    The early diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), particularly in its prodromal stage, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), still remains a challenge. Many computational tools have been developed to successfully explore and predict the disease progression. In this context, the Spherical Brain Mapping (SBM) proved its ability in detecting differences between AD and aged subjects without symptoms of dementia. Being a very visual tool, its application in predicting MCI conversion to AD could be of great help to understand neurodegeneration and the disease progression. In this work, we aim at predicting the conversion of MCI affected subjects to AD more than 6 months in advance of their conversion session and understanding the progression of the disease by predicting neuropsychological test outcomes from MRI data. In order to do so, SBM is applied to a series of MRI scans from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). The resulting spherical brain maps show statistical and morphological information of the brain in a bidimensional plane, performing at the same time a significant feature reduction that provides a feature vector used in classification analysis. The study achieves up to 92.3% accuracy in the AD versus normal controls (CTL) detection, and up to a 77.6% in detection a of MCI conversions when trained with AD and CTL subjects. The prediction of neuropsychological test outcomes achieved R2 rates up to more than 0.5. Significant regions according to t-test and correlation analysis match reported brain areas in the literature. The results prove that Spherical Brain Mapping offers good ability to predict conversion patterns and cognitive state, at the same time that provides an additional aid for visualizing a two-dimensional abstraction map of the brain.

  3. Walk and learn: an empirical framework for assessing spatial knowledge acquisition during mobile map use

    OpenAIRE

    Brügger, Annina; Richter, Kai-Florian; Fabrikant, Sara I

    2016-01-01

    We gladly use automated technology (e.g., smart devices) to extend our hard working minds. But what if such technology turns into mind crutches we cannot do without? Understanding how varying levels of automation in mobile maps might impact navigation performance and spatial knowledge acquisition will provide important insights for the ongoing debate on the potentially detrimental effects of using navigation systems on human spatial cognition. We need to identify the right balance between sys...

  4. A global map of travel time to cities to assess inequalities in accessibility in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, D. J.; Nelson, A.; Gibson, H. S.; Temperley, W.; Peedell, S.; Lieber, A.; Hancher, M.; Poyart, E.; Belchior, S.; Fullman, N.; Mappin, B.; Dalrymple, U.; Rozier, J.; Lucas, T. C. D.; Howes, R. E.; Tusting, L. S.; Kang, S. Y.; Cameron, E.; Bisanzio, D.; Battle, K. E.; Bhatt, S.; Gething, P. W.

    2018-01-01

    The economic and man-made resources that sustain human wellbeing are not distributed evenly across the world, but are instead heavily concentrated in cities. Poor access to opportunities and services offered by urban centres (a function of distance, transport infrastructure, and the spatial distribution of cities) is a major barrier to improved livelihoods and overall development. Advancing accessibility worldwide underpins the equity agenda of ‘leaving no one behind’ established by the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations. This has renewed international efforts to accurately measure accessibility and generate a metric that can inform the design and implementation of development policies. The only previous attempt to reliably map accessibility worldwide, which was published nearly a decade ago, predated the baseline for the Sustainable Development Goals and excluded the recent expansion in infrastructure networks, particularly in lower-resource settings. In parallel, new data sources provided by Open Street Map and Google now capture transportation networks with unprecedented detail and precision. Here we develop and validate a map that quantifies travel time to cities for 2015 at a spatial resolution of approximately one by one kilometre by integrating ten global-scale surfaces that characterize factors affecting human movement rates and 13,840 high-density urban centres within an established geospatial-modelling framework. Our results highlight disparities in accessibility relative to wealth as 50.9% of individuals living in low-income settings (concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa) reside within an hour of a city compared to 90.7% of individuals in high-income settings. By further triangulating this map against socioeconomic datasets, we demonstrate how access to urban centres stratifies the economic, educational, and health status of humanity.

  5. A global map of travel time to cities to assess inequalities in accessibility in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, D J; Nelson, A; Gibson, H S; Temperley, W; Peedell, S; Lieber, A; Hancher, M; Poyart, E; Belchior, S; Fullman, N; Mappin, B; Dalrymple, U; Rozier, J; Lucas, T C D; Howes, R E; Tusting, L S; Kang, S Y; Cameron, E; Bisanzio, D; Battle, K E; Bhatt, S; Gething, P W

    2018-01-18

    The economic and man-made resources that sustain human wellbeing are not distributed evenly across the world, but are instead heavily concentrated in cities. Poor access to opportunities and services offered by urban centres (a function of distance, transport infrastructure, and the spatial distribution of cities) is a major barrier to improved livelihoods and overall development. Advancing accessibility worldwide underpins the equity agenda of 'leaving no one behind' established by the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations. This has renewed international efforts to accurately measure accessibility and generate a metric that can inform the design and implementation of development policies. The only previous attempt to reliably map accessibility worldwide, which was published nearly a decade ago, predated the baseline for the Sustainable Development Goals and excluded the recent expansion in infrastructure networks, particularly in lower-resource settings. In parallel, new data sources provided by Open Street Map and Google now capture transportation networks with unprecedented detail and precision. Here we develop and validate a map that quantifies travel time to cities for 2015 at a spatial resolution of approximately one by one kilometre by integrating ten global-scale surfaces that characterize factors affecting human movement rates and 13,840 high-density urban centres within an established geospatial-modelling framework. Our results highlight disparities in accessibility relative to wealth as 50.9% of individuals living in low-income settings (concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa) reside within an hour of a city compared to 90.7% of individuals in high-income settings. By further triangulating this map against socioeconomic datasets, we demonstrate how access to urban centres stratifies the economic, educational, and health status of humanity.

  6. Noninvasive Assessment of Oxygen Extraction Fraction in Chronic Ischemia Using Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping at 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwano, Ikuko; Kudo, Kohsuke; Sato, Ryota; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Kameda, Hiroyuki; Nomura, Jun-Ichi; Mori, Futoshi; Yamashita, Fumio; Ito, Kenji; Yoshioka, Kunihiro; Sasaki, Makoto

    2017-08-01

    The oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) is an effective metric to evaluate metabolic reserve in chronic ischemia. However, OEF is considered to be accurately measured only when using positron emission tomography (PET). Thus, we investigated whether OEF maps generated by magnetic resonance quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) at 7 Tesla enabled detection of OEF changes when compared with those obtained with PET. Forty-one patients with chronic stenosis/occlusion of the unilateral internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery were examined using 7 Tesla-MRI and PET scanners. QSM images were obtained from 3-dimensional T2*-weighted images, using a multiple dipole-inversion algorithm. OEF maps were generated based on susceptibility differences between venous structures and brain tissues on QSM images. OEF ratios of the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery territory against the contralateral side were calculated on the QSM-OEF and PET-OEF images, using an anatomic template. The OEF ratio in the middle cerebral artery territory showed significant correlations between QSM-OEF and PET-OEF maps ( r =0.69; P 1.09, as determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis, showed a sensitivity and specificity of 0.82 and 0.86, respectively, for the substantial increase in the PET-OEF ratio. Absolute QSM-OEF values were significantly correlated with PET-OEF values in the patients with increased PET-OEF. OEF ratios on QSM-OEF images at 7 Tesla showed a good correlation with those on PET-OEF images in patients with unilateral steno-occlusive internal carotid artery/middle cerebral artery lesions, suggesting that noninvasive OEF measurement by MRI can be a substitute for PET. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Assessment and GIS mapping of terrestrial Gamma radiation in Elfao area in Elgedaref states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, N. S.

    2012-09-01

    This study is a part of national programme with an overall objective of producing radioactivity map for Sudan. It is carried out in Elfao area, the area which cover West Elgadareif and East Aljazeera State. Soil samples were collected with the aid of global positioning system (GPS) and the activity concentration of 40 K , 2 38U , 232 Th, have been measured using Nal γ-spectrometry. The average concentrations were 322±241 Bq/kg for 40 K, 20±7 Bq/kg for 2 38U and 27±1.4 Bq/kg for 232 Th. The obtained results were found to be lower than the corresponding global values reported in the UNSCEAR publications for normal areas Absorbed dose rate in air a height of 1m from the ground as calculated from the measured activity concentration using of Dose Rate Conversion Factors (DRCF) averaged 39 n Gy/h with corresponding to an annual effective dose of 48 μSv/y. These values lie within the worldwide range for normal radiation areas. Using Geographical Information System (GIS), prediction maps for activity concentrations of 40 K, 2 38U , 232 Th were produced. Similar GIS predictive map for absorbed dose rate in air at a height of above ground level was produced, which showed a trend of increase from the East towards West of the study area.(Author)

  8. Assessment of dynamic probabilistic methods for mapping snow cover in Québec Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Seve, D.; Perreault, L.; Vachon, F.; Guay, F.; choquette, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Hydro-Quebec is the leader in electricity production in North America and uses hydraulic resources to generate 97% of its overall production where snow represents 30% of its annual energy reserve. Information on snow cover extent (SC) and snow water equivalent (SWE) is crucial for hydrological forecasting, particularly in Nordic regions where a majority of total precipitations falls as snow. Accurate estimation of the spatial distribution of snow cover variables is required to measure the extent of this resource but snow surveys are expensive due to inaccessibility factors and to the large extent nature of the Quebec geography. Consequently, the follow-up of snowmelt is particularly challenging for operational forecasting resulting in the need to develop a new approach to assist forecasters. For improved understanding of the dynamics of snow melting over watersheds and to generate optimized power production, Hydro-Québec's Research Institute (IREQ) has developed expertise in in-situ, remote sensing monitoring and statistical treatment of such data. The main goal of this Hydro-Quebec project is to develop an automatic and dynamic snow mapping system providing a daily snow map by merging remote sensing (AVHRR and SSMI) and in situ data. This paper focuses on the work accomplished on passive microwave SSM/I data to follow up snow cover. In our problematic, it is highly useful to classify snow, more specifically during the snowmelt period. The challenge is to be able to discriminate ground from wet snow as it will react as a black body, therefore, adding noise to global brightness temperature. Two dynamic snow classifiers were developed and tested. For this purpose, channels at 19 and 37 GHz in vertical polarization have been used to feed each model. SWE values from gamma ray in situ stations (GMON) and data snow depth from ultrasonic sensor (SR50) were used to validate the output models. The first algorithm is based on a standard K-mean clustering approach, combined

  9. Assessment and mapping of slope stability based on slope units: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shallow landslide; infinite slope stability equation; return period precipitation; assessment; slope unit. ... 2010), logistic regression ... model to assess the hazard of shallow landslides ..... grating a fuzzy k-means classification and a Bayesian.

  10. Mapping the Association of College and Research Libraries information literacy framework and nursing professional standards onto an assessment rubric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Gloria; Angell, Katelyn

    2017-04-01

    The authors developed a rubric for assessing undergraduate nursing research papers for information literacy skills critical to their development as researchers and health professionals. We developed a rubric mapping six American Nurses Association professional standards onto six related concepts of the Association of College & Research Libraries (ACRL) Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education. We used this rubric to evaluate fifty student research papers and assess inter-rater reliability. Students tended to score highest on the "Information Has Value" dimension and lowest on the "Scholarship as Conversation" dimension. However, we found a discrepancy between the grading patterns of the two investigators, with inter-rater reliability being "fair" or "poor" for all six rubric dimensions. The development of a rubric that dually assesses information literacy skills and maps relevant disciplinary competencies holds potential. This study offers a template for a rubric inspired by the ACRL Framework and outside professional standards. However, the overall low inter-rater reliability demands further calibration of the rubric. Following additional norming, this rubric can be used to help students identify the key information literacy competencies that they need in order to succeed as college students and future nurses. These skills include developing an authoritative voice, determining the scope of their information needs, and understanding the ramifications of their information choices.

  11. Habitat Mapping and Change Assessment of Coastal Environments: An Examination of WorldView-2, QuickBird, and IKONOS Satellite Imagery and Airborne LiDAR for Mapping Barrier Island Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. McCarthy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Habitat mapping can be accomplished using many techniques and types of data. There are pros and cons for each technique and dataset, therefore, the goal of this project was to investigate the capabilities of new satellite sensor technology and to assess map accuracy for a variety of image classification techniques based on hundreds of field-work sites. The study area was Masonboro Island, an undeveloped area in coastal North Carolina, USA. Using the best map results, a habitat change assessment was conducted between 2002 and 2010. WorldView-2, QuickBird, and IKONOS satellite sensors were tested using unsupervised and supervised methods using a variety of spectral band combinations. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR elevation and texture data pan-sharpening, and spatial filtering were also tested. In total, 200 maps were generated and results indicated that WorldView-2 was consistently more accurate than QuickBird and IKONOS. Supervised maps were more accurate than unsupervised in 80% of the maps. Pan-sharpening the images did not consistently improve map accuracy but using a majority filter generally increased map accuracy. During the relatively short eight-year period, 20% of the coastal study area changed with intertidal marsh experiencing the most change. Smaller habitat classes changed substantially as well. For example, 84% of upland scrub-shrub experienced change. These results document the dynamic nature of coastal habitats, validate the use of the relatively new Worldview-2 sensor, and may be used to guide future coastal habitat mapping.

  12. Identification and assessment of Anderson-Fabry disease by cardiovascular magnetic resonance noncontrast myocardial T1 mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sado, Daniel M; White, Steven K; Piechnik, Stefan K; Banypersad, Sanjay M; Treibel, Thomas; Captur, Gabriella; Fontana, Marianna; Maestrini, Viviana; Flett, Andrew S; Robson, Matthew D; Lachmann, Robin H; Murphy, Elaine; Mehta, Atul; Hughes, Derralynn; Neubauer, Stefan; Elliott, Perry M; Moon, James C

    2013-05-01

    Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) is a rare but underdiagnosed intracellular lipid disorder that can cause left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Lipid is known to shorten the magnetic resonance imaging parameter T1. We hypothesized that noncontrast T1 mapping by cardiovascular magnetic resonance would provide a novel and useful measure in this disease with potential to detect early cardiac involvement and distinguish AFD LVH from other causes. Two hundred twenty-seven subjects were studied: patients with AFD (n=44; 55% with LVH), healthy volunteers (n=67; 0% with LVH), patients with hypertension (n=41; 24% with LVH), patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n=34; 100% with LVH), those with severe aortic stenosis (n=21; 81% with LVH), and patients with definite amyloid light-chain (AL) cardiac amyloidosis (n=20; 100% with LVH). T1 mapping was performed using the shortened modified Look-Locker inversion sequence on a 1.5-T magnet before gadolinium administration with primary results derived from the basal and midseptum. Compared with health volunteers, septal T1 was lower in AFD and higher in other diseases (AFD versus healthy volunteers versus other patients, 882±47, 968±32, 1018±74 milliseconds; Pgadolinium enhancement (1001±82 versus 891±38 milliseconds; P<0.0001). Noncontrast T1 mapping shows potential as a unique and powerful measurement in the imaging assessment of LVH and AFD.

  13. Processing and inversion of commercial helicopter time-domain electromagnetic data for environmental assessments and geologic and hydrologic mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J.E., Podgorski; Auken, Esben; Schamper, Cyril Noel Clarence

    2013-01-01

    Helicopter time-domain electromagnetic (HTEM) surveying has historically been used for mineral exploration, but over the past decade it has started to be used in environmental assessments and geologic and hydrologic mapping. Such surveying is a cost-effective means of rapidly acquiring densely......%-23%, and the artificial lineations were practically eliminated. Our processing and inversion strategy is entirely general, such that with minor system-specific modifications it could be applied to any HTEM data set, including those recorded many years ago. © 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists....

  14. Probabilistic change mapping from airborne LiDAR for post-disaster damage assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalobeanu, A.; Runyon, S. C.; Kruse, F. A.

    2013-12-01

    When both pre- and post-event LiDAR point clouds are available, change detection can be performed to identify areas that were most affected by a disaster event, and to obtain a map of quantitative changes in terms of height differences. In the case of earthquakes in built-up areas for instance, first responders can use a LiDAR change map to help prioritize search and recovery efforts. The main challenge consists of producing reliable change maps, robust to collection conditions, free of processing artifacts (due for instance to triangulation or gridding), and taking into account the various sources of uncertainty. Indeed, datasets acquired within a few years interval are often of different point density (sometimes an order of magnitude higher for recent data), different acquisition geometries, and very likely suffer from georeferencing errors and geometric discrepancies. All these differences might not be important for producing maps from each dataset separately, but they are crucial when performing change detection. We have developed a novel technique for the estimation of uncertainty maps from the LiDAR point clouds, using Bayesian inference, treating all variables as random. The main principle is to grid all points on a common grid before attempting any comparison, as working directly with point clouds is cumbersome and time consuming. A non-parametric approach based on local linear regression was implemented, assuming a locally linear model for the surface. This enabled us to derive error bars on gridded elevations, and then elevation differences. In this way, a map of statistically significant changes could be computed - whereas a deterministic approach would not allow testing of the significance of differences between the two datasets. This approach allowed us to take into account not only the observation noise (due to ranging, position and attitude errors) but also the intrinsic roughness of the observed surfaces occurring when scanning vegetation. As only

  15. ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF MOBILE MAPPING POINT CLOUDS USING THE EXISTING ENVIRONMENT AS TERRESTRIAL REFERENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hofmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile mapping data is widely used in various applications, what makes it especially important for data users to get a statistically verified quality statement on the geometric accuracy of the acquired point clouds or its processed products. The accuracy of point clouds can be divided into an absolute and a relative quality, where the absolute quality describes the position of the point cloud in a world coordinate system such as WGS84 or UTM, whereas the relative accuracy describes the accuracy within the point cloud itself. Furthermore, the quality of processed products such as segmented features depends on the global accuracy of the point cloud but mainly on the quality of the processing steps. Several data sources with different characteristics and quality can be thought of as potential reference data, such as cadastral maps, orthophoto, artificial control objects or terrestrial surveys using a total station. In this work a test field in a selected residential area was acquired as reference data in a terrestrial survey using a total station. In order to reach high accuracy the stationing of the total station was based on a newly made geodetic network with a local accuracy of less than 3 mm. The global position of the network was determined using a long time GNSS survey reaching an accuracy of 8 mm. Based on this geodetic network a 3D test field with facades and street profiles was measured with a total station, each point with a two-dimensional position and altitude. In addition, the surface of poles of street lights, traffic signs and trees was acquired using the scanning mode of the total station. Comparing this reference data to the acquired mobile mapping point clouds of several measurement campaigns a detailed quality statement on the accuracy of the point cloud data is made. Additionally, the advantages and disadvantages of the described reference data source concerning availability, cost, accuracy and applicability are discussed.

  16. Does the Use of Connective Words in Written Assessments Predict High School Students' Reading and Writing Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggleby, Sandra J.; Tang, Wei; Kuo-Newhouse, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between ninth-grade students' use of connectives (temporal, causal, adversative, and additive) in functional writing and performance on standards-based/criterion-referenced measures of reading and writing. Specifically, structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques were used to examine the relationship between…

  17. Usability Assessment of the Missouri Cancer Registry’s Published Interactive Mapping Reports: Round One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Thompson, Jeannette; Schmaltz, Chester Lee

    2017-01-01

    Background  Many users of spatial data have difficulty interpreting information in health-related spatial reports. The Missouri Cancer Registry and Research Center (MCR-ARC) has produced interactive reports for several years. These reports have never been tested for usability. Objective  The aims of this study were to: (1) conduct a multi-approach usability testing study to understand ease of use (user friendliness) and user satisfaction; and (2) evaluate the usability of MCR-ARC’s published InstantAtlas reports. Methods   An institutional review board (IRB) approved mixed methodology usability testing study using a convenience sample of health professionals. A recruiting email was sent to faculty in the Master of Public Health program and to faculty and staff in the Department of Health Management and Informatics at the University of Missouri-Columbia. The study included 7 participants. The test included a pretest questionnaire, a multi-task usability test, and the System Usability Scale (SUS). Also, the researchers collected participants’ comments about the tested maps immediately after every trial. Software was used to record the computer screen during the trial and the participants’ spoken comments. Several performance and usability metrics were measured to evaluate the usability of MCR-ARC’s published mapping reports. Results Of the 10 assigned tasks, 6 reached a 100% completion success rate, and this outcome was relative to the complexity of the tasks. The simple tasks were handled more efficiently than the complicated tasks. The SUS score ranged between 20-100 points, with an average of 62.7 points and a median of 50.5 points. The tested maps’ effectiveness outcomes were better than the efficiency and satisfaction outcomes. There was a statistically significant relationship between the subjects’ performance on the study test and the users’ previous experience with geographic information system (GIS) tools (P=.03). There were no

  18. A comparative assessment of GIS-based data mining models and a novel ensemble model in groundwater well potential mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghibi, Seyed Amir; Moghaddam, Davood Davoodi; Kalantar, Bahareh; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Kisi, Ozgur

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, application of ensemble models has been increased tremendously in various types of natural hazard assessment such as landslides and floods. However, application of this kind of robust models in groundwater potential mapping is relatively new. This study applied four data mining algorithms including AdaBoost, Bagging, generalized additive model (GAM), and Naive Bayes (NB) models to map groundwater potential. Then, a novel frequency ratio data mining ensemble model (FREM) was introduced and evaluated. For this purpose, eleven groundwater conditioning factors (GCFs), including altitude, slope aspect, slope angle, plan curvature, stream power index (SPI), river density, distance from rivers, topographic wetness index (TWI), land use, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and lithology were mapped. About 281 well locations with high potential were selected. Wells were randomly partitioned into two classes for training the models (70% or 197) and validating them (30% or 84). AdaBoost, Bagging, GAM, and NB algorithms were employed to get groundwater potential maps (GPMs). The GPMs were categorized into potential classes using natural break method of classification scheme. In the next stage, frequency ratio (FR) value was calculated for the output of the four aforementioned models and were summed, and finally a GPM was produced using FREM. For validating the models, area under receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was calculated. The ROC curve for prediction dataset was 94.8, 93.5, 92.6, 92.0, and 84.4% for FREM, Bagging, AdaBoost, GAM, and NB models, respectively. The results indicated that FREM had the best performance among all the models. The better performance of the FREM model could be related to reduction of over fitting and possible errors. Other models such as AdaBoost, Bagging, GAM, and NB also produced acceptable performance in groundwater modelling. The GPMs produced in the current study may facilitate groundwater exploitation

  19. Assessment of histological differentiation in gastric cancers using whole-volume histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujuan; Chen, Jun; Liu, Song; Shi, Hua; Guan, Wenxian; Ji, Changfeng; Guo, Tingting; Zheng, Huanhuan; Guan, Yue; Ge, Yun; He, Jian; Zhou, Zhengyang; Yang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Tian

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the efficacy of histogram analysis of the entire tumor volume in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps for differentiating between histological grades in gastric cancer. Seventy-eight patients with gastric cancer were enrolled in a retrospective 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. ADC maps were obtained at two different b values (0 and 1000 sec/mm 2 ) for each patient. Tumors were delineated on each slice of the ADC maps, and a histogram for the entire tumor volume was subsequently generated. A series of histogram parameters (eg, skew and kurtosis) were calculated and correlated with the histological grade of the surgical specimen. The diagnostic performance of each parameter for distinguishing poorly from moderately well-differentiated gastric cancers was assessed by using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). There were significant differences in the 5 th , 10 th , 25 th , and 50 th percentiles, skew, and kurtosis between poorly and well-differentiated gastric cancers (P histogram parameters, including the 10 th percentile, skew, kurtosis, and max frequency; the correlation coefficients were 0.273, -0.361, -0.339, and -0.370, respectively. Among all the histogram parameters, the max frequency had the largest AUC value, which was 0.675. Histogram analysis of the ADC maps on the basis of the entire tumor volume can be useful in differentiating between histological grades for gastric cancer. 4 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:440-449. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  20. An assessment of AVIRIS data for hydrothermal alteration mapping in the Goldfield Mining District, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrere, Veronique; Abrams, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data were acquired over the Goldfield Mining District, Nevada, in September 1987. Goldfield is one of the group of large epithermal precious metal deposits in Tertiary volcanic rocks, associated with silicic volcanism and caldera formation. Hydrothermal alteration consists of silicification along fractures, advanced agrillic and argillic zones further away from veins and more widespread propylitic zones. An evaluation of AVIRIS data quality was performed. Faults in the data, related to engineering problems and a different behavior of the instrument while on-board the U2, were encountered. Consequently, a decision was made to use raw data and correct them only for dark current variations and detector read-out-delays. New software was written to that effect. Atmospheric correction was performed using the flat field correction technique. Analysis of the data was then performed to extract spectral information, mainly concentrating on the 2 to 2.45 micron window, as the alteration minerals of interest have their distinctive spectral reflectance features in this region. Principally kaolinite and alunite spectra were clearly obtained. Mapping of the different minerals and alteration zones was attempted using ratios and clustering techniques. Poor signal-to-noise performance of the instrument and the lack of appropriate software prevented the production of an alteration map of the area. Spectra extracted locally from the AVIRIS data were checked in the field by collecting representative samples of the outcrops.

  1. Production waste analysis using value stream mapping and waste assessment model in a handwritten batik industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marifa Putri Citra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Batik is one of Indonesian cultural heritage that confirmed by United Nations of Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO on October 2009. This legal confirmation improves the number of batik industry from many regions based its local unique characteristic. The increasing number of batik SMEs in Indonesia requires a strategy that can create competitive advantage. This strategy can be done by reducing production waste. One of Indonesian batik SMEs is SME Batik CM located in Yogyakarta. There are several problems that occur in the industry, i.e. length of the production process, spots on Batik and excessive raw materials inventory. Based on that problems, this research is done by applying lean manufacturing concept using value stream mapping (VSM method to evaluate production wastes. Based on the result of the research, there are seven types of production waste: overproduction (9,62%, inventory (17,3%, defect (23,08%, motion (9,62%, transportation (9,62%, Over processing (9,62% and waiting (21,15%. Process improvement is done to reduce the highest waste, defect, using quality filter mapping (QFM.

  2. Comparative analysis of Worldview-2 and Landsat 8 for coastal saltmarsh mapping accuracy assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasel, Sikdar M. M.; Chang, Hsing-Chung; Diti, Israt Jahan; Ralph, Tim; Saintilan, Neil

    2016-05-01

    Coastal saltmarsh and their constituent components and processes are of an interest scientifically due to their ecological function and services. However, heterogeneity and seasonal dynamic of the coastal wetland system makes it challenging to map saltmarshes with remotely sensed data. This study selected four important saltmarsh species Pragmitis australis, Sporobolus virginicus, Ficiona nodosa and Schoeloplectus sp. as well as a Mangrove and Pine tree species, Avecinia and Casuarina sp respectively. High Spatial Resolution Worldview-2 data and Coarse Spatial resolution Landsat 8 imagery were selected in this study. Among the selected vegetation types some patches ware fragmented and close to the spatial resolution of Worldview-2 data while and some patch were larger than the 30 meter resolution of Landsat 8 data. This study aims to test the effectiveness of different classifier for the imagery with various spatial and spectral resolutions. Three different classification algorithm, Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) were tested and compared with their mapping accuracy of the results derived from both satellite imagery. For Worldview-2 data SVM was giving the higher overall accuracy (92.12%, kappa =0.90) followed by ANN (90.82%, Kappa 0.89) and MLC (90.55%, kappa = 0.88). For Landsat 8 data, MLC (82.04%) showed the highest classification accuracy comparing to SVM (77.31%) and ANN (75.23%). The producer accuracy of the classification results were also presented in the paper.

  3. National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) Sampling Areas Map, Hawaiian Islands Shoreline, 2015, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) is a national coastal monitoring program with rigorous quality assurance protocols and standardized sampling...

  4. T1-mapping for assessment of ischemia-induced acute kidney injury and prediction of chronic kidney disease in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueper, Katja; Gutberlet, Marcel; Wacker, Frank; Hartung, Dagmar [Hannover Medical School, Department of Radiology, Hannover (Germany); Hannover Medical School, REBIRTH Cluster of Excellence, Hannover (Germany); Peperhove, Matti; Tewes, Susanne; Barrmeyer, Amelie [Hannover Medical School, Department of Radiology, Hannover (Germany); Rong, Song [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nephrology, Hannover (Germany); Zunyi Medical College, Laboratory of Organ Transplantation, Zunyi (China); Gerstenberg, Jessica; Haller, Herman; Gueler, Faikah [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nephrology, Hannover (Germany); Mengel, Michael [University of Alberta, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Edmonton (Canada); Meier, Martin [Hannover Medical School, REBIRTH Cluster of Excellence, Hannover (Germany); Hannover Medical School, Institute for Animal Science, Hannover (Germany); Chen, Rongjun [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nephrology, Hannover (Germany); Zhejiang University, The Kidney Disease Center of the First Affiliated Hospital, Hangzhou (China)

    2014-09-15

    To investigate whether T1-mapping allows assessment of acute kidney injury (AKI) and prediction of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in mice. AKI was induced in C57Bl/6N mice by clamping of the right renal pedicle for 35 min (moderate AKI, n = 26) or 45 min (severe AKI, n = 23). Sham animals served as controls (n = 9). Renal histology was assessed in the acute (day 1 + day 7; d1 + d7) and chronic phase (d28) after AKI. Furthermore, longitudinal MRI-examinations (prior to until d28 after surgery) were performed using a 7-Tesla magnet. T1-maps were calculated from a fat-saturated echoplanar inversion recovery sequence, and mean and relative T1-relaxation times were determined. Renal histology showed severe tubular injury at d1 + d7 in both AKI groups, whereas, at d28, only animals with prolonged 45-min ischemia showed persistent signs of AKI. Following both AKI severities T1-values significantly increased and peaked at d7. T1-times in the contralateral kidney without AKI remained stable. At d7 relative T1-values in the outer stripe of the outer medulla were significantly higher after severe than after moderate AKI (138 ± 2 % vs. 121 ± 3 %, p = 0.001). T1-elevation persisted until d28 only after severe AKI. Already at d7 T1 in the outer stripe of the outer medulla correlated with kidney volume loss indicating CKD (r = 0.83). T1-mapping non-invasively detects AKI severity in mice and predicts further outcome. (orig.)

  5. T1-mapping for assessment of ischemia-induced acute kidney injury and prediction of chronic kidney disease in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, Katja; Gutberlet, Marcel; Wacker, Frank; Hartung, Dagmar; Peperhove, Matti; Tewes, Susanne; Barrmeyer, Amelie; Rong, Song; Gerstenberg, Jessica; Haller, Herman; Gueler, Faikah; Mengel, Michael; Meier, Martin; Chen, Rongjun

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether T1-mapping allows assessment of acute kidney injury (AKI) and prediction of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in mice. AKI was induced in C57Bl/6N mice by clamping of the right renal pedicle for 35 min (moderate AKI, n = 26) or 45 min (severe AKI, n = 23). Sham animals served as controls (n = 9). Renal histology was assessed in the acute (day 1 + day 7; d1 + d7) and chronic phase (d28) after AKI. Furthermore, longitudinal MRI-examinations (prior to until d28 after surgery) were performed using a 7-Tesla magnet. T1-maps were calculated from a fat-saturated echoplanar inversion recovery sequence, and mean and relative T1-relaxation times were determined. Renal histology showed severe tubular injury at d1 + d7 in both AKI groups, whereas, at d28, only animals with prolonged 45-min ischemia showed persistent signs of AKI. Following both AKI severities T1-values significantly increased and peaked at d7. T1-times in the contralateral kidney without AKI remained stable. At d7 relative T1-values in the outer stripe of the outer medulla were significantly higher after severe than after moderate AKI (138 ± 2 % vs. 121 ± 3 %, p = 0.001). T1-elevation persisted until d28 only after severe AKI. Already at d7 T1 in the outer stripe of the outer medulla correlated with kidney volume loss indicating CKD (r = 0.83). T1-mapping non-invasively detects AKI severity in mice and predicts further outcome. (orig.)

  6. Development of an Asset Value Map for Disaster Risk Assessment in China by Spatial Disaggregation Using Ancillary Remote Sensing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jidong; Li, Ying; Li, Ning; Shi, Peijun

    2018-01-01

    The extent of economic losses due to a natural hazard and disaster depends largely on the spatial distribution of asset values in relation to the hazard intensity distribution within the affected area. Given that statistical data on asset value are collected by administrative units in China, generating spatially explicit asset exposure maps remains a key challenge for rapid postdisaster economic loss assessment. The goal of this study is to introduce a top-down (or downscaling) approach to disaggregate administrative-unit level asset value to grid-cell level. To do so, finding the highly correlated "surrogate" indicators is the key. A combination of three data sets-nighttime light grid, LandScan population grid, and road density grid, is used as ancillary asset density distribution information for spatializing the asset value. As a result, a high spatial resolution asset value map of China for 2015 is generated. The spatial data set contains aggregated economic value at risk at 30 arc-second spatial resolution. Accuracy of the spatial disaggregation reflects redistribution errors introduced by the disaggregation process as well as errors from the original ancillary data sets. The overall accuracy of the results proves to be promising. The example of using the developed disaggregated asset value map in exposure assessment of watersheds demonstrates that the data set offers immense analytical flexibility for overlay analysis according to the hazard extent. This product will help current efforts to analyze spatial characteristics of exposure and to uncover the contributions of both physical and social drivers of natural hazard and disaster across space and time. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Functional connectivity of emotional processing in depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carballedo, Angela

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to map a neural network of emotion processing and to identify differences in major depression compared to healthy controls. It is hypothesized that intentional perception of emotional faces activates connections between amygdala (Demir et al.), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) and that frontal-amygdala connections are altered in major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Fifteen medication-free patients with MDD and fifteen healthy controls were enrolled. All subjects were assessed using the same face-matching functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) task, known to involve those areas. Brain activations were obtained using Statistical Parametric Mapping version 5 (SPM5) for data analysis and MARSBAR for extracting of fMRI time series. Then data was analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). RESULTS: A valid model was established for the left and the right hemispheres showing a circuit involving ACC, OFC, PFC and AMY. The left hemisphere shows significant lower connectivity strengths in patients than controls, for the pathway that goes from AMY to the OF11, and a trend of higher connectivity in patients for the path that goes from the PF9 to the OF11. In the right hemisphere, patients show lower connectivity coefficients in the paths from the AMY to OF11, from the AMY to ACC, and from the ACC to PF9. By the contrary, controls show lower connectivity strengths for the path that goes from ACC to AMY. CONCLUSIONS: Functional disconnection between limbic and frontal brain regions could be demonstrated using structural equation modeling. The interpretation of these findings could be that there is an emotional processing bias with disconnection bilaterally between amygdala to orbitofrontal cortices and in addition a right disconnection between amygdala and ACC as well as between ACC and prefrontal cortex possibly in line with a more prominent role for the right hemisphere

  8. Conscious worst case definition for risk assessment, part I: a knowledge mapping approach for defining most critical risk factors in integrative risk management of chemicals and nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Peter B; Thomsen, Marianne; Assmuth, Timo; Grieger, Khara D; Baun, Anders

    2010-08-15

    This paper helps bridge the gap between scientists and other stakeholders in the areas of human and environmental risk management of chemicals and engineered nanomaterials. This connection is needed due to the evolution of stakeholder awareness and scientific progress related to human and environmental health which involves complex methodological demands on risk management. At the same time, the available scientific knowledge is also becoming more scattered across multiple scientific disciplines. Hence, the understanding of potentially risky situations is increasingly multifaceted, which again challenges risk assessors in terms of giving the 'right' relative priority to the multitude of contributing risk factors. A critical issue is therefore to develop procedures that can identify and evaluate worst case risk conditions which may be input to risk level predictions. Therefore, this paper suggests a conceptual modelling procedure that is able to define appropriate worst case conditions in complex risk management. The result of the analysis is an assembly of system models, denoted the Worst Case Definition (WCD) model, to set up and evaluate the conditions of multi-dimensional risk identification and risk quantification. The model can help optimize risk assessment planning by initial screening level analyses and guiding quantitative assessment in relation to knowledge needs for better decision support concerning environmental and human health protection or risk reduction. The WCD model facilitates the evaluation of fundamental uncertainty using knowledge mapping principles and techniques in a way that can improve a complete uncertainty analysis. Ultimately, the WCD is applicable for describing risk contributing factors in relation to many different types of risk management problems since it transparently and effectively handles assumptions and definitions and allows the integration of different forms of knowledge, thereby supporting the inclusion of multifaceted risk

  9. GIS-based pollution hazard mapping and assessment framework of shallow lakes: southeastern Pampean lakes (Argentina) as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, A; Esquius, K S; Massone, H E; Escalante, A H

    2013-08-01

    The assessment of water vulnerability and pollution hazard traditionally places particular emphasis on the study on groundwaters more than on surface waters. Consequently, a GIS-based Lake Pollution Hazard Index (LPHI) was proposed for assessing and mapping the potential pollution hazard for shallow lakes due to the interaction between the Potential Pollutant Load and the Lake Vulnerability. It includes easily measurable and commonly used parameters: land cover, terrain slope and direction, and soil media. Three shallow lake ecosystems of the southeastern Pampa Plain (Argentina) were chosen to test the usefulness and applicability of this suggested index. Moreover, anthropogenic and natural medium influence on biophysical parameters in these three ecosystems was examined. The evaluation of the LPHI map shows for La Brava and Los Padres lakes the highest pollution hazard (≈30 % with high to very high category) while Nahuel Rucá Lake seems to be the less hazardous water body (just 9.33 % with high LPHI). The increase in LPHI value is attributed to a different loading of pollutants governed by land cover category and/or the exposure to high slopes and influence of slope direction. Dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand values indicate a moderately polluted and eutrophized condition of shallow lake waters, mainly related to moderate agricultural activities and/or cattle production. Obtained information by means of LPHI calculation result useful to perform a local diagnosis of the potential pollution hazard to a freshwater ecosystem in order to implement basic guidelines to improve lake sustainability.

  10. Image illumination enhancement with an objective no-reference measure of illumination assessment based on Gaussian distribution mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Anbarjafari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Illumination problems have been an important concern in many image processing applications. The pattern of the histogram on an image introduces meaningful features; hence within the process of illumination enhancement, it is important not to destroy such information. In this paper we propose a method to enhance image illumination using Gaussian distribution mapping which also keeps the information laid on the pattern of the histogram on the original image. First a Gaussian distribution based on the mean and standard deviation of the input image will be calculated. Simultaneously a Gaussian distribution with the desired mean and standard deviation will be calculated. Then a cumulative distribution function of each of the Gaussian distributions will be calculated and used in order to map the old pixel value onto the new pixel value. Another important issue in the field of illumination enhancement is absence of a quantitative measure for the assessment of the illumination of an image. In this research work, a quantitative measure indicating the illumination state, i.e. contrast level and brightness of an image, is also proposed. The measure utilizes the estimated Gaussian distribution of the input image and the Kullback-Leibler Divergence (KLD between the estimated Gaussian and the desired Gaussian distributions to calculate the quantitative measure. The experimental results show the effectiveness and the reliability of the proposed illumination enhancement technique, as well as the proposed illumination assessment measure over conventional and state-of-the-art techniques.

  11. The use of color infrared photography for wetlands mapping with special reference to shoreline and waterfowl habitat assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Evaluation of low altitude oblique photography obtained by hand-held cameras was useful in determining specifications of operational mission requirements for conventional smaller-scaled vertical photography. Remote sensing techniques were used to assess the rapid destruction of marsh areas at Pointe Mouillee. In an estuarian environment where shoreline features change yearly, there is a need for revision in existing area maps. A land cover inventory, mapped from aerial photography, provided essential data necessary for determining adjacent lands suitable for marshland development. To quantitatively assess the wetlands environment, a detailed inventory of vegetative communities (19 categories) was made using color infrared photography and intensive ground truth. A carefully selected and well laid-out transect was found to be a key asset to photointerpretation and to the analysis of vegetative conditions. Transect data provided the interpreter with locally representative areas of various vegetative types. This facilitated development of a photointerpretation key. Additional information on vegetative conditions in the area was also obtained by evaluating the transect data.

  12. Ecosystem services - from assessements of estimations to quantitative, validated, high-resolution, continental-scale mapping via airborne LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlinszky, András; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2016-04-01

    "Ecosystem services" defined vaguely as "nature's benefits to people" are a trending concept in ecology and conservation. Quantifying and mapping these services is a longtime demand of both ecosystems science and environmental policy. The current state of the art is to use existing maps of land cover, and assign certain average ecosystem service values to their unit areas. This approach has some major weaknesses: the concept of "ecosystem services", the input land cover maps and the value indicators. Such assessments often aim at valueing services in terms of human currency as a basis for decision-making, although this approach remains contested. Land cover maps used for ecosystem service assessments (typically the CORINE land cover product) are generated from continental-scale satellite imagery, with resolution in the range of hundreds of meters. In some rare cases, airborne sensors are used, with higher resolution but less covered area. Typically, general land cover classes are used instead of categories defined specifically for the purpose of ecosystem service assessment. The value indicators are developed for and tested on small study sites, but widely applied and adapted to other sites far away (a process called benefit transfer) where local information may not be available. Upscaling is always problematic since such measurements investigate areas much smaller than the output map unit. Nevertheless, remote sensing is still expected to play a major role in conceptualization and assessment of ecosystem services. We propose that an improvement of several orders of magnitude in resolution and accuracy is possible through the application of airborne LIDAR, a measurement technique now routinely used for collection of countrywide three-dimensional datasets with typically sub-meter resolution. However, this requires a clear definition of the concept of ecosystem services and the variables in focus: remote sensing can measure variables closely related to "ecosystem

  13. Neurotransmitter Specific, Cellular-Resolution Functional Brain Mapping Using Receptor Coated Nanoparticles: Assessment of the Possibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forati, Ebrahim; Sabouni, Abas; Ray, Supriyo; Head, Brian; Schoen, Christian; Sievenpiper, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Receptor coated resonant nanoparticles and quantum dots are proposed to provide a cellular-level resolution image of neural activities inside the brain. The functionalized nanoparticles and quantum dots in this approach will selectively bind to different neurotransmitters in the extra-synaptic regions of neurons. This allows us to detect neural activities in real time by monitoring the nanoparticles and quantum dots optically. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with two different geometries (sphere and rod) and quantum dots (QDs) with different sizes were studied along with three different neurotransmitters: dopamine, gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glycine. The absorption/emission spectra of GNPs and QDs before and after binding of neurotransmitters and their corresponding receptors are reported. The results using QDs and nanorods with diameter 25nm and aspect rations larger than three were promising for the development of the proposed functional brain mapping approach. PMID:26717196

  14. High accuracy mapping with cartographic assessment for a fixed-wing remotely piloted aircraft system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Júnior, Leomar Rufino; Ferreira, Manuel Eduardo; Côrtes, João Batista Ramos; de Castro Jorge, Lúcio André

    2018-01-01

    The lack of updated maps on large scale representations has encouraged the use of remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) to generate maps for a wide range of professionals. However, some questions arise: do the orthomosaics generated by these systems have the cartographic precision required to use them? Which problems can be identified in stitching orthophotos to generate orthomosaics? To answer these questions, an aerophotogrammetric survey was conducted in an environmental conservation unit in the city of Goiânia. The flight plan was set up using the E-motion software, provided by Sensefly-a Swiss manufacturer of the RPAS Swinglet CAM used in this work. The camera installed in the RPAS was the Canon IXUS 220 HS, with the number of pixels in the sensor array of 12.1 megapixel, complementary metal oxide semiconductor 1 ∶ 2.3 ? (4000 × 3000 pixel), horizontal and vertical pixel sizes of 1.54 μm. Using the orthophotos, four orthomosaics were generated in the Pix4D mapper software. The first orthomosaic was generated without using the control points. The other three mosaics were generated using 4, 8, and 16 premarked ground control points. To check the precision and accuracy of the orthomosaics, 46 premarked targets were uniformly distributed in the block. The three-dimensional (3-D) coordinates of the premarked targets were read on the orthomosaic and compared with the coordinates obtained by the geodetic survey real-time kinematic positioning method using the global navigation satellite system receiver signals. The cartographic accuracy standard was evaluated by discrepancies between these coordinates. The bias was analyzed by the Student's t test and the accuracy by the chi-square probability considering the orthomosaic on a scale of 1 ∶ 250, in which 90% of the points tested must have a planimetric error of control points the scale was 10-fold smaller (1 ∶ 3000).

  15. Making Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pien, Cheng Lu; Dongsheng, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Effective teaching includes enabling learners to make connections within mathematics. It is easy to accord with this statement, but how often is it a reality in the mathematics classroom? This article describes an approach in "connecting equivalent" fractions and whole number operations. The authors illustrate how a teacher can combine a common…

  16. NCCOS Accuracy Assessment Field Data for Benthic Habitat Maps of Palau, 2006-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...