WorldWideScience

Sample records for connectivity implications

  1. Automated and connected vehicle implications and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Automated and connected vehicles (ACV) and, in particular, autonomous vehicles have captured : the interest of the public, industry and transportation authorities. ACVs can significantly reduce : accidents, fuel consumption, pollution and the costs o...

  2. TEHORIES OF CONNECTIONS – PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS IN ACQUIRING MOTOR SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Milošević

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Theories of learning which are classified in two broad schools as theories of connections and cognitive theories, differ among themselves according to specific interaction relationships between external stimulus (S, reaction and behavior and organism (R, i.e. particular learner (O. In relation to pedagogical practices, predominance of a certain school is not rare, often without any objective insight into their potentials related to age, sex, learning contents and other determinants. Well-known approaches within the theories of relations include classical Pavlov reflex, Guthry’s close conditioning, associating of Thorndyke, and Skinner’s efficient conditioning. Practical implications of these theories in acquiring motor skills are related to an active learner’s approach, significance of repetition – exercising, supporting, and rewarding correct answers, as well as strengthening a new behavior by imitation of a sample – modeling.

  3. Floodplain Connectivity and implications for flooding and floodplain function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, E.

    2017-12-01

    Regime theory suggests that floodplains should be inundated on average once every two years to maintain form and function of both the river and the floodplain. Natural disconnection along non-alluvial reaches and where the river has moved to flow against terrace edges is to be expected, however, disconnectivity caused by river management is now affecting increasing lengths of watercourses. This study utilises aerial Lidar data to determine the relative height difference between the watercourse and adjacent valley bottoms to assess the degree of disconnectivity along main river systems across Cumbria in the UK. The results reveal that many rivers are now poorly connected to their floodplains which are now largely non-functional. Floodplain geomorphic units, although often present, are currently inactive and water table levels are reduced resulting in a loss of wetland in favour of ruderal species tolerant of drier conditions. The causes of such widespread disconnectivity may be attributed to historic dredging and straightening of these rivers and revetment and riparian tree planting has further exacerbated the problem restricting lateral activity and the subsequent development of new areas of connected floodplain. The high degree of disconnection has implications for future river management and river restoration and these are discussed.

  4. TEHORIES OF CONNECTIONS – PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS IN ACQUIRING MOTOR SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Milošević

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Theories of learning which are classified in two broad schools as theories of connections and cognitive theories, differ among themselves according to specific interaction relationships between external stimulus (S, reaction and behavior and organism (R, i.e. particular learner (O. In relation to pedagogical practices, predominance of a certain school is not rare, often without any objective insight into their potentials related to age, sex, learning contents and other determinants. Supporters of the theories of connections treat behavior as a result of relations or associations, whereas learning occurs when these relations are strengthened by repetition or when new relations are formed. These theories are usually classified as theories of stimulus-reaction (S-R, whereas associating in this sense is used to stress the concept most theories usually agree upon: that learning consists of relations and link between stimuli (S-S, between stimuli and reactions (S-R, or between reaction and impulse (R-P. Well-known approaches within the theories of relations include classical Pavlov reflex, Guthry’s close conditioning, associating of Thorndyke, and Skinner’s efficient conditioning. Practical implications of these theories in acquiring motor skills are related to an active learner’s approach, significance of repetition – exercising, supporting, and rewarding correct answers, as well as strengthening a new behavior by imitation of a sample – modeling.

  5. Cholinergic connectivity: it’s implications for psychiatric disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth eScarr

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine has been implicated in both the pathophysiology and treatment of a number of psychiatric disorders, with most of the data related to its role and therapeutic potential focussing on schizophrenia. However, there is little thought given to the consequences of the documented changes in the cholinergic system and how they may affect the functioning of the brain. This review looks at the cholinergic system and its interactions with the intrinsic neurotransmitters glutamate and gamma-amino butyric acid as well as those with the projection neurotransmitters most implicated in the pathophysiologies of psychiatric disorders; dopamine and serotonin. In addition, with the recent focus on the role of factors normally associated with inflammation in the pathophysiologies of psychiatric disorders, links between the cholinergic system and these factors will also be examined. These interfaces are put into context, primarily for schizophrenia, by looking at the changes in each of these systems in the disorder and exploring, theoretically, whether the changes are interconnected with those seen in the cholinergic system. Thus, this review will provide a comprehensive overview of the connectivity between the cholinergic system and some of the major areas of research into the pathophysiologies of psychiatric disorders, resulting in a critical appraisal of the potential outcomes of a dysregulated central cholinergic system.

  6. The smart/connected city and its implications for connected transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-14

    This white paper outlines the potential for the emerging connected transportation system to interface with smart/connected cities. Its aim is to lay the foundation for defining steps that the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) Connected Vehicl...

  7. Trust, Connectivity, and Thriving: Implications for Innovative Behaviors at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmeli, Abraham; Spreitzer, Gretchen M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how trust, connectivity and thriving drive employees' innovative behaviors in the workplace. Using a sample of one hundred and seventy two employees across a variety of jobs and industries, we investigated the relationship between trust, connectivity (both measured at Time 1), thriving and innovative work behaviors (both…

  8. Transportation planning implications of automated/connected vehicles on Texas highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    This research project was focused on the transportation planning implications of automated/connected : vehicles (AV/CVs) on Texas highways. The research assessed how these potentially transformative : technologies can be included in transportation pl...

  9. Environmentalism and community: connections and implications for social action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin J. Marcus; Allen M. Omoto; Patricia L. Winter

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study explored conceptualizations of environmentalism and community, as well as the connections of ethnicity to these concepts in a small but diverse sample. Semistructured interviews were conducted with eight participants and included a conceptual content cognitive mapping procedure. The resulting maps were examined for themes and ideas about the key...

  10. Ancient Athenian Democratic Knowledge and Citizenship: Connectivity and Intercultural Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundara, Jagdish S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the implications that ancient Athens had for modern representative democracies and the links that can be made to the philosophical principles that form the essence of intercultural education. Such an exploration shows that modern democratic societies have ignored many key aspects of the important legacy left to us by these…

  11. TEHORIES OF CONNECTIONS – PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS IN ACQUIRING MOTOR SKILLS

    OpenAIRE

    Zoran Milošević; Nebojša Maksimović; Nada Milošević; Borislav Obradović

    2010-01-01

    Theories of learning which are classified in two broad schools as theories of connections and cognitive theories, differ among themselves according to specific interaction relationships between external stimulus (S), reaction and behavior and organism (R), i.e. particular learner (O). In relation to pedagogical practices, predominance of a certain school is not rare, often without any objective insight into their potentials related to age, sex, learning contents and other determinants. Suppor...

  12. Habitat connectivity and ecosystem productivity: implications from a simple model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E

    2007-01-01

    The import of resources (food, nutrients) sustains biological production and food webs in resource-limited habitats. Resource export from donor habitats subsidizes production in recipient habitats, but the ecosystem-scale consequences of resource translocation are generally unknown. Here, I use a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton model to show how dispersive connectivity between a shallow autotrophic habitat and a deep heterotrophic pelagic habitat can amplify overall system production in metazoan food webs. This result derives from the finite capacity of suspension feeders to capture and assimilate food particles: excess primary production in closed autotrophic habitats cannot be assimilated by consumers; however, if excess phytoplankton production is exported to food-limited heterotrophic habitats, it can be assimilated by zooplankton to support additional secondary production. Transport of regenerated nutrients from heterotrophic to autotrophic habitats sustains higher system primary production. These simulation results imply that the ecosystem-scale efficiency of nutrient transformation into metazoan biomass can be constrained by the rate of resource exchange across habitats and that it is optimized when the transport rate matches the growth rate of primary producers. Slower transport (i.e., reduced connectivity) leads to nutrient limitation of primary production in autotrophic habitats and food limitation of secondary production in heterotrophic habitats. Habitat fragmentation can therefore impose energetic constraints on the carrying capacity of aquatic ecosystems. The outcomes of ecosystem restoration through habitat creation will be determined by both functions provided by newly created aquatic habitats and the rates of hydraulic connectivity between them.

  13. Implicational (Semilinear) Logics II: Additional Connectives and Characterizations of Semilinearity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr; Noguera, Carles

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2016), s. 353-372 ISSN 0933-5846 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 247584 - MATOMUVI Institutional support: RVO:67985807 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic * implicational logics * disjunctional logics * semilinear logics * non-classical logics * transfer theorems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.394, year: 2016

  14. Power Quality. Implications at the Point of Connection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobben, J.F.G.

    2007-06-12

    The main developments in the field of power quality and mentioned before were an important trigger in arriving at the research objectives. Condensing all information three main research objectives can be described as: (a) Classification of power quality phenomena to arrive at an analysis tool for grid operators, which makes it possible to handle an enormous amount of data and to give customers and the regulator clearer information about the quality of supply voltage; (b) The influence of dispersed generation due to a large amount of renewable energy sources on power quality, especially on the voltage level and slow voltage variations. Also the possible contribution to the harmonic distortion is analysed; (c) Power quality interaction between 'supply' voltage and 'exchanged' current at the point of common coupling (point of connection or POC to the grid). Especially the relation between current capacity of a POC, the grid impedance and the current at the POC is analysed for harmonics and flicker. In chapter 1 power quality in general is described, the problems are stated and the research topics discussed. Further understanding of the different power quality phenomena, is the topic of chapter 2 and the need to use the indices is described. Also the need to develop methods for compressing power quality data and to make this data fit for use is described. The classification explained in this chapter is an example of practical solution, which has been implemented in a system for substation automation. In chapter 3, the voltage magnitude variation as power quality phenomena is analysed. The influence of dispersed generation in relation to this phenomenon is studied. Also the limits of implementing dispersed generation in existing low voltage grids are calculated. The limited possibilities of voltage level regulation with reactive power in the low voltage grid are described, including the influences on the losses in the grid. Chapter 4 is the chapter

  15. Circadian Rhythm Connections to Oxidative Stress: Implications for Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilking, Melissa; Ndiaye, Mary; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Oxygen and circadian rhythmicity are essential in a myriad of physiological processes to maintain homeostasis, from blood pressure and sleep/wake cycles, down to cellular signaling pathways that play critical roles in health and disease. If the human body or cells experience significant stress, their ability to regulate internal systems, including redox levels and circadian rhythms, may become impaired. At cellular as well as organismal levels, impairment in redox regulation and circadian rhythms may lead to a number of adverse effects, including the manifestation of a variety of diseases such as heart diseases, neurodegenerative conditions, and cancer. Recent Advances: Researchers have come to an understanding as to the basics of the circadian rhythm mechanism, as well as the importance of the numerous species of oxidative stress components. The effects of oxidative stress and dysregulated circadian rhythms have been a subject of intense investigations since they were first discovered, and recent investigations into the molecular mechanisms linking the two have started to elucidate the bases of their connection. Critical Issues: While much is known about the mechanics and importance of oxidative stress systems and circadian rhythms, the front where they interact has had very little research focused on it. This review discusses the idea that these two systems are together intricately involved in the healthy body, as well as in disease. Future Directions: We believe that for a more efficacious management of diseases that have both circadian rhythm and oxidative stress components in their pathogenesis, targeting both systems in tandem would be far more successful. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 192–208 PMID:23198849

  16. Hydrologic connectivity and implications for ecosystem processes - Lessons from naked watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooseff, Michael N.; Wlostowski, Adam; McKnight, Diane M.; Jaros, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Hydrologic connectivity has received great attention recently as our conceptual models of watersheds and water quality have evolved in the past several decades. However, the structural complexity of most temperate watersheds (i.e. connections among shallow soils, deep aquifers, the atmosphere and streams) and the dynamic seasonal changes that occur within them (i.e., plant senescence which impacts evapotranspiration) create significant challenges to characterizing or quantifying hydrologic connectivity. The McMurdo Dry Valleys, a polar desert in Antarctica, provide a unique opportunity to study hydrologic connectivity because there is no vegetative cover (and therefore no transpiration), and no deep aquifers connected to surface soils or streams. Glacier melt provides stream flow to well-established channels and closed-basin, ice-covered lakes on the valley floor. Streams are also connected to shallow hyporheic zones along their lengths, which are bounded at 75 cm depth by ice-cemented permafrost. These hydrologic features and connections provide water for and underpin biological communities. Hence, exchange of water among them provides a vector for exchange of energy and dissolved solutes. Connectivity is dynamic on timescales of a day to a flow season (6-12 weeks), as streamflow varies over these timescales. The timescales over which these connections occur is also dynamic. Exchanges between streams and hyporheic zones, for example, have been estimated to be as short as hours to as long as several weeks. These exchanges have significant implications for the biogeochemistry of these systems and the biotic communities in each feature. Here we evaluate the lessons we can learn about hydrologic connectivity in the MDV watersheds that are simplified in the context of processes occurring and water reservoirs included in the landscape, yet are sensitive to climate controls and contain substantial physical heterogeneity. We specifically explore several metrics that are

  17. Examining frontotemporal connectivity and rTMS in healthy controls: implications for auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromann, Paula M; Tracy, Derek K; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Krabbendam, Lydia; Shergill, Sukhwinder S

    2012-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to have clinically beneficial effects in altering the perception of auditory hallucinations (AH) in patients with schizophrenia. However, the mode of action is not clear. Recent neuroimaging findings indicate that rTMS has the potential to induce not only local effects but also changes in remote, functionally connected brain regions. Frontotemporal dysconnectivity has been proposed as a mechanism leading to psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. The current study examines functional connectivity between temporal and frontal brain regions after rTMS and the implications for AH in schizophrenia. A connectivity analysis was conducted on the fMRI data of 11 healthy controls receiving rTMS, compared with 11 matched subjects receiving sham TMS, to the temporoparietal junction, before engaging in a task associated with robust frontotemporal activation. Compared to the control group, the rTMS group showed an altered frontotemporal connectivity with stronger connectivity between the right temporoparietal cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the angular gyrus. This finding provides preliminary evidence for the hypothesis that normalizing the functional connectivity between the temporoparietal and frontal brain regions may underlie the therapeutic effect of rTMS on AH in schizophrenia.

  18. Implications of newborn amygdala connectivity for fear and cognitive development at 6-months-of-age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Alice M.; Buss, Claudia; Rasmussen, Jerod M.; Rudolph, Marc D.; Demeter, Damion V.; Gilmore, John H.; Styner, Martin; Entringer, Sonja; Wadhwa, Pathik D.; Fair, Damien A.

    2015-01-01

    The first year of life is an important period for emergence of fear in humans. While animal models have revealed developmental changes in amygdala circuitry accompanying emerging fear, human neural systems involved in early fear development remain poorly understood. To increase understanding of the neural foundations of human fear, it is important to consider parallel cognitive development, which may modulate associations between typical development of early fear and subsequent risk for fear-related psychopathology. We, therefore, examined amygdala functional connectivity with rs-fcMRI in 48 neonates (M=3.65 weeks, SD=1.72), and measured fear and cognitive development at 6-months-of-age. Stronger, positive neonatal amygdala connectivity to several regions, including bilateral anterior insula and ventral striatum, was prospectively associated with higher fear at 6-months. Stronger amygdala connectivity to ventral anterior cingulate/anterior medial prefrontal cortex predicted a specific phenotype of higher fear combined with more advanced cognitive development. Overall, findings demonstrate unique profiles of neonatal amygdala functional connectivity related to emerging fear and cognitive development, which may have implications for normative and pathological fear in later years. Consideration of infant fear in the context of cognitive development will likely contribute to a more nuanced understanding of fear, its neural bases, and its implications for future mental health. PMID:26499255

  19. Stakeholder analysis of perceived relevance of connectivity - the implication to your research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanova, Anna; Müller, Eva Nora Nora; Fernández-Getino, Ana Patricia; José Marqués, María; Vericat, Damià; Dugodan, Recep; Kapovic, Marijana; Ljusa, Melisa; Ferreira, Carla Sofia; Cavalli, Marco; Marttila, Hannu; Broja, Manuel Esteban Lucas; Święchowicz, Jolanta; Zumr, David

    2016-04-01

    Effectively communicated connectivity research is inevitable for targeting the real world connectivity issues, the land and water managers - stakeholders, deal with every day. The understanding of stakeholder's perception of connectivity and the usage of the connectivity concept in their work (both theoretically and practically), are the pre-requisites for successful dialogue between scientist and the end-users of the scientific advancements, that is one of the goals of the COST Action ES1306: Connecting European connectivity research (Connecteur). The contribution presents the results of a questionnaire survey on stakeholders perception of connectivity from 20 European countries. Potential stakeholders on local/ regional and national level, in agriculture, water and land management, or cross-sectoral management authorities, were identified and interviewed in their native language by 29 members of the Connecteur network. Semi-structured interviews consisted of mix of 20 opened, multiple-choice and closed questions. They focused on the context the stakeholders' work, the management issues they deal with, the sources and type of data their use, their collaborative network in relation to management, understanding of connectivity and their expectation on connectivity research. Semi-qualitative analysis was applied to the final datasets of 85 questionnaires in order to (i) understand the stakeholders mental models and perception of connectivity,(ii) to identify the management issues where immediate scientific cooperation is required and / or demanded, and (iii) to identify the tools to represent connectivity that would accepted and implemented by the practitioners. Direct implications for the experts in different domains of the connectivity research, including (i) its theoretical conceptualisation, (ii) measurements, (iii) modelling, (iv) connectivity indices and (v)communication, are presented. Following members of the Connecteur expert team are acknowledged for

  20. Selective augmentation of striatal functional connectivity following NMDA receptor antagonism: implications for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandash, Orwa; Harrison, Ben J; Adapa, Ram; Gaillard, Raphael; Giorlando, Francesco; Wood, Stephen J; Fletcher, Paul C; Fornito, Alex

    2015-02-01

    The psychotomimetic effect of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine is thought to arise from a functional modulation of the brain's fronto-striato-thalamic (FST) circuits. Animal models suggest a pronounced effect on ventral 'limbic' FST systems, although recent work in patients with psychosis and high-risk individuals suggests specific alterations of dorsal 'associative' FST circuits. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the effects of a subanesthetic dose of ketamine on measures of functional connectivity as indexed by the temporal coherence of spontaneous neural activity in both dorsal and ventral FST circuits, as well as their symptom correlates. We adopted a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, repeated-measures design in which 19 healthy participants received either an intravenous saline infusion or a racemic mixture of ketamine (100 ng/ml) separated by at least 1 week. Compared with placebo, ketamine increased functional connectivity between the dorsal caudate and both the thalamus and midbrain bilaterally. Ketamine additionally increased functional connectivity of the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Both connectivity increases significantly correlated with the psychosis-like and dissociative symptoms under ketamine. Importantly, dorsal caudate connectivity with the ventrolateral thalamus and subthalamic nucleus showed inverse correlation with ketamine-induced symptomatology, pointing to a possible resilience role to disturbances in FST circuits. Although consistent with the role of FST in mediating psychosis, these findings contrast with previous research in clinical samples by suggesting that acute NMDAR antagonism may lead to psychosis-like experiences via a mechanism that is distinct from that implicated in frank psychotic illness.

  1. Effective Connectivity Reveals Right-Hemisphere Dominance in Audiospatial Perception: Implications for Models of Spatial Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friston, Karl J.; Mattingley, Jason B.; Roepstorff, Andreas; Garrido, Marta I.

    2014-01-01

    Detecting the location of salient sounds in the environment rests on the brain's ability to use differences in sounds arriving at both ears. Functional neuroimaging studies in humans indicate that the left and right auditory hemispaces are coded asymmetrically, with a rightward attentional bias that reflects spatial attention in vision. Neuropsychological observations in patients with spatial neglect have led to the formulation of two competing models: the orientation bias and right-hemisphere dominance models. The orientation bias model posits a symmetrical mapping between one side of the sensorium and the contralateral hemisphere, with mutual inhibition of the ipsilateral hemisphere. The right-hemisphere dominance model introduces a functional asymmetry in the brain's coding of space: the left hemisphere represents the right side, whereas the right hemisphere represents both sides of the sensorium. We used Dynamic Causal Modeling of effective connectivity and Bayesian model comparison to adjudicate between these alternative network architectures, based on human electroencephalographic data acquired during an auditory location oddball paradigm. Our results support a hemispheric asymmetry in a frontoparietal network that conforms to the right-hemisphere dominance model. We show that, within this frontoparietal network, forward connectivity increases selectively in the hemisphere contralateral to the side of sensory stimulation. We interpret this finding in light of hierarchical predictive coding as a selective increase in attentional gain, which is mediated by feedforward connections that carry precision-weighted prediction errors during perceptual inference. This finding supports the disconnection hypothesis of unilateral neglect and has implications for theories of its etiology. PMID:24695717

  2. Mammary Stem Cells and Breast Cancer Stem Cells: Molecular Connections and Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celià-Terrassa, Toni

    2018-05-04

    Cancer arises from subpopulations of transformed cells with high tumor initiation and repopulation ability, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs), which share many similarities with their normal counterparts. In the mammary gland, several studies have shown common molecular regulators between adult mammary stem cells (MaSCs) and breast cancer stem cells (bCSCs). Cell plasticity and self-renewal are essential abilities for MaSCs to maintain tissue homeostasis and regenerate the gland after pregnancy. Intriguingly, these properties are similarly executed in breast cancer stem cells to drive tumor initiation, tumor heterogeneity and recurrence after chemotherapy. In addition, both stem cell phenotypes are strongly influenced by external signals from the microenvironment, immune cells and supportive specific niches. This review focuses on the intrinsic and extrinsic connections of MaSC and bCSCs with clinical implications for breast cancer progression and their possible therapeutic applications.

  3. Dendritic Connectivity, Heterogeneity, and Scaling in Urban Stormwater Networks: Implications for Socio-Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, A.; Jovanovic, T.; Hale, R. L.; Gironas, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Urban stormwater networks (USNs) are unique dendritic (tree-like) structures that combine both artificial (e.g., swales and pipes) and natural (e.g., streams and wetlands) components. They are central to stream ecosystem structure and function in urban watersheds. The emphasis of conventional stormwater management, however, has been on localized, temporal impacts (e.g., changes to hydrographs at discrete locations), and the performance of individual stormwater control measures. This is the case even though control measures are implemented to prevent impacts on the USN. We develop a modeling approach to retrospectively study hydrological fluxes and states in USNs and apply the model to an urban watershed in Scottsdale, Arizona, USA. Using outputs from the model, we analyze over space and time the network properties of dendritic connectivity, heterogeneity, and scaling. Results show that as the network growth over time, due to increasing urbanization, it tends to become more homogenous in terms of topological features but increasingly heterogeneous in terms of dynamic features. We further use the modeling results to address socio-hydrological implications for USNs. We find that the adoption over time of evolving management strategies (e.g., widespread implementation of vegetated swales and retention ponds versus pipes) may be locally beneficial to the USN but benefits may not propagate systematically through the network. The latter can be reinforced by sudden, perhaps unintended, changes to the overall dendritic connectivity.

  4. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N

    2012-01-01

    Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1) There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2) There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3) Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics.

  5. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Finer

    Full Text Available Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1 There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2 There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3 Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics.

  6. Microbial ecology of mountain glacier ecosystems: biodiversity, ecological connections and implications of a warming climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotaling, Scott; Hood, Eran; Hamilton, Trinity L

    2017-08-01

    Glacier ecosystems are teeming with life on, beneath, and to a lesser degree, within their icy masses. This conclusion largely stems from polar research, with less attention paid to mountain glaciers that overlap environmentally and ecologically with their polar counterparts in some ways, but diverge in others. One difference lies in the susceptibility of mountain glaciers to the near-term threat of climate change, as they tend to be much smaller in both area and volume. Moreover, mountain glaciers are typically steeper, more dependent upon basal sliding for movement, and experience higher seasonal precipitation. Here, we provide a modern synthesis of the microbial ecology of mountain glacier ecosystems, and particularly those at low- to mid-latitudes. We focus on five ecological zones: the supraglacial surface, englacial interior, subglacial bedrock-ice interface, proglacial streams and glacier forefields. For each, we discuss the role of microbiota in biogeochemical cycling and outline ecological and hydrological connections among zones, underscoring the interconnected nature of these ecosystems. Collectively, we highlight the need to: better document the biodiversity and functional roles of mountain glacier microbiota; describe the ecological implications of rapid glacial retreat under climate change and resolve the relative contributions of ecological zones to broader ecosystem function. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Morphodynamics and Sediment connectivity in the Kosi River basin in the Himalaya and their implications for river management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, R.; Mishra, K.; Swrankar, S.; Jain, V.; Nepal, S.; Uddin, K.

    2017-12-01

    Sediment flux of large tropical rivers is strongly influenced by the degree of linkage between the sediments sources and sink (i.e. sediment connectivity). Sediment connectivity, especially at the catchment scale, depends largely on the morphological characteristics of the catchment such as relief, terrain roughness, slope, elevation, stream network density and catchment shape and the combined effects of land use, particularly vegetation. Understanding the spatial distribution of sediment connectivity and its temporal evolution can be useful for the characterization of sediment source areas. Specifically, these areas represent sites of instability and their connectivity influences the probability of sediment transfer at a local scale that will propagate downstream through a feedback system. This paper evaluates the morphodynamics and sediment connectivity of the Kosi basin in Nepal and India at various spatial and temporal scales. Our results provide the first order assessment of the spatial sediment connectivity in terms of the channel connectivity (IC outlet) and source to channel connectivity (IC channel) of the upstream and midstream Kosi basin. This assessment helped in the characterization of sediment dynamics in the complex morphological settings and in a mixed environment. Further, Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) was used to quantify soil erosion and sediment transport capacity equation is used to quantify sediment flux at each cell basis. Sediment Delivery Ratio (SDR) was calculated for each sub-basin to identify the sediment production and transport capacity limited sub-basin. We have then integrated all results to assess the sediment flux in the Kosi basin in relation to sediment connectivity and the factors controlling the pathways of sediment delivery. Results of this work have significant implications for sediment management of the Kosi river in terms of identification of hotspots of sediment accumulation that will in turn be manifested

  8. Connections between children's speaking and singing behaviours : implications for education and therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Rinta, Tiija Elisabet

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The putpose of the study was to investigate potential connections between children's speaking and singing behaviouts, as well as to explore the potential use of such connections in speech or voice therapy and in educational settings. The objectives of the study were addressed through an exploratory approach. In the literature review, potential connections between the two vocal behaviours were investigated theoretically from the physiological (including neurological)...

  9. Composition, Architecture, and Functional Implications of the Connective Tissue Network of the Extraocular Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoon, Linda K.; Vicente, André; Fitzpatrick, Krysta R.; Lindström, Mona

    2018-01-01

    Purpose We examined the pattern and extent of connective tissue distribution in the extraocular muscles (EOMs) and determined the ability of the interconnected connective tissues to disseminate force laterally. Methods Human EOMs were examined for collagens I, III, IV, and VI; fibronectin; laminin; and elastin using immunohistochemistry. Connective tissue distribution was examined with scanning electron microscopy. Rabbit EOMs were examined for levels of force transmission longitudinally and transversely using in vitro force assessment. Results Collagens I, III, and VI localized to the endomysium, perimysium, and epimysium. Collagen IV, fibronectin, and laminin localized to the basal lamina surrounding all myofibers. All collagens localized similarly in the orbital and global layers throughout the muscle length. Elastin had the most irregular pattern and ran longitudinally and circumferentially throughout the length of all EOMs. Scanning electron microscopy showed these elements to be extensively interconnected, from endomysium through the perimysium to the epimysium surrounding the whole muscle. In vitro physiology demonstrated force generation in the lateral dimension, presumably through myofascial transmission, which was always proportional to the force generated in the longitudinally oriented muscles. Conclusions A striking connective tissue matrix interconnects all the myofibers and extends, via perimysial connections, to the epimysium. These interconnections are significant and allow measurable force transmission laterally as well as longitudinally, suggesting that they may contribute to the nonlinear force summation seen in motor unit recording studies. This provides strong evidence that separate compartmental movements are unlikely as no region is independent of the rest of the muscle. PMID:29346490

  10. The connective tissue phenotype of glaucomatous cupping in the monkey eye - Clinical and research implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongli; Reynaud, Juan; Lockwood, Howard; Williams, Galen; Hardin, Christy; Reyes, Luke; Stowell, Cheri; Gardiner, Stuart K; Burgoyne, Claude F

    2017-07-01

    In a series of previous publications we have proposed a framework for conceptualizing the optic nerve head (ONH) as a biomechanical structure. That framework proposes important roles for intraocular pressure (IOP), IOP-related stress and strain, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFp), systemic and ocular determinants of blood flow, inflammation, auto-immunity, genetics, and other non-IOP related risk factors in the physiology of ONH aging and the pathophysiology of glaucomatous damage to the ONH. The present report summarizes 20 years of technique development and study results pertinent to the characterization of ONH connective tissue deformation and remodeling in the unilateral monkey experimental glaucoma (EG) model. In it we propose that the defining pathophysiology of a glaucomatous optic neuropathy involves deformation, remodeling, and mechanical failure of the ONH connective tissues. We view this as an active process, driven by astrocyte, microglial, fibroblast and oligodendrocyte mechanobiology. These cells, and the connective tissue phenomena they propagate, have primary and secondary effects on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon, laminar beam and retrolaminar capillary homeostasis that may initially be "protective" but eventually lead to RGC axonal injury, repair and/or cell death. The primary goal of this report is to summarize our 3D histomorphometric and optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based evidence for the early onset and progression of ONH connective tissue deformation and remodeling in monkey EG. A second goal is to explain the importance of including ONH connective tissue processes in characterizing the phenotype of a glaucomatous optic neuropathy in all species. A third goal is to summarize our current efforts to move from ONH morphology to the cell biology of connective tissue remodeling and axonal insult early in the disease. A final goal is to facilitate the translation of our findings and ideas into neuroprotective interventions that target

  11. Anesthetic implications of total anomalous systemic venous connection to left atrium with left isomerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parimala Prasanna Simha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Total anomalous systemic venous connection (TASVC to the left atrium (LA is a rare congenital anomaly. An 11-year-old girl presented with complaints of palpitations and cyanosis. TASVC with left isomerism and noncompaction of LV was diagnosed after contrast echocardiogram and computed tomography angiogram. The knowledge of anatomy and pathophysiology is essential for the successful management of these cases. Anesthetic concerns in this case were polycythemia, paradoxical embolism and rhythm abnormalities. The patient was successfully operated by rerouting the systemic venous connection to the right atrium.

  12. Repetitive tactile stimulation changes resting-state functional connectivityimplications for treatment of sensorimotor decline

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    Frank eFreyer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurological disorders and physiological aging can lead to a decline of perceptual abilities. In contrast to the conventional therapeutic approach that comprises intensive training and practicing, passive repetitive sensory stimulation (RSS has recently gained increasing attention as an alternative to countervail the sensory decline by improving perceptual abilities without the need of active participation. A particularly effective type of high-frequency RSS, utilizing Hebbian learning principles, improves perceptual acuity as well as sensorimotor functions and has been successfully applied to treat chronic stroke patients and elderly subjects. High-frequency RSS has been shown to induce plastic changes of somatosensory cortex such as representational map reorganization, but its impact on the brain’s ongoing network activity and resting-state functional connectivity has not been investigated so far. Here, we applied high-frequency RSS in healthy human subjects and analyzed resting state Electroencephalography (EEG functional connectivity patterns before and after RSS by means of imaginary coherency (ImCoh, a frequency-specific connectivity measure which is known to reduce overestimation biases due to volume conduction and common reference. Thirty minutes of passive high-frequency RSS lead to significant ImCoh-changes of the resting state mu-rhythm in the individual upper alpha frequency band within distributed sensory and motor cortical areas. These stimulation induced distributed functional connectivity changes likely underlie the previously observed improvement in sensorimotor integration.

  13. Agricultural transformations, livelihoods and rural-city connections. Policy implications for regional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steel, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304349828; van Lindert, P.H.C.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069299382; Fold, Niels; Mynborg, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    This report analyses agricultural transformations, livelihoods and rural-city connections in Sub-Saharan Africa with the aim to identify key policy areas for regional development. The report draws on the results from comparative empirical studies in various dynamic rural regions characterized by

  14. Ketamine decreases resting state functional network connectivity in healthy subjects: implications for antidepressant drug action.

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    Milan Scheidegger

    Full Text Available Increasing preclinical and clinical evidence underscores the strong and rapid antidepressant properties of the glutamate-modulating NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine. Targeting the glutamatergic system might thus provide a novel molecular strategy for antidepressant treatment. Since glutamate is the most abundant and major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, pathophysiological changes in glutamatergic signaling are likely to affect neurobehavioral plasticity, information processing and large-scale changes in functional brain connectivity underlying certain symptoms of major depressive disorder. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI, the "dorsal nexus "(DN was recently identified as a bilateral dorsal medial prefrontal cortex region showing dramatically increased depression-associated functional connectivity with large portions of a cognitive control network (CCN, the default mode network (DMN, and a rostral affective network (AN. Hence, Sheline and colleagues (2010 proposed that reducing increased connectivity of the DN might play a critical role in reducing depression symptomatology and thus represent a potential therapy target for affective disorders. Here, using a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover rsfMRI challenge in healthy subjects we demonstrate that ketamine decreases functional connectivity of the DMN to the DN and to the pregenual anterior cingulate (PACC and medioprefrontal cortex (MPFC via its representative hub, the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC. These findings in healthy subjects may serve as a model to elucidate potential biomechanisms that are addressed by successful treatment of major depression. This notion is further supported by the temporal overlap of our observation of subacute functional network modulation after 24 hours with the peak of efficacy following an intravenous ketamine administration in treatment-resistant depression.

  15. Contrasting movements and connectivity of reef-associated sharks using acoustic telemetry: implications for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Mario; Lédée, Elodie J I; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; Tobin, Andrew J; Heupel, Michelle R

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the efficacy of marine protected areas (MPAs) for wide-ranging predators is essential to designing effective management and conservation approaches. The use of acoustic monitoring and network analysis can improve our understanding of the spatial ecology and functional connectivity of reef-associated species, providing a useful approach for reef-based conservation planning. This study compared and contrasted the movement and connectivity of sharks with different degrees of reef association. We examined the residency, dispersal, degree of reef connectivity, and MPA use of grey reef (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos), silvertip (C. albimarginatus), and bull (C. leucas) sharks monitored in the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR). An array of 56 acoustic receivers was used to monitor shark movements on 17 semi-isolated reefs. Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos and C. albimarginatus were detected most days at or near their tagging reef. However, while C. amblyrhynchos spent 80% of monitoring days in the array, C. albimarginatus was only detected 50% of the time. Despite both species moving similar distances (sharks like C. leucas, a combination of spatial planning and other alternative measures is critical. Our findings demonstrate that acoustic monitoring can serve as a useful platform for designing more effective MPA networks for reef predators displaying a range of movement patterns.

  16. [Functional connectivity and complex networks in focal epilepsy. Pathophysiology and therapeutic implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Jesús; Sola, Rafael G; Vega-Zelaya, Lorena; Garnes, Óscar; Ortega, Guillermo J

    2014-05-01

    The traditional surgical approach to treat drug-resistant focal epileptic patients is in the resection or disconnection of the epileptic focus. However, a significant minority of patients continue to experience seizures after surgery, which shows the incomplete level of knowledge that currently we have of this pathology. This paper introduces some concepts of functional connectivity and complex networks methodology with its application to the study of neurophysiological recordings from patients suffering from drug-resistant focal epilepsy. In order to fully understand the new developments in the area of complex networks and its applications to the study of epilepsy, we will here review fundamental concepts in complex networks methodology, synchronization and functional connectivity. Some of the most recent published works dealing with focal epilepsy viewed under this new perspective will be revised and commented. We think that a wider perspective in the study of epilepsy, such as the one reviewed in this work, will allow epileptologists to consider surgical alternatives in the usual treatment of focal epilepsy at those currently performed in most medical centers around the world. Combining the traditional knowledge with new insights provided by network theory will certainly fill many of the gaps we have today in the fragmented understanding of epilepsy.

  17. The Concept of Directly Connected Impervious Areas and Its Implication on Sustainable Development in Urban Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongwon; Hwang, Junsik; Choi, Hyun Il

    2017-04-01

    The concept of directly connected impervious area (DCIA) or efficient impervious areas (EIA) refers to a subset of impervious cover, which is directly connected to a drainage system or a water body via continuous impervious surfaces. The concept of DCIA is important in that it is regarded as a better predictor of stream ecosystem health than the total impervious area (TIA). DCIA is a key concept for a better assessment of green infrastructures introduced in urban catchments. Green infrastructure can help restore water cycle; it improves water quality, manages stormwater, provides recreational environment even at lower cost compared to conventional alternatives. In this study, we evaluated several methods to obtain the DCIA based on a GIS database and showed the importance of the accurate measurement of DCIA in terms of resulting hydrographs. We also evaluated several potential green infrastructure scenarios and showed how the spatial planning of green infrastruesture affects the shape of hydrographs and reduction of peak flows. These results imply that well-planned green infrastructure can be introduced to urban catchments for flood risk managements and quantitative assessment of spatial distribution of DCIA is crucial for sustainable development in urban environment.

  18. Neural field theory of perceptual echo and implications for estimating brain connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P. A.; Pagès, J. C.; Gabay, N. C.; Babaie, T.; Mukta, K. N.

    2018-04-01

    Neural field theory is used to predict and analyze the phenomenon of perceptual echo in which random input stimuli at one location are correlated with electroencephalographic responses at other locations. It is shown that this echo correlation (EC) yields an estimate of the transfer function from the stimulated point to other locations. Modal analysis then explains the observed spatiotemporal structure of visually driven EC and the dominance of the alpha frequency; two eigenmodes of similar amplitude dominate the response, leading to temporal beating and a line of low correlation that runs from the crown of the head toward the ears. These effects result from mode splitting and symmetry breaking caused by interhemispheric coupling and cortical folding. It is shown how eigenmodes obtained from functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments can be combined with temporal dynamics from EC or other evoked responses to estimate the spatiotemporal transfer function between any two points and hence their effective connectivity.

  19. Impacts of Extreme Flooding on Hydrologic Connectivity and Water Quality in the Atlantic Coastal Plain and Implications for Vulnerable Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros-Iregui, D. A.; Moser, H. A.; Christenson, E. C.; Gray, J.; Hedgespeth, M. L.; Jass, T. L.; Lowry, D. S.; Martin, K.; Nichols, E. G.; Stewart, J. R.; Emanuel, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    In October 2016, Hurricane Matthew brought extreme flooding to eastern North Carolina, including record regional flooding along the Lumber River and its tributaries in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Situated in a region dominated by large-scale crop-cultivation and containing some of the highest densities of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and animal processing operations in the U.S., the Lumber River watershed is also home to the Lumbee Tribe of American Indians. Most of the tribe's 60,000+ members live within or immediately adjacent to the 3,000 km2 watershed where they maintain deep cultural and historical connections. The region, however, also suffers from high rates of poverty and large disparities in healthcare, education, and infrastructure, conditions exacerbated by Hurricane Matthew. We summarize ongoing efforts to characterize the short- and long-term impacts of extreme flooding on water quality in (1) low gradient streams and riverine wetlands of the watershed; (2) surficial aquifers, which provide water resources for the local communities, and (3) public drinking water supplies, which derive from deeper, confined aquifers but whose infrastructure suffered widespread damage following Hurricane Matthew. Our results provide mechanistic understanding of flood-related connectivity across multiple hydrologic compartments, and provide important implications for how hydrological natural hazards combine with land use to drive water quality impacts and affect vulnerable populations.

  20. "I feel more connected to the physically ideal mini me than the mirror-image mini me": theoretical implications of the "malleable self" for speculations on the effects of avatar creation on avatar-self connection in Wii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Seung-A Annie

    2010-10-01

    What are the impacts of creating an avatar replicating the actual self versus an avatar projecting the ideal self on game players' avatar-self connection? This study leveraged an avatar-creating game (Mii Channel) within a video-game console (Wii) in a controlled, randomized study. The results of a two-group comparison (actual self-priming vs. ideal self-priming) between-subjects study (N = 76) demonstrated the significant main effect of self-priming via avatar (Mii) creation on avatar-self connection. Game players who were primed to create a Mii reflecting the ideal self felt greater avatar-self connection than those primed to create a replica Mii mirroring the actual self. Theoretical values and implications for a burgeoning body of research on the "malleable self" and the multidimensionality of the self-concept in avatar-based interactive media are discussed.

  1. Increased functional connectivity between superior colliculus and brain regions implicated in bodily self-consciousness during the rubber hand illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivé, Isadora; Tempelmann, Claus; Berthoz, Alain; Heinze, Hans-Joachim

    2015-02-01

    Bodily self-consciousness refers to bodily processes operating at personal, peripersonal, and extrapersonal spatial dimensions. Although the neural underpinnings of representations of personal and peripersonal space associated with bodily self-consciousness were thoroughly investigated, relatively few is known about the neural underpinnings of representations of extrapersonal space relevant for bodily self-consciousness. In the search to unravel brain structures generating a representation of the extrapersonal space relevant for bodily self-consciousness, we developed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to investigate the implication of the superior colliculus (SC) in bodily illusions, and more specifically in the rubber hand illusion (RHi), which constitutes an established paradigm to study the neural underpinnings of bodily self-consciousness. We observed activation of the colliculus ipsilateral to the manipulated hand associated with eliciting of RHi. A generalized form of context-dependent psychophysiological interaction analysis unravelled increased illusion-dependent functional connectivity between the SC and some of the main brain areas previously involved in bodily self-consciousness: right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ), bilateral ventral premotor cortex (vPM), and bilateral postcentral gyrus. We hypothesize that the collicular map of the extrapersonal space interacts with maps of the peripersonal and personal space generated at rTPJ, vPM and the postcentral gyrus, producing a unified representation of space that is relevant for bodily self-consciousness. We suggest that processes of multisensory integration of bodily-related sensory inputs located in this unified representation of space constitute one main factor underpinning emergence of bodily self-consciousness. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Abnormalities in Functional Connectivity in Collegiate Football Athletes with and without a Concussion History: Implications and Role of Neuroactive Kynurenine Pathway Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Timothy B; Lancaster, Melissa A; Mayer, Andrew R; Teague, T Kent; Savitz, Jonathan

    2017-02-15

    There is a great need to identify potential long-term consequences of contact sport exposure and to identify molecular pathways that may be associated with these changes. We tested the hypothesis that football players with (Ath-mTBI) (n = 25) and without a concussion history (Ath) (n = 24) have altered resting state functional connectivity in regions with previously documented structural changes relative to healthy controls without football or concussion history (HC) (n = 27). As a secondary aim, we tested the hypothesis that group differences in functional connectivity are moderated by the relative ratio of neuroprotective to neurotoxic metabolites of the kynurenine pathway. Ath-mTBI had significantly increased connectivity of motor cortex to the supplementary motor area relative to Ath and HC. In contrast, both Ath-mTBI and Ath had increased connectivity between the left orbital frontal cortex and the right lateral frontal cortex, and between the left cornu ammonis areas 2 and 3/dentate gyrus (CA2-3/DG) of the hippocampus and the middle and posterior cingulate cortices, relative to HC. The relationship between the ratio of plasma concentrations of kynurenic acid to quinolinic acid (KYNA/QUIN) and left pregenual anterior cingulate cortex connectivity to multiple regions as well as KYNA/QUIN and right CA2-3/DG connectivity to multiple regions differed significantly according to football and concussion history. The results suggest that football exposure with and without concussion history can have a significant effect on intrinsic brain connectivity and implicate the kynurenine metabolic pathway as one potential moderator of functional connectivity dependent on football exposure and concussion history.

  3. Implications of Informal Education Experiences for Mathematics Teachers' Ability to Make Connections beyond Formal Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Gorjana; Lederman, Judith S.

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core Standard for Mathematical Practice 4: Model with Mathematics specifies that mathematically proficient students are able to make connections between school mathematics and its applications to solving real-world problems. Hence, mathematics teachers are expected to incorporate connections between mathematical concepts they teach and…

  4. Mechanisms of population heterogeneity among molting common mergansers on Kodiak Island, Alaska: Implications for genetic assessments of migratory connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, John M.; Zwiefelhofer, Denny; Maryanski, Nate

    2009-01-01

    Quantifying population genetic heterogeneity within nonbreeding aggregations can inform our understanding of patterns of site fidelity, migratory connectivity, and gene flow between breeding and nonbreeding areas. However, characterizing mechanisms that contribute to heterogeneity, such as migration and dispersal, is required before site fidelity and migratory connectivity can be assessed accurately. We studied nonbreeding groups of Common Mergansers (Mergus merganser) molting on Kodiak Island, Alaska, from 2005 to 2007, using banding data to assess rates of recapture, mitochondrial (mt) DNA to determine natal area, and nuclear microsatellite genotypes to assess dispersal. Using baseline information from differentiated mtDNA haplogroups across North America, we were able to assign individuals to natal regions and document population genetic heterogeneity within and among molting groups. Band-recovery and DNA data suggest that both migration from and dispersal among natal areas contribute to admixed groups of males molting on Kodiak Island. A lack of differentiation in the Common Merganser's nuclear, bi-parentally inherited DNA, observed across North America, implies that dispersal can mislead genetic assessments of migratory connectivity and assignments of nonbreeding individuals to breeding areas. Thus multiple and independent data types are required to account for such behaviors before accurate assessments of migratory connectivity can be made.

  5. Incongruent genetic connectivity patterns for VME indicator taxa: implications for the management of New Zealand's vulnerable marine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M. R.; Gardner, J.; Holland, L.; Zeng, C.; Hamilton, J. S.; Rowden, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    In the New Zealand region vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs) are at risk from commercial fishing activity and future seabed mining. Understanding connectivity among VMEs is important for the design of effective spatial management strategies, i.e. a network of protected areas. To date however, genetic connectivity in the New Zealand region has rarely been documented. As part of a project developing habitat suitability models and spatial management options for VMEs we used DNA sequence data and microsatellite genotyping to assess genetic connectivity for a range of VME indicator taxa, including the coral Desmophyllum dianthus, and the sponges Poecilastra laminaris and Penares palmatoclada. Overall, patterns of connectivity were inconsistent amonst taxa. Nonetheless, genetic data from each taxon were relevant to inform management at a variety of spatial scales. D. dianthus populations in the Kermadec volcanic arc and the Louisville Seamount Chain were indistinguishable, highlighting the importance of considering source-sink dynamics between populations beyond the EEZ in conservation planning. Poecilastra laminaris populations showed significant divergence across the Chatham Rise, in contrast to P. palmatoclada, which had a uniform haplotypic distribution. However, both sponge species exhibited the highest genetic diversity on the Chatham Rise, suggesting that this area is a genetic hotspot. The spatial heterogeneity of genetic patterns of structure suggest that inclusion of several taxa is necessary to facilitate understanding of regional connectivity patterns, variation in which may be attributed to alternate life history strategies, local hydrodynamic regimes, or in some cases, suboptimal sample sizes. Our findings provide important information for use by environmental managers, including summary maps of genetic diversity and barriers to gene flow, which will be used in spatial management decision-support tools.

  6. Connectivity and Dispersal Patterns of Protected Biogenic Reefs: Implications for the Conservation of Modiolus modiolus (L. in the Irish Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Gormley

    Full Text Available Biogenic reefs created by Modiolus modiolus (Linnaeus, 1758 (horse mussel reefs are marine habitats which support high levels of species biodiversity and provide valuable ecosystem services. Currently, M. modiolus reefs are listed as a threatened and/or declining species and habitat in all OSPAR regions and thus are highlighted as a conservation priority under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD. Determining patterns of larval dispersal and genetic connectivity of remaining horse mussel populations can inform management efforts and is a critical component of effective marine spatial planning (MSP. Larval dispersal patterns and genetic structure were determined for several M. modiolus bed populations in the Irish Sea including those in Wales (North Pen Llŷn, Isle of Man (Point of Ayre and Northern Ireland (Ards Peninsula and Strangford Lough. Simulations of larval dispersal suggested extant connectivity between populations within the Irish Sea. Results from the genetic analysis carried out using newly developed microsatellite DNA markers were consistent with those of the biophysical model. Results indicated moderately significant differentiation between the Northern Ireland populations and those in the Isle of Man and Wales. Simulations of larval dispersal over a 30 day pelagic larval duration (PLD suggest that connectivity over a spatial scale of 150km is possible between some source and sink populations. However, it appears unlikely that larvae from Northern Ireland will connect directly with sites on the Llŷn or Isle of Man. It also appears unlikely that larvae from the Llŷn connect directly to any of the other sites. Taken together the data establishes a baseline for underpinning management and conservation of these important and threatened marine habitats in the southern part of the known range.

  7. Modulating transcallosal and intra-hemispheric brain connectivity with tDCS: Implications for interventions in Aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin; Dai, Weiying; Alsop, David C; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2016-07-25

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can enhance or diminish cortical excitability levels depending on the polarity of the stimulation. One application of non-invasive brain-stimulation has been to modulate a possible inter-hemispheric disinhibition after a stroke. This disinhibition model has been developed mainly for the upper extremity motor system, but it is not known whether the language/speech-motor system shows a similar inter-hemispheric interaction. We aimed to examine physiological evidence of inter- and intra-hemispheric connectivity changes induced by tDCS of the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) using arterial-spin labeling (ASL) MRI. Using an MR-compatible DC-Stimulator, we applied anodal stimulation to the right IFG region of nine healthy adults while undergoing non-invasive cerebral blood flow imaging with arterial-spin labeling (ASL) before, during, and after the stimulation. All ASL images were then normalized and timecourses were extracted in regions of interest (ROIs), which were the left and right IFG regions, and the right supramarginal gyrus (SMG) in the inferior parietal lobule. Two additional ROIs (the right occipital lobe and the left fronto-orbital region) were taken as control regions. Using regional correlation coefficients as a surrogate marker of connectivity, we could show that inter-hemispheric connectivity (right IFG with left IFG) decreased significantly (p < 0.05; r-scores from 0.67 to 0.53) between baseline and post-stimulation, while the intra-hemispheric connectivity (right IFG with right SMG) increased significantly (p < 0.05;r-scores from 0.74 to 0.81). A 2 × 2 ANOVA found a significant main effect of HEMISPHERE (F(8) = 6.83, p < 0.01) and a significant HEMISPHERE-by-TIME interaction (F(8) = 4.24, p < 0.05) in connectivity changes. The correlation scores did not change significantly in the control region pairs (right IFG with right occipital and right IFG with left fronto-orbital) over

  8. Patterns of deep-sea genetic connectivity in the New Zealand region: implications for management of benthic ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor K Bors

    Full Text Available Patterns of genetic connectivity are increasingly considered in the design of marine protected areas (MPAs in both shallow and deep water. In the New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ, deep-sea communities at upper bathyal depths (<2000 m are vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbance from fishing and potential mining operations. Currently, patterns of genetic connectivity among deep-sea populations throughout New Zealand's EEZ are not well understood. Using the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I and 16S rRNA genes as genetic markers, this study aimed to elucidate patterns of genetic connectivity among populations of two common benthic invertebrates with contrasting life history strategies. Populations of the squat lobster Munida gracilis and the polychaete Hyalinoecia longibranchiata were sampled from continental slope, seamount, and offshore rise habitats on the Chatham Rise, Hikurangi Margin, and Challenger Plateau. For the polychaete, significant population structure was detected among distinct populations on the Chatham Rise, the Hikurangi Margin, and the Challenger Plateau. Significant genetic differences existed between slope and seamount populations on the Hikurangi Margin, as did evidence of population differentiation between the northeast and southwest parts of the Chatham Rise. In contrast, no significant population structure was detected across the study area for the squat lobster. Patterns of genetic connectivity in Hyalinoecia longibranchiata are likely influenced by a number of factors including current regimes that operate on varying spatial and temporal scales to produce potential barriers to dispersal. The striking difference in population structure between species can be attributed to differences in life history strategies. The results of this study are discussed in the context of existing conservation areas that are intended to manage anthropogenic threats to deep-sea benthic communities in the New Zealand region.

  9. Enteric Pathogen-Plant Interactions: Molecular Connections Leading to Colonization and Growth and Implications for Food Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Vaz, Betsy M.; Fink, Ryan C.; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Sadowsky, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Leafy green vegetables have been identified as a source of foodborne illnesses worldwide over the past decade. Human enteric pathogens, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella, have been implicated in numerous food poisoning outbreaks associated with the consumption of fresh produce. An understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the establishment of pathogenic bacteria in or on vegetable plants is critical for understanding and ameliorating this problem as well as ensuring the sa...

  10. Genetic diversity and connectivity in the East African giant mud crab Scylla serrata: Implications for fisheries management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrus Rumisha

    Full Text Available The giant mud crab Scylla serrata provides an important source of income and food to coastal communities in East Africa. However, increasing demand and exploitation due to the growing coastal population, export trade, and tourism industry are threatening the sustainability of the wild stock of this species. Because effective management requires a clear understanding of the connectivity among populations, this study was conducted to assess the genetic diversity and connectivity in the East African mangrove crab S. serrata. A section of 535 base pairs of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI gene and eight microsatellite loci were analysed from 230 tissue samples of giant mud crabs collected from Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Madagascar, and South Africa. Microsatellite genetic diversity (He ranged between 0.56 and 0.6. The COI sequences showed 57 different haplotypes associated with low nucleotide diversity (current nucleotide diversity = 0.29%. In addition, the current nucleotide diversity was lower than the historical nucleotide diversity, indicating overexploitation or historical bottlenecks in the recent history of the studied population. Considering that the coastal population is growing rapidly, East African countries should promote sustainable fishing practices and sustainable use of mangrove resources to protect mud crabs and other marine fauna from the increasing pressure of exploitation. While microsatellite loci did not show significant genetic differentiation (p > 0.05, COI sequences revealed significant genetic divergence between sites on the East coast of Madagascar (ECM and sites on the West coast of Madagascar, mainland East Africa, as well as the Seychelles. Since East African countries agreed to achieve the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD target to protect over 10% of their marine areas by 2020, the observed pattern of connectivity and the measured genetic diversity can serve to provide useful information for designing

  11. Comparison of the effects of artificial and natural barriers on large African carnivores: implications for interspecific relationships and connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Gabriele; Broekhuis, Femke; McNutt, J Weldon; Schmid, Bernhard

    2013-05-01

    1. Physical barriers contribute to habitat fragmentation, influence species distribution and ranging behaviour, and impact long-term population viability. Barrier permeability varies among species and can potentially impact the competitive balance within animal communities by differentially affecting co-occurring species. The influence of barriers on the spatial distribution of species within whole communities has nonetheless received little attention. 2. During a 4-year period, we studied the influence of a fence and rivers, two landscape features that potentially act as barriers on space use and ranging behaviour of lions Panthera leo, spotted hyenas Crocuta crocuta, African wild dogs Lycaon pictus and cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus in Northern Botswana. We compared the tendencies of these species to cross the barriers using data generated from GPS-radio collars fitted to a total of 35 individuals. Barrier permeability was inferred by calculating the number of times animals crossed a barrier vs. the number of times they did not cross. Finally, based on our results, we produced a map of connectivity for the broader landscape system. 3. Permeability varied significantly between fence and rivers and among species. The fence represented an obstacle for lions (permeability = 7.2%), while it was considerably more permeable for hyenas (35.6%) and wild dogs and cheetahs (≥ 50%). In contrast, the rivers and associated floodplains were relatively permeable to lions (14.4%) while they represented a nearly impassable obstacle for the other species (habitat patch on one side of the fence, which might provide a potential refuge for other species. For instance, the competitively inferior wild dogs used this refuge significantly more intensively than the side of the fence with a high presence of lions. 5. We showed that the influence of a barrier on the distribution of animals could potentially result in a broad-scale modification of community structure and ecology within a guild

  12. Distribution and abundance of phytobenthic communities: Implications for connectivity and ecosystem functioning in a Black Sea Marine Protected Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berov, Dimitar; Todorova, Valentina; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Rinde, Eli; Karamfilov, Ventzislav

    2018-01-01

    The distribution and abundance of macroalgal communities in a Marine Protected Area (MPA) along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast were mapped and quantified, with particular focus on the previously unstudied P. crispa lower-infralittoral communities on Ostrea edulis biogenic reefs. Data from high resolution geophysical substrate mapping were combined with benthic community observations from georeferenced benthic photographic surveys and sampling. Multivariate analysis identified four distinct assemblages of lower-infralittoral macroalgal communities at depths between 10 and 17 m, dominated by Phyllophora crispa, Apoglossum ruscifoluim, Zanardinia typus and Gelidium spp. Maxent software analysis showed distinct preferences of the identified communities to areas with specific ranges of depth, inclination and curvature, with P. crispa more frequently occurring on vertical oyster biogenic reef structures. By combining production rates from literature, biomass measurements and the produced habitat maps, the highest proportion of primary production and DOC release was shown for the upper infralittoral Cystoseira barbata and Cystoseira bosphorica, followed by the production of the lower-infralittoral macroalgae. The observed distribution of P. crispa within the studied MPA was related to the network of Natura 2000 maritime MPAs along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast, which indicated that the connectivity of the populations of the species within the established network is insufficient within this cell of ecosystem functioning.

  13. Markers of Inflammation and Fibrosis in the Orbital Fat/Connective Tissue of Patients with Graves’ Orbitopathy: Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemyslaw Pawlowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess FGF-β, TGF-β, and COX2 expression and immunocompetent cells in the orbital tissue of patients with severe and mild Graves’ orbitopathy. Patients and Methods. Orbital tissue was taken from 27 patients with GO: (1 severe GO (n=18, the mean clinical activity score (CAS being 8.5 (SD 2.5; and (2 mild GO (n=9, the mean CAS being 2.2 (SD 0.8, and from 10 individuals undergoing blepharoplasty. The expression of CD4+, CD8+, CD20+, and CD68 and FGF-β, TGF-β, and COX2 in the orbital tissue was evaluated by immunohistochemical methods. Results. We demonstrated predominant CD4+ T cells in severe GO. CD68 expression was observed in the fibrous connective area of mild GO and was robust in severe GO, while the prominent TGF-β expression was seen in all GO. Increased FGF-β expression was observed in the fibroblasts and adipocytes of severe GO. No expression of COX2 was found in patients with GO. Conclusions. Macrophages and CD4 T lymphocytes are both engaged in the active/severe and long stage of inflammation in the orbital tissue. FGF-β and TGF-β expression may contribute to tissue remodeling, fibrosis, and perpetuation of inflammation in the orbital tissue of GO especially in severe GO.

  14. Periodontal Systemic Connections-Novel Associations-A Review of the Evidence with Implications for Medical Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalakonda, Butchibabu; Koppolu, Pradeep; Baroudi, Kusai; Mishra, Ashank

    2016-04-01

    Periodontal diseases, considered as inflammatory diseases have proved to have a spectrum of systemic implications. Earliest research has associated periodontal disease with common systemic aliments such as hypertension, diabetes, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis to name a few. The evolution of advanced diagnostic aids let researchers make vast inroads in linking periodontal diseases to systemic diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD) and even Schizophrenia. Our aim was to review and critically evaluate comprehensive literature and provide knowledge to medical practitioners on these associations so as to pave way for closer interactions between medical and dental practitioners in implementing better health care. Electronic databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar and Cochrane databases were used as source of the data for relevant studies published from 2005 up to 2015 with the following keywords, "'Periodontal disease", "systemic conditions", "periodontal disease and Alzheimer's", "Periodontal disease and Schizophrenia", "Periodontal disease and Psoriasis" and "Periodontal disease and erectile dysfunction". The evidence presented ascertains that a reasonable and modest association does exist between Periodontal disease and Alzheimer's, Schizophrenia, Erectile dysfunction, as well as Psoriasis and thus establishes periodontal disease as a potential risk factor.

  15. The connection between human papillomavirus and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas in the United States: implications for dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Jennifer L; Junger, Michele L; Saraiya, Mona; Markowitz, Lauri E; Dunne, Eileen F; Epstein, Joel B

    2011-08-01

    Results from studies conducted in the past several years suggest that some oropharyngeal cancers, those of the base of the tongue and the tonsils, are associated with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV). In this article, the authors summarize the available evidence regarding the epidemiology of HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancers in the United States, the available HPV vaccines and the implications of these for dentistry. They also examine the differences in HPV prevalence between cancers of the oral cavity and those of the oropharynx. The authors searched PubMed, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library and the National Guideline Clearinghouse to identify English-language systematic reviews and meta-analyses focused on HPV-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell cancers published from January 2005 through May 2011. Molecular and epidemiologic evidence suggest a strong etiologic association of HPV with oropharyngeal cancers. The incidence of oropharyngeal cancers in the United States has increased between 1973 and 2007, whereas that of cancers at other head and neck sites has decreased steadily. Compared with HPV-negative cancers, HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancers are associated with certain sexual behaviors, occur more often among white men and people who do not use tobacco or alcohol, and may occur in a population younger by about four years (median ages, 52-56 years). Despite often having a later stage of diagnosis, people with HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancers have a lower risk of dying or recurrence than do those with HPV-negative cancers. The effectiveness of the HPV vaccine in preventing oropharyngeal cancers is unknown. Dental health care personnel (DHCP) should be knowledgeable about the role of HPV in carcinogenesis, the association of HPV with oropharyngeal cancers and HPV vaccines, and they should be prompt in referring patients with suggestive symptoms for evaluation. DHCP can play an important role in increasing patients' knowledge about HPV

  16. Gender-related functional connectivity and craving during gaming and immediate abstinence during a mandatory break: Implications for development and progression of internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guangheng; Wang, Ziliang; Wang, Yifan; Du, Xiaoxia; Potenza, Marc N

    2018-04-20

    Although males more frequently develop Internet gaming disorder (IGD) as compared with females, few studies have examined gender-related neurocognitive differences in IGD. TASK AND DESIGN: fMRI and subjective data were collected from 119 subjects (IGD, male 29, female 25; recreational game use (RGU), male 34, female 31) when they were actively playing games and during a forced mandatory break. Analyses investigating effects of group (IGD, RGU) and gender (male, female) on the functional connectivity (FC) of executive control and reward systems linked to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and striatum, respectively, were performed. Correlations between FC and subjective craving measures were also calculated. Gaming-group-by-gender interactions were observed. During gaming in males but not in females, the FC between the DLPFC and superior frontal gyrus was relatively decreased, and that between the striatum and thalamus was relatively increased. During the mandatory break, changes in the FC between DLPFC and superior frontal gyrus and the FC between the striatum and thalamus varied by gender with greater RGU-IGD differences observed in females. Significant correlations between FC and self-reported craving were observed. During both gaming and a forced mandatory break, brain regions implicated in executive control and reward processing showed changes in FC that varied by gender. Brain regions implicated in executive control showed differential FC in males during gaming, and FC during the forced mandatory break appeared relevant to both genders, and perhaps particularly for females. The findings suggest possible neural mechanisms for why males appear more likely to develop IGD, and why it may be particularly difficult for individuals with IGD to cease gaming. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Limitations in the Use of Archived Vent Mussel Samples to Assess Genetic Connectivity Among Seafloor Massive Sulfide Deposits: A Case Study with Implications for Environmental Management

    OpenAIRE

    Boschen, Rachel E.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Clark, Malcolm R.; Gardner, Jonathan P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic connectivity studies can inform the design of mitigation strategies used in environmental management. However, the expense of developing species-specific molecular markers and collecting samples at appropriate spatial and temporal scales can be prohibitive. Using archived material and existing molecular markers may provide a cost-effective way to assess population connectivity. Genetic connectivity studies are increasingly in demand in the deep sea in response to mounting anthropogeni...

  18. Human middle longitudinal fascicle: segregation and behavioral-clinical implications of two distinct fiber connections linking temporal pole and superior temporal gyrus with the angular gyrus or superior parietal lobule using multi-tensor tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, N; Preti, M G; Wassermann, D; Rathi, Y; Papadimitriou, G M; Yergatian, C; Dickerson, B C; Shenton, M E; Kubicki, M

    2013-09-01

    The middle longitudinal fascicle (MdLF) is a major fiber connection running principally between the superior temporal gyrus and the parietal lobe, neocortical regions of great biological and clinical interest. Although one of the most prominent cerebral association fiber tracts, it has only recently been discovered in humans. In this high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) MRI study, we delineated the two major fiber connections of the human MdLF, by examining morphology, topography, cortical connections, biophysical measures, volume and length in seventy-four brains. These two fiber connections course together through the dorsal temporal pole and the superior temporal gyrus maintaining a characteristic topographic relationship in the mediolateral and ventrodorsal dimensions. As these pathways course towards the parietal lobe, they split to form separate fiber pathways, one following a ventrolateral trajectory and connecting with the angular gyrus and the other following a dorsomedial route and connecting with the superior parietal lobule. Based on the functions of their cortical affiliations, we suggest that the superior temporal-angular connection of the MdLF, i.e., STG(MdLF)AG plays a role in language and attention, whereas the superior temporal-superior parietal connection of the MdLF, i.e., STG(MdLF)SPL is involved in visuospatial and integrative audiovisual functions. Furthermore, the MdLF may have clinical implications in neurodegenerative disorders such as primary progressive aphasia, frontotemporal dementia, posterior cortical atrophy, corticobulbar degeneration and Alzheimer's disease as well as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia.

  19. A musculoskeletal model of low grade connective tissue inflammation in patients with thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO: the WOMED concept of lateral tension and its general implications in disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncayo Helga

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low level connective tissue inflammation has been proposed to play a role in thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO. The aim of this study was to investigate this postulate by a musculoskeletal approach together with biochemical parameters. Methods 13 patients with TAO and 16 controls were examined. Erythrocyte levels of Zn, Cu, Ca2+, Mg, and Fe were determined. The musculoskeletal evaluation included observational data on body posture with emphasis on the orbit-head region. The angular foot position in the frontal plane was quantified following gait observation. The axial orientation of the legs and feet was evaluated in an unloaded supine position. Functional propioceptive tests based on stretch stimuli were done by using foot inversion and foot rotation. Results Alterations in the control group included neck tilt in 3 cases, asymmetrical foot angle during gait in 2, and a reaction to foot inversion in 5 cases. TAO patients presented facial asymmetry with displaced eye fissure inclination (mean 9.1° as well as tilted head-on-neck position (mean 5.7°. A further asymmetry feature was external rotation of the legs and feet (mean 27°. Both foot inversion as well as foot rotation induced a condition of neuromuscular deficit. This condition could be regulated by gentle acupressure either on the lateral abdomen or the lateral ankle at the acupuncture points gall bladder 26 or bladder 62, respectively. In 5 patients, foot rotation produced a phenomenon of moving toes in the contra lateral foot. In addition foot rotation was accompanied by an audible tendon snapping. Lower erythrocyte Zn levels and altered correlations between Ca2+, Mg, and Fe were found in TAO. Conclusion This whole body observational study has revealed axial deviations and body asymmetry as well as the phenomenon of moving toes in TAO. The most common finding was an arch-like displacement of the body, i.e. eccentric position, with foot inversion and head tilt

  20. Connected and autonomous vehicles 2040 vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) commissioned a one-year project, Connected and Autonomous : Vehicles 2040 Vision, with researchers at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) to assess the implications of connected and : autonomous ve...

  1. Connecting Grammaticalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård-Sørensen, Jens; Heltoft, Lars; Schøsler, Lene

    morphological, topological and constructional paradigms often connect to form complex paradigms. The book introduces the concept of connecting grammaticalisation to describe the formation, restructuring and dismantling of such complex paradigms. Drawing primarily on data from Germanic, Romance and Slavic...

  2. The Always-Connected Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Glen

    2010-01-01

    The Pew Internet and American Life project characterizes the millennials--the first generation to come of age in the new millennium--as the first "always-connected" generation. Significant aspects of culture are changing as a result. A changing world where all students are connected all the time has substantial educational implications. Despite…

  3. Contralateral cortico-ponto-cerebellar pathways reconstruction in humans in vivo: implications for reciprocal cerebro-cerebellar structural connectivity in motor and non-motor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palesi, Fulvia; De Rinaldis, Andrea; Castellazzi, Gloria; Calamante, Fernando; Muhlert, Nils; Chard, Declan; Tournier, J Donald; Magenes, Giovanni; D'Angelo, Egidio; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M

    2017-10-09

    Cerebellar involvement in cognition, as well as in sensorimotor control, is increasingly recognized and is thought to depend on connections with the cerebral cortex. Anatomical investigations in animals and post-mortem humans have established that cerebro-cerebellar connections are contralateral to each other and include the cerebello-thalamo-cortical (CTC) and cortico-ponto-cerebellar (CPC) pathways. CTC and CPC characterization in humans in vivo is still challenging. Here advanced tractography was combined with quantitative indices to compare CPC to CTC pathways in healthy subjects. Differently to previous studies, our findings reveal that cerebellar cognitive areas are reached by the largest proportion of the reconstructed CPC, supporting the hypothesis that a CTC-CPC loop provides a substrate for cerebro-cerebellar communication during cognitive processing. Amongst the cerebral areas identified using in vivo tractography, in addition to the cerebral motor cortex, major portions of CPC streamlines leave the prefrontal and temporal cortices. These findings are useful since provide MRI-based indications of possible subtending connectivity and, if confirmed, they are going to be a milestone for instructing computational models of brain function. These results, together with further multi-modal investigations, are warranted to provide important cues on how the cerebro-cerebellar loops operate and on how pathologies involving cerebro-cerebellar connectivity are generated.

  4. Making Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pien, Cheng Lu; Dongsheng, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Effective teaching includes enabling learners to make connections within mathematics. It is easy to accord with this statement, but how often is it a reality in the mathematics classroom? This article describes an approach in "connecting equivalent" fractions and whole number operations. The authors illustrate how a teacher can combine a common…

  5. Sediment tracing in the upper Hunter catchment using elemental and mineralogical compositions: Implications for catchment-scale suspended sediment (dis)connectivity and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryirs, Kirstie; Gore, Damian

    2013-07-01

    River bed colmation layers clog the interstices of gravel-bed rivers, impeding the vertical exchange of water and nutrients that drives ecosystem function in the hyporheic zone. In catchments where fine-grained sediment supply has increased since human disturbance, understanding sediment provenance and the (dis)connectivity of supply allows practitioners to target sediment source problems and treat them within catchment management plans. Release of alluvial fine-grained sediment from channel bank erosion since European settlement has resulted in the formation of a colmation layer along the upper Hunter River at Muswellbrook, eastern Australia. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) are used to determine the elemental and mineralogical signatures of colmation layer and floodplain sediment sources across this 4480 km2 catchment. This sediment tracing technique is used to construct a picture of how suspended sediment supply and (dis)connectivity operates in this catchment. In this system, the primary source areas are subcatchments in which sediments are stored largely in partly confined floodplain pockets, but from which sediment supply is unimpeded and directly connected to the receiving reach. Subcatchments in which alluvial sediment storage is significant — and which contain large, laterally unconfined valleys — are essentially 'switched off' or disconnected from the receiving reach. This is because large sediment sinks act to trap fine-grained sediment before it reaches the receiving reach, forming a buffer along the sediment conveyor belt. Given the age structure of floodplains in the receiving reach, this pattern of source area contributions and (dis)connectivity must have occurred throughout the Holocene.

  6. Connectivity in river deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, P.; Hiatt, M. R.; Sendrowski, A.

    2016-12-01

    Deltas host approximately half a billion people and are rich in ecosystem diversity and economic resources. However, human-induced activities and climatic shifts are significantly impacting deltas around the world; anthropogenic disturbance, natural subsidence, and eustatic sea-level rise are major causes of threat to deltas and in many cases have compromised their safety and sustainability, putting at risk the people that live on them. In this presentation, I will introduce a framework called Delta Connectome for studying connectivity in river deltas based on different representations of a delta as a network. Here connectivity indicates both physical connectivity (how different portions of the system interact with each other) as well as conceptual (pathways of process coupling). I will explore several network representations and show how quantifying connectivity can advance our understanding of system functioning and can be used to inform coastal management and restoration. From connectivity considerations, the delta emerges as a leaky network that evolves over time and is characterized by continuous exchanges of fluxes of matter, energy, and information. I will discuss the implications of connectivity on delta functioning, land growth, and potential for nutrient removal.

  7. About Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen S Rockland

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the attention attracted by connectomics, one can lose sight of the very real questions concerning What are connections? In the neuroimaging community, structural connectivity is ground truth and underlying constraint on functional or effective connectivity. It is referenced to underlying anatomy; but, as increasingly remarked, there is a large gap between the wealth of human brain mapping and the relatively scant data on actual anatomical connectivity. Moreover, connections have typically been discussed as pairwise, point x projecting to point y (or: to points y and z, or more recently, in graph theoretical terms, as nodes or regions and the interconnecting edges. This is a convenient shorthand, but tends not to capture the richness and nuance of basic anatomical properties as identified in the classic tradition of tracer studies. The present short review accordingly revisits connectional weights, heterogeneity, reciprocity, topography, and hierarchical organization, drawing on concrete examples. The emphasis is on presynaptic long-distance connections, motivated by the intention to probe current assumptions and promote discussions about further progress and synthesis.

  8. Modeling ecological minimum requirements for distribution of greater sage-grouse leks: implications for population connectivity across their western range, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knick, Steven T; Hanser, Steven E; Preston, Kristine L

    2013-06-01

    Greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus (Bonaparte) currently occupy approximately half of their historical distribution across western North America. Sage-grouse are a candidate for endangered species listing due to habitat and population fragmentation coupled with inadequate regulation to control development in critical areas. Conservation planning would benefit from accurate maps delineating required habitats and movement corridors. However, developing a species distribution model that incorporates the diversity of habitats used by sage-grouse across their widespread distribution has statistical and logistical challenges. We first identified the ecological minimums limiting sage-grouse, mapped similarity to the multivariate set of minimums, and delineated connectivity across a 920,000 km(2) region. We partitioned a Mahalanobis D (2) model of habitat use into k separate additive components each representing independent combinations of species-habitat relationships to identify the ecological minimums required by sage-grouse. We constructed the model from abiotic, land cover, and anthropogenic variables measured at leks (breeding) and surrounding areas within 5 km. We evaluated model partitions using a random subset of leks and historic locations and selected D (2) (k = 10) for mapping a habitat similarity index (HSI). Finally, we delineated connectivity by converting the mapped HSI to a resistance surface. Sage-grouse required sagebrush-dominated landscapes containing minimal levels of human land use. Sage-grouse used relatively arid regions characterized by shallow slopes, even terrain, and low amounts of forest, grassland, and agriculture in the surrounding landscape. Most populations were interconnected although several outlying populations were isolated because of distance or lack of habitat corridors for exchange. Land management agencies currently are revising land-use plans and designating critical habitat to conserve sage-grouse and avoid endangered

  9. Modeling ecological minimum requirements for distribution of greater sage-grouse leks: implications for population connectivity across their western range, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knick, Steven T.; Hanser, Steven E.; Preston, Kristine L.

    2013-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus (Bonaparte) currently occupy approximately half of their historical distribution across western North America. Sage-grouse are a candidate for endangered species listing due to habitat and population fragmentation coupled with inadequate regulation to control development in critical areas. Conservation planning would benefit from accurate maps delineating required habitats and movement corridors. However, developing a species distribution model that incorporates the diversity of habitats used by sage-grouse across their widespread distribution has statistical and logistical challenges. We first identified the ecological minimums limiting sage-grouse, mapped similarity to the multivariate set of minimums, and delineated connectivity across a 920,000 km2 region. We partitioned a Mahalanobis D2 model of habitat use into k separate additive components each representing independent combinations of species–habitat relationships to identify the ecological minimums required by sage-grouse. We constructed the model from abiotic, land cover, and anthropogenic variables measured at leks (breeding) and surrounding areas within 5 km. We evaluated model partitions using a random subset of leks and historic locations and selected D2 (k = 10) for mapping a habitat similarity index (HSI). Finally, we delineated connectivity by converting the mapped HSI to a resistance surface. Sage-grouse required sagebrush-dominated landscapes containing minimal levels of human land use. Sage-grouse used relatively arid regions characterized by shallow slopes, even terrain, and low amounts of forest, grassland, and agriculture in the surrounding landscape. Most populations were interconnected although several outlying populations were isolated because of distance or lack of habitat corridors for exchange. Land management agencies currently are revising land-use plans and designating critical habitat to conserve sage-grouse and avoid endangered

  10. Internet Connectivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Internet Connectivity. BSNL, SIFY, HCL in Guwahati; only BSNL elsewhere in NE (local player in Shillong). Service poor; All vendors lease BW from BSNL.

  11. Mathematics Connection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MATHEMATICS CONNECTION aims at providing a forum topromote the development of Mathematics Education in Ghana. Articles that seekto enhance the teaching and/or learning of mathematics at all levels of theeducational system are welcome.

  12. HR Connect

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — HR Connect is the USAID HR personnel system which allows HR professionals to process HR actions related to employee's personal and position information. This system...

  13. Establishing Connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    Global law settings are characterised by a structural pre-eminence of connectivity norms, a type of norm which differs from coherency or possibility norms. The centrality of connectivity norms emerges from the function of global law, which is to increase the probability of transfers of condensed ...... and human rights can be understood as serving a constitutionalising function aimed at stabilising and facilitating connectivity. This allows for an understanding of colonialism and contemporary global governance as functional, but not as normative, equivalents.......Global law settings are characterised by a structural pre-eminence of connectivity norms, a type of norm which differs from coherency or possibility norms. The centrality of connectivity norms emerges from the function of global law, which is to increase the probability of transfers of condensed...... social components, such as economic capital and products, religious doctrines and scientific knowledge, from one legally structured context to another within world society. This was the case from colonialism and colonial law to contemporary global supply chains and human rights. Both colonial law...

  14. Connected Traveler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    The Connected Traveler framework seeks to boost the energy efficiency of personal travel and the overall transportation system by maximizing the accuracy of predicted traveler behavior in response to real-time feedback and incentives. It is anticipated that this approach will establish a feedback loop that 'learns' traveler preferences and customizes incentives to meet or exceed energy efficiency targets by empowering individual travelers with information needed to make energy-efficient choices and reducing the complexity required to validate transportation system energy savings. This handout provides an overview of NREL's Connected Traveler project, including graphics, milestones, and contact information.

  15. Evolution of mid-Atlantic coastal and back-barrier estuary environments in response to a hurricane: Implications for barrier-estuary connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miselis, Jennifer L.; Andrews, Brian D.; Nicholson, Robert S.; Defne, Zafer; Ganju, Neil K.; Navoy, Anthony S.

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of coupled barrier island-estuary storm response are rare. Hurricane Sandy made landfall during an investigation in Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor estuary that included water quality monitoring, geomorphologic characterization, and numerical modeling; this provided an opportunity to characterize the storm response of the barrier island-estuary system. Barrier island morphologic response was characterized by significant changes in shoreline position, dune elevation, and beach volume; morphologic changes within the estuary were less dramatic with a net gain of only 200,000 m3 of sediment. When observed, estuarine deposition was adjacent to the back-barrier shoreline or collocated with maximum estuary depths. Estuarine sedimentologic changes correlated well with bed shear stresses derived from numerically simulated storm conditions, suggesting that change is linked to winnowing from elevated storm-related wave-current interactions rather than deposition. Rapid storm-related changes in estuarine water level, turbidity, and salinity were coincident with minima in island and estuarine widths, which may have influenced the location of two barrier island breaches. Barrier-estuary connectivity, or the transport of sediment from barrier island to estuary, was influenced by barrier island land use and width. Coupled assessments like this one provide critical information about storm-related coastal and estuarine sediment transport that may not be evident from investigations that consider only one component of the coastal system.

  16. Positive approach: Implications for the relation between number theory and geometry, including connection to Santilli mathematics, from Fibonacci reconstitution of natural numbers and of prime numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Stein E., E-mail: stein.johansen@svt.ntnu.no [Institute for Basic Research, Division of Physics, Palm Harbor, Florida, USA and Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Social Anthropology, Trondheim (Norway)

    2014-12-10

    The paper recapitulates some key elements in previously published results concerning exact and complete reconstitution of the field of natural numbers, both as ordinal and as cardinal numbers, from systematic unfoldment of the Fibonacci algorithm. By this natural numbers emerge as Fibonacci 'atoms' and 'molecules' consistent with the notion of Zeckendorf sums. Here, the sub-set of prime numbers appears not as the primary numbers, but as an epistructure from a deeper Fibonacci constitution, and is thus targeted from a 'positive approach'. In the Fibonacci reconstitution of number theory natural numbers show a double geometrical aspect: partly as extension in space and partly as position in a successive structuring of space. More specifically, the natural numbers are shown to be distributed by a concise 5:3 code structured from the Fibonacci algorithm via Pascal's triangle. The paper discusses possible implications for the more general relation between number theory and geometry, as well as more specifically in relation to hadronic mathematics, initiated by R.M. Santilli, and also briefly to some other recent science linking number theory more directly to geometry and natural systems.

  17. Positive approach: Implications for the relation between number theory and geometry, including connection to Santilli mathematics, from Fibonacci reconstitution of natural numbers and of prime numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Stein E.

    2014-01-01

    The paper recapitulates some key elements in previously published results concerning exact and complete reconstitution of the field of natural numbers, both as ordinal and as cardinal numbers, from systematic unfoldment of the Fibonacci algorithm. By this natural numbers emerge as Fibonacci 'atoms' and 'molecules' consistent with the notion of Zeckendorf sums. Here, the sub-set of prime numbers appears not as the primary numbers, but as an epistructure from a deeper Fibonacci constitution, and is thus targeted from a 'positive approach'. In the Fibonacci reconstitution of number theory natural numbers show a double geometrical aspect: partly as extension in space and partly as position in a successive structuring of space. More specifically, the natural numbers are shown to be distributed by a concise 5:3 code structured from the Fibonacci algorithm via Pascal's triangle. The paper discusses possible implications for the more general relation between number theory and geometry, as well as more specifically in relation to hadronic mathematics, initiated by R.M. Santilli, and also briefly to some other recent science linking number theory more directly to geometry and natural systems

  18. Making connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marion Duimel

    2007-01-01

    Original title: Verbinding maken; senioren en internet. More and more older people are finding their way to the Internet. Many people aged over 50 who have only recently gone online say that a new world has opened up for them. By connecting to the Internet they have the feeling that they

  19. CMS Connect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcas, J.; Bockelman, B.; Gardner, R., Jr.; Hurtado Anampa, K.; Jayatilaka, B.; Aftab Khan, F.; Lannon, K.; Larson, K.; Letts, J.; Marra Da Silva, J.; Mascheroni, M.; Mason, D.; Perez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Tiradani, A.

    2017-10-01

    The CMS experiment collects and analyzes large amounts of data coming from high energy particle collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. This involves a huge amount of real and simulated data processing that needs to be handled in batch-oriented platforms. The CMS Global Pool of computing resources provide +100K dedicated CPU cores and another 50K to 100K CPU cores from opportunistic resources for these kind of tasks and even though production and event processing analysis workflows are already managed by existing tools, there is still a lack of support to submit final stage condor-like analysis jobs familiar to Tier-3 or local Computing Facilities users into these distributed resources in an integrated (with other CMS services) and friendly way. CMS Connect is a set of computing tools and services designed to augment existing services in the CMS Physics community focusing on these kind of condor analysis jobs. It is based on the CI-Connect platform developed by the Open Science Grid and uses the CMS GlideInWMS infrastructure to transparently plug CMS global grid resources into a virtual pool accessed via a single submission machine. This paper describes the specific developments and deployment of CMS Connect beyond the CI-Connect platform in order to integrate the service with CMS specific needs, including specific Site submission, accounting of jobs and automated reporting to standard CMS monitoring resources in an effortless way to their users.

  20. Human Development XIII: The Connection Between the Structure of the Overtone System and the Tone Language of Music. Some Implications for Our Understanding of the Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The functioning brain behaves like one highly-structured, coherent, informational field. It can be popularly described as a “coherent ball of energy”, making the idea of a local highly-structured quantum field that carries the consciousness very appealing. If that is so, the structure of the experience of music might be a quite unique window into a hidden quantum reality of the brain, and even of life itself. The structure of music is then a mirror of a much more complex, but similar, structure of the energetic field of the working brain. This paper discusses how the perception of music is organized in the human brain with respect to the known tone scales of major and minor. The patterns used by the brain seem to be similar to the overtones of vibrating matter, giving a positive experience of harmonies in major. However, we also like the minor scale, which can explain brain patterns as fractal-like, giving a symmetric “downward reflection” of the major scale into the minor scale. We analyze the implication of beautiful and ugly tones and harmonies for the model. We conclude that when it comes to simple perception of harmonies, the most simple is the most beautiful and the most complex is the most ugly, but in music, even the most disharmonic harmony can be beautiful, if experienced as a part of a dynamic release of musical tension. This can be taken as a general metaphor of painful, yet meaningful, and developing experiences in human life.

  1. Hydrochemical processes in a shallow coal seam gas aquifer and its overlying stream–alluvial system: implications for recharge and inter-aquifer connectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvert, Clément; Raiber, Matthias; Owen, Daniel D.R.; Cendón, Dioni I.; Batiot-Guilhe, Christelle; Cox, Malcolm E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Major ions and isotopes used to study inter-aquifer mixing in a shallow CSG setting. • Considerable heterogeneity in the water composition of the coal-bearing aquifer. • Rapid recharge of the coal-bearing aquifer through highly fractured igneous rocks. • Potential mixing between the coal-bearing aquifer and downstream alluvial aquifer. • Need to consider the seasonal influences on inter-aquifer mixing in CSG settings. - Abstract: In areas of potential coal seam gas (CSG) development, understanding interactions between coal-bearing strata and adjacent aquifers and streams is of highest importance, particularly where CSG formations occur at shallow depth. This study tests a combination of hydrochemical and isotopic tracers to investigate the transient nature of hydrochemical processes, inter-aquifer mixing and recharge in a catchment where the coal-bearing aquifer is in direct contact with the alluvial aquifer and surface drainage network. A strong connection was observed between the main stream and underlying alluvium, marked by a similar evolution from fresh Ca–Mg–HCO 3 waters in the headwaters towards brackish Ca–Na–Cl composition near the outlet of the catchment, driven by evaporation and transpiration. In the coal-bearing aquifer, by contrast, considerable site-to-site variations were observed, although waters generally had a Na–HCO 3 –Cl facies and high residual alkalinity values. Increased salinity was controlled by several coexisting processes, including transpiration by plants, mineral weathering and possibly degradation of coal organic matter. Longer residence times and relatively enriched carbon isotopic signatures of the downstream alluvial waters were suggestive of potential interactions with the shallow coal-bearing aquifer. The examination of temporal variations in deuterium excess enabled detection of rapid recharge of the coal-bearing aquifer through highly fractured igneous rocks, particularly at the catchment

  2. Gendered Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the gendered nature of urban politics in Cape Town by focusing on a group of female, township politicians. Employing the Deleuzian concept of `wild connectivity', it argues that these politically entrepreneurial women were able to negotiate a highly volatile urban landscape...... by drawing on and operationalizing violent, male networks — from struggle activists' networks, to vigilante groups and gangs, to the police. The fact that they were women helped them to tap into and exploit these networks. At the same time, they were restricted by their sex, as their ability to navigate...... space also drew on quite traditional notions of female respectability. Furthermore, the article argues, the form of wild connectivity to an extent was a function of the political transition, which destabilized formal structures of gendered authority. It remains a question whether this form...

  3. Cosmic Connections

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard

    2003-01-01

    A National Research Council study on connecting quarks with the cosmos has recently posed a number of the more important open questions at the interface between particle physics and cosmology. These questions include the nature of dark matter and dark energy, how the Universe began, modifications to gravity, the effects of neutrinos on the Universe, how cosmic accelerators work, and whether there are new states of matter at high density and pressure. These questions are discussed in the context of the talks presented at this Summer Institute.

  4. Places Connected:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    This paper argues that development assistance contributed to the globalization of the 20th century by financing truly global networks of people. By focusing on the networks financed by development assistance bound by the national histories of Denmark and Japan, I illustrate how the people who...... experiences of place, however, when it is often the same people who experience many different places? Along with many other so-called donors in the 1950s, Denmark and Japan chose to invest in the education of own and other nationals involved in development and thereby financed personal connections between...... individuals throughout the world. Development assistance , where there are two or three links only between a Bangladeshi farmer, a street child in Sao Paolo and the President of the United States, the Queen of Denmark, or a suburban house wife in Japan, who has never left the Osaka area, but mothered a United...

  5. Hematopoietic stem cell origin of connective tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Makio; Larue, Amanda C; Watson, Patricia M; Watson, Dennis K

    2010-07-01

    Connective tissue consists of "connective tissue proper," which is further divided into loose and dense (fibrous) connective tissues and "specialized connective tissues." Specialized connective tissues consist of blood, adipose tissue, cartilage, and bone. In both loose and dense connective tissues, the principal cellular element is fibroblasts. It has been generally believed that all cellular elements of connective tissue, including fibroblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes, and bone cells, are generated solely by mesenchymal stem cells. Recently, a number of studies, including those from our laboratory based on transplantation of single hematopoietic stem cells, strongly suggested a hematopoietic stem cell origin of these adult mesenchymal tissues. This review summarizes the experimental evidence for this new paradigm and discusses its translational implications. Copyright 2010 ISEH - Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. All rights reserved.

  6. Reduced prefrontal connectivity in psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motzkin, Julian C; Newman, Joseph P; Kiehl, Kent A; Koenigs, Michael

    2011-11-30

    Linking psychopathy to a specific brain abnormality could have significant clinical, legal, and scientific implications. Theories on the neurobiological basis of the disorder typically propose dysfunction in a circuit involving ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). However, to date there is limited brain imaging data to directly test whether psychopathy may indeed be associated with any structural or functional abnormality within this brain area. In this study, we employ two complementary imaging techniques to assess the structural and functional connectivity of vmPFC in psychopathic and non-psychopathic criminals. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we show that psychopathy is associated with reduced structural integrity in the right uncinate fasciculus, the primary white matter connection between vmPFC and anterior temporal lobe. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that psychopathy is associated with reduced functional connectivity between vmPFC and amygdala as well as between vmPFC and medial parietal cortex. Together, these data converge to implicate diminished vmPFC connectivity as a characteristic neurobiological feature of psychopathy.

  7. Minimum cost connection networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    In the present paper we consider the allocation of cost in connection networks. Agents have connection demands in form of pairs of locations they want to be connected. Connections between locations are costly to build. The problem is to allocate costs of networks satisfying all connection demands...

  8. DISSECTING HABITAT CONNECTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    abstractConnectivity is increasingly recognized as an important element of a successful reserve design. Connectivity matters in reserve design to the extent that it promotes or hinders the viability of target populations. While conceptually straightforward, connectivity i...

  9. Mixed Connective Tissue Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixed connective tissue disease Overview Mixed connective tissue disease has signs and symptoms of a combination of disorders — primarily lupus, scleroderma and polymyositis. For this reason, mixed connective tissue disease ...

  10. Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Conditions Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... by Barbara Goldstein, MD (February 01, 2016) Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) is a systemic autoimmune disease. This ...

  11. Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database (IPCD) is a nationwide data table of passenger transportation terminals, with data on the availability of connections...

  12. Strategic Implications of Global Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monaghan, Karen

    2008-01-01

    "Strategic Implications of Global Health" responds to a request from the Undersecretary of State for Democratization and Global Affairs for an intelligence assessment on the connections between health and U.S. national interests...

  13. Structural Connectivity of the Developing Human Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Zeynep M.; Osher, David E.; Koldewyn, Kami; Martin, Rebecca E.; Finn, Amy; Saxe, Rebecca; Gabrieli, John D.E.; Sheridan, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    A large corpus of research suggests that there are changes in the manner and degree to which the amygdala supports cognitive and emotional function across development. One possible basis for these developmental differences could be the maturation of amygdalar connections with the rest of the brain. Recent functional connectivity studies support this conclusion, but the structural connectivity of the developing amygdala and its different nuclei remains largely unstudied. We examined age related changes in the DWI connectivity fingerprints of the amygdala to the rest of the brain in 166 individuals of ages 5-30. We also developed a model to predict age based on individual-subject amygdala connectivity, and identified the connections that were most predictive of age. Finally, we segmented the amygdala into its four main nucleus groups, and examined the developmental changes in connectivity for each nucleus. We observed that with age, amygdalar connectivity becomes increasingly sparse and localized. Age related changes were largely localized to the subregions of the amygdala that are implicated in social inference and contextual memory (the basal and lateral nuclei). The central nucleus’ connectivity also showed differences with age but these differences affected fewer target regions than the basal and lateral nuclei. The medial nucleus did not exhibit any age related changes. These findings demonstrate increasing specificity in the connectivity patterns of amygdalar nuclei across age. PMID:25875758

  14. Minimum cost connection networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we consider the allocation of costs in connection networks. Agents have connection demands in form of pairs of locations they want to have connected. Connections between locations are costly to build. The problem is to allocate costs of networks satisfying all connection...... demands. We use a few axioms to characterize allocation rules that truthfully implement cost minimizing networks satisfying all connection demands in a game where: (1) a central planner announces an allocation rule and a cost estimation rule; (2) every agent reports her own connection demand as well...... as all connection costs; (3) the central planner selects a cost minimizing network satisfying reported connection demands based on the estimated costs; and, (4) the planner allocates the true costs of the selected network. It turns out that an allocation rule satisfies the axioms if and only if relative...

  15. International Review of Grid Connection Requirements for Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauch, Clemens; Soerensen, Poul [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark). Wind Energy Dept.; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Energy Technology

    2004-07-01

    Some of the latest and most relevant grid connection requirements for wind turbines of different countries are summarized and discussed. The inherent implications of these requirements for current wind turbine technology are outlined and discussed.

  16. Altered intrinsic organisation of brain networks implicated in attentional processes in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a resting-state study of attention, default mode and salience network connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidlauskaite, Justina; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Roeyers, Herbert; Wiersema, Jan R

    2016-06-01

    Deficits in task-related attentional engagement in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been hypothesised to be due to altered interrelationships between attention, default mode and salience networks. We examined the intrinsic connectivity during rest within and between these networks. Six-minute resting-state scans were obtained. Using a network-based approach, connectivity within and between the dorsal and ventral attention, the default mode and the salience networks was compared between the ADHD and control group. The ADHD group displayed hyperconnectivity between the two attention networks and within the default mode and ventral attention network. The salience network was hypoconnected to the dorsal attention network. There were trends towards hyperconnectivity within the dorsal attention network and between the salience and ventral attention network in ADHD. Connectivity within and between other networks was unrelated to ADHD. Our findings highlight the altered connectivity within and between attention networks, and between them and the salience network in ADHD. One hypothesis to be tested in future studies is that individuals with ADHD are affected by an imbalance between ventral and dorsal attention systems with the former playing a dominant role during task engagement, making individuals with ADHD highly susceptible to distraction by salient task-irrelevant stimuli.

  17. Connected vehicle standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicles have the potential to transform the way Americans travel by : allowing cars, buses, trucks, trains, traffic signals, smart phones, and other devices to : communicate through a safe, interoperable wireless network. A connected vehic...

  18. Connecting to Everyday Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Smith, Rachel Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    construction and reproduction of cultural heritage creating novel connections between self and others and between past, present and future. We present experiences from a current research project, the Digital Natives exhibition, in which social media was designed as an integral part of the exhibition to connect...... focusing on the connections between audiences practices and the museum exhibition....

  19. Using a down-scaled bioclimate envelope model to determine long-term temporal connectivity of Garry oak (Quercus garryana) habitat in western North America: implications for protected area planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellatt, Marlow G; Goring, Simon J; Bodtker, Karin M; Cannon, Alex J

    2012-04-01

    Under the Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA), Garry oak (Quercus garryana) ecosystems are listed as "at-risk" and act as an umbrella for over one hundred species that are endangered to some degree. Understanding Garry oak responses to future climate scenarios at scales relevant to protected area managers is essential to effectively manage existing protected area networks and to guide the selection of temporally connected migration corridors, additional protected areas, and to maintain Garry oak populations over the next century. We present Garry oak distribution scenarios using two random forest models calibrated with down-scaled bioclimatic data for British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon based on 1961-1990 climate normals. The suitability models are calibrated using either both precipitation and temperature variables or using only temperature variables. We compare suitability predictions from four General Circulation Models (GCMs) and present CGCM2 model results under two emissions scenarios. For each GCM and emissions scenario we apply the two Garry oak suitability models and use the suitability models to determine the extent and temporal connectivity of climatically suitable Garry oak habitat within protected areas from 2010 to 2099. The suitability models indicate that while 164 km(2) of the total protected area network in the region (47,990 km(2)) contains recorded Garry oak presence, 1635 and 1680 km(2) of climatically suitable Garry oak habitat is currently under some form of protection. Of this suitable protected area, only between 6.6 and 7.3% will be "temporally connected" between 2010 and 2099 based on the CGCM2 model. These results highlight the need for public and private protected area organizations to work cooperatively in the development of corridors to maintain temporal connectivity in climatically suitable areas for the future of Garry oak ecosystems.

  20. Network connectivity value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragicevic, Arnaud; Boulanger, Vincent; Bruciamacchie, Max; Chauchard, Sandrine; Dupouey, Jean-Luc; Stenger, Anne

    2017-04-21

    In order to unveil the value of network connectivity, we formalize the construction of ecological networks in forest environments as an optimal control dynamic graph-theoretic problem. The network is based on a set of bioreserves and patches linked by ecological corridors. The node dynamics, built upon the consensus protocol, form a time evolutive Mahalanobis distance weighted by the opportunity costs of timber production. We consider a case of complete graph, where the ecological network is fully connected, and a case of incomplete graph, where the ecological network is partially connected. The results show that the network equilibrium depends on the size of the reception zone, while the network connectivity depends on the environmental compatibility between the ecological areas. Through shadow prices, we find that securing connectivity in partially connected networks is more expensive than in fully connected networks, but should be undertaken when the opportunity costs are significant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Handbook of networking & connectivity

    CERN Document Server

    McClain, Gary R

    1994-01-01

    Handbook of Networking & Connectivity focuses on connectivity standards in use, including hardware and software options. The book serves as a guide for solving specific problems that arise in designing and maintaining organizational networks.The selection first tackles open systems interconnection, guide to digital communications, and implementing TCP/IP in an SNA environment. Discussions focus on elimination of the SNA backbone, routing SNA over internets, connectionless versus connection-oriented networks, internet concepts, application program interfaces, basic principles of layering, proto

  2. 78 FR 55684 - ConnectED Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... tools move everything from homework assignments to testing into the cloud. The workshop will explore possible strategies to connect virtually all of our students to next-generation broadband in a timely, cost-effective way. It will also share promising practices, from NTIA's Broadband Technology Opportunities...

  3. The Connected Traveler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Stanley

    2017-04-24

    The Connected Traveler project is a multi-disciplinary undertaking that seeks to validate potential for transformative transportation system energy savings by incentivizing energy efficient travel behavior.

  4. Connections: All Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goals Recycling Green Purchasing Pollution Prevention Reusing Water Resources Environmental Management Plateau, and more... Connections Newsletter December 2016 December 2016 Science-themed gifts available at

  5. Emerging connections between RNA and autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Lisa B; Lubas, Michal; Lund, Anders H

    2017-01-01

    in yeast, plants and animals, reviewing the molecular mechanisms and biological importance in normal physiology, stress and disease. In addition, we explore emerging evidence of core autophagy regulation mediated by RNA-binding proteins and noncoding RNAs, and point to gaps in our current knowledge......Macroautophagy/autophagy is a key catabolic process, essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and survival through the removal and recycling of unwanted cellular material. Emerging evidence has revealed intricate connections between the RNA and autophagy research fields. While a majority...... of the connection between RNA and autophagy. Finally, we discuss the pathological implications of RNA-protein aggregation, primarily in the context of neurodegenerative disease....

  6. Implicative Algebras

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadesse

    In this paper we introduce the concept of implicative algebras which is an equivalent definition of lattice implication algebra of Xu (1993) and further we prove that it is a regular Autometrized. Algebra. Further we remark that the binary operation → on lattice implicative algebra can never be associative. Key words: Implicative ...

  7. Archives: Mathematics Connection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 9 of 9 ... Archives: Mathematics Connection. Journal Home > Archives: Mathematics Connection. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 9 of 9 Items. 2011 ...

  8. Connective Tissue Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of connective tissue. Over 200 disorders that impact connective tissue. There are different types: Genetic disorders, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan syndrome, and osteogenesis imperfecta Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and scleroderma Cancers, like some types of soft tissue sarcoma Each ...

  9. Generalized connectivity of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xueliang

    2016-01-01

    Noteworthy results, proof techniques, open problems and conjectures in generalized (edge-) connectivity are discussed in this book. Both theoretical and practical analyses for generalized (edge-) connectivity of graphs are provided. Topics covered in this book include: generalized (edge-) connectivity of graph classes, algorithms, computational complexity, sharp bounds, Nordhaus-Gaddum-type results, maximum generalized local connectivity, extremal problems, random graphs, multigraphs, relations with the Steiner tree packing problem and generalizations of connectivity. This book enables graduate students to understand and master a segment of graph theory and combinatorial optimization. Researchers in graph theory, combinatorics, combinatorial optimization, probability, computer science, discrete algorithms, complexity analysis, network design, and the information transferring models will find this book useful in their studies.

  10. Handbook of Brain Connectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Jirsa, Viktor K

    2007-01-01

    Our contemporary understanding of brain function is deeply rooted in the ideas of the nonlinear dynamics of distributed networks. Cognition and motor coordination seem to arise from the interactions of local neuronal networks, which themselves are connected in large scales across the entire brain. The spatial architectures between various scales inevitably influence the dynamics of the brain and thereby its function. But how can we integrate brain connectivity amongst these structural and functional domains? Our Handbook provides an account of the current knowledge on the measurement, analysis and theory of the anatomical and functional connectivity of the brain. All contributors are leading experts in various fields concerning structural and functional brain connectivity. In the first part of the Handbook, the chapters focus on an introduction and discussion of the principles underlying connected neural systems. The second part introduces the currently available non-invasive technologies for measuring struct...

  11. Modeling Structural Brain Connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrosen, Karen Marie Sandø

    The human brain consists of a gigantic complex network of interconnected neurons. Together all these connections determine who we are, how we react and how we interpret the world. Knowledge about how the brain is connected can further our understanding of the brain’s structural organization, help...... improve diagnosis, and potentially allow better treatment of a wide range of neurological disorders. Tractography based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging is a unique tool to estimate this “structural connectivity” of the brain non-invasively and in vivo. During the last decade, brain connectivity...... has increasingly been analyzed using graph theoretic measures adopted from network science and this characterization of the brain’s structural connectivity has been shown to be useful for the classification of populations, such as healthy and diseased subjects. The structural connectivity of the brain...

  12. Pectus excavatum and heritable disorders of the connective tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Tocchioni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pectus excavatum, the most frequent congenital chest wall deformity, may be rarely observed as a sole deformity or as a sign of an underlying connective tissue disorder. To date, only few studies have described correlations between this deformity and heritable connective tissue disorders such as Marfan, Ehlers-Danlos, Poland, MASS (Mitral valve prolapse, not progressive Aortic enlargement, Skeletal and Skin alterations phenotype among others. When concurring with connective tissue disorder, cardiopulmonary and vascular involvement may be associated to the thoracic defect. Ruling out the concomitance of pectus excavatum and connective tissue disorders, therefore, may have a direct implication both on surgical outcome and long term prognosis. In this review we focused on biological bases of connective tissue disorders which may be relevant to the pathogenesis of pectus excavatum, portraying surgical and clinical implication of their concurrence.

  13. Connected motorcycle system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This project characterized the performance of Connected Vehicle Systems (CVS) on motorcycles based on two key components: global positioning and wireless communication systems. Considering that Global Positioning System (GPS) and 5.9 GHz Dedicated Sh...

  14. Connected vehicle applications : environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation has developed a number of connected vehicle environmental applications, including the Applications for the Environment Real-Time Information Synthesis (AERIS) research program applications and road weather applic...

  15. Connected vehicle applications : safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicle safety applications are designed to increase situational awareness : and reduce or eliminate crashes through vehicle-to-infrastructure, vehicle-to-vehicle, : and vehicle-to-pedestrian data transmissions. Applications support advisor...

  16. IDRC Connect User Guide

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Kristina Kamichaitis

    Once an account has been created by IDRC staff, you will receive .... content label in the table to access additional information. Table 3: ... One of the primary functions of IDRC Connect is to enable efficient and automated submission of final.

  17. Connected vehicles and cybersecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicles are a next-generation technology in vehicles and in infrastructure that will make travel safer, cleaner, and more efficient. The advanced wireless technology enables vehicles to share and communicate information with each other and...

  18. Hydrologically Connected Road Segments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Link it ArcGIS Item is HERE.The connectivity layer was created to assist municipalities in preparing for the forthcoming DEC Municipal Roads General Permit in 2018....

  19. IDRC Connect User Guide

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Kristina Kamichaitis

    IDRC Extranet home page, which is an umbrella for a number of applications available to IDRC external users. ... IDRC Connect is not formatted for mobile users. ..... Thesis. • Training Material. • Website. • Working Paper. • Workshop Report.

  20. [Connective tissue and inflammation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, Lajos

    2014-03-23

    The author summarizes the structure of the connective tissues, the increasing motion of the constituents, which determine the role in establishing the structure and function of that. The structure and function of the connective tissue are related to each other in the resting as well as inflammatory states. It is emphasized that cellular events in the connective tissue are part of the defence of the organism, the localisation of the damage and, if possible, the maintenance of restitutio ad integrum. The organism responds to damage with inflammation, the non specific immune response, as well as specific, adaptive immunity. These processes are located in the connective tissue. Sterile and pathogenic inflammation are relatively similar processes, but inevitable differences are present, too. Sialic acids and glycoproteins containing sialic acids have important roles, and the role of Siglecs is also highlighted. Also, similarities and differences in damages caused by pathogens and sterile agents are briefly summarized. In addition, the roles of adhesion molecules linked to each other, and the whole event of inflammatory processes are presented. When considering practical consequences it is stressed that the structure (building up) of the organism and the defending function of inflammation both have fundamental importance. Inflammation has a crucial role in maintaining the integrity and the unimpaired somato-psychological state of the organism. Thus, inflammation serves as a tool of organism identical with the natural immune response, inseparably connected with the specific, adaptive immune response. The main events of the inflammatory processes take place in the connective tissue.

  1. Quick connect fastener

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    A quick connect fastener and method of use is presented wherein the quick connect fastener is suitable for replacing available bolts and screws, the quick connect fastener being capable of installation by simply pushing a threaded portion of the connector into a member receptacle hole, the inventive apparatus being comprised of an externally threaded fastener having a threaded portion slidably mounted upon a stud or bolt shaft, wherein the externally threaded fastener portion is expandable by a preloaded spring member. The fastener, upon contact with the member receptacle hole, has the capacity of presenting cylindrical threads of a reduced diameter for insertion purposes and once inserted into the receiving threads of the receptacle member hole, are expandable for engagement of the receptacle hole threads forming a quick connect of the fastener and the member to be fastened, the quick connect fastener can be further secured by rotation after insertion, even to the point of locking engagement, the quick connect fastener being disengagable only by reverse rotation of the mated thread engagement.

  2. Connectable solar air collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.

    2002-02-01

    The project has proved that it is possible to manufacture solar air collector panels, which in an easy way can be connected into large collector arrays with integrated ducting without loss of efficiency. The developed connectable solar air collectors are based on the use of matrix absorbers in the form of perforated metal sheets. Three interconnected solar air collectors of the above type - each with an transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} - was tested and compared with parallel tests on two single solar air collectors also with a transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} One of the single solar air collectors has an identical absorber as the connectable solar air collectors while the absorber of the other single solar air collector was a fibre cloth. The efficiency of the three solar air collectors proved to be almost identical in the investigated range of mass flow rates and temperature differences. The solar air collectors further proved to be very efficient - as efficient as the second most efficient solar air collectors tested in the IEA task 19 project Solar Air Systems. Some problems remain although to be solved: the pressure drop across especially the connectable solar air collectors is too high - mainly across the inlets of the solar air collectors. It should, however, be possible to considerably reduce the pressure losses with a more aerodynamic design of the inlet and outlet of the solar air collectors; The connectable solar air collectors are easy connectable but the air tightness of the connections in the present form is not good enough. As leakage leads to lower efficiencies focus should be put on making the connections more air tight without loosing the easiness in connecting the solar air collectors. As a spin off of the project a simple and easy way to determine the efficiency of solar, air collectors for pre-heating of fresh air has been validated. The simple method of determining the efficiency has with success been compared with an advance method

  3. Connectivity and superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinstein, Jacob

    2000-01-01

    The motto of connectivity and superconductivity is that the solutions of the Ginzburg--Landau equations are qualitatively influenced by the topology of the boundaries, as in multiply-connected samples. Special attention is paid to the "zero set", the set of the positions (also known as "quantum vortices") where the order parameter vanishes. The effects considered here usually become important in the regime where the coherence length is of the order of the dimensions of the sample. It takes the intuition of physicists and the awareness of mathematicians to find these new effects. In connectivity and superconductivity, theoretical and experimental physicists are brought together with pure and applied mathematicians to review these surprising results. This volume is intended to serve as a reference book for graduate students and researchers in physics or mathematics interested in superconductivity, or in the Schrödinger equation as a limiting case of the Ginzburg--Landau equations.

  4. Laterality patterns of brain functional connectivity: gender effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D

    2012-06-01

    Lateralization of brain connectivity may be essential for normal brain function and may be sexually dimorphic. Here, we study the laterality patterns of short-range (implicated in functional specialization) and long-range (implicated in functional integration) connectivity and the gender effects on these laterality patterns. Parallel computing was used to quantify short- and long-range functional connectivity densities in 913 healthy subjects. Short-range connectivity was rightward lateralized and most asymmetrical in areas around the lateral sulcus, whereas long-range connectivity was rightward lateralized in lateral sulcus and leftward lateralizated in inferior prefrontal cortex and angular gyrus. The posterior inferior occipital cortex was leftward lateralized (short- and long-range connectivity). Males had greater rightward lateralization of brain connectivity in superior temporal (short- and long-range), inferior frontal, and inferior occipital cortices (short-range), whereas females had greater leftward lateralization of long-range connectivity in the inferior frontal cortex. The greater lateralization of the male's brain (rightward and predominantly short-range) may underlie their greater vulnerability to disorders with disrupted brain asymmetries (schizophrenia, autism).

  5. A super soliton connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurses, M.; Oguz, O.

    1985-07-01

    Integrable super non-linear classical partial differential equations are considered. A super s1(2,R) algebra valued connection 1-form is constructed. It is shown that curvature 2-form of this super connection vanishes by virtue of the integrable super equations of motion. A super extension of the AKNS scheme is presented and a class of super extension of the Lax hierarchy and super non-linear Schroedinger equation are found. O(N) extension and the Baecklund transformations of the above super equations are also considered. (author)

  6. Connecting textual segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2017-01-01

    history than just the years of the emergence of the web, the chapter traces the history of how segments of text have deliberately been connected to each other by the use of specific textual and media features, from clay tablets, manuscripts on parchment, and print, among others, to hyperlinks on stand......In “Connecting textual segments: A brief history of the web hyperlink” Niels Brügger investigates the history of one of the most fundamental features of the web: the hyperlink. Based on the argument that the web hyperlink is best understood if it is seen as another step in a much longer and broader...

  7. Best connected rectangular arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnendra Shekhawat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It can be found quite often in the literature that many well-known architects have employed either the golden rectangle or the Fibonacci rectangle in their works. On contrary, it is rare to find any specific reason for using them so often. Recently, Shekhawat (2015 proved that the golden rectangle and the Fibonacci rectangle are one of the best connected rectangular arrangements and this may be one of the reasons for their high presence in architectural designs. In this work we present an algorithm that generates n-4 best connected rectangular arrangements so that the proposed solutions can be further used by architects for their designs.

  8. Connections among quantum logics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lock, P.F.; Hardegree, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper gives a brief introduction to the major areas of work in quantum event logics: manuals (Foulis and Randall) and semi-Boolean algebras (Abbott). The two theories are compared, and the connection between quantum event logics and quantum propositional logics is made explicit. In addition, the work on manuals provides us with many examples of results stated in Part I. (author)

  9. Connectivity measures: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindlmann, Pavel; Burel, F.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2008), s. 879-890 ISSN 0921-2973 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6087301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Conservation biology * Habitat fragmentation * Landscape connectivity * Measures * Species extinction Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.453, year: 2008

  10. Clip, connect, clone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fujima, Jun; Lunzer, Aran; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    using three mechanisms: clipping of input and result elements from existing applications to form cells on a spreadsheet; connecting these cells using formulas, thus enabling result transfer between applications; and cloning cells so that multiple requests can be handled side by side. We demonstrate...

  11. A Connective Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goral, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Our increasingly hurried lifestyle, changes in family structure, and intense economic pressures place stress on children and families. Waldorf education provides an educational environment that alleviates this stress through a connective pedagogy that encompasses continuity of people, curriculum, and instruction; a reverence and respect for the…

  12. Connected vehicle application : safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Connected vehicle safety applications are designed to increase situational awareness : and reduce or eliminate crashes through vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I), vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), and vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P) data transmissions. Applications...

  13. Mathematics Connection: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. MATHEMATICS CONNECTION aims at providing a forum to promote the development of Mathematics Education in Ghana. Articles that seek to enhance the teaching and/or learning of mathematics at all levels of the educational system are welcome ...

  14. Making the Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Mark C.

    2006-01-01

    Enrollment marketing is not just about enrollment; it is about creating relationships and serving one's community or target audience for many years. In this article, the author states that the first step in building such relationships is making a connection, and that is what effective marketing is all about. Administrators, teachers and critical…

  15. Connecting numeric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caremoli, C.; Erhard, P.

    1996-01-01

    Computerized simulation uses calculation codes whose validation is reliable. Reactor simulators should take greater advantage of latest computer technology impact, in particular in the field of parallel processing. Instead of creating more global simulation codes whose validation might be a problem, connecting several existing codes should be a promising solution. (D.L.). 3 figs

  16. From connection to customer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milatz, H.; Soeters, R.

    2001-01-01

    Energy companies can no longer be certain that a customer today will remain a customer tomorrow. They have to work hard to achieve that. They are going from thinking in terms of connections to pampering their customers. Good Customer Relationship Management is a way to achieve a competitive advantage. The whole organisation has to adapt, particularly the customer orientation of employees

  17. Mapping functional connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Vogt; Joseph R. Ferrari; Todd R. Lookingbill; Robert H. Gardner; Kurt H. Riitters; Katarzyna Ostapowicz

    2009-01-01

    An objective and reliable assessment of wildlife movement is important in theoretical and applied ecology. The identification and mapping of landscape elements that may enhance functional connectivity is usually a subjective process based on visual interpretations of species movement patterns. New methods based on mathematical morphology provide a generic, flexible,...

  18. IDRC Connect User Guide

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Kristina Kamichaitis

    2 Jul 2015 ... IDRC Connect contribuye a la aplicación de la Política de Acceso abierto de IDRC facilitando ..... Tesis. • Material de capacitación. • Sitio web. • Documento de trabajo ..... incluir planes de estudios, metodologías y manuales.

  19. Connecting Leadership and Learning: Do Versatile Learners make Connective Leaders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill L. Robinson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent failures in leadership, suggest that creating better-quality leadership development programs is critical. In moving from theory to practice, this paper examined the relationship between learning style and leadership style which may enable us to move away from one-size-fits-all leadership development programs. Utilizing Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model and Connective Leadership theory, approximately 3600 college students were analyzed to discover whether versatility in learning styles translates into versatility in leadership styles. One group of versatile learners reported using a wider range of leadership styles suggesting that learning flexibility may transfer to leadership flexibility. Surprisingly, learners of all types reported utilizing Power and Intrinsic styles of leadership above all others. Implications for leadership development include considering individual differences when crafting leadership programs, matching learning styles to leader training, and the need to move beyond one set of leadership behaviors to increase flexibility in dealing with complex situations. Using a large sample rarely seen in management studies, this paper makes key contributions to the literature. 

  20. Connecting the Production Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichen, Alex Yu; Mouritsen, Jan

    &OP process itself is a fluid object, but there is still possibility to organise the messy Production. There are connections between the Production multiple and the managerial technology fluid. The fluid enacted the multiplicity of Production thus making it more difficult to be organised because there were...... in opposite directions. They are all part of the fluid object. There is no single chain of circulating references that makes the object a matter of fact. Accounting fluidity means that references drift back and forth and enact new realities also connected to the chain. In this setting future research may......This paper is about objects. It follows post ANT trajectories and finds that objects are multiple and fluid. Extant classic ANT inspired accounting research largely sees accounting inscriptions as immutable mobiles. Although multiplicity of objects upon which accounting acts has been explored...

  1. Evaluation of 604 Connect

    OpenAIRE

    Ladner, S.; Ihnat, M.

    2000-01-01

    The Vancouver Community Network (VCN) is a not-for-profit Internet Service Provider (ISP), based on the “freenet” model of public Internet access. As a VolNet delivery agency, VCN committed to providing participating organizations with the following: (1) A communications protocol, (2) Internet Access, (3) Computer Equipment, (4) Training, and (5) Technical Support. In April 1999, VCN began receiving applications from non-profit organizations for its 604 Connect program, so named for the 604 t...

  2. Energy storage connection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.

    2012-07-03

    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  3. Cutter Connectivity Bandwidth Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    The goal of this study was to determine how much bandwidth is required for cutters to meet emerging data transfer requirements. The Cutter Connectivity Business Solutions Team with guidance front the Commandant's 5 Innovation Council sponsored this study. Today, many Coast Guard administrative and business functions are being conducted via electronic means. Although our larger cutters can establish part-time connectivity using commercial satellite communications (SATCOM) while underway, there are numerous complaints regarding poor application performance. Additionally, smaller cutters do not have any standard means of underway connectivity. The R&D study shows the most important factor affecting web performance and enterprise applications onboard cutters was latency. Latency describes the time it takes the signal to reach the satellite and come back down through space. The latency due to use of higher orbit satellites is causing poor application performance and inefficient use of expensive SATCOM links. To improve performance, the CC must, (1) reduce latency by using alternate communications links such as low-earth orbit satellites, (2) tailor applications to the SATCOM link and/or (3) optimize protocols used for data communication to minimize time required by present applications to establish communications between the user and the host systems.

  4. Maintaining connections in children's grief narratives in popular film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedney, Mary Anne

    2002-04-01

    Children's grief narratives in popular films were examined for their portrayal of connection-maintaining strategies with the deceased. Comparisons were made between strategies found in actual parentally bereaved children and in child characters in films. Implications of these filmed grief narratives for models of grieving and for practice are discussed.

  5. Finding significantly connected voxels based on histograms of connection strengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Pedersen, Morten Vester; Darkner, Sune

    2016-01-01

    We explore a new approach for structural connectivity based segmentations of subcortical brain regions. Connectivity based segmentations are usually based on fibre connections from a seed region to predefined target regions. We present a method for finding significantly connected voxels based...... on the distribution of connection strengths. Paths from seed voxels to all voxels in a target region are obtained from a shortest-path tractography. For each seed voxel we approximate the distribution with a histogram of path scores. We hypothesise that the majority of estimated connections are false-positives...... and that their connection strength is distributed differently from true-positive connections. Therefore, an empirical null-distribution is defined for each target region as the average normalized histogram over all voxels in the seed region. Single histograms are then tested against the corresponding null...

  6. Connections with the Schooling Enterprise: Implications for Music Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frierson-Campbell, Carol

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author explores music education counterforces, examining whether and how (a) federal and state education policies can better address the in-service needs of special area teachers, particularly music teachers, in the school setting; and (b) policy organizations in the music education profession (i.e., The National Association…

  7. Power quality : implications at the point of connection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobben, J.F.G.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing interest in de quality of voltage and current. This can be noticed most clearly in reports of the regulators and in discussions within national and international commissions for standardisation about the quality of voltage. Manufacturers insist on a tighter description of the

  8. The Berry's connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Tourneux, J.

    1989-01-01

    A course on the Berry's connection is presented. The main steps leading to the Berry's discovery are reviewed and the obtained equations are examined. Some applications of Berry's formulation are presented. They include diatomic molecules, dipole-quadrupole interaction in spherical mucleus and diabolic pair transfer. The experimental results presented are the spectrum of the Na 3 molecule, the propagation of photons in an helical optical fiber and the neutron spin rotation. Non-abelian problems and the Aharonow-Anandan phase are discussed [fr

  9. The CONNECT project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, Yaniv; Alexander, Daniel C; Jones, Derek K

    2013-01-01

    Of Neuroimagers for the Non-invasive Exploration of brain Connectivity and Tracts) project aimed to combine tractography and micro-structural measures of the living human brain in order to obtain a better estimate of the connectome, while also striving to extend validation of these measurements. This paper...... summarizes the project and describes the perspective of using micro-structural measures to study the connectome.......In recent years, diffusion MRI has become an extremely important tool for studying the morphology of living brain tissue, as it provides unique insights into both its macrostructure and microstructure. Recent applications of diffusion MRI aimed to characterize the structural connectome using...

  10. Skeletal muscle connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline

    in the structure of fibrous collagen and myofibers at high-resolution. The results demonstrate that the collagen composition in the extra cellular matrix of Gadus morhua fish muscle is much more complex than previously anticipated, as it contains type III, IV, V  and VI collagen in addition to type I. The vascular....... Consequently, functional structures, ensuring "tissue maintenance" must form a major role of connective tissue, in addition that is to the force transmitting structures one typically finds in muscle. Vascular structures have also been shown to change their mechanical properties with age and it has been shown...

  11. Conformally connected universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantor, M.; Piran, T.

    1983-01-01

    A well-known difficulty associated with the conformal method for the solution of the general relativistic Hamiltonian constraint is the appearance of an aphysical ''bag of gold'' singularity at the nodal surface of the conformal factor. This happens whenever the background Ricci scalar is too large. Using a simple model, it is demonstrated that some of these singular solutions do have a physical meaning, and that these can be considered as initial data for Universe containing black holes, which are connected, in a conformally nonsingular way with each other. The relation between the ADM mass and the horizon area in this solution supports the cosmic censorship conjecture. (author)

  12. Patterns and persistence of larval retention and connectivity in a marine fish metapopulation

    KAUST Repository

    Saenz Agudelo, Pablo; Jones, Geoffrey P.; Thorrold, Simon R.; Planes, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Connectivity, the demographic linking of local populations through the dispersal of individuals, is one of the most poorly understood processes in population dynamics, yet has profound implications for conservation and harvest strategies. For marine

  13. Connecting Participant Observation Positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCurdy, Patrick; Uldam, Julie

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we argue for the importance of considering participant observation roles in relation to both insider/outsider and overt/covert roles. Through combining key academic debates on participant observation, which have separately considered insider/outsider and overt/covert participant...... observation, we develop a reflexive framework to assist researchers in (1) locating the type of participant observation research; (2) identifying implications of participant observation for both the research and the subjects under study; and (3) reflecting on how one’s role as participant observer shifts over...

  14. Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Topics English Español Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB Download PDF ... they? Points To Remember About Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue There are more than 200 heritable disorders that ...

  15. LHCb connects its pipes

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Two weeks ago the first beryllium section of the LHCb beam vacuum chamber was installed. This three-day operation, after requiring lengthy preparation work, demanded patience and precision as the first of four sections of the beampipe was connected to the vertex locator (VeLo) vacuum vessel. The AT-VAC Group with the collaboration of PH/LBD, including Gloria Corti, Tatsuya Nakada, Patrice Mermet, Delios Ramos, Frans Mul, Bruno Versollato, Bernard Corajod, and Raymond Veness. (Not pictured: Adriana Rossi and Laurent Bouvet) This first installed section is composed of a nearly two-metre long conical tube of one-millimetre thick beryllium and of a thin spherical-shaped window, 800 millimeter diameter, made of an aluminum alloy, and has the appearance of a mushroom lying on its side. The window is connected to the conical part of the beampipe through an aluminum alloy bellow, which is needed to allow for mechanical alignment once the assembly is installed. Beryllium was chosen as the material for 12 m of the 19...

  16. Connective tissue activation. XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, J.J.; Donakowski, C.; Anderson, B.; Meyers, S.; Castor, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    The platelet-derived connective tissue activating peptide (CTAP-III) has been shown to be an important factor stimulating the metabolism and proliferation of human connective tissue cell strains, including synovial tissue cells. The quantities of CTAP-III affecting the cellular changes and the amounts in various biologic fluids and tissues are small. The objectives of this study were to develop a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for CTAP-III and to ascertain the specificities of the anti-CTAP-III sera reagents. The antisera were shown not to cross-react with a number of polypeptide hormones. However, two other platelet proteins β-thromboglobulin and low affinity platelet factor-4, competed equally as well as CTAP-III for anti-CTAP-III antibodies in the RIA system. Thus, the three platelet proteins are similar or identical with respect to those portions of the molecules constituting the reactive antigenic determinants. The levels of material in normal human platelet-free plasma that inhibited anti-CTAP-III- 125 I-CTAP-III complex formation were determined to be 34+-13 (S.D.) ng/ml. (Auth.)

  17. Connectivity-oriented urban projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philibert Petit, E.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is about connections in the built environment, networked connections for the mobility of people at the smallest scale of the urban realm: the pedestrian scale. It deals with applications of the new science of networks as a tool for observation and assessment of connectivity in the urban

  18. Airport industry connectivity report: 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonekamp, T.; Lieshout, R.; Burghouwt, G.

    2015-01-01

    This report is an update of the 'Airport Industry Connectivity Report 2004-2014'. It's focused on more recent developments and charting how Europe’s connectivity has evolved over the past 12 months. Airport connectivity is an increasingly discussed topic in European policy circles. With good reason.

  19. Connectivity as a multiple: In, with and as "nature".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, Timothy

    2018-03-01

    Connectivity is a central concept in contemporary geographies of nature, but the concept is often understood and utilised in plural ways. This is problematic because of the separation, rather than the confusion, of these different approaches. While the various understandings of connectivity are rarely considered as working together, the connections between them have significant implications. This paper thus proposes re-thinking connectivity as a "multiple". It develops a taxonomy of existing connectivity concepts from the fields of biogeography and landscape ecology, conservation biology, socio-economic systems theory, political ecology and more-than-human geography. It then considers how these various understandings might be re-thought not as separate concerns, but (following Annemarie Mol) as "more than one, but less than many". The implications of using the connectivity multiple as an analytic for understanding conservation practices are demonstrated through considering the creation of wildlife corridors in conservation practice. The multiple does not just serve to highlight the practical and theoretical linkages between ecological theories, social inequities and affectual relationships in more-than-human worlds. It is also suggestive of a normative approach to environmental management that does not give temporal priority to biological theories, but considers these as always already situated in these social, often unequal, always more-than-human ecologies.

  20. Connecting Architecture and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchgeher, Georg; Weinreich, Rainer

    Software architectures are still typically defined and described independently from implementation. To avoid architectural erosion and drift, architectural representation needs to be continuously updated and synchronized with system implementation. Existing approaches for architecture representation like informal architecture documentation, UML diagrams, and Architecture Description Languages (ADLs) provide only limited support for connecting architecture descriptions and implementations. Architecture management tools like Lattix, SonarJ, and Sotoarc and UML-tools tackle this problem by extracting architecture information directly from code. This approach works for low-level architectural abstractions like classes and interfaces in object-oriented systems but fails to support architectural abstractions not found in programming languages. In this paper we present an approach for linking and continuously synchronizing a formalized architecture representation to an implementation. The approach is a synthesis of functionality provided by code-centric architecture management and UML tools and higher-level architecture analysis approaches like ADLs.

  1. More features, greater connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Changes in our political infrastructure, the continuing frailties of our economy, and a stark growth in population, have greatly impacted upon the perceived stability of the NHS. Healthcare teams have had to adapt to these changes, and so too have the technologies upon which they rely to deliver first-class patient care. Here Sarah Hunt, marketing co-ordinator at Aid Call, assesses how the changing healthcare environment has affected one of its fundamental technologies - the nurse call system, argues the case for wireless such systems in terms of what the company claims is greater adaptability to changing needs, and considers the ever-wider range of features and functions available from today's nurse call equipment, particularly via connectivity with both mobile devices, and ancillaries ranging from enuresis sensors to staff attack alert 'badges'.

  2. Practicing (Dis)connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The paper addresses the reciprocal notions of mobility and mobilisation in medical imaging practice, in view of the contingent and multiple character of the knowledge-practices involving such images – and their interpretation – within and across situated settings. Based on an ethnographically......’s development of in-house examination protocols as a consequence of its having replaced an older, pre-existing MRI scanner with a new model. This re-domestication of MRI as occasioned by the replacement scanner offers a range of sociomaterial and sociotechnical contingencies in the practice to come to light...... of the epistemic underpinnings which render, and condition, how connections are mediated across extended settings of practice (in the MRI unit, at interdisciplinary case conferences, and at other hospitals, etc.). This relational view allows for the heterogeneity entailed in the domestication of the MRI scanner...

  3. Default network connectivity during a working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluhm, Robyn L; Clark, C Richard; McFarlane, Alexander C; Moores, Kathryn A; Shaw, Marnie E; Lanius, Ruth A

    2011-07-01

    The default network exhibits correlated activity at rest and has shown decreased activation during performance of cognitive tasks. There has been little investigation of changes in connectivity of this network during task performance. In this study, we examined task-related modulation of connectivity between two seed regions from the default network posterior cingulated cortex (PCC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the rest of the brain in 12 healthy adults. The purpose was to determine (1) whether connectivity within the default network differs between a resting state and performance of a cognitive (working memory) task and (2) whether connectivity differs between these nodes of the default network and other brain regions, particularly those implicated in cognitive tasks. There was little change in connectivity with the other main areas of the default network for either seed region, but moderate task-related changes in connectivity occurred between seed regions and regions outside the default network. For example, connectivity of the mPFC with the right insula and the right superior frontal gyrus decreased during task performance. Increased connectivity during the working memory task occurred between the PCC and bilateral inferior frontal gyri, and between the mPFC and the left inferior frontal gyrus, cuneus, superior parietal lobule, middle temporal gyrus and cerebellum. Overall, the areas showing greater correlation with the default network seed regions during task than at rest have been previously implicated in working memory tasks. These changes may reflect a decrease in the negative correlations occurring between the default and task-positive networks at rest. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Mesoscale Connections Summer 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippen, Karen Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bourke, Mark Andrew M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-21

    Our challenge derives from the fact that in metals or explosives grains, interfaces and defects control engineering performance in ways that are neither amenable to continuum codes (which fail to rigorously describe the heterogeneities derived from microstructure) nor computationally tractable to first principles atomistic calculations. This is a region called the mesoscale, which stands at the frontier of our desire to translate fundamental science insights into confidence in aging system performance over the range of extreme conditions relevant in a nuclear weapon. For dynamic problems, the phenomena of interest can require extremely good temporal resolutions. A shock wave traveling at 1000 m/s (or 1 mm/μs) passes through a grain with a diameter of 1 micron in a nanosecond (10-9 sec). Thus, to observe the mesoscale phenomena—such as dislocations or phase transformations—as the shock passes, temporal resolution better than picoseconds (10-12 sec) may be needed. As we anticipate the science challenges over the next decade, experimental insights on material performance at the micron spatial scale with picosecond temporal resolution—at the mesoscale— are a clear challenge. This is a challenge fit for Los Alamos in partnership with our sister labs and academia. Mesoscale Connections will draw attention to our progress as we tackle the mesoscale challenge. We hope you like it and encourage suggestions of content you are interested in.

  5. The development of principled connections and kind representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haward, Paul; Wagner, Laura; Carey, Susan; Prasada, Sandeep

    2018-07-01

    Kind representations draw an important distinction between properties that are understood as existing in instances of a kind by virtue of their being the kind of thing they are and properties that are not understood in this manner. For example, the property of barking for the kind dog is understood as being had by dogs by virtue of the fact that they are dogs. These properties are said to have a principled connection to the kind. In contrast, the property of wearing a collar is not understood as existing in instances by virtue of their being dogs, despite the fact that a large percentage of dogs wear collars. Such properties are said to have a statistical connection to the kind. Two experiments tested two signatures of principled connections in 4-7 year olds and adults: (i) that principled connections license normative expectations (e.g., we judge there to be something wrong with a dog that does not bark), and (ii) that principled connections license formal explanations which explain the existence of a property by reference to the kind (e.g., that barks because it is a dog). Experiment 1 showed that both the children and adults have normative expectations for properties that have a principled connection to a kind, but not those that have a mere statistical connection to a kind. Experiment 2 showed that both children and adults are more likely to provide a formal explanation when explaining the existence of properties with a principled connection to a kind than properties with statistical connections to their kinds. Both experiments showed no effect of age (over ages 4, 7, and adulthood) on the extent to which participants differentiated principled and statistical connections. We discuss the implications of the results for theories of conceptual representation and for the structure of explanation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Transnational Connections and Multiple Belongings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galal, Lise Paulsen; Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei

    With the purpose of presenting DIMECCE key findings, we in this paper present different aspects, potentials and challenges related to the Middle Eastern Christians transnational connections and multiple belonging. We distinguish between individual transnational connections and practices, such as ......, such as family relations, churches as transnational – or global – institutions, and other organisations and associations established to support politically, socially or culturally connections and development in the country or region of origin....

  7. Anonymous Connections and Onion Routing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Syverson, Paul F; Goldschlag, David M; Reed, Michael G

    1997-01-01

    .... Unmodified Internet applications can use these anonymous connections by means of proxies. The proxies may also make communication anonymous by removing identifying information from the data stream...

  8. Interstate Connections - CEHC [ds619

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) and California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) commissioned the California Essential Habitat Connectivity...

  9. Stimulus-Elicited Connectivity Influences Resting-State Connectivity Years Later in Human Development: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabard-Durnam, Laurel Joy; Gee, Dylan Grace; Goff, Bonnie; Flannery, Jessica; Telzer, Eva; Humphreys, Kathryn Leigh; Lumian, Daniel Stephen; Fareri, Dominic Stephen; Caldera, Christina; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-04-27

    -term phasic molding hypothesis that resting-state network development is influenced by recurring stimulus-elicited connectivity through prospective examination of the developing human amygdala-cortical functional connections. Our results provide critical insight into how early environmental events sculpt functional network architecture across development and highlight childhood as a potential developmental period of heightened malleability for the amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex circuit. These findings have implications for how both positive and adverse experiences influence the developing brain and motivate future investigations of whether this molding mechanism reflects a general phenomenon of brain development. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/364772-14$15.00/0.

  10. Family Connections: Building Connections among Home, School, and Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikkers, Amy Garrett

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on parental involvement has explored connections between parental involvement in school and children's academic achievement. While many schools have active parent organizations and a base of parents who offer additional support, others struggle to make connections with their parents or community members. Even in places with active…

  11. Carl Sagan's Cosmic Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Carl; Agel, Jerome

    2000-08-01

    Foreword Freeman Dyson; Personal reflections Ann Druyan; Preface; Part I. Cosmic Perspective: 1. A transitional animal; 2. The Unicorn of Cetus; 3. A message from earth; 4. A message to earth; 5. Experiments in utopias; 6. Chauvinism; 7. Space exploration as a human enterprise I. The scientific interest; 8. Space exploration as a human enterprise II. The public interest; 9. Space exploration as a human enterprise III. The historical interest; Part II. The Solar System: 10. On teaching the first grade; 11. 'The ancient and legendary Gods of old'; 12. The Venus detective story; 13. Venus is hell; 14. Science and 'intelligence'; 15. The moons of Barsoom; 16. The mountains of Mars I. Observations from earth; 17. The mountains of Mars II. Observations from space; 18. The canals of Mars; 19. The lost pictures of Mars; 20. The Ice Age and the cauldron; 21. Beginnings and ends of the Earth; 22. Terraforming the plants; 23. The exploration and utlization of the solar system; Part III. Beyond the Solar System: 24. Some of my best friends are dolphins; 25. 'Hello, central casting? Send me twenty extraterrestrials'; 26. The cosmic connection; 27. Extraterrestrial life: an idea whose time has come; 28. Has the Earth been visited?; 29. A search strategy for detecting extraterrestrial intelligence; 30. If we succeed 31. Cables, drums, and seashells; 32. The night freight to the stars; 33. Astroengineering; 34. Twenty questions: a classification of cosmic civilisations; 35. Galactic cultural exchanges; 36. A passage to elsewhere; 37. Starfolk I. A Fable; 38. Starfolk II. A future; 39. Starfolk III. The cosmic Cheshire cats; Epilog David Morrison; Index.

  12. Juno, The Cultural Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Theodore

    2017-04-01

    After a 5 year journey and a billion miles cartwheeling through the vastness of space, the Juno spacecraft is in orbit about the planet Jupiter. With its suite of scientific instruments Juno scientists will catch a glimpse of the dawn of creation of our own solar system. Juno will address origins, asking for us all, Who am I? Where do I come from? But Juno is more than a space laboratory to study the planet Jupiter. Juno embodies the history of humankind's perception of the universe from Aristotle, Copernicus and Galileo, to the Juno spacecraft peering beneath the clouds of Jupiter. Juno embodies the literature of classical mythology and the timeless masterpieces of the Renaissance and Baroque periods in its very name. Juno carries to Jupiter small statuettes of the gods Jupiter and Juno and the scientist Galileo. Juno embodies cosmic visualization experiences through first ever movies of the moon occulting Earth (>2 million hits on YouTube) and the Galilean satellites orbiting about Jupiter (>1.8 million hits on You Tube). Juno embodies the stirring music of modern Greek composer Vangelis, the Orpheus of Juno, who provided the score for the movies of the moon occulting Earth and of the Galilean satellites orbiting Jupiter. Juno embodies down to Earth visualization experiences through trajectory models created of Juno's passage through the Earth-moon system and Juno's entire orbital mission at Jupiter. Juno is the embodiment of public engagement in its science in a fishbowl program. Indeed, because Juno is the embodiment of this remarkable union of science and technology, history and literature, music and art, and visualization and public engagement, Juno is truly an ambassador to the universe of a New Renaissance. In my paper, "Juno, the Cultural Connection," I will unveil a dimension of the Juno mission to the planet Jupiter that will appeal to a broad sector of the global public.

  13. Partitioning graphs into connected parts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, van 't P.; Paulusma, D.; Woeginger, G.J.; Frid, A.; Morozov, A.S.; Rybalchenko, A.; Wagner, K.W.

    2009-01-01

    The 2-DISJOINT CONNECTED SUBGRAPHS problem asks if a given graph has two vertex-disjoint connected subgraphs containing pre-specified sets of vertices. We show that this problem is NP-complete even if one of the sets has cardinality 2. The LONGEST PATH CONTRACTIBILITY problem asks for the largest

  14. Connections for Small Vertex Models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper is a first attempt at calssifying connections on small vertex models i.e., commuting squares of the form displayed in (1.2) below. ... obtain necessary conditions for two such `model connections' in (2, ) to be ... Current Issue : Vol.

  15. Generation connected with images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana RECAMÁN PAYO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 197 1086 Instituto Universitario de Ciencias de la Educación 9 2 1281 14.0 Normal 0 21 false false false ES JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:ES; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} In learning contexts studying the image as a focus of sensitive knowledge and formative purposes is crucial to achieve high levels of quality and educational excellence. As Renobell (2005 stated, image analysis encourages the development of critical capacity and contributes to developing a personal style for the gradual acquisition of a visual culture. Images educate and consequently, their presence in the field of education should not be a mere accompaniment to the text. They should not be limited to adorn or illustrate a linguistic content but to complement and deepen it, activating the thought and the reflection of the reader. In Internet culture, image as a focus of knowledge, of shared use, of social content and educational purposes, contribute to explain the implications and vivacity around this technological environment, which plays a leading role in the current social changes and movements. The culture of the network has changed our perceptual sensitivity to interpret images, which are now more complex, integrated, multidimensional and dynamic than ever. The interactivity, the strong relationship with the text content, the graphic sequentiality, the associated sound effects or the iconical text design reveal the

  16. Privacy and the Connected Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Khajuria, Samant; Skouby, Knud Erik

    The Vision of the 5G enabled connected society is highly based on the evolution and implementation of Internet of Things. This involves, amongst others, a significant raise in devices, sensors and communication in pervasive interconnections as well as cooperation amongst devices and entities across...... the society. Enabling the vision of the connected society, researchers point in the direction of security and privacy as areas to challenge the vision. By use of the Internet of Things reference model as well as the vision of the connected society, this paper identifies privacy of the individual with respect...... to three selected areas: Shopping, connected cars and online gaming. The paper concludes that privacy is a complexity within the connected society vision and that thee is a need for more privacy use cases to shed light on the challenge....

  17. Evolution equations for connected and disconnected sea parton distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Keh-Fei

    2017-08-01

    It has been revealed from the path-integral formulation of the hadronic tensor that there are connected sea and disconnected sea partons. The former is responsible for the Gottfried sum rule violation primarily and evolves the same way as the valence. Therefore, the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution equations can be extended to accommodate them separately. We discuss its consequences and implications vis-á-vis lattice calculations.

  18. Altered functional brain connectivity in patients with visually induced dizziness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelique Van Ombergen

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: We found alterations in the visual and vestibular cortical network in VID patients that could underlie the typical VID symptoms such as a worsening of their vestibular symptoms when being exposed to challenging visual stimuli. These preliminary findings provide the first insights into the underlying functional brain connectivity in VID patients. Future studies should extend these findings by employing larger sample sizes, by investigating specific task-based paradigms in these patients and by exploring the implications for treatment.

  19. Habenula functional resting-state connectivity in pediatric CRPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpelding, Nathalie; Sava, Simona; Simons, Laura E; Lebel, Alyssa; Serrano, Paul; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2014-01-01

    The habenula (Hb) is a small brain structure located in the posterior end of the medial dorsal thalamus and through medial (MHb) and lateral (LHb) Hb connections, it acts as a conduit of information between forebrain and brainstem structures. The role of the Hb in pain processing is well documented in animals and recently also in acute experimental pain in humans. However, its function remains unknown in chronic pain disorders. Here, we investigated Hb resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) compared with healthy controls. Twelve pediatric patients with unilateral lower-extremity CRPS (9 females; 10-17 yr) and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls provided informed consent to participate in the study. In healthy controls, Hb functional connections largely overlapped with previously described anatomical connections in cortical, subcortical, and brainstem structures. Compared with controls, patients exhibited an overall Hb rsFC reduction with the rest of the brain and, specifically, with the anterior midcingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, supplementary motor cortex, primary motor cortex, and premotor cortex. Our results suggest that Hb rsFC parallels anatomical Hb connections in the healthy state and that overall Hb rsFC is reduced in patients, particularly connections with forebrain areas. Patients' decreased Hb rsFC to brain regions implicated in motor, affective, cognitive, and pain inhibitory/modulatory processes may contribute to their symptomatology.

  20. Intranasal oxytocin modulates neural functional connectivity during human social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilling, James K; Chen, Xiangchuan; Chen, Xu; Haroon, Ebrahim

    2018-02-10

    Oxytocin (OT) modulates social behavior in primates and many other vertebrate species. Studies in non-primate animals have demonstrated that, in addition to influencing activity within individual brain areas, OT influences functional connectivity across networks of areas involved in social behavior. Previously, we used fMRI to image brain function in human subjects during a dyadic social interaction task following administration of either intranasal oxytocin (INOT) or placebo, and analyzed the data with a standard general linear model. Here, we conduct an extensive re-analysis of these data to explore how OT modulates functional connectivity across a neural network that animal studies implicate in social behavior. OT induced widespread increases in functional connectivity in response to positive social interactions among men and widespread decreases in functional connectivity in response to negative social interactions among women. Nucleus basalis of Meynert, an important regulator of selective attention and motivation with a particularly high density of OT receptors, had the largest number of OT-modulated connections. Regions known to receive mesolimbic dopamine projections such as the nucleus accumbens and lateral septum were also hubs for OT effects on functional connectivity. Our results suggest that the neural mechanism by which OT influences primate social cognition may include changes in patterns of activity across neural networks that regulate social behavior in other animals. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Differential structural and resting state connectivity between insular subdivisions and other pain-related brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiech, K; Jbabdi, S; Lin, C S; Andersson, J; Tracey, I

    2014-10-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies suggest that the anterior, mid, and posterior division of the insula subserve different functions in the perception of pain. The anterior insula (AI) has predominantly been associated with cognitive-affective aspects of pain, while the mid and posterior divisions have been implicated in sensory-discriminative processing. We examined whether this functional segregation is paralleled by differences in (1) structural and (2) resting state connectivity and (3) in correlations with pain-relevant psychological traits. Analyses were restricted to the 3 insular subdivisions and other pain-related brain regions. Both type of analyses revealed largely overlapping results. The AI division was predominantly connected to the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (structural and resting state connectivity) and orbitofrontal cortex (structural connectivity). In contrast, the posterior insula showed strong connections to the primary somatosensory cortex (SI; structural connectivity) and secondary somatosensory cortex (SII; structural and resting state connectivity). The mid insula displayed a hybrid connectivity pattern with strong connections with the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, SII (structural and resting state connectivity) and SI (structural connectivity). Moreover, resting state connectivity revealed strong connectivity of all 3 subdivisions with the thalamus. On the behavioural level, AI structural connectivity was related to the individual degree of pain vigilance and awareness that showed a positive correlation with AI-amygdala connectivity and a negative correlation with AI-rostral anterior cingulate cortex connectivity. In sum, our findings show a differential structural and resting state connectivity for the anterior, mid, and posterior insula with other pain-relevant brain regions, which might at least partly explain their different functional profiles in pain processing. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  2. Embedded generation connection incentives for distribution network operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, P.; Andrews, S.

    2002-07-01

    This is the final report with respect to work commissioned by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) as part of the New and Renewable Energy Programme into incentives for distribution network operators (DNOs) for the connection of embedded generation. This report, which incorporates the contents of the interim report submitted in February 2002, considers the implications of changes in the structure and regulation in the UK electricity industry on the successful technical and commercial integrated of embedded generation into distribution networks. The report examines: the obligations of public electricity suppliers (PESs); current DNO practices regarding the connection of embedded generation; the changes introduced by the Utilities Act 2000, including the impact of new obligations placed on DNOs on the connection of embedded generation and the requirements of the new Electricity Distribution Standard Licence conditions; and problems and prospects for DNO incentives.

  3. Properly colored connectivity of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xueliang; Qin, Zhongmei

    2018-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of proper connection of graphs is discussed in this book with real world applications in computer science and network security. Beginning with a brief introduction, comprising relevant definitions and preliminary results, this book moves on to consider a variety of properties of graphs that imply bounds on the proper connection number. Detailed proofs of significant advancements toward open problems and conjectures are presented with complete references. Researchers and graduate students with an interest in graph connectivity and colorings will find this book useful as it builds upon fundamental definitions towards modern innovations, strategies, and techniques. The detailed presentation lends to use as an introduction to proper connection of graphs for new and advanced researchers, a solid book for a graduate level topics course, or as a reference for those interested in expanding and further developing research in the area.

  4. Connected vehicle pilot deployment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportations (USDOTs) connected vehicle research : program is a multimodal initiative to enable safe, interoperable, networked wireless : communications among vehicles, infrastructure, and personal communications : dev...

  5. Cybersecurity for Connected Diabetes Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonoff, David C

    2015-04-16

    Diabetes devices are increasingly connected wirelessly to each other and to data-displaying reader devices. Threats to the accurate flow of information and commands may compromise the function of these devices and put their users at risk of health complications. Sound cybersecurity of connected diabetes devices is necessary to maintain confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the data and commands. Diabetes devices can be hacked by unauthorized agents and also by patients themselves to extract data that are not automatically provided by product software. Unauthorized access to connected diabetes devices has been simulated and could happen in reality. A cybersecurity standard designed specifically for connected diabetes devices will improve the safety of these products and increase confidence of users that the products will be secure. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  6. Functional Connectivity of Human Chewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, A.; Ichesco, E.; Schutt, R.; Myers, C.; Peltier, S.; Gerstner, G.E.

    2013-01-01

    Mastication is one of the most important orofacial functions. The neurobiological mechanisms of masticatory control have been investigated in animal models, but less so in humans. This project used functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) to assess the positive temporal correlations among activated brain areas during a gum-chewing task. Twenty-nine healthy young-adults underwent an fcMRI scanning protocol while they chewed gum. Seed-based fcMRI analyses were performed with the motor cortex and cerebellum as regions of interest. Both left and right motor cortices were reciprocally functionally connected and functionally connected with the post-central gyrus, cerebellum, cingulate cortex, and precuneus. The cerebellar seeds showed functional connections with the contralateral cerebellar hemispheres, bilateral sensorimotor cortices, left superior temporal gyrus, and left cingulate cortex. These results are the first to identify functional central networks engaged during mastication. PMID:23355525

  7. Connecting and Networking for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources for connecting and networking for schools through e-newsletters, finding school IAQ Champions and other EPA school programs such as Asthma, Energy Star, Clean School Bus USA, School Flag, etc.

  8. Visualizing neuronal network connectivity with connectivity pattern tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eilen Nordlie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex ideas are best conveyed through well-designed illustrations. Up to now, computational neuroscientists have mostly relied on box-and-arrow diagrams of even complex neuronal networks, often using ad hoc notations with conflicting use of symbols from paper to paper. This significantly impedes the communication of ideas in neuronal network modeling. We present here Connectivity Pattern Tables (CPTs as a clutter-free visualization of connectivity in large neuronal networks containing two-dimensional populations of neurons. CPTs can be generated automatically from the same script code used to create the actual network in the NEST simulator. Through aggregation, CPTs can be viewed at different levels, providing either full detail or summary information. We also provide the open source ConnPlotter tool as a means to create connectivity pattern tables.

  9. MedlinePlus Connect: How it Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Connect → How it Works URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/connect/howitworks.html MedlinePlus Connect: How ... will change.) Old URLs New URLs Web Application https://apps.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/services/mpconnect.cfm? ...

  10. MedlinePlus Connect in Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MedlinePlus Connect in Use URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/connect/users.html MedlinePlus Connect in ... will change.) Old URLs New URLs Web Application https://apps.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/services/mpconnect.cfm? ...

  11. Brain Connectivity and Visual Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Emily L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Emerging hypotheses suggest that efficient cognitive functioning requires the integration of separate, but interconnected cortical networks in the brain. Although task-related measures of brain activity suggest that a frontoparietal network is associated with the control of attention, little is known regarding how components within this distributed network act together or with other networks to achieve various attentional functions. This review considers both functional and structural studies of brain connectivity, as complemented by behavioral and task-related neuroimaging data. These studies show converging results: The frontal and parietal cortical regions are active together, over time, and identifiable frontoparietal networks are active in relation to specific task demands. However, the spontaneous, low-frequency fluctuations of brain activity that occur in the resting state, without specific task demands, also exhibit patterns of connectivity that closely resemble the task-related, frontoparietal attention networks. Both task-related and resting-state networks exhibit consistent relations to behavioral measures of attention. Further, anatomical structure, particularly white matter pathways as defined by diffusion tensor imaging, places constraints on intrinsic functional connectivity. Lastly, connectivity analyses applied to investigate cognitive differences across individuals in both healthy and diseased states suggest that disconnection of attentional networks is linked to deficits in cognitive functioning, and in extreme cases, to disorders of attention. Thus, comprehensive theories of visual attention and their clinical translation depend on the continued integration of behavioral, task-related neuroimaging, and brain connectivity measures. PMID:23597177

  12. Random Interchange of Magnetic Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaeus, W. H.; Ruffolo, D. J.; Servidio, S.; Wan, M.; Rappazzo, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic connectivity, the connection between two points along a magnetic field line, has a stochastic character associated with field lines random walking in space due to magnetic fluctuations, but connectivity can also change in time due to dynamical activity [1]. For fluctuations transverse to a strong mean field, this connectivity change be caused by stochastic interchange due to component reconnection. The process may be understood approximately by formulating a diffusion-like Fokker-Planck coefficient [2] that is asymptotically related to standard field line random walk. Quantitative estimates are provided, for transverse magnetic field models and anisotropic models such as reduced magnetohydrodynamics. In heliospheric applications, these estimates may be useful for understanding mixing between open and close field line regions near coronal hole boundaries, and large latitude excursions of connectivity associated with turbulence. [1] A. F. Rappazzo, W. H. Matthaeus, D. Ruffolo, S. Servidio & M. Velli, ApJL, 758, L14 (2012) [2] D. Ruffolo & W. Matthaeus, ApJ, 806, 233 (2015)

  13. Continuously Connected With Mobile IP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Cisco Systems developed Cisco Mobile Networks, making IP devices mobile. With this innovation, a Cisco router and its connected IP devices can roam across network boundaries and connection types. Because a mobile user is able to keep the same IP address while roaming, a live IP connection can be maintained without interruption. Glenn Research Center jointly tested the technology with Cisco, and is working to use it on low-earth-orbiting research craft. With Cisco's Mobile Networks functionality now available in Cisco IOS Software release 12.2(4)T, the commercial advantages and benefits are numerous. The technology can be applied to public safety, military/homeland security, emergency management services, railroad and shipping systems, and the automotive industry. It will allow ambulances, police, firemen, and the U.S. Coast Guard to stay connected to their networks while on the move. In the wireless battlefield, the technology will provide rapid infrastructure deployment for U.S. national defense. Airline, train, and cruise passengers utilizing Cisco Mobile Networks can fly all around the world with a continuous Internet connection. Cisco IOS(R) Software is a registered trademark of Cisco Systems.

  14. Connectivity-based parcellation of the human orbitofrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahnt, Thorsten; Chang, Luke J; Park, Soyoung Q; Heinzle, Jakob; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2012-05-02

    The primate orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is involved in reward processing, learning, and decision making. Research in monkeys has shown that this region is densely connected with higher sensory, limbic, and subcortical regions. Moreover, a parcellation of the monkey OFC into two subdivisions has been suggested based on its intrinsic anatomical connections. However, in humans, little is known about any functional subdivisions of the OFC except for a rather coarse medial/lateral distinction. Here, we used resting-state fMRI in combination with unsupervised clustering techniques to investigate whether OFC subdivisions can be revealed based on their functional connectivity profiles with other brain regions. Examination of different cluster solutions provided support for a parcellation into two parts as observed in monkeys, but it also highlighted a much finer hierarchical clustering of the orbital surface. Specifically, we identified (1) a medial, (2) a posterior-central, (3) a central, and (4-6) three lateral clusters spanning the anterior-posterior gradient. Consistent with animal tracing studies, these OFC clusters were connected to other cortical regions such as prefrontal, temporal, and parietal cortices but also subcortical areas in the striatum and the midbrain. These connectivity patterns provide important implications for identifying specific functional roles of OFC subdivisions for reward processing, learning, and decision making. Moreover, this parcellation schema can provide guidance to report results in future studies.

  15. White matter structural connectivity and episodic memory in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Chi T; Alm, Kylie H; Metoki, Athanasia; Hampton, William; Riggins, Tracy; Newcombe, Nora S; Olson, Ingrid R

    2017-12-01

    Episodic memory undergoes dramatic improvement in early childhood; the reason for this is poorly understood. In adults, episodic memory relies on a distributed neural network. Key brain regions that supporting these processes include the hippocampus, portions of the parietal cortex, and portions of prefrontal cortex, each of which shows different developmental profiles. Here we asked whether developmental differences in the axonal pathways connecting these regions may account for the robust gains in episodic memory in young children. Using diffusion weighted imaging, we examined whether white matter connectivity between brain regions implicated in episodic memory differed with age, and were associated with memory performance differences in 4- and 6-year-old children. Results revealed that white matter connecting the hippocampus to the inferior parietal lobule significantly predicted children's performance on episodic memory tasks. In contrast, variation in the white matter connecting the hippocampus to the medial prefrontal cortex did not relate to memory performance. These findings suggest that structural connectivity between the hippocampus and lateral parietal regions is relevant to the development of episodic memory. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Amygdala Functional Connectivity is Reduced After the Cold Pressor Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clewett, David; Schoeke, Andrej; Mather, Mara

    2013-01-01

    The amygdala forms a crucial link between central pain and stress systems. There is much evidence that psychological stress affects amygdala activity, but it is less clear how painful stressors influence subsequent amygdala functional connectivity. In the present study, we used pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL) to investigate differences in healthy male adults’ resting-state amygdala functional connectivity following a cold pressor versus control task, with the stressor and control conditions conducted on different days. During the period of peak cortisol response to acute stress (approximately fifteen to thirty minutes after stressor onset), participants were asked to rest for six minutes with their eyes closed during a PASL scanning sequence. The cold pressor task led to reduced resting-state functional connectivity between the amygdalae and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), which occurred irrespective of cortisol release. The stressor also induced greater inverse connectivity between the left amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), a brain region implicated in the down-regulation of amygdala responsivity. Furthermore, the degree of post-stressor left amygdala decoupling with the lateral OFC varied according to self-reported pain intensity during the cold pressor task. These findings indicate that the cold pressor task alters amygdala interactions with prefrontal and ACC regions 15–30 minutes after the stressor, and that these altered functional connectivity patterns are related to pain perception rather than cortisol feedback. PMID:23645370

  17. White matter structural connectivity and episodic memory in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi T. Ngo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory undergoes dramatic improvement in early childhood; the reason for this is poorly understood. In adults, episodic memory relies on a distributed neural network. Key brain regions that supporting these processes include the hippocampus, portions of the parietal cortex, and portions of prefrontal cortex, each of which shows different developmental profiles. Here we asked whether developmental differences in the axonal pathways connecting these regions may account for the robust gains in episodic memory in young children. Using diffusion weighted imaging, we examined whether white matter connectivity between brain regions implicated in episodic memory differed with age, and were associated with memory performance differences in 4- and 6-year-old children. Results revealed that white matter connecting the hippocampus to the inferior parietal lobule significantly predicted children’s performance on episodic memory tasks. In contrast, variation in the white matter connecting the hippocampus to the medial prefrontal cortex did not relate to memory performance. These findings suggest that structural connectivity between the hippocampus and lateral parietal regions is relevant to the development of episodic memory. Keywords: White matter, Memory development, Episodic memory, Diffusion weighted imaging

  18. Prefrontal-Thalamic Anatomical Connectivity and Executive Cognitive Function in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo-Chica, Monica; Rogers, Baxter P; Damon, Stephen M; Landman, Bennett A; Woodward, Neil D

    2018-03-15

    Executive cognitive functions, including working memory, cognitive flexibility, and inhibition, are impaired in schizophrenia. Executive functions rely on coordinated information processing between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and thalamus, particularly the mediodorsal nucleus. This raises the possibility that anatomical connectivity between the PFC and mediodorsal thalamus may be 1) reduced in schizophrenia and 2) related to deficits in executive function. The current investigation tested these hypotheses. Forty-five healthy subjects and 62 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder completed a battery of tests of executive function and underwent diffusion-weighted imaging. Probabilistic tractography was used to quantify anatomical connectivity between six cortical regions, including PFC, and the thalamus. Thalamocortical anatomical connectivity was compared between healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia using region-of-interest and voxelwise approaches, and the association between PFC-thalamic anatomical connectivity and severity of executive function impairment was examined in patients. Anatomical connectivity between the thalamus and PFC was reduced in schizophrenia. Voxelwise analysis localized the reduction to areas of the mediodorsal thalamus connected to lateral PFC. Reduced PFC-thalamic connectivity in schizophrenia correlated with impaired working memory but not cognitive flexibility and inhibition. In contrast to reduced PFC-thalamic connectivity, thalamic connectivity with somatosensory and occipital cortices was increased in schizophrenia. The results are consistent with models implicating disrupted PFC-thalamic connectivity in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and mechanisms of cognitive impairment. PFC-thalamic anatomical connectivity may be an important target for procognitive interventions. Further work is needed to determine the implications of increased thalamic connectivity with sensory cortex. Copyright © 2017 Society of

  19. Hitchin's connection in metaplectic quantization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Gammelgaard, Niels Leth; Lauridsen, Magnus Roed

    2012-01-01

    We give a differential geometric construction of a connection, which we call the Hitchin connection, in the bundle of quantum Hilbert spaces arising from metaplectically corrected geometric quantization of a prequantizable, symplectic manifold, endowed with a rigid family of Kähler structures, all...... manifold in question. Furthermore, when we are in a setting similar to the moduli space, we give an explicit formula and show that this connection agrees with previous constructions....... of which give vanishing first Dolbeault cohomology groups. This generalizes work of both Hitchin, Scheinost and Schottenloher, and Andersen, since our construction does not need that the first Chern class is proportional to the class of the symplectic form, nor do we need compactness of the symplectic...

  20. Review on Cold-Formed Steel Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cher Siang; Mohammad, Shahrin; Md Tahir, Mahmood; Shek, Poi Ngian

    2014-01-01

    The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connections, particularly for screw connections, storage rack connections, welded connections, and bolted connections. The performance of these connections in the design of cold-formed steel structures is discussed. PMID:24688448

  1. Auditory and visual connectivity gradients in frontoparietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Rodrigo M; Hellyer, Peter J; Wise, Richard J S; Leech, Robert

    2017-01-01

    A frontoparietal network of brain regions is often implicated in both auditory and visual information processing. Although it is possible that the same set of multimodal regions subserves both modalities, there is increasing evidence that there is a differentiation of sensory function within frontoparietal cortex. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in humans was used to investigate whether different frontoparietal regions showed intrinsic biases in connectivity with visual or auditory modalities. Structural connectivity was assessed with diffusion tractography and functional connectivity was tested using functional MRI. A dorsal-ventral gradient of function was observed, where connectivity with visual cortex dominates dorsal frontal and parietal connections, while connectivity with auditory cortex dominates ventral frontal and parietal regions. A gradient was also observed along the posterior-anterior axis, although in opposite directions in prefrontal and parietal cortices. The results suggest that the location of neural activity within frontoparietal cortex may be influenced by these intrinsic biases toward visual and auditory processing. Thus, the location of activity in frontoparietal cortex may be influenced as much by stimulus modality as the cognitive demands of a task. It was concluded that stimulus modality was spatially encoded throughout frontal and parietal cortices, and was speculated that such an arrangement allows for top-down modulation of modality-specific information to occur within higher-order cortex. This could provide a potentially faster and more efficient pathway by which top-down selection between sensory modalities could occur, by constraining modulations to within frontal and parietal regions, rather than long-range connections to sensory cortices. Hum Brain Mapp 38:255-270, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Disease Definition for Schizophrenia by Functional Connectivity Using Radiomics Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Long-Biao; Liu, Lin; Wang, Hua-Ning; Wang, Liu-Xian; Guo, Fan; Xi, Yi-Bin; Liu, Ting-Ting; Li, Chen; Tian, Ping; Liu, Kang; Wu, Wen-Jun; Chen, Yi-Huan; Qin, Wei; Yin, Hong

    2018-02-17

    Specific biomarker reflecting neurobiological substrates of schizophrenia (SZ) is required for its diagnosis and treatment selection of SZ. Evidence from neuroimaging has implicated disrupted functional connectivity in the pathophysiology. We aimed to develop and validate a method of disease definition for SZ by resting-state functional connectivity using radiomics strategy. This study included 2 data sets collected with different scanners. A total of 108 first-episode SZ patients and 121 healthy controls (HCs) participated in the current study, among which 80% patients and HCs (n = 183) and 20% (n = 46) were selected for training and testing in intra-data set validation and 1 of the 2 data sets was selected for training and the other for testing in inter-data set validation, respectively. Functional connectivity was calculated for both groups, features were selected by Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) method, and the clinical utility of its features and the generalizability of effects across samples were assessed using machine learning by training and validating multivariate classifiers in the independent samples. We found that the accuracy of intra-data set training was 87.09% for diagnosing SZ patients by applying functional connectivity features, with a validation in the independent replication data set (accuracy = 82.61%). The inter-data set validation further confirmed the disease definition by functional connectivity features (accuracy = 83.15% for training and 80.07% for testing). Our findings demonstrate a valid radiomics approach by functional connectivity to diagnose SZ, which is helpful to facilitate objective SZ individualized diagnosis using quantitative and specific functional connectivity biomarker.

  3. Semantic connections: exploring and manipulating connections in smart spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlist, van der B.J.J.; Niezen, G.; Hu, J.; Feijs, L.M.G.

    2010-01-01

    In envisioned smart environments, enabled by ubiquitous computing technologies, electronic objects will be able to interconnect and interoperate. How will users of such smart environments make sense of the connections that are made and the information that is exchanged? This Internet of Things could

  4. Whole-brain functional connectivity predicted by indirect structural connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røge, Rasmus; Ambrosen, Karen Marie Sandø; Albers, Kristoffer Jon

    2017-01-01

    Modern functional and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and dMRI) provide data from which macro-scale networks of functional and structural whole brain connectivity can be estimated. Although networks derived from these two modalities describe different properties of the human brain, the...

  5. Formal connections in deformation quantization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masulli, Paolo

    The field of this thesis is deformation quantization, and we consider mainly symplectic manifolds equipped with a star product. After reviewing basics in complex geometry, we introduce quantization, focusing on geometric quantization and deformation quantization. The latter is defined as a star...... characteristic class, and that formal connections form an affine space over the derivations of the star products. Moreover, if the parameter space for the family of star products is contractible, we obtain that any two flat formal connections are gauge equivalent via a self-equivalence of the family of star...

  6. Developing a Connective Feminine Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the work of the Australian writer and historian Drusilla Modjeska through a focus on the intersections between women‟s lives, love and art, which constitute the central triptych of Modjeska‟s writing. It argues that Modjeska's oeuvre unfolds a connective feminine discourse...... through a development of what the paper calls hinging tropes, discursive connectors that join life, love and art, such as weaving, folding and talking. That connective feminine discourse is indeed central to Modjeska‟s personal and sometimes idiosyncratic feminism...

  7. C-connected frame congruences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmanand Baboolal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the congruences $theta$ that are connected as  elements of the (totally disconnected congruence frame $CF L$,  and show that they are in a one-to-one correspondence with the completely prime elements of $L$, giving an explicit formula. Then we investigate those frames $L$ with enough connected congruences to cover the whole of $CF L$. They are, among others, shown to be $T_D$-spatial;  characteristics for some special cases (Boolean, linear, scattered and Noetherian are presented.

  8. Ekspert i undervisning - IRIS Connect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wullum, Annemette Heine; Eriksen, Frits Hedegaard

    Ekspert i undervisning – IRIS Connect Credoet bag de seneste års mange læreruddannelsesreformer har været, at flere og dybere kundskaber vil styrke de studerendes forudsætninger for at løse opgaverne i pædagogisk praksis. Et forhold, som bliver overset i forbindelse med uddannelsesreformerne, er...... praksis, og hvad ”effektiv” undervisning er. Hovedantagelserne bag projektet er, at de studerendes personbundne kundskaber kan synliggøres, at deres lægmandsopfattelser af, hvad ”effektiv” undervisning er, kan udfordres gennem analyser og drøftelser, og at brugen af IRIS Connects dataindsamlings- og...

  9. Finite connectivity attractor neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wemmenhove, B; Coolen, A C C

    2003-01-01

    We study a family of diluted attractor neural networks with a finite average number of (symmetric) connections per neuron. As in finite connectivity spin glasses, their equilibrium properties are described by order parameter functions, for which we derive an integral equation in replica symmetric approximation. A bifurcation analysis of this equation reveals the locations of the paramagnetic to recall and paramagnetic to spin-glass transition lines in the phase diagram. The line separating the retrieval phase from the spin-glass phase is calculated at zero temperature. All phase transitions are found to be continuous

  10. Cosmographical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, E. L.

    1992-12-01

    The COBE() DMR observation of large scale anisotropy of the CMBR allows one to compare the gravitational potential measured using Delta T to the gravitational forces required to produce the observed clustering of galaxies. This comparison helps to define the allowed range of cosmological models. As shown by Wright etal 1992, the COBE Delta T agrees quite well with the bulk flow velocity measured by Bertschinger etal 1990 in a window of radius 6000 km/sec. This is the best evidence that the initial perturbation spectrum in fact followed the Harrison-Zeldovich (and inflationary) prediction that P(k) ~ k(n) with n = 1. Assuming that n ~ 1, one can deduce information about the nature of the matter in the Universe: the first conclusion is that a large amount of non-baryonic dark matter is required. The second conclusion is that a linearly evolving model dominated by Cold Dark Matter produces too little structure on 2500 km/sec scales. However, mixed Cold Plus Hot Dark Matter models, vacuum dominated models, or the Couchman & Carlberg (1992) non-linear recipe for making galaxies out of CDM all seem to reproduce the observed structures on scales from 500-6,000 km/sec while connecting to the COBE results with the expected n ~ 1 slope. () COBE is supported by NASA's Astrophysics Division. Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), under the scientific guidance of the COBE Science Working Group, is responsible for the development and operation of COBE.

  11. Art and the Cosmic Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Whitney H.; Aiello, Monica Petty; Macdonald, Reeves; Asplund, Shari

    2014-01-01

    The interdisciplinary unit described in this article utilizes "Art and the Cosmic Connection," a free program conceived of by artists Monica and Tyler Aiello and developed by the artists, scientists, and educators through NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Programs, to inspire learners to explore mysterious worlds in our solar…

  12. Connections in wood and foliage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Trees are networked systems that capture energy, move massive amounts of water and material, and provide the setting for human society and for the lives of many associated organisms. Tree survival depends on making and breaking the right connections within these networks.

  13. The Hanze-India Connection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuijsen, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    Hanze India connection. Presentatie gehouden op 09-06-2010. Bestaat uit foto's. Op uitnodiging van KPN, sponsor van het lectoraat New Business & ICT, bezocht Hugo Velthuijsen een aantal steden in India. Het doel was om ter plekke een beeld te krijgen van de mogelijkheden van IT en Business

  14. Grouted Connections with Shear Keys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ronnie; Jørgensen, M. B.; Damkilde, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a finite element model in the software package ABAQUS in which a reliable analysis of grouted pile-to-sleeve connections with shear keys is the particular purpose. The model is calibrated to experimental results and a consistent set of input parameters is estimated so that dif...... that different structural problems can be reproduced successfully....

  15. Tilting-connected symmetric algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Aihara, Takuma

    2010-01-01

    The notion of silting mutation was introduced by Iyama and the author. In this paper we mainly study silting mutation for self-injective algebras and prove that any representation-finite symmetric algebra is tilting-connected. Moreover we give some sufficient conditions for a Bongartz-type Lemma to hold for silting objects.

  16. The Histogram-Area Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratzer, William; Carpenter, James E.

    2008-01-01

    This article demonstrates an alternative approach to the construction of histograms--one based on the notion of using area to represent relative density in intervals of unequal length. The resulting histograms illustrate the connection between the area of the rectangles associated with particular outcomes and the relative frequency (probability)…

  17. Connecting Slope, Steepness, and Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Courtney R.; Moore-Russo, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    All teachers, especially high school teachers, face the challenge of ensuring that students have opportunities to relate and connect the various representations and notions of mathematics concepts developed over the course of the pre-K-12 mathematics curriculum. NCTM's (2000) Representation Standard emphasizes the importance of students being…

  18. Isolating highly connected induced subgraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penev, Irena; Thomasse, Stephan; Trotignon, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    We prove that any graph G of minimum degree greater than 2k(2) - 1 has a (k + 1)-connected induced subgraph H such that the number of vertices of H that have neighbors outside of H is at most 2k(2) - 1. This generalizes a classical result of Mader, which states that a high minimum degree implies ...

  19. Elementary Algebra Connections to Precalculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Boada, Roberto; Daire, Sandra Arguelles

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the attitudes of some precalculus students to solve trigonometric and logarithmic equations and systems using the concepts of elementary algebra. With the goal of enticing the students to search for and use connections among mathematical topics, they are asked to solve equations or systems specifically designed to allow…

  20. Connected Firms and Investor Myopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginglinger, Edith; Hébert, Camille; Renneboog, Luc

    2017-01-01

    Conglomerates, multinational corporations and business groups are non-exclusive forms of complex firms. Often organized as corporate networks, complex firms control a myriad of firms connected through ownership links. We investigate whether parent-subsidiary links within corporate networks enhance

  1. Indicators of Malicious SSL Connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bortolameotti, Riccardo; Peter, Andreas; Everts, Maarten Hinderik; Bolzoni, D.

    2015-01-01

    Internet applications use SSL to provide data confidential- ity to communicating entities. The use of encryption in SSL makes it impossible to distinguish between benign and malicious connections as the content cannot be inspected. Therefore, we propose and evaluate a set of indicators for malicious

  2. Indicators of malicious SSL connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bortolameotti, R.; Peter, A.; Everts, M.H.; Bolzoni, D.

    2015-01-01

    Internet applications use SSL to provide data confidentiality to communicating entities. The use of encryption in SSL makes it impossible to distinguish between benign and malicious connections as the content cannot be inspected. Therefore, we propose and evaluate a set of indicators for malicious

  3. Connecting Leadership and Learning: Do Versatile Learners make Connective Leaders?

    OpenAIRE

    Jill L. Robinson

    2016-01-01

    Recent failures in leadership, suggest that creating better-quality leadership development programs is critical. In moving from theory to practice, this paper examined the relationship between learning style and leadership style which may enable us to move away from one-size-fits-all leadership development programs. Utilizing Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model and Connective Leadership theory, approximately 3600 college students were analyzed to discover whether versatility in learning styles...

  4. Connecting leadership and learning: Do versatile learners make connective leaders?

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Jill L.

    2016-01-01

    Recent failures in leadership, suggest that creating better-quality leadership development programs is critical. In moving from theory to practice, this paper examined the relationship between learning style and leadership style which may enable us to move away from one-size-fits-all leadership development programs. Utilizing Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model and Connective Leadership theory, approximately 3600 college students were analyzed to discover whether versatility in learning styles...

  5. Connecting Leadership and Learning: Do Versatile Learners make Connective Leaders?

    OpenAIRE

    Jill L. Robinson

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent failures in leadership, suggest that creating better-quality leadership development programs is critical. In moving from theory to practice, this paper examined the relationship between learning style and leadership style which may enable us to move away from one-size-fits-all leadership development programs. Utilizing Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model and Connective Leadership theory, approximately 3600 college students were analyzed to discover whether versatility in le...

  6. Nonrandom network connectivity comes in pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Z. Hoffmann

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Overrepresentation of bidirectional connections in local cortical networks has been repeatedly reported and is a focus of the ongoing discussion of nonrandom connectivity. Here we show in a brief mathematical analysis that in a network in which connection probabilities are symmetric in pairs, Pij = Pji, the occurrences of bidirectional connections and nonrandom structures are inherently linked; an overabundance of reciprocally connected pairs emerges necessarily when some pairs of neurons are more likely to be connected than others. Our numerical results imply that such overrepresentation can also be sustained when connection probabilities are only approximately symmetric.

  7. Catchment Classification: Connecting Climate, Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicz, K. A.; Wagener, T.; Sivapalan, M.; Troch, P. A.; Carrillo, G. A.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrology does not yet possess a generally accepted catchment classification framework. Such a classification framework needs to: [1] give names to things, i.e. the main classification step, [2] permit transfer of information, i.e. regionalization of information, [3] permit development of generalizations, i.e. to develop new theory, and [4] provide a first order environmental change impact assessment, i.e., the hydrologic implications of climate, land use and land cover change. One strategy is to create a catchment classification framework based on the notion of catchment functions (partitioning, storage, and release). Results of an empirical study presented here connects climate and structure to catchment function (in the form of select hydrologic signatures), based on analyzing over 300 US catchments. Initial results indicate a wide assortment of signature relationships with properties of climate, geology, and vegetation. The uncertainty in the different regionalized signatures varies widely, and therefore there is variability in the robustness of classifying ungauged basins. This research provides insight into the controls of hydrologic behavior of a catchment, and enables a classification framework applicable to gauged and ungauged across the study domain. This study sheds light on what we can expect to achieve in mapping climate, structure and function in a top-down manner. Results of this study complement work done using a bottom-up physically-based modeling framework to generalize this approach (Carrillo et al., this session).

  8. Reward networks in the brain as captured by connectivity measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Camara

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An assortment of human behaviors is thought to be driven by rewards including reinforcement learning, novelty processing, learning, decision making, economic choice, incentive motivation, and addiction. In each case the ventral tegmental area / ventral striatum (Nucleus accumbens system (VTA-VS has been implicated as a key structure by functional imaging studies, mostly on the basis of standard, univariate analyses. Here we propose that standard fMRI analysis needs to be complemented by methods that take into account the differential connectivity of the VTA-VS system in the different behavioral contexts in order to describe reward based processes more appropriately. We first consider the wider network for reward processing as it emerged from animal experimentation. Subsequently, an example for a method to assess functional connectivity is given. Finally, we illustrate the usefulness of such analyses by examples regarding reward valuation, reward expectation and the role of reward in addiction.

  9. Optimal Control of Connected and Automated Vehicles at Roundabouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Liuhui [University of Delaware; Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL; Rios-Torres, Jackeline [ORNL

    2018-01-01

    Connectivity and automation in vehicles provide the most intriguing opportunity for enabling users to better monitor transportation network conditions and make better operating decisions to improve safety and reduce pollution, energy consumption, and travel delays. This study investigates the implications of optimally coordinating vehicles that are wirelessly connected to each other and to an infrastructure in roundabouts to achieve a smooth traffic flow without stop-and-go driving. We apply an optimization framework and an analytical solution that allows optimal coordination of vehicles for merging in such traffic scenario. The effectiveness of the efficiency of the proposed approach is validated through simulation and it is shown that coordination of vehicles can reduce total travel time by 3~49% and fuel consumption by 2~27% with respect to different traffic levels. In addition, network throughput is improved by up to 25% due to elimination of stop-and-go driving behavior.

  10. Content, Context & Connectivity Persuasive Interplay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Christian Grund

    2013-01-01

    -supported research project under EACEA). In the development of this project several categories of content have been implemented in technology enhanced learning tools. These have been designed to support learning in different contexts and eventually the role of the connectivity of these learning objects and tools......The aim of this paper is to discuss the relationship between content, context and connectivity and suggesting a model of Dynamic Interplay. This is done in relation to a specific learning environment concerning cultural mediation, in casu the Kaj Munk Case of the EuroPLOT-project (an EU...... is discussed. Focus is here on The Kaj Munk Study Edition, The Conceptual Pond, Immersive Layers Design, and Generative Learning Objects (GLOs) which are applications affiliated with the Munk case. This paper explores the persuasive potential of the interplay between the different applications for the benefit...

  11. A Building Connecting Separated Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    Producing something for general use involves the designers' anticipation of the use of the object. Personal as well as professional experience is involved in the design anticipations of the process. Using an object means exploring it as a concrete arrangement for our everyday conduct of life....... in no systematic sequence. This, among other things, separates design and use, which is worth investigating in order to understand the problems involved in connecting the design of a house and analyzing the experience of a user. We undertook a preliminary investigation of how a dormitory for visiting students from...... with students from other dormitories, and connect with the Danes from other sections of the building isolating themselves. The janitor was surprised at the supposed function of the washing machines. Since other dormitories at the campus did not provide washing machines, the ones at the house investigated were...

  12. UNBIASED ESTIMATORS OF SPECIFIC CONNECTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Jernot

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the estimation of the specific connectivity of a stationary random set in IRd. It turns out that the "natural" estimator is only asymptotically unbiased. The example of a boolean model of hypercubes illustrates the amplitude of the bias produced when the measurement field is relatively small with respect to the range of the random set. For that reason unbiased estimators are desired. Such an estimator can be found in the literature in the case where the measurement field is a right parallelotope. In this paper, this estimator is extended to apply to measurement fields of various shapes, and to possess a smaller variance. Finally an example from quantitative metallography (specific connectivity of a population of sintered bronze particles is given.

  13. The business case for connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Dennis; Hirschheim, Rudy

    1991-01-01

    Information systems that provide competitive advantages to organizations can be broadly classified into those that improve the effectiveness of a business function and those that improve the reach of information in the organization. The latter, organizational connectivity systems, can be categorized as intraorganizational and interorganizational systems. Intraorganization systems provide connectivity to function areas within the business, while interorganizational systems support the exchange of business data between independent business units. These system are not confined to a single entity but span organizational boundaries which can be national or international in scope. A series of case studies was undertaken in an effort to better understand the issues and problems associated with providing an increased flow of information within and outside of an organization. Ten issues emerged from this study. In summary, it is necessary for firms to first consider how effective their internal communications systems are before launching projects that tie the organization to external systems.

  14. A selective involvement of putamen functional connectivity in youth with internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soon-Beom; Harrison, Ben J; Dandash, Orwa; Choi, Eun-Jung; Kim, Seong-Chan; Kim, Ho-Hyun; Shim, Do-Hyun; Kim, Chang-Dai; Kim, Jae-Won; Yi, Soon-Hyung

    2015-03-30

    Brain cortico-striatal circuits have consistently been implicated in the pathology of addiction related disorders. We applied a reliable seed-based analysis of the resting-state brain activity to comprehensively delineate the subdivisions of striatal functional connectivity implicated in internet gaming disorder. Among twelve right-handed male adolescents with internet gaming disorder and 11 right-handed and gender-matched healthy controls, we examined group differences in the functional connectivity of dorsal and ventral subdivisions of the caudate nucleus and putamen, as well as the association of these connectivity indices with behavioral measures of internet use. Adolescents with internet gaming disorder showed significantly reduced dorsal putamen functional connectivity with the posterior insula-parietal operculum. More time spent playing online games predicted significantly greater functional connectivity between the dorsal putamen and bilateral primary somatosensory cortices in adolescents with internet gaming disorder, and significantly lower functional connectivity between the dorsal putamen and bilateral sensorimotor cortices in healthy controls. The dorsal putamen functional connectivity was significantly and specifically different in adolescents with internet gaming disorder. The findings suggest a possible biomarker of internet gaming disorder. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. PDGFRα plays a crucial role in connective tissue remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Shinjiro; Ishii, Yoko; Hamashima, Takeru; Yamamoto, Seiji; Mori, Hisashi; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Shen, Jie; Inoue, Ran; Nishizono, Hirofumi; Itoh, Hiroshi; Majima, Masataka; Abraham, David; Miyawaki, Toshio; Sasahara, Masakiyo

    2015-12-07

    Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) plays a pivotal role in the remodeling of connective tissues. Emerging data indicate the distinctive role of PDGF receptor-α (PDGFRα) in this process. In the present study, the Pdgfra gene was systemically inactivated in adult mouse (α-KO mouse), and the role of PDGFRα was examined in the subcutaneously implanted sponge matrices. PDGFRα expressed in the fibroblasts of Pdgfra-preserving control mice (Flox mice), was significantly reduced in the sponges in α-KO mice. Neovascularized areas were largely suppressed in the α-KO mice than in the Flox mice, whereas the other parameters related to the blood vessels and endothelial cells were similar. The deposition of collagen and fibronectin and the expression of collagen 1a1 and 3a1 genes were significantly reduced in α-KO mice. There was a significantly decrease in the number and dividing fibroblasts in the α-KO mice, and those of macrophages were similar between the two genotypes. Hepatocyte growth factor (Hgf) gene expression was suppressed in Pdgfra-inactivated fibroblasts and connective tissue. The findings implicate the role of PDGFRα-dependent ECM and HGF production in fibroblasts that promotes the remodeling of connective tissue and suggest that PDGFRα may be a relevant target to regulate connective tissue remodeling.

  16. Reduced Default Mode Connectivity in Adolescents With Conduct Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broulidakis, M John; Fairchild, Graeme; Sully, Kate; Blumensath, Thomas; Darekar, Angela; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2016-09-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is characterized by impulsive, aggressive, and antisocial behaviors that might be related to deficits in empathy and moral reasoning. The brain's default mode network (DMN) has been implicated in self-referential cognitive processes of this kind. This study examined connectivity between key nodes of the DMN in 29 adolescent boys with CD and 29 age- and sex-matched typically developing adolescent boys. The authors ensured that group differences in DMN connectivity were not explained by comorbidity with other disorders by systematically controlling for the effects of substance use disorders (SUDs), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, psychopathic traits, and other common mental health problems. Only after adjusting for co-occurring ADHD symptoms, the group with CD showed hypoconnectivity between core DMN regions compared with typically developing controls. ADHD symptoms were associated with DMN hyperconnectivity. There was no effect of psychopathic traits on DMN connectivity in the group with CD, and the key results were unchanged when controlling for SUDs and other common mental health problems. Future research should directly investigate the possibility that the aberrant DMN connectivity observed in the present study contributes to CD-related deficits in empathy and moral reasoning and examine self-referential cognitive processes in CD more generally. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  17. Two Distinct Scene-Processing Networks Connecting Vision and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassano, Christopher; Esteva, Andre; Fei-Fei, Li; Beck, Diane M

    2016-01-01

    A number of regions in the human brain are known to be involved in processing natural scenes, but the field has lacked a unifying framework for understanding how these different regions are organized and interact. We provide evidence from functional connectivity and meta-analyses for a new organizational principle, in which scene processing relies upon two distinct networks that split the classically defined parahippocampal place area (PPA). The first network of strongly connected regions consists of the occipital place area/transverse occipital sulcus and posterior PPA, which contain retinotopic maps and are not strongly coupled to the hippocampus at rest. The second network consists of the caudal inferior parietal lobule, retrosplenial complex, and anterior PPA, which connect to the hippocampus (especially anterior hippocampus), and are implicated in both visual and nonvisual tasks, including episodic memory and navigation. We propose that these two distinct networks capture the primary functional division among scene-processing regions, between those that process visual features from the current view of a scene and those that connect information from a current scene view with a much broader temporal and spatial context. This new framework for understanding the neural substrates of scene-processing bridges results from many lines of research, and makes specific functional predictions.

  18. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Lowers Elevated Functional Connectivity in Depressed Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayanti Chattopadhyay

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Imaging studies have implicated altered functional connectivity in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD. Whether similar dysfunction is present in adolescent patients is unclear. The degree of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC may reflect abnormalities within emotional (‘hot’ and cognitive control (‘cold’ neural systems. Here, we investigate rsFC of these systems in adolescent patients and changes following cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI was acquired from adolescent patients before CBT, and 24-weeks later following completed therapy. Similar data were obtained from control participants. Cross-sectional Cohort: From 82 patients and 34 controls at baseline, rsFC of the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, and pre-frontal cortex (PFC was calculated for comparison. Longitudinal Cohort: From 17 patients and 30 controls with longitudinal data, treatment effects were tested on rsFC. Patients demonstrated significantly greater rsFC to left amygdala, bilateral supragenual ACC, but not with PFC. Treatment effects were observed in right insula connected to left supragenual ACC, with baseline case-control differences reduced. rsFC changes were significantly correlated with changes in depression severity. Depressed adolescents exhibited heightened connectivity in regions of ‘hot’ emotional processing, known to be associated with depression, where treatment exposure exerted positive effects, without concomitant differences in areas of ‘cold’ cognition.

  19. Ongoing Space Physics - Astrophysics Connections

    OpenAIRE

    Eichler, David

    2005-01-01

    I review several ongoing connections between space physics and astrophysics: a) Measurements of energetic particle spectra have confirmed theoretical prediction of the highest energy to which shocks can accelerate particles, and this has direct bearing on the origin of the highest energy cosmic rays. b) Mass ejection in solar flares may help us understand photon ejection in the giant flares of magnetar outbursts. c) Measurements of electron heat fluxes in the solar wind can help us understand...

  20. Connecting Remote Clusters with ATM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, T.C.; Wyckoff, P.S.

    1998-10-01

    Sandia's entry into utilizing clusters of networked workstations is called Computational Plant or CPlant for short. The design of CPlant uses Ethernet to boot the individual nodes, Myrinet to communicate within a node cluster, and ATM to connect between remote clusters. This SAND document covers the work done to enable the use of ATM on the CPlant nodes in the Fall of 1997.

  1. Regional connectivity in continental ASEAN

    OpenAIRE

    Taguchi, Hiroyuki; Nozaki, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    This chapter examines the issue on Mekong region’s connectivity on quantitative base through the analysis of the gravity trade model and its modified fragmentation model. The main findings are as follows: First, the evolution of international production networks (IPNs) between Thailand and Vietnam as well as the other advanced ASEAN could be identified in terms of their two-way trade integration of machinery parts and components beyond the gravity trade standard. Second, the trade intensity o...

  2. Collective action, clientelism and connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shami, Mahvish

    that the unequal relationship between landlords and peasants does not, in and by itself, block peasant collective action. Rather, it is the interaction between clientelism and isolation that allow patrons to block community based projects. Despite still relying on powerful landlords, peasants in connected villages...... face no such constraints. On the contrary, their patrons assisted them in their collective endeavours, making the hierarchical network an added resource for peasants to rely upon....

  3. Strategies Used by Foreign-Born Family Therapists to Connect Across Cultural Differences: A Thematic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño, Alba; Kissil, Karni; Davey, Maureen P

    2016-01-01

    With the growing diversity in the United States among both clinicians and clients, many therapeutic encounters are cross-cultural, requiring providers to connect across cultural differences. Foreign-born therapists have many areas of differences to work through. Thus, exploring how foreign-born family therapists in the United States connect to their clients can uncover helpful strategies that all therapists can use to establish stronger cross-cultural therapeutic connections. A thematic analysis was conducted to understand strategies 13 foreign-born therapists used during therapeutic encounters. Four themes were identified: making therapy a human-to-human connection, dealing with stereotypes, what really matters, and flexibility. Findings suggest that developing a deep therapeutic connection using emotional attunement and human-to-human engagement is crucial for successful cross-cultural therapy. Clinical and training implications are provided. © 2015 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  4. Altered Insula Connectivity under MDMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpola, Ishan C; Nest, Timothy; Roseman, Leor; Erritzoe, David; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2017-10-01

    Recent work with noninvasive human brain imaging has started to investigate the effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on large-scale patterns of brain activity. MDMA, a potent monoamine-releaser with particularly pronounced serotonin- releasing properties, has unique subjective effects that include: marked positive mood, pleasant/unusual bodily sensations and pro-social, empathic feelings. However, the neurobiological basis for these effects is not properly understood, and the present analysis sought to address this knowledge gap. To do this, we administered MDMA-HCl (100 mg p.o.) and, separately, placebo (ascorbic acid) in a randomized, double-blind, repeated-measures design with twenty-five healthy volunteers undergoing fMRI scanning. We then employed a measure of global resting-state functional brain connectivity and follow-up seed-to-voxel analysis to the fMRI data we acquired. Results revealed decreased right insula/salience network functional connectivity under MDMA. Furthermore, these decreases in right insula/salience network connectivity correlated with baseline trait anxiety and acute experiences of altered bodily sensations under MDMA. The present findings highlight insular disintegration (ie, compromised salience network membership) as a neurobiological signature of the MDMA experience, and relate this brain effect to trait anxiety and acutely altered bodily sensations-both of which are known to be associated with insular functioning.

  5. Natural processes as means to create local connection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøstedt, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    and practical knowledge about how to apply natural processes to planning. This paper investigates how natural process thinking caters for a connection to the local and the site-specific in a Chinese context of transformation. Natural process thinking as a site-based urban design approach is understood...... and utilized conceptually within the Wuhan project by mapping-techniques and environmental simulation software. The result gives implications concerning method development for architects as how to develop design concepts based on natural process thinking. Furthermore, the result shows that natural processes...

  6. Psychotherapy, psychopathology, research and practice: pathways of connections and integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Louis G

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes three pathways of connections between different communities of knowledge seekers: integration of psychotherapeutic approaches, integration of psychotherapy and psychopathology, and integration of science and practice. Some of the issues discussed involve the delineation and investigation of common factors (e.g., principles of change), improvement of major forms of psychotherapy, clinical implications of psychopathology research, as well as current and future directions related to practice-research networks. The aim of this paper is to suggest that building bridges across theoretical orientations, scientific fields, professional experiences, and epistemological views may be a fruitful strategy to improve our understanding and the impact of psychotherapy.

  7. Technical guide to the connection of generation to the distribution network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrett, K.; Hedgecock, J.; Gregory, R.; Warham, T.

    2003-07-01

    This guide provides a 'route map' of the processes of getting a generation scheme connected to the network and is intended to help developers of any form of distributed generation connected to the UK's local electricity networks, eg: renewable energy schemes; waste-to-energy schemes; on-site generation and combined heat and power (CHP) schemes; and peak lopping schemes using back-up generators. Where necessary, the guide distinguishes between arrangements that apply in Scotland and those that apply in England and Wales. The guide aims to: provide background information about the electricity industry; highlight common technical issues that arise during connection negotiation and their implications for distribution network operators (DNOs) and developers; examine the main factors affecting connection costs and timescales for achieving connections; and identify the different types of contracts relating to connection. The report considers the connection process, the connection application process and timescales, costs and charges, competition in connection, the structure of the UK electricity industry, the statutory framework, the effects of distributed generation of the distribution system, earthing and protection design, safety issues and DNO network information. It includes a glossary, checklists, useful contact details and information about standards and other useful documents.

  8. Religious and spiritual importance moderate relation between default mode network connectivity and familial risk for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svob, Connie; Wang, Zhishun; Weissman, Myrna M; Wickramaratne, Priya; Posner, Jonathan

    2016-11-10

    Individuals at high risk for depression have increased default mode network (DMN) connectivity, as well as reduced inverse connectivity between the DMN and the central executive network (CEN) [8]. Other studies have indicated that the belief in the importance of religion/spirituality (R/S) is protective against depression in high risk individuals [5]. Given these findings, we hypothesized that R/S importance would moderate DMN connectivity, potentially reducing DMN connectivity or increasing DMN-CEN inverse connectivity in individuals at high risk for depression. Using resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) in a sample of 104 individuals (aged 11-60) at high and low risk for familial depression, we previously reported increased DMN connectivity and reduced DMN-CEN inverse connectivity in high risk individuals. Here, we found that this effect was moderated by self-report measures of R/S importance. Greater R/S importance in the high risk group was associated with decreased DMN connectivity. These results may represent a protective neural adaptation in the DMN of individuals at high risk for depression, and may have implications for other meditation-based therapies for depression. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Prevalence of increases in functional connectivity in visual, somatosensory and language areas in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heine, Lizette; Bahri, Mohamed A; Cavaliere, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    stronger functional connectivity in blind participants between the visual ROIs and areas implicated in language and tactile (Braille) processing such as the inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area), thalamus, supramarginal gyrus and cerebellum. The observed group differences underscore the extent of the cross...

  10. Angiogenesis is not impaired in connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) knock-out mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Esther J.; Roestenberg, Peggy; Ehlken, Christoph; Lambert, Vincent; van Treslong-de Groot, Henny Bloys; Lyons, Karen M.; Agostini, Hans-Jürgen T.; Rakic, Jean-Marie; Klaassen, Ingeborg; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Goldschmeding, Roel; Schlingemann, Reinier O.

    2007-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a member of the CCN family of growth factors. CTGF is important in scarring, wound healing, and fibrosis. It has also been implicated to play a role in angiogenesis, in addition to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In the eye, angiogenesis and

  11. Learning Global Citizenship?: Exploring Connections between the Local and the Global

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Marjorie; Gaventa, John; Rooke, Alison

    2009-01-01

    This article identifies historical connections between adult learning, popular education and the emergence of the public sphere in Europe, exploring potential implications for adult learning and community development, drawing upon research evaluating programmes to promote community-based learning "for" active citizenship in UK. The…

  12. Involvement of Connective Tissue Growth Factor in Human and Experimental Hypertensive Nephrosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ito, Yasuhiko; Aten, Jan; Nguyen, Tri Q.; Joles, Jaap A.; Matsuo, Seiichi; Weening, Jan J.; Goldschmeding, Roel

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims: Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF; CCN2) has been implicated as a marker and mediator of fibrosis in human and experimental renal disease. Methods: We performed a comparative analysis of CTGF expression in hypertensive patients with and without nephrosclerosis, and in

  13. Study of rectenna array connection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, T.; Shinohara, N.; Matsumoto, H. [Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan). Engineering Research Inst.

    1997-11-01

    A study was conducted in which a new rectenna working at 2.45 GHz microwave was developed for ground-to-ground microwave power transmission. The new rectenna consists of an antenna section and a rectifying section. The new design is simple and therefore more accurate than a micro-strip type patch antenna. The efficiency of conversion of microwave power to direct current depends on the mutual dependence of antenna elements and circuit conditions of rectifying sections. A series of experiments were conducted to analyze the rectenna characteristics and a method for efficiently connecting rectenna arrays was proposed. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs.

  14. CODAC systems arrangement and connectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulati, Hitesh Kumar, E-mail: hkgulati@gmail.com; Beltran, David; Kuehn, Ingo; Kotamaki, Miikka; Makijarvi, Petri; Wallander, Anders

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •The CODAC system is a distributed system and scattered in many buildings connected with cables. Building construction for ITER project is just started so volume reservation for different CODAC component is done based on the content of this paper. •The 2-D and 3-D diagrams have been prepared which are showing the location of different CODAC equipment and their connectivity. •The different requirements regarding raised access (false) floor, power requirements, heat load, installation, maintenance, redundancy, and segregation etc. have been considered. -- Abstract: The CODAC system is responsible for integrating all ITER plant system Instrumentation and Control systems and enabling operation of ITER machine as a single integrated facility. The different ITER plant systems and their Instrumentation and Control systems are distributed in several ITER buildings on the ITER platform. The CODAC systems have to interface with all these distributed plant system I and C systems. CODAC systems will be composed of several physical systems or components like networks, servers, workstations (terminals), large displays, PSH, storage systems etc. Several rooms in different buildings have been defined to house all above equipment. The site-wide CODAC network infrastructure will be based on a dual (redundant) star topology. The two redundant star points will house the core networking switches. These redundant core switches will be installed in different buildings. Cubicles used for network infrastructure are distributed among “hutches,” where a CODAC hutch is a room or area equipped with appropriate heating, ventilation, air conditioning and uninterruptible power which will be directly connected through two star points. The responsibility of CODAC infrastructure ends up to the plant system I and C cubicles so several passive CODAC network panels have identified in all I and C rooms of different plant buildings. This CODAC Network Panel will be the physical

  15. Recreating Intimacy With Connected Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Andrew

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the good old times shop manager knew their customers personally and were able to tailor offerings to their needs and desires. But how can we create meaningful moments for connected consumers in global markets? Yasmeen Ahmad explains how in digital times data fill in. Smart algorithms help generate insights and enable real time action to provide the right product and service to the right customer at the right time. Companies that don’t want to be left behind a digital elite need to remain close to their customers across multiple digital touchpoints. Being capable of reading, interpreting and acting upon consumers` traces is a prerequisite.

  16. Risk spreading, connectivity, and optimal reserve spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blowes, Shane A; Connolly, Sean R

    2012-01-01

    Two important processes determining the dynamics of spatially structured populations are dispersal and the spatial covariance of demographic fluctuations. Spatially explicit approaches to conservation, such as reserve networks, must consider the tension between these two processes and reach a balance between distances near enough to maintain connectivity, but far enough to benefit from risk spreading. Here, we model this trade-off. We show how two measures of metapopulation persistence depend on the shape of the dispersal kernel and the shape of the distance decay in demographic covariance, and we consider the implications of this trade-off for reserve spacing. The relative rates of distance decay in dispersal and demographic covariance determine whether the long-run metapopulation growth rate, and quasi-extinction risk, peak for adjacent patches or intermediately spaced patches; two local maxima in metapopulation persistence are also possible. When dispersal itself fluctuates over time, the trade-off changes. Temporal variation in mean distance that propagules are dispersed (i.e., propagule advection) decreases metapopulation persistence and decreases the likelihood that persistence will peak for adjacent patches. Conversely, variation in diffusion (the extent of random spread around mean dispersal) increases metapopulation persistence overall and causes it to peak at shorter inter-patch distances. Thus, failure to consider temporal variation in dispersal processes increases the risk that reserve spacings will fail to meet the objective of ensuring metapopulation persistence. This study identifies two phenomena that receive relatively little attention in empirical work on reserve spacing, but that can qualitatively change the effectiveness of reserve spacing strategies: (1) the functional form of the distance decay in covariance among patch-specific demographic rates and (2) temporal variation in the shape of the dispersal kernel. The sensitivity of metapopulation

  17. Battery impedance spectroscopy using bidirectional grid connected

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Impedance spectroscopy; grid connection; battery converter; state of charge; health monitoring ... The converter is grid connected and controlled to operate at unity power factor. Additional ... Sadhana. Current Issue : Vol. 43, Issue 6.

  18. Connecting Related Rates and Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Keith

    2012-01-01

    This article points out a simple connection between related rates and differential equations. The connection can be used for in-class examples or homework exercises, and it is accessible to students who are familiar with separation of variables.

  19. National connected vehicle field infrastructure footprint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The fundamental premise of the connected vehicle initiative is that enabling wireless connectivity among vehicles, the infrastructure, and mobile devices will bring about transformative changes in safety, mobility, and the environmental impacts in th...

  20. Connectivity editing for quadrilateral meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chihan; Zhang, Eugene; Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Wonka, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We propose new connectivity editing operations for quadrilateral meshes with the unique ability to explicitly control the location, orientation, type, and number of the irregular vertices (valence not equal to four) in the mesh while preserving sharp edges. We provide theoretical analysis on what editing operations are possible and impossible and introduce three fundamental operations to move and re-orient a pair of irregular vertices. We argue that our editing operations are fundamental, because they only change the quad mesh in the smallest possible region and involve the fewest irregular vertices (i.e., two). The irregular vertex movement operations are supplemented by operations for the splitting, merging, canceling, and aligning of irregular vertices. We explain how the proposed highlevel operations are realized through graph-level editing operations such as quad collapses, edge flips, and edge splits. The utility of these mesh editing operations are demonstrated by improving the connectivity of quad meshes generated from state-of-art quadrangulation techniques. © 2011 ACM.

  1. Connectivity editing for quadrilateral meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chihan

    2011-12-12

    We propose new connectivity editing operations for quadrilateral meshes with the unique ability to explicitly control the location, orientation, type, and number of the irregular vertices (valence not equal to four) in the mesh while preserving sharp edges. We provide theoretical analysis on what editing operations are possible and impossible and introduce three fundamental operations to move and re-orient a pair of irregular vertices. We argue that our editing operations are fundamental, because they only change the quad mesh in the smallest possible region and involve the fewest irregular vertices (i.e., two). The irregular vertex movement operations are supplemented by operations for the splitting, merging, canceling, and aligning of irregular vertices. We explain how the proposed highlevel operations are realized through graph-level editing operations such as quad collapses, edge flips, and edge splits. The utility of these mesh editing operations are demonstrated by improving the connectivity of quad meshes generated from state-of-art quadrangulation techniques. © 2011 ACM.

  2. Astrophysicists' conversational connections on Twitter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Holmberg

    Full Text Available Because Twitter and other social media are increasingly used for analyses based on altmetrics, this research sought to understand what contexts, affordance use, and social activities influence the tweeting behavior of astrophysicists. Thus, the presented study has been guided by three research questions that consider the influence of astrophysicists' activities (i.e., publishing and tweeting frequency and of their tweet construction and affordance use (i.e. use of hashtags, language, and emotions on the conversational connections they have on Twitter. We found that astrophysicists communicate with a variety of user types (e.g. colleagues, science communicators, other researchers, and educators and that in the ego networks of the astrophysicists clear groups consisting of users with different professional roles can be distinguished. Interestingly, the analysis of noun phrases and hashtags showed that when the astrophysicists address the different groups of very different professional composition they use very similar terminology, but that they do not talk to each other (i.e. mentioning other user names in tweets. The results also showed that in those areas of the ego networks that tweeted more the sentiment of the tweets tended to be closer to neutral, connecting frequent tweeting with information sharing activities rather than conversations or expressing opinions.

  3. Embedded adhesive connection for laminated glass plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Zangenberg; Poulsen, S.H.; Bagger, A.

    2012-01-01

    The structural behavior of a new connection design, the embedded adhesive connection, used for laminated glass plates is investigated. The connection consists of an aluminum plate encapsulated in-between two adjacent triple layered laminated glass plates. Fastening between glass and aluminum...... usage in a design situation. The embedded connection shows promising potential as a future fastening system for load-carrying laminated glass plates....

  4. Anticipating changes to future connectivity within a network of marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Melinda A; Cetina-Heredia, Paulina; Roughan, Moninya; Feng, Ming; van Sebille, Erik; Kelaher, Brendan P

    2017-09-01

    Continental boundary currents are projected to be altered under future scenarios of climate change. As these currents often influence dispersal and connectivity among populations of many marine organisms, changes to boundary currents may have dramatic implications for population persistence. Networks of marine protected areas (MPAs) often aim to maintain connectivity, but anticipation of the scale and extent of climatic impacts on connectivity are required to achieve this critical conservation goal in a future of climate change. For two key marine species (kelp and sea urchins), we use oceanographic modelling to predict how continental boundary currents are likely to change connectivity among a network of MPAs spanning over 1000 km of coastline off the coast of eastern Australia. Overall change in predicted connectivity among pairs of MPAs within the network did not change significantly over and above temporal variation within climatic scenarios, highlighting the need for future studies to incorporate temporal variation in dispersal to robustly anticipate likely change. However, the intricacies of connectivity between different pairs of MPAs were noteworthy. For kelp, poleward connectivity among pairs of MPAs tended to increase in the future, whereas equatorward connectivity tended to decrease. In contrast, for sea urchins, connectivity among pairs of MPAs generally decreased in both directions. Self-seeding within higher-latitude MPAs tended to increase, and the role of low-latitude MPAs as a sink for urchins changed significantly in contrasting ways. These projected changes have the potential to alter important genetic parameters with implications for adaptation and ecosystem vulnerability to climate change. Considering such changes, in the context of managing and designing MPA networks, may ensure that conservation goals are achieved into the future. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Intermodal connectivity in Europe, an empirical exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Langen, P.W.; Lases Figueroa, D.M.; van Donselaar, K.H.; Bozuwa, J.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the intermodal connectivity in Europe. The empirical analysis is to our knowledge the first empirical analysis of intermodal connections, and is based on a comprehensive database of intermodal connections in Europe. The paper focuses on rail and barge services, as they are

  6. Airport industry connectivity report: 2004-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouwt, G.; Lieshout, R.

    2014-01-01

    Airport connectivity is an increasingly discussed topic in European policy circles. With good reason. Connectivity is closely connected with productivity, economic growth and international trade. And with the centre of global economic activity shifting eastward, it is essential that Europe remains

  7. MedlinePlus Connect: Web Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MedlinePlus Connect → Web Service URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/connect/service.html MedlinePlus Connect: Web ... will change.) Old URLs New URLs Web Application https://apps.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/services/mpconnect.cfm? ...

  8. MedlinePlus Connect: Web Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MedlinePlus Connect → Web Application URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/connect/application.html MedlinePlus Connect: Web ... will change.) Old URLs New URLs Web Application https://apps.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/services/mpconnect.cfm? ...

  9. MedlinePlus Connect: Technical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MedlinePlus Connect → Technical Information URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/connect/technical.html MedlinePlus Connect: Technical ... will change.) Old URLs New URLs Web Application https://apps.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/services/mpconnect.cfm? ...

  10. MedlinePlus Connect: Email List

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MedlinePlus Connect → Email List URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/connect/emaillist.html MedlinePlus Connect: Email ... will change.) Old URLs New URLs Web Application https://apps.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/services/mpconnect.cfm? ...

  11. Dynamic functional connectivity analysis reveals transient states of dysconnectivity in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Damaraju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder characterized by functional dysconnectivity or abnormal integration between distant brain regions. Recent functional imaging studies have implicated large-scale thalamo-cortical connectivity as being disrupted in patients. However, observed connectivity differences in schizophrenia have been inconsistent between studies, with reports of hyperconnectivity and hypoconnectivity between the same brain regions. Using resting state eyes-closed functional imaging and independent component analysis on a multi-site data that included 151 schizophrenia patients and 163 age- and gender matched healthy controls, we decomposed the functional brain data into 100 components and identified 47 as functionally relevant intrinsic connectivity networks. We subsequently evaluated group differences in functional network connectivity, both in a static sense, computed as the pairwise Pearson correlations between the full network time courses (5.4 minutes in length, and a dynamic sense, computed using sliding windows (44 s in length and k-means clustering to characterize five discrete functional connectivity states. Static connectivity analysis revealed that compared to healthy controls, patients show significantly stronger connectivity, i.e., hyperconnectivity, between the thalamus and sensory networks (auditory, motor and visual, as well as reduced connectivity (hypoconnectivity between sensory networks from all modalities. Dynamic analysis suggests that (1, on average, schizophrenia patients spend much less time than healthy controls in states typified by strong, large-scale connectivity, and (2, that abnormal connectivity patterns are more pronounced during these connectivity states. In particular, states exhibiting cortical–subcortical antagonism (anti-correlations and strong positive connectivity between sensory networks are those that show the group differences of thalamic hyperconnectivity and sensory hypoconnectivity

  12. Psilocybin modulates functional connectivity of the amygdala during emotional face discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, O; Kraehenmann, R; Preller, K H; Seifritz, E; Vollenweider, F X

    2018-04-24

    Recent studies suggest that the antidepressant effects of the psychedelic 5-HT2A receptor agonist psilocybin are mediated through its modulatory properties on prefrontal and limbic brain regions including the amygdala. To further investigate the effects of psilocybin on emotion processing networks, we studied for the first-time psilocybin's acute effects on amygdala seed-to-voxel connectivity in an event-related face discrimination task in 18 healthy volunteers who received psilocybin and placebo in a double-blind balanced cross-over design. The amygdala has been implicated as a salience detector especially involved in the immediate response to emotional face content. We used beta-series amygdala seed-to-voxel connectivity during an emotional face discrimination task to elucidate the connectivity pattern of the amygdala over the entire brain. When we compared psilocybin to placebo, an increase in reaction time for all three categories of affective stimuli was found. Psilocybin decreased the connectivity between amygdala and the striatum during angry face discrimination. During happy face discrimination, the connectivity between the amygdala and the frontal pole was decreased. No effect was seen during discrimination of fearful faces. Thus, we show psilocybin's effect as a modulator of major connectivity hubs of the amygdala. Psilocybin decreases the connectivity between important nodes linked to emotion processing like the frontal pole or the striatum. Future studies are needed to clarify whether connectivity changes predict therapeutic effects in psychiatric patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  13. Abnormal Functional Connectivity of Frontopolar Subregions in Treatment-Nonresponsive Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettes, Peter W; Moayedi, Massieh; Dunlop, Katharine; Mansouri, Farrokh; Vila-Rodriguez, Fidel; Giacobbe, Peter; Davis, Karen D; Lam, Raymond W; Kennedy, Sidney H; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Blumberger, Daniel M; Downar, Jonathan

    2018-04-01

    Approximately 30% of patients with major depressive disorder develop treatment-nonresponsive depression (TNRD); novel interventions targeting the substrates of this illness population are desperately needed. Convergent evidence from lesion, stimulation, connectivity, and functional neuroimaging studies implicates the frontopolar cortex (FPC) as a particularly important region in TNRD pathophysiology; regions functionally connected to the FPC, once identified, could present favorable targets for novel brain stimulation treatments. We recently published a parcellation of the FPC based on diffusion tensor imaging data, identifying distinct medial and lateral subregions. Here, we applied this parcellation to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans obtained in 56 patients with TNRD and 56 matched healthy control subjects. In patients, the medial FPC showed reduced connectivity to the anterior midcingulate cortex and insula. The left lateral FPC showed reduced connectivity to the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex and increased connectivity to the fusiform gyri. In addition, TNRD symptom severity correlated significantly with connectivity of the left lateral FPC subregion to a medial orbitofrontal cortex region of the classical reward network. Taken together, these findings suggest that changes in FPC subregion connectivity may underlie several dimensions of TNRD pathology, including changes in reward/positive valence, nonreward/negative valence, and cognitive control domains. Nodes of functional networks showing abnormal connectivity to the FPC could be useful in generating novel candidates for therapeutic brain stimulation in TNRD. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of insula connectivity between ages 12 and 30 revealed by high angular resolution diffusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Emily L; Jahanshad, Neda; McMahon, Katie L; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Martin, Nicholas G; Hickie, Ian B; Toga, Arthur W; Wright, Margaret J; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-04-01

    The insula, hidden deep within the Sylvian fissures, has proven difficult to study from a connectivity perspective. Most of our current information on the anatomical connectivity of the insula comes from studies of nonhuman primates and post mortem human dissections. To date, only two neuroimaging studies have successfully examined the connectivity of the insula. Here we examine how the connectivity of the insula develops between ages 12 and 30, in 307 young adolescent and adult subjects scanned with 4-Tesla high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI). The density of fiber connections between the insula and the frontal and parietal cortex decreased with age, but the connection density between the insula and the temporal cortex generally increased with age. This trajectory is in line with well-known patterns of cortical development in these regions. In addition, males and females showed different developmental trajectories for the connection between the left insula and the left precentral gyrus. The insula plays many different roles, some of them affected in neuropsychiatric disorders; this information on the insula's connectivity may help efforts to elucidate mechanisms of brain disorders in which it is implicated. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Connecting multimodality in human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenbogen, Christina; Habel, Ute; Kellermann, Thilo

    2013-01-01

    A successful reciprocal evaluation of social signals serves as a prerequisite for social coherence and empathy. In a previous fMRI study we studied naturalistic communication situations by presenting video clips to our participants and recording their behavioral responses regarding empathy and its components. In two conditions, all three channels transported congruent emotional or neutral information, respectively. Three conditions selectively presented two emotional channels and one neutral channel and were thus bimodally emotional. We reported channel-specific emotional contributions in modality-related areas, elicited by dynamic video clips with varying combinations of emotionality in facial expressions, prosody, and speech content. However, to better understand the underlying mechanisms accompanying a naturalistically displayed human social interaction in some key regions that presumably serve as specific processing hubs for facial expressions, prosody, and speech content, we pursued a reanalysis of the data. Here, we focused on two different descriptions of temporal characteristics within these three modality-related regions [right fusiform gyrus (FFG), left auditory cortex (AC), left angular gyrus (AG) and left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC)]. By means of a finite impulse response (FIR) analysis within each of the three regions we examined the post-stimulus time-courses as a description of the temporal characteristics of the BOLD response during the video clips. Second, effective connectivity between these areas and the left dmPFC was analyzed using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) in order to describe condition-related modulatory influences on the coupling between these regions. The FIR analysis showed initially diminished activation in bimodally emotional conditions but stronger activation than that observed in neutral videos toward the end of the stimuli, possibly by bottom-up processes in order to compensate for a lack of emotional information. The

  16. Behavior of concentrically loaded CFT braces connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha M. Hassan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Concrete filled tubes (CFTs composite columns have many economical and esthetic advantages, but the behavior of their connections is complicated. Through this study, it is aimed to investigate the performance and behavior of different connection configurations between concrete filled steel tube columns and bracing diagonals through an experimental program. The study included 12 connection subassemblies consisting of a fixed length steel tube and gusset plate connected to the tube end with different details tested under half cyclic loading. A notable effect was observed on the behavior of the connections due to its detailing changes with respect to capacity, failure mode, ductility, and stress distribution.

  17. Are PES connection costs too high?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, N.

    1998-01-01

    Windfarm developers often have good reason to question the costs they are quoted by their local distribution company for connection to the system, and these costs can now be challenged under the 'Competition in Connection' initiative. Econnect Ltd specialise in electrical connections for renewable generation throughout the UK and Europe, and have worked on many projects where alternative connections have been designed at more competitive prices. This paper provides some examples which illustrate the importance of acquiring a thorough understanding of all power system issues and PES concerns if the most cost-effective connection is to be realised. (Author)

  18. Twistor connection and the Palatini method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkulov, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    For the Yang-Mills Lagrangian of the twistor connection, an analog of the Palatini variational method is considered, in which the variations of the twistor connection A m and metric g ab are taken to be independent. It is shown that varying the Lagrangian with respect to the connection establishes a relation between A m and g ab (i.e., defines a standard twistor connection, postulated earlier), while varying with respect to the metric with a subsequent substitution of explicit expressions of the standard twistor connection leads to the Bach vacuum equations, describing the dynamics of conformal gravity

  19. Clinical Ethics Consultation After God: Implications for Advocacy and Neutrality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J Clint

    2018-06-01

    In After God: Morality and Bioethics in a Secular Age, H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr. explores the broad implications for moral reasoning once a culture has lost a God's-eye perspective. In this paper, I focus on the implications of Engelhardt's views for clinical ethics consultation. I begin by examining the question of whether clinical ethics consultants (CECs) should advocate a particular viewpoint and/or process during consultations or adopt a neutral stance. I then examine the implications of Engelhardt's views for this question. Finally, I discuss some of Engelhardt's foundational ontological, metaphysical, meta-ethical, and epistemological commitments and how these commitments connect to his views on clinical ethics consultation.

  20. Unity connecting module in SSPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, is shown with Pressurized Mating Adapters 1 (left) and 2 (right) attached. Unity is scheduled to undergo testing of the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock. Unity is the primary payload on mission STS-88, targeted to launch Dec. 3, 1998. Other testing includes the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27. The Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time.

  1. Sprays and Cartan projective connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, D. J.

    2004-10-01

    Around 80 years ago, several authors (for instance H. Weyl, T.Y. Thomas, J. Douglas and J.H.C. Whitehead) studied the projective geometry of paths, using the methods of tensor calculus. The principal object of study was a spray, namely a homogeneous second-order differential equation, or more generally a projective equivalence class of sprays. At around the same time, E. Cartan studied the same topic from a different point of view, by imagining a projective space attached to a manifold, or, more generally, attached to a `manifold of elements'; the infinitesimal `glue' may be interpreted in modern language as a Cartan projective connection on a principal bundle. This paper describes the geometrical relationship between these two points of view.

  2. Ultraviolet injury of connective tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, K.P.; Sanyal, Sabitri; Biswas, S.K.; Pal, N.C.

    1975-01-01

    Changes induced by UV irradiation of rat skin could be divided morphologically into prenecrotic, necrotic and regenerating phases. During prenecrotic and necrotic phases, decrease in water content, collagenous protein, citrate buffer soluble fraction, elastin and total lipid and its fractions, and increase in noncollagenous protein nitrogen and fucoglycoprotein were observed. Increase in serum and urinary hydroxyproline and hexosamine, and serum sialic acid and fucose revealed the complicated nature of intrinsic changes occurring systemically. The study revealed that the ground substance was more easily affected while collagen, elastin and fat appeared to be more resistant to injury. This could be due to superficial action of radiation of short duration (30 min) on the dermal connective tissue. (author)

  3. Method for hermetic electrical connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Saundra L [Tijeras, NM; Glass, S Jill [Albuquerque, NM; Stone, Ronnie G [Albuquerque, NM; Bond, Jamey T [Albuquerque, NM; Susan, Donald F [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-12-27

    A method of providing a hermetic, electrical connection between two electrical components by mating at least one metal pin in a glass-ceramic to metal seal connector to two electrical components, wherein the glass-ceramic to metal seal connector incorporates at least one metal pin encased (sealed) in a glass-ceramic material inside of a metal housing, with the glass-ceramic material made from 65-80% SiO.sub.2, 8-16% Li.sub.2O, 2-8% Al.sub.2O.sub.3, 1-5% P.sub.2O.sub.5, 1-8% K.sub.2O, 0.5-7% B.sub.2O.sub.3, and 0-5% ZnO. The connector retains hermeticity at temperatures as high as 700.degree. C. and pressures as high as 500 psi.

  4. Connecting cognition and consumer choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Daniel M; Johnson, Eric J

    2015-02-01

    We describe what can be gained from connecting cognition and consumer choice by discussing two contexts ripe for interaction between the two fields. The first-context effects on choice-has already been addressed by cognitive science yielding insights about cognitive process but there is promise for more interaction. The second is learning and representation in choice where relevant theories in cognitive science could be informed by consumer choice, and in return, could pose and answer new questions. We conclude by discussing how these two fields of research stand to benefit from more interaction, citing examples of how interfaces of cognitive science with other fields have been illuminating for theories of cognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Connected health and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M

    2018-04-18

    There is as yet no consensual definition of "connected health". In general, the term refers to the growing use of technology and, in particular, mobile technology in medicine. Over the past 10 years, there have been an increasing number of published reports on the wide-ranging and heterogeneous fields involving the application of technology in medicine, ranging from telemedicine to tools to improve patients' evaluation and monitoring by physicians, as well as a multitude of patient-centered applications. They also represent promising tools in the field of clinical research. This report is a review of the importance of using this technology in the management of multiple sclerosis patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of the ecological connectivity between landscape patches obtained using the knowledge engineer (expert) classification technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Serdar; Sonmez, Namik Kemal; Onur, Isin; Coslu, Mesut

    2017-10-01

    Connection of similar landscape patches with ecological corridors supports habitat quality of these patches, increases urban ecological quality, and constitutes an important living and expansion area for wild life. Furthermore, habitat connectivity provided by urban green areas is supporting biodiversity in urban areas. In this study, possible ecological connections between landscape patches, which were achieved by using Expert classification technique and modeled with probabilistic connection index. Firstly, the reflection responses of plants to various bands are used as data in hypotheses. One of the important features of this method is being able to use more than one image at the same time in the formation of the hypothesis. For this reason, before starting the application of the Expert classification, the base images are prepared. In addition to the main image, the hypothesis conditions were also created for each class with the NDVI image which is commonly used in the vegetation researches. Besides, the results of the previously conducted supervised classification were taken into account. We applied this classification method by using the raster imagery with user-defined variables. Hereupon, to provide ecological connections of the tree cover which was achieved from the classification, we used Probabilistic Connection (PC) index. The probabilistic connection model which is used for landscape planning and conservation studies via detecting and prioritization critical areas for ecological connection characterizes the possibility of direct connection between habitats. As a result we obtained over % 90 total accuracy in accuracy assessment analysis. We provided ecological connections with PC index and we created inter-connected green spaces system. Thus, we offered and implicated green infrastructure system model takes place in the agenda of recent years.

  7. Age Differences in the Intrinsic Functional Connectivity of Default Network Subsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen eCampbell

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent work suggests that the default mode network (DMN includes two core regions, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, and several unique subsystems that are functionally distinct. These include a medial temporal lobe (MTL subsystem, active during remembering and future projection, and a dorsomedial PFC (dmPFC subsystem, active during self-reference. The PCC has been further subdivided into ventral (vPCC and dorsal (dPCC regions that are more strongly connected with the DMN and cognitive control networks, respectively. The goal of this study was to examine age differences in resting state functional connectivity within these subsystems. After applying a rigorous procedure to reduce the effects of head motion, we used a multivariate technique to identify both common and unique patterns of functional connectivity in the MTL vs. the dmPFC, and in vPCC vs. dPCC. All four areas had robust functional connectivity with other DMN regions, and each also showed distinct connectivity patterns in both age groups. Young and older adults had equivalent functional connectivity in the MTL subsystem. Older adults showed weaker connectivity in the vPCC and dmPFC subsystems, particularly with other DMN areas, but stronger connectivity than younger adults in the dPCC subsystem, which included areas involved in cognitive control. Our data provide evidence for distinct subsystems involving DMN nodes, which are maintained with age. Nevertheless, there are age differences in the strength of functional connectivity within these subsystems, supporting prior evidence that DMN connectivity is particularly vulnerable to age, whereas connectivity involving cognitive control regions is relatively maintained. These results suggest an age difference in the integrated activity among brain networks that can have implications for cognition in older adults.

  8. Reduced thalamic and pontine connectivity in Kleine-Levin syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eEngström

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Kleine-Levin syndrome is a rare sleep disorder, characterized by exceptionally long sleep episodes. The neuropathology of the syndrome is unknown and treatment is often inadequate. The aim of the study was to improve understanding of the underlying neuropathology, related to cerebral networks, in Kleine-Levin syndrome during sleep episodes. One patient with Kleine-Levin syndrome and congenital nystagmus, was investigated by resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging during both asymptomatic and hypersomnic periods. Fourteen healthy subjects were also investigated as control samples. Functional connectivity was assessed from seed regions of interest in the thalamus and the dorsal pons. Thalamic connectivity was normal in the asymptomatic patient whereas the connectivity between the brain stem, including dorsal pons, and the thalamus was diminished during hypersomnia. These results suggest that the patient’s nystagmus and hypersomnia might have their pathological origin in adjacent dorsal pontine regions. This finding provides additional knowledge of the cerebral networks involved in the neuropathology of this disabling disorder. Furthermore, these findings regarding a rare syndrome have broad implications and results could be of interest to researchers and clinicians in the whole field of sleep medicine.

  9. Wetland tree transpiration modified by river-floodplain connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Scott T.; Krauss, Ken W.; Cochran, J. Wesley; King, Sammy L.; Keim, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrologic connectivity provisions water and nutrient subsidies to floodplain wetlands and may be particularly important in floodplains with seasonal water deficits through its effects on soil moisture. In this study, we measured sapflow in 26 trees of two dominant floodplain forest species (Celtis laevigata and Quercus lyrata) at two hydrologically distinct sites in the lower White River floodplain in Arkansas, USA. Our objective was to investigate how connectivity-driven water table variations affected water use, an indicator of tree function. Meteorological variables (photosynthetically active radiation and vapor pressure deficit) were the dominant controls over water use at both sites; however, water table variations explained some site differences. At the wetter site, highest sapflow rates were during a late-season overbank flooding event, and no flood stress was apparent. At the drier site, sapflow decreased as the water table receded. The late-season flood pulse that resulted in flooding at the wetter site did not affect the water table at the drier site; accordingly, higher water use was not observed at the drier site. The species generally associated with wetter conditions (Q. lyrata) was more positively responsive to the flood pulse. Flood water subsidy lengthened the effective growing season, demonstrating ecological implications of hydrologic connectivity for alleviating water deficits that otherwise reduce function in this humid floodplain wetland.

  10. Cross-hemispheric functional connectivity in the human fetal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Moriah E; Dassanayake, Maya T; Shen, Stephen; Katkuri, Yashwanth; Alexis, Mitchell; Anderson, Amy L; Yeo, Lami; Mody, Swati; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Hassan, Sonia S; Studholme, Colin; Jeong, Jeong-Won; Romero, Roberto

    2013-02-20

    Compelling evidence indicates that psychiatric and developmental disorders are generally caused by disruptions in the functional connectivity (FC) of brain networks. Events occurring during development, and in particular during fetal life, have been implicated in the genesis of such disorders. However, the developmental timetable for the emergence of neural FC during human fetal life is unknown. We present the results of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging performed in 25 healthy human fetuses in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy (24 to 38 weeks of gestation). We report the presence of bilateral fetal brain FC and regional and age-related variation in FC. Significant bilateral connectivity was evident in half of the 42 areas tested, and the strength of FC between homologous cortical brain regions increased with advancing gestational age. We also observed medial to lateral gradients in fetal functional brain connectivity. These findings improve understanding of human fetal central nervous system development and provide a basis for examining the role of insults during fetal life in the subsequent development of disorders in neural FC.

  11. Aberrant Neural Connectivity during Emotional Processing Associated with Posttraumatic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Naomi; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Warren, Stacie L; Miller, Gregory A; Heller, Wendy

    2014-11-01

    Given the complexity of the brain, characterizing relations among distributed brain regions is likely essential to describing the neural instantiation of posttraumatic stress symptoms. This study examined patterns of functional connectivity among key brain regions implicated in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 35 trauma-exposed adults using an emotion-word Stroop task. PTSD symptom severity (particularly hyperarousal symptoms) moderated amygdala-mPFC coupling during the processing of unpleasant words, and this moderation correlated positively with reported real-world impairment and amygdala reactivity. Reexperiencing severity moderated hippocampus-insula coupling during pleasant and unpleasant words. Results provide evidence that PTSD symptoms differentially moderate functional coupling during emotional interference and underscore the importance of examining network connectivity in research on PTSD. They suggest that hyperarousal is associated with negative mPFC-amygdala coupling and that reexperiencing is associated with altered insula-hippocampus function, patterns of connectivity that may represent separable indicators of dysfunctional inhibitory control during affective processing.

  12. Investigation into Methods for Predicting Connection Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Anderson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical response of connections in fire is largely based on material strength degradation and the interactions between the various components of the connection. In order to predict connection performance in fire, temperature profiles must initially be established in order to evaluate the material strength degradation over time. This paper examines two current methods for predicting connection temperatures: The percentage method, where connection temperatures are calculated as a percentage of the adjacent beam lower-flange, mid-span temperatures; and the lumped capacitance method, based on the lumped mass of the connection. Results from the percentage method do not correlate well with experimental results, whereas the lumped capacitance method shows much better agreement with average connection temperatures. A 3D finite element heat transfer model was also created in Abaqus, and showed good correlation with experimental results. 

  13. Radiotherapy in patients with connective tissue diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaj-Levra, Niccolò; Sciascia, Savino; Fiorentino, Alba; Fersino, Sergio; Mazzola, Rosario; Ricchetti, Francesco; Roccatello, Dario; Alongi, Filippo

    2016-03-01

    The decision to offer radiotherapy in patients with connective tissue diseases continues to be challenging. Radiotherapy might trigger the onset of connective tissue diseases by increasing the expression of self-antigens, diminishing regulatory T-cell activity, and activating effectors of innate immunity (dendritic cells) through Toll-like receptor-dependent mechanisms, all of which could potentially lead to breaks of immune tolerance. This potential risk has raised some debate among radiation oncologists about whether patients with connective tissue diseases can tolerate radiation as well as people without connective tissue diseases. Because the number of patients with cancer and connective tissue diseases needing radiotherapy will probably increase due to improvements in medical treatment and longer life expectancy, the issue of interactions between radiotherapy and connective tissue diseases needs to be clearer. In this Review, we discuss available data and evidence for patients with connective tissue diseases treated with radiotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Random geometric graphs with general connection functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmann, Carl P.; Georgiou, Orestis

    2016-03-01

    In the original (1961) Gilbert model of random geometric graphs, nodes are placed according to a Poisson point process, and links formed between those within a fixed range. Motivated by wireless ad hoc networks "soft" or "probabilistic" connection models have recently been introduced, involving a "connection function" H (r ) that gives the probability that two nodes at distance r are linked (directly connect). In many applications (not only wireless networks), it is desirable that the graph is connected; that is, every node is linked to every other node in a multihop fashion. Here the connection probability of a dense network in a convex domain in two or three dimensions is expressed in terms of contributions from boundary components for a very general class of connection functions. It turns out that only a few quantities such as moments of the connection function appear. Good agreement is found with special cases from previous studies and with numerical simulations.

  15. Out of sight, out of mind: global connection, environmental discourse and the emerging field of sustainability education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Joseph A.

    2015-09-01

    How might we understand the complex nature of our existence in the world, and what are the implications of such examination? Moreover, how might we go about engaging others in this practice and what are the complications of such an endeavor? Expanding on Quigley, Dogbey, Che and Hallo's findings, I consider the implications of human-environment connections and examine the difficulty of articulating such connections via photovoice methods in particular places. Further, I use a Foucauldian discourse lens to situate this connective process to larger political and social dynamics at work in their paper, and in environmental education in general. Implications for sustainability and sustainability education are then developed, along with suggestions for future research in this emerging field.

  16. The poppers-HIV connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, H

    1999-03-01

    Nitrite inhalants called "poppers" are receiving renewed attention by researchers regarding the drug's role in the gay community, its contribution to risky sexual behavior, and its ability to fuel the AIDS epidemic. Research shows the effects of poppers cause a euphoria that can reduce inhibitions, increase sexual drive, and intensify the sensations of orgasm. Poppers have been associated with a decrease in condom use. In addition, research has found that popper use suppresses natural killer (NK) cell function, which increases vulnerability to infectious agents, produces sustained alterations in the immune system, and may be a Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) cofactor. The combined data implicate that the use of poppers may well pose as a significant risk factor for seroconversion.

  17. Big data's implications for transportation operations : an exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this white paper is to expand the understanding of big data for transportation operations, the value it could provide, and the implications for the : future direction of the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) Connected Vehicle R...

  18. Evaluating the social and cultural implications of the internet.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.

    2006-01-01

    Since the Internet's breakthrough as a mass medium, it has become a topic of discussion because of its implications for society. At one extreme, one finds those who only see great benefits and consider the Internet a tool for freedom, commerce, connectivity, and other societal benefits. At the other

  19. Implications of dark matter free streaming in the early Universe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diamanti, R.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, we link astrophysics and particle physics aspects in order to study the implications of the nature and properties of different types of dark matter candidates on the observable Universe. The main property which connects the different works on which this manuscript is based is

  20. Chinook salmon use of spawning patches: relative roles of habitat quality, size, and connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaak, Daniel J; Thurow, Russell F; Rieman, Bruce E; Dunham, Jason B

    2007-03-01

    Declines in many native fish populations have led to reassessments of management goals and shifted priorities from consumptive uses to species preservation. As management has shifted, relevant environmental characteristics have evolved from traditional metrics that described local habitat quality to characterizations of habitat size and connectivity. Despite the implications this shift has for how habitats may be prioritized for conservation, it has been rare to assess the relative importance of these habitat components. We used an information-theoretic approach to select the best models from sets of logistic regressions that linked habitat quality, size, and connectivity to the occurrence of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) nests. Spawning distributions were censused annually from 1995 to 2004, and data were complemented with field measurements that described habitat quality in 43 suitable spawning patches across a stream network that drained 1150 km2 in central Idaho. Results indicated that the most plausible models were dominated by measures of habitat size and connectivity, whereas habitat quality was of minor importance. Connectivity was the strongest predictor of nest occurrence, but connectivity interacted with habitat size, which became relatively more important when populations were reduced. Comparison of observed nest distributions to null model predictions confirmed that the habitat size association was driven by a biological mechanism when populations were small, but this association may have been an area-related sampling artifact at higher abundances. The implications for habitat management are that the size and connectivity of existing habitat networks should be maintained whenever possible. In situations where habitat restoration is occurring, expansion of existing areas or creation of new habitats in key areas that increase connectivity may be beneficial. Information about habitat size and connectivity also could be used to strategically

  1. Chinook salmon use of spawning patches: Relative roles of habitat quality, size, and connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaak, D.J.; Thurow, R.F.; Rieman, B.E.; Dunham, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    Declines in many native fish populations have led to reassessments of management goals and shifted priorities from consumptive uses to species preservation. As management has shifted, relevant environmental characteristics have evolved from traditional metrics that described local habitat quality to characterizations of habitat size and connectivity. Despite the implications this shift has for how habitats may be prioritized for conservation, it has been rare to assess the relative importance of these habitat components. We used an information-theoretic approach to select the best models from sets of logistic regressions that linked habitat quality, size, and connectivity to the occurrence of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) nests. Spawning distributions were censused annually from 1995 to 2004, and data were complemented with field measurements that described habitat quality in 43 suitable spawning patches across a stream network that drained 1150 km 2 in central Idaho. Results indicated that the most plausible models were dominated by measures of habitat size and connectivity, whereas habitat quality was of minor importance. Connectivity was the strongest predictor of nest occurrence, but connectivity interacted with habitat size, which became relatively more important when populations were reduced. Comparison of observed nest distributions to null model predictions confirmed that the habitat size association was driven by a biological mechanism when populations were small, but this association may have been an area-related sampling artifact at higher abundances. The implications for habitat management are that the size and connectivity of existing habitat networks should be maintained whenever possible. In situations where habitat restoration is occurring, expansion of existing areas or creation of new habitats in key areas that increase connectivity may be beneficial. Information about habitat size and connectivity also could be used to strategically

  2. Autism: reduced connectivity between cortical areas involved in face expression, theory of mind, and the sense of self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Rolls, Edmund T; Gu, Huaguang; Zhang, Jie; Feng, Jianfeng

    2015-05-01

    Whole-brain voxel-based unbiased resting state functional connectivity was analysed in 418 subjects with autism and 509 matched typically developing individuals. We identified a key system in the middle temporal gyrus/superior temporal sulcus region that has reduced cortical functional connectivity (and increased with the medial thalamus), which is implicated in face expression processing involved in social behaviour. This system has reduced functional connectivity with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which is implicated in emotion and social communication. The middle temporal gyrus system is also implicated in theory of mind processing. We also identified in autism a second key system in the precuneus/superior parietal lobule region with reduced functional connectivity, which is implicated in spatial functions including of oneself, and of the spatial environment. It is proposed that these two types of functionality, face expression-related, and of one's self and the environment, are important components of the computations involved in theory of mind, whether of oneself or of others, and that reduced connectivity within and between these regions may make a major contribution to the symptoms of autism. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  3. Interhemispheric functional connectivity in anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canna, Antonietta; Prinster, Anna; Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Cantone, Elena; Monteleone, Palmiero; Volpe, Umberto; Maj, Mario; Di Salle, Francesco; Esposito, Fabrizio

    2017-05-01

    The functional interplay between hemispheres is fundamental for behavioral, cognitive, and emotional control. Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) have been largely studied with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relation to the functional mechanisms of high-level processing, but not in terms of possible inter-hemispheric functional connectivity anomalies. Using resting-state functional MRI (fMRI), voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) and regional inter-hemispheric spectral coherence (IHSC) were studied in 15 AN and 13 BN patients and 16 healthy controls (HC). Using T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging MRI scans, regional VMHC values were correlated with the left-right asymmetry of corresponding homotopic gray matter volumes and with the white matter callosal fractional anisotropy (FA). Compared to HC, AN patients exhibited reduced VMHC in cerebellum, insula, and precuneus, while BN patients showed reduced VMHC in dorso-lateral prefrontal and orbito-frontal cortices. The regional IHSC analysis highlighted that the inter-hemispheric functional connectivity was higher in the 'Slow-5' band in all regions except the insula. No group differences in left-right structural asymmetries and in VMHC vs. callosal FA correlations were significant in the comparisons between cohorts. These anomalies, not explained by structural changes, indicate that AN and BN, at least in their acute phase, are associated with a loss of inter-hemispheric connectivity in regions implicated in self-referential, cognitive control and reward processing. These findings may thus gather novel functional markers to explore aberrant features of these eating disorders. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Lagged and instantaneous dynamical influences related to brain structural connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eAlonso Montes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary neuroimaging methods can shed light on the basis of human neural and cognitive specializations, with important implications for neuroscience and medicine. Indeed, different MRI acquisitions provide different brain networks at the macroscale; whilst diffusion-weighted MRI (dMRI provides a structural connectivity (SC coincident with the bundles of parallel fibers between brain areas, functional MRI (fMRI accounts for the variations in the blood-oxygenation-level-dependent T2* signal, providing functional connectivity (FC. Understanding the precise relation between FC and SC, that is, between brain dynamics and structure, is still a challenge for neuroscience.To investigate this problem, we acquired data at rest and built the corresponding SC (with matrix elements corresponding to the fiber number between brain areas to be compared with FC connectivity matrices obtained by three different methods: directed dependencies by an exploratory version of structural equation modeling (eSEM, linear correlations (C and partial correlations (PC. We also considered the possibility of using lagged correlations in time series; in particular, we compared a lagged version of eSEM and Granger causality (GC. Our results were two-fold: firstly, eSEM performance in correlating with SC was comparable to those obtained from C and PC, but eSEM (not C, nor PC provides information about directionality of the functional interactions. Second, interactions on a time scale much smaller than the sampling time, captured by instantaneous connectivity methods, are much more related to SC than slow directed influences captured by the lagged analysis. Indeed the performance in correlating with SC was much worse for GC and for the lagged version of eSEM. We expect these results to supply further insights to the interplay between SC and functional patterns, an important issue in the study of brain physiology and function.

  5. Disruption of visuospatial and somatosensory functional connectivity in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, Angela; Santonastaso, Paolo; Manara, Renzo; Bosello, Romina; Bommarito, Giulia; Tenconi, Elena; Di Salle, Francesco

    2012-11-15

    Although body image disturbance is considered one of the core characteristics of anorexia nervosa (AN), the exact nature of this complex feature is poorly understood. Task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging studies can only partially explore the multimodal complexity of body consciousness, which is a complex cognition underpinned by aspects of visual perception, proprioception, and touch. The aim of the present study was to explore the functional connectivity of networks involved in visuospatial and somatosensory processing in AN. Twenty-nine subjects with AN, 16 women who had recovered from it, and 26 healthy women underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan and neuropsychological assessment of their visuospatial abilities using the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test. Both AN groups showed areas of decreased connectivity in the ventral visual network, a network involved in the "what?" pathway of visual perception. Even more interestingly, the AN group, but not the recovered AN group, displayed increased coactivation in the left parietal cortex, encompassing the somatosensory cortex, in an area implicated in long-term multimodal spatial memory and representation, even in the absence of visual information. A neuropsychological assessment of visuospatial abilities revealed that aspects of detail processing and global integration (central coherence) showed correlations with connectivity of this brain area in the AN group. Our findings show that AN is associated with double disruption of brain connectivity, which shows a specific association with visuospatial difficulties and may explain the failure of the integration process between visual and somatosensory perceptual information that might sustain body image disturbance. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Differences in graph theory functional connectivity in left and right temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Sharon; Stern, John M; Engel, Jerome; Levin, Harvey S; Haneef, Zulfi

    2014-12-01

    To investigate lateralized differences in limbic system functional connectivity between left and right temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) using graph theory. Interictal resting state fMRI was performed in 14 left TLE patients, 11 right TLE patients, and 12 controls. Graph theory analysis of 10 bilateral limbic regions of interest was conducted. Changes in edgewise functional connectivity, network topology, and regional topology were quantified, and then left and right TLE were compared. Limbic edgewise functional connectivity was predominantly reduced in both left and right TLE. More regional connections were reduced in right TLE, most prominently involving reduced interhemispheric connectivity between the bilateral insula and bilateral hippocampi. A smaller number of limbic connections were increased in TLE, more so in left than in right TLE. Topologically, the most pronounced change was a reduction in average network betweenness centrality and concurrent increase in left hippocampal betweenness centrality in right TLE. In contrast, left TLE exhibited a weak trend toward increased right hippocampal betweenness centrality, with no change in average network betweenness centrality. Limbic functional connectivity is predominantly reduced in both left and right TLE, with more pronounced reductions in right TLE. In contrast, left TLE exhibits both edgewise and topological changes that suggest a tendency toward reorganization. Network changes in TLE and lateralized differences thereof may have important diagnostic and prognostic implications. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Virtual dissection and comparative connectivity of the superior longitudinal fasciculus in chimpanzees and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Erin E.; Gutman, David A.; Bradley, Bruce A.; Preuss, Todd M.; Stout, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Many of the behavioral capacities that distinguish humans from other primates rely on fronto-parietal circuits. The superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) is the primary white matter tract connecting lateral frontal with lateral parietal regions; it is distinct from the arcuate fasciculus, which interconnects the frontal and temporal lobes. Here we report a direct, quantitative comparison of SLF connectivity using virtual in vivo dissection of the SLF in chimpanzees and humans. SLF I, the superior-most branch of the SLF, showed similar patterns of connectivity between humans and chimpanzees, and was proportionally volumetrically larger in chimpanzees. SLF II, the middle branch, and SLF III, the inferior-most branch, showed species differences in frontal connectivity. In humans, SLF II showed greater connectivity with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, whereas in chimps SLF II showed greater connectivity with the inferior frontal gyrus. SLF III was right-lateralized and proportionally volumetrically larger in humans, and human SLF III showed relatively reduced connectivity with dorsal premotor cortex and greater extension into the anterior inferior frontal gyrus, especially in the right hemisphere. These results have implications for the evolution of fronto-parietal functions including spatial attention to observed actions, social learning, and tool use, and are in line with previous research suggesting a unique role for the right anterior inferior frontal gyrus in the evolution of human fronto-parietal network architecture. PMID:25534109

  8. Parallel Alterations of Functional Connectivity during Execution and Imagination after Motor Imagery Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rushao; Hui, Mingqi; Long, Zhiying; Zhao, Xiaojie; Yao, Li

    2012-01-01

    Background Neural substrates underlying motor learning have been widely investigated with neuroimaging technologies. Investigations have illustrated the critical regions of motor learning and further revealed parallel alterations of functional activation during imagination and execution after learning. However, little is known about the functional connectivity associated with motor learning, especially motor imagery learning, although benefits from functional connectivity analysis attract more attention to the related explorations. We explored whether motor imagery (MI) and motor execution (ME) shared parallel alterations of functional connectivity after MI learning. Methodology/Principal Findings Graph theory analysis, which is widely used in functional connectivity exploration, was performed on the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of MI and ME tasks before and after 14 days of consecutive MI learning. The control group had no learning. Two measures, connectivity degree and interregional connectivity, were calculated and further assessed at a statistical level. Two interesting results were obtained: (1) The connectivity degree of the right posterior parietal lobe decreased in both MI and ME tasks after MI learning in the experimental group; (2) The parallel alterations of interregional connectivity related to the right posterior parietal lobe occurred in the supplementary motor area for both tasks. Conclusions/Significance These computational results may provide the following insights: (1) The establishment of motor schema through MI learning may induce the significant decrease of connectivity degree in the posterior parietal lobe; (2) The decreased interregional connectivity between the supplementary motor area and the right posterior parietal lobe in post-test implicates the dissociation between motor learning and task performing. These findings and explanations further revealed the neural substrates underpinning MI learning and supported that

  9. Reduced connectivity in the self-processing network of schizophrenia patients with poor insight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith J Liemburg

    Full Text Available Lack of insight (unawareness of illness is a common and clinically relevant feature of schizophrenia. Reduced levels of self-referential processing have been proposed as a mechanism underlying poor insight. The default mode network (DMN has been implicated as a key node in the circuit for self-referential processing. We hypothesized that during resting state the DMN network would show decreased connectivity in schizophrenia patients with poor insight compared to patients with good insight. Patients with schizophrenia were recruited from mental health care centers in the north of the Netherlands and categorized in groups having good insight (n= 25 or poor insight (n = 19. All subjects underwent a resting state fMRI scan. A healthy control group (n = 30 was used as a reference. Functional connectivity of the anterior and posterior part of the DMN, identified using Independent Component Analysis, was compared between groups. Patients with poor insight showed lower connectivity of the ACC within the anterior DMN component and precuneus within the posterior DMN component compared to patients with good insight. Connectivity between the anterior and posterior part of the DMN was lower in patients than controls, and qualitatively different between the good and poor insight patient groups. As predicted, subjects with poor insight in psychosis showed decreased connectivity in DMN regions implicated in self-referential processing, although this concerned only part of the network. This finding is compatible with theories implying a role of reduced self-referential processing as a mechanism contributing to poor insight.

  10. Increased Hydrologic Connectivity: Consequences of Reduced Water Storage Capacity in the Delmarva Peninsula (U.S.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlin, D. L.; Jones, C. N.; Evenson, G. R.; Golden, H. E.; Lane, C.; Alexander, L. C.; Lang, M.

    2017-12-01

    Combined geospatial and modeling approaches are required to fully enumerate wetland hydrologic connectivity and downstream effects. Here, we utilized both geospatial analysis and hydrologic modeling to explore drivers and consequences of modified surface water connectivity in the Delmarva Peninsula, with particular focus on increased connectivity via pervasive wetland ditching. Our geospatial analysis quantified both historical and contemporary wetland storage capacity across the region, and suggests that over 70% of historical storage capacity has been lost due to this ditching. Building upon this analysis, we applied a catchment-scale model to simulate implications of reduced storage capacity on catchment-scale hydrology. In short, increased connectivity (and concomitantly reduced wetland water storage capacity) decreases catchment inundation extent and spatial heterogeneity, shortens cumulative residence times, and increases downstream flow variation with evident effects on peak and baseflow dynamics. As such, alterations in connectivity have implications for hydrologically mediated functions in catchments (e.g., nutrient removal) and downstream systems (e.g., maintenance of flow for aquatic habitat). Our work elucidates such consequences in Delmarva Peninsula while also providing new tools for broad application to target wetland restoration and conservation. Views expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect policies of the US EPA or US FWS.

  11. Courant algebroid connections and string effective actions

    OpenAIRE

    Jurčo, B.

    2017-01-01

    Courant algebroids are a natural generalization of quadratic Lie algebras, appearing in various contexts in mathematical physics. A connection on a Courant algebroid gives an analogue of a covariant derivative compatible with a given fiber-wise metric. Imposing further conditions resembling standard Levi-Civita connections, one obtains a class of connections whose curvature tensor in certain cases gives a new geometrical description of equations of motion of low energy effective action of str...

  12. Robust motion estimation using connected operators

    OpenAIRE

    Salembier Clairon, Philippe Jean; Sanson, H

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of connected operators for robust motion estimation The proposed strategy involves a motion estimation step extracting the dominant motion and a ltering step relying on connected operators that remove objects that do not fol low the dominant motion. These two steps are iterated in order to obtain an accurate motion estimation and a precise de nition of the objects fol lowing this motion This strategy can be applied on the entire frame or on individual connected c...

  13. Projective Connections and the Algebra of Densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Projective connections first appeared in Cartan's papers in the 1920's. Since then they have resurfaced periodically in, for example, integrable systems and perhaps most recently in the context of so called projectively equivariant quantisation. We recall the notion of projective connection and describe its relation with the algebra of densities on a manifold. In particular, we construct a Laplace-type operator on functions using a Thomas projective connection and a symmetric contravariant tensor of rank 2 ('upper metric').

  14. Structural Connectivity Asymmetry in the Neonatal Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnarajah, Nagulan; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Fortier, Marielle V.; Chong, Yap Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D.; Meaney, Michael J.; Qiu, Anqi

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetry of the neonatal brain is not yet understood at the level of structural connectivity. We utilized DTI deterministic tractography and structural network analysis based on graph theory to determine the pattern of structural connectivity asymmetry in 124 normal neonates. We tracted white matter axonal pathways characterizing interregional connections among brain regions and inferred asymmetry in left and right anatomical network properties. Our findings revealed that in neonates, small-...

  15. The mean–variance relationship reveals two possible strategies for dynamic brain connectivity analysis in fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William H.; Fransson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    When studying brain connectivity using fMRI, signal intensity time-series are typically correlated with each other in time to compute estimates of the degree of interaction between different brain regions and/or networks. In the static connectivity case, the problem of defining which connections that should be considered significant in the analysis can be addressed in a rather straightforward manner by a statistical thresholding that is based on the magnitude of the correlation coefficients. More recently, interest has come to focus on the dynamical aspects of brain connectivity and the problem of deciding which brain connections that are to be considered relevant in the context of dynamical changes in connectivity provides further options. Since we, in the dynamical case, are interested in changes in connectivity over time, the variance of the correlation time-series becomes a relevant parameter. In this study, we discuss the relationship between the mean and variance of brain connectivity time-series and show that by studying the relation between them, two conceptually different strategies to analyze dynamic functional brain connectivity become available. Using resting-state fMRI data from a cohort of 46 subjects, we show that the mean of fMRI connectivity time-series scales negatively with its variance. This finding leads to the suggestion that magnitude- versus variance-based thresholding strategies will induce different results in studies of dynamic functional brain connectivity. Our assertion is exemplified by showing that the magnitude-based strategy is more sensitive to within-resting-state network (RSN) connectivity compared to between-RSN connectivity whereas the opposite holds true for a variance-based analysis strategy. The implications of our findings for dynamical functional brain connectivity studies are discussed. PMID:26236216

  16. The mean-variance relationship reveals two possible strategies for dynamic brain connectivity analysis in fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William H; Fransson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    When studying brain connectivity using fMRI, signal intensity time-series are typically correlated with each other in time to compute estimates of the degree of interaction between different brain regions and/or networks. In the static connectivity case, the problem of defining which connections that should be considered significant in the analysis can be addressed in a rather straightforward manner by a statistical thresholding that is based on the magnitude of the correlation coefficients. More recently, interest has come to focus on the dynamical aspects of brain connectivity and the problem of deciding which brain connections that are to be considered relevant in the context of dynamical changes in connectivity provides further options. Since we, in the dynamical case, are interested in changes in connectivity over time, the variance of the correlation time-series becomes a relevant parameter. In this study, we discuss the relationship between the mean and variance of brain connectivity time-series and show that by studying the relation between them, two conceptually different strategies to analyze dynamic functional brain connectivity become available. Using resting-state fMRI data from a cohort of 46 subjects, we show that the mean of fMRI connectivity time-series scales negatively with its variance. This finding leads to the suggestion that magnitude- versus variance-based thresholding strategies will induce different results in studies of dynamic functional brain connectivity. Our assertion is exemplified by showing that the magnitude-based strategy is more sensitive to within-resting-state network (RSN) connectivity compared to between-RSN connectivity whereas the opposite holds true for a variance-based analysis strategy. The implications of our findings for dynamical functional brain connectivity studies are discussed.

  17. Synchronization from Second Order Network Connectivity Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liqiong; Beverlin, Bryce; Netoff, Theoden; Nykamp, Duane Q.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate how network structure can influence the tendency for a neuronal network to synchronize, or its synchronizability, independent of the dynamical model for each neuron. The synchrony analysis takes advantage of the framework of second order networks, which defines four second order connectivity statistics based on the relative frequency of two-connection network motifs. The analysis identifies two of these statistics, convergent connections, and chain connections, as highly influencing the synchrony. Simulations verify that synchrony decreases with the frequency of convergent connections and increases with the frequency of chain connections. These trends persist with simulations of multiple models for the neuron dynamics and for different types of networks. Surprisingly, divergent connections, which determine the fraction of shared inputs, do not strongly influence the synchrony. The critical role of chains, rather than divergent connections, in influencing synchrony can be explained by their increasing the effective coupling strength. The decrease of synchrony with convergent connections is primarily due to the resulting heterogeneity in firing rates. PMID:21779239

  18. Synchronization from second order network connectivity statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiong eZhao

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate how network structure can influence the tendency for a neuronal network to synchronize, or its synchronizability, independent of the dynamical model for each neuron. The synchrony analysis takes advantage of the framework of second order networks (SONETs, which defines four second order connectivity statistics based on the relative frequency of two-connection network motifs. The analysis identifies two of these statistics, convergent connections and chain connections, as highly influencing the synchrony. Simulations verify that synchrony decreases with the frequency of convergent connections and increases with the frequency of chain connections. These trends persist with simulations of multiple models for the neuron dynamics and for different types of networks. Surprisingly, divergent connections, which determine the fraction of shared inputs, do not strongly influence the synchrony. The critical role of chains, rather than divergent connections, in influencing synchrony can be explained by a pool and redistribute mechanism. The pooling of many inputs averages out independent fluctuations, amplifying weak correlations in the inputs. With increased chain connections, neurons with many inputs tend to have many outputs. Hence, chains ensure that the amplified correlations in the neurons with many inputs are redistributed throughout the network, enhancing the development of synchrony across the network.

  19. Effect of ionizing radiations on connective tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, K.I.; Gerber, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of ionizing radiations on connective tissue in lung, heart, vasculature, kidney, skin, and skeletal tissues are reviewed. Special emphasis is given to the effect of ionizing radiations on vasculo-connective tissue and fibrotic changes following radiation-induced injury to organs and tissues. In order to put the subject matter in proper prospective, the general biochemistry, physiology, and pathology of connective tissue is reviewed briefly together with the participation of connective tissue in disease. The review closes with an assessment of future problems and an enumeration and discussion of important, as yet unanswered questions

  20. Design of Steel Beam-Column Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogatinoski Z.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a theoretical and experimental research of the steel beam-column connections is presented. Eight types of specimens were being researched, composed of rigid and semi-rigid connections from which 4 connections are with IPE - profile and 4 connections with tube's section for the beam. From the numerical analysis of the researched models, and especially from the experimental research at the Laboratory for Structures in the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering - Skopje, specific conclusions were received that ought to have theoretical and practical usage for researchers in this area of interest.

  1. Essential Connectivity Areas - CEHC, (Raster) [ds620

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) and California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) commissioned the California Essential Habitat Connectivity...

  2. Connecting multimodality in human communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina eRegenbogen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A successful reciprocal evaluation of social signals serves as a prerequisite for social coherence and empathy. In a previous fMRI study we studied naturalistic communication situations by presenting video clips to our participants and recording their behavioral responses regarding empathy and its components. In two conditions, all three channels transported congruent emotional or neutral information, respectively. Three conditions selectively presented two emotional channels and one neutral channel and were thus bimodally emotional. We reported channel-specific emotional contributions in modality-related areas, elicited by dynamic video clips with varying combinations of emotionality in facial expressions, prosody, and speech content. However, to better understand the underlying mechanisms accompanying a naturalistically displayed human social interaction in some key regions that presumably serve as specific processing hubs for facial expressions, prosody, and speech content, we pursued a reanalysis of the data. In addition to this specificity of these regions to information channels we demonstrated that they were also sensitive to variations of the respective emotional content.Here, we focused on two different descriptions of temporal characteristics within these three modality-related regions (right fusiform gyrus (FFG, left auditory cortex (AC, left angular gyrus (AG and left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC. By means of a finite impulse response (FIR analysis within each of the three regions we examined the post-stimulus time-courses as a description of the temporal characteristics of the BOLD response during the video clips. Second, effective connectivity between these areas and the left dmPFC was analyzed using dynamic causal modeling (DCM in order to describe condition-related modulatory influences on the coupling between these regions. The FIR analysis showed initially diminished activation in bimodally emotional conditions but

  3. Aberrant connectivity of areas for decoding degraded speech in patients with auditory verbal hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clos, Mareike; Diederen, Kelly M J; Meijering, Anne Lotte; Sommer, Iris E; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2014-03-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a hallmark of psychotic experience. Various mechanisms including misattribution of inner speech and imbalance between bottom-up and top-down factors in auditory perception potentially due to aberrant connectivity between frontal and temporo-parietal areas have been suggested to underlie AVH. Experimental evidence for disturbed connectivity of networks sustaining auditory-verbal processing is, however, sparse. We compared functional resting-state connectivity in 49 psychotic patients with frequent AVH and 49 matched controls. The analysis was seeded from the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG), thalamus, angular gyrus (AG) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) as these regions are implicated in extracting meaning from impoverished speech-like sounds. Aberrant connectivity was found for all seeds. Decreased connectivity was observed between the left MTG and its right homotope, between the left AG and the surrounding inferior parietal cortex (IPC) and the left inferior temporal gyrus, between the left thalamus and the right cerebellum, as well as between the left IFG and left IPC, and dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC/VLPFC). Increased connectivity was observed between the left IFG and the supplementary motor area (SMA) and the left insula and between the left thalamus and the left fusiform gyrus/hippocampus. The predisposition to experience AVH might result from decoupling between the speech production system (IFG, insula and SMA) and the self-monitoring system (DLPFC, VLPFC, IPC) leading to misattribution of inner speech. Furthermore, decreased connectivity between nodes involved in speech processing (AG, MTG) and other regions implicated in auditory processing might reflect aberrant top-down influences in AVH.

  4. Modeling Electric Vehicle Benefits Connected to Smart Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Mendes, Goncalo; Kloess, Maximillian; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2011-01-01

    Connecting electric storage technologies to smartgrids will have substantial implications in building energy systems. Local storage will enable demand response. Mobile storage devices in electric vehicles (EVs) are in direct competition with conventional stationary sources at the building. EVs will change the financial as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g. PV, or fuel cells). In order to examine the impact of EVs on building energy costs and CO2 emissions in 2020, a distributed-energy-resources adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program with minimization of annual building energy costs or CO2 emissions. The mixed-integer linear program is applied to a set of 139 different commercial buildings in California and example results as well as the aggregated economic and environmental benefits are reported. The research shows that considering second life of EV batteries might be very beneficial for commercial buildings.

  5. Today's university students and their need to connect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Janine Russo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Higher education is rapidly changing and university instructors are presented with new types of students for whom technology is a significant influence. They perceive technology as a way of life and express a need to feel connected at all times. With increasingly diverse university classroom, technology integration is both a challenge and an opportunity. Supportive communication is important in the promotion of relationships and essential in a university classroom.  A convenience sample of 390 students was surveyed to investigate the perceived influences of technology on relationships, including preferences, usage and time with technologies. Results indicated that technology makes communication easier, allows students to stay in touch with more people, and have relationships that would otherwise not be possible.  Implications of this study suggest positive influences of technology on academic work, performance and maintenance of relationships, but disadvantages such as increased stress, addictive feelings toward technologies, and increased misunderstandings in relationships and conflict. 

  6. Facilitate generation connections on Orkney by automatic distribution network management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the capability and limitations of the Orkney Network under a variety of conditions of demand, generation connections, network configuration, and reactive compensation). A conceptual active management scheme (AMS) suitable for the conditions on Orkney is developed and evaluated. Details are given of a proposed framework for the design and evaluation of future active management schemes, logic control sequences for managed generation units, and a proposed evaluation method for the active management scheme. Implications of introducing the proposed AMS are examined, and the commercial aspects of an AMS and system security are considered. The existing Orkney network is described; and an overview of the SHEPDL (Scottish Hydro Electric Power Distribution Ltd.) SCADA system is presented with a discussion of AMS identification, selection, and development.

  7. Modeling Electric Vehicle Benefits Connected to Smart Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Mendes, Goncalo; Kloess, Maximillian; Cardoso, Goncalo; M& #233; gel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2011-07-01

    Connecting electric storage technologies to smartgrids will have substantial implications in building energy systems. Local storage will enable demand response. Mobile storage devices in electric vehicles (EVs) are in direct competition with conventional stationary sources at the building. EVs will change the financial as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g. PV, or fuel cells). In order to examine the impact of EVs on building energy costs and CO2 emissions in 2020, a distributed-energy-resources adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program with minimization of annual building energy costs or CO2 emissions. The mixed-integer linear program is applied to a set of 139 different commercial buildings in California and example results as well as the aggregated economic and environmental benefits are reported. The research shows that considering second life of EV batteries might be very beneficial for commercial buildings.

  8. 47 CFR 54.506 - Internal connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... instructional building of a school or to a non-administrative building of a library. Internal connections do not... SERVICE Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries § 54.506 Internal connections. (a) A service... necessary to transport information within one or more instructional buildings of a single school campus or...

  9. Aberrant orbitofrontal connectivity in marijuana smoking adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Patricia Lopez-Larson

    2015-12-01

    Discussion: Findings indicate atypical OFC functional connectivity patterns in attentional/executive, motor and reward networks in adolescents with heavy MJ use. These anomalies may be related to suboptimal decision making capacities and increased impulsivity. Results also suggest different OFC connectivity patterns may be present in adolescents with early onset of MJ use and high lifetime exposure to MJ.

  10. Centrifugal separator cascade connected in zigzag manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Tsunetoshi; Inoue, Yoshiya; Oya, Akio; Nagakura, Masaaki.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To effectively accommodate centrifugal separators of the entire cascade within the available space in a plant by freely selecting perpendicular direction of connection of the centrifugal separator. Structure: Centrifugal separators are connected in zigzag fashion by using a single header for each stage so that in a rectangular shape the entire cascade is arranged. (Kamimura, M.)

  11. Are we connected? : Ports in Global Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Global supply chains are built on organizational, information, and logistics networks. Ports are connected via these networks and also need to connect these networks. Synchromodality is an innovative concept for container transportation, and the port plays an important

  12. Connections between quantum chromodynamics and condensed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using examples we discuss some of the connections between the two fields and show how progress can be made by exploiting this connection. Some of the challenges that remain in ... Current Issue : Vol. 90, Issue 6. Current Issue Volume 90 ...

  13. Countering oversegmentation in partitioning-based connectivities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouzounis, Georgios K.; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.

    2005-01-01

    A new theoretical development is presented for handling the over-segmentation problem in partitioning-based connected openings. The definition we propose treats singletons generated with the earlier method, as elements of a larger connected component. Unlike the existing formalism, this new method

  14. Connecting Representations: Using Predict, Check, Explain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, George J.; Fueyo, Vivian; Vahey, Philip; Knudsen, Jennifer; Rafanan, Ken; Lara-Meloy, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Although educators agree that making connections with the real world, as advocated by "Principles to Actions: Ensuring Mathematical Success for All" (NCTM 2014), is important, making such connections while addressing important mathematics is elusive. The authors have found that math content coupled with the instructional strategy of…

  15. Voltage Quality of Grid Connected Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede; Sun, Tao

    2004-01-01

    Grid connected wind turbines may cause quality problems, such as voltage variation and flicker. This paper discusses the voltage variation and flicker emission of grid connected wind turbines with doubly-fed induction generators. A method to compensate flicker by using a voltage source converter...

  16. Simple clamped connection for bamboo truss systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, R.

    2016-01-01

    “How to make fast and simple tension connections for truss systems?” The Solution: The innovation is a connection that uses only widely available base components (boltsand threaded steel bars) and simple hand tools to install it. With a handsaw and aspanner, the bamboo stems can be combined into to

  17. IDRC Connect | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-07-20

    All IDRC-funded researchers have access to IDRC Connect, our project portal and collaborative workspace. For projects approved after July 20, 2015, IDRC Connect must be used to submit technical reports project outputs funding requests for open access journal publishing charges You need a password to access IDRC ...

  18. Connecting Functions in Geometry and Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steketee, Scott; Scher, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    One goal of a mathematics education is that students make significant connections among different branches of mathematics. Connections--such as those between arithmetic and algebra, between two-dimensional and three-dimensional geometry, between compass-and-straight-edge constructions and transformations, and between calculus and analytic…

  19. Natural Connections on Riemannian Product Manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Gribacheva, Dobrinka

    2011-01-01

    A Riemannian almost product manifold with integrable almost product structure is called a Riemannian product manifold. In the present paper the natural connections on such manifolds are studied, i.e. the linear connections preserving the almost product structure and the Riemannian metric.

  20. Connectivity: Performance Portable Algorithms for graph connectivity v. 0.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-09-21

    Graphs occur in several places in real world from road networks, social networks and scientific simulations. Connectivity is a graph analysis software to graph connectivity in modern architectures like multicore CPUs, Xeon Phi and GPUs.

  1. Directional connectivity in hydrology and ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Choi, Jungyill; Nungesser, Martha K.; Harvey, Judson W.

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying hydrologic and ecological connectivity has contributed to understanding transport and dispersal processes and assessing ecosystem degradation or restoration potential. However, there has been little synthesis across disciplines. The growing field of ecohydrology and recent recognition that loss of hydrologic connectivity is leading to a global decline in biodiversity underscore the need for a unified connectivity concept. One outstanding need is a way to quantify directional connectivity that is consistent, robust to variations in sampling, and transferable across scales or environmental settings. Understanding connectivity in a particular direction (e.g., streamwise, along or across gradient, between sources and sinks, along cardinal directions) provides critical information for predicting contaminant transport, planning conservation corridor design, and understanding how landscapes or hydroscapes respond to directional forces like wind or water flow. Here we synthesize progress on quantifying connectivity and develop a new strategy for evaluating directional connectivity that benefits from use of graph theory in ecology and percolation theory in hydrology. The directional connectivity index (DCI) is a graph-theory based, multiscale metric that is generalizable to a range of different structural and functional connectivity applications. It exhibits minimal sensitivity to image rotation or resolution within a given range and responds intuitively to progressive, unidirectional change. Further, it is linearly related to the integral connectivity scale length—a metric common in hydrology that correlates well with actual fluxes—but is less computationally challenging and more readily comparable across different landscapes. Connectivity-orientation curves (i.e., directional connectivity computed over a range of headings) provide a quantitative, information-dense representation of environmental structure that can be used for comparison or detection of

  2. Directional connectivity in hydrology and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Laurel G; Choi, Jungyill; Nungesser, Martha K; Harvey, Judson W

    2012-12-01

    Quantifying hydrologic and ecological connectivity has contributed to understanding transport and dispersal processes and assessing ecosystem degradation or restoration potential. However, there has been little synthesis across disciplines. The growing field of ecohydrology and recent recognition that loss of hydrologic connectivity is leading to a global decline in biodiversity underscore the need for a unified connectivity concept. One outstanding need is a way to quantify directional connectivity that is consistent, robust to variations in sampling, and transferable across scales or environmental settings. Understanding connectivity in a particular direction (e.g., streamwise, along or across gradient, between sources and sinks, along cardinal directions) provides critical information for predicting contaminant transport, planning conservation corridor design, and understanding how landscapes or hydroscapes respond to directional forces like wind or water flow. Here we synthesize progress on quantifying connectivity and develop a new strategy for evaluating directional connectivity that benefits from use of graph theory in ecology and percolation theory in hydrology. The directional connectivity index (DCI) is a graph-theory based, multiscale metric that is generalizable to a range of different structural and functional connectivity applications. It exhibits minimal sensitivity to image rotation or resolution within a given range and responds intuitively to progressive, unidirectional change. Further, it is linearly related to the integral connectivity scale length--a metric common in hydrology that correlates well with actual fluxes--but is less computationally challenging and more readily comparable across different landscapes. Connectivity-orientation curves (i.e., directional connectivity computed over a range of headings) provide a quantitative, information-dense representation of environmental structure that can be used for comparison or detection of

  3. The TANF/SSI connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamhoff, Steve; Wiseman, Michael

    Interactions and overlap of social assistance programs across clients interest policymakers because such interactions affect both the clients' well-being and the programs' efficiency. This article investigates the connections between Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) and TANF's predecessor, the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. Connections between receipt of TANF and SSI are widely discussed in both disability policy and poverty research literatures because many families receiving TANF report disabilities. For both states and the individuals involved, it is generally financially advantageous for adults and children with disabilities to transfer from TANF to SSI. States gain because the federal government pays for the SSI benefit, and states can then use the TANF savings for other purposes. The families gain because the SSI benefits they acquire are greater than the TANF benefits they lose. The payoff to states from transferring welfare recipients to SSI was substantially increased when Congress replaced AFDC with TANF in 1996. States retained less than half of any savings achieved through such transfers under AFDC, but they retain all of the savings under TANF. Also, the work participation requirements under TANF have obligated states to address the work support needs of adults with disabilities who remain in TANF, and states can avoid these costs if adults have disabilities that satisfy SSI eligibility requirements. The incentive for TANF recipients to apply for SSI has increased over time as inflation has caused real TANF benefits to fall relative to payments received by SSI recipients. Trends in the financial incentives for transfer to SSI have not been studied in detail, and reliable general data on the extent of the interaction between TANF and SSI are scarce. In addition, some estimates of the prevalence of TANF receipt among SSI awardees are flawed because they fail to include adults

  4. Social media and (dis)connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    The paper discuss the relation between media of communication and societal (dis)connectivity. The question is how communication media provide society with different possibilities for (dis)connectivity in different historical media societies. The paper draws on Luhmann’s theory of social systems...... for social systems to develop structures with new forms of communicative connections. Even though society only is possible because of communication media and gets new possibilities for the formation of new structures providing it with new connection possibilities, in the beginning a new communication medium....... In the present society we also see signs of new dis-connectivity, i.e. fake news, political polarization, and economic and democratic inequality. In the final section the paper analyse such problems triggered by digital media. Also the paper point out some new possibilities triggered by the acquisition of social...

  5. Study on the Connecting Length of CFRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiongfei; Li, Yue; Li, Zhanguo

    2018-05-01

    The paper studied the varying mode of shear stress in the connecting zone of CFRP. Using epoxy resin (EP) as bond material, performance of specimens with different connecting length of CFRP was tested to obtain the conclusion. CFRP-confined concrete column was tested subsequently to verify the conclusion. The results show that: (1) The binding properties of modified epoxy resin with CFRP is good; (2) As the connecting length increased, the ultimate tensile strength of CFRP increased as well in the range of the experiment parameters; (3) Tensile strength of CFRP can reach the ultimate strength when the connecting length is 90mm;(4) The connecting length of 90mm of CFRP meet the reinforcement requirements.

  6. Looking Deeper Into Hydrologic Connectivity and Streamflow Generation: A Groundwater Hydrologist's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, W. P.

    2016-12-01

    In this presentation the definition of hydraulic connection will be explored with a focus on the role of deep groundwater in streamflow generation and its time and space limits. Regional groundwater flow paths can be important sources of baseflow and potentially event response in surface water systems. This deep groundwater discharge plays an important role in determining how the watershed responds to climatic forcing, whether watersheds are a carbon source or sink and can be significant for watershed geochemistry and nutrient loading. These flow paths potentially "connect" to surface water systems and saturated soil zones at large distances, and over long time scales. However, these flow paths are challenging to detect, especially with hydraulic techniques. Here we will discuss some of the basic physical processes that affect the hydraulic signal along a groundwater flow path and their implications for the definition of hydrologic connection. Methods of measuring hydraulic connection using groundwater head response and their application in detecting regional groundwater discharge will be discussed. Environmental tracers are also a powerful method for identifying connected flowpaths in groundwater systems, and are commonly used to determine flow connection and flow rates in groundwater studies. Isotopic tracer methods for detecting deep, regional flow paths in watersheds will be discussed, along with observations of deep groundwater discharge in shallow alluvial systems around the world. The goal of this talk is to discuss hydraulic and hydrologic connection from a groundwater hydrologist's perspective, spark conversation on the meaning of hydrologic connection, the processes which govern hydraulic response and methods to measure flow connections and flux.

  7. Ecological connectivity networks in rapidly expanding cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Amal Najihah M; Corstanje, Ron; Harris, Jim A; Grafius, Darren R; Siriwardena, Gavin M

    2017-06-01

    Urban expansion increases fragmentation of the landscape. In effect, fragmentation decreases connectivity, causes green space loss and impacts upon the ecology and function of green space. Restoration of the functionality of green space often requires restoring the ecological connectivity of this green space within the city matrix. However, identifying ecological corridors that integrate different structural and functional connectivity of green space remains vague. Assessing connectivity for developing an ecological network by using efficient models is essential to improve these networks under rapid urban expansion. This paper presents a novel methodological approach to assess and model connectivity for the Eurasian tree sparrow ( Passer montanus ) and Yellow-vented bulbul ( Pycnonotus goiavier ) in three cities (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Jakarta, Indonesia and Metro Manila, Philippines). The approach identifies potential priority corridors for ecological connectivity networks. The study combined circuit models, connectivity analysis and least-cost models to identify potential corridors by integrating structure and function of green space patches to provide reliable ecological connectivity network models in the cities. Relevant parameters such as landscape resistance and green space structure (vegetation density, patch size and patch distance) were derived from an expert and literature-based approach based on the preference of bird behaviour. The integrated models allowed the assessment of connectivity for both species using different measures of green space structure revealing the potential corridors and least-cost pathways for both bird species at the patch sites. The implementation of improvements to the identified corridors could increase the connectivity of green space. This study provides examples of how combining models can contribute to the improvement of ecological networks in rapidly expanding cities and demonstrates the usefulness of such models for

  8. Ecological connectivity networks in rapidly expanding cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Najihah M. Nor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban expansion increases fragmentation of the landscape. In effect, fragmentation decreases connectivity, causes green space loss and impacts upon the ecology and function of green space. Restoration of the functionality of green space often requires restoring the ecological connectivity of this green space within the city matrix. However, identifying ecological corridors that integrate different structural and functional connectivity of green space remains vague. Assessing connectivity for developing an ecological network by using efficient models is essential to improve these networks under rapid urban expansion. This paper presents a novel methodological approach to assess and model connectivity for the Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus and Yellow-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus goiavier in three cities (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Jakarta, Indonesia and Metro Manila, Philippines. The approach identifies potential priority corridors for ecological connectivity networks. The study combined circuit models, connectivity analysis and least-cost models to identify potential corridors by integrating structure and function of green space patches to provide reliable ecological connectivity network models in the cities. Relevant parameters such as landscape resistance and green space structure (vegetation density, patch size and patch distance were derived from an expert and literature-based approach based on the preference of bird behaviour. The integrated models allowed the assessment of connectivity for both species using different measures of green space structure revealing the potential corridors and least-cost pathways for both bird species at the patch sites. The implementation of improvements to the identified corridors could increase the connectivity of green space. This study provides examples of how combining models can contribute to the improvement of ecological networks in rapidly expanding cities and demonstrates the usefulness of such

  9. Performance of IBS Precast Concrete Beam-Column Connections Under Earthquake Effects: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick T.L. Yee; Azlan B. Adnan; Abdul K. Mirasa; Ahmad B.A. Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Despite demonstrating rather much benefits comparing to the conventional cast-in-place construction, the acceptance level of precast concrete building is still reportedly low in Malaysia. The implication imposed by stricter seismic design provisions would only worsen the matter. Approach: The main objective of this study was to identify the most appropriate type of beam-column connections to be introduced to precast concrete industry, particularly for re...

  10. Earlier adolescent substance use onset predicts stronger connectivity between reward and cognitive control brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Weissman

    2015-12-01

    Discussion: The regions that demonstrated significant positive linear relationships between the number of adolescent years using substances and connectivity with NAcc are nodes in the right frontoparietal network, which is central to cognitive control. The coupling of reward and cognitive control networks may be a mechanism through which earlier onset of substance use is related to brain function over time, a trajectory that may be implicated in subsequent substance use disorders.

  11. Functional connectivity in cortical regions in dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Eva R; Blamire, Andrew M; Firbank, Michael J; O'Brien, John T

    2012-02-01

    's disease, hippocampal connectivity was not found to be greater in dementia with Lewy bodies. Importantly, while metabolic imaging shows functional change in primary visual cortex in dementia with Lewy bodies, which is hypothesized to account for visual hallucinations, we found connectivity with this region to be unaffected. This implicates areas beyond visual sensory input level in the visual symptoms and visual-perceptual dysfunction seen in dementia with Lewy bodies.

  12. A Connected Space for Early Experiential Learning in Teacher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Carefully constructed field-based experiences in teacher education programs have been recognized as one of the essential conditions for effective teacher learning. Most college/university-based teacher education programs, however, are still dominated by the epistemology that academic knowledge is the authoritative source of knowledge about teaching, while spaces outside the college classroom remain the “practice fields.” This study examined Project CONNECT (PC, an after-school program designed to create early experiential learning opportunities for pre-service teachers (PSTs by bringing together different aspects of expertise from the schools, communities, and universities. Pre-service teachers in this study worked with children one afternoon a week in school-based sites during their sophomore and junior years. Case study was adopted to assess the impact of the experience on teacher learning and the factors contributing to the effect. Multiple data sources, including weekly reflection journals, field observation notes, and an exit survey were collected and analyzed. Results revealed participants’ transformation of professional identity, and development of professional skills and dispositions. Several factors emerged as important to PSTs’ learning throughout the experience, including connections between the course and the program, quality of faculty supervision, and systematic reflection. Implications for teacher education were discussed.

  13. Neighborhood Integration and Connectivity Predict Cognitive Performance and Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Watts PhD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Neighborhood characteristics may be important for promoting walking, but little research has focused on older adults, especially those with cognitive impairment. We evaluated the role of neighborhood characteristics on cognitive function and decline over a 2-year period adjusting for measures of walking. Method: In a study of 64 older adults with and without mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD, we evaluated neighborhood integration and connectivity using geographical information systems data and space syntax analysis. In multiple regression analyses, we used these characteristics to predict 2-year declines in factor analytically derived cognitive scores (attention, verbal memory, mental status adjusting for age, sex, education, and self-reported walking. Results : Neighborhood integration and connectivity predicted cognitive performance at baseline, and changes in cognitive performance over 2 years. The relationships between neighborhood characteristics and cognitive performance were not fully explained by self-reported walking. Discussion : Clearer definitions of specific neighborhood characteristics associated with walkability are needed to better understand the mechanisms by which neighborhoods may impact cognitive outcomes. These results have implications for measuring neighborhood characteristics, design and maintenance of living spaces, and interventions to increase walking among older adults. We offer suggestions for future research measuring neighborhood characteristics and cognitive function.

  14. Functional hierarchy underlies preferential connectivity disturbances in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Genevieve J; Murray, John D; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Glahn, David C; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Repovs, Grega; Krystal, John H; Anticevic, Alan

    2016-01-12

    Schizophrenia may involve an elevated excitation/inhibition (E/I) ratio in cortical microcircuits. It remains unknown how this regulatory disturbance maps onto neuroimaging findings. To address this issue, we implemented E/I perturbations within a neural model of large-scale functional connectivity, which predicted hyperconnectivity following E/I elevation. To test predictions, we examined resting-state functional MRI in 161 schizophrenia patients and 164 healthy subjects. As predicted, patients exhibited elevated functional connectivity that correlated with symptom levels, and was most prominent in association cortices, such as the fronto-parietal control network. This pattern was absent in patients with bipolar disorder (n = 73). To account for the pattern observed in schizophrenia, we integrated neurobiologically plausible, hierarchical differences in association vs. sensory recurrent neuronal dynamics into our model. This in silico architecture revealed preferential vulnerability of association networks to E/I imbalance, which we verified empirically. Reported effects implicate widespread microcircuit E/I imbalance as a parsimonious mechanism for emergent inhomogeneous dysconnectivity in schizophrenia.

  15. Fish assemblages, connectivity, and habitat rehabilitation in a diked Great Lakes coastal wetland complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kurt P.; Wiley, Michael J.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    Fish and plant assemblages in the highly modified Crane Creek coastal wetland complex of Lake Erie were sampled to characterize their spatial and seasonal patterns and to examine the implications of the hydrologic connection of diked wetland units to Lake Erie. Fyke netting captured 52 species and an abundance of fish in the Lake Erie–connected wetlands, but fewer than half of those species and much lower numbers and total masses of fish were captured in diked wetland units. Although all wetland units were immediately adjacent to Lake Erie, there were also pronounced differences in water quality and wetland vegetation between the hydrologically isolated and lake-connected wetlands. Large seasonal variations in fish assemblage composition and biomass were observed in connected wetland units but not in disconnected units. Reestablishment of hydrologic connectivity in diked wetland units would allow coastal Lake Erie fish to use these vegetated habitats seasonally, although connectivity does appear to pose some risks, such as the expansion of invasive plants and localized reductions in water quality. Periodic isolation and drawdown of the diked units could still be used to mimic intermediate levels of disturbance and manage invasive wetland vegetation.

  16. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S; De Jesus, Danilo R; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Schutter, Dennis J L G

    2014-01-01

    Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders.

  17. Structural and effective connectivity in focal epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S. Parker

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with medically-refractory focal epilepsy may be candidates for neurosurgery and some may require placement of intracranial EEG electrodes to localise seizure onset. Assessing cerebral responses to single pulse electrical stimulation (SPES may give diagnostically useful data. SPES produces cortico-cortical evoked potentials (CCEPs, which infer effective brain connectivity. Diffusion-weighted images and tractography may be used to estimate structural brain connectivity. This combination provides the opportunity to observe seizure onset and its propagation throughout the brain, spreading contiguously along the cortex explored with electrodes, or non-contiguously. We analysed CCEPs and diffusion tractography in seven focal epilepsy patients and reconstructed the effective and structural brain networks. We aimed to assess the inter-modal similarity of the networks at a large scale across the cortex, the effective and structural connectivity of the ictal-onset zone, and investigate potential mechanisms of non-contiguous seizure spread. We found a significant overlap between structural and effective networks. Effective network CCEP amplitude, baseline variation, and outward connectivity was higher at ictal-onset zones, while structural connection strength within the ictal-onset zone tended to be higher. These findings support the concept of hyperexcitable cortex being associated with seizure generation. The high prevalence of structural and effective connections from the ictal-onset zone to sites of non-contiguous spread suggests that macroscopic structural and effective connections are plausible routes for non-contiguous seizure spread.

  18. A case for motor network contributions to schizophrenia symptoms: Evidence from resting-state connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jessica A; Goen, James R M; Maldonado, Ted

    2017-09-01

    Though schizophrenia (SCZ) is classically defined based on positive symptoms and the negative symptoms of the disease prove to be debilitating for many patients, motor deficits are often present as well. A growing literature highlights the importance of motor systems and networks in the disease, and it may be the case that dysfunction in motor networks relates to the pathophysiology and etiology of SCZ. To test this and build upon recent work in SCZ and in at-risk populations, we investigated cortical and cerebellar motor functional networks at rest in SCZ and controls using publically available data. We analyzed data from 82 patients and 88 controls. We found key group differences in resting-state connectivity patterns that highlight dysfunction in motor circuits and also implicate the thalamus. Furthermore, we demonstrated that in SCZ, these resting-state networks are related to both positive and negative symptom severity. Though the ventral prefrontal cortex and corticostriatal pathways more broadly have been implicated in negative symptom severity, here we extend these findings to include motor-striatal connections, as increased connectivity between the primary motor cortex and basal ganglia was associated with more severe negative symptoms. Together, these findings implicate motor networks in the symptomatology of psychosis, and we speculate that these networks may be contributing to the etiology of the disease. Overt motor deficits in SCZ may signal underlying network dysfunction that contributes to the overall disease state. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4535-4545, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Altered thalamic functional connectivity in multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yaou; Liang, Peipeng; Duan, Yunyun; Huang, Jing; Ren, Zhuoqiong; Jia, Xiuqin [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Dong, Huiqing; Ye, Jing [Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Shi, Fu-Dong [Department of Neurology and Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052 (China); Butzkueven, Helmut [Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Li, Kuncheng, E-mail: kunchengli55@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •We demonstrated decreased connectivity between thalamus and cortical regions in MS. •Increased intra- and inter-thalamic connectivity was also observed in MS. •The increased functional connectivity is attenuated by increasing disease duration. -- Abstract: Objective: To compare thalamic functional connectivity (FC) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls (HC), and correlate these connectivity measures with other MRI and clinical variables. Methods: We employed resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) to examine changes in thalamic connectivity by comparing thirty-five patients with MS and 35 age- and sex-matched HC. Thalamic FC was investigated by correlating low frequency fMRI signal fluctuations in thalamic voxels with voxels in all other brain regions. Additionally thalamic volume fraction (TF), T2 lesion volume (T2LV), EDSS and disease duration were recorded and correlated with the FC changes. Results: MS patients were found to have a significantly lower TF than HC in bilateral thalami. Compared to HC, the MS group showed significantly decreased FC between thalamus and several brain regions including right middle frontal and parahippocampal gyri, and the left inferior parietal lobule. Increased intra- and inter-thalamic FC was observed in the MS group compared to HC. These FC alterations were not correlated with T2LV, thalamic volume or lesions. In the MS group, however, there was a negative correlation between disease duration and inter-thalamic connectivity (r = −0.59, p < 0.001). Conclusion: We demonstrated decreased FC between thalamus and several cortical regions, while increased intra- and inter-thalamic connectivity in MS patients. These complex functional changes reflect impairments and/or adaptations that are independent of T2LV, thalamic volume or presence of thalamic lesions. The negative correlation between disease duration and inter-thalamic connectivity could indicate an adaptive role of thalamus that is

  20. Depression: a psychiatric nursing theory of connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feely, M; Long, A

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents a theory of connectivity, which was formulated from the findings of a Classical Grounded Theory study that was designed to capture a sample of people's perceptions of living with depression or caring for individuals with depression. Data were collected from: (1) a focus group consisting of people with depression (n = 7), of which five were patients in the community and two were nurses; (2) one-to-one interviews with patients in the community (n = 5) and nurses (n = 5), three of whom had experienced depression from both sides of the caring process; and (3) two 'happy accident' focus groups (n = 25; n = 18) comprising of healthcare workers with a shared understanding of depression. Purposeful sampling was used initially. Thereafter, in keeping with one of the key tenets of grounded theory, theoretical sampling was used until theoretical saturation occurred. Data were analysed using the constant comparative approach together with the NVivo qualitative analysis software package. The core category that emerged was 'connectivity' relating to the connections and disconnections, which people make in their lives. Six key categories emerged all of which were integrated with the core category. Hence, connectivity provided a significant platform for understanding and responding to the life experience of depression. They were: (1) life encounters on the journey to naming; (2) depression: What's in a name? The silent thief; (3) tentative steps to health care; (4) connective encounters and challenges; (5) connecting with self; and (6) self-connection maintenance. Subsequently, a theory, 'Depression: a psychiatric nursing theory of connectivity', surfaced from the overall findings. We argue that this theory of connectivity provides a framework that people working in the field of holistic treatment and care could use to better understand and respond to the life experience of people living with depression.

  1. Detecting Functional Connectivity During Audiovisual Integration with MEG: A Comparison of Connectivity Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ard, Tyler; Carver, Frederick W; Holroyd, Tom; Horwitz, Barry; Coppola, Richard

    2015-08-01

    In typical magnetoencephalography and/or electroencephalography functional connectivity analysis, researchers select one of several methods that measure a relationship between regions to determine connectivity, such as coherence, power correlations, and others. However, it is largely unknown if some are more suited than others for various types of investigations. In this study, the authors investigate seven connectivity metrics to evaluate which, if any, are sensitive to audiovisual integration by contrasting connectivity when tracking an audiovisual object versus connectivity when tracking a visual object uncorrelated with the auditory stimulus. The authors are able to assess the metrics' performances at detecting audiovisual integration by investigating connectivity between auditory and visual areas. Critically, the authors perform their investigation on a whole-cortex all-to-all mapping, avoiding confounds introduced in seed selection. The authors find that amplitude-based connectivity measures in the beta band detect strong connections between visual and auditory areas during audiovisual integration, specifically between V4/V5 and auditory cortices in the right hemisphere. Conversely, phase-based connectivity measures in the beta band as well as phase and power measures in alpha, gamma, and theta do not show connectivity between audiovisual areas. The authors postulate that while beta power correlations detect audiovisual integration in the current experimental context, it may not always be the best measure to detect connectivity. Instead, it is likely that the brain utilizes a variety of mechanisms in neuronal communication that may produce differential types of temporal relationships.

  2. Are people more connective than political actions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shehata, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    The recent wave of Internet-based social movements in the Arab Spring countries and elsewhere has considerably changed the organizational structure of contentious action. One of the current and most significant theories that has handled this change is the logic of connective action, which...... distinguishes between two major types of contentious action: collective and connective. In the context of this theory, this article puts forward a new conception of political action participants and attempts to classify them along the categories of collective or connective. This conception, which consists...

  3. Transit signal priority with connected vehicle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A new TSP logic was proposed, taking advantage of the resources provided by Connected Vehicle (CV) : technology, including two-way communication between the bus and the traffic signal controller, accurate bus : location detection and prediction, and ...

  4. Connected Vehicle Technologies for Efficient Urban Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-24

    Connected vehicle technology is employed to optimize the vehicle's control system in real-time to reduce congestion, improve fuel economy, and reduce emissions. This project's goal was to develop a two-way communication system to upload vehicle data ...

  5. PROCESS OF ELECTRICAL CONNECTION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC DEVICES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell module comprising at least two serially connected photovoltaic cells on a common substrate, wherein the cells each comprise a first electrode layer, a first charge selective layer, a light harvesting layer which comprises an organic conjugated polymer, and a second charge...... of the pair, which connection is made through the light harvesting layer common to the at least one pair of cells, without forming an electrical connection with the first electrode of the first cell or the second charge selective layer of the second cell; and a method of making such a photovoltaic cell module....... selective layer is formed such that the second charge selective layer of one cell has no direct electrical connection to the second charge selective layer of any other cell, and wherein the light-harvesting layer is formed such that it is common to at least one pair of adjacent cells of the module; wherein...

  6. Low-stress bicycling and network connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    For a bicycling network to attract the widest possible segment of the population, its most fundamental attribute should be low-stress connectivity, that is, providing routes between peoples origins and destinations that do not require cyclists to ...

  7. Switch-connected HyperX network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip

    2018-02-13

    A network system includes a plurality of sub-network planes and global switches. The sub-network planes have a same network topology as each other. Each of the sub-network planes includes edge switches. Each of the edge switches has N ports. Each of the global switches is configured to connect a group of edge switches at a same location in the sub-network planes. In each of the sub-network planes, some of the N ports of each of the edge switches are connected to end nodes, and others of the N ports are connected to other edge switches in the same sub-network plane, other of the N ports are connected to at least one of the global switches.

  8. The Listening Train: A Collaborative, Connective Aesthetics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Listening Train: A Collaborative, Connective Aesthetics Approach to Transgressive Social Learning. ... Southern African Journal of Environmental Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue ...

  9. Transistor Effect in Improperly Connected Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzader, Stephen; Sanchez-Velasco, Eduardo

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the differences between the standard representation and a realistic representation of a transistor. Presents an experiment that helps clarify the explanation of the transistor effect and shows why transistors should be connected properly. (JRH)

  10. Connecting Vietnam's isolated communities to improve healthcare ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-29

    Jan 29, 2018 ... Connecting Vietnam's isolated communities to improve healthcare ... of pregnancy and new motherhood improved their interactions with health workers. ... Return to main page: Overcoming eHealth challenges with social and ...

  11. EMPOWERING GIRLS AND CONNECTING PEOPLE THROUGH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    through a school social work intervention and connecting the people who will support the ... best legacy we can bequeath children has been an old .... Some 14 million women and girls between ages 15 and ... Harmful traditional practices.

  12. Feedwater connection repair and modification at GKN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witteman, C; Klees, J E

    1985-03-01

    From January to March 1983 the feedwater connection of GKN was repaired using a boring lathe, spark machining and semi-automatic welding. Nondestructive examination was performed by ultrasonic and eddy-current testing.

  13. Feedwater connection repair and modification at GKN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witteman, C.; Klees, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    From Jan. to March 1983 the feedwater connection of GKN was repaired using a boring lathe, spark machining and semi-automatic welding. Nondestructive examination was performed by ultrasonic and eddy-current testing

  14. Asthma Research: The NIH–NJRC Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Asthma Research: The NIH–NJRC Connection Past Issues / Fall ... the many ways that NIH supports and promotes asthma research is through its strong relationship with National ...

  15. Periodic words connected with the Fibonacci words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Barabash

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce two families of periodic words (FLP-words of type 1 and FLP-words of type 2 that are connected with the Fibonacci words and investigated their properties.

  16. Better models are more effectively connected models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Bielders, Charles; Darboux, Frederic; Fiener, Peter; Finger, David; Turnbull-Lloyd, Laura; Wainwright, John

    2016-04-01

    The concept of hydrologic and geomorphologic connectivity describes the processes and pathways which link sources (e.g. rainfall, snow and ice melt, springs, eroded areas and barren lands) to accumulation areas (e.g. foot slopes, streams, aquifers, reservoirs), and the spatial variations thereof. There are many examples of hydrological and sediment connectivity on a watershed scale; in consequence, a process-based understanding of connectivity is crucial to help managers understand their systems and adopt adequate measures for flood prevention, pollution mitigation and soil protection, among others. Modelling is often used as a tool to understand and predict fluxes within a catchment by complementing observations with model results. Catchment models should therefore be able to reproduce the linkages, and thus the connectivity of water and sediment fluxes within the systems under simulation. In modelling, a high level of spatial and temporal detail is desirable to ensure taking into account a maximum number of components, which then enables connectivity to emerge from the simulated structures and functions. However, computational constraints and, in many cases, lack of data prevent the representation of all relevant processes and spatial/temporal variability in most models. In most cases, therefore, the level of detail selected for modelling is too coarse to represent the system in a way in which connectivity can emerge; a problem which can be circumvented by representing fine-scale structures and processes within coarser scale models using a variety of approaches. This poster focuses on the results of ongoing discussions on modelling connectivity held during several workshops within COST Action Connecteur. It assesses the current state of the art of incorporating the concept of connectivity in hydrological and sediment models, as well as the attitudes of modellers towards this issue. The discussion will focus on the different approaches through which connectivity

  17. Enumeration of connected Catalan objects by type

    OpenAIRE

    Rhoades, Brendon

    2010-01-01

    Noncrossing set partitions, nonnesting set partitions, Dyck paths, and rooted plane trees are four classes of Catalan objects which carry a notion of type. There exists a product formula which enumerates these objects according to type. We define a notion of `connectivity' for these objects and prove an analogous product formula which counts connected objects by type. Our proof of this product formula is combinatorial and bijective. We extend this to a product formula which counts objects wit...

  18. Meromorphic connections on vector bundles over curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The constant function 1 on X will be denoted by 1X. Note that D(1X) is a logarithmic connection on E whose singular locus is contained in . Conversely, if D is a logarithmic connection on E whose singular locus is contained in , then sending. 1X to D we construct an OX-linear homomorphism D : OX −→ At (E) such that.

  19. CELLULAR CONTROL OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE MATRIX TENSION†

    OpenAIRE

    Langevin, Helene M.; Nedergaard, Maiken; Howe, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The biomechanical behavior of connective tissue in response to stretching is generally attributed to the molecular composition and organization of its extracellular matrix. It also is becoming apparent that fibroblasts play an active role in regulating connective tissue tension. In response to static stretching of the tissue, fibroblasts expand within minutes by actively remodeling their cytoskeleton. This dynamic change in fibroblast shape contributes to the drop in tissue tension that occur...

  20. Functional connectivity change as shared signal dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael W.; Yang, Genevieve J.; Murray, John D.; Repovš, Grega; Anticevic, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Background An increasing number of neuroscientific studies gain insights by focusing on differences in functional connectivity – between groups, individuals, temporal windows, or task conditions. We found using simulations that additional insights into such differences can be gained by forgoing variance normalization, a procedure used by most functional connectivity measures. Simulations indicated that these functional connectivity measures are sensitive to increases in independent fluctuations (unshared signal) in time series, consistently reducing functional connectivity estimates (e.g., correlations) even though such changes are unrelated to corresponding fluctuations (shared signal) between those time series. This is inconsistent with the common notion of functional connectivity as the amount of inter-region interaction. New Method Simulations revealed that a version of correlation without variance normalization – covariance – was able to isolate differences in shared signal, increasing interpretability of observed functional connectivity change. Simulations also revealed cases problematic for non-normalized methods, leading to a “covariance conjunction” method combining the benefits of both normalized and non-normalized approaches. Results We found that covariance and covariance conjunction methods can detect functional connectivity changes across a variety of tasks and rest in both clinical and non-clinical functional MRI datasets. Comparison with Existing Method(s) We verified using a variety of tasks and rest in both clinical and non-clinical functional MRI datasets that it matters in practice whether correlation, covariance, or covariance conjunction methods are used. Conclusions These results demonstrate the practical and theoretical utility of isolating changes in shared signal, improving the ability to interpret observed functional connectivity change. PMID:26642966

  1. Hypersurfaces in simply connected space forms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Let M be a hypersurface of (M(κ), ds2). For every point m ∈ M, let A: TmM → TmM be the Weingarten map of the hypersurface. In this paper we prove the following results. Theorem 1. Let M be a connected hypersurface in the simply connected space form. (M(κ), ds2) such that the Ricci curvature of M satisfies the inequality ...

  2. Connections between radiation and positronium chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirade, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    Some of the important connections between radiation chemistry and positronium chemistry started from the establishment of the spur reaction model proposed by Mogensen. Now, the modified model, the blob model proposed by Stepanov and Byakov, is making it possible to have the quantitative or semi-quantitative view of the positronium formation by using the distributions of positrons and excess electrons. Some of the interesting topics will be picked up here to understand the connections between radiation chemistry and positronium chemistry

  3. Aberrant Dynamic Connectivity for Fear Processing in Anorexia Nervosa and Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rangaprakash

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Anorexia nervosa (AN and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD share distorted perceptions of appearance with extreme negative emotion, yet the neural phenotypes of emotion processing remain underexplored in them, and they have never been directly compared. We sought to determine if shared and disorder-specific fronto-limbic connectivity patterns characterize these disorders. FMRI data was obtained from three unmedicated groups: BDD (n = 32, weight-restored AN (n = 25, and healthy controls (HC; n = 37, while they viewed fearful faces and rated their own degree of fearfulness in response. We performed dynamic effective connectivity modeling with medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC, and amygdala as regions-of-interest (ROI, and assessed associations between connectivity and clinical variables. HCs exhibited significant within-group bidirectional mPFC-amygdala connectivity, which increased across the blocks, whereas BDD participants exhibited only significant mPFC-to-amygdala connectivity (P < 0.05, family-wise error corrected. In contrast, participants with AN lacked significant prefrontal-amygdala connectivity in either direction. AN showed significantly weaker mPFC-to-amygdala connectivity compared to HCs (P = 0.0015 and BDD (P = 0.0050. The mPFC-to-amygdala connectivity was associated with greater subjective fear ratings (R2 = 0.11, P = 0.0016, eating disorder symptoms (R2 = 0.33, P = 0.0029, and anxiety (R2 = 0.29, P = 0.0055 intensity scores. Our findings, which suggest a complex nosological relationship, have implications for understanding emotion regulation circuitry in these related psychiatric disorders, and may have relevance for current and novel therapeutic approaches.

  4. A posteriori model validation for the temporal order of directed functional connectivity maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltz, Adriene M; Molenaar, Peter C M

    2015-01-01

    A posteriori model validation for the temporal order of neural directed functional connectivity maps is rare. This is striking because models that require sequential independence among residuals are regularly implemented. The aim of the current study was (a) to apply to directed functional connectivity maps of functional magnetic resonance imaging data an a posteriori model validation procedure (i.e., white noise tests of one-step-ahead prediction errors combined with decision criteria for revising the maps based upon Lagrange Multiplier tests), and (b) to demonstrate how the procedure applies to single-subject simulated, single-subject task-related, and multi-subject resting state data. Directed functional connectivity was determined by the unified structural equation model family of approaches in order to map contemporaneous and first order lagged connections among brain regions at the group- and individual-levels while incorporating external input, then white noise tests were run. Findings revealed that the validation procedure successfully detected unmodeled sequential dependencies among residuals and recovered higher order (greater than one) simulated connections, and that the procedure can accommodate task-related input. Findings also revealed that lags greater than one were present in resting state data: With a group-level network that contained only contemporaneous and first order connections, 44% of subjects required second order, individual-level connections in order to obtain maps with white noise residuals. Results have broad methodological relevance (e.g., temporal validation is necessary after directed functional connectivity analyses because the presence of unmodeled higher order sequential dependencies may bias parameter estimates) and substantive implications (e.g., higher order lags may be common in resting state data).

  5. A posteriori model validation for the temporal order of directed functional connectivity maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriene M. Beltz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A posteriori model validation for the temporal order of neural directed functional connectivity maps is rare. This is striking because models that require sequential independence among residuals are regularly implemented. The aim of the current study was (a to apply to directed functional connectivity maps of functional magnetic resonance imaging data an a posteriori model validation procedure (i.e., white noise tests of one-step-ahead prediction errors combined with decision criteria for revising the maps based upon Lagrange Multiplier tests, and (b to demonstrate how the procedure applies to single-subject simulated, single-subject task-related, and multi-subject resting state data. Directed functional connectivity was determined by the unified structural equation model family of approaches in order to map contemporaneous and first order lagged connections among brain regions at the group- and individual-levels while incorporating external input, then white noise tests were run. Findings revealed that the validation procedure successfully detected unmodeled sequential dependencies among residuals and recovered higher order (greater than one simulated connections, and that the procedure can accommodate task-related input. Findings also revealed that lags greater than one were present in resting state data: With a group-level network that contained only contemporaneous and first order connections, 44% of subjects required second order, individual-level connections in order to obtain maps with white noise residuals. Results have broad methodological relevance (e.g., temporal validation is necessary after directed functional connectivity analyses because the presence of unmodeled higher order sequential dependencies may bias parameter estimates and substantive implications (e.g., higher order lags may be common in resting state data.

  6. Multi-modal neuroimaging of adolescents with non-suicidal self-injury: Amygdala functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlund Schreiner, Melinda; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Mueller, Bryon A; Eberly, Lynn E; Reigstad, Kristina M; Carstedt, Patricia A; Thomas, Kathleen M; Hunt, Ruskin H; Lim, Kelvin O; Cullen, Kathryn R

    2017-10-15

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a significant mental health problem among adolescents. Research is needed to clarify the neurobiology of NSSI and identify candidate neurobiological targets for interventions. Based on prior research implicating heightened negative affect and amygdala hyperactivity in NSSI, we pursued a systems approach to characterize amygdala functional connectivity networks during rest (resting-state functional connectivity [RSFC)]) and a task (task functional connectivity [TFC]) in adolescents with NSSI. We examined amygdala networks in female adolescents with NSSI and healthy controls (n = 45) using resting-state fMRI and a negative emotion face-matching fMRI task designed to activate the amygdala. Connectivity analyses included amygdala RSFC, amygdala TFC, and psychophysiological interactions (PPI) between amygdala connectivity and task conditions. Compared to healthy controls, adolescents with NSSI showed atypical amygdala-frontal connectivity during rest and task; greater amygdala RSFC in supplementary motor area (SMA) and dorsal anterior cingulate; and differential amygdala-occipital connectivity between rest and task. After correcting for depression symptoms, amygdala-SMA RSFC abnormalities, among others, remained significant. This study's limitations include its cross-sectional design and its absence of a psychiatric control group. Using a multi-modal approach, we identified widespread amygdala circuitry anomalies in adolescents with NSSI. While deficits in amygdala-frontal connectivity (driven by depression symptoms) replicates prior work in depression, hyperconnectivity between amygdala and SMA (independent of depression symptoms) has not been previously reported. This circuit may represent an important mechanism underlying the link between negative affect and habitual behaviors. These abnormalities may represent intervention targets for adolescents with NSSI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Reduced modulation of thalamocortical connectivity during exposure to sensory stimuli in ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Shulamite A; Hernandez, Leanna; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Dapretto, Mirella

    2017-05-01

    Recent evidence for abnormal thalamic connectivity in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and sensory processing disorders suggests the thalamus may play a role in sensory over-responsivity (SOR), an extreme negative response to sensory stimuli, which is common in ASD. However, there is yet little understanding of changes in thalamic connectivity during exposure to aversive sensory inputs in individuals with ASD. In particular, the pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus is implicated in atypical sensory processing given its role in selective attention, regulation, and sensory integration. This study aimed to examine the role of pulvinar connectivity in ASD during mildly aversive sensory input. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine connectivity with the pulvinar during exposure to mildly aversive auditory and tactile stimuli in 38 youth (age 9-17; 19 ASD, 19 IQ-matched typically developing (TD)). Parents rated children's SOR severity on two standard scales. Compared to TD, ASD participants displayed aberrant modulation of connectivity between pulvinar and cortex (including sensory-motor and prefrontal regions) during sensory stimulation. In ASD participants, pulvinar-amygdala connectivity was correlated with severity of SOR symptoms. Deficits in modulation of thalamocortical connectivity in youth with ASD may reflect reduced thalamo-cortical inhibition in response to sensory stimulation, which could lead to difficulty filtering out and/or integrating sensory information. An increase in amygdala connectivity with the pulvinar might be partially responsible for deficits in selective attention as the amygdala signals the brain to attend to distracting sensory stimuli. Autism Res 2017, 10: 801-809. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Sensing coral reef connectivity pathways from space

    KAUST Repository

    Raitsos, Dionysios E.; Brewin, Robert J. W.; Zhan, Peng; Dreano, Denis; Pradhan, Yaswant; Nanninga, Gerrit B.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Coral reefs rely on inter-habitat connectivity to maintain gene flow, biodiversity and ecosystem resilience. Coral reef communities of the Red Sea exhibit remarkable genetic homogeneity across most of the Arabian Peninsula coastline, with a genetic break towards the southern part of the basin. While previous studies have attributed these patterns to environmental heterogeneity, we hypothesize that they may also emerge as a result of dynamic circulation flow; yet, such linkages remain undemonstrated. Here, we integrate satellite-derived biophysical observations, particle dispersion model simulations, genetic population data and ship-borne in situ profiles to assess reef connectivity in the Red Sea. We simulated long-term (>20 yrs.) connectivity patterns driven by remotely-sensed sea surface height and evaluated results against estimates of genetic distance among populations of anemonefish, Amphiprion bicinctus, along the eastern Red Sea coastline. Predicted connectivity was remarkably consistent with genetic population data, demonstrating that circulation features (eddies, surface currents) formulate physical pathways for gene flow. The southern basin has lower physical connectivity than elsewhere, agreeing with known genetic structure of coral reef organisms. The central Red Sea provides key source regions, meriting conservation priority. Our analysis demonstrates a cost-effective tool to estimate biophysical connectivity remotely, supporting coastal management in data-limited regions.

  9. Altered intrinsic and extrinsic connectivity in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan; Zeidman, Peter; Wu, Shihao; Razi, Adeel; Chen, Cheng; Yang, Liuqing; Zou, Jilin; Wang, Gaohua; Wang, Huiling; Friston, Karl J

    2018-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disorder characterized by functional dysconnectivity among distributed brain regions. However, it is unclear how causal influences among large-scale brain networks are disrupted in schizophrenia. In this study, we used dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to assess the hypothesis that there is aberrant directed (effective) connectivity within and between three key large-scale brain networks (the dorsal attention network, the salience network and the default mode network) in schizophrenia during a working memory task. Functional MRI data during an n-back task from 40 patients with schizophrenia and 62 healthy controls were analyzed. Using hierarchical modeling of between-subject effects in DCM with Parametric Empirical Bayes, we found that intrinsic (within-region) and extrinsic (between-region) effective connectivity involving prefrontal regions were abnormal in schizophrenia. Specifically, in patients (i) inhibitory self-connections in prefrontal regions of the dorsal attention network were decreased across task conditions; (ii) extrinsic connectivity between regions of the default mode network was increased; specifically, from posterior cingulate cortex to the medial prefrontal cortex; (iii) between-network extrinsic connections involving the prefrontal cortex were altered; (iv) connections within networks and between networks were correlated with the severity of clinical symptoms and impaired cognition beyond working memory. In short, this study revealed the predominance of reduced synaptic efficacy of prefrontal efferents and afferents in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  10. Empirical validation of directed functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill, Ravi D; Bagic, Anto; Bostan, Andreea; Schneider, Walter; Cole, Michael W

    2017-02-01

    Mapping directions of influence in the human brain connectome represents the next phase in understanding its functional architecture. However, a host of methodological uncertainties have impeded the application of directed connectivity methods, which have primarily been validated via "ground truth" connectivity patterns embedded in simulated functional MRI (fMRI) and magneto-/electro-encephalography (MEG/EEG) datasets. Such simulations rely on many generative assumptions, and we hence utilized a different strategy involving empirical data in which a ground truth directed connectivity pattern could be anticipated with confidence. Specifically, we exploited the established "sensory reactivation" effect in episodic memory, in which retrieval of sensory information reactivates regions involved in perceiving that sensory modality. Subjects performed a paired associate task in separate fMRI and MEG sessions, in which a ground truth reversal in directed connectivity between auditory and visual sensory regions was instantiated across task conditions. This directed connectivity reversal was successfully recovered across different algorithms, including Granger causality and Bayes network (IMAGES) approaches, and across fMRI ("raw" and deconvolved) and source-modeled MEG. These results extend simulation studies of directed connectivity, and offer practical guidelines for the use of such methods in clarifying causal mechanisms of neural processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Why have connection costs soared so dramatically?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahjejian, L.

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of small photovoltaic power stations are demanding their connection to the national power grid. ERDF, the manager of the grid, has to adapt and reinforce some lines. The connection costs that were previously supported by the consumers has to be paid by the demander as the law NOME stipulates it. For installations below 18 kVA the cost ranges from 800 to 1600 euros and for more powerful installations an estimate has to be drawn by ERDF and the cost will depends on the presence or not of an adequate transformer in the vicinity, on the possible upgrading of the transformer, on the length of the cables necessary to make the connection and on whether the installation is in an urban area or not. A table gives the ERDF tariffs for the connection and the case of the connection of a 35 kVA station built on the roof of a shed in a rural zone is dealt with. The procedure to follow for demanding the connection to ERDF is detailed. (A.C.)

  12. Network structure shapes spontaneous functional connectivity dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kelly; Hutchison, R Matthew; Bezgin, Gleb; Everling, Stefan; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2015-04-08

    The structural organization of the brain constrains the range of interactions between different regions and shapes ongoing information processing. Therefore, it is expected that large-scale dynamic functional connectivity (FC) patterns, a surrogate measure of coordination between brain regions, will be closely tied to the fiber pathways that form the underlying structural network. Here, we empirically examined the influence of network structure on FC dynamics by comparing resting-state FC (rsFC) obtained using BOLD-fMRI in macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to structural connectivity derived from macaque axonal tract tracing studies. Consistent with predictions from simulation studies, the correspondence between rsFC and structural connectivity increased as the sample duration increased. Regions with reciprocal structural connections showed the most stable rsFC across time. The data suggest that the transient nature of FC is in part dependent on direct underlying structural connections, but also that dynamic coordination can occur via polysynaptic pathways. Temporal stability was found to be dependent on structural topology, with functional connections within the rich-club core exhibiting the greatest stability over time. We discuss these findings in light of highly variable functional hubs. The results further elucidate how large-scale dynamic functional coordination exists within a fixed structural architecture. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355579-10$15.00/0.

  13. Wireless device connection problems and design solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji-Won; Norman, Donald; Nam, Tek-Jin; Qin, Shengfeng

    2016-09-01

    Users, especially the non-expert users, commonly experience problems when connecting multiple devices with interoperability. While studies on multiple device connections are mostly concentrated on spontaneous device association techniques with a focus on security aspects, the research on user interaction for device connection is still limited. More research into understanding people is needed for designers to devise usable techniques. This research applies the Research-through-Design method and studies the non-expert users' interactions in establishing wireless connections between devices. The "Learning from Examples" concept is adopted to develop a study focus line by learning from the expert users' interaction with devices. This focus line is then used for guiding researchers to explore the non-expert users' difficulties at each stage of the focus line. Finally, the Research-through-Design approach is used to understand the users' difficulties, gain insights to design problems and suggest usable solutions. When connecting a device, the user is required to manage not only the device's functionality but also the interaction between devices. Based on learning from failures, an important insight is found that the existing design approach to improve single-device interaction issues, such as improvements to graphical user interfaces or computer guidance, cannot help users to handle problems between multiple devices. This study finally proposes a desirable user-device interaction in which images of two devices function together with a system image to provide the user with feedback on the status of the connection, which allows them to infer any required actions.

  14. Sensing coral reef connectivity pathways from space

    KAUST Repository

    Raitsos, Dionysios E.

    2017-08-18

    Coral reefs rely on inter-habitat connectivity to maintain gene flow, biodiversity and ecosystem resilience. Coral reef communities of the Red Sea exhibit remarkable genetic homogeneity across most of the Arabian Peninsula coastline, with a genetic break towards the southern part of the basin. While previous studies have attributed these patterns to environmental heterogeneity, we hypothesize that they may also emerge as a result of dynamic circulation flow; yet, such linkages remain undemonstrated. Here, we integrate satellite-derived biophysical observations, particle dispersion model simulations, genetic population data and ship-borne in situ profiles to assess reef connectivity in the Red Sea. We simulated long-term (>20 yrs.) connectivity patterns driven by remotely-sensed sea surface height and evaluated results against estimates of genetic distance among populations of anemonefish, Amphiprion bicinctus, along the eastern Red Sea coastline. Predicted connectivity was remarkably consistent with genetic population data, demonstrating that circulation features (eddies, surface currents) formulate physical pathways for gene flow. The southern basin has lower physical connectivity than elsewhere, agreeing with known genetic structure of coral reef organisms. The central Red Sea provides key source regions, meriting conservation priority. Our analysis demonstrates a cost-effective tool to estimate biophysical connectivity remotely, supporting coastal management in data-limited regions.

  15. Industrial implications of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressouyre, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    Two major industrial implications of hydrogen are examined: problems related to the effect of hydrogen on materials properties (hydrogen embrittlement), and problems related to the use and production of hydrogen as a future energy vector [fr

  16. Connect the Dots in Disaster Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Jolene; Benton, Kathy; Calhoun, Terry

    2002-01-01

    In the second article in a series on the implications of September 11 to colleges and universities, executives at the Society for College and University Planning outline an integrated approach to preparing for disasters. (EV)

  17. Critical connections: Communication for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    A broad context for evaluating the impacts of new communication technologies is provided. The implications of new communication technologies for business, politics, culture, and individuals, and possible strategies and options for congressional consideration are suggested.

  18. Geometric Implications of Maxwell's Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Felix T.

    2015-03-01

    Maxwell's synthesis of the varied results of the accumulated knowledge of electricity and magnetism, based largely on the searching insights of Faraday, still provide new issues to explore. A case in point is a well recognized anomaly in the Maxwell equations: The laws of electricity and magnetism require two 3-vector and two scalar equations, but only six dependent variables are available to be their solutions, the 3-vectors E and B. This leaves an apparent redundancy of two degrees of freedom (J. Rosen, AJP 48, 1071 (1980); Jiang, Wu, Povinelli, J. Comp. Phys. 125, 104 (1996)). The observed self-consistency of the eight equations suggests that they contain additional information. This can be sought as a previously unnoticed constraint connecting the space and time variables, r and t. This constraint can be identified. It distorts the otherwise Euclidean 3-space of r with the extremely slight, time dependent curvature k (t) =Rcurv-2 (t) of the 3-space of a hypersphere whose radius has the time dependence dRcurv / dt = +/- c nonrelativistically, or dRcurvLor / dt = +/- ic relativistically. The time dependence is exactly that of the Hubble expansion. Implications of this identification will be explored.

  19. The connection between academia and industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai; Singh, Shakuntala

    2005-03-01

    , ostensibly in the name of creating value, academia must realize it is a bait it might find hard to swallow in the long run. It makes more sense for the researcher and institution to forego such temptations and/or walk out of such investments as soon as possible.While mainstream medicine and research are booming, as is connected industry, concerns about professional commitment to patient welfare are growing too. Increasing corporate influence is challenging certain long held and fundamental values of patient care, which will have far reaching implications for biomedical care and the future progress of mainstream medicine.

  20. Variation in functional connectivity along anterior-to-posterior intraparietal sulcus, and relationship with age across late childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Vinette

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The intraparietal sulcus (IPS, a region in the dorsal attention network (DAN, has been implicated in multi-sensory attention and working memory. Working memory and attention develop across childhood; changes in functional connectivity within the DAN may relate to this maturation. Previous findings regarding fronto-parietal intrinsic functional connectivity age-effects were mixed. Our study aimed to circumvent limitations of previous work using a large cross-sectional sample, 183 typically developing participants 6.5–20 years, from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange, and seed regions along the anterior-to-posterior axis of the IPS. These seeds, IPS0-4, were entered into functional connectivity models. Group-level models investigated differential connectivity along the IPS and relationships with age. Anterior IPS3/4 exhibited greater connectivity with sensorimotor/pre-motor regions. Posterior IPS0/1 demonstrated greater connectivity with dorsal and ventral visual regions. Positive age-effects were found between IPS3-4 and visual regions. Negative age-effects were found between IPS and superior parietal and medial orbitofrontal cortices. Follow-up region of interest analyses were used to estimate age-effects for DAN and anticorrelated default mode network regions. Results suggest age-effects on IPS functional connectivity are relatively modest, and may differ pre- and across-adolescence. Studying typical age-related connectivity variability within this network may help to understand neurodevelopmental disorders marked by impaired attention.

  1. Amygdala functional connectivity, HPA axis genetic variation, and life stress in children and relations to anxiety and emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L; Bogdan, Ryan; Agrawal, Arpana; Gaffrey, Michael S; Belden, Andrew C; Botteron, Kelly N; Harms, Michael P; Barch, Deanna M

    2015-11-01

    Internalizing pathology is related to alterations in amygdala resting state functional connectivity, potentially implicating altered emotional reactivity and/or emotion regulation in the etiological pathway. Importantly, there is accumulating evidence that stress exposure and genetic vulnerability impact amygdala structure/function and risk for internalizing pathology. The present study examined whether early life stress and genetic profile scores (10 single nucleotide polymorphisms within 4 hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis genes: CRHR1, NR3C2, NR3C1, and FKBP5) predicted individual differences in amygdala functional connectivity in school-age children (9- to 14-year-olds; N = 120). Whole-brain regression analyses indicated that increasing genetic "risk" predicted alterations in amygdala connectivity to the caudate and postcentral gyrus. Experience of more stressful and traumatic life events predicted weakened amygdala-anterior cingulate cortex connectivity. Genetic "risk" and stress exposure interacted to predict weakened connectivity between the amygdala and the inferior and middle frontal gyri, caudate, and parahippocampal gyrus in those children with the greatest genetic and environmental risk load. Furthermore, amygdala connectivity longitudinally predicted anxiety symptoms and emotion regulation skills at a later follow-up. Amygdala connectivity mediated effects of life stress on anxiety and of genetic variants on emotion regulation. The current results suggest that considering the unique and interacting effects of biological vulnerability and environmental risk factors may be key to understanding the development of altered amygdala functional connectivity, a potential factor in the risk trajectory for internalizing pathology. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Amygdala functional connectivity, HPA axis genetic variation, and life stress in children and relations to anxiety and emotion regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L.; Bogdan, Ryan; Agrawal, Arpana; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Belden, Andrew C.; Botteron, Kelly N.; Harms, Michael P.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2015-01-01

    Internalizing pathology is related to alterations in amygdala resting state functional connectivity, potentially implicating altered emotional reactivity and/or emotion regulation in the etiological pathway. Importantly, there is accumulating evidence that stress exposure and genetic vulnerability impact amygdala structure/function and risk for internalizing pathology. The present study examined whether early life stress and genetic profile scores (10 single nucleotide polymorphisms within four hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis genes: CRHR1, NR3C2, NR3C1, and FKBP5) predicted individual differences in amygdala functional connectivity in school-age children (9–14 year olds; N=120). Whole-brain regression analyses indicated that increasing genetic ‘risk’ predicted alterations in amygdala connectivity to the caudate and postcentral gyrus. Experience of more stressful and traumatic life events predicted weakened amygdala-anterior cingulate cortex connectivity. Genetic ‘risk’ and stress exposure interacted to predict weakened connectivity between the amygdala and the inferior and middle frontal gyri, caudate, and parahippocampal gyrus in those children with the greatest genetic and environmental risk load. Furthermore, amygdala connectivity longitudinally predicted anxiety symptoms and emotion regulation skills at a later follow-up. Amygdala connectivity mediated effects of life stress on anxiety and of genetic variants on emotion regulation. The current results suggest that considering the unique and interacting effects of biological vulnerability and environmental risk factors may be key to understanding the development of altered amygdala functional connectivity, a potential factor in the risk trajectory for internalizing pathology. PMID:26595470

  3. Estuary-ocean connectivity: fast physics, slow biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimonet, Mélanie; Cloern, James E

    2017-06-01

    Estuaries are connected to both land and ocean so their physical, chemical, and biological dynamics are influenced by climate patterns over watersheds and ocean basins. We explored climate-driven oceanic variability as a source of estuarine variability by comparing monthly time series of temperature and chlorophyll-a inside San Francisco Bay with those in adjacent shelf waters of the California Current System (CCS) that are strongly responsive to wind-driven upwelling. Monthly temperature fluctuations inside and outside the Bay were synchronous, but their correlations weakened with distance from the ocean. These results illustrate how variability of coastal water temperature (and associated properties such as nitrate and oxygen) propagates into estuaries through fast water exchanges that dissipate along the estuary. Unexpectedly, there was no correlation between monthly chlorophyll-a variability inside and outside the Bay. However, at the annual scale Bay chlorophyll-a was significantly correlated with the Spring Transition Index (STI) that sets biological production supporting fish recruitment in the CCS. Wind forcing of the CCS shifted in the late 1990s when the STI advanced 40 days. This shift was followed, with lags of 1-3 years, by 3- to 19-fold increased abundances of five ocean-produced demersal fish and crustaceans and 2.5-fold increase of summer chlorophyll-a in the Bay. These changes reflect a slow biological process of estuary-ocean connectivity operating through the immigration of fish and crustaceans that prey on bivalves, reduce their grazing pressure, and allow phytoplankton biomass to build. We identified clear signals of climate-mediated oceanic variability in this estuary and discovered that the response patterns vary with the process of connectivity and the timescale of ocean variability. This result has important implications for managing nutrient inputs to estuaries connected to upwelling systems, and for assessing their responses to changing

  4. Scalloped Implant-Abutment Connection Compared to Conventional Flat Implant-Abutment Connection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starch-Jensen, Thomas; Christensen, Ann-Eva; Lorenzen, Henning

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective was to test the hypothesis of no difference in implant treatment outcome after installation of implants with a scalloped implant-abutment connection compared to a flat implant-abutment connection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase and Cochrane library search......-abutment connection. There were no significant differences between the two treatment modalities regarding professional or patient-reported outcome measures. Meta-analysis disclosed a mean difference of peri-implant marginal bone loss of 1.56 mm (confidence interval: 0.87 to 2.25), indicating significant more bone...... loss around implants with a scalloped implant-abutment connection. CONCLUSIONS: A scalloped implant-abutment connection seems to be associated with higher peri-implant marginal bone loss compared to a flat implant-abutment connection. Therefore, the hypothesis of the present systematic review must...

  5. General connected and reconnected fields in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Swadesh M.; Asenjo, Felipe A.

    2018-02-01

    For plasma dynamics, more encompassing than the magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) approximation, the foundational concepts of "magnetic reconnection" may require deep revisions because, in the larger dynamics, magnetic field is no longer connected to the fluid lines; it is replaced by more general fields (one for each plasma specie) that are weighted combination of the electromagnetic and the thermal-vortical fields. We study the two-fluid plasma dynamics plasma expressed in two different sets of variables: the two-fluid (2F) description in terms of individual fluid velocities, and the one-fluid (1F) variables comprising the plasma bulk motion and plasma current. In the 2F description, a Connection Theorem is readily established; we show that, for each specie, there exists a Generalized (Magnetofluid/Electro-Vortic) field that is frozen-in the fluid and consequently remains, forever, connected to the flow. This field is an expression of the unification of the electromagnetic, and fluid forces (kinematic and thermal) for each specie. Since the magnetic field, by itself, is not connected in the first place, its reconnection is never forbidden and does not require any external agency (like resistivity). In fact, a magnetic field reconnection (local destruction) must be interpreted simply as a consequence of the preservation of the dynamical structure of the unified field. In the 1F plasma description, however, it is shown that there is no exact physically meaningful Connection Theorem; a general and exact field does not exist, which remains connected to the bulk plasma flow. It is also shown that the helicity conservation and the existence of a Connected field follow from the same dynamical structure; the dynamics must be expressible as an ideal Ohm's law with a physical velocity. This new perspective, emerging from the analysis of the post MHD physics, must force us to reexamine the meaning as well as our understanding of magnetic reconnection.

  6. Connectivity Measures in EEG Microstructural Sleep Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, Dimitris; Koupparis, Andreas M; Kokkinos, Vasileios; Koutroumanidis, Michalis; Kostopoulos, George K

    2016-01-01

    During Non-Rapid Eye Movement sleep (NREM) the brain is relatively disconnected from the environment, while connectedness between brain areas is also decreased. Evidence indicates, that these dynamic connectivity changes are delivered by microstructural elements of sleep: short periods of environmental stimuli evaluation followed by sleep promoting procedures. The connectivity patterns of the latter, among other aspects of sleep microstructure, are still to be fully elucidated. We suggest here a methodology for the assessment and investigation of the connectivity patterns of EEG microstructural elements, such as sleep spindles. The methodology combines techniques in the preprocessing, estimation, error assessing and visualization of results levels in order to allow the detailed examination of the connectivity aspects (levels and directionality of information flow) over frequency and time with notable resolution, while dealing with the volume conduction and EEG reference assessment. The high temporal and frequency resolution of the methodology will allow the association between the microelements and the dynamically forming networks that characterize them, and consequently possibly reveal aspects of the EEG microstructure. The proposed methodology is initially tested on artificially generated signals for proof of concept and subsequently applied to real EEG recordings via a custom built MATLAB-based tool developed for such studies. Preliminary results from 843 fast sleep spindles recorded in whole night sleep of 5 healthy volunteers indicate a prevailing pattern of interactions between centroparietal and frontal regions. We demonstrate hereby, an opening to our knowledge attempt to estimate the scalp EEG connectivity that characterizes fast sleep spindles via an "EEG-element connectivity" methodology we propose. The application of the latter, via a computational tool we developed suggests it is able to investigate the connectivity patterns related to the occurrence

  7. Connectivity Neurofeedback Training Can Differentially Change Functional Connectivity and Cognitive Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Ayumu; Hayasaka, Shunsuke; Kawato, Mitsuo; Imamizu, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    Advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging have made it possible to provide real-time feedback on brain activity. Neurofeedback has been applied to therapeutic interventions for psychiatric disorders. Since many studies have shown that most psychiatric disorders exhibit abnormal brain networks, a novel experimental paradigm named connectivity neurofeedback, which can directly modulate a brain network, has emerged as a promising approach to treat psychiatric disorders. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that connectivity neurofeedback can induce the aimed direction of change in functional connectivity, and the differential change in cognitive performance according to the direction of change in connectivity. We selected the connectivity between the left primary motor cortex and the left lateral parietal cortex as the target. Subjects were divided into 2 groups, in which only the direction of change (an increase or a decrease in correlation) in the experimentally manipulated connectivity differed between the groups. As a result, subjects successfully induced the expected connectivity changes in either of the 2 directions. Furthermore, cognitive performance significantly and differentially changed from preneurofeedback to postneurofeedback training between the 2 groups. These findings indicate that connectivity neurofeedback can induce the aimed direction of change in connectivity and also a differential change in cognitive performance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Connecting Network Properties of Rapidly Disseminating Epizoonotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Ariel L.; Fasina, Folorunso O.; Hoogesteyn, Almira L.; Konah, Steven N.; Febles, José L.; Perkins, Douglas J.; Hyman, James M.; Fair, Jeanne M.; Hittner, James B.; Smith, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Background To effectively control the geographical dissemination of infectious diseases, their properties need to be determined. To test that rapid microbial dispersal requires not only susceptible hosts but also a pre-existing, connecting network, we explored constructs meant to reveal the network properties associated with disease spread, which included the road structure. Methods Using geo-temporal data collected from epizoonotics in which all hosts were susceptible (mammals infected by Foot-and-mouth disease virus, Uruguay, 2001; birds infected by Avian Influenza virus H5N1, Nigeria, 2006), two models were compared: 1) ‘connectivity’, a model that integrated bio-physical concepts (the agent’s transmission cycle, road topology) into indicators designed to measure networks (‘nodes’ or infected sites with short- and long-range links), and 2) ‘contacts’, which focused on infected individuals but did not assess connectivity. Results The connectivity model showed five network properties: 1) spatial aggregation of cases (disease clusters), 2) links among similar ‘nodes’ (assortativity), 3) simultaneous activation of similar nodes (synchronicity), 4) disease flows moving from highly to poorly connected nodes (directionality), and 5) a few nodes accounting for most cases (a “20∶80″ pattern). In both epizoonotics, 1) not all primary cases were connected but at least one primary case was connected, 2) highly connected, small areas (nodes) accounted for most cases, 3) several classes of nodes were distinguished, and 4) the contact model, which assumed all primary cases were identical, captured half the number of cases identified by the connectivity model. When assessed together, the synchronicity and directionality properties explained when and where an infectious disease spreads. Conclusions Geo-temporal constructs of Network Theory’s nodes and links were retrospectively validated in rapidly disseminating infectious diseases. They distinguished

  9. Functional corticostriatal connection topographies predict goal directed behaviour in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquand, A.F.; Haak, K.V.; Beckmann, C.F.

    2017-01-01

    Anatomical tracing studies in non-human primates have suggested that corticostriatal connectivity is topographically organized: nearby locations in striatum are connected with nearby locations in cortex. The topographic organization of corticostriatal connectivity is thought to underpin many

  10. Prioritizing connection requests in GMPLS-controlled optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Koster, A.; Andriolli, N.

    2009-01-01

    We prioritize bidirectional connection requests by combining dynamic connection provisioning with off-line optimization. Results show that the proposed approach decreases wavelength-converter usage, thereby allowing operators to reduce blocking-probably under bulk connection assignment or network...

  11. Connectivity: An emerging concept for physiotherapy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, David A; Atkinson, Karen; Bjorbækmo, Wenche S; Gibson, Barbara E; Latchem, Julie; Olesen, Jens; Ralls, Jenny; Setchell, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Having spent their first century anchored to a biomedical model of practice, physiotherapists have been increasingly interested in exploring new models and concepts that will better equip them for serving the health-care needs of 21st century clients/patients. Connectivity offers one such model. With an extensive philosophical background in phenomenology, symbolic interactionism, structuralism, and postmodern research, connectivity resists the prevailing western biomedical view that health professionals should aim to increase people's independence and autonomy, preferring instead to identify and amplify opportunities for collaboration and co-dependence. Connectivity critiques the normalization that underpins modern health care, arguing that our constant search for deviance is building stigma and discrimination into our everyday practice. It offers provocative opportunities for physiotherapists to rethink some of the fundamental tenets of their profession and better align physiotherapy with 21st century societal expectations. In this paper, we provide a background to the place connectivity may play in future health care, and most especially future physiotherapy practice. The paper examines some of the philosophical antecedents that have made connectivity an increasingly interesting and challenging concept in health care today.

  12. A systematic framework for functional connectivity measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huifang Elizabeth Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Various methods have been proposed to characterize the functional connectivity between nodes in a network measured with different modalities (electrophysiology, functional magnetic resonance imaging etc.. Since different measures of functional connectivity yield different results for the same dataset, it is important to assess when and how they can be used. In this work, we provide a systematic framework for evaluating the performance of a large range of functional connectivity measures – based upon a comprehensive portfolio of models generating measurable responses. Specifically, we benchmarked 42 methods using 10,000 simulated datasets from 5 different types of generative models with different connectivity structures. Since all functional connectivity methods require the setting of some parameters (window size and number, model order etc., we first optimized these parameters using performance criteria based upon (threshold free ROC analysis. We then evaluated the performance of the methods on data simulated with different types of models. Finally, we assessed the performance of the methods against different levels of signal-to-noise ratios and network configurations. A MATLAB toolbox is provided to perform such analyses using other methods and simulated datasets.

  13. Bone and fat connection in aging bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Gustavo

    2008-07-01

    The fat and bone connection plays an important role in the pathophysiology of age-related bone loss. This review will focus on the age-induced mechanisms regulating the predominant differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into adipocytes. Additionally, bone marrow fat will be considered as a diagnostic and therapeutic approach to osteoporosis. There are two types of bone and fat connection. The 'systemic connection', usually seen in obese patients, is hormonally regulated and associated with high bone mass and strength. The 'local connection' happens inside the bone marrow. Increasing amounts of bone marrow fat affect bone turnover through the inhibition of osteoblast function and survival and the promotion of osteoclast differentiation and activation. This interaction is regulated by paracrine secretion of fatty acids and adipokines. Additionally, bone marrow fat could be quantified using noninvasive methods and could be used as a therapeutic approach due to its capacity to transdifferentiate into bone without affecting other types of fat in the body. The bone and fat connection within the bone marrow constitutes a typical example of lipotoxicity. Additionally, bone marrow fat could be used as a new diagnostic and therapeutic approach for osteoporosis in older persons.

  14. Affine connection form of Regge calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatsymovsky, V. M.

    2016-12-01

    Regge action is represented analogously to how the Palatini action for general relativity (GR) as some functional of the metric and a general connection as independent variables represents the Einstein-Hilbert action. The piecewise flat (or simplicial) spacetime of Regge calculus is equipped with some world coordinates and some piecewise affine metric which is completely defined by the set of edge lengths and the world coordinates of the vertices. The conjugate variables are the general nondegenerate matrices on the three-simplices which play the role of a general discrete connection. Our previous result on some representation of the Regge calculus action in terms of the local Euclidean (Minkowsky) frame vectors and orthogonal connection matrices as independent variables is somewhat modified for the considered case of the general linear group GL(4, R) of the connection matrices. As a result, we have some action invariant w.r.t. arbitrary change of coordinates of the vertices (and related GL(4, R) transformations in the four-simplices). Excluding GL(4, R) connection from this action via the equations of motion we have exactly the Regge action for the considered spacetime.

  15. Connected Car: Quantified Self becomes Quantified Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Swan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry could be facing a situation of profound change and opportunity in the coming decades. There are a number of influencing factors such as increasing urban and aging populations, self-driving cars, 3D parts printing, energy innovation, and new models of transportation service delivery (Zipcar, Uber. The connected car means that vehicles are now part of the connected world, continuously Internet-connected, generating and transmitting data, which on the one hand can be helpfully integrated into applications, like real-time traffic alerts broadcast to smartwatches, but also raises security and privacy concerns. This paper explores the automotive connected world, and describes five killer QS (Quantified Self-auto sensor applications that link quantified-self sensors (sensors that measure the personal biometrics of individuals like heart rate and automotive sensors (sensors that measure driver and passenger biometrics or quantitative automotive performance metrics like speed and braking activity. The applications are fatigue detection, real-time assistance for parking and accidents, anger management and stress reduction, keyless authentication and digital identity verification, and DIY diagnostics. These kinds of applications help to demonstrate the benefit of connected world data streams in the automotive industry and beyond where, more fundamentally for human progress, the automation of both physical and now cognitive tasks is underway.

  16. Multivariate Heteroscedasticity Models for Functional Brain Connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Seiler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional brain connectivity is the co-occurrence of brain activity in different areas during resting and while doing tasks. The data of interest are multivariate timeseries measured simultaneously across brain parcels using resting-state fMRI (rfMRI. We analyze functional connectivity using two heteroscedasticity models. Our first model is low-dimensional and scales linearly in the number of brain parcels. Our second model scales quadratically. We apply both models to data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP comparing connectivity between short and conventional sleepers. We find stronger functional connectivity in short than conventional sleepers in brain areas consistent with previous findings. This might be due to subjects falling asleep in the scanner. Consequently, we recommend the inclusion of average sleep duration as a covariate to remove unwanted variation in rfMRI studies. A power analysis using the HCP data shows that a sample size of 40 detects 50% of the connectivity at a false discovery rate of 20%. We provide implementations using R and the probabilistic programming language Stan.

  17. Patterns and persistence of larval retention and connectivity in a marine fish metapopulation

    KAUST Repository

    Saenz Agudelo, Pablo

    2012-08-14

    Connectivity, the demographic linking of local populations through the dispersal of individuals, is one of the most poorly understood processes in population dynamics, yet has profound implications for conservation and harvest strategies. For marine species with pelagic larvae, direct estimation of connectivity remains logistically challenging and has mostly been limited to single snapshots in time. Here, we document seasonal and interannual patterns of larval dispersal in a metapopulation of the coral reef fish Amphiprion polymnus. A 3-year record of larval trajectories within and among nine discrete local populations from an area of approximately 35 km was established by determining the natal origin of settled juveniles through DNA parentage analysis. We found that spatial patterns of both self-recruitment and connectivity were remarkably consistent over time, with a low level of self-recruitment at the scale of individual sites. Connectivity among sites was common and multidirectional in all years and was not significantly influenced by seasonal variability of predominant surface current directions. However, approximately 75% of the sampled juveniles could not be assigned to parents within the study area, indicating high levels of immigrations from sources outside the study area. The data support predictions that the magnitude and temporal stability of larval connectivity decreases significantly with increasing distance between subpopulations, but increases with the size of subpopulations. Given the considerable effort needed to directly measure larval exchange, the consistent patterns suggest snapshot parentage analyses can provide useful dispersal estimates to inform spatial management decisions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Altered resting state functional connectivity of fear and reward circuitry in comorbid PTSD and major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xi; Helpman, Liat; Papini, Santiago; Schneier, Franklin; Markowitz, John C; Van Meter, Page E; Lindquist, Martin A; Wager, Tor D; Neria, Yuval

    2017-07-01

    Individuals with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder (PTSD-MDD) often exhibit greater functional impairment and poorer treatment response than individuals with PTSD alone. Research has not determined whether PTSD-MDD is associated with different network connectivity abnormalities than PTSD alone. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) patterns of brain regions involved in fear and reward processing in three groups: patients with PTSD-alone (n = 27), PTSD-MDD (n = 21), and trauma-exposed healthy controls (TEHCs, n = 34). Based on previous research, seeds included basolateral amygdala (BLA), centromedial amygdala (CMA), and nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Regardless of MDD comorbidity, PTSD was associated with decreased connectivity of BLA-orbitalfrontal cortex (OFC) and CMA-thalamus pathways, key to fear processing, and fear expression, respectively. PTSD-MDD, compared to PTSD-alone and TEHC, was associated with decreased connectivity across multiple amygdala and striatal-subcortical pathways: BLA-OFC, NAcc-thalamus, and NAcc-hippocampus. Further, while both the BLA-OFC and the NAcc-thalamus pathways were correlated with MDD symptoms, PTSD symptoms correlated with the amygdala pathways (BLA-OFC; CMA-thalamus) only. Comorbid PTSD-MDD may be associated with multifaceted functional connectivity alterations in both fear and reward systems. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Abnormal resting-state functional connectivity of the left caudate nucleus in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunhui; Juhás, Michal; Greenshaw, Andrew J; Hu, Qiang; Meng, Xin; Cui, Hongsheng; Ding, Yongzhuo; Kang, Lu; Zhang, Yubo; Wang, Yuhua; Cui, Guangcheng; Li, Ping

    2016-06-03

    Altered brain activities in the cortico-striato-thalamocortical (CSTC) circuitry are implicated in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, whether the underlying changes occur only within this circuitry or in large-scale networks is still not thoroughly understood. This study performed voxel-based functional connectivity analysis on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from thirty OCD patients and thirty healthy controls to investigate whole-brain intrinsic functional connectivity patterns in OCD. Relative to the healthy controls, OCD patients showed decreased functional connectivity within the CSTC circuitry but increased functional connectivity in other brain regions. Furthermore, decreased left caudate nucleus-thalamus connectivity within the CSTC circuitry was positively correlated with the illness duration of OCD. This study provides additional evidence that CSTC circuitry may play an essential role and alteration of large-scale brain networks may be involved in the pathophysiology of OCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tight connection between fission gas discharge channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, W.; Peehs, M.; Rau, P.; Krug, W.; Stechemesser, H.

    1978-01-01

    The invention is concerned with the tight connection between the fission gas discharge channel, leading away from the support plate of a gas-cooled reactor, and the top of the fuel element suspended from this support plate. The closure is designed to be gas-tight for the suspended as well as for the released fuel element. The tight connection has got an annular body resting on the core support plate in the mouth region of the fission gas discharge channel. This body is connected with the fission gas discharge channel in the fuel element top fitting via a gas-tight part and supported by a compression spring. Care is taken for sealing if the fuel element is removal. (RW) [de

  1. A Model of Trusted Connection Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to that traditional trusted network connection architecture (TNC has limitations on dynamic network environment and the user behavior support, we develop TCA to propose a trusted connection architecture supporting behavior measurement (TCA-SBM, besides, the structure diagram of network architecture is given. Through introducing user behavior measure elements, TCA-SBM can conduct measurement on the whole network in time dimension periodically, and refine the measurement on network behavior in measure dimension to conduct fine-grained dynamic trusted measurement. As a result, TCA-SBM enhances the TCA’s ability to adapt to the dynamic change of network and makes up the deficiency of trusted computing framework in the network connection.

  2. Robust quantum optimizer with full connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Simon E; Lörch, Niels; Tiwari, Rakesh P

    2017-04-01

    Quantum phenomena have the potential to speed up the solution of hard optimization problems. For example, quantum annealing, based on the quantum tunneling effect, has recently been shown to scale exponentially better with system size than classical simulated annealing. However, current realizations of quantum annealers with superconducting qubits face two major challenges. First, the connectivity between the qubits is limited, excluding many optimization problems from a direct implementation. Second, decoherence degrades the success probability of the optimization. We address both of these shortcomings and propose an architecture in which the qubits are robustly encoded in continuous variable degrees of freedom. By leveraging the phenomenon of flux quantization, all-to-all connectivity with sufficient tunability to implement many relevant optimization problems is obtained without overhead. Furthermore, we demonstrate the robustness of this architecture by simulating the optimal solution of a small instance of the nondeterministic polynomial-time hard (NP-hard) and fully connected number partitioning problem in the presence of dissipation.

  3. CELLULAR CONTROL OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE MATRIX TENSION†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Helene M.; Nedergaard, Maiken; Howe, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The biomechanical behavior of connective tissue in response to stretching is generally attributed to the molecular composition and organization of its extracellular matrix. It also is becoming apparent that fibroblasts play an active role in regulating connective tissue tension. In response to static stretching of the tissue, fibroblasts expand within minutes by actively remodeling their cytoskeleton. This dynamic change in fibroblast shape contributes to the drop in tissue tension that occurs during viscoelastic relaxation. We propose that this response of fibroblasts plays a role in regulating extracellular fluid flow into the tissue, and protects against swelling when the matrix is stretched. This article reviews the evidence supporting possible mechanisms underlying this response including autocrine purinergic signaling. We also discuss fibroblast regulation of connective tissue tension with respect to lymphatic flow, immune function and cancer. PMID:23444198

  4. Connections between algebra, combinatorics, and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Sather-Wagstaff, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Commutative algebra, combinatorics, and algebraic geometry are thriving areas of mathematical research with a rich history of interaction. Connections Between Algebra, Combinatorics, and Geometry contains lecture notes, along with exercises and solutions, from the Workshop on Connections Between Algebra and Geometry held at the University of Regina from May 29-June 1, 2012. It also contains research and survey papers from academics invited to participate in the companion Special Session on Interactions Between Algebraic Geometry and Commutative Algebra, which was part of the CMS Summer Meeting at the University of Regina held June 2–3, 2012, and the meeting Further Connections Between Algebra and Geometry, which was held at the North Dakota State University, February 23, 2013. This volume highlights three mini-courses in the areas of commutative algebra and algebraic geometry: differential graded commutative algebra, secant varieties, and fat points and symbolic powers. It will serve as a useful resou...

  5. Supervised hub-detection for brain connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Liptrot, Matthew George; Reislev, Nina Linde

    2016-01-01

    , but can smooth discriminative signals in the population, degrading predictive performance. We present a novel hub-detection optimized for supervised learning that both clusters network nodes based on population level variation in connectivity and also takes the learning problem into account. The found......A structural brain network consists of physical connections between brain regions. Brain network analysis aims to find features associated with a parameter of interest through supervised prediction models such as regression. Unsupervised preprocessing steps like clustering are often applied...... hubs are a low-dimensional representation of the network and are chosen based on predictive performance as features for a linear regression. We apply our method to the problem of finding age-related changes in structural connectivity. We compare our supervised hub-detection (SHD) to an unsupervised hub...

  6. Evolution Strategies in the Multipoint Connections Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Krulikovska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Routing of multipoint connections plays an important role in final cost and quality of a found connection. New algorithms with better results are still searched. In this paper, a possibility of using the evolution strategies (ES for routing is presented. Quality of found connection is evaluated from the view of final cost and time spent on a searching procedure. First, parametrical analysis of results of the ES are discussed and compared with the Prim’s algorithm, which was chosen as a representative of the deterministic routing algorithms. Second, ways for improving the ES are suggested and implemented. The obtained results are reviewed. The main improvements are specified and discussed in conclusion.

  7. Eccentric connectivity index of chemical trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haoer, R. S.; Atan, K. A.; Said, M. R. Md.; Khalaf, A. M.; Hasni, R.

    2016-01-01

    Let G = (V, E) be a simple connected molecular graph. In such a simple molecular graph, vertices and edges are depicted atoms and chemical bonds respectively, we refer to the sets of vertices by V (G) and edges by E (G). If d(u, v) be distance between two vertices u, v ∈ V(G) and can be defined as the length of a shortest path joining them. Then, the eccentricity connectivity index (ECI) of a molecular graph G is ξ(G) = ∑_v_∈_V_(_G_) d(v) ec(v), where d(v) is degree of a vertex v ∈ V(G). ec(v) is the length of a greatest path linking to another vertex of v. In this study, we focus the general formula for the eccentricity connectivity index (ECI) of some chemical trees as alkenes.

  8. Unwrapping Court-Connected Mediation Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Lin; Mykland, Solfrid

    2018-01-01

    Court-connected mediated agreements seem to both fulfil and fail the ideal of self-determination in mediation theory. In a study of 134 agreements from court-connected mediation, we found that the majority of agreements contain creative elements and display great variation in the provisions...... and understand them. The judicial language is well known for the drafters of the agreement but not the parties. Thus, court-connected mediation seems to fail aspects of self-determination when it comes to drafting agreements. We draw on new-institutional theory when we explore and explain this apparent...... they contain. These results indicate that the parties play an important role in crafting the substance of their agreements. However, we also found that the wording of the agreements is characterised by legal and bureaucratic language to the extent that people without legal training find it difficult to read...

  9. Phase synchronization in train connection timetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fretter, Christoph; Mueller-Hannemann, Matthias [Martin Luther Universitaet, Halle-Wittenberg (Germany); Krumov, Lachezar; Weihe, Karsten [TU Darmstadt (Germany); Huett, Marc-Thorsten [Jacobs University, Bremen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Train connection timetables are an important research topic in algorithmics. Finding optimal or near-optimal timetables under the subsidiary conditions of minimizing travel times and other criteria is an important contribution to the functioning of public transportation. In addition to efficiency (given, e.g. by minimal average travel times), the robustness of the timetable, i.e. a minimization of delay propagation, is an important criterion. Here we study the balance of efficiency and robustness in train connection timetables from the perspective of synchronization, exploiting the fact that a major part of the trains run nearly periodically. We find that synchronization is highest at intermediate-sized stations. We argue that this synchronization perspectives opens a new avenue towards an understanding of train connection timetables by representing them as spatiotemporal phase patterns. Robustness and efficiency can then be viewed as properties of this phase pattern.

  10. Cellular control of connective tissue matrix tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Helene M; Nedergaard, Maiken; Howe, Alan K

    2013-08-01

    The biomechanical behavior of connective tissue in response to stretching is generally attributed to the molecular composition and organization of its extracellular matrix. It also is becoming apparent that fibroblasts play an active role in regulating connective tissue tension. In response to static stretching of the tissue, fibroblasts expand within minutes by actively remodeling their cytoskeleton. This dynamic change in fibroblast shape contributes to the drop in tissue tension that occurs during viscoelastic relaxation. We propose that this response of fibroblasts plays a role in regulating extracellular fluid flow into the tissue, and protects against swelling when the matrix is stretched. This article reviews the evidence supporting possible mechanisms underlying this response including autocrine purinergic signaling. We also discuss fibroblast regulation of connective tissue tension with respect to lymphatic flow, immune function, and cancer. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Connections with nature and environmental behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Liuna; Xu, Jingke; Ye, Lijuan; Zhou, Wenjun; Zhou, Kexin

    2015-01-01

    The influence of environmental attitudes on environmental behaviors has long been discussed. However, few studies have addressed the foundation of such attitudes. In the present study, we explored primitive belief underlying environmental attitudes, i.e., connections with nature, and its relationship with pro-environmental behaviors. Specifically, we used scales, a computerized Implicit Association Test, and a situational simulation experiment to examine both explicit and implicit connections with nature, both deliberate and spontaneous environmental behaviors, and to find correlations between environmental connectedness and environmental behaviors. Results showed that explicit connectedness was positively correlated with deliberate environmental behaviors, while implicit connectedness was positively correlated with spontaneous environmental behaviors. Additionally, explicit and implicit connectedness was independent of each other. In conclusion, the current study confirms the positive role played by connections with nature in promoting environmental behavior, and accordingly suggests means to encourage pro-environmental behavior by enhancing people's connectedness to nature.

  12. Increased precuneus connectivity during propofol sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolin; Li, Shi-Jiang; Hudetz, Anthony G

    2014-02-21

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in human participants, we show that sedation by propofol to the point of lost overt responsiveness during the performance of an auditory verbal memory task unexpectedly increases functional connectivity of the precuneus with cortical regions, particularly the dorsal prefrontal and visual cortices. After recovery of consciousness, functional connectivity returns to a pattern similar to that observed during the wakeful baseline. In the context of a recent proposal that highlights the uncoupling of consciousness, connectedness, and responsiveness in general anesthesia, the increased precuneus functional connectivity under propofol sedation may reflect disconnected endogenous mentation or dreaming that continues at a reduced level of metabolic activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantifying Riverscape Connectivity with Graph Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, P.; Milledge, D.; Sinha, R.; Tandon, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    Fluvial catchments convey fluxes of water, sediment, nutrients and aquatic biota. At continental scales, crustal topography defines the overall path of channels whilst at local scales depositional and/or erosional features generally determine the exact path of a channel. Furthermore, constructions such as dams, for either water abstraction or hydropower, often have a significant impact on channel networks.The concept of ';connectivity' is commonly invoked when conceptualising the structure of a river network.This concept is easy to grasp but there have been uneven efforts across the environmental sciences to actually quantify connectivity. Currently there have only been a few studies reporting quantitative indices of connectivity in river sciences, notably, in the study of avulsion processes. However, the majority of current work describing some form of environmental connectivity in a quantitative manner is in the field of landscape ecology. Driven by the need to quantify habitat fragmentation, landscape ecologists have returned to graph theory. Within this formal setting, landscape ecologists have successfully developed a range of indices which can model connectivity loss. Such formal connectivity metrics are currently needed for a range of applications in fluvial sciences. One of the most urgent needs relates to dam construction. In the developed world, hydropower development has generally slowed and in many countries, dams are actually being removed. However, this is not the case in the developing world where hydropower is seen as a key element to low-emissions power-security. For example, several dam projects are envisaged in Himalayan catchments in the next 2 decades. This region is already under severe pressure from climate change and urbanisation, and a better understanding of the network fragmentation which can be expected in this system is urgently needed. In this paper, we apply and adapt connectivity metrics from landscape ecology. We then examine the

  14. Soft Computing Methods for Disulfide Connectivity Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Chamorro, Alfonso E; Aguilar-Ruiz, Jesús S

    2015-01-01

    The problem of protein structure prediction (PSP) is one of the main challenges in structural bioinformatics. To tackle this problem, PSP can be divided into several subproblems. One of these subproblems is the prediction of disulfide bonds. The disulfide connectivity prediction problem consists in identifying which nonadjacent cysteines would be cross-linked from all possible candidates. Determining the disulfide bond connectivity between the cysteines of a protein is desirable as a previous step of the 3D PSP, as the protein conformational search space is highly reduced. The most representative soft computing approaches for the disulfide bonds connectivity prediction problem of the last decade are summarized in this paper. Certain aspects, such as the different methodologies based on soft computing approaches (artificial neural network or support vector machine) or features of the algorithms, are used for the classification of these methods.

  15. Healthcare e-commerce: connecting with patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslyn, J S

    2001-01-01

    Electronically connecting with patients is a challenging frontier at which technical hurdles are probably exceeded by political, legal, and other barriers. The rise of consumerism, however, compels a response focused more on revenue and strategic advantage than on pure cost savings. Among the difficulties faced by providers is choosing among various models of connectivity and component function. Emerging models include "free-floating" personal medical records largely independent of the office-based physician, systems with compatible and intertwined physician and consumer relationships using an application services provider office practice system, and systems that connect patients and providers through e-mail, office triage, prescription refills, scheduling, and so on. This article discusses these and other combinations of technology that significantly overcome the barriers involved and that may be woven together to provide solutions uniquely suited to various competitive situations.

  16. Political Connections and Investment in Rural Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses household panel data from rural Vietnam to explore the effects of having a relative in a position of political or bureaucratic power on farmers’ agricultural investment decisions. Our main result is that households significantly increase their investment in land improvement...... as a result of relatives moving into public office. Connections to office holders appear to be important for investment because they strengthen de facto land property rights and improve access to off-farm employment and to informal loans. The findings underline the importance of informal networks for economic...... behaviour in environments with developing institutions and markets. They also suggest the presence of an untapped potential for economic development: if households without connections could obtain equally strong property rights and access to credit and insurance as the well-connected households, investment...

  17. LR: Compact connectivity representation for triangle meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurung, T; Luffel, M; Lindstrom, P; Rossignac, J

    2011-01-28

    We propose LR (Laced Ring) - a simple data structure for representing the connectivity of manifold triangle meshes. LR provides the option to store on average either 1.08 references per triangle or 26.2 bits per triangle. Its construction, from an input mesh that supports constant-time adjacency queries, has linear space and time complexity, and involves ordering most vertices along a nearly-Hamiltonian cycle. LR is best suited for applications that process meshes with fixed connectivity, as any changes to the connectivity require the data structure to be rebuilt. We provide an implementation of the set of standard random-access, constant-time operators for traversing a mesh, and show that LR often saves both space and traversal time over competing representations.

  18. Connectivity diagnostics in the Mediterranean obtained from Lagrangian Flow Networks; global patterns, sensitivity and robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy, Pedro; Rossi, Vincent; Ser-Giacomi, Enrico; López, Cristóbal; Hernández-García, Emilio

    2017-04-01

    Lagrangian Flow Network (LFN) is a modeling framework in which geographical sub-areas of the ocean are represented as nodes in a network and are interconnected by links representing the transport of water, substances or propagules (eggs and larvae) by currents. Here we compute for the surface of the whole Mediterranean basin four connectivity metrics derived from LFN that measure retention and exchange processes, thus providing a systematic characterization of propagule dispersal driven by the ocean circulation. Then we assess the sensitivity and robustness of the results with respect to the most relevant parameters: the density of released particles, the node size (spatial-scales of discretization), the Pelagic Larval Duration (PLD) and the modality of spawning. We find a threshold for the number of particles per node that guarantees reliable values for most of the metrics examined, independently of node size. For our setup, this threshold is 100 particles per node. We also find that the size of network nodes has a non-trivial influence on the spatial variability of both exchange and retention metrics. Although the spatio-temporal fluctuations of the circulation affect larval transport in a complex and unpredictable manner, our analyses evidence how specific biological parametrization impact the robustness of connectivity diagnostics. Connectivity estimates for long PLDs are more robust against biological uncertainties (PLD and spawning date) than for short PLDs. Furthermore, our model suggests that for mass-spawners that release propagules over short periods (≃ 2 to 10 days), daily release must be simulated to properly consider connectivity fluctuations. In contrast, average connectivity estimates for species that spawn repeatedly over longer duration (a few weeks to a few months) remain robust even using longer periodicity (5 to 10 days). Our results give a global view of the surface connectivity of the Mediterranean Sea and have implications for the design of

  19. Functional connectivity mapping of regions associated with self- and other-processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Ryan J; Debbané, Martin; Fox, Peter T; Bzdok, Danilo; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2015-04-01

    Neuroscience literature increasingly suggests a conceptual self composed of interacting neural regions, rather than independent local activations, yet such claims have yet to be investigated. We, thus, combined task-dependent meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) with task-independent resting-state (RS) connectivity analysis to delineate the neural network of the self, across both states. Given psychological evidence implicating the self's interdependence on social information, we also delineated the neural network underlying conceptual other-processing. To elucidate the relation between the self-/other-networks and their function, we mined the MACM metadata to generate a cognitive-behavioral profile for an empirically identified region specific to conceptual self, the pregenual anterior cingulate (pACC), and conceptual other, posterior cingulate/precuneus (PCC/PC). Mining of 7,200 published, task-dependent, neuroimaging studies, using healthy human subjects, yielded 193 studies activating the self-related seed and were conjoined with RS connectivity analysis to delineate a differentiated self-network composed of the pACC (seed) and anterior insula, relative to other functional connectivity. Additionally, 106 studies activating the other-related seed were conjoined with RS connectivity analysis to delineate a differentiated other-network of PCC/PC (seed) and angular gyrus/temporoparietal junction, relative to self-functional connectivity. The self-network seed related to emotional conflict resolution and motivational processing, whereas the other-network seed related to socially oriented processing and contextual information integration. Notably, our findings revealed shared RS connectivity between ensuing self-/other-networks within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and medial orbitofrontal cortex, suggesting self-updating via integration of self-relevant social information. We, therefore, present initial neurobiological evidence corroborating the increasing

  20. A probabilistic approach to quantifying spatial patterns of flow regimes and network-scale connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbin, Silvia; Alessi Celegon, Elisa; Fanton, Pietro; Botter, Gianluca

    2017-04-01

    The temporal variability of river flow regime is a key feature structuring and controlling fluvial ecological communities and ecosystem processes. In particular, streamflow variability induced by climate/landscape heterogeneities or other anthropogenic factors significantly affects the connectivity between streams with notable implication for river fragmentation. Hydrologic connectivity is a fundamental property that guarantees species persistence and ecosystem integrity in riverine systems. In riverine landscapes, most ecological transitions are flow-dependent and the structure of flow regimes may affect ecological functions of endemic biota (i.e., fish spawning or grazing of invertebrate species). Therefore, minimum flow thresholds must be guaranteed to support specific ecosystem services, like fish migration, aquatic biodiversity and habitat suitability. In this contribution, we present a probabilistic approach aiming at a spatially-explicit, quantitative assessment of hydrologic connectivity at the network-scale as derived from river flow variability. Dynamics of daily streamflows are estimated based on catchment-scale climatic and morphological features, integrating a stochastic, physically based approach that accounts for the stochasticity of rainfall with a water balance model and a geomorphic recession flow model. The non-exceedance probability of ecologically meaningful flow thresholds is used to evaluate the fragmentation of individual stream reaches, and the ensuing network-scale connectivity metrics. A multi-dimensional Poisson Process for the stochastic generation of rainfall is used to evaluate the impact of climate signature on reach-scale and catchment-scale connectivity. The analysis shows that streamflow patterns and network-scale connectivity are influenced by the topology of the river network and the spatial variability of climatic properties (rainfall, evapotranspiration). The framework offers a robust basis for the prediction of the impact of

  1. Functional connectivity of emotional processing in depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carballedo, Angela

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to map a neural network of emotion processing and to identify differences in major depression compared to healthy controls. It is hypothesized that intentional perception of emotional faces activates connections between amygdala (Demir et al.), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) and that frontal-amygdala connections are altered in major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Fifteen medication-free patients with MDD and fifteen healthy controls were enrolled. All subjects were assessed using the same face-matching functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) task, known to involve those areas. Brain activations were obtained using Statistical Parametric Mapping version 5 (SPM5) for data analysis and MARSBAR for extracting of fMRI time series. Then data was analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). RESULTS: A valid model was established for the left and the right hemispheres showing a circuit involving ACC, OFC, PFC and AMY. The left hemisphere shows significant lower connectivity strengths in patients than controls, for the pathway that goes from AMY to the OF11, and a trend of higher connectivity in patients for the path that goes from the PF9 to the OF11. In the right hemisphere, patients show lower connectivity coefficients in the paths from the AMY to OF11, from the AMY to ACC, and from the ACC to PF9. By the contrary, controls show lower connectivity strengths for the path that goes from ACC to AMY. CONCLUSIONS: Functional disconnection between limbic and frontal brain regions could be demonstrated using structural equation modeling. The interpretation of these findings could be that there is an emotional processing bias with disconnection bilaterally between amygdala to orbitofrontal cortices and in addition a right disconnection between amygdala and ACC as well as between ACC and prefrontal cortex possibly in line with a more prominent role for the right hemisphere

  2. Prefrontal-limbic Functional Connectivity during Acquisition and Extinction of Conditioned Fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Douglas W; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2018-04-15

    This study is a new analysis to obtain novel metabolic data on the functional connectivity of prefrontal-limbic regions in Pavlovian fear acquisition and extinction of tone-footshock conditioning. Mice were analyzed with the fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) autoradiographic method to metabolically map regional brain activity. New FDG data were sampled from the nuclei of the habenula and other regions implicated in aversive conditioning, such as infralimbic cortex, amygdala and periaqueductal gray regions. The activity patterns among these regions were inter-correlated during acquisition, extinction or pseudorandom training to develop a functional connectivity model. Two subdivisions of the habenular complex showed increased activity after acquisition relative to extinction, with the pseudorandom group intermediate between the other two groups. Significant acquisition activation effects were also found in centromedial amygdala, dorsomedial and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray. FDG uptake increases during extinction were found only in dorsal and ventral infralimbic cortex. The overall pattern of activity correlations between these regions revealed extensive but differential functional connectivity during acquisition and extinction training, with less functional connectivity found after pseudorandom training. Interestingly, habenula nuclei showed a distinct pattern of inter-correlations with amygdala nuclei during extinction. The functional connectivity model revealed changing interactions among infralimbic cortex, amygdala, habenula and periaqueductal gray regions through the stages of Pavlovian fear acquisition and extinction. This study provided new data on the contributions of the habenula to fear conditioning, and revealed previously unreported infralimbic-amygdala-habenula-periaqueductal gray interactions implicated in acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Systemic inflammation and resting state connectivity of the default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsland, Anna L; Kuan, Dora C-H; Sheu, Lei K; Krajina, Katarina; Kraynak, Thomas E; Manuck, Stephen B; Gianaros, Peter J

    2017-05-01

    The default mode network (DMN) encompasses brain systems that exhibit coherent neural activity at rest. DMN brain systems have been implicated in diverse social, cognitive, and affective processes, as well as risk for forms of dementia and psychiatric disorders that associate with systemic inflammation. Areas of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and surrounding medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) within the DMN have been implicated specifically in regulating autonomic and neuroendocrine processes that relate to systemic inflammation via bidirectional signaling mechanisms. However, it is still unclear whether indicators of inflammation relate directly to coherent resting state activity of the ACC, mPFC, or other areas within the DMN. Accordingly, we tested whether plasma interleukin (IL)-6, an indicator of systemic inflammation, covaried with resting-state functional connectivity of the DMN among 98 adults aged 30-54 (39% male; 81% Caucasian). Independent component analyses were applied to resting state fMRI data to generate DMN connectivity maps. Voxel-wise regression analyses were then used to test for associations between IL-6 and DMN connectivity across individuals, controlling for age, sex, body mass index, and fMRI signal motion. Within the DMN, IL-6 covaried positively with connectivity of the sub-genual ACC and negatively with a region of the dorsal medial PFC at corrected statistical thresholds. These novel findings offer evidence for a unique association between a marker of systemic inflammation (IL-6) and ACC and mPFC functional connectivity within the DMN, a network that may be important for linking aspects of immune function to psychological and behavioral states in health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Machine for welding solar cell connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorans, D.Y.

    1977-08-09

    A machine for welding a connection wire over a solar cell electrode is described which comprises a base, a welding mount for the solar cell which is supported on the base, means for holding the solar cell on the welding mount, welding electrodes, means to lower the welding electrodes over the solar cell and the connection wire superimposed thereon, means for applying electric current pulses to said welding electrodes. It is characterized by the fact that it further comprises means for imparting to said mount an alternating transverse movement in relation to said base before and during the welding operation.

  5. Connected Colourings of Complete Graphs and Hypergraphs

    OpenAIRE

    Leader, Imre; Tan, Ta Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Gallai's colouring theorem states that if the edges of a complete graph are 3-coloured, with each colour class forming a connected (spanning) subgraph, then there is a triangle that has all 3 colours. What happens for more colours: if we $k$-colour the edges of the complete graph, with each colour class connected, how many of the $\\binom{k}{3}$ triples of colours must appear as triangles? In this note we show that the `obvious' conjecture, namely that there are always at least $\\binom{k-1}{2}...

  6. Multimodal Imaging Brain Connectivity Analysis (MIBCA toolbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Santos Ribeiro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. In recent years, connectivity studies using neuroimaging data have increased the understanding of the organization of large-scale structural and functional brain networks. However, data analysis is time consuming as rigorous procedures must be assured, from structuring data and pre-processing to modality specific data procedures. Until now, no single toolbox was able to perform such investigations on truly multimodal image data from beginning to end, including the combination of different connectivity analyses. Thus, we have developed the Multimodal Imaging Brain Connectivity Analysis (MIBCA toolbox with the goal of diminishing time waste in data processing and to allow an innovative and comprehensive approach to brain connectivity.Materials and Methods. The MIBCA toolbox is a fully automated all-in-one connectivity toolbox that offers pre-processing, connectivity and graph theoretical analyses of multimodal image data such as diffusion-weighted imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and positron emission tomography (PET. It was developed in MATLAB environment and pipelines well-known neuroimaging softwares such as Freesurfer, SPM, FSL, and Diffusion Toolkit. It further implements routines for the construction of structural, functional and effective or combined connectivity matrices, as well as, routines for the extraction and calculation of imaging and graph-theory metrics, the latter using also functions from the Brain Connectivity Toolbox. Finally, the toolbox performs group statistical analysis and enables data visualization in the form of matrices, 3D brain graphs and connectograms. In this paper the MIBCA toolbox is presented by illustrating its capabilities using multimodal image data from a group of 35 healthy subjects (19–73 years old with volumetric T1-weighted, diffusion tensor imaging, and resting state fMRI data, and 10 subjets with 18F-Altanserin PET data also.Results. It was observed both a high inter

  7. Differential geometry bundles, connections, metrics and curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Taubes, Clifford Henry

    2011-01-01

    Bundles, connections, metrics and curvature are the 'lingua franca' of modern differential geometry and theoretical physics. This book will supply a graduate student in mathematics or theoretical physics with the fundamentals of these objects. Many of the tools used in differential topology are introduced and the basic results about differentiable manifolds, smooth maps, differential forms, vector fields, Lie groups, and Grassmanians are all presented here. Other material covered includes the basic theorems about geodesics and Jacobi fields, the classification theorem for flat connections, the

  8. Connections and curvatures on complex Riemannian manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganchev, G.; Ivanov, S.

    1991-05-01

    Characteristic connection and characteristic holomorphic sectional curvatures are introduced on a complex Riemannian manifold (not necessarily with holomorphic metric). For the class of complex Riemannian manifolds with holomorphic characteristic connection a classification of the manifolds with (pointwise) constant holomorphic characteristic curvature is given. It is shown that the conformal geometry of complex analytic Riemannian manifolds can be naturally developed on the class of locally conformal holomorphic Riemannian manifolds. Complex Riemannian manifolds locally conformal to the complex Euclidean space are characterized with zero conformal fundamental tensor and zero conformal characteristic tensor. (author). 12 refs

  9. Connection of thin-walled casings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druyan, V.M.; Grinev, A.F.; Gruzdev, V.D.; Perchanik, V.V.; Syplenko, V.T.

    1981-08-28

    A connection is suggested for castings which contains a nipple and coupling part with conical triangular threading. in order to improve the strength of the connection of thin-walled casings with ratio D/S>22, where D is the outer diameter of the casing, S is the thickness of the wall of the casing, the end of the pipe on the length from the end to the main plane of the thread is conical with constant thickness of the wall and conicity eqal to the conicity of the thread.

  10. Banding of connection standards for distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-04

    This report presents the views of distributed network operators (DNOs), developers, equipment manufacturers and consultants on the current banding of distributed generation in terms of connection standards and recommendations. The Documents ER G59/1, ER G75/1, ER G83/1 and ETR 113/1 covering recommendations for the connection of embedded generating plant to distribution systems and guidance notes for the protection of embedded generating plant are examined. The way in which the recommendations are applied in practice is investigated. Multiple distribution generator installations, fault ride through, and banding are considered as well as both protection required and maximum generator sizes at respective voltage levels.

  11. Internet services for planning distributed generation connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, D.; Morgan, A.; Barbier, C.; Reay, P.

    2005-07-01

    The required publication by distributed network operators (DNOs) of details of the current state of their network systems and future planned developments in the form of Long Term Development Statements (LTDS) are discussed. This project aims to increase the usefulness of the information in the LTDS by making it available on the internet and by providing an initial assessment of connection opportunities and the possibility of viewing existing renewable generation projects. The services developed covered data loading, data visualisation, security, connection assessment, reporting, and generation site registration. The benefits of an electronic version of the LTDS are highlighted.

  12. Continuation of connecting orbits in 3d-ODEs. (ii) cycle-to-cycle connections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doedel, E.J.; Kooi, B.W.; van Voorn, G.A.K.; Kuznetzov, Y.A.

    2009-01-01

    In Part I of this paper we have discussed new methods for the numerical continuation of point-to-cycle connecting orbits in three-dimensional autonomous ODE's using projection boundary conditions. In this second part we extend the method to the numerical continuation of cycle-to-cycle connecting

  13. A review of variables of urban street connectivity for spatial connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, W S N W; Said, I

    2014-01-01

    Several studies on street connectivity in cities and towns have been modeled on topology, morphology, technology and psychology of people living in the urban environment. Street connectivity means the connection of streets that offers people alternative routes. However, there emerge difficulties to determine the suitable variables and analysis to be chosen in defining the accurate result for studies street connectivity. The aim of this paper is to identify variables of street connectivity by applying GIS and Space Syntax. This paper reviews the variables of street connectivity from 15 past articles done in 1990s to early 2000s from journals of nine disciplines on Environment and Behavior, Planning and Design, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, Applied Earth Observation and Geo-information, Environment and Planning, Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Environmental Psychology, Social Science and Medicine and Building and Environment. From the review, there are four variables found for street connectivity: link (streets-streets, street-nodes or node-streets, nodes-nodes), accessibility, least-angle, and centrality. Space syntax and GIS are suitable tools to analyze the four variables relating to systematic street systems for pedestrians. This review implies that planners of the street systems, in the aspect of street connectivity in cities and towns, should consider these four variables

  14. A review of variables of urban street connectivity for spatial connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, W. S. N. W.; Said, I.

    2014-02-01

    Several studies on street connectivity in cities and towns have been modeled on topology, morphology, technology and psychology of people living in the urban environment. Street connectivity means the connection of streets that offers people alternative routes. However, there emerge difficulties to determine the suitable variables and analysis to be chosen in defining the accurate result for studies street connectivity. The aim of this paper is to identify variables of street connectivity by applying GIS and Space Syntax. This paper reviews the variables of street connectivity from 15 past articles done in 1990s to early 2000s from journals of nine disciplines on Environment and Behavior, Planning and Design, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, Applied Earth Observation and Geo-information, Environment and Planning, Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Environmental Psychology, Social Science and Medicine and Building and Environment. From the review, there are four variables found for street connectivity: link (streets-streets, street-nodes or node-streets, nodes-nodes), accessibility, least-angle, and centrality. Space syntax and GIS are suitable tools to analyze the four variables relating to systematic street systems for pedestrians. This review implies that planners of the street systems, in the aspect of street connectivity in cities and towns, should consider these four variables.

  15. Transportation planning implications of automated/connected vehicles on Texas highways : project summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Through outreach to stakeholders during the workshops, researchers found that there is a need to be able to explain AV/CV technology and its impacts on long-range transportation plans. Given that the future is uncertain, planners either choose to ign...

  16. Animal Abuse and Interpersonal Violence: The Cruelty Connection and Its Implications for Veterinary Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, R; Arkow, P

    2016-09-01

    The role of the veterinary forensic pathologist in the investigation of animal abuse or neglect can go beyond documenting the condition of animals presented as evidence. Although animal cruelty is a moral concern and a crime in itself, law enforcement response to such crimes is often enhanced by the recognition that crimes against animals can be both indicators of other ongoing crimes against people and predictors of the potential for interpersonal violence. An understanding of common motives underlying animal cruelty can aid the pathologist in asking appropriate questions. The authors review the forms of pathology evidence commonly seen in various presentations of animal cruelty. Understanding these forms of evidence can help the pathologist describe findings that can be significant for assessing the potential risks the alleged perpetrator may pose to other animals and humans. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Central Asia’s Shrinking Connectivity Gap: Implications for U.S. Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    regional integration and protectionism often centered around a number of economic poles represented by established and rising powers like Brazil , Russia...Central Asia, with major investments in construction, food production, hotel management, financial servic- es, energy, information technology (IT), and

  18. Chaperone-mediated autophagy and neurodegeneration: connections, mechanisms, and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolei; Huang, Sihua; Wang, Xingqin; Tang, Beisha; Li, Wenming; Mao, Zixu

    2015-08-01

    Lysosomes degrade dysfunctional intracellular components via three pathways: macroautophagy, microautophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Unlike the other two, CMA degrades cytosolic proteins with a recognized KFERQ-like motif in lysosomes and is important for cellular homeostasis. CMA activity declines with age and is altered in neurodegenerative diseases. Its impairment leads to the accumulation of aggregated proteins, some of which may be directly tied to the pathogenic processes of neurodegenerative diseases. Its induction may accelerate the clearance of pathogenic proteins and promote cell survival, representing a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we summarize the current findings on how CMA is involved in neurodegenerative diseases, especially in Parkinson's disease.

  19. CONNECTIVITY OF ENVIRONMENT, HUMAN HEALTH AND SOCIOECONOMICS: IMPLICATIONS FOR SCIENCE AND POLICY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental and public health policy continues to evolve in response to new and complex social, economic and environmental drivers. Globalization of commerce, evolving patterns of land use, and technological advances in such areas as manufacturing and genetically modified food...

  20. The International Connections of Religious Higher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: Rationales and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karram, Grace

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, the largest growth in Sub-Saharan Africa's private higher education has been among institutions with religious affiliations. This article examines the rise of private, religious higher education in Sub-Saharan Africa with international affiliations. Using an analysis of multiple stakeholders from the region and international…

  1. Imaging of Brain Connectivity in Dementia: Clinical Implications for Diagnosis of its Underlying Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Meijboom (Rozanna)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractIn this thesis we investigated the use of advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques in identifying subtle brain abnormalities, associating brain abnormalities with disease symptomatology, and improving early (differential) diagnosis in several diseases underlying dementia.

  2. Scalloped Implant-Abutment Connection Compared to Conventional Flat Implant-Abutment Connection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starch-Jensen, Thomas; Christensen, Ann-Eva; Lorenzen, Henning

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective was to test the hypothesis of no difference in implant treatment outcome after installation of implants with a scalloped implant-abutment connection compared to a flat implant-abutment connection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase and Cochrane library search...... of suprastructures has never been compared within the same study. High implant survival rate was reported in all the included studies. Significantly more peri-implant marginal bone loss, higher probing depth score, bleeding score and gingival score was observed around implants with a scalloped implant-abutment...... loss around implants with a scalloped implant-abutment connection. CONCLUSIONS: A scalloped implant-abutment connection seems to be associated with higher peri-implant marginal bone loss compared to a flat implant-abutment connection. Therefore, the hypothesis of the present systematic review must...

  3. Flocking of Second-Order Multiagent Systems With Connectivity Preservation Based on Algebraic Connectivity Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hao; Wei, Yue; Chen, Jie; Xin, Bin

    2017-04-01

    The problem of flocking of second-order multiagent systems with connectivity preservation is investigated in this paper. First, for estimating the algebraic connectivity as well as the corresponding eigenvector, a new decentralized inverse power iteration scheme is formulated. Then, based on the estimation of the algebraic connectivity, a set of distributed gradient-based flocking control protocols is built with a new class of generalized hybrid potential fields which could guarantee collision avoidance, desired distance stabilization, and the connectivity of the underlying communication network simultaneously. What is important is that the proposed control scheme allows the existing edges to be broken without violation of connectivity constraints, and thus yields more flexibility of motions and reduces the communication cost for the multiagent system. In the end, nontrivial comparative simulations and experimental results are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results and highlight the advantages of the proposed estimation scheme and control algorithm.

  4. Cerebro-cerebellar connectivity is increased in primary lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meoded, Avner; Morrissette, Arthur E; Katipally, Rohan; Schanz, Olivia; Gotts, Stephen J; Floeter, Mary Kay

    2015-01-01

    Increased functional connectivity in resting state networks was found in several studies of patients with motor neuron disorders, although diffusion tensor imaging studies consistently show loss of white matter integrity. To understand the relationship between structural connectivity and functional connectivity, we examined the structural connections between regions with altered functional connectivity in patients with primary lateral sclerosis (PLS), a long-lived motor neuron disease. Connectivity matrices were constructed from resting state fMRI in 16 PLS patients to identify areas of differing connectivity between patients and healthy controls. Probabilistic fiber tracking was used to examine structural connections between regions of differing connectivity. PLS patients had 12 regions with increased functional connectivity compared to controls, with a predominance of cerebro-cerebellar connections. Increased functional connectivity was strongest between the cerebellum and cortical motor areas and between the cerebellum and frontal and temporal cortex. Fiber tracking detected no difference in connections between regions with increased functional connectivity. We conclude that functional connectivity changes are not strongly based in structural connectivity. Increased functional connectivity may be caused by common inputs, or by reduced selectivity of cortical activation, which could result from loss of intracortical inhibition when cortical afferents are intact.

  5. Replicated landscape genetic and network analyses reveal wide variation in functional connectivity for American pikas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Jessica A; Epps, Clinton W; Jeffress, Mackenzie R; Ray, Chris; Rodhouse, Thomas J; Schwalm, Donelle

    2016-09-01

    Landscape connectivity is essential for maintaining viable populations, particularly for species restricted to fragmented habitats or naturally arrayed in metapopulations and facing rapid climate change. The importance of assessing both structural connectivity (physical distribution of favorable habitat patches) and functional connectivity (how species move among habitat patches) for managing such species is well understood. However, the degree to which functional connectivity for a species varies among landscapes, and the resulting implications for conservation, have rarely been assessed. We used a landscape genetics approach to evaluate resistance to gene flow and, thus, to determine how landscape and climate-related variables influence gene flow for American pikas (Ochotona princeps) in eight federally managed sites in the western United States. We used empirically derived, individual-based landscape resistance models in conjunction with predictive occupancy models to generate patch-based network models describing functional landscape connectivity. Metareplication across landscapes enabled identification of limiting factors for dispersal that would not otherwise have been apparent. Despite the cool microclimates characteristic of pika habitat, south-facing aspects consistently represented higher resistance to movement, supporting the previous hypothesis that exposure to relatively high temperatures may limit dispersal in American pikas. We found that other barriers to dispersal included areas with a high degree of topographic relief, such as cliffs and ravines, as well as streams and distances greater than 1-4 km depending on the site. Using the empirically derived network models of habitat patch connectivity, we identified habitat patches that were likely disproportionately important for maintaining functional connectivity, areas in which habitat appeared fragmented, and locations that could be targeted for management actions to improve functional connectivity

  6. Functional connectivity structure of cortical calcium dynamics in anesthetized and awake mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Patrick W; Brier, Lindsey M; Bauer, Adam Q; Baxter, Grant A; Kraft, Andrew W; Reisman, Matthew D; Bice, Annie R; Snyder, Abraham Z; Lee, Jin-Moo; Culver, Joseph P

    2017-01-01

    The interplay between hemodynamic-based markers of cortical activity (e.g. fMRI and optical intrinsic signal imaging), which are an indirect and relatively slow report of neural activity, and underlying synaptic electrical and metabolic activity through neurovascular coupling is a topic of ongoing research and debate. As application of resting state functional connectivity measures is extended further into topics such as brain development, aging and disease, the importance of understanding the fundamental physiological basis for functional connectivity will grow. Here we extend functional connectivity analysis from hemodynamic- to calcium-based imaging. Transgenic mice (n = 7) expressing a fluorescent calcium indicator (GCaMP6) driven by the Thy1 promoter in glutamatergic neurons were imaged transcranially in both anesthetized (using ketamine/xylazine) and awake states. Sequential LED illumination (λ = 454, 523, 595, 640nm) enabled concurrent imaging of both GCaMP6 fluorescence emission (corrected for hemoglobin absorption) and hemodynamics. Functional connectivity network maps were constructed for infraslow (0.009-0.08Hz), intermediate (0.08-0.4Hz), and high (0.4-4.0Hz) frequency bands. At infraslow and intermediate frequencies, commonly used in BOLD fMRI and fcOIS studies of functional connectivity and implicated in neurovascular coupling mechanisms, GCaMP6 and HbO2 functional connectivity structures were in high agreement, both qualitatively and also quantitatively through a measure of spatial similarity. The spontaneous dynamics of both contrasts had the highest correlation when the GCaMP6 signal was delayed with a ~0.6-1.5s temporal offset. Within the higher-frequency delta band, sensitive to slow wave sleep oscillations in non-REM sleep and anesthesia, we evaluate the speed with which the connectivity analysis stabilized and found that the functional connectivity maps captured putative network structure within time window lengths as short as 30 seconds

  7. The Dissociative Subtype of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Unique Resting-State Functional Connectivity of Basolateral and Centromedial Amygdala Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Andrew A; Densmore, Maria; Frewen, Paul A; Théberge, Jean; Neufeld, Richard Wj; McKinnon, Margaret C; Lanius, Ruth A

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies point towards differential connectivity patterns among basolateral (BLA) and centromedial (CMA) amygdala regions in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as compared with controls. Here we describe the first study to compare directly connectivity patterns of the BLA and CMA complexes between PTSD patients with and without the dissociative subtype (PTSD+DS and PTSD-DS, respectively). Amygdala connectivity to regulatory prefrontal regions and parietal regions involved in consciousness and proprioception were expected to differ between these two groups based on differential limbic regulation and behavioral symptoms. PTSD patients (n=49) with (n=13) and without (n=36) the dissociative subtype and age-matched healthy controls (n=40) underwent resting-state fMRI. Bilateral BLA and CMA connectivity patterns were compared using a seed-based approach via SPM Anatomy Toolbox. Among patients with PTSD, the PTSD+DS group exhibited greater amygdala functional connectivity to prefrontal regions involved in emotion regulation (bilateral BLA and left CMA to the middle frontal gyrus and bilateral CMA to the medial frontal gyrus) as compared with the PTSD-DS group. In addition, the PTSD+DS group showed greater amygdala connectivity to regions involved in consciousness, awareness, and proprioception-implicated in depersonalization and derealization (left BLA to superior parietal lobe and cerebellar culmen; left CMA to dorsal posterior cingulate and precuneus). Differences in amygdala complex connectivity to specific brain regions parallel the unique symptom profiles of the PTSD subgroups and point towards unique biological markers of the dissociative subtype of PTSD.

  8. Parity and the spin{statistics connection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A simple demonstration of the spin-statistics connection for general causal fields is obtained by using the parity operation to exchange spatial coordinates in the scalar product of a locally commuting field operator, evaluated at position x, with the same field operator evaluated at -x, at equal times.

  9. Seychelles Fisheries Connectivity and Transport Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Seychelles Fisheries Connectivity and Transport Pathways...overarching goal for the proposed work is to develop predictive capabilities for physical oceanography for the Seychelles region in support of locally...for ocean observations in the Seychelles region that will lead to long-term data collection efforts. In collaboration with local partnerships, we

  10. Quick-Connect, Slow-Disconnect Bolt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Proposed bolt functions similarly to device described in article "Quick-Connect, Slow-Disconnect Nut" (MFS-28833). Bolt installed in standard threaded hole simply by pushing it into hole. Once inserted, bolt withdrawn only by turning it in conventional way.

  11. Offloading IP Flows onto Lambda-Connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fioreze, Tiago; Oude Wolbers, Mattijs; van de Meent, R.; Pras, Aiko

    2007-01-01

    Optical networks are capable of switching IP traffic via lambda connections. In this way, big IP flows that overload the regular IP routing level may be moved to the optical level, where they get better Quality of Service (QoS). At the same time, the IP routing level is off-loaded and can serve

  12. Possible connections between hard and soft processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankenbecler, R.

    1977-10-01

    Three topics in constituent hadron models are reviewed: the connection between fixed angle and Regge behavior, the validity of the hard scattering expansion and restrictions on the effects of the transverse momentum of constituents, and the x distribution in the fragmentation region at low transverse momentum. 6 figures

  13. Data analysis of event tape and connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Huili

    1995-01-01

    The data analysis on the VAX-11/780 computer is briefly described, the data is from the recorded event tape of JUHU data acquisition system on the PDP-11/44 computer. The connection of the recorded event tapes of the XSYS data acquisition system on VAX computer is also introduced

  14. Privacy and Security in Connected Vehicles Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius POPA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern vehicles could not be figured out without Internet connections in order to provide customers a wide range of services in the vehicle: infotainment platforms, third-party support, on-board and online monitor and maintenance, business analytics for car fleets. Exposure of the vehicles to the Internet turns them into targets for viruses, worms, Trojans, DoS and lot of other threats for connected vehicle security. Beside the classic threats of the Internet exposure, other new threats are introduced by the Internet of Things (IoT new technologies that are poor regulated or undefined yet from the security point of view. Also, the large variety of the IoT technologies not being standardized yet contribute to security issues in this area of the automotive industry. This paper provides an overview of the connected vehicle environment, considering the main components of such kind of system and the main security challenges to be considered for building reliable secure online systems for connected vehicles.

  15. Headaches and Hormones: What's the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headaches and hormones: What's the connection? Being female has some real health advantages, but not when it comes to headaches — particularly ... a relationship between headaches and hormonal changes. The hormones estrogen (ES-truh-jen) and progesterone (pro-JES- ...

  16. [Pulmonary involvement in connective tissue disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosiewicz, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    The connective tissue diseases are a variable group of autoimmune mediated disorders characterized by multiorgan damage. Pulmonary complications are common, usually occur after the onset of joint symptoms, but can also be initially presenting complaint. The respiratory system may be involved in all its component: airways, vessels, parenchyma, pleura and respiratory muscles. Lung involvement is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in the connective tissue diseases. Clinical course is highly variable - can range from mild to rapidly progressive, some processes are reversible, while others are irreversible. Thus, the identification of reversible disease , and separately progressive disease, are important clinical issues. The frequency, clinical presentation, prognosis and responce to therapy are different, depending on the pattern of involvement as well as on specyfic diagnostic method used to identify it. High- resolution computed tompography plays an important role in identifying patients with respiratory involvement. Pulmonary function tests are a sensitive tool detecting interstitial lung disease. In this article, pulmonary lung involvement accompanying most frequently apperaing connective tissue diseases - rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, lupus erythematosus, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, Sjögrens syndrome and mixed connective tissue disaese are reviewed.

  17. Connecting care competencies and culture during disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Vivek

    2009-01-01

    Connecting care Competencies and Culture are core fundamentals in responding to disasters. Thick coordination between professionals, communities and agencies in different geographical areas is crucial to the happening of appropriate preparedness and thus efficient response and mitigation of a disaster. In the next few articles, we present diverse examples related to the preparedness and recovery process to adverse disasters across the globe PMID:19561968

  18. Recording technology in contemporary Nigeria: connecting the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recording technology in contemporary Nigeria: connecting the Nigerian ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... for themselves in the nation's music recording industry and its performance ...

  19. Cloud connected vehicles : towards new business opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krivas, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this report, the concept of a cloud connected smart mobility platform is investigated focusing on enabling easy application development and deployment without vendor lock-ins via an open and multi-vendor environment. A prototype of the platform along with a simple cloud application are developed

  20. Student life--When two worlds connect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Theresa

    2014-11-11

    The light bulb moment came to me on a train when I met two people living with long-term conditions. It dawned on me that our nursing students could be an amazing resource to connect people who are socially isolated--older people, young people, carers and others--to beautiful spaces.

  1. Mission Connect Mild TBI Translational Research Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    and covered with dental acrylic . Isoflurane was discontinued; rats were connected to the trauma device and subjected to a mild 1.0-atm fluid-percussion...thought to play roles in the regulation of extracellular concentrations of water, potassium and other ions, and glutamate and other transmitters and

  2. EMPOWERING GIRLS AND CONNECTING PEOPLE THROUGH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    through a school social work intervention and connecting the people ... All students. (638) who attended the intervention workshop constituted the sample for the study. Data was collected through questionnaires administered after a presentation of the “unknown burden” of .... and high expectations of school performance.

  3. Connections between the matching and chromatic polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Farrell

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The main results established are (i a connection between the matching and chromatic polynomials and (ii a formula for the matching polynomial of a general complement of a subgraph of a graph. Some deductions on matching and chromatic equivalence and uniqueness are made.

  4. Quantized Abelian principle connections on Lorentzian manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benini, Marco; Schenkel, Alexander

    2013-03-01

    We construct a covariant functor from a category of Abelian principal bundles over globally hyperbolic spacetimes to a category of *-algebras that describes quantized principal connections. We work within an appropriate differential geometric setting by using the bundle of connections and we study the full gauge group, namely the group of vertical principal bundle automorphisms. Properties of our functor are investigated in detail and, similar to earlier works, it is found that due to topological obstructions the locality property of locally covariant quantum field theory is violated. Furthermore, we prove that, for Abelian structure groups containing a nontrivial compact factor, the gauge invariant Borchers- Uhlmann algebra of the vector dual of the bundle of connections is not separating on gauge equivalence classes of principal connections. We introduce a topological generalization of the concept of locally covariant quantum fields. As examples, we construct for the full subcategory of principal U(1)-bundles two natural transformations from singular homology functors to the quantum field theory functor that can be interpreted as the Euler class and the electric charge. In this case we also prove that the electric charges can be consistently set to zero, which yields another quantum field theory functor that satisfies all axioms of locally covariant quantum field theory.

  5. [Applications and connected objects, new perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudelle, Pierre

    2017-11-01

    Applications and connected objects appear promising in the world of wellbeing and health. Often cheap, they offer numerous perspectives for health promotion, in targeted fields or to fulfil 'niche' needs. This growth, extremely fast over the last five years, has also given rise to potential defiance on the part of users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Association Between Brain Activation and Functional Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D

    2018-04-13

    The origin of the "resting-state" brain activity recorded with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is still uncertain. Here we provide evidence for the neurovascular origins of the amplitude of the low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and the local functional connectivity density (lFCD) by comparing them with task-induced blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses, which are considered a proxy for neuronal activation. Using fMRI data for 2 different tasks (Relational and Social) collected by the Human Connectome Project in 426 healthy adults, we show that ALFF and lFCD have linear associations with the BOLD response. This association was significantly attenuated by a novel task signal regression (TSR) procedure, indicating that task performance enhances lFCD and ALFF in activated regions. We also show that lFCD predicts BOLD activation patterns, as was recently shown for other functional connectivity metrics, which corroborates that resting functional connectivity architecture impacts brain activation responses. Thus, our findings indicate a common source for BOLD responses, ALFF and lFCD, which is consistent with the neurovascular origin of local hemodynamic synchrony presumably reflecting coordinated fluctuations in neuronal activity. This study also supports the development of task-evoked functional connectivity density mapping.

  7. Connections, Coherence, and Cognition in Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Elizabeth; Perfetti, Charles

    In a study conducted to show the importance of sentence connections as a way of looking at a writer's cognitive processes, three devices used to achieve coherence in written discourse were compared and proved to be unequally effective. The devices were cohesion (use of a textual reference in a sentence that has an antecedent in a preceding…

  8. Functional connectivity metrics during stroke recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yourganov, Grigori; Schmah, Tanya; Small, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    We explore functional connectivity in nine subjects measured with 1 5T fMRI-BOLD in a longitudinal study of recovery from unilateral stroke affecting the motor area (Small et al, 2002) We found that several measures of complexity of covariance matrices show strong correlations with behavioral mea...

  9. Connecting Libraries and Schools with CLASP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Stephen

    1993-01-01

    Describes the Dewitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Connecting Libraries and Schools Project (CLASP) of the New York Public Library, a cooperative pilot project to encourage reading among children and youth. Sample projects described include summer reading lists, open school night outreach, and outreach to parents. The importance of materials support is…

  10. GOOSE: Semantic search on Internet connected sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, K.; Bomhof, F.W.; Burghouts, G.J.; Diggelen, J. van; Hiemstra, P.; Hof, J. van 't; Kraaij, W.; Pasman, K.H.W.; Smith, A.J.E.; Versloot, C.A.; Wit, J.J. de

    2013-01-01

    More and more sensors are getting Internet connected. Examples are cameras on cell phones, CCTV cameras for traffic control as well as dedicated security and defense sensor systems. Due to the steadily increasing data volume, human exploitation of all this sensor data is impossible for effective

  11. Quantized Abelian principle connections on Lorentzian manifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benini, Marco [Pavia Univ. (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pavia (Italy); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Dappiaggi, Claudio [Pavia Univ. (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pavia (Italy); Schenkel, Alexander [Bergische Univ., Wuppertal (Germany). Fachgruppe Mathematik

    2013-03-15

    We construct a covariant functor from a category of Abelian principal bundles over globally hyperbolic spacetimes to a category of *-algebras that describes quantized principal connections. We work within an appropriate differential geometric setting by using the bundle of connections and we study the full gauge group, namely the group of vertical principal bundle automorphisms. Properties of our functor are investigated in detail and, similar to earlier works, it is found that due to topological obstructions the locality property of locally covariant quantum field theory is violated. Furthermore, we prove that, for Abelian structure groups containing a nontrivial compact factor, the gauge invariant Borchers- Uhlmann algebra of the vector dual of the bundle of connections is not separating on gauge equivalence classes of principal connections. We introduce a topological generalization of the concept of locally covariant quantum fields. As examples, we construct for the full subcategory of principal U(1)-bundles two natural transformations from singular homology functors to the quantum field theory functor that can be interpreted as the Euler class and the electric charge. In this case we also prove that the electric charges can be consistently set to zero, which yields another quantum field theory functor that satisfies all axioms of locally covariant quantum field theory.

  12. Discerning connectivity from dynamics in climate networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paluš, Milan; Hartman, David; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Vejmelka, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 5 (2011), s. 751-763 ISSN 1023-5809 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP103/11/J068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : complex networks * climate dynamics * connectivity * North Atlantic Oscillation * solar activity Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.597, year: 2011

  13. Connecting strangers at a train station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Böttcher, Niels; Pellarin, Lars

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe a virtual instrument or a performance space, placed at Høje Tåstrup train station in Denmark, which is meant to establish communicative connections between strangers, by letting users of the system create soundscapes together across the rails. We discuss mapping...

  14. Battery impedance spectroscopy using bidirectional grid connected ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shimul Kumar Dam

    Keywords. Impedance spectroscopy; grid connection; battery converter; state of charge; health monitoring. 1. Introduction .... the load should be within the safe range of operation specified by the ... A split capacitor damping scheme is adopted here as shown in ...... spectroscopy testing on the Advanced Technology Devel-.

  15. Connectivity planning to address climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tristan A. Nuñez; Joshua J. Lawler; Brad H. McRae; D. John Pierce; Meade B. Krosby; Darren M. Kavanagh; Peter H. Singleton; Joshua J. Tewksbury

    2013-01-01

    As the climate changes, human land use may impede species from tracking areas with suitable climates. Maintaining connectivity between areas of different temperatures could allow organisms to move along temperature gradients and allow species to continue to occupy the same temperature space as the climate warms. We used a coarse-filter approach to identify broad...

  16. Connecting Learning Spaces Using Mobile Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenli; Seow, Peter; So, Hyo-Jeong; Toh, Yancy; Looi, Chee-Kit

    2010-01-01

    The use of mobile technology can help extend children's learning spaces and enrich the learning experiences in their everyday lives where they move from one context to another, switching locations, social groups, technologies, and topics. When students have ubiquitous access to mobile devices with full connectivity, the in-situ use of the mobile…

  17. Korean Kimchi Chemistry: A Multicultural Chemistry Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murfin, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Connecting science with different cultures is one way to interest students in science, to relate science to their lives, and at the same time to broaden their horizons in a variety of ways. In the lesson described here, students make kimchi, a delicious and popular Korean dish that can be used to explore many important chemistry concepts,…

  18. Disrupted functional connectivity in adolescent obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Moreno-Lopez

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: These findings suggest that adolescent obesity is linked to disrupted functional connectivity in brain networks relevant to maintaining balance between reward, emotional memories and cognitive control. Our findings may contribute to reconceptualization of obesity as a multi-layered brain disorder leading to compromised motivation and control, and provide a biological account to target prevention strategies for adolescent obesity.

  19. Preservice Teachers Connecting Mathematics and Drumming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, elementary classroom teachers are being called to teach a myriad of subjects, including visual art, dance, and music. Preservice teachers must be prepared to teach and integrate multiple subjects. To that end, preservice teachers will need experiences in their preparation that help them to see connections across content areas and…

  20. Connective Intelligence for Childhood Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, María-Luisa; Alsina, Ángel; Marbán, José-María; Berciano, Ainhoa

    2017-01-01

    The construction of a connective brain begins at the earliest ages of human development. However, knowledge about individual and collective brains provided so far by research has been rarely incorporated into Maths in Early Childhood classrooms. In spite of that, it is obvious that it is at these ages when the learning of mathematics acts as a…