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Sample records for conjunctivitis allergic

  1. Allergic Conjunctivitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    condition include itching, excessive lacrimation, ophthalmic ... allergens with the surface of the eye in a person who is allergic .... Vernal keratoconjunctivitis: more severe disorder, which usually affects boys living in warm, dry climates.

  2. Allergic conjunctivitis in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, Bernard Yu-Hor

    2017-04-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC), which may be acute or chronic, is associated with rhinitis in 30%-70% of affected individuals, hence the term allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR/C). Seasonal and perennial AC is generally milder than the more chronic and persistent atopic and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Natural allergens like house dust mites (HDM), temperate and subtropical grass and tree pollen are important triggers that drive allergic inflammation in AC in the Asia-Pacific region. Climate change, environmental tobacco smoke, pollutants derived from fuel combustion, Asian dust storms originating from central/north Asia and phthalates may also exacerbate AR/C. The Allergies in Asia Pacific study and International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood provide epidemiological data on regional differences in AR/C within the region. AC significantly impacts the quality of life of both children and adults, and these can be measured by validated quality of life questionnaires on AR/C. Management guidelines for AC involve a stepped approach depending on the severity of disease, similar to that for allergic rhinitis and asthma. Topical calcineurin inhibitors are effective in certain types of persistent AC, and sublingual immunotherapy is emerging as an effective treatment option in AR/C to grass pollen and HDM. Translational research predominantly from Japan and Korea involving animal models are important for the potential development of targeted pharmacotherapies for AC.

  3. TREATMENT OF CHILDREN'S ALLERGIC CONJUNCTIVITIS

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    L.D. Ksenzova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic conjunctivitis is a widely spread disease, which is often accompanied with an allergic rhinitis. According to the up to date recommendations, the treatment of the allergic rhino conjunctivitis is based on 3 key principles: elimination of the allergen, conducting an allergen targeted immunotherapy and pharmacotherapy. The medication treatment of the allergic rhino conjunctivitis should include antihistamines of the 2nd generation and/or intranasal corticosteroids. Their effectiveness was proven with the findings of numerous place controlled surveys; in most cases they are safe. The usage experience of the intranasal formulation of mometasone furoate (Nasonex shows that with a minimal biological availability of the medication and the absence of its influence upon the «hypothalamus–hypophysis–adrenal glands» system and growth of children, mometasone can be a medication of choice to treat children's rhino conjunctivitis.Key words: children, allergic conjunctivitis, treatment.

  4. Topical treatment options for allergic conjunctivitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of allergic conjunctivitis. Classification and pathogenesis ... Table 1: The classification of allergic conjunctivitis1,2,5. Acute allergic ..... molecular structure which may be associated with a more rapid ... Resolvin E1, a proresolving lipid mediator.

  5. Allergic conjunctivitis and dry eye syndrome.

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    Hom, Milton M; Nguyen, Andrew L; Bielory, Leonard

    2012-03-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) and dry eye syndrome (DES) are 2 of the most common anterior inflammatory disorders of the ocular surface and one does not preclude the coexistence of the other. To examine the potential overlap between AC and DES as comorbidities. Using the validated questionnaire known as Subjective Evaluation of Symptom of Dryness, we studied self-reported itchiness, dryness, and redness. In an outpatient optometric setting, 689 patients treated from January 1, 2007, to January 1, 2011, were surveyed for their ocular history and categorized according to their reported level of discomfort of itchiness, dryness, and redness. Patients ranged in age from 5 to 90 years (median age, 25 years; 39.5% male; 60.5% female). In the studied 689 patients, clinically significant itchiness was found in 194 (28.2%), dry eyes in 247 (35.8%), and redness in 194 (28.2%). Symptom overlap was demonstrated in many of the patients. Of the 194 patients with itchiness, 112 (57.7%) had clinically significant dryness. In the 247 patients with dry eyes, 112 (45.3%) had clinically significant itch. Redness was apparent in 120 of the 194 patients with itch (61.9%) and 122 of the 247 patients with dryness (49.4%). Statistical analysis demonstrated that self-reported itchiness, dryness, and redness were not independent of each other (Peyes" also experiencing dry eyes were 2.11 times and the odds of these patients also experiencing redness were 7.34 times that of patients with nonitchy eyes. Most patients with "itchy eyes" consistent with AC also have dry eyes and redness. These results suggest that some symptomatic patients concomitantly have features of AC and DES. Copyright © 2012 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis with positive skin prick test].

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    Yang, S; Jiang, Y; Jin, Y M; Zhang, J Y; Li, Y

    2017-09-11

    Objective: To observe the clinical characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis, and the correlations with skin prick test results. Methods: A retrospective study. Forty patients with positive skin prick test result were included. Patients underwent an ophthalmologic examination to identify their primary presenting signs and symptoms. The allergy types were divided into 5 groups. All dates were analyzed for the dependence, normality and homogeneity of variance. Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis H test and Spearman correlation analysis were performed accordingly. Results: Among 40 patients, 18(45.0%) had a clinical diagnosis of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, 14(35.0%) had perennial allergic conjunctivitis, 5(12.5%) had vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and 2(5.0%) had atopic keratoconjunctivits, and 1(2.5%) had giant papillary conjunctivitis. There was no significant difference in the number of symptoms and signs score among different types of allergic conjunctivitis, the score of itching and hyperemia had a positive relationship with the number of positive allergens ( r =0.74, Ptest of the allergen, the more symptoms and signs encountered in terms of severity. Conclusion: Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis was the most prevalent disorder, the most important clinical characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis are itching and conjunctival congestion, the main allergens are dust and pollens, patients may be sensitive to multiple allergens. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 689-693) .

  7. Allergic Conjunctivitis-induced Retinal Inflammation Promotes Myopia Progression

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    Chang-Ching Wei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Myopia is a highly prevalent eye disease. There is limited information suggesting a relationship between myopia and inflammation. We found children with allergic conjunctivitis (AC had the highest adjusted odds ratio (1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72–1.77 for myopia among the four allergic diseases. A cohort study was conducted and confirmed that children with AC had a higher incidence and subsequent risk of myopia (hazard ratio 2.35, 95%CI 2.29–2.40 compared to those without AC. Lower refractive error and longer axial length were observed in an AC animal model. Myopia progression was enhanced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α or interleukin (IL-6 administration, two cytokines secreted by mast cell degranulation. The TNF-α or IL-6 weakened the tight junction formed by corneal epithelial (CEP cells and inflammatory cytokines across the layer of CEP cells, which increased the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 secreted by retinal pigment epithelial cells. The expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and nuclear factor kappa B were up-regulated in eyes with AC, whereas IL-10 and the inhibitor of kappa B were down-regulated. In conclusion, the experimental findings in mice corroborate the epidemiological data showing that allergic inflammation influences the development of myopia.

  8. Development of an Allergic Conjunctivitis Model in Mice

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    Tolga Kocatürk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To develop an animal model that simulates human allergic conjunctivitis to understand the physiopathogenesis of allergic diseases and for developing novel therapeutic interventions. Ma te ri al and Met hod: BALB/c mice (12 males were divided into two groups each comprised of six mice. For sensitization, on the 1st and 8th days, a 0.2 ml mixed solution, adjusted to a concentration to 5mg/ml of ovalbumin (OVA and 15mg/ml of aluminium hydroxide, was administered intraperitoneally to the mice in Group 1 and 0.2 ml saline solution to the mice in Group 2. To induce experimental allergic conjunctivitis, an antigen challenge was made on days 15 and 18, using an OVA solution (5mg/ml instilled into both eyes of the mice in Group 1; while the mice in Group 2 received Human Balanced Salt Solution instead of OVA. For the clinical evaluation, the occurrence of conjunctival and palpebral oedema, conjunctival hyperaemia, and lacrimation were observed. For the histological examination, eyeballs, eyelids, and lacrimal glands were removed and prepared according to the routine processing method of the tissue laboratory. Immunohistochemical examination was made with mast cell tryptase using the labeled streptavidin–biotin amplification method and 3.3´-diaminobenzidine, in addition to hematoxylin-eosin (HE, and toluidine blue (TB staining. Re sults: Evident conjunctival oedema, palpebral oedema, conjunctival hyperaemia, and lacrimation were observed in Group 1. Mean mast cell density in cells/mm2, infiltrating the subconjunctival tissue was significantly high in Group 1 (allergy group, 23.17±7.46, p<0.0001 when compared to Group 2 (5.58±3.12. There was no increase in eosinophil and lymphocyte counts as well as vascular intensity in the subconjunctival tissue in any group. Dis cus si on: The murine model developed is similar to the human allergic conjunctivitis both clinically and histopathologically and can be used as a template for future studies

  9. Optic Nerve Injury in a Patient with Chronic Allergic Conjunctivitis

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    Ribhi Hazin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation of the optic nerve can lead to irreversible vision changes. We present a patient with a past medical history of skin allergy and allergic conjunctivitis (AC who presented with insidious unexplained unilateral vision loss. Physical exam revealed significant blepharospasm, mild lid edema, bulbar conjunctival hyperemia, afferent pupillary defect, and slight papillary hypertrophy. Slit lamp examination demonstrated superior and inferior conjunctival scarring as well as superior corneal scarring but no signs of external trauma or neurological damage were noted. Conjunctival cultures and cytologic evaluation demonstrated significant eosinophilic infiltration. Subsequent ophthalmoscopic examination revealed optic nerve atrophy. Upon further questioning, the patient admitted to vigorous itching of the affected eye for many months. Given the presenting symptoms, history, and negative ophthalmological workup, it was determined that the optic nerve atrophy was likely secondary to digital pressure from vigorous itching. Although AC can be a significant source of decreased vision via corneal ulceration, no reported cases have ever described AC-induced vision loss of this degree from vigorous itching and chronic pressure leading to optic nerve damage. Despite being self-limiting in nature, allergic conjunctivitis should be properly managed as extreme cases can result in mechanical compression of the optic nerve and compromise vision.

  10. Effects of vernal and allergic conjunctivitis on severity of keratoconus.

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    Cingu, Abdullah Kursat; Cinar, Yasin; Turkcu, Fatih Mehmet; Sahin, Alparslan; Ari, Seyhmus; Yuksel, Harun; Sahin, Muhammed; Caca, Ihsan

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate the effects of two different types of allergic conjunctivitis on severity of keratoconus (KC). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 171 KC patients referred between June 2010 and June 2011. The KC patients were divided into 3 groups as KC (group A), KC with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) (group B) and KC with allergic conjunctivitis (AC) (group C). Main outcome measures were demographic and ocular clinical features including age at presentation, gender, spherical equivalent (SE), best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BCVA), mean keratometric measurement (Km), central corneal thickness (CCT), and intraocular pressure (IOP). Groups were compared in term of study variables. The median age at presentation was significantly lower in group B (P<0.001). According to the median SE (P=0.003), BCVA (P=0.022), Km (P<0.001), CCT (P=0.015) and Amsler-Krumeich classification (P<0.001), KC was more severe in group B. There was no significant difference in terms of IOP and corrected IOP among the groups (P=0.44), however there were 4 patients who had increased corrected IOP developed after topical corticosteroid use in group B. The differences among the groups persisted even after controlling for age and gender. Our findings demonstrated a more severe KC in VKC patients despite their younger age which suggests evaluation of VKC patients as a separate group in keratoconus disease.

  11. Effects of vernal and allergic conjunctivitis on severity of keratoconus

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    Muhammed Sahin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To demonstrate the effects of two different types of allergic conjunctivitis on severity of keratoconus (KC.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 171 KC patients referred between June 2010 and June 2011. The KC patients were divided into 3 groups as KC (group A, KC with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC (group B and KC with allergic conjunctivitis (AC (group C. Main outcome measures were demographic and ocular clinical features including age at presentation, gender, spherical equivalent (SE, best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BCVA, mean keratometric measurement (Km, central corneal thickness (CCT, and intraocular pressure (IOP. Groups were compared in term of study variables. RESULTS: The median age at presentation was significantly lower in group B (P<0.001. According to the median SE (P=0.003, BCVA (P=0.022, Km (P<0.001, CCT (P=0.015 and Amsler–Krumeich classification (P<0.001, KC was more severe in group B. There was no significant difference in terms of IOP and corrected IOP among the groups (P=0.44, however there were 4 patients who had increased corrected IOP developed after topical corticosteroid use in group B. The differences among the groups persisted even after controlling for age and gender.CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated a more severe KC in VKC patients despite their younger age which suggests evaluation of VKC patients as a separate group in keratoconus disease.

  12. Clinical implications of mast cell involvement in allergic conjunctivitis.

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    Elieh Ali Komi, D; Rambasek, T; Bielory, L

    2018-03-01

    The conjunctiva is a common site for the allergic inflammatory response due to it being highly vascularized, having constant exposure to environmental pollutants and allergenic pollens and having a unique conjunctival associated lymphoid tissue. The primary morbidity of anterior surface conjunctival disorders that include allergic conjunctivitis and tear film disorders is associated with its high frequency of involvement rather than its severity, although the more chronic forms can involve the cornea and lead to sight-threatening conditions. Ocular allergy is associated with IgE-mediated mast cell activation in conjunctival tissue leading to the release of preformed mediators including histamine and proteases and subsequent de novo formation of lipid-derived mediators and cytokines that trigger a cascade of cellular and molecular events leading to extensive migration and infiltration of inflammatory cells to the ocular surface. The trafficking of neutrophils, eosinophils, and lymphocytes to the ocular surface is due to establishing various chemokine gradients (mainly CCL11, CCL24, CCL5, MCP-3, and MCP-4), cell surface expression of adhesion molecules (such as VCAM-1 the ligand for VLA-4), and leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium. The release of preformed mediators underlies the acute ocular surface response while the secondary influx of inflammatory cells leading to the recruitment and activation of eosinophils and the subsequent activation of Th2 and Th1 lymphocytes at the level of the conjunctiva reflects the late-phase reaction. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  13. Semaphorin 3A controls allergic and inflammatory responses in experimental allergic conjunctivitis

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    Junmi Tanaka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the efficacy of topical Semaphorin-3A (SEMA3A in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. METHODS: Experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EAC mice model induced by short ragweed pollen (SRW in 4-week-old of BALB/c mice, mice were evaluated using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining, immunofluorescence and light microscope photographs. Early phase took the samples in 24h after instillation and late phase took the samples between 4 to 14d after the start of treatment. The study use of topical SEMA3A (10 U, 100 U, 1000 U eye drops and subconjunctival injection of SEMA3A with same concentration. For comparison, five types of allergy eyedrops were quantified using clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Clinical score of composite ocular symptoms of the mice treated with SEMA3A were significantly decreased both in the immediate phase and the late phase compared to those treated with commercial ophthalmic formulations and non-treatment mice. SEMA3A treatment attenuates infiltration of eosinophils entering into conjunctiva in EAC mice. The score of eosinophil infiltration in the conjunctiva of SEMA3A 1000 U-treated group were significantly lower than low-concentration of SEMA3A treated groups and non-treated group. SEMA3A treatment also suppressed T-cell proliferation in vitro and decreased serum total IgE levels in EAC mice. Moreover, Treatment of SEMA3A suppressed Th2-related cytokines (IL-5, IL-13 and IL-4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-17 and TNF-α release, but increased regulatory cytokine IL-10 concentration in the conjunctiva of EAC mice. CONCLUSIONS: SEMA3A as a biological agent, showed the beneficial activity in ocular allergic processes with the less damage to the intraocular tissue. It is expected that SEMA3A may be contributed in patients with a more severe spectrum of refractory ocular allergic diseases including allergic conjunctivitis in the near future.

  14. The Early Efficacy of Topical Levocabastine in Patients with Allergic Conjunctivitis

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    Hiroshi Fujishima

    2006-01-01

    Conclusions: Although artificial tears had a positive effect in reducing symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis, by the washing out of allergens, levocabastine was more effective than artificial tears in controlling acute symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis, demonstrating that the selective H1 histamine-receptor antagonist action of levocabastine is rapidly effective in a clinical setting.

  15. Analysis of the correlation between tear film changes of allergic conjunctivitis and dry eye

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    Yong Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the correlation between tear film changes of allergic conjunctivitis and dry eye, then provide clinical references for better treatment. METHODS: Fifty patients with allergic conjunctivitis were taken as the observation group, the control group was selected based on 1:1 case control theory, and we chose 50 health volunteers without ocular surface diseases, xerophthalmia and systematic diseases randomly, then fluorescein(FLstaining, break-up time(BUT, Schirner I test(SⅠt, tear meniscus high(TMHand slit-lamp examinations were performed in the two groups. RESULTS: In the observation group, FL, BUT, SIt, TMH of right eyes and left eyes were statistically significant correlated(PPPCONCLUSION: Due to inflammatory mediators participation, allergic conjunctivitis could lead to the stability changes of tear film which cause in dry eye. The stability changes of allergic conjunctivitis correlate to the damage degree of epithelium.

  16. Clinical correlations of dry eye syndrome and allergic conjunctivitis in Korean children.

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    Kim, Tae Hyung; Moon, Nam Ju

    2013-01-01

    Clinical patterns in pediatric patients with dry eye syndrome and allergic conjunctivitis were investigated. Children aged 6 to 15 years with dry eye symptoms were included. Slit-lamp examinations including tear film break-up time, Schirmer's test, and fluorescent staining were performed, and subjective symptoms were investigated. Patients with allergic conjunctivitis were subjected to skin prick tests. Tear film break-up time was shorter and the number of symptoms related to dry eyes was higher in pediatric patients with allergic conjunctivitis than in those without allergic conjunctivitis. Patients with allergic conjunctivitis who had higher numbers of positive allergens on the skin prick test also had shorter tear film break-up time. Because pediatric patients with dry eye syndrome tend to complain less about their symptoms than adult patients, dry eye syndrome is commonly overlooked. This study showed that dry eyes tended to be more severe with the presence of allergic conjunctivitis; the more allergens present, the more severe the dry eyes. More attention should be paid to the treatment of pediatric patients with dry eyes accompanied by allergies. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. A double-masked study to compare the efficacy and safety of topical cromolyn for the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis

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    Yao-lin Liu

    2011-11-01

    Conclusion: Cromolyn 2 % ophthalmic solution was effective and safe to treat allergic conjunctivitis. A short-term use of cromolyn 2 % ophthalmic solution with 0.01% BAK would not cause any significant toxicity in patients with allergic conjunctivitis. Preservative-free cromolyn may be beneficial to the compromised eyes or eyes required of long-term medication.

  18. Update and clinical utility of alcaftadine ophthalmic solution 0.25% in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis

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    Chigbu DI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available DeGaulle I Chigbu, Alissa M Coyne Pennsylvania College of Optometry Salus University, Elkins Park, PA, USA Abstract: Allergic disorders of the ocular surface are primarily characterized as IgE- and/or T-lymphocyte-mediated disorders that affect the cornea, conjunctiva, and eyelid. Approximately 40% of individuals in the developed countries have allergic conjunctivitis, and as such, it is the most common form of ocular allergy. Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis is the most prevalent type of allergic conjunctivitis that impacts the quality of life of patients. This article reviews the pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical trials, clinical efficacy, and safety of alcaftadine. Histamine and the pathological mechanism of ocular allergy will be briefly reviewed with the intent of providing a background for the detailed discussion on the clinical utility of alcaftadine in allergic conjunctivitis. The Medline PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases were used to search for evidence-based literature on histamine and immunopathological mechanism of allergic conjunctivitis, as well as on pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical trials, and clinical efficacy of alcaftadine. The treatment and management goals of allergic conjunctivitis are to prevent or minimize the inflammatory cascade associated with allergic response in the early stages of the pathological mechanism. It is of note that activation of histamine receptors on immune and nonimmune cells are associated with allergen-induced inflammation of the conjunctiva and its associated ocular allergic manifestations, including itching, edema, hyperemia, and tearing. Alcaftadine is an efficacious multiple action antiallergic therapeutic agent with inverse agonist activity on H1, H2, and H4 receptors, as well as anti-inflammatory and mast cell stabilizing effects that could provide therapeutic benefits to patients with allergic conjunctivitis

  19. Efficacy of oral immunotherapy with a rice-based edible vaccine containing hypoallergenic Japanese cedar pollen allergens for treatment of established allergic conjunctivitis in mice

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    Ken Fukuda

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Oral administration of transgenic rice seeds expressing hypoallergenic allergens ameliorated allergic conjunctivitis in the established setting. Such a rice-based edible vaccine is potentially both safe and effective for oral immunotherapy in individuals with allergic conjunctivitis.

  20. Evaluating the efficacy of epinastine ophthalmic solution using a conjunctivitis allergen challenge model in patients with birch pollen allergic conjunctivitis.

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    Tagawa, Yoshiaki; Namba, Kenichi; Nakazono, Yumi; Iwata, Daiju; Ishida, Susumu

    2017-04-01

    The efficacy of epinastine 0.05% ophthalmic solution for pollen allergic conjunctivitis has already been shown in a conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC) test using cedar pollen as a challenge. The present study investigated the efficacy of this solution against birch pollen conjunctivitis in a CAC test. Ten adult subjects (eight males and two females) with asymptomatic birch pollen conjunctivitis were enrolled in this study. The average age of the subjects was 41.1 years. This study was conducted during a period without birch pollen dispersion. In each subject, the epinastine 0.05% ophthalmic solution was instilled in one eye, and an artificial tear fluid was instilled in the fellow eye in a double-blind manner. Five minutes or 4 h after the drug instillation, both eyes were challenged with an optimal concentration of birch pollen, and ocular itching and conjunctival hyperemia were then graded. Tears were collected before the drug instillation and 20 min after the pollen challenge, and the histamine level was measured. The ocular itching scores and palpebral conjunctival hyperemia scores of the epinastine-treated eyes were significantly lower than those of the contralateral control eyes when the eyes were pretreated with the drug 4 h before the CAC. There was a significant correlation between the tear histamine level and mean ocular itching score of three time points (3, 5 and 10 min) following the CAC in the control eyes but not the epinastine-treated eyes. Epinastine is effective in suppressing ocular itching and conjunctival hyperemia in birch pollen conjunctivitis. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A comparative study of Bilvadi Yoga Ashchyotana and eye drops in Vataja Abhishyanda (Simple Allergic Conjunctivitis).

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    Udani, Jayshree; Vaghela, D B; Rajagopala, Manjusha; Matalia, P D

    2012-01-01

    Simple allergic conjunctivitis is the most common form of ocular allergy (prevalence 5 - 22 %). It is a hypersensitivity reaction to specific airborne antigens. The disease Vataja Abhishyanda, which is due to vitiation of Vata Pradhana Tridosha is comparable with this condition. The management of simple allergic conjunctivitis in modern ophthalmology is very expensive and it should be followed lifelong and Ayurveda can provide better relief in such manifestation. This is the first research study on Vataja Abhishyanda. Patients were selected from the Outpatient Department (OPD), Inpatient Department (IPD), of the Shalakya Tantra Department and were randomly divided into two groups. In Group-A Bilvadi Ashchyotana and in Group-B Bilvadi eye drops were instilled for three months. Total 32 patients were registered and 27 patients completed the course of treatment. Bilvadi Ashchyotana gave better results in Toda, Sangharsha, Parushya, Kandu and Ragata as compared with Bilvadi Eye Drops in Vataja Abhishyanda.

  2. Risk of Allergic Rhinitis, Allergic Conjunctivitis, and Eczema in Children Born to Mothers with Gum Inflammation during Pregnancy.

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    Vivian Chia-Rong Hsieh

    Full Text Available Despite links between maternal and child health status, evidence on the association between gum infection in pregnant mothers and childhood allergies is scarce. We aim to evaluate the risk of developing allergy in children born to periodontal mothers in a nationwide study.We conducted a 9-year population-based, retrospective cohort study using Taiwan's National Health Insurance database. A study cohort of 42,217 newborns born to mothers with periodontal disease during pregnancy was identified in 2001 and matched with 42,334 babies born to mothers without any infection (control by mother's age at delivery and baby sex. With a follow-up period from 2001 to 2010, we observed the incidence of allergic rhinitis (AR, allergic conjunctivitis (AC, and eczema in these children. Cox proportional hazards regression models were performed with premature deaths as competing risk for the estimation of allergic disease risks.Nine-year cumulative incidences were the highest among children born to periodontal mothers; they reached 46.8%, 24.2%, and 40.4% (vs. 39.5%, 18.3% and 34.8% in control for AR, AC, and eczema, respectively. Our results showed moderately increased risks for the allergies in children born to periodontal mothers relative to their matched non-inflammatory control (adjusted HRs: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.15-1.20; 1.27, 1.24-1.31; 1.14, 1.12-1.17, respectively. Because the impact of food consumption and living environment cannot be considered using insurance data, we attempted to control it by adjusting for parental income and mother's residential area.Overall cumulative incidence and risks of children born to periodontal mothers for AR, AC, and eczema are significantly higher than those born to non-inflammatory mothers. Gum infection in women during pregnancy is an independent risk factor for allergic diseases in children, thus its intergenerational consequences should be considered in gestational care.

  3. Effect of Mandarin Orange Yogurt on Allergic Conjunctivitis Induced by Conjunctival Allergen Challenge.

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    Hara, Yuko; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Sakane, Yuri; Takezawa, Yuki; Kamao, Tomoyuki; Ohashi, Yuichi; Yasunaga, Sho; Sugahara, Takuya

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of mandarin orange yogurt containing nobiletin and β-lactoglobulin on the allergic conjunctivitis induced by a conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC). Experiment 1 was performed on 26 asymptomatic patients (age, 25.3 ± 5.3 years) with proven seasonal allergic conjunctivitis due to cedar pollen. We compared the degree of conjunctivitis induced by CAC before and after ingesting mandarin orange yogurt for 2 weeks. Experiment 2 was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial performed on 31 patients (age, 32.5 ± 12.2 years). A diet containing mandarin orange yogurt was compared to a diet containing yogurt lacking the mandarin orange on the conjunctivitis induced by CAC. The temperature of the inferior bulbar conjunctiva was measured before and 20 minutes after the CAC with an ocular surface thermographer (OST). The degree of conjunctival injection and chemosis was graded by slit-lamp biomicroscopy. The changes in the symptoms were evaluated by a questionnaire. In experiment 1, the scores of redness (3.07 ± 3.03 vs. 1.05 ± 1.70), chemosis (2.84 ± 2.27 vs. 0.81 ± 1.11), itching (4.34 ± 3.05 vs. 1.39 ± 2.12), and temperature (0.73 ± 0.42°C vs. 0.45 ± 0.43°C) were significantly lower (P yogurt for 2 weeks. In experiment 2, the scores of redness (1.03 ± 0.18 vs. 1.28 ± 0.52; P = 0.0156), itching (1.93 ± 1.92 vs. 2.82 ± 2.21; P = 0.0133), and surface temperature (0.54 ± 0.21°C vs. 0.31 ± 0.25°C; P yogurt group than in the control yogurt group. Mandarin orange yogurt can be an effective nutritional intervention for allergic conjunctivitis.

  4. Efficacy of topical application of 0.03% tacrolimus eye ointment in the management of allergic conjunctivitis.

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    Hazarika, Ajit Kumar; Singh, Prodip Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis is commonly observed eye diseases in Sikkim, India due to the abundance of seasonal pollens, environmental pollutants, and house dust. We evaluated the efficacy of topical 0.03% tacrolimus eye ointment in the management of simple allergic conjunctivitis. A prospective observational study was designed consisting of 41 patients with refractory simple allergic conjunctivitis, whose condition responded very poorly to conventional anti-allergic eye drops (azelastine, olopatadine, chlorpheniramine maleate, sodium chromoglycate). Simple allergic conjunctivitis cases were diagnosed and followed up evaluating both subjective and objective findings (itching, photophobia, tearing, chemosis, conjunctival congestion, tarsal papilla, and eyelid edema). Existing ocular treatment was discontinued at enrolment and 0.03% tacrolimus ointment was applied into the conjunctival sac of the affected eyes twice daily for 4 weeks followed by a 2 weeks washout period. Patients were followed up at the end of 1(st) week, 4(th) week, and at 7(th) week (2 weeks washout period). Symptoms of simple allergic conjunctivitis (itching, tearing and photophobia) were significantly reduced at the end of 1(st) week. Signs such as conjunctival chemosis, congestion, tarsal papillae, and eyelid edema were effectively treated in all cases at the end of 1(st) week. At the end of 4(th) week, all cases were fully cured and none of the patient had any recurrences up to 7(th) week. Mean score at 1(st) day (9.6 ± 3.27) was significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced by 7(th) day (1.35 ± 1.19) of treatment. Topical application of tacrolimus ointment is an excellent alternative to anti-allergic and steroids eye drops for the treatment of simple allergic conjunctivitis as it significantly reduces recurrences.

  5. Levocabastine eye drops are effective and well tolerated for the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis in children

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    Brunello Wüthrich

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available This open-label, prospective, multicentre, 4-week trial was undertaken to assess the efficacy and tolerability of twice daily levocabastine eye drops (0.5 mg/ml, with sodium cromoglycate nasal spray for the relief of concurrent nasal symptoms if required, in a total of 233 children with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. No correlation between efficacy, tolerability and age was found. Investigator assessments revealed that the total severity of ocular symptoms decreased by 84 ± 34% in patients < 12 years and 85 ± 30% in those ≥ 12 years, with corresponding reductions in the total severity of ocular findings of 84% in both patient groups over the 4-week treatment period. Global assessments of therapeutic efficacy revealed the effect of therapy on ocular symptoms to be excellent or good in 81% of patients < 12 years and 82% of those ≥ 12 years after 2 weeks of treatment, with corresponding values at the end of the trial of 88% and 82% in the two groups, respectively. Treatment tolerability was considered to be excellent or good by 94% of patients overall. Application site reactions were the most common adverse event associated with ocular levocabastine, occurring in 13% of patients < 12 years and 9% of those ≥ 12 years. Twice daily levocabastine eye drops therefore appear to be effective and well tolerated for the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis in children.

  6. The economic and quality of life impact of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis in a Spanish setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew F; Pitt, Andrew D; Rodruiguez, Alejandra E; Alio, Jorge L; Marti, Nicolas; Teus, Miguel; Guillen, Santiago; Bataille, Laurent; Barnes, J Rod

    2005-08-01

    Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) is a highly prevalent condition that exacts a range of costs from its sufferers. The aim of this study was to examine quality of life (QoL) and economic consequences of SAC amongst private health care patients in Spain. 201 sufferers of SAC and 200 controls were recruited from four private eye clinics and one public hospital in five Spanish cities: Alicante, Madrid, Albacete, Las Palmas de Gran Canarias and Valladolid. Participants were between 10 and 80 years of age and Spanish speaking. All potential participants were asked selected questions and sorted into one of the two groups or excluded. Sufferers were administered a set of four questionnaires by researchers consisting of the EQ-5D Health Questionnaire, the National Eye Institute (US) Visual Functioning Questionnaire 25 (VFQ-25), the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) and a Health Economic and Demographic Questionnaire (HEDQ). Control participants self-administered the full EQ-5D and VFQ-25 and abbreviated versions of the RQLQ and HEDQ. The groups were comparable in terms of age and sex, but sufferers had a significantly higher hourly income than controls (p = 0.02). Sufferers exhibited a significantly higher incidence of asthma, nasal symptoms, perennial allergic conjunctivitis, food allergies and other allergies (p aspects of vision as a result of their SAC. In relative terms, the per-capita economic cost of the condition was higher than in a previous public health care study. This was ascribed to sufferers' willingness-to-pay for symptom alleviation. The unexpectedly high expenditure of the proportion of SAC sufferers who receive private health care serves to highlight the importance of SAC as a costly condition. It also illustrates the need to account for both private and public heath care modalities when attempting to ascribe a total cost to a medical condition.

  7. Tracoma em pacientes com conjuntivite alérgica Trachoma in patients with allergic conjunctivitis

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    Haroldo de Lucena Bezerra

    2010-06-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis com a conjuntivite alérgica, dada à possibilidade de alterar o prognóstico visual e os sintomas se potencializarem no caso de acometimento duplo. Desta forma faz-se necessário a realização da imunofluorescência direta para o devido diagnóstico em pacientes com conjuntivite alérgica.Purpose: The aim of this paper was to identify a possible association between allergic conjunctivitis and Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Methods: A prospective study was carried out in 104 eyes of 52 patients with diagnosis of vernal conjunctivitis and atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Conjunctival cytology was performed in all the 52 patients, once it can evidence eosinophils presence and inclusions corpuscles in the conjunctival scraping smear, as well as the direct immunofluorescence that is the choice exam for Chlamydia trachomatis infection confirmation. All procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Board Ethics Committee. Results: Of the 52 patients, 41 (78.8% presented vernal conjunctivitis and 11 (21.2% atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Forty-one patients (78.8% were male and 11 (21.2% female. The ages varied from 3 to 19 years, with an average of 9.8 years. Regarding racial distribution, 16 (30.8% patients were caucasian, 14 (26.9% were black and 22 (42.3% were brown. Regarding systemic allergic diseases, it was observed that 25 (48.1% patients presented asthma, 20 (38.5% allergic rhinitis and 5 (9.6% atopic dermatitis. The main symptoms complained by the patients were coryza (59.6%, ocular itching (98.1%, burning (61.5%, tearing (65.3% and photophobia (61.5%. The main clinical signs were: ocular hyperemia (100%, bilaterality (100%, superior tarsal papilla (92.3% and mucous secretion (82.7%. The cytology of the conjunctival scrapings found eosinophil in 86.5% of the cases. Only seven patients did not present eosinophils in the conjunctival scrapings. Three patients (5.8% presented positive immunofluorescence for Chlamydia, evidencing an association

  8. Bepotastine besilate ophthalmic solution 1.5% for alleviating nasal symptoms in patients with allergic conjunctivitis

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    Cavet ME

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Megan E Cavet,1 Paul J Gomes,2 Warner W Carr,3 Jon I Williams4 1Bausch + Lomb, Rochester, NY, 2Ora, Andover, MA, 3Allergy and Asthma Associates of Southern California, Mission Viejo, CA, 4Bausch + Lomb, Irvine, CA, USA Background: Bepotastine besilate ophthalmic solution (BBOS 1.5% is a topical antihistamine for the treatment of ocular itching associated with allergic conjunctivitis (AC. Allergic rhinitis and AC are common comorbid conditions. We explored the efficacy of BBOS 1.5% in alleviating nasal symptoms in an integrated analysis of two Phase III conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC studies and a Phase IV environmental allergen study. Methods: In the Phase III trials, a CAC was performed 15 minutes, 8 hours, and 16 hours following ocular instillation of BBOS 1.5% (n=78 or placebo (n=79, and subjects evaluated nasal symptoms. In the environmental study, subjects instilled BBOS 1.5% (n=123 or placebo (n=122 twice daily and nasal symptoms were evaluated over 2 weeks. Results: In the Phase III trials, BBOS 1.5% had reduced CAC-induced nasal congestion and pruritus at 15 minutes and 8 hours postdosing and rhinorrhea and a non-ocular composite-symptom score (sum of nasal scores plus ear or palate pruritus at all time points postdosing (all P≤0.01 vs placebo. In the Phase IV environmental study, BBOS 1.5% reduced sneezing and nasal pruritus over 2 weeks and median number of days to improvement of nasal pruritus and total nasal symptom score (sum for rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal pruritus, and nasal congestion; P≤0.04 vs placebo. Additionally, investigator-reported improvement in overall ocular (pruritus, hyperemia, tearing and nasal symptoms was greater with BBOS 1.5% vs placebo (P≤0.03. Conclusion: Results of these exploratory analyses indicate that topical ocular BBOS 1.5% reduced nasal symptoms, supporting its use for alleviating rhinitis symptoms associated with AC. Keywords: bepotastine besilate, nasal symptoms, allergic rhinitis

  9. The effect of ketotifen on inflammatory markers in allergic conjunctivitis: an open, uncontrolled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagliardi Julio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy and safety of ketotifen eye drop treatment in allergic conjunctivitis (AC management is perfectly known by several studies, but the mechanism of action at the biochemical levels is poorly understood so we decided to perform an open, uncontrolled study in order to investigate the effect of the topical administration of ketotifen fumarate 0.05% on biochemical markers of inflammation on conjunctival cells in patients with AC. Methods Nineteen patients with symptoms and signs of AC (itching, discharge, burning, redness, increase in the watery discharge, swelling and follicles and with a history of allergy were prescribed with two daily instillation of one drop of eyewash ketotifen fumarate 0,05% in both eyes during thirty days. They were studied by measuring clinical and immunologic parameters. Results Ketotifen fumarate treatment significantly reduced the total symptoms and signs score for each patient as well as each symptoms and signs at all time points compared with day 0 (p Conclusion Ketotifen besides the well-known effect in reducing signs and symptoms of AC significantly diminished production of eotaxin and expression of CD29 by epithelial cells in patients with seasonal AC.

  10. Possible Mechanism of Action of the Antiallergic Effect of an Aqueous Extract of Heliotropium indicum L. in Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Conjunctivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Kyei; George Asumeng Koffuor; Paul Ramkissoon; Samuel Abokyi; Osei Owusu-Afriyie; Eric Addo Wiredu

    2015-01-01

    Heliotropium indicum is used traditionally as a remedy for conjunctivitis in Ghana. This study therefore evaluated the antiallergic potential of an aqueous whole plant extract of Heliotropium indicum (HIE) in ovalbumin-induced allergic conjunctivitis and attempted to predict its mode of action. Clinical scores for allergic conjunctivitis induced by intraperitoneal ovalbumin sensitization (100?:?10??g OVA/Al(OH)3 in phosphate-buffered saline [PBS]) and topical conjunctival challenge (1.5?mg OV...

  11. Role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF in pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis and pollen dermatitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Nagata

    Full Text Available Pollen is a clinically important airborne allergen and one of the major causes of allergic conjunctivitis. A subpopulation of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD are also known to have exacerbated skin eruptions on the face, especially around the eyelids, after contact with pollen. This pollen-induced skin reaction is now known as pollen dermatitis. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF is a pluripotent cytokine that plays an essential role in allergic inflammation. Recent findings suggest that MIF is involved in several allergic disorders, including AD. In this study, MIF knockout (KO, MIF transgenic (Tg and WT littermate mice were immunized with ragweed (RW pollen or Japanese cedar (JC pollen and challenged via eye drops. We observed that the numbers of conjunctiva- and eyelid-infiltrating eosinophils were significantly increased in RW and JC pollen-sensitized MIF Tg compared with WT mice or MIF KO mice. The mRNA expression levels of eotaxin, interleukin (IL-5 and IL-13 were increased in pollen-sensitized eyelid skin sites of MIF Tg mice. An in vitro analysis revealed that high eotaxin expression was induced in dermal fibroblasts by MIF combined with stimulation of IL-4 or IL-13. This eotaxin expression was inhibited by the treatment with CD74 siRNA in fibroblasts. These findings indicate that MIF can induce eosinophil accumulation in the conjunctiva and eyelid dermis exposed to pollen. Therefore, targeted inhibition of MIF might result as a new option to control pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis and pollen dermatitis.

  12. Restoring conjunctival tolerance by topical nuclear factor-κB inhibitors reduces preservative-facilitated allergic conjunctivitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Mauricio; Sabbione, Florencia; Gabelloni, María Laura; Vanzulli, Silvia; Trevani, Analía Silvina; Giordano, Mirta Nilda; Galletti, Jeremías Gastón

    2014-09-04

    To evaluate the role of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation in eye drop preservative toxicity and the effect of topical NF-κB inhibitors on preservative-facilitated allergic conjunctivitis. Balb/c mice were instilled ovalbumin (OVA) combined with benzalkonium chloride (BAK) and/or NF-κB inhibitors in both eyes. After immunization, T-cell responses and antigen-induced ocular inflammation were evaluated. Nuclear factor-κB activation and associated inflammatory changes also were assessed in murine eyes and in an epithelial cell line after BAK exposure. Benzalkonium chloride promoted allergic inflammation and leukocyte infiltration of the conjunctiva. Topical NF-κB inhibitors blocked the disruptive effect of BAK on conjunctival immunological tolerance and ameliorated subsequent ocular allergic reactions. In line with these findings, BAK induced NF-κB activation and the secretion of IL-6 and granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor in an epithelial cell line and in the conjunctiva of instilled mice. In addition, BAK favored major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II expression in cultured epithelial cells in an NF-κB-dependent fashion after interaction with T cells. Benzalkonium chloride triggers conjunctival epithelial NF-κB activation, which seems to mediate some of its immune side effects, such as proinflammatory cytokine release and increased MHC II expression. Breakdown of conjunctival tolerance by BAK favors allergic inflammation, and this effect can be prevented in mice by topical NF-κB inhibitors. These results suggest a new pharmacological target for preservative toxicity and highlight the importance of conjunctival tolerance in ocular surface homeostasis. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  13. Participation of CD11b and F4/80 molecules in the conjunctival eosinophilia of experimental allergic conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Atsuki; Ishida, Waka; Ojima, Ayako; Kajisako, Mina; Sumi, Tamaki; Yamada, Jun; Tsuru, Emi; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi; Tominaga, Akira; Yagita, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    CD11b and F4/80 are macrophage surface markers. How these molecules participate in allergic eosinophil infiltration remains unclear. We examined the roles CD11b and F4/80 play in the conjunctival eosinophil infiltration associated with experimental allergic conjunctivitis. Ragweed-immunized BALB/c mice were challenged with ragweed in eye drops to induce conjunctival eosinophil infiltration. The effect of challenge on conjunctival CD11b+ and F4/80+ cell numbers was determined by immunohistochemistry. In the same model, blocking anti-CD11b and anti-F4/80 Abs were injected intraperitoneally during the induction or the effector phase, or subconjunctivally 2 h before challenge, to determine their effect on challenge-induced conjunctival eosinophilia. To examine whether eosinophils express CD11b and F4/80 molecules, splenocytes from IL-5 gene-electroporated mice were subjected to flow cytometric analysis. To clarify the involvement of CD11b and F4/80 in conjunctival eosinophil infiltration, mice were intraperitoneally injected with anti-CD11b and anti-F4/80 Abs and then subconjunctivally injected with eotaxin to induce conjunctival eosinophilia. Ragweed challenge elevated conjunctival CD11b+ and F4/80+ cell numbers. Systemic anti-CD11b and anti-F4/80 Ab treatments during the effector phase, but not in either the induction phase or the local injection of Ab, suppressed conjunctival eosinophil infiltration in ragweed-induced conjunctivitis. Most splenic eosinophils from IL-5 gene-introduced mice expressed CD11b and F4/80. Systemic anti-CD11b and anti-F4/80 Ab treatment suppressed conjunctival eosinophilia induced by subconjunctival eotaxin injection. CD11b and F4/80 appear to participate in conjunctival eosinophil infiltration in allergic conjunctivitis. Their involvement in conjunctival eosinophilia appears to be due to their expression on eosinophils rather than on macrophages. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Safety of sublingual immunotherapy Timothy grass tablet in subjects with allergic rhinitis with or without conjunctivitis and history of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maloney, J; Durham, S; Skoner, D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with asthma may be more susceptible to adverse events (AEs) with sublingual immunotherapy tablet (SLIT-tablet) treatment, such as severe systemic reactions and asthma-related events. Using data from eight trials of grass SLIT-tablet in subjects with allergic rhinitis with....../without conjunctivitis (AR/C), AE frequencies were determined in adults and children with and without reported asthma. METHODS: Data from randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of Timothy grass SLIT-tablet MK-7243 (2800 BAU/75 000 SQ-T, Merck/ALK-Abelló) were pooled for post hoc analyses. Subjects...... with asthma treated with grass SLIT-tablet versus subjects without asthma in or outside of pollen season. There were 6/120 asthma-related TRAEs assessed as severe with grass SLIT-tablet and 2/60 with placebo, without a consistent trend among subjects with and without asthma (5 and 3 events, respectively...

  15. Evaluation of novel scoring system named 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale for allergic conjunctivitis disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Jun; Inada, Noriko; Sawa, Mitsuru

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the practical usefulness of a scoring system using the 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale for allergic conjunctivitis disease (ACD). Subjects were 103 patients with ACD including 40 patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), 20 patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC), and 43 patients with allergic conjunctivitis (AC). The 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale consists of the following 3 graded groups of clinical observations: the 100-point-grade group (100 points for each observation) includes active giant papillae, gelatinous infiltrates of the limbus, exfoliative epithelial keratopathy, shield ulcer and papillary proliferation at lower palpebral conjunctiva; the 10-point-grade group (10 points for each observation) includes blepharitis, papillary proliferation with velvety appearance, Horner-Trantas spots, edema of bulbal conjunctiva, and superficial punctate keratopathy; and the 1-point-grade group (1 point for each observation) includes papillae at upper palpebral conjunctiva, follicular lesion at lower palpebral conjunctiva, hyperemia of palpebral conjunctiva, hyperemia of bulbal conjunctiva, and lacrimal effusion. The total points in each grade group were determined as the severity score of the 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale. The median severity scores of the 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale in VKC, AKC and AC were 243 (range: 12-444), 32.5 (11-344), and 13 (2-33), respectively. The severity score of each ACD disease type was significantly different (P Kruskal-Wallis test). The severity of each type of ACD was classified as severe, moderate, or mild according to the severity score. The 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale is a useful clinical tool for grading the severity of each type of ACD.

  16. Cedar Pollen Aggravates Atopic Dermatitis in Childhood Monozygotic Twin Patients with Allergic Rhino Conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukako Murakami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of 7-year-old monozygotic twin patients with atopic dermatitis. The HLA haplotypes were HLA A2, A11, B27, B61, DR1, and DR4. Both serum IgE levels and cedar pollen radioallergosorbent test (RAST scores were high in the twins (elder/younger sister: IgE: 5170/3980 IU/ml and Japansese cedar pollen: >100/64.0 in contrast to low mite and food RAST scores (Dermatophagoides Pterygonium; 0.59/0.4 and egg white 9.24/4.6. The patients showed positive immediate (20 min in both sisters and delayed (24 hours in elder sister, 24, 48, 72 hours in younger sister reactions to a scratch test with Japanese cedar pollen. Skin lesions on the face were aggravated and extended to the trunk and extremities during the Japanese cedar pollen season and gradually subsided in summer. Oral provocation with egg white or cow milk showed no exacerbations, and topical corticosteroid did not improve the eczema. In contrast, successful protection from severe scratching behaviors was achieved by use of topical anti-allergic eye drops and wearing nightgowns made by the mother.

  17. [A preliminary study on the role of substance P in histamine-nasal-spray-induced allergic conjunctivitis in guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Zhao, Changqing

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the effect of the non adrenergic non cholinergic nerve (NANC) and substance P (SP) in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis by observing histamine nasal provocation induced conjunctivitis in guinea pigs. Forty male guinea pigs were randomly divided into five groups with each group consisting of eight guinea pigs. All anesthetized guinea pigs were exposed either to histamine (0.2%, 5 µl) (group B~E) or saline (5 µl, group A) via unilateral nostril. No pretreatment was done in group A and B while pretreatment was done in groups C~E through injection into the unilateral common carotid artery with cholinergic nerve inhibitor (atropine, 1 mg/kg, group C), cholinergic nerve inhibitor plus adrenergic nerve inhibitors (atropine, 1 mg/kg, phentolamine, 1 mg/kg plus Esmolol, 1 mg/kg, group D) and cholinergic nerve inhibitor, adrenergic nerve inhibitors plus SP receptor antagonist (the same treatment with group D plus D-SP 10(-6) mol/L, 1 µl/g, group E), respectively. To assess the ipsilateral conjunctival inflammatory reaction, conjunctiva leakage with Evans blue dye assessments and HE staining of conjunctival tissues were performed. The SP expression in ipsilateral conjunctival tissue in different groups of guinea pigs were assessed by immunofluorescence and RT-PCR. The activity of eosinophils was assessed by eosinophil major basic protein 1 (MBP1) with RT-PCR, meanwhile, the activity of mast cells was assessed by tryptase with RT-PCR. SPSS 17.0 software was used to analyze the data. At 30 min after nasal application of histamine, ipsilateral conjunctivitis was successfully induced as shown by the change of conjunctiva leakage and histology. The content of Evans blue in ipsilateral conjunctival tissue of group A~E was (13.78 ± 2.48), (29.62 ± 3.31), (19.03 ± 1.47), (18.42 ± 2.52), (14.83 ± 2.14) µg/ml, respectively. There was statistically significant difference between group A and B (t = -10.66, P 0.05). Histamine nasal provocation induced allergic

  18. Risk of allergic conjunctivitis in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin-Huei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Bau, Da-Tian; Hung, Yi-Chih

    2017-06-19

    In accordance with the dichotomy between T helper type 1(Th1) and T helper type 2 (Th2) responses, the occurrence of allergic conjunctivitis (AC) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is, in theory, inversely related in the individual. However, recent studies investigating the association between the two diseases are controversial. Population-based cohort study. We used claims data of the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. We identified 4160 patients aged 1-30 years with newly diagnosed T1DM and no history of AC at baseline. For each patient with T1DM, four non-T1DM controls (n=16,640) were matched by sex. The mean follow-up time was 6 years. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk of AC. We additionally evaluated the association between risk of AC and T1DM progression by examining Diabetes Complications Severity Index (aDCSI) changes from the date of diagnosis until the end of follow-up. The overall incidence of allergic conjunctivitis (AC) was higher in the type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) cohort than in the control cohort (23.0 vs 13.5 per 1000 person-years, adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR): 1.59, 95% CI 1.47 to 1.71). Relative to that in patients with mildly progressive T1DM, the risk of AC increased as the adapted Diabetes Complications Severity Index (aDCSI) increased (aIRR: 1.68, 3.78 and 18.8, with yearly changes in aDCSI score: 0.51 to 1.00, 1.01 to 2.00, and >2.00 vs 1, respectively; for trend 1). Patients with T1DM are at an elevated risk of developing AC; this risk increases with T1DM progression. The T helper type 1/T helper type 2 hypothesis is an overly simplistic explanation for this association. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Efficacy of oral immunotherapy with a rice-based edible vaccine containing hypoallergenic Japanese cedar pollen allergens for treatment of established allergic conjunctivitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Ken; Ishida, Waka; Harada, Yosuke; Wakasa, Yuhya; Takagi, Hidenori; Takaiwa, Fumio; Fukushima, Atsuki

    2018-01-01

    We have previously shown that prophylactic oral administration of transgenic rice seeds expressing hypoallergenic modified antigens suppressed the development of allergic conjunctivitis induced by Japanese cedar pollen. We have now investigated the efficacy of oral immunotherapy with such transgenic rice for established allergic conjunctivitis in mice. BALB/c mice were sensitized with two intraperitoneal injections of Japanese cedar pollen in alum, challenged with pollen in eyedrops, and then fed for 16 days with transgenic rice seeds expressing modified Japanese cedar pollen allergens Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 or with nontransgenic rice seeds as a control. They were then challenged twice with pollen in eyedrops, with clinical signs being evaluated at 15 min after the first challenge and the eyes, blood, spleen, and lymph nodes being isolated at 24 h after the second challenge. The number of eosinophils in the conjunctiva and the clinical score for conjunctivitis were both significantly lower in mice fed the transgenic rice than in those fed nontransgenic rice. Oral vaccination with transgenic rice seeds also resulted in a significant increase in the production of IFN-γ by splenocytes, whereas it had no effect on the number of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + regulatory T cells in the spleen or submandibular or mesenteric lymph nodes. Oral administration of transgenic rice seeds expressing hypoallergenic allergens ameliorated allergic conjunctivitis in the established setting. Such a rice-based edible vaccine is potentially both safe and effective for oral immunotherapy in individuals with allergic conjunctivitis. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Total IgE and eotaxin (CCL11) contents in tears of patients suffering from seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eperon, Simone; Berguiga, Marouen; Ballabeni, Pierluigi; Guex-Crosier, Catherine; Guex-Crosier, Yan

    2014-09-01

    To prospectively investigate patients with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) during the pollen season and test associations between tears total IgE, eotaxin concentrations, and SAC severity. Enrolled patients presented ocular symptoms and clinical signs of SAC at the time of presentation. Ocular itching, hyperaemia, chemosis, eyelid swelling, and tearing were scored, and the sum of these scores was defined as the clinical score. Conjunctival papillae were separately graded. We measured eotaxin concentration in tears by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and total tear IgE by Lacrytest strip. Among thirty patients (30 eyes), 11 showed neither tear IgE nor tear eotaxin, while 15 out of 19 patients with positive IgE values presented a positive amount of eotaxin in their tears (Fisher's test: p tear IgE, we observed a lower conjunctival papilla grade than in patients whose tears contained some amount of IgE (trend test: p = 0.032). In the 15 patients whose tear eotaxin concentration was null, tear IgE concentration was 5.3 ± 3.5 arbitrary units; in the other 15 patients whose eotaxin was positive, IgE reached 21 ± 4.3 arbitrary U (Mann-Whitney: p tear IgE concentrations of both groups did not differ statistically significantly (p = 0.947). If IgE and eotaxin secreted in tears are major contributors in SAC pathogenesis, they however act at different steps of the process.

  1. Possible Mechanism of Action of the Antiallergic Effect of an Aqueous Extract of Heliotropium indicum L. in Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyei, Samuel; Koffuor, George Asumeng; Ramkissoon, Paul; Abokyi, Samuel; Owusu-Afriyie, Osei; Wiredu, Eric Addo

    2015-01-01

    Heliotropium indicum is used traditionally as a remedy for conjunctivitis in Ghana. This study therefore evaluated the antiallergic potential of an aqueous whole plant extract of Heliotropium indicum (HIE) in ovalbumin-induced allergic conjunctivitis and attempted to predict its mode of action. Clinical scores for allergic conjunctivitis induced by intraperitoneal ovalbumin sensitization (100 : 10 μg OVA/Al(OH)3 in phosphate-buffered saline [PBS]) and topical conjunctival challenge (1.5 mg OVA in 10 μL PBS) in Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs were estimated after a week's daily treatment with 30-300 mg kg(-1) HIE, 30 mg kg(-1) prednisolone, 10 mg kg(-1) chlorpheniramine, or 10 mL kg(-1) PBS. Ovalbumin-specific IgG and IgE and total IgE in serum were estimated using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Histopathological assessment of the exenterated conjunctivae was also performed. The 30 and 300 mg kg(-1) HIE treatment resulted in a significantly (p ≤ 0.001) low clinical score of allergic conjunctivitis. Ovalbumin-specific IgG and IgE as well as total serum IgE also decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.01-0.001). The conjunctival tissue in HIE treated guinea pigs had mild mononuclear infiltration compared to the PBS-treated ones, which had intense conjunctival tissue inflammatory infiltration. HIE exhibited antiallergic effect possibly by immunomodulation or immunosuppression.

  2. Clinical evaluation of total IgE in tears of patients with allergic conjunctivitis disease using a novel application of the immunochromatography method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Noriko; Shoji, Jun; Kato, Hiroshi; Kiely, Surayah; Mulyanto; Sawa, Mitsuru

    2009-12-01

    The determination of total IgE in tears is useful as a diagnostic tool in allergic conjunctivitis disease (ACD). We evaluated the efficacy of this diagnostic tool for ACD, which is a clinically applicable novel immunochromagraphic method to determine total IgE in tears. The subjects comprised 4 groups: 15 patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC group), 8 patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC group), 18 patients with allergic conjunctivitis (AC group), and 7 normal healthy volunteers as a control (control group). Tears were sampled using filter paper, and the total IgE in tears was determined by immunochromatography assay. Semiquantitative determination was carried out by examining the intensity of the colored line using an immunochromatoreader (IgE index). The relationship between IgE indices in tears and total IgE levels in serum or between IgE indices and the clinical scores of ACD was examined. The positive ratio obtained by this novel application of the immunochromatography assay was 38 of the 41 in the patients with ACD and none in the 7 controls. IgE indices for the VKC group, AKC group and AC group were 27.5 +/- 15.6, 19.8 +/- 15.8, and 4.0 +/- 3.1 (mean +/- SD), respectively. IgE indices in tears showed significant correlation with both total IgE levels in serum (P tears is a useful clinical tool to investigate ACD.

  3. Evaluation of alcaftadine 0.25% ophthalmic solution in acute allergic conjunctivitis at 15 minutes and 16 hours after instillation versus placebo and olopatadine 0.1%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack V Greiner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jack V Greiner1,2, Kimberly Edwards-Swanson3, Avner Ingerman41Schepens Eye Research Institute, Boston, MA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; 3Johnson & Johnson Consumer and Personal Products Worldwide, Skillman, NJ; 4Ora Inc, Andover, MA, USAPurpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of alcaftadine 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.25% ophthalmic solutions in treating the signs and symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis when compared with olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% and placebo using the conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC model.Methods: One hundred and seventy subjects were randomized and 164 subjects completed all visits. CAC was performed to determine and confirm subjects’ eligibility at visits 1 and 2, respectively. The CAC was repeated at visit 3 (day 0 ± 3, 16 hours after study medication instillation, and at visit 4 (day 14 ± 3, 15 minutes after instillation. Ocular itching and conjunctival redness were evaluated after an allergen challenge, along with several secondary endpoints.Results: Alcaftadine 0.25% and olopatadine 0.1% treatments exhibited significantly lower mean scores compared with placebo for ocular itching and conjunctival redness at visits 3 and 4. Most adverse events were self-limiting and mild in severity. No serious treatment-related adverse events occurred.Conclusion: Treatment with alcaftadine 0.25% ophthalmic solution resulted in mean differences of >1 unit (ocular itching and approximately >1 unit (conjunctival redness, which was significant (P < 0.001 compared with placebo treatment. All doses of alcaftadine were safe and well tolerated in the population studied.Keywords: alcaftadine, allergic conjunctivitis, conjunctival allergen challenge

  4. Comparison of preservative-free ketotifen fumarate and preserved olopatadine hydrochloride eye drops in the treatment of moderate to severe seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortemousque, B; Bourcier, T; Khairallah, M; Messaoud, R; Brignole-Baudouin, F; Renault, D; Rebika, H; Brémond-Gignac, D

    2014-01-01

    To compare preservative-free ketotifen 0.025% ophthalmic solution to olopatadine 0.1% ophthalmic solution in with the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) in clinical practice. This was a comparative, randomised, investigator-masked, pilot clinical study in adult patients with documented history of SAC and presenting with moderate to severe itching and conjunctival hyperemia. Eligible patients initiated either ketotifen or olopatadine treatment at a dose of one drop twice daily for 28days. The resolution of ocular signs and symptoms was assessed on day 7 and day 28. Itching was also assessed within 15minutes following the first instillation (day 0). Conjunctival impression cytology was performed at each visit to assess the evolution of ICAM-1 expression (day 0, 7 and 28). Seventy-five patients were randomised (ketotifen: 38 patients; olopatadine: 37 patients). At day 28, the composite score for primary criteria (itching, tearing, and conjunctival hyperemia) improved from 6.8±1.2 to 0.9±1.0 in the Ketotifen group, without statistically significant difference between treatment groups (P=0.67). There was no relevant difference between treatment groups in other efficacy parameters, except a trend for a more rapid resolution of conjunctival hyperemia in the Ketotifen group. Both drugs were well tolerated, with a trend for a better tolerability reported by patients on ketotifen compared to those on olopatadine at day 7 (P=0.054). A rapid and comparable improvement in SAC was achieved after 28days of treatment with both preservative-free ketotifen and preserved olopatadine ophthalmic solutions, with a slightly better ocular tolerance with unpreserved ketotifen 0.025% eye drops. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Allergic Rhinitis Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rhinitis, allergic asthma, conjunctivitis (eye allergy) or stinging insect allergy. Allergy shots often lead to lasting relief ... AAAAI Foundation Donate American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology 555 East Wells Street Suite 1100, Milwaukee , WI ...

  6. Ectrópio palpebral em portador da síndrome de Down e conjuntivite alérgica: relato de caso Eyelid ectropion in Down's syndrome related to allergic conjunctivitis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Akemi Shiratori

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o caso de paciente com síndrome de Down, portador de importante ectrópio mecânico da pálpebra inferior, relacionado com conjuntivite alérgica, catarata e ceratocone. Foi feito tratamento cirúrgico, empregando a técnica de "tarsal strip" e ressecção da lamela posterior que estava redundante e espessa, com bom resultado estético e funcional.This is a case report of a patient with Down's syndrome with an important mechanical ectropion and elongation of the lower lid related to chronic allergic conjunctivitis, besides cataract and keratoconus. The tarsal strip technique and ressection of redundant and thick conjunctiva was the surgical approach chosen for this case. Functional and cosmetic outcomes were considered satisfactory.

  7. Interpreting conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Lewis; Frisson, Steven; Murphy, Gregory L

    2009-04-01

    The interpretation generated from a sentence of the form P and Q can often be different to that generated by Q and P, despite the fact that and has a symmetric truth-conditional meaning. We experimentally investigated to what extent this difference in meaning is due to the connective and and to what extent it is due to order of mention of the events in the sentence. In three experiments, we collected interpretations of sentences in which we varied the presence of the conjunction, the order of mention of the events, and the type of relation holding between the events (temporally vs. causally related events). The results indicated that the effect of using a conjunction was dependent on the discourse relation between the events. Our findings contradict a narrative marker theory of and, but provide partial support for a single-unit theory derived from Carston (2002). The results are discussed in terms of conjunction processing and implicatures of temporal order.

  8. Anthropogenic Climate Change and Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hueiwang Anna Jeng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to have an impact on various aspects of health, including mucosal areas involved in allergic inflammatory disorders that include asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis and anaphylaxis. The evidence that links climate change to the exacerbation and the development of allergic disease is increasing and appears to be linked to changes in pollen seasons (duration, onset and intensity and changes in allergen content of plants and their pollen as it relates to increased sensitization, allergenicity and exacerbations of allergic airway disease. This has significant implications for air quality and for the global food supply.

  9. Japanese Guideline for Allergic Conjunctival Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuko Takamura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The definition, classification, pathogenesis, test methods, clinical findings, criteria for diagnosis, and therapies of allergic conjunctival disease are summarized based on the Guidelines for Clinical Management of Allergic Conjunctival Disease (Second Edition revised in 2010. Allergic conjunctival disease is defined as “a conjunctival inflammatory disease associated with a Type I allergy accompanied by some subjective or objective symptoms.” Allergic conjunctival disease is classified into allergic conjunctivitis, atopic keratoconjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and giant papillary conjunctivitis. Representative subjective symptoms include ocular itching, hyperemia, and lacrimation, whereas objective symptoms include conjunctival hyperemia, swelling, folliculosis, and papillae. Patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis, which is characterized by conjunctival proliferative changes called giant papilla accompanied by varying extents of corneal lesion, such as corneal erosion and shield ulcer, complain of foreign body sensation, ocular pain, and photophobia. In the diagnosis of allergic conjunctival diseases, it is required that type I allergic diathesis is present, along with subjective and objective symptoms accompanying allergic inflammation. The diagnosis is ensured by proving a type I allergic reaction in the conjunctiva. Given that the first-line drug for the treatment of allergic conjunctival disease is an antiallergic eye drop, a steroid eye drop will be selected in accordance with the severity. In the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis, an immunosuppressive eye drop will be concomitantly used with the abovementioned drugs.

  10. Japanese guidelines for allergic conjunctival diseases 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuko Takamura

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The definition, classification, pathogenesis, test methods, clinical findings, criteria for diagnosis, and therapies of allergic conjunctival disease are summarized based on the Guidelines for Clinical Management of Allergic Conjunctival Disease (Second Edition revised in 2010. Allergic conjunctival disease is defined as “a conjunctival inflammatory disease associated with a Type I allergy accompanied by some subjective or objective symptoms.” Allergic conjunctival disease is classified into allergic conjunctivitis, atopic keratoconjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and giant papillary conjunctivitis. Representative subjective symptoms include ocular itching, hyperemia, and lacrimation, whereas objective symptoms include conjunctival hyperemia, swelling, folliculosis, and papillae. Patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis, which is characterized by conjunctival proliferative changes called giant papilla accompanied by varying extents of corneal lesion, such as corneal erosion and shield ulcer, complain of foreign body sensation, ocular pain, and photophobia. In the diagnosis of allergic conjunctival diseases, it is required that type I allergic diathesis is present, along with subjective and objective symptoms accompanying allergic inflammation. The diagnosis is ensured by proving a type I allergic reaction in the conjunctiva. Given that the first-line drug for the treatment of allergic conjunctival disease is an antiallergic eye drop, a steroid eye drop will be selected in accordance with the severity. In the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis, an immunosuppressive eye drop will be concomitantly used with the abovementioned drugs.

  11. Allergic sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ree, Ronald; Hummelshøj, Lone; Plantinga, Maud

    2014-01-01

    Allergic sensitization is the outcome of a complex interplay between the allergen and the host in a given environmental context. The first barrier encountered by an allergen on its way to sensitization is the mucosal epithelial layer. Allergic inflammatory diseases are accompanied by increased pe...

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by dorzolamide eyedrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee SJ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Seung-Jun Lee, Moosang KimDepartment of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, KoreaAbstract: The side effects of topical dorzolamide hydrochloride, such as conjunctivitis, eyelid edema, and eye lid irritation, are well known. However, allergic contact dermatitis due to dorzolamide is rare, although the product has been commonly used worldwide in patients with glaucoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of allergic contact dermatitis caused by topical dorzolamide hydrochloride in Korea. Herein we report a case of allergic contact dermatitis due to topical dorzolamide eyedrops.Keywords: allergic contact dermatitis, dorzolamide, side effects

  13. The Conjunction Fallacy: A Misunderstanding about Conjunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentori, Katya; Bonini, Nicolao; Osherson, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    It is easy to construct pairs of sentences X, Y that lead many people to ascribe higher probability to the conjunction X-and-Y than to the conjuncts X, Y. Whether an error is thereby committed depends on reasoners' interpretation of the expressions "probability" and "and." We report two experiments designed to clarify the normative status of…

  14. Allergic Rhinitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... immunologist)? Resources American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Medline Plus, Allergic Rhinitis Last Updated: December 8, 2017 This article was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: ...

  15. Allergic reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that don't bother most people (such as venom from bee stings and certain foods, medicines, and pollens) can ... person. If the allergic reaction is from a bee sting, scrape the ... more venom. If the person has emergency allergy medicine on ...

  16. [Definition and clinic of the allergic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielhaupter, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    The allergic rhinitis is the most common immune disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 24% and one of the most common chronic diseases at all--with tendency to rise. It occurs in childhood and influences the patients' social life, school performance and labour productivity. Furthermore the allergic rhinitis is accompanied by a lot of comorbidities, including conjunctivitis, asthma bronchiale, food allergy, neurodermatitis and sinusitis. For example the risk for asthma is 3.2-fold higher for adults with allergic rhinitis than for healthy people.

  17. Overextension in Verb Conjunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Martin L.

    2015-01-01

    Hampton (1988) discovered that people are subject to "overextension"--they categorize some things as falling under a conjunction (e.g., they categorize chess as a "sport which is also a game") but not as falling under both of the corresponding conjuncts (e.g., they do not categorize chess as a "sport"). Although…

  18. The allergic march

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    allergic rhinitis (Fig. 1). Several studies have demonstrated the allergic march from atopic ... Boys appear to be at greater risk of developing the typical progression of allergic .... childhood asthma: lessons from the German. Multicentre Study ...

  19. Clinical Age-Specific Seasonal Conjunctivitis Patterns and Their Online Detection in Twitter, Blog, Forum, and Comment Social Media Posts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiner, Michael S.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Chodosh, James; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Fathy, Cherie A.; Lietman, Thomas M.; Porco, Travis C.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose We sought to determine whether big data from social media might reveal seasonal trends of conjunctivitis, most forms of which are nonreportable. Methods Social media posts (from Twitter, and from online forums and blogs) were classified by age and by conjunctivitis type (allergic or infectious) using Boolean and machine learning methods. Based on spline smoothing, we estimated the circular mean occurrence time (a measure of central tendency for occurrence) and the circular variance (a measure of uniformity of occurrence throughout the year, providing an index of seasonality). Clinical records from a large tertiary care provider were analyzed in a similar way for comparison. Results Social media posts machine-coded as being related to infectious conjunctivitis showed similar times of occurrence and degree of seasonality to clinical infectious cases, and likewise for machine-coded allergic conjunctivitis posts compared to clinical allergic cases. Allergic conjunctivitis showed a distinctively different seasonal pattern than infectious conjunctivitis, with a mean occurrence time later in the spring. Infectious conjunctivitis for children showed markedly greater seasonality than for adults, though the occurrence times were similar; no such difference for allergic conjunctivitis was seen. Conclusions Social media posts broadly track the seasonal occurrence of allergic and infectious conjunctivitis, and may be a useful supplement for epidemiologic monitoring. PMID:29450538

  20. Categorization influences illusory conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterman, Michael; Prinzmetal, William; Robertson, Lynn

    2004-08-01

    Illusory conjunctions (ICs) provide evidence for a binding problem that must be resolved in vision. Objects that are perceptually grouped are more likely to have their features erroneously conjoined. We examined whether semantic grouping, determined by category membership (letter vs. number), also influences illusory conjunction rates. Participants were instructed to detect an "L" or a "7" among briefly presented character strings and to report its color. Despite high shape discrimination accuracy, participants often made color conjunction errors, reporting instead the color of a distractor character, "O". This distractor could be ambiguously interpreted as a letter or a number. The status of the "O" was determined by other noncolored flanker characters, which were either letters or numbers. When both the target and flankers were of the same category, participants made more ICs than when the target and flankers were of different categories. This finding demonstrates that alphanumeric categorization can precede and subsequently influence binding.

  1. The Concessive Conjunct However

    OpenAIRE

    Sonoda, Kenji

    2003-01-01

    But is a conjunction, and it cannot be placed except at the beginning of a sentence. But however, the concessive conjunct similar in meaning to but, is an adverb, and it can be placed anywhere: at the beginning, in the midst, or at the end, of a sentence. Although the placement of however largely depends upon contrast or emphasis, it would not be so troublesome for non-native speakers of English to place it at the beginning, or at the end, of a sentence. The most difficult part for them will ...

  2. Conjunctive interpretations of disjunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert van Rooij

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this extended commentary I discuss the problem of how to account for "conjunctive" readings of some sentences with embedded disjunctions for globalist analyses of conversational implicatures. Following Franke (2010, 2009, I suggest that earlier proposals failed, because they did not take into account the interactive reasoning of what else the speaker could have said, and how else the hearer could have interpreted the (alternative sentence(s. I show how Franke's idea relates to more traditional pragmatic interpretation strategies. doi:10.3765/sp.3.11 BibTeX info

  3. Nasal hyperreactivity and inflammation in allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Garrelds

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of allergic disease goes back to 1819, when Bostock described his own ‘periodical affection of the eyes and chest’, which he called ‘summer catarrh’. Since they thought it was produced by the effluvium of new hay, this condition was also called hay fever. Later, in 1873, Blackley established that pollen played an important role in the causation of hay fever. Nowadays, the definition of allergy is ‘An untoward physiologic event mediated by a variety of different immunologic reactions’. In this review, the term allergy will be restricted to the IgE-dependent reactions. The most important clinical manifestations of IgE-dependent reactions are allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma and atopic dermatitis. However, this review will be restricted to allergic rhinitis. The histopathological features of allergic inflammation involve an increase in blood flow and vascular permeability, leading to plasma exudation and the formation of oedema. In addition, a cascade of events occurs which involves a variety of inflammatory cells. These inflammatory cells migrate under the influence of chemotactic agents to the site of injury and induce the process of repair. Several types of inflammatory cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. After specific or nonspecific stimuli, inflammatory mediators are generated from cells normally found in the nose, such as mast cells, antigen-presenting cells and epithelial cells (primary effector cells and from cells recruited into the nose, such as basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, platelets and neutrophils (secondary effector cells. This review describes the identification of each of the inflammatory cells and their mediators which play a role in the perennial allergic processes in the nose of rhinitis patients.

  4. NASA Human Spaceflight Conjunction Assessment: Recent Conjunctions of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browns, Ansley C.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses a brief history of NASA Human Spaceflight Conjunction Assessment (CA) activities, an overview of NASA CA process for ISS and Shuttle, and recent examples from Human Spaceflight conjunctions.

  5. Immunopathogenesis of allergic rhinitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    Druce HM. Allergic and non allergic rhinitis. In: Middleton EM Jr, Reed CE, Ellis EF, Adkinson NF. Jr, Yunginger JW, Busse WW, eds. Allergy: Principles and Practice. 5th ed. St. Louis,. Mo: Mosby, Year-Book;1998.p.1005-16. 3. Blaiss MS. Quality of life in allergic rhinitis. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol 1999;83(5):449-54. 4.

  6. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as well as the sexually transmitted infection called gonorrhea. Women with untreated gonorrhea can pass the bacteria to her baby during ... conjunctivitis is less common than conjunctivitis caused by gonorrhea and chlamydia. Symptoms usually include red eye(s) and ...

  7. Deriving the Distribution of Conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoerner, Ed

    1994-01-01

    This paper proposes an explanation for the limited possibilities of realized conjunctions in multitermed coordinations. It argues that conjunction "&" heads a fully articulated phrase (&P), which can iterate &P shells, similar to "V" in Larson's (1988) VP-shell hypothesis. This structure enables a single & to unify any number of conjuncts, and…

  8. Conjunction Illusions and Conjunction Fallacies in Episodic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C. J.; Holliday, Robyn E.; Nakamura, Koyuki; Reyna, Valerie F.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on the overdistribution principle implies that episodic memory is infected by conjunction illusions. These are instances in which an item that was presented in a single context (e.g., List 1) is falsely remembered as having been presented in multiple contexts (e.g., List 1 and List 2). Robust conjunction illusions were detected in…

  9. The link between allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Henrik Nielsen, N; Frølund, L

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma are manifestations of the same disease entity. We aimed to investigate the relationship between allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. METHODS: Participants in a population-based study of 15-69-year-olds in 1990 were ...

  10. A typology of split conjunction

    OpenAIRE

    Palancar , Enrique L.

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, I study instances of noun phrase conjunction where the conjoined noun phrase is subject and the referents of the conjuncts are human, of the type ‘John and Mary are having lunch’. More specifically, I study different, possible splits that occur in such structures, which involve the disruption of the phrasal continuity of the conjuncts, resulting in structures roughly equivalent to ‘they are having lunch with Mary’ and ‘John are having lunch with Mary’. I...

  11. Guided Search for Triple Conjunctions

    OpenAIRE

    Nordfang, Maria; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2014-01-01

    A key tenet of Feature Integration Theory and related theories such as Guided Search (GS) is that the binding of basic features requires attention. This would seem to predict that conjunctions of features of objects that have not been attended should not influence search. However, Found (1998) reported that an irrelevant feature (size) improved the efficiency of search for a color × orientation conjunction if it was correlated with the other two features across the display compared to the cas...

  12. The allergic scholar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as allergic rhinitis and asthma, have increased in prevalence, particularly in industrialised .... within the alveolar macrophages, eosinophils, mast cells, platelets, basophils and ..... world allergy organization position statement. World Allergy ...

  13. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Fernández de Córdova-Aguirre

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a slowly progressive disease, caused by the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus hypersensitivity when it is found in the airway. It usually affects asthmatics and patients with cystic brosis. We report the case of a 20-year-old male patient, student, farmer and rancher with chronic respiratory disease. The diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis was made on the basis of the clinical symptoms and complementary studies.

  14. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Önder

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis is the delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to exogenous agents. Allergic contact dermatitis may clinically present acutely after allergen exposure and initial sensitization in a previously sensitized individual. Acute phase is characterized by erythematous, scaly plaques. In severe cases vesiculation and bullae in exposed areas are very characteristic. Repeated or continuous exposure of sensitized individual with allergen result in chronic dermatitis. Lichenification, erythematous plaques, hyperkeratosis and fissuring may develop in chronic patients. Allergic contact dermatitis is very common dermatologic problem in dermatology daily practice. A diagnosis of contact dermatitis requires the careful consideration of patient history, physical examination and patch testing. The knowledge of the clinical features of the skin reactions to various contactans is important to make a correct diagnosis of contact dermatitis. It can be seen in every age, in children textile product, accessories and touch products are common allergens, while in adults allergic contact dermatitis may be related with topical medicaments. The contact pattern of contact dermatitis depends on fashion and local traditions as well. The localization of allergic reaction should be evaluated and patients’ occupation and hobbies should be asked. The purpose of this review is to introduce to our collaques up dated allergic contact dermatitis literatures both in Turkey and in the World.

  15. Guided search for triple conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordfang, Maria; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2014-08-01

    A key tenet of feature integration theory and of related theories such as guided search (GS) is that the binding of basic features requires attention. This would seem to predict that conjunctions of features of objects that have not been attended should not influence search. However, Found (1998) reported that an irrelevant feature (size) improved the efficiency of search for a Color × Orientation conjunction if it was correlated with the other two features across the display, as compared to the case in which size was not correlated with color and orientation features. We examined this issue with somewhat different stimuli. We used triple conjunctions of color, orientation, and shape (e.g., search for a red, vertical, oval-shaped item). This allowed us to manipulate the number of features that each distractor shared with the target (sharing) and it allowed us to vary the total number of distractor types (and, thus, the number of groups of identical items: grouping). We found that these triple conjunction searches were generally very efficient--producing very shallow Reaction Time × Set Size slopes, consistent with strong guidance by basic features. Nevertheless, both of the variables, sharing and grouping, modulated performance. These influences were not predicted by previous accounts of GS; however, both can be accommodated in a GS framework. Alternatively, it is possible, though not necessary, to see these effects as evidence for "preattentive binding" of conjunctions.

  16. The composition of category conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Russell R C; Crisp, Richard J

    2005-05-01

    In three experiments, the authors investigated the impression formation process resulting from the perception of familiar or unfamiliar social category combinations. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to generate attributes associated with either a familiar or unfamiliar social category conjunction. Compared to familiar combinations, the authors found that when the conjunction was unfamiliar, participants formed their impression less from the individual constituent categories and relatively more from novel emergent attributes. In Experiment 2, the authors replicated this effect using alternative experimental materials. In Experiment 3, the effect generalized to additional (orthogonally combined) gender and occupation categories. The implications of these findings for understanding the processes involved in the conjunction of social categories, and the formation of new stereotypes, are discussed.

  17. Attack Trees with Sequential Conjunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jhawar, Ravi; Kordy, Barbara; Mauw, Sjouke; Radomirović, Sasa; Trujillo-Rasua, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    We provide the first formal foundation of SAND attack trees which are a popular extension of the well-known attack trees. The SAND at- tack tree formalism increases the expressivity of attack trees by intro- ducing the sequential conjunctive operator SAND. This operator enables the modeling of

  18. Conjunct rotation: Codman's paradox revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Sebastian I; Fradet, Laetitia; Rettig, Oliver

    2009-05-01

    This contribution mathematically formalizes Codman's idea of conjunct rotation, a term he used in 1934 to describe a paradoxical phenomenon arising from a closed-loop arm movement. Real (axial) rotation is distinguished from conjunct rotation. For characterizing the latter, the idea of reference vector fields is developed to define the neutral axial position of the humerus for any given orientation of its long axis. This concept largely avoids typical coordinate singularities arising from decomposition of 3D joint motion and therefore can be used for postural (axial) assessment of the shoulder joint both clinically and in sports science in almost the complete accessible range of motion. The concept, even though algebraic rather complex, might help to get an easier and more intuitive understanding of axial rotation of the shoulder in complex movements present in daily life and in sports.

  19. Nutrition and Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J.J. van Neerven

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of IgE-mediated allergic diseases is influenced by many factors, including genetic and environmental factors such as pollution and farming, but also by nutrition. In the last decade, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the impact that nutrition can have on allergic diseases. Many studies have addressed the effect of breastfeeding, pre-, pro- and synbiotics, vitamins and minerals, fiber, fruit and vegetables, cow’s milk, and n-3 fatty acids, on the development of allergies. In addition, nutrition can also have indirect effects on allergic sensitization. This includes the diet of pregnant and breastfeeding women, which influences intrauterine development, as well as breastmilk composition. These include the diet of pregnant and breastfeeding women that influences intrauterine development as well as breastmilk composition, effects of food processing that may enhance allergenicity of foods, and effects via modulation of the intestinal microbiota and their metabolites. This editorial review provides a brief overview of recent developments related to nutrition and the development and management of allergic diseases.

  20. Nutrition and allergic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerven, van R.J.J.; Savelkoul, Huub

    2017-01-01

    The development of IgE-mediated allergic diseases is influenced by many factors, including genetic and environmental factors such as pollution and farming, but also by nutrition. In the last decade, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the impact that nutrition can have on

  1. Allergic rhinitis in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and is also associated with co-morbidities such as sinusitis, otitis media ... nose, chronic infective sinusitis and nasal polyps may mimic the signs .... fungal spores. Gauteng. Add: tree pollen (cypress). Farming areas. Add: Zea mays, horse, Blomia tropicalis. Table ii. Effect of medications on symptoms of allergic rhinitis.

  2. Allergic rhinosinusitis in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    NEW DEFINITIONS. The European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (EAACI)1 now state that the term hypersensitivity should be used for 'all .... leading ultimately to allergic inflamma- tion of the sinuses. Not every bacterial infection needs to be treated with an antimicrobial. This is the prime responsi-.

  3. Allergic reactions in anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigaard, M; Garvey, L H; Menné, T

    2005-01-01

    a significant number of patients at unnecessary risk. Some patients may be labelled with a wrong allergy, leading to unnecessary warnings against harmless substances, and some patients may be put at risk of subsequent re-exposure to the real allergen. Patients with suspected allergic reactions during...

  4. ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisna Yuliharti Tersinanda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Allergic contact dermatitis is an immunologic reaction that tends to involve the surrounding skin and may even spread beyond affected sites. This skin disease is one of the more frequent, and costly dermatologic problems. Recent data from United Kingdom and United States suggest that the percentage of occupational contact dermatitis due to allergy may be much higher, thus raising the economic impact of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. There is not enough data about the epidemiology of allergic contact dermatitis in Indonesia, however based on research that include beautician in Denpasar, about 27,6 percent had side effect of cosmetics, which is 25,4 percent of it manifested as allergic contact dermatitis. Diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis is based on anamnesis, physical examination, patch test, and this disease should be distinguished from other eczematous skin disease. The management is prevention of allergen exposure, symptomatic treatment, and physicochemical barrier /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  5. Sibship Characteristics and Risk of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Tine; Rostgaard, Klaus; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2005-01-01

    asthma; birth order; hypersensitivity; rhinitis; allergic; perennial; rhinitis; allergic; seasonal; risk factors; siblings......asthma; birth order; hypersensitivity; rhinitis; allergic; perennial; rhinitis; allergic; seasonal; risk factors; siblings...

  6. Covariance Manipulation for Conjunction Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejduk, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    The manipulation of space object covariances to try to provide additional or improved information to conjunction risk assessment is not an uncommon practice. Types of manipulation include fabricating a covariance when it is missing or unreliable to force the probability of collision (Pc) to a maximum value ('PcMax'), scaling a covariance to try to improve its realism or see the effect of covariance volatility on the calculated Pc, and constructing the equivalent of an epoch covariance at a convenient future point in the event ('covariance forecasting'). In bringing these methods to bear for Conjunction Assessment (CA) operations, however, some do not remain fully consistent with best practices for conducting risk management, some seem to be of relatively low utility, and some require additional information before they can contribute fully to risk analysis. This study describes some basic principles of modern risk management (following the Kaplan construct) and then examines the PcMax and covariance forecasting paradigms for alignment with these principles; it then further examines the expected utility of these methods in the modern CA framework. Both paradigms are found to be not without utility, but only in situations that are somewhat carefully circumscribed.

  7. On the reality of the conjunction fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sides, Ashley; Osherson, Daniel; Bonini, Nicolao; Viale, Riccardo

    2002-03-01

    Attributing higher "probability" to a sentence of form p-and-q, relative to p, is a reasoning fallacy only if (1) the word probability carries its modern, technical meaning and (2) the sentence p is interpreted as a conjunct of the conjunction p-and-q. Legitimate doubts arise about both conditions in classic demonstrations of the conjunction fallacy. We used betting paradigms and unambiguously conjunctive statements to reduce these sources of ambiguity about conjunctive reasoning. Despite the precautions, conjunction fallacies were as frequent under betting instructions as under standard probability instructions.

  8. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Tracy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA, a progressive fungal allergic lung disease, is a common complication of asthma or cystic fibrosis. Although ABPA has been recognized since the 1950s, recent research has underscored the importance of Th2 immune deviation and granulocyte activation in its pathogenesis. There is also strong evidence of widespread under-diagnosis due to the complexity and lack of standardization of diagnostic criteria. Treatment has long focused on downregulation of the inflammatory response with prolonged courses of oral glucocorticosteroids, but more recently concerns with steroid toxicity and availability of new treatment modalities has led to trials of oral azoles, inhaled amphotericin, pulse intravenous steroids, and subcutaneously-injected anti-IgE monoclonal antibody omalizumab, all of which show evidence of efficacy and reduced toxicity.

  9. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years.

  10. Quantum probability and conceptual combination in conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, James A

    2013-06-01

    I consider the general problem of category conjunctions in the light of Pothos & Busemeyer (P&B)'s quantum probability (QP) account of the conjunction fallacy. I argue that their account as presented cannot capture the "guppy effect" - the case in which a class is a better member of a conjunction A^B than it is of either A or B alone.

  11. Allergy and allergic mediators in tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Andrea

    2013-12-01

    The identification of inflammatory mediators in the tear fluid have been extensively used in ocular allergy to find either a 'disease marker', to better understand the immune mechanisms involved in the ocular surface inflammation, or to identify potential targets for therapeutic interventions. While the clinical characteristics allow a relatively convincing diagnosis of ocular allergic diseases, in the initial, non active phases, or in the chronic stages, the diagnosis may not be clear. Although not highly specific, total tear IgE can be measured with local tests by inserting a paper strip in the lower meniscus. The measurement of tear specific inflammatory markers, such as histamine, tryptase, ECP, IL-4, IL-5 and eotaxin, may be useful for the diagnosis or monitoring ocular allergy. New technologies such as multiplex bead assays, membrane-bound antibody array and proteomic techniques can characterize the distribution of a wide range of bioactive trace proteins in tears. Dozens of mediators, cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, angiogenic modulators, enzymes and inhibitors were thus identified in small tear samples using these techniques, providing the possible identification of specific biomarker for either specific disease or disease activity. However, to date, there is no a single specific laboratory test suitable for the diagnosis and monitoring of allergic conjunctivitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Burden of allergic respiratory disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Petersen, Karin Dam; Hahn-Pedersen, J

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis compared the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and/or allergic asthma (AA) caused by perennial house dust mite (HDM) versus AR and/or AA caused by seasonal pollen allergy. Following a systematic search, the identified studies used the...

  13. TEAR AND SERUM EOSINOPHIL CATIONIC PROTEIN AS A MARKER OF DISEASE SEVERITY IN ALLERGIC OCULAR DISEASES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SOLIMAN, S.ET.; KHALIFA, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Eosinophil is a major cellular component in the late allergic response. In its activated state, the Eosinophil liberates performed basic proteins; the most sensitively quantifiable of them is the Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP).In the present study ECP was measured in tear and serum in different forms of ocular allergy to assess its value as a marker of disease severity and usefulness to evaluate topical therapy.Tears and serum were collected from 65 patients with allergic Keratoconjunctivitis, 20 healthy volunteers (6 of them children) with no history or evidence of allergic diseases, as well as, 5 patients with non allergic and untreated blepharo-conjunctivitis. Patients were classified according to their clinical signs and symptoms into four groups:Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC), 15 patients, Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), 15 Palpebral and 6 Limbal, Atopic Keratoconjunctivitis (AKC), 17 patients and, Giant papillary conjunctivitis (GPC), 8 contact lens-induced and 4 suture-induced.Tears were collected by capillary tubes for cytological examination and measurement of ECP using radioimmunoassay methods. Serum was collected for measurement of ECP and atopy screening.Tear-ECP evaluation showed statistically significant elevation in all allergic subjects (p<0.001). Patients with VKC and AKC had significantly higher tear ECP values than patients with GPC and SAC. There was significant correlation between tear ECP values and disease severity.On the contrary, serum ECP values were only elevated significantly in atopic patients, and did not correlate to tear ECP values. Tear cytology was not sensitive to evaluate disease severity. These data demonstrated that tear ECP in contrast to serum ECP is a useful marker for disease severity in allergic ocular diseases and as such could become a valuable objective variable in treatment studies and as an adjunctive diagnostic tool in chronic conditions

  14. The who, where, and when of IgE in allergic airway disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullaers, Melissa; De Bruyne, Ruth; Ramadani, Faruk; Gould, Hannah J; Gevaert, Philippe; Lambrecht, Bart N

    2012-03-01

    Allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis/conjunctivitis are characterized by a T(H)2-dominated immune response associated with increased serum IgE levels in response to inhaled allergens. Because IgE is a key player in the induction and maintenance of allergic inflammation, it represents a prime target for therapeutic intervention. However, our understanding of IgE biology remains fragmentary. This article puts together our current knowledge on IgE in allergic airway diseases with a special focus on the identity of IgE-secreting cells ("who"), their location ("where"), and the circumstances in which they are induced ("when"). We further consider the therapeutic implications of the insights gained. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Eosinophilic plasmacytic conjunctivitis concurrent with gingival fistula caused by Schizophyllum commune in a captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madoka Yoshizawa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe for the first time the diagnosis of Schizophyllum commune infection in a captive cheetah. Eosinophilic plasmacytic conjunctivitis was detected histopathologically in a biopsy specimen. Both a second surgical specimen and drainage fluid from a gingival mass and fistula contained fungal hyphae in giant cells with granulomatous inflammation. Allergic S. commune mycosis was suspected at this point. A monokaryotic isolate was characterized morphologically, and then identified genetically. Treatment with itraconazole and pimaricin was effective. Keywords: Allergic mycosis, Basidiomycosis, Granulomatous inflammation, Felidae, Schizophyllum commune

  16. Allergic granulomatous angiitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunović Gordana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic granulomatous angiitis (AGA - Churg-Strauss syndrome, is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by three distinct clinical phases prodromal, eosinophilic, and vasculitic, and most of respiratory symptoms and signs begin in the first two phases of the disease. Two female patients of different age, who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for AGA, and were in different phases and with the different duration of the disease are presented. The first patient (24 years of age was admitted to the hospital due to aggravation of asthma, heart failure, and polyneuropathy. The second one (45 years of age was also hospitalized due to the worsening of asthma polyneuropathy, and fever. Both were treated continuously with glucocorticoids. The older patient also received a total of six pulse doses of cyclophosphamide. Satisfactory response to such a treatment was achieved in both cases.

  17. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  18. Immunomodulatory Effects of Galectin-1 on an IgE-Mediated Allergic Conjunctivitis Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mello, Claudia Bosnic; Ramos, Lisandra [UNIFESP; Gimenes, Alexandre Dantas [UNIFESP; Andrade, Teresa Raquel de Moraes [UNIFESP; Oliani, Sonia Maria [UNIFESP; Gil, Cristiane Damas [UNIFESP

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE. Galectin (Gal)-1, a lectin found at sites of immune privilege with critical role in the inflammation, has been poorly investigated in the ocular inflammatory diseases. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of Gal-1 in ocular allergy using a model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced AC.METHODS. OVA-immunized BALB/c male mice were challenged with eye drops containing OVA on days 14 through 16 with a subset of animals pretreated intraperitoneally with recombinant Gal-1 (rGal-1) or dexamet...

  19. Human Spaceflight Conjunction Assessment: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason T.

    2011-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the process of a human space flight conjunction assessment and lessons learned from the more than twelve years of International Space Station (ISS) operations. Also, the application of these lessons learned to a recent ISS conjunction assessment with object 84180 on July 16, 2009 is also presented.

  20. Reasoning about conjunctive probabilistic concepts in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, John E; Slattery, Rachel

    2005-09-01

    While adults are known to exhibit biases when making conjunctive probability judgments, little is known about childhood competencies in this area. Participants (aged between four and five years, eight and ten years, and a group of young adults) attempted to select the more likely of two events, a single event, and a conjunctive event containing, as one of its components, the single event. The problems were such that the objective probabilities of the component events were potentially available. Children in both age groups were generally successful when the single event was likely. However, when it was unlikely, a majority of children rejected it, choosing the conjunctive event instead, thereby committing the conjunction fallacy. A substantial minority of adults also committed the fallacy under equivalent conditions. It is concluded that under certain conditions children are capable of normative conjunctive judgments but that the mechanisms underpinning this capacity remain to be fully understood.

  1. The role of attention in illusory conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsal, Y; Meiran, N; Lavie, N

    1994-03-01

    In five experiments, we investigated the effects of attention on illusory conjunctions formed between features of unrelated objects. The first three experiments used a weak manipulation of attention and found that illusory conjunctions formed either among features receiving high attentional priority or among features receiving low attentional priority were not more frequent than were conjunctions formed between mixed features of different attentional priority. The last two experiments used a strong manipulation of attention and failed to reveal any evidence of true illusory conjunctions. The results are inconsistent with the feature-integration theory, which predicts that when attention is focused on a subset of items, illusory conjunctions ought to occur within and outside of the attended subset, but not between the attended and unattended items.

  2. Allergic rhinitis - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay fever - self-care; Seasonal rhinitis - self-care; Allergies - allergic rhinitis - self-care ... in a row. Talk to your child's health care provider before giving your child decongestants. Nasal corticosteroid ...

  3. Allergic diseases and air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suh-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2013-07-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing rapidly, especially in developing countries. Various adverse health outcomes such as allergic disease can be attributed to rapidly increasing air pollution levels. Rapid urbanization and increased energy consumption worldwide have exposed the human body to not only increased quantities of ambient air pollution, but also a greater variety of pollutants. Many studies clearly demonstrate that air pollutants potently trigger asthma exacerbation. Evidence that transportation-related pollutants contribute to the development of allergies is also emerging. Moreover, exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide contributes to the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. This article focuses on the current understanding of the detrimental effects of air pollutants on allergic disease including exacerbation to the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema as well as epigenetic regulation.

  4. Clinical practice guideline: Allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Michael D; Gurgel, Richard K; Lin, Sandra Y; Schwartz, Seth R; Baroody, Fuad M; Bonner, James R; Dawson, Douglas E; Dykewicz, Mark S; Hackell, Jesse M; Han, Joseph K; Ishman, Stacey L; Krouse, Helene J; Malekzadeh, Sonya; Mims, James Whit W; Omole, Folashade S; Reddy, William D; Wallace, Dana V; Walsh, Sandra A; Warren, Barbara E; Wilson, Meghan N; Nnacheta, Lorraine C

    2015-02-01

    recommendation that clinicians recommend intranasal steroids for patients with a clinical diagnosis of AR whose symptoms affect their quality of life. The development group also made a strong recommendation that clinicians recommend oral second-generation/less sedating antihistamines for patients with AR and primary complaints of sneezing and itching. The panel made the following recommendations: (1) Clinicians should make the clinical diagnosis of AR when patients present with a history and physical examination consistent with an allergic cause and 1 or more of the following symptoms: nasal congestion, runny nose, itchy nose, or sneezing. Findings of AR consistent with an allergic cause include, but are not limited to, clear rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, pale discoloration of the nasal mucosa, and red and watery eyes. (2) Clinicians should perform and interpret, or refer to a clinician who can perform and interpret, specific IgE (skin or blood) allergy testing for patients with a clinical diagnosis of AR who do not respond to empiric treatment, or when the diagnosis is uncertain, or when knowledge of the specific causative allergen is needed to target therapy. (3) Clinicians should assess patients with a clinical diagnosis of AR for, and document in the medical record, the presence of associated conditions such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, sleep-disordered breathing, conjunctivitis, rhinosinusitis, and otitis media. (4) Clinicians should offer, or refer to a clinician who can offer, immunotherapy (sublingual or subcutaneous) for patients with AR who have inadequate response to symptoms with pharmacologic therapy with or without environmental controls. The panel recommended against (1) clinicians routinely performing sinonasal imaging in patients presenting with symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of AR and (2) clinicians offering oral leukotriene receptor antagonists as primary therapy for patients with AR. The panel group made the following options: (1) Clinicians may advise

  5. Association of Polysensitization, Allergic Multimorbidity, and Allergy Severity: A Cross-Sectional Study of School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Eun Kyo; Baek, Ji Hyeon; Lee, So-Yeon; Park, Yong Mean; Kim, Woo Kyung; Sheen, Youn Ho; Lee, Seung Jin; Bae, Youngoh; Kim, Jihyeon; Lee, Kee-Jae; Ahn, Kangmo; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Han, Man Yong

    2016-01-01

    Aeroallergen sensitization is related to the coexistence of allergic diseases, but the nature of this relationship is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship of polysensitization with allergic multimorbidities and the severity of allergic diseases. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of 3,368 Korean children aged 6-7 years-old. We defined IgE-mediated allergic diseases based on structured questionnaires, and classified the sensitivity to 18 aeroallergens by logistic regression and the Ward hierarchical clustering method. The relationship of polysensitization (positive IgE responses against 2 or more aeroallergens classes) with allergic multimorbidities (coexistence of 2 or more of the following allergic diseases: asthma, rhinitis, eczema, and conjunctivitis) and severity of allergic diseases was determined by ordinal logistic regression analysis. The rate of polysensitization was 13.6% (n = 458, 95% CI 12.4-14.8) and that of allergic multimorbidity was 23.5% (n = 790, 95% CI 22.0-24.9). Children sensitized to more aeroallergens tended to have more allergic diseases (rho = 0.248, p school (1 allergen: aOR 1.96, 3 allergens: aOR 2.08), and severity of nasal symptoms (1 allergen: aOR 1.61, 4 or more allergens: aOR 4.38). Polysensitization was weakly related to multimorbidity. However, the number of allergens to which a child is sensitized is related to the severity of IgE-mediated symptoms. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Taking Conjunction Search to a Higher Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy M. Wolfe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In visual search for conjunctions, targets are defined by combinations of features. Thus, targets might be RED VERTICAL items among RED horizontal and green VERTICAL distractors. Guided Search and similar models argue that features are conjoined only once an object is attended. However, efficient conjunction search is possible because observers can guide attention toward red and toward vertical. Real-world objects may be defined by the conjunction of many features, with no one feature defining the target. Can attention be guided to higher order conjunctions? We created 6D conjunction stimuli and varied the number of features shared between targets and distractors and the number of distractor types. RT x set size slopes range from 1.4 msec/item when two distractor types each share three features with the target to 66 msec/item when six distractor types each share five features with the target. Using different 3D conjunctions, we held distributions of features constant (1/3 of each of three colors, shapes, and orientations. We varied the grouping of distractors in order to look for evidence of simultaneous guidance by multiple attributes versus sequential grouping of subsets (Find the odd orientation in this color subset. We find that guidance and grouping may both contribute to efficient conjunction search.

  7. On the Reality of Illusory Conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Juan; Suero, Manuel; Durán, Juan I

    2017-01-01

    The reality of illusory conjunctions in perception has been sometimes questioned, arguing that they can be explained by other mechanisms. Most relevant experiments are based on migrations along the space dimension. But the low rate of illusory conjunctions along space can easily hide them among other types of errors. As migrations over time are a more frequent phenomenon, illusory conjunctions can be disentangled from other errors. We report an experiment in which series of colored letters were presented in several spatial locations, allowing for migrations over both space and time. The distribution of frequencies were fit by several multinomial tree models based on alternative hypothesis about illusory conjunctions and the potential sources of free-floating features. The best-fit model acknowledges that most illusory conjunctions are migrations in the time domain. Migrations in space are probably present, but the rate is very low. Other conjunction errors, as those produced by guessing or miscategorizations of the to-be-reported feature, are also present in the experiment. The main conclusion is that illusory conjunctions do exist.

  8. Allergic Aspergillus Rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunaloke Chakrabarti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS is a unique variety of chronic polypoid rhinosinusitis usually in atopic individuals, characterized by presence of eosinophilic mucin and fungal hyphae in paranasal sinuses without invasion into surrounding mucosa. It has emerged as an important disease involving a large population across the world with geographic variation in incidence and epidemiology. The disease is surrounded by controversies regarding its definition and etiopathogenesis. A working group on “Fungal Sinusitis” under the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM addressed some of those issues, but many questions remain unanswered. The descriptions of “eosinophilic fungal rhinosinusitis” (EFRS, “eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis” (EMRS and mucosal invasion by hyphae in few patients have increased the problem to delineate the disease. Various hypotheses exist for etiopathogenesis of AFRS with considerable overlap, though recent extensive studies have made certain in depth understanding. The diagnosis of AFRS is a multi-disciplinary approach including the imaging, histopathology, mycology and immunological investigations. Though there is no uniform management protocol for AFRS, surgical clearing of the sinuses with steroid therapy are commonly practiced. The role of antifungal agents, leukotriene antagonists and immunomodulators is still questionable. The present review covers the controversies, recent advances in pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of AFRS.

  9. Conjunctivitis in the newborn- A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Wadhwani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conjunctivitis of the newborn is defined as hyperemia and eye discharge in the neonates and is a common infection occurring in the neonates in the first month of life. In the United States, the incidence of neonatal conjunctivitis ranges from 1-2%, in India, the prevalence is 0.5-33% and varies in the world from 0.9-21% depending on the socioeconomic status. Aim: To study the organisms causing conjunctivitis of the newborn and to correlate the etiology with the mode of delivery. Design: Single center, prospective, observational study. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 mothers and their newborns, born over a period of one year, were included in the study. Of these 200 newborns were delivered through vaginal route (Group A and 100 (Group B delivered by lower segment caesarean section (LSCS. At the time of labour, high vaginal swabs were taken from the mothers. Two conjunctival swabs each from both eyes of the newborn were collected at birth and transported to Microbiology department in a candle jar immediately. Results: Eight babies in Group A, developed conjunctivitis at birth. None of the babies in Group B developed conjunctivitis, this difference was statistically highly significant (P<0.000. The organisms found in the conjunctiva of the newborns in Group A were Coagulase negative Staphylococcus, α hemolytic Streptococcus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas spps. However, the commonest organism leading to conjunctivitis in the newborn in this study was Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. It was observed that the mothers of 5 out of 8 babies (60% developing conjunctivitis gave history of midwife interference and premature rupture of membranes so the presence of risk factors contribute to the occurrence of conjunctivitis in the newborn. Conclusions: It is inferred that the mode of delivery and the presence of risk factors is responsible for conjunctivitis in the newborn.

  10. Eosinophilic plasmacytic conjunctivitis concurrent with gingival fistula caused by Schizophyllum commune in a captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Madoka; Kawarai, Shinpei; Torii, Yoshiko; Ota, Kaori; Tasaka, Kiyoshi; Nishimura, Kazuko; Fujii, Chieko; Kanemaki, Nobuyuki

    2017-12-01

    We describe for the first time the diagnosis of Schizophyllum commune infection in a captive cheetah. Eosinophilic plasmacytic conjunctivitis was detected histopathologically in a biopsy specimen. Both a second surgical specimen and drainage fluid from a gingival mass and fistula contained fungal hyphae in giant cells with granulomatous inflammation. Allergic S. commune mycosis was suspected at this point. A monokaryotic isolate was characterized morphologically, and then identified genetically. Treatment with itraconazole and pimaricin was effective.

  11. Disjunction and conjunction fallacies in episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K; Brainerd, C J

    2017-09-01

    It has recently been found that episodic memory displays analogues of the well-known disjunction and conjunction fallacies of probability judgement. The aim of the present research was, for the first time, to study these memory fallacies together under the same conditions, and test theoretical predictions about the reasons for each. The focus was on predictions about the influence of semantic gist, target versus context recollection, and proactive versus retroactive interference. Disjunction and conjunction fallacies increased in conditions in which subjects were able to form semantic connections among list words. In addition, disjunction fallacies were increased by manipulations that minimised proactive interference, whereas conjunction fallacies were increased by manipulations that minimised retroactive interference. That pattern suggests that disjunction fallacies are more dependent on target recollection, whereas conjunction fallacies are more dependent on context recollection.

  12. The students’ coordinating conjunction acquisition order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deby Irawan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at uncovering the students’ acquisition order of coordinating conjunction for then to seek the possible causes of such phenomenon. Quantitative approach with implicational scaling and qualitative approach with case study were employed with test, focused-group interview, and document analysis of some related textbooks as the instruments. A test consist of 70 questions about the usage of seven coordinating conjunctions in which each word is represented by 10 questions was given to the 13 students of eleventh grade of senior high school for the data collection related to the students’ acquisition order. The documents were then analyzed through several steps as suggested by the expert. The results show that the students acquire “and”, “so”, “for”, “but”, “or”, “yet”, and “nor” as in order. The external factors which influence the order are the formal complexity of each conjunction and the lack of exposure of coordinating conjunction both in the teaching activity and textbooks. Thus, teachers are suggested to provide more explicit teaching on coordinating conjunction and necessary knowledge about the usage of each word. Also, book writers should provide ample exposure to give students more knowledge about the usage of those conjunctions in a meaningful context.

  13. Vitamin D in allergic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Pawlak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is a factor that plays a significant role in calcium-phosphate balance. It has an effect on bone metabolism and also has modulator and anti-inflammatory activity. It is claimed that vitamin D inhibits immunological reactions with Th1 and Th17 lymphocytes. The influence of vitamin D on Th2 lymphocytes is not clear. The main effect of vitamin D is probably the activation of Treg lymphocytes. It was observed that vitamin D had a beneficial influence on diseases connected with excessive activation of Th1 lymphocytes, such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, non-specific enteritis, diabetes type 1 or psoriasis. The role of vitamin D in allergic diseases, in which increased activation of Th2-dependent reactions are of great importance, is controversial. However, due to a wide range of vitamin D activity, this view seems to be simplified. A beneficial effect on the course of allergic diseases was observed in up-to-date studies although the role of vitamin D in their pathogenesis has not been explained yet. On the basis of recent studies and well-known mechanisms of vitamin D activity on particular elements of the immunological system, the influence of vitamin D on the course of chosen allergic diseases, such as allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis was presented considering the possibility of contribution of allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  14. Comparative immunology of allergic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershwin, Laurel J

    2015-01-01

    Allergic responses occur in humans, rodents, non-human primates, avian species, and all of the domestic animals. These responses are mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies that bind to mast cells and cause release/synthesis of potent mediators. Clinical syndromes include naturally occurring asthma in humans and cats; atopic dermatitis in humans, dogs, horses, and several other species; food allergies; and anaphylactic shock. Experimental induction of asthma in mice, rats, monkeys, sheep, and cats has helped to reveal mechanisms of pathogenesis of asthma in humans. All of these species share the ability to develop a rapid and often fatal response to systemic administration of an allergen--anaphylactic shock. Genetic predisposition to development of allergic disease (atopy) has been demonstrated in humans, dogs, and horses. Application of mouse models of IgE-mediated allergic asthma has provided evidence for a role of air pollutants (ozone, diesel exhaust, environmental tobacco smoke) in enhanced sensitization to allergens.

  15. Component-resolved diagnostics in vernal conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armentia, Alicia; Sanchís, Eugenia; Montero, Javier A

    2016-10-01

    Conventional diagnostic tests in allergy are insufficient to clarify the cause of vernal conjunctivitis. Component-resolved diagnostic (CRD) by microarray allergen assay may be useful in detecting allergens that might be involved in the inflammatory process. In a recent trial in patients suffered from eosinophilic esophagitis, after 2 years of the CRD-guided exclusion diet and specific immunotherapy, significant clinical improvement was observed, and 68% of patients were discharged (cure based on negative biopsy, no symptoms, and no medication intake). Our new objective was to evaluate IgE-mediated hypersensitivity by CRD in tears and serum from patients with vernal conjunctivitis and treat patients with identified triggering allergens by specific immunotherapy. Twenty-five patients with vernal conjunctivitis were evaluated. The identified triggering allergens were n Lol p 1 (11 cases), n Cyn d 1 (eight cases), group 4 and 6 grasses (six cases) and group 5 of grasses (five cases). Prick test and pollen IgE were positive in one case. Clinical improvement was observed in 13/25 vernal conjunctivitis patients after 1-year specific immunotherapy. CRD seems to be a more sensitive diagnostic tool compared with prick test and IgE detection. Specific CRD-led immunotherapy may achieve clinical improvements in vernal conjunctivitis patients.

  16. Ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: current and emerging treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihler F

    2015-02-01

    synthetic cytosine phosphate–guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides promises a new treatment paradigm that aims to modulate the immune response, but it has yet to be proven in clinical trials.Keywords: ambrosia, seasonal allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis

  17. Evolution of ESA's SSA Conjunction Prediction Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, D.; Sancho, A. Tirado, J.; Agueda, A.; Martin, L.; Luque, F.; Fletcher, E.; Navarro, V.

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents the recent evolution of ESA's SSA Conjunction Prediction Service (CPS) as a result of an on-going activity in the Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) Segment of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Programme. The CPS is one of a number of precursor services being developed as part of the SST segment. It has been implemented as a service to provide external users with web-based access to conjunction information and designed with a service-oriented architecture. The paper encompasses the following topics: service functionality enhancements, integration with a live objects catalogue, all vs. all analyses supporting an operational concept based on low and high fidelity screenings, and finally conjunction detection and probability algorithms.

  18. Gestalt Reasoning with Conjunctions and Disjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, Magda L; Joergensen, Gitte H

    2016-01-01

    Reasoning, solving mathematical equations, or planning written and spoken sentences all must factor in stimuli perceptual properties. Indeed, thinking processes are inspired by and subsequently fitted to concrete objects and situations. It is therefore reasonable to expect that the mental representations evoked when people solve these seemingly abstract tasks should interact with the properties of the manipulated stimuli. Here, we investigated the mental representations evoked by conjunction and disjunction expressions in language-picture matching tasks. We hypothesised that, if these representations have been derived using key Gestalt principles, reasoners should use perceptual compatibility to gauge the goodness of fit between conjunction/disjunction descriptions (e.g., the purple and/ or the green) and corresponding binary visual displays. Indeed, the results of three experimental studies demonstrate that reasoners associate conjunction descriptions with perceptually-dependent stimuli and disjunction descriptions with perceptually-independent stimuli, where visual dependency status follows the key Gestalt principles of common fate, proximity, and similarity.

  19. Parallel coding of conjunctions in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Found, A

    1998-10-01

    Two experiments investigated whether the conjunctive nature of nontarget items influenced search for a conjunction target. Each experiment consisted of two conditions. In both conditions, the target item was a red bar tilted to the right, among white tilted bars and vertical red bars. As well as color and orientation, display items also differed in terms of size. Size was irrelevant to search in that the size of the target varied randomly from trial to trial. In one condition, the size of items correlated with the other attributes of display items (e.g., all red items were big and all white items were small). In the other condition, the size of items varied randomly (i.e., some red items were small and some were big, and some white items were big and some were small). Search was more efficient in the size-correlated condition, consistent with the parallel coding of conjunctions in visual search.

  20. Conjunctive Coding of Complex Object Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erez, Jonathan; Cusack, Rhodri; Kendall, William; Barense, Morgan D.

    2016-01-01

    Critical to perceiving an object is the ability to bind its constituent features into a cohesive representation, yet the manner by which the visual system integrates object features to yield a unified percept remains unknown. Here, we present a novel application of multivoxel pattern analysis of neuroimaging data that allows a direct investigation of whether neural representations integrate object features into a whole that is different from the sum of its parts. We found that patterns of activity throughout the ventral visual stream (VVS), extending anteriorly into the perirhinal cortex (PRC), discriminated between the same features combined into different objects. Despite this sensitivity to the unique conjunctions of features comprising objects, activity in regions of the VVS, again extending into the PRC, was invariant to the viewpoints from which the conjunctions were presented. These results suggest that the manner in which our visual system processes complex objects depends on the explicit coding of the conjunctions of features comprising them. PMID:25921583

  1. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Roberts, Graham

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the Management of Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT...

  2. Vaccination in food allergic patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most people do not react to vaccination and the incidence of vaccine anaphylaxis is estimated to be <1/million for all vaccines.[1] Most anaphylactic reactions occur in non-food allergic children. It is strongly recommended that anyone admin- istering vaccines has resuscitation equipment available to manage potential ...

  3. Influence of aeroallergens on the incidence of conjunctivitis in Zagreb and Zagreb County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternel, Renata; Toth, Ivan; Hercog, Predrag; Vojniković, Bozo; Cop, Rasa; Bradić-Hammoud, Mirna

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the temporal and spatial variations of pollen spectra in the City of Zagreb and Zagreb County according to frequency of inhalation allergy and rhino-conjunctivitis in the adult population by setting allergen/patient relationship. The study was carried out at three inland sites in Croatia during four years (2003-2006). A number of 2,192 patients have been tested for allergy skin prick tests over the same period. The majority of patients allergic to pollen allergens were sensitized to allergens from the plant pollen which belong to the botanical family of grass 46.91%, ambrosia 42.07%, birch 25.66%, hazel 15.19% (with symptoms of rhinoconjunctivitis (42.5%), conjunctivitis (28.3%) and rhinitis (23.9%). Increased symptoms in patients allergic to pollen allergens in the entire study period coincided with the presence of pollen in the air. Patients sensitized to dust mites have symptoms throughout the year with a slightly increased number of cases in April and June. In patients sensitized to fungi and mold spores and animal hairs, the number of cases with worsening of symptoms is equal during the same year.

  4. Treatment with galectin-1 eye drops regulates mast cell degranulation and attenuates the severity of conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello-Bosnic, Claudia; Gimenes, Alexandre Dantas; Oliani, Sonia Maria; Gil, Cristiane Damas

    2018-05-31

    Galectin-1 (Gal-1) is a β-galactoside-binding protein with diverse biological activities in the pathogenesis of inflammation, however the mechanisms by which Gal-1 modulates cellular responses in allergic inflammatory processes have not been fully determined. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of Gal-1 eye drops in an experimental model of conjunctivitis. Wistar rats received a topical application of compound (C)48/80 (100 mg/ml) into right eyes and a drop of vehicle into the contralateral eye. Another group of rats received Gal-1 (0.3 or 3 μg/eye) or sodium cromoglycate (SCG; 40 mg/ml) in both eyes and, after 15 min, right eye was challenged with C48/80. Conjunctivitis-induced by C48/80 was characterized by severe eyelid oedema and tearing, but clinical signs were ameliorated by eye drop doses of both Gal-1 (0.3/3 μg) and SCG. As expected, an increased proportion of degranulated mast cells (62%, P cell degranulation (31-36%), eosinophil migration and eosinophil peroxidase levels in the eyes. Gal-1 (3 μg) and SCG treatments also decreased IL-4 levels, as well as activation of mitogen activated protein kinases compared to untreated C48/80 eyes. Our findings suggest that Gal-1 eye drops represent a new therapeutic strategy for ocular allergic inflammation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. DIAGNOSIS & MANAGEMENT OF ALLERGIC FUNGAL SINUSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syam Manohar Gadhamsetty

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic sinusitis is one of the common diagnosis in ENT practice. Allergic fungal sinusitis is a clinical entity with characteristic clinical, radiographic and histopathological findings. Allergic fungal sinusitis and eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis can easily be misdiagnosed. AIM OF STUDY A prospective clinical study of allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis to use diagnostic criteria to confirm the disease with Radiological, Pathological & Microbiological investigations and their management. MATERIALS & METHODS A prospective study of allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis in 2 years from November 2011 to October 2013. Among the patients who attended the ENT OPD during this period, 21 patients with symptoms and signs suggestive of Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis are selected.

  6. Prevalence of asthma and allergic rhinitis among adults in Yaounde, Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Walter Pefura-Yone

    Full Text Available Population-based estimates of asthma and allergic rhinitis in sub-Saharan African adults are lacking. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of asthma and allergic rhinitis in urban adult Cameroonians.A community-based survey was conducted from December 2013 to April 2014 among adults aged 19 years and above (N = 2,304, 57.3% women, selected through multilevel stratified random sampling across all districts of Yaounde (Capital city. Internationally validated questionnaires were used to investigate the presence of allergic diseases. Logistic regressions were employed to investigate the determinants of allergic conditions.Prevalence rates were 2.7% (95% CI: 2.1-3.4 for asthma-ever, 6.9% (5.9-7.9 for lifetime wheezing, 2.9% (92.2-3.6 for current wheezing and 11.4% (10.1-12.7 for self-reported lifetime allergic rhinitis; while 240 (10.4% participants reported current symptoms of allergic rhinitis, and 125 (5.4% had allergic rhino-conjunctivitis. The prevalence of current asthma medication use and self-reported asthma attack was 0.8 (0.4-1.2 and 1 (0.6-1.4 respectively. Multivariable adjusted determinants of current wheezing were signs of atopic eczema [2.91 (1.09-7.74] and signs of allergic rhinitis [3.24 (1.83-5.71]. Age group 31-40 years [0.27(0.09-0.78, p = 0.016] was an independent protective factor for wheezing. Determinants of current rhinitis symptoms were active smoking [2.20 (1.37-3.54, p<0.001], signs of atopic eczema [2.84 (1.48-5.46] and current wheezing [3.02 (1.70-5.39].Prevalence rates for asthma and allergic rhinitis among adults in this population were at the lower tails of those reported in other regions of the world. Beside the classical interrelation between allergic diseases found in this study, active smoking was an independent determinant of allergic rhinitis symptoms. Nationwide surveys are needed to investigate regional variations.

  7. ALLERGIC EYE DISEASES IN CHILDREN. MODERN VIEW ON PATHOGENESIS AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. Markova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence off allergic diseases has  been  significantly increased among  adults  and children during last 30-40 years. International study has  shown  that  the  frequency  of atopy  in developed  countries, including Russia,   is higher  than  in developing.  Often atopic dermatitis, started in infancy, can develop into an “allergic march”  — food allergy, followed by the formation of allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis and  other  allergic diseases. The problem  of prophylaxis and  treatment of allergic pathology  becomes actual  for these reasons. An opinion according some  preventive  measures has  changed in recent. It was  noted  that  in families  with many children, where  children  were  often  sick  with respiratory infections,  the  incidence  of allergic  diseases was  lower  than  among  rarely sick children.  It is explained by the  “hygienic theory” — insufficient “training” of the  Th1 response in rarely sick children.  Allergic diseases, which are  based on IgE-mediated inflammation,  have a common  pathogenetic nature and,  consequently, general  principles of therapy, in which, as  is well known,  antihistamines take  a significant  place.  This is cased by the  mandatory involvement of histamine  in the mechanism of development of the main symptoms of allergic diseases. Current  capabilities  of local ophthalmologic  antiallergic therapy includes medicines  with multiple action mechanisms, such as mast cell stabilizers, antihistamines, combined  agents, steroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory effects. The latest generation antihistamine drug — olopatadine hydrochloride  0.2% is a new form of the molecule of olopatadine, which is intended  to increase the duration  of the action.  The article considers the main modern directions in prevention  and treatment of allergic diseases, including allergic eye diseases, which are  a

  8. NEONATAL CONJUNCTIVITIS AND ITS DRUG SENSITIVITY PATTERN

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    Kavitha Thulukkanam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Neonatal conjunctivitis is eye discharge in neonates and it is a common infection in neonates in the first month of life. Worldwide, the incidence of neonatal conjunctivitis varies from 1% to 33% depending on the socioeconomic status of the people in the region. In India, the incidence varies from region to region from 0.9 to 35%. MATERIALS AND METHODS Single center prospective study. All neonates of age 0-30 days delivered and referred from neonatal ward of Chengalpattu Medical College and Hospital with complaints of eye swelling, redness, conjunctival discharge to the eye department for treatment are included in the study. RESULTS In this study, age group from 0-7 days were most commonly affected by neonatal conjunctivitis. Both eyes were commonly affected together. Neonates born by both LSCS and normal vaginal delivery were almost equally affected. The most common organism found in culture and Gram staining was staphylococci. CONCLUSION Neonatal conjunctivitis is more likely to be acquired postnatally. It acquires during the 1 st week and responds well to local application of antibiotics, which covers common causative bacteria.

  9. The negations of conjunctions, conditionals, and disjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemlani, Sangeet; Orenes, Isabel; Johnson-Laird, P N

    2014-09-01

    How do reasoners understand and formulate denials of compound assertions, such as conjunctions and disjunctions? A theory based on mental models postulates that individuals enumerate models of the various possibilities consistent with the assertions. It therefore predicts a novel interaction: in affirmations, conjunctions, A and B, which refer to one possibility, should be easier to understand than disjunctions, A or B, which refer to more than one possibility; in denials, conjunctions, not(A and B), which refer to more than one possibility, should be harder to understand than disjunctions, not(A or B), which do not. Conditionals are ambiguous and they should be of intermediate difficulty. Experiment 1 corroborated this trend with a task in which the participants selected which possibilities were consistent with assertions, such as: Bob denied that he wore a yellow shirt and he wore blue pants on Tuesday. Experiment 2 likewise showed that participants' own formulations of verbal denials yielded the same trend in which denials of conjunctions were harder than denials of conditionals, which in turn were harder than denials of disjunctions. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Dhami, Sangeeta; Arasi, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Background: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is developing Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). To inform the development of recommendations, we sought to critically assess the systematic review evidence on the effective......Background: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is developing Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). To inform the development of recommendations, we sought to critically assess the systematic review evidence...... of these were judged to be of high, five moderate and three low quality. These reviews suggested that, in carefully selected patients, subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual (SLIT) immunotherapy resulted in significant reductions in symptom scores and medication requirements. Serious adverse outcomes were rare...

  11. Allergic reactions in red tattoos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutton Carlsen, K; Køcks, M; Sepehri, M

    2016-01-01

    to be feasible for chemical analysis of red pigments in allergic reactions. Raman spectroscopy has a major potential for fingerprint screening of problematic tattoo pigments in situ in skin, ex vivo in skin biopsies and in tattoo ink stock products, thus, to eliminate unsafe ink products from markets.......AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of Raman spectroscopy as a screening technique for chemical characterisation of tattoo pigments in pathologic reacting tattoos and tattoo ink stock products to depict unsafe pigments and metabolites of pigments. MATERIALS/METHODS: Twelve...... dermatome shave biopsies from allergic reactions in red tattoos were analysed with Raman spectroscopy (A 785-nm 300 mW diode laser). These were referenced to samples of 10 different standard tattoo ink stock products, three of these identified as the culprit inks used by the tattooist and thus by history...

  12. Safe foods for allergic people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørhede, Pia; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Bennett, L.

    Introduction Recently a 7-year-old British boy died after drinking pineapple & coconut juice drink. The boy was allergic to milk. The juice drink contained milk, which was declared in the ingredient list as required in the labelling law. The mother to the boy did not read the ingredient list......, as she did not expect to find milk in a juice drink. The juice drink had pictures of pineapple and coconut but none of milk despite that it contained greater amounts of milk than coconut. At the moment the British authorities investigate if the company behind the juice drink has broken the law. How can...... allergy in 10 different European languages. Conclusion: If the company behind the pineapple & coconut fruit juice had asked an allergy expert for advice or had thought about allergic people themselves during the development of their product, the tragic story probably could have been avoided. An expert...

  13. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Arasi, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT in the management of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis METHODS: We searched 15 international biomedical databases for published, in progress and unpublished evidence. Studies were independently screened by two reviewers against pre-defined eligibility criteria...... and critically appraised using established instruments. Our primary outcomes of interest were symptom, medication and combined symptom and medication scores. Secondary outcomes of interest included cost-effectiveness and safety. Data were descriptively summarized and then quantitatively synthesized using random...

  14. Tartrazine exclusion for allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardern, K D; Ram, F S

    2001-01-01

    Tartrazine is the best known and one of the most commonly used food additives. Food colorants are also used in many medications as well as foods. There has been conflicting evidence as to whether tartrazine causes exacerbations of asthma with some studies finding a positive association especially in individuals with cross-sensitivity to aspirin. To assess the overall effect of tartrazine (exclusion or challenge) in the management of asthma. A search was carried out using the Cochrane Airways Group specialised register. Bibliographies of each RCT was searched for additional papers. Authors of identified RCTs were contacted for further information for their trials and details of other studies. RCTs of oral administration of tartrazine (as a challenge) versus placebo or dietary avoidance of tartrazine versus normal diet were considered. Studies which focused upon allergic asthma, were also included. Studies of tartrazine exclusion for other allergic conditions such as hay fever, allergic rhinitis and eczema were only considered if the results for subjects with asthma were separately identified. Trials could be in either adults or children with asthma or allergic asthma (e.g. sensitivity to aspirin or food items known to contain tartrazine). Study quality was assessed and data abstracted by two reviewers independently. Outcomes were analysed using RevMan 4.1.1. Ninety abstracts were found, of which 18 were potentially relevant. Six met the inclusion criteria, but only three presented results in a format that permitted analysis and none could be combined in a meta-analysis. In none of the studies did tartrazine challenge or avoidance in diet significantly alter asthma outcomes. Due to the paucity of available evidence, it is not possible to provide firm conclusions as to the effects of tartrazine on asthma control. However, the six RCTs that could be included in this review all arrived at the same conclusion. Routine tartrazine exclusion may not benefit most patients

  15. Allergic laryngitis: unraveling the myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachler, Robert J; Dworkin-Valenti, James P

    2017-06-01

    This article provides a thorough review of the literature highlighting the articles that have advanced our knowledge about the sensitivity of the larynx to allergens in the air or ones consumed. This area of inquiry requires continued interest and investigation. As the field of clinical laryngology changes, and more information is discovered about the possible causal association between allergy and vocal pathologies, practicing otolaryngologists, allergists, and other medical professionals may discover more comprehensive methods to evaluate and treat their allergic patients, particularly those who present with complaints of dysphonia, dysphagia, laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR), and/or dyspnea. There continues to be epidemiological studies designed to describe the relationship of allergy to vocal symptoms and signs. Both population and smaller studies have recently attempted to link these two conditions. Unfortunately, the patient with chronic laryngeal complaints is often tagged by default with the diagnosis of LPR and treated with proton pump inhibitors, which are not always beneficial. The endoscopic assessment may not be as reliable to make the diagnosis of LPR as the examination is subjective and the inter-rater reliability is low. It has been demonstrated by direct laryngeal provocation studies that sticky-viscous endo-laryngeal mucous is the only reliable finding consistently associated with allergy potential allergic tissue reactivity. The interrelationship of allergic sensitivity and chronic laryngitis in certain individuals is becoming clearer because our knowledge of inquiry has increased and the available routine technology to diagnose these conditions has remarkably improved. Notwithstanding these advancements, much more research is needed on this subject to reduce the frequency of mis-diagnoses and mis-management of allergic patients.

  16. Primary conjunctival follicular lymphoma mimicking chronic conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrador Velandia, S; García Lagarto, E; Saornil, M A; García Álvarez, C; Cuello, R; Diezhandino, P

    2016-02-01

    The case is presented of a 43 year-old male patient with chronic follicular conjunctivitis, negative bacterial serology, and refractory to local treatment. The incisional biopsy performed showed to be consistent with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. A year later, a new incisional biopsy showed follicular lymphoma, with no systemic involvement, and he was treated with local radiotherapy. When a chronic follicular conjunctivitis is refractory to treatment, it is essential to perform an incisional biopsy to establish the histopathological diagnosis that can range from chronic inflammation, reactive lymphoid hyperplasia to lymphoma. Follicular lymphoma is rare among conjunctival lymphomas, and the staging is indispensable for the correct therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Indoor air and allergic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunkel, G.; Rudolph, R.; Muckelmann, R.

    1982-01-01

    Allergies may be the source of a variety of clinical symptoms. With regard to indoor air, however, the subject will be limited to inhalative allergies. These are diseases which are caused and supported by allergens entering the human organism via the respiratory pathway. The fundamentals of the origin of inhalative allergies are briefly discussed as well as the antigen-antibody reaction and the differentiation between different allergic reactions (Types I and II). In addition, the importance of repetitive infections of the upper respiratory tract for the occurrence of allergies of the respiratory system is pointed out. The most common allergies develop at the mucosae of the nose (allergic rhinitis) and of the bronchiale (allergic asthma bronchiale). Their symptomatology is discussed. Out of the allergologically interesting components of indoor air the following are to be considered primarily: house dust, components of house dust (house dust mite, trogoderma angustum, tenebrio molitor), epithelia of animals, animal feeds, mildew and occupational substances. Unspecific irritants (chemico-physical irritations) which are not acting as allergens, have to be clearly separated from these most frequent allergens. As a possibility of treatment for the therapeutist and the patient, there is the allergen prophylaxis, i.e. an extensive sanitation of the patient's environment including elimination of the allergens and, in addition, an amelioration of the quality of the air with regard to unspecific irritants. To conclude, some socio-medical aspects of respiratory diseases are discussed.

  18. Immunotherapy of allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2011-08-01

    The term 'immunotherapy' refers to treating diseases by inducing, enhancing or suppressing immune responses. As allergy is an excessive, detrimental immune reaction to otherwise harmless environmental substances, immunotherapy of allergic disease is aimed at the induction of tolerance toward sensitizing antigens. This article focuses on the historical developments, present state and future outlook for immunotherapy with haptens as a therapeutic modality for allergic contact dermatitis. Inspired by the effectiveness of immunotherapy in respiratory allergies, attempts were undertaken at curing allergic contact dermatitis by means of controlled administration of the sensitizing haptens. Animal and human experiments confirmed that tolerance to haptens can be induced most effectively when the induction of tolerance precedes attempted sensitization. In real life, however, therapy is sought by people who are already sensitized and an effective reversal of hypersensitivity seems more difficult to achieve. Decades of research on Rhus hypersensitivity led to a conclusion that immunotherapy can suppress Rhus dermatitis, however, only to a limited degree, for a short period of time, and at a high risk of side effects, which makes this method therapeutically unprofitable. Methodological problems with most available studies of immunotherapy of contact allergy to nickel make any definite conclusions impossible at this stage.

  19. Hypnosis and the allergic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyler-Harper, J; Bircher, A J; Langewitz, W; Kiss, A

    1994-01-01

    In recent years our knowledge of the immune system and the pathogenesis of immune disorders has increased. There has been much research on the complex connections between the psyche, the central nervous system and the immune system and the effect of mood on disease processes. This paper reviews the evidence on the effects of hypnosis on the allergic skin test reaction, on allergies, particularly respiratory allergies and hayfever, and on bronchial hyperreactivity and asthma. Hypnosis, which is generally regarded as an altered state of consciousness associated with concentration, relaxation and imagination, and amongst other characteristics an enhanced responsiveness to suggestion, has long been thought to be effective in the amelioration of various bodily disorders. It has seemed that the state of hypnosis is capable of a bridging or mediating function in the supposed dualism between mind and body. There has been great variation in the experimental and clinical procedures such as type of hypnotic intervention employed, the training of subjects and the timing of the intervention. Also, variability in the type of allergen used and its mode of application is evident. But despite these limitations, many of the studies have shown a link between the use of hypnosis and a changed response to an allergic stimulus or to a lessened bronchial hyperreactivity. There is as yet no clear explanation for the effectiveness of hypnosis, but there is some evidence for an influence on the neurovascular component of the allergic response.

  20. The Functions of Danish Causal Conjunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Therkelsen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article I propose an analysis of the Danish causal conjunctions fordi, siden and for based on the framework of Danish Functional Grammar. As conjunctions they relate two clauses, and their semantics have in common that it indicates a causal relationship between the clauses. The causal conjunctions are different as far as their distribution is concerned; siden conjoins a subordinate clause and a main clause, for conjoins two main clauses, and fordi is able to do both. Methodologically I have based my analysis on these distributional properties comparing siden and fordi conjoining a subordinate and a main clause, and comparing for and fordi conjoining two main clauses, following the thesis that they would establish a causal relationship between different kinds of content. My main findings are that fordi establishes a causal relationship between the events referred to by the two clauses, and the whole utterance functions as a statement of this causal relationship. Siden presupposes such a general causal relationship between the two events and puts forward the causing event as a reason for assuming or wishing or ordering the caused event, siden thus establishes a causal relationship between an event and a speech act. For equally presupposes a general causal relationship between two events and it establishes a causal relationship between speech acts, and fordi conjoining two main clauses is able to do this too, but in this position it also maintains its event-relating ability, the interpretation depending on contextual factors.

  1. Is meaning implicated in illusory conjunctions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virzi, R A; Egeth, H E

    1984-08-01

    According to feature-integration theory, when attention is diverted from a display, features from different objects in that display may be wrongly recombined, giving rise to "illusory conjunctions" (Treisman & Schmidt, 1982). Two experiments are reported that examine the nature of these illusory conjunctions. In displays that contain color names and adjectives printed in colored ink, subjects made two kinds of interesting and previously unreported errors. Consider, for example, a display that included the word BROWN in red ink and the word HEAVY in green ink. Subjects would sometimes incorrectly report that the word RED or the ink color brown had appeared in the display (e.g., RED in green ink or HEAVY in brown ink). It appears that subjects extract semantic representations from input and are sometimes confused about whether a particular representation has been extracted from a word or a color patch. Contrary to feature-integration theory, these findings suggest that illusory conjunctions may occur with high-level codes as well as with perceptual features.

  2. Human Spaceflight Recent Conjunctions of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browns, Ansley C.

    2010-01-01

    I. During each nine-hour shift (or upon request), the Orbital Safety Analyst (OSA) at JSpOC updates the entire tracked catalog with the latest tracking data from the SSN and screens this catalog against NASA s assets. a) For ISS operations, a 72-hour advance screening is performed. b) For Shuttle orbit operations, a 36-hour advance screening is performed. c) If a vehicle is performing a maneuver during the screening period, OSA uses post-reboost-trajectory data supplied by Mission Control Center-Houston (MCC-H) for screening. II. An automated process is used to detect any conjunctions within 10 x 40 x 40 km box (centered on the vehicle) using Special Perturbation (SP) processing: a) Box dimensions are Radial x Downtrack x Crosstrack. b) Any object found within this box has the tracking tasking level increased to improve (hopefully) its uncertainty in its current and predicted orbital trajectory. c) OSA informs NASA if any object is found inside a 2 x 25 x 25 km box then creates and sends an Orbital Conjunction Message (OCM) to NASA which contains detailed information about the conjunction. d) For Shuttle, the box size used for screening and reporting is altered for special operations (day of rendezvous, launch screening, etc.).

  3. Peak Pc Prediction in Conjunction Analysis: Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis. Pc Behavior Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, J.J.; Hejduk, M.D.; Stamey, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite conjunction risk typically evaluated through the probability of collision (Pc). Considers both conjunction geometry and uncertainties in both state estimates. Conjunction events initially discovered through Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) screenings, usually seven days before Time of Closest Approach (TCA). However, JSpOC continues to track objects and issue conjunction updates. Changes in state estimate and reduced propagation time cause Pc to change as event develops. These changes a combination of potentially predictable development and unpredictable changes in state estimate covariance. Operationally useful datum: the peak Pc. If it can reasonably be inferred that the peak Pc value has passed, then risk assessment can be conducted against this peak value. If this value is below remediation level, then event intensity can be relaxed. Can the peak Pc location be reasonably predicted?

  4. Feature conjunctions and auditory sensory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, E; Gomes, H; Nousak, J M; Ritter, W; Vaughan, H G

    1998-05-18

    This study sought to obtain additional evidence that transient auditory memory stores information about conjunctions of features on an automatic basis. The mismatch negativity of event-related potentials was employed because its operations are based on information that is stored in transient auditory memory. The mismatch negativity was found to be elicited by a tone that differed from standard tones in a combination of its perceived location and frequency. The result lends further support to the hypothesis that the system upon which the mismatch negativity relies processes stimuli in an holistic manner. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  5. [Enteroviruses responsible for acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévêque, N; Huguet, P; Norder, H; Chomel, J-J

    2010-04-01

    Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) is an epidemic form of highly contagious conjunctivitis, characterized by conjunctival hemorrhages. The first AHC outbreak was described in 1969 in Ghana, West Africa, and was called Apollo disease, from the Apollo landing on the moon. This outbreak was caused by Enterovirus 70 (EV70) together with a Coxsackievirus A24 (CVA24v) variant, which are the major etiological agents involved in AHC outbreaks worldwide. AHC is known to be directly transmitted by close person-to-person contact or indirectly through soiled ophthalmological materials or unsafe recreational water. Recently, a possible airborne virus spread was suggested which could explain the high transmission rate of the disease. In the absence of a specific antiviral therapy, a rapid diagnosis of the causative agent is required to distinguish AHC due to enteroviruses from other ocular infectious diseases, for there are active drugs, or to quickly implement proper public health measures to limit the extension of the outbreak. However, virus identification remains difficult and time-consuming. Moreover, virological diagnosis is difficult to implement in developing countries where AHC has recently become a major problem for public health. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Prelude to THEMIS tail conjunction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Y. Lui

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A close conjunction of several satellites (LANL, GOES, Polar, Geotail, and Cluster distributed from the geostationary altitude to about 16 RE downstream in the tail occurred during substorm activity as indicated by global auroral imaging and ground-based magnetometer data. This constellation of satellites resembles what is planned for the THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscopic Interactions during Substorms mission to resolve the substorm controversy on the location of the substorm expansion onset region. In this article, we show in detail the dipolarization and dynamic changes seen by these satellites associated with two onsets of substorm intensification activity. In particular, we find that dipolarization at ~16 RE downstream in the tail can occur with dawnward electric field and without plasma flow, just like some near-Earth dipolarization events reported previously. The spreading of substorm disturbances in the tail coupled with complementary ground observations indicates that the observed time sequence on the onsets of substorm disturbances favors initiation in the near-Earth region for this THEMIS-like conjunction.

  7. Effects of Increasing Drag on Conjunction Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigm, Ryan Clayton; McKinley, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis relies heavily on the computation of the Probability of Collision (Pc) and the understanding of the sensitivity of this calculation to the position errors as defined by the covariance. In Low Earth Orbit (LEO), covariance is predominantly driven by perturbations due to atmospheric drag. This paper describes the effects of increasing atmospheric drag through Solar Cycle 24 on Pc calculations. The process of determining these effects is found through analyzing solar flux predictions on Energy Dissipation Rate (EDR), historical relationship between EDR and covariance, and the sensitivity of Pc to covariance. It is discovered that while all LEO satellites will be affected by the increase in solar activity, the relative effect is more significant in the LEO regime around 700 kilometers in altitude compared to 400 kilometers. Furthermore, it is shown that higher Pc values can be expected at larger close approach miss distances. Understanding these counter-intuitive results is important to setting Owner/Operator expectations concerning conjunctions as solar maximum approaches.

  8. Sublingual immunotherapy in children with allergic rhinitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Röder (Esther)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAllergic rhinitis is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in Europe. Besides nose symptoms such as sneezing and a blocked nose, patients also suffer from general complaints like fatigue, sleeping problems and difficulty concentrating. Allergic rhinitis can have a serious impact on

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis to plastic banknotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, M; Delaney, T A; Horton, J J

    1999-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to ultraviolet (UV) cured acrylates occurs predominantly in occupationally exposed workers. Two men presented with dermatitis coinciding with the location of banknotes in their pockets. Patch testing confirmed allergic contact dermatitis to multiple acrylates and Australian plastic banknotes. This is the first report of contact allergy to acrylates present in Australian plastic banknotes.

  10. Orphan immunotherapies for allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolo, Erminia; Montagni, Marcello; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Senna, Gianenrico; Passalacqua, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    As confirmed by systematic reviews and meta-analyses, allergen immunotherapy is clinically effective in the treatment of allergic diseases. In particular, subcutaneous immunotherapy is a pivotal treatment in patients with severe reactions to Hymenoptera venom, whereas subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy are indicated in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma by inhalant allergens. Other allergies related to animal dander (other than cat, which is the most studied), such as dog, molds, occupational allergens, and insects, have also been recognized. For these allergens, immunotherapy is poorly studied and often unavailable. Thus, use of the term orphan immunotherapies is appropriate. We used MEDLINE to search the medical literature for English-language articles. Randomized, controlled, masked studies for orphan immunotherapies were selected. In the remaining cases, the available reports were described. The literature on food desensitization is abundant, but for other orphan allergens, such as mosquito, Argas reflexus, dog, or occupational allergens, there are only a few studies, and most are small studies or case reports. Orphan immunotherapy is associated with insufficient evidence of efficacy from controlled trials, an erroneous belief of the limited importance of some allergen sources, and the unlikelihood for producers to have a profit in making commercially available extracts (with an expensive process for registration) to be used in few patients. It should be taken into consideration that adequate preparations should be available also for orphan allergens. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pictorial essay: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Ritesh; Khan, Ajmal; Garg, Mandeep; Aggarwal, Ashutosh N; Gupta, Dheeraj

    2011-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is the best-known allergic manifestation of Aspergillus-related hypersensitivity pulmonary disorders. Most patients present with poorly controlled asthma, and the diagnosis can be made on the basis of a combination of clinical, immunological, and radiological findings. The chest radiographic findings are generally nonspecific, although the manifestations of mucoid impaction of the bronchi suggest a diagnosis of ABPA. High-resolution CT scan (HRCT) of the chest has replaced bronchography as the initial investigation of choice in ABPA. HRCT of the chest can be normal in almost one-third of the patients, and at this stage it is referred to as serologic ABPA (ABPA-S). The importance of central bronchiectasis (CB) as a specific finding in ABPA is debatable, as almost 40% of the lobes are involved by peripheral bronchiectasis. High-attenuation mucus (HAM), encountered in 20% of patients with ABPA, is pathognomonic of ABPA. ABPA should be classified based on the presence or absence of HAM as ABPA-S (mild), ABPA-CB (moderate), and ABPA-CB-HAM (severe), as this classification not only reflects immunological severity but also predicts the risk of recurrent relapses

  12. Pictorial essay: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Agarwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA is the best-known allergic manifestation of Aspergillus-related hypersensitivity pulmonary disorders. Most patients present with poorly controlled asthma, and the diagnosis can be made on the basis of a combination of clinical, immunological, and radiological findings. The chest radiographic findings are generally nonspecific, although the manifestations of mucoid impaction of the bronchi suggest a diagnosis of ABPA. High-resolution CT scan (HRCT of the chest has replaced bronchography as the initial investigation of choice in ABPA. HRCT of the chest can be normal in almost one-third of the patients, and at this stage it is referred to as serologic ABPA (ABPA-S. The importance of central bronchiectasis (CB as a specific finding in ABPA is debatable, as almost 40% of the lobes are involved by peripheral bronchiectasis. High-attenuation mucus (HAM, encountered in 20% of patients with ABPA, is pathognomonic of ABPA. ABPA should be classified based on the presence or absence of HAM as ABPA-S (mild, ABPA-CB (moderate, and ABPA-CB-HAM (severe, as this classification not only reflects immunological severity but also predicts the risk of recurrent relapses.

  13. Animal Models of Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Santoro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases have great impact on the quality of life of both people and domestic animals. They are increasing in prevalence in both animals and humans, possibly due to the changed lifestyle conditions and the decreased exposure to beneficial microorganisms. Dogs, in particular, suffer from environmental skin allergies and develop a clinical presentation which is very similar to the one of children with eczema. Thus, dogs are a very useful species to improve our understanding on the mechanisms involved in people’s allergies and a natural model to study eczema. Animal models are frequently used to elucidate mechanisms of disease and to control for confounding factors which are present in studies with patients with spontaneously occurring disease and to test new therapies that can be beneficial in both species. It has been found that drugs useful in one species can also have benefits in other species highlighting the importance of a comprehensive understanding of diseases across species and the value of comparative studies. The purpose of the current article is to review allergic diseases across species and to focus on how these diseases compare to the counterpart in people.

  14. Conjunctions in Malaysian Secondary School English Language Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Philip

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present research aims to investigate the distribution pattern of conjunctions and their ranking in two different corpora, namely the Malaysian school English language Textbook Corpus (Textbook Corpus and the British National Corpus (BNC. An additional objective of the study was to find out how conjunctions had been presented in the Malaysian school English language textbooks (Forms 1-5. The method applied was qualitative content analysis. The findings indicated that coordinating conjunctions were the most frequent conjunctions that occurred in the five textbooks followed by subordinating and correlative conjunctions. The ranking of the different types of conjunctions in the Textbook Corpus was similar to that of the reference corpus, BNC. The results also indicated that the textbooks failed to present conjunctions effectively. The findings are expected to help textbook developers or language teachers in developing or adapting learning materials. Keywords: Conjunctions, Textbook evaluation, Distribution patterns

  15. A measurement theory of illusory conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzmetal, William; Ivry, Richard B; Beck, Diane; Shimizu, Naomi

    2002-04-01

    Illusory conjunctions refer to the incorrect perceptual combination of correctly perceived features, such as color and shape. Research on the phenomenon has been hampered by the lack of a measurement theory that accounts for guessing features, as well as the incorrect combination of correctly perceived features. Recently, several investigators have suggested using multinomial models as a tool for measuring feature integration. The authors examined the adequacy of these models in 2 experiments by testing whether model parameters reflect changes in stimulus factors. In a third experiment, confidence ratings were used as a tool for testing the model. Multinomial models accurately reflected both variations in stimulus factors and observers' trial-by-trial confidence ratings.

  16. Extensional versus Intuitive Reasoning: The Conjunction Fallacy in Probability Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tversky, Amos; Kahneman, Daniel

    1983-01-01

    Judgments under uncertainty are often mediated by intuitive heuristics that are not bound by the conjunction rule of probability. Representativeness and availability heuristics can make a conjunction appear more probable than one of its constituents. Alternative interpretations of this conjunction fallacy are discussed and attempts to combat it…

  17. International Consensus (ICON): allergic reactions to vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreskin, Stephen C; Halsey, Neal A; Kelso, John M; Wood, Robert A; Hummell, Donna S; Edwards, Kathryn M; Caubet, Jean-Christoph; Engler, Renata J M; Gold, Michael S; Ponvert, Claude; Demoly, Pascal; Sanchez-Borges, Mario; Muraro, Antonella; Li, James T; Rottem, Menachem; Rosenwasser, Lanny J

    2016-01-01

    Routine immunization, one of the most effective public health interventions, has effectively reduced death and morbidity due to a variety of infectious diseases. However, allergic reactions to vaccines occur very rarely and can be life threatening. Given the large numbers of vaccines administered worldwide, there is a need for an international consensus regarding the evaluation and management of allergic reactions to vaccines. Following a review of the literature, and with the active participation of representatives from the World Allergy Organization (WAO), the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (AAAAI), and the American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (ACAAI), the final committee was formed with the purpose of having members who represented a wide-range of countries, had previously worked on vaccine safety, and included both allergist/immunologists as well as vaccinologists. Consensus was reached on a variety of topics, including: definition of immediate allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, approaches to distinguish association from causality, approaches to patients with a history of an allergic reaction to a previous vaccine, and approaches to patients with a history of an allergic reaction to components of vaccines. This document provides comprehensive and internationally accepted guidelines and access to on-line documents to help practitioners around the world identify allergic reactions following immunization. It also provides a framework for the evaluation and further management of patients who present either following an allergic reaction to a vaccine or with a history of allergy to a component of vaccines.

  18. Upper and lower airway pathology in young children with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis are very common diseases in childhood in industrialized countries. Although these conditions are widely trivialized by both parents and physicians they induce a major impact on quality of life for the affected children and a substantial drainage of health care...... resources. Unfortunately, diagnostic specificity is hampered by nonspecific symptom history and lack of reliable diagnostic tests which may explain why the pathology behind such diagnoses is poorly understood. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology of allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis in young......, and filaggrin mutations; levels of total IgE, FeNO, and blood-eosinophils; lung function and bronchial responsiveness to cold dry air. We found that asthma was similarly associated with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis suggesting a link between upper and lower airway diseases beyond an allergy associated...

  19. The use of conjunctions by children with typical language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glória, Yasmin Alves Leão; Hanauer, Letícia Pessota; Wiethan, Fernanda Marafiga; Nóro, Letícia Arruda; Mota, Helena Bolli

    2016-07-04

    To investigate the use of conjunctions in the spontaneous speech of three years old children with typical language development, who live in Santa Maria - RS. 45 children, aged 3:0;0 - 3:11;29 (years:months;days) from the database of the Center for the Study of Language and Speech (CELF) participated of this study. The spontaneous speech of each child was transcribed and followed by analysis of the samples to identify the types of conjunctions for each age group. The samples were statistically analyzed using the R software that allowed the evaluation of the number and type of conjunctions used in each age group by comparing them with each other. The data indicated that the higher the age of the child, the greater the number of types of conjunctions used by them. The comparison between age groups showed significant differences when comparing the average number of conjunctions per age group, as well as for additive conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions. At age of three the children begin to develop the grammatical use of conjunctions, early appearing additive, adversative and explanatory coordinating conjunctions, and at 3:6 they are able to use the most complex conjunctions, as subordinating conjunctions.

  20. TGF-Beta Gene Polymorphisms in Food Allergic versus Non-Food Allergic Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    esophageal dysfunction (i.e. dysphagia, anorexia, early satiety, failure to thrive) in whom gastro - esophageal reflux disease has been ruled out by...W81XWH-11-1-0741 TITLE: TGF-Beta Gene Polymorphisms in Food Allergic versus Non-Food Allergic Eosinophilic Esophagitis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...versus Non-Food Allergic Eosinophilic Esophagitis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0741 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) David Broide MB

  1. Graves’ Ophthalmopathy Misdiagnosed as Relapsing Conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irini P. Chatziralli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year-old female patient presented at the outpatients’ Department of Ophthalmology with epiphora, eyelid swelling, and a foreign body feeling in the right eye. The symptoms were present for 4 months, and the patient was treated as suffering from relapsing conjunctivitis. The slit lamp examination revealed keratitis due to exposure, related with the deficient closure of the eyelids. There was a 2 mm difference in the readings with the Hertel exophthalmometry examination between the eyes. Her medical history was clear, and she was referred for computed tomography of the orbits and brain and biochemical examinations (FT3, FT4, and TSH to investigate the presence of an intraorbital mass. FT3 was significantly increased and TSH was accordingly low, indicating the diagnosis of Graves’ disease, which presented without other signs and symptoms apart from ophthalmopathy. Computed tomography scan excluded the diagnosis of an intraorbital mass. Therefore, it is important not to underestimate the ocular manifestations of systemic diseases.

  2. Optical coherence tomography in conjunction with bronchoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Ascedio Jose; Takimura, Celso Kiyochi; Lemos Neto, Pedro Alves; Figueiredo, Viviane Rossi

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of and the potential for using optical coherence tomography in conjunction with conventional bronchoscopy in the evaluation of the airways. Methods: This was a pilot study based on an ex vivo experimental model involving three animals: one adult New Zealand rabbit and two Landrace pigs. An optical coherence tomography imaging catheter was inserted through the working channel of a flexible bronchoscope in order to reach the distal trachea of the animals. Images of the walls of the trachea were systematically taken along its entire length, from the distal to the proximal portion. Results: The imaging catheter was easily adapted to the working channel of the bronchoscope. High-resolution images of cross sections of the trachea were taken in real time, precisely delineating microstructures, such as the epithelium, submucosa, and cartilage, as well as the adventitia of the anterior and lateral tracheal walls. The corresponding layers of the epithelium, mucosa, and cartilage were clearly differentiated. The mucosa, submucosa, and trachealis muscle were clearly identified in the posterior wall. Conclusions: It is feasible to use an optical coherence tomography imaging catheter in combination with a flexible bronchoscope. Optical coherence tomography produces high resolution images that reveal the microanatomy of the trachea, including structures that are typically seen only on images produced by conventional histology. (author)

  3. Optical coherence tomography in conjunction with bronchoscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Ascedio Jose; Takimura, Celso Kiyochi; Lemos Neto, Pedro Alves; Figueiredo, Viviane Rossi, E-mail: ascedio@gmail.com [Servico de Endoscopia Respiratoria, Hospital das Clinicas, Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of and the potential for using optical coherence tomography in conjunction with conventional bronchoscopy in the evaluation of the airways. Methods: This was a pilot study based on an ex vivo experimental model involving three animals: one adult New Zealand rabbit and two Landrace pigs. An optical coherence tomography imaging catheter was inserted through the working channel of a flexible bronchoscope in order to reach the distal trachea of the animals. Images of the walls of the trachea were systematically taken along its entire length, from the distal to the proximal portion. Results: The imaging catheter was easily adapted to the working channel of the bronchoscope. High-resolution images of cross sections of the trachea were taken in real time, precisely delineating microstructures, such as the epithelium, submucosa, and cartilage, as well as the adventitia of the anterior and lateral tracheal walls. The corresponding layers of the epithelium, mucosa, and cartilage were clearly differentiated. The mucosa, submucosa, and trachealis muscle were clearly identified in the posterior wall. Conclusions: It is feasible to use an optical coherence tomography imaging catheter in combination with a flexible bronchoscope. Optical coherence tomography produces high resolution images that reveal the microanatomy of the trachea, including structures that are typically seen only on images produced by conventional histology. (author)

  4. Japanese guidelines for allergic rhinitis 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihiro Okubo

    2017-04-01

    To incorporate evidence based medicine (EBM introduced from abroad, the most recent collection of evidence/literature was supplemented to the Practical Guideline for the Management of Allergic Rhinitis in Japan 2016. The revised guideline includes assessment of diagnosis/treatment and prescriptions for children and pregnant women, for broad clinical applications. An evidence-based step-by-step strategy for treatment is also described. In addition, the QOL concept and cost benefit analyses are also addressed. Along with Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact of Asthma (ARIA, this guideline is widely used for various clinical purposes, such as measures for patients with sinusitis, childhood allergic rhinitis, oral allergy syndrome, and anaphylaxis and for pregnant women. A Q&A section regarding allergic rhinitis in Japan was added to the end of this guideline.

  5. Novel complex therapy of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis

    OpenAIRE

    S. V. Yanchenko; A. V. Malyshev; S. N. Sakhnov; N. V. Fedotova; O. Yu. Orlova; I. V. Grishenko; Z. A. Exuzyan

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To assess the effectivity of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis complex therapy.Methods. 25 autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis patients (50 eyes) were examined before and after complex treatment that included olopatadine hydrochloride 1 mg / ml (instillations 2 times a day), cetirizine 10 mg (1 tablet a day), and steroid drug (insufflations 2 times a day). Dry eye patients additionally received hyaluronic acid 1 mg / ml (instillations 2 times a day). 10 controls (20 eyes) were ...

  6. Increasing prevalence of asthma, respiratory symptoms, and allergic diseases: Four repeated surveys from 1993-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozek, Grzegorz; Lawson, Joshua; Szumilas, Dawid; Zejda, Jan

    2015-08-01

    Published data shows different prevalence trends depending on the region of Europe. The aim of the study was to analyze time trends of the frequency of the respiratory symptoms and allergic diseases in school children (Silesia, Poland) over the last 21 years. We compared the results of four population-based surveys performed in a town of Chorzow in 1993, 2002, 2007 and 2014 in children aged 7-10 years. All four studies had the same study protocol, recruitment (cluster, school-based sampling), questionnaire (WHO respiratory health questionnaire) and the same principal investigator The surveys included 1130 children in 1993, 1421 children in 2002, 1661 children in 2007 and 1698 in 2014. The results covered a 21 year span and showed a statistically significant (p increase in the prevalence of the following physician-diagnosed disorders (1993-2002-2007-2014): asthma (3.4%-4.8%-8.6%-12,6%); allergic rhinitis (4.3%-11.9%-15.9%-13.9%); atopic dermatitis (3.6%-7.9%-12.0%-13.9%); allergic conjunctivitis (4.3%-7.9%-8.3%-7.9%); A simultaneous increasing trend (p increased proportion of treated children (51.3%-51.3%-69.5%-60.7%) and a lower frequency of presenting current symptoms. Our findings are in line with the concept of a real increase in the occurrence of asthma and allergic disease in children. The pattern involves not only physician-diagnosed allergic diseases but also occurrence of symptoms related to respiratory disorders. Diagnosed asthma is better treated and better controlled. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Cagnani, Carlos E

    2002-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the commonest chronic respiratory disorder in children and young adults having an important impact for those suffering this condition, as well as for the public health. Allergic rhinitis is frequently associated to other co-morbidities, particularly asthma and conjunctivitis but, also, sinusitis and otitis media. Most of patients suffering rhinitis are cared by GPs and pediatricians and there are evidences that allergic rhinitis is undertreated, particularly the moderate/severe persistent forms. Clinical guidelines have become an important tool providing recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of different medical conditions. They help the process of decision making for GPs and pediatricians, and many of them, contain an update on basic science and epidemiology. In respiratory medicine, guidelines on asthma and rhinitis are available; however, they do not look at the patients globally and focus the disorder on an organ-specific basis without recommendations on co-morbidities. ARIA, Allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma, has not been developed only to update specialists in allergy/immunology, otorhinolaryngology and neumology on rhinitis and its comorbidities but, also, to provide recommendations for non-specialists. A new classification and severity of allergic rhinitis is proposed replacing the classic perennial and seasonal forms for persistent and intermittent, mild to moderate/severe. ARIA is an initiative in collaboration with the World Health Organization and the master document has been endorsed by many national and international scientific societies and organizations. ARIA is an evidence-based document also stressing on pediatric aspects and providing recommendations for low-income countries.

  8. Risk factors associated with allergic and non-allergic asthma in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Christer; Kalm-Stephens, Pia; Foucard, Tony; Alving, Kjell; Nordvall, S Lennart

    2007-07-01

    Risk factors for asthma have been investigated in a large number of studies in adults and children, with little progress in the primary and secondary prevention of asthma. The aim of this investigation was to investigate risk factors associated with allergic and non-allergic asthma in adolescents. In this study, 959 schoolchildren (13-14 years old) answered a questionnaire and performed exhaled nitric oxide (NO) measurements. All children (n = 238) with reported asthma, asthma-related symptoms and/or increased NO levels were invited to a clinical follow-up which included a physician evaluation and skin-prick testing. Asthma was diagnosed in 96 adolescents, whereof half had allergic and half non-allergic asthma. Children with both allergic and non-allergic asthma had a significantly higher body mass index (BMI) (20.8 and 20.7 vs. 19.8 kg/m(2)) (p < 0.05) and a higher prevalence of parental asthma (30% and 32% vs. 16%) (p < 0.05). Early-life infection (otitis and croup) [adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)): 1.99 (1.02-3.88) and 2.80 (1.44-5.42), respectively], pets during the first year of life [2.17 (1.16-4.04)], window pane condensation [2.45 (1.11-5.40)] and unsatisfactory school cleaning [(2.50 (1.28-4.89)] was associated with non-allergic but not with allergic asthma. This study indicates the importance of distinguishing between subtypes of asthma when assessing the effect of different risk factors. While the risk of both allergic and non-allergic asthma increased with increasing BMI, associations between early-life and current environmental exposure were primarily found in relation to non-allergic asthma.

  9. The burden of allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Although formerly regarded as a nuisance disease, allergic rhinitis (AR) has a considerable effect on quality of life and can have significant consequences if left untreated. The total burden of this disease lies not only in impaired physical and social functioning but also in a financial burden made greater when considering evidence that AR is a possible causal factor in comorbid diseases such as asthma or sinusitis. Compared with matched controls, patients with AR have an approximate twofold increase in medication costs and 1.8-fold the number of visits to health practitioners. Hidden direct costs include the treatment of comorbid asthma, chronic sinusitis, otitis media, upper respiratory infection, and nasal polyposis. Nasal congestion, the most prominent symptom in AR, is associated with sleep-disordered breathing, a condition that can have a profound effect on mental health, including increased psychiatric disorders, depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse. Furthermore, sleep-disordered breathing in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased disorders of learning performance, behavior, and attention. In the United States, AR results in 3.5 million lost workdays and 2 million lost schooldays annually. Patients struggle to alleviate their misery, frequently self-adjusting their treatment regimen of over-the-counter and prescription medications because of lack of efficacy, deterioration of efficacy, lack of 24-hour relief, and bothersome side effects. Ironically, health care providers overestimate patient satisfaction with therapy. Therefore, improvement in patient-practitioner communication may enhance patient adherence with prescribed regimens.

  10. Up-date on neuro-immune mechanisms involved in allergic and non-allergic rhinitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gerven, L.; Boeckxstaens, G.; Hellings, P.

    2012-01-01

    Non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) is a common disorder, which can be defined as chronic nasal inflammation, independent of systemic IgE-mediated mechanisms. Symptoms of NAR patients mimic those of allergic rhinitis (AR) patients. However, AR patients can easily be diagnosed with skin prick test or

  11. Upper and lower airway pathology in young children with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo Lk

    2011-01-01

    Allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis are very common diseases in childhood in industrialized countries. Although these conditions are widely trivialized by both parents and physicians they induce a major impact on quality of life for the affected children and a substantial drainage of health care...... children may contribute to the discovery of new mechanisms involved in pathogenesis and help direct future research to develop correctly timed preventive measures as well as adequate monitoring and treatment of children with rhinitis. Asthma is a common comorbidity in subjects with allergic rhinitis...... understood and there is a paucity of data objectivizing this association in young children. The aim of this thesis was to describe pathology in the upper and lower airways in young children from the COPSAC birth cohort with investigator-diagnosed allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis. Nasal congestion is a key...

  12. Pesticides are Associated with Allergic and Non-Allergic Wheeze among Male Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppin, Jane A.; Umbach, David M.; Long, Stuart; London, Stephanie J.; Henneberger, Paul K.; Blair, Aaron; Alavanja, Michael; Freeman, Laura E. Beane; Sandler, Dale P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Growing evidence suggests that pesticide use may contribute to respiratory symptoms. Objective: We evaluated the association of currently used pesticides with allergic and non-allergic wheeze among male farmers. Methods: Using the 2005–2010 interview data of the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective study of farmers in North Carolina and Iowa, we evaluated the association between allergic and non-allergic wheeze and self-reported use of 78 specific pesticides, reported by ≥ 1% of the 22,134 men interviewed. We used polytomous regression models adjusted for age, BMI, state, smoking, and current asthma, as well as for days applying pesticides and days driving diesel tractors. We defined allergic wheeze as reporting both wheeze and doctor-diagnosed hay fever (n = 1,310, 6%) and non-allergic wheeze as reporting wheeze but not hay fever (n = 3,939, 18%); men without wheeze were the referent. Results: In models evaluating current use of specific pesticides, 19 pesticides were significantly associated (p pyraclostrobin) had significantly different associations for allergic and non-allergic wheeze. In exposure–response models with up to five exposure categories, we saw evidence of an exposure–response relationship for several pesticides including the commonly used herbicides 2,4-D and glyphosate, the insecticides permethrin and carbaryl, and the rodenticide warfarin. Conclusions: These results for farmers implicate several pesticides that are commonly used in agricultural and residential settings with adverse respiratory effects. Citation: Hoppin JA, Umbach DM, Long S, London SJ, Henneberger PK, Blair A, Alavanja M, Beane Freeman LE, Sandler DP. 2017. Pesticides are associated with allergic and non-allergic wheeze among male farmers. Environ Health Perspect 125:535–543; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP315 PMID:27384423

  13. Paracetamol suppository induced allergic contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangaraj Murugaiyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol, a para-aminophenol derivative given systemically can produce allergic reactions and has been reported so far, but allergic reaction due to suppositories is very rare. A 4 month old male child brought by his mother with complaints of raised dark coloured skin lesions over the perianal region for the past 3 days. The child had history of (H/o of fever for 4 days back for which paracetamol suppository was prescribed following which the child developed the lesion over the perianal region On examination a well defined hyperpigmented plaque of size 5*3 cms extending from anal verge posteriorly and anteriorly upto the beginning of scrotum with lateral extensions from the centre to the gluteals. In our case, the paracetamol suppository used caused an allergic reaction which made the child very irritable and the child developed an allergic contact dermatitis in the site where the suppository was kept and the surrounding area. We report this case because paracetamol suppository as such without preservative causing allergic contact dermatitis has not been reported so far and the treating doctor should keep in mind such type of reactions that might occur when used.

  14. Reducing Environmental Allergic Triggers: Policy Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Stuart L

    The implementation of policies to reduce environmental allergic triggers can be an important adjunct to optimal patient care for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Policies at the local level in schools and other public as well as private buildings can make an impact on disease morbidity. Occupational exposures for allergens have not yet been met with the same rigorous policy standards applied for exposures to toxicants by Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Further benefit may be obtained through policies by local, county, state, and national governments, and possibly through international cooperative agreements. The reduction of allergenic exposures can and should be affected by policies with strong scientific, evidence-based derivation. However, a judicious application of the precautionary principle may be needed in circumstances where the health effect of inaction could lead to more serious threats to vulnerable populations with allergic disease. This commentary covers the scientific basis, current implementation, knowledge gaps, and pro/con views on policy issues in reducing environmental allergic triggers. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Allergic reactions seen in orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Görücü Coşkuner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergy can be defined as inappropriate and harmful response to harmless and ordinary materials. Allergic reactions, like in other fields of dentistry, can also be seen in the field of orthodontics. The reactions that occur against orthodontic materials can be seen as irritant or hypersensitivity reactions. The main reason of the irritant reactions is friction between soft tissues and orthodontic appliances. However, the reason of the hypersensitivity reactions is usually the antigenicity of the materials. Hypersensitivity reactions are usually seen as allergic contact dermatitis on face and neck; the occurrence of mucosal-gingival reactions and dermal and systemic reactions are rare. Latex, metal and acrylic resins are the most common allergens in orthodontics. Apart from these materials, allergic reactions can occur against bonding materials, extraoral appliances, disinfectants and antimicrobial agents. The reactions that occur against extraoral appliances usually result from metallic and elastic parts of the appliances or the appliance parts that are in contact with skin. Orthodontists should be aware of the allergic reactions to protect their patients’ health. The aim of this review was to evaluate the allergic reactions seen in orthodontic patients and discuss the cautions that orthodontists can take.

  16. Clinical verification in homeopathy and allergic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wassenhoven, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The literature on clinical research in allergic conditions treated with homeopathy includes a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT) for hay fever with positive conclusions and two positive RCTs in asthma. Cohort surveys using validated Quality of Life questionnaires have shown improvement in asthma in children, general allergic conditions and skin diseases. Economic surveys have shown positive results in eczema, allergy, seasonal allergic rhinitis, asthma, food allergy and chronic allergic rhinitis. This paper reports clinical verification of homeopathic symptoms in all patients and especially in various allergic conditions in my own primary care practice. For preventive treatments in hay fever patients, Arsenicum album was the most effective homeopathic medicine followed by Nux vomica, Pulsatilla pratensis, Gelsemium, Sarsaparilla, Silicea and Natrum muriaticum. For asthma patients, Arsenicum iodatum appeared most effective, followed by Lachesis, Calcarea arsenicosa, Carbo vegetabilis and Silicea. For eczema and urticaria, Mezereum was most effective, followed by Lycopodium, Sepia, Arsenicum iodatum, Calcarea carbonica and Psorinum. The choice of homeopathic medicine depends on the presence of other associated symptoms and 'constitutional' features. Repertories should be updated by including results of such clinical verifications of homeopathic prescribing symptoms. Copyright © 2012 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Allergic colitis: a mimic of Hirschsprung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, D.A.; Buonomo, C.; Fishman, S.J.; Furuta, G.; Nurko, S.

    1999-01-01

    Background. Allergy to cow milk protein is a common cause of gastrointestinal symptoms in infancy. Milk allergy is usually a clinical diagnosis, and thus there have been few reports of the radiographic findings. Objective. To describe the barium enema findings of allergic colitis and differentiate them from Hirschsprung disease. Materials and methods. Four infants (age range 7 days-5 weeks) with constipation underwent barium enema to exclude Hirschsprung disease. Radiographic findings were correlated with the pathologic specimens from suction rectal biopsy. Results. All enemas revealed irregular narrowing of the rectum and a transition zone. Rectal biopsies in each case demonstrated ganglion cells and evidence of an allergic colitis, with inflammatory infiltrates in the lamina propria. A diagnosis of milk allergy colitis was made and symptoms resolved after removal of milk from the diet. Conclusions. Milk allergy is common in infancy. The rectum is a primary target organ, with allergic colitis often diagnosed on clinical grounds alone. However, a child with allergic colitis may be referred to radiology for barium enema, especially if constipation is present. The radiologist should be aware of the unique imaging findings of allergic colitis, so as to avoid confusion with Hirschsprung disease and perhaps an unnecessary rectal biopsy. (orig.)

  18. Children's Comprehension of Plural Predicate Conjunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieu, Lyn; Romoli, Jacopo; Poortman, Eva; Winter, Yoad; Crain, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Previous developmental studies of conjunction have focused on the syntax of phrasal and sentential coordination (Lust, 1977; de Villiers, Tager-Flusberg & Hakuta, 1977; Bloom, Lahey, Hood, Lifter & Fiess, 1980, among others). The present study examined the flexibility of children's interpretation of conjunction. Specifically, when two…

  19. A Single Conjunction Risk Assessment Metric: the F-Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigm, Ryan Clayton; Newman, Lauri K.

    2009-01-01

    The Conjunction Assessment Team at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center provides conjunction risk assessment for many NASA robotic missions. These risk assessments are based on several figures of merit, such as miss distance, probability of collision, and orbit determination solution quality. However, these individual metrics do not singly capture the overall risk associated with a conjunction, making it difficult for someone without this complete understanding to take action, such as an avoidance maneuver. The goal of this analysis is to introduce a single risk index metric that can easily convey the level of risk without all of the technical details. The proposed index is called the conjunction "F-value." This paper presents the concept of the F-value and the tuning of the metric for use in routine Conjunction Assessment operations.

  20. Short-term perceptual learning in visual conjunction search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuling; Lai, Yunpeng; Huang, Wanyi; Tan, Wei; Qu, Zhe; Ding, Yulong

    2014-08-01

    Although some studies showed that training can improve the ability of cross-dimension conjunction search, less is known about the underlying mechanism. Specifically, it remains unclear whether training of visual conjunction search can successfully bind different features of separated dimensions into a new function unit at early stages of visual processing. In the present study, we utilized stimulus specificity and generalization to provide a new approach to investigate the mechanisms underlying perceptual learning (PL) in visual conjunction search. Five experiments consistently showed that after 40 to 50 min of training of color-shape/orientation conjunction search, the ability to search for a certain conjunction target improved significantly and the learning effects did not transfer to a new target that differed from the trained target in both color and shape/orientation features. However, the learning effects were not strictly specific. In color-shape conjunction search, although the learning effect could not transfer to a same-shape different-color target, it almost completely transferred to a same-color different-shape target. In color-orientation conjunction search, the learning effect partly transferred to a new target that shared same color or same orientation with the trained target. Moreover, the sum of transfer effects for the same color target and the same orientation target in color-orientation conjunction search was algebraically equivalent to the learning effect for trained target, showing an additive transfer effect. The different transfer patterns in color-shape and color-orientation conjunction search learning might reflect the different complexity and discriminability between feature dimensions. These results suggested a feature-based attention enhancement mechanism rather than a unitization mechanism underlying the short-term PL of color-shape/orientation conjunction search.

  1. Allergic Contact Dermatitis Induced by Textile Necklace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uffe Nygaard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis to textile dyes is considered to be a rare phenomenon. A recent review reported a prevalence of contact allergy to disperse dyes between 0.4 and 6.7%. The relevance of positive patch testing was not reported in all studies. Textile dye allergy is easily overlooked and is furthermore challenging to investigate as textile dyes are not labelled on clothing. In this report, we present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to a textile necklace. The patch test showed strong reactions to the necklace and the azo dyes Disperse Orange 1 and Disperse Yellow 3. Despite the European legislation and the reduced use of disperse dyes in Third World countries, disperse azo dyes still induce new cases of allergic contact dermatitis.

  2. Allergic rhinitis is associated with otitis media with effusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner-Møller, E; Chawes, B L K; Thomasen, Per Caye

    2012-01-01

    Childhood otitis media with effusion is a common disease and a link to allergic diseases has been suggested.......Childhood otitis media with effusion is a common disease and a link to allergic diseases has been suggested....

  3. Presentation and management of allergic fungal sinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thahim, K.; Jawaid, M.A.; Marfani, S.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the presentation of allergic fungal sinusitis and describe the line of management in our setup. Culture and sensitivity / fungal stain proven 20 cases of allergic fungal sinusitis were selected for the study, irrespective of age and gender. Data including age, gender, socioeconomic status, signs, symptoms, laboratory findings (especially Immunoglobulin E and eosinophil count) and imaging studies (Computed Tomography and /or Magnetic Resonance Imaging) were noted for the study. Pre and postoperative medical treatment, surgery performed, follow-up; residual/recurrence disease and revised surgery performed were also recorded. In this series, allergic fungal sinusitis was a disease of younger age group with an average age of 20.75 years with male dominance (70%). Poor socioeconomic status (80%), allergic rhinitis (100%) and nasal polyposis (100%) were important associated factors. Nasal obstruction (100%), nasal discharge (90%), postnasal drip (90%) and unilateral nasal and paranasal sinuses involvement (60%) were the commonest presenting features. Aspergillus (60%) was the most common etiological agent. In all cases (100%), increased eosinophil count and IgE levels were present. Orbital (20%) and intracranial (10%) involvement were also seen. Surgical management was preferred in all cases. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery in 90% cases and lateral rhinotomy in 10% cases were performed. Recurrence / residual disease was seen in 20% cases. In this series, allergic fungal sinusitis was seen in immunocompetent, young males, belonging to poor socioeconomic status, suffering from allergic rhinitis and nasal polyposis, presenting with nasal obstruction, nasal discharge and postnasal drip. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery was the most important problem solving procedure while lateral rhinotomy was reserved for extensive disease. (author)

  4. Aetiology of allergic rhinitis in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W.K. Lam

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In a 1993 survey, allergic rhinitis was identified as the most common allergic disease in Hong Kong, affecting 29.1% of schoolchildren. Recently (1995, the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC also reported 44.5% current rhinitis among Hong Kong teenagers. Our objective was to study the aetiology of allergic rhinitis in Hong Kong using serological tests of allergen sensitization. In 57 allergic rhinitis patients and in the same number of age- and sex-matched controls the following were measured: serum total IgE, mixed aeroallergen IgE (Phadiatop™ and specific IgE versus house dust mite (HDM, cockroach, cat and dog dander, mould mixture (Penicillium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Alternaria species and four local pollens (Bermuda grass, Timothy, ragweed and mugwort. Compared with controls, allergic rhinitis patients (26 males, 31 females; mean (± SD age 25 ±11 years had a significantly elevated serum total IgE concentration (mean ± SEM: 496 ± 88 vs 179 ± 38 kU/L and an increased proportion of positive Phadiatop (95 vs 33% and specific IgE tests versus HDM (90 vs 44% and cockroach (42 vs 9%; Mann-Whitney U-test and χ2 tests all P < 0.005. There was no significant difference in sensitization to other allergens tested. House dust mite and cockroach are ubiquitous in Hong Kong with a warm, humid climate and crowded living conditions. Their identification as aetiological agents of allergic rhinitis should help in the development of environmental strategies for reducing the inhalant allergen load to prevent and control this prevalent and costly health problem in our community.

  5. Environmental allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.S.; Bokhari, S.R.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: to find out the common environmental allergens responsible for sensitivity in patients with allergic rhinitis. Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: A local allergy clinic in an urban area of Lahore during the year 2000-2001. Subjects and Methods: Eighty patients with allergic rhinitis irrespective of age and sex were studied. These cases were selected on the basis of symptoms like sneezing, itching, watery nasal discharge and eosinophilia in nasal secretions. Forty matched healthy subjects as controls were also studied. Allergy test was performed on all the subjects by skin prick test to determine sensitivity to common environmental allergens using Bencard (England) allergy kit. Results: common environmental allergens responsible for sensitivity in allergic rhinitis patients were house dust (82.5 %), house dust mites (73.7%), mixed threshing (80%), straw dust (58.7%, hay dust (63.7%), mixed feathers (45%), cat fur (57.5%), cotton flock (56.2%), tree pollens (45%) and grass pollens (48.7%). Sensitivity to these allergens was observed in significantly higher (P<0.01) percentage of allergic rhinitis patients as compared with control subjects. Sensitivity to house dust, house dust mites and cat fur was of severe degree in majority of allergic rhinitis patients. While sensitivity to mixed threshing, straw dust, hay dust and mixed feathers was of moderate to severe degree in majority of these patients. Conclusion: Skin prick tests provide an effective and definitive mean to find out sensitivity to different allergens in cases with allergic rhinitis. Based on these findings, the physician can manage these patients in better way. (author)

  6. [Epigenetics in allergic diseases and asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Rodríguez, José A; Krause, Bernardo J; Uauy, Ricardo; Casanello, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases and asthma are the result of complex interactions between genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic disease among children. In this article we review some environmental factors like: allergen exposition, tobacco, bacteria, microbial components, diet, obesity and stress, which influences during intrauterine and infancy life in the epigenetic regulation of asthma and allergic diseases. The review has been done in three models: in-vitro, animal and human. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Allergic and immunologic reactions to food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultekin, Fatih; Doguc, Duygu Kumbul

    2013-08-01

    For centuries, food additives have been used for flavouring, colouring and extension of the useful shelf life of food, as well as the promotion of food safety. During the last 20 years, the studies implicating the additives contained in foods and medicine as a causative factor of allergic reactions have been proliferated considerably. In this review, we aimed to overview all of the food additives which were approved to consume in EU and find out how common and serious allergic reactions come into existence following the consuming of food additives.

  8. Cerebrospinal fluid leak mimicking allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketti, Anthony J; Cleri, Dennis J; Porwancher, Richard B; Panesar, Mandip; Villota, Francisco J; Seelagy, Marc M

    2005-01-01

    Rhinitis and rhinorrhea are common clinical complaints that may be allergic or nonallergic in etiology. Distinguishing between allergic and nonallergic etiologies can be difficult but necessary for treatment. Here, we present a case of a 50-year-old woman with > 20 years of rhinorrhea before a diagnosis of cerebrospinal fluid leak and a life-threatening complication occurred. It is essential that no symptom, especially that which persists and resists treatment, is trivialized. Here, we establish how a careful history and evaluation will direct the clinician to the correct diagnosis.

  9. Impact of allergic rhinitis in school going children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Elias; Panjabi, Chandramani; Shah, Ashok

    2012-04-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common chronic pediatric disorder. The International Study for Asthma and Allergies in Childhood phase III found that the global average of current rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms in the 13-14 year age-group was 14.6% and the average prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms in the 6-7 year age-group was 8.5%. In addition to classical symptoms, AR is associated with a multidimensional impact on the health related quality of life in children. AR affects the quality of sleep in children and frequently leads to day-time fatigue as well as sleepiness. It is also thought to be a risk factor for sleep disordered breathing. AR results in increased school absenteeism and distraction during class hours. These children are often embarrassed in school and have decreased social interaction which significantly hampers the process of learning and school performance. All these aspects upset the family too. Multiple co-morbidities like sinusitis, asthma, conjunctivitis, eczema, eustachian tube dysfunction and otitis media are generally associated with AR. These mostly remain undiagnosed and untreated adding to the morbidity. To compound the problems, medications have bothersome side effects which cause the children to resist therapy. Children customarily do not complain while parents and health care professionals, more often than not, fail to accord the attention that this not so trivial disease deserves. AR, especially in developing countries, continues to remain a neglected disorder.

  10. Automated Spacecraft Conjunction Assessment at Mars and the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, David; Guinn, Joseph; Tarzi, Zahi; Demcak, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Conjunction assessment and collision avoidance are areas of current high interest in space operations. Most current conjunction assessment activity focuses on the Earth orbital environment. Several of the world's space agencies have satellites in orbit at Mars and the Moon, and avoiding collisions there is important too. Smaller number of assets than Earth, and smaller number of organizations involved, but consequences similar to Earth scenarios.This presentation will examine conjunction assessment processes implemented at JPL for spacecraft in orbit at Mars and the Moon.

  11. Storage of feature conjunctions in transient auditory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, H; Bernstein, R; Ritter, W; Vaughan, H G; Miller, J

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether feature conjunctions are stored in transient auditory memory. The mismatch negativity (MMN), an event-related potential that is elicited by stimuli that differ from a series of preceding stimuli, was used in this endeavour. A tone that differed from the preceding series of stimuli in the conjunction of two of its features, both present in preceding stimuli but in different combinations, was found to elicit the MMN. The data are interpreted to indicate that information about the conjunction of features is stored in the memory.

  12. Up-regulation of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 in allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uddman Rolf

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toll-like receptors enable the host to recognize a large number of pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide, viral RNA, CpG-containing DNA and flagellin. Toll-like receptors have also been shown to play a pivotal role in both innate and adaptive immune responses. The role of Toll-like receptors as a primary part of our microbe defense system has been shown in several studies, but their possible function as mediators in allergy and asthma remains to be established. The present study was designed to examine the expression of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 in the nasal mucosa of patients with intermittent allergic rhinitis, focusing on changes induced by exposure to pollen. Methods 27 healthy controls and 42 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis volunteered for the study. Nasal biopsies were obtained before and during pollen season as well as before and after allergen challenge. The seasonal material was used for mRNA quantification of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 with real-time polymerase chain reaction, whereas specimens achieved in conjunction with allergen challenge were used for immunohistochemical localization and quantification of corresponding proteins. Results mRNA and protein representing Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 could be demonstrated in all specimens. An increase in protein expression for all three receptors could be seen following allergen challenge, whereas a significant increase of mRNA only could be obtained for Toll-like receptor 3 during pollen season. Conclusion The up-regulation of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 in the nasal mucosa of patients with symptomatic allergic rhinitis supports the idea of a role for Toll-like receptors in allergic airway inflammation.

  13. Dominant epitopes and allergic cross-reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirza, Osman Asghar; Henriksen, A; Ipsen, H

    2000-01-01

    leading to aggregation and subsequent mediator release. Thus, allergen-Ab complexes play a crucial role in the cascade leading to the allergic response. We here report the structure of a 1:1 complex between the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and the Fab fragment from a murine monoclonal IgG1 Ab, BV16...

  14. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Ho [Department of Anatomy, Medical School, Institute for Medical Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Guang Yu [Department of Radiology, Yanbian University Hospital, YanJi 133002 (China); Guo, Hui Shu [Centralab, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116011 (China); Piao, Hong Mei [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Yanbian University Hospital, YanJi 133000 (China); Li, Liang chang; Li, Guang Zhao [Department of Anatomy and Histology and Embryology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, 977 Gongyuan Road, YanJi 133002, Jilin (China); Lin, Zhen Hua [Department of Pathology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, YanJi 133000 (China); Yan, Guang Hai, E-mail: ghyan@ybu.edu.cn [Department of Anatomy and Histology and Embryology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, 977 Gongyuan Road, YanJi 133002, Jilin (China)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin suppresses NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. Because NF-{kappa}B activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-{kappa}B activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-{kappa}B activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  15. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Ho; Jin, Guang Yu; Guo, Hui Shu; Piao, Hong Mei; Li, Liang chang; Li, Guang Zhao; Lin, Zhen Hua; Yan, Guang Hai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. ► Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. ► Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. ► Silibinin suppresses NF-κB transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. Because NF-κB activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-κB activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-κB activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  16. Systemic allergic dermatitis caused by sesquiterpene lactones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Compositae sensitization are routinely warned against the ingestion of vegetables, spices, teas and herbal remedies from this family of plants. The evidence for the occurrence of systemic allergic dermatitis caused by sesquiterpene lactone-containing plants is mostly anecdotal...

  17. Allergic Rhinitis | Sommers | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... but the antihistamines are less effective for nasal congestion and minimally address the problem of inflammation. Immune-based specifically targeted molecules, such as the cloned humanised monoclonal antibody-inhibiting human IgE omalizumab, are presently being studied in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis.

  18. Retrospective assessment of seasonal allergic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.; Malling, H-J

    2003-01-01

    The history of the severity of seasonal allergic symptoms is often obtained post-seasonally as a retrospective assessment. Correct rating is essential when determining the efficacy of pharmaceutical treatment, indications for allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), or inclusion into controlled cli...

  19. Steroids vs immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasbjerg, Kristian; Backer, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    Treatment for seasonal allergic rhinitis induced by airborne allergens can be divided into two major groups: symptom-dampening drugs, such as antihistamines and corticosteroids, and disease-modifying drugs in the form of immunotherapy. It has been speculated that depot-injection corticosteroids g...

  20. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokhani, Ramesh; Neupane, Saraswoti; Kandel, Ishwar Sharma

    2004-12-01

    A 24 years old male presented with recurrent symptoms of cough and breathlessness for 6 years but increased in past 6 months. Fleeting radiological opacities, peripheral eosinophilia and central type bronchiectasus in high resolution CT scan gave the suspicion of allergic bronchopolmonary aspergilosis. Confirmation of the diagnosis was done by skin prick and immunological tests. The patient showed an excellent response to oral prednisolone.

  1. If it's not there, where is it? Locating illusory conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazeltine, R E; Prinzmetal, W; Elliott, W

    1997-02-01

    There is evidence that complex objects are decomposed by the visual system into features, such as shape and color. Consistent with this theory is the phenomenon of illusory conjunctions, which occur when features are incorrectly combined to form an illusory object. We analyzed the perceived location of illusory conjunctions to study the roles of color and shape in the location of visual objects. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants located illusory conjunctions about halfway between the veridical locations of the component features. Experiment 3 showed that the distribution of perceived locations was not the mixture of two distributions centered at the 2 feature locations. Experiment 4 replicated these results with an identification task rather than a detection task. We concluded that the locations of illusory conjunctions were not arbitrary but were determined by both constituent shape and color.

  2. Visual search for features and conjunctions in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobaugh, N J; Cole, S; Rovet, J F

    1998-12-01

    Visual search performance was examined in three groups of children 7 to 12 years of age and in young adults. Colour and orientation feature searches and a conjunction search were conducted. Reaction time (RT) showed expected improvements in processing speed with age. Comparisons of RT's on target-present and target-absent trials were consistent with parallel search on the two feature conditions and with serial search in the conjunction condition. The RT results indicated searches for feature and conjunctions were treated similarly for children and adults. However, the youngest children missed more targets at the largest array sizes, most strikingly in conjunction search. Based on an analysis of speed/accuracy trade-offs, we suggest that low target-distractor discriminability leads to an undersampling of array elements, and is responsible for the high number of misses in the youngest children.

  3. An Analysis Of Conjunctions In The Jakarta Post Editorials

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi, Ika Sari

    2010-01-01

    Skripsi ini berjudul An Analysis of Conjunctions in the Jakarta Post Editorials, yang membahas tentang penggunaan conjunctions dalam kalimat yang terdapat pada harian Jakarta Post. Penelitian ini mengambil 6 editorial sebagai bahan penelitiannya. Skripsi ini ditulis berdasarkan keingintahuan penulis tentang sejauh mana para editor menggunakan kata sambung dalam tulisan-tulisan yang mereka hasilkan. Dalam mengerjakan skripsi ini, penulis menerapkan studi kepustakaan yakni dengan mengumpulka...

  4. OD Covariance in Conjunction Assessment: Introduction and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejduk, M. D.; Duncan, M.

    2015-01-01

    Primary and secondary covariances combined and projected into conjunction plane (plane perpendicular to relative velocity vector at TCA) Primary placed on x-axis at (miss distance, 0) and represented by circle of radius equal to sum of both spacecraft circumscribing radiiZ-axis perpendicular to x-axis in conjunction plane Pc is portion of combined error ellipsoid that falls within the hard-body radius circle

  5. Multi-morbidities of allergic rhinitis in adults: European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Task Force Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingi, C; Gevaert, P; Mösges, R; Rondon, C; Hox, V; Rudenko, M; Muluk, N B; Scadding, G; Manole, F; Hupin, C; Fokkens, W J; Akdis, C; Bachert, C; Demoly, P; Mullol, J; Muraro, A; Papadopoulos, N; Pawankar, R; Rombaux, P; Toskala, E; Kalogjera, L; Prokopakis, E; Hellings, P W; Bousquet, J

    2017-01-01

    This report has been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Task Force on Allergic Rhinitis (AR) comorbidities. The aim of this multidisciplinary European consensus document is to highlight the role of multimorbidities in the definition, classification, mechanisms, recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of AR, and to define the needs in this neglected area by a literature review. AR is a systemic allergic disease and is generally associated with numerous multi-morbid disorders, including asthma, eczema, food allergies, eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE), conjunctivitis, chronic middle ear effusions, rhinosinusitis, adenoid hypertrophy, olfaction disorders, obstructive sleep apnea, disordered sleep and consequent behavioural and educational effects. This report provides up-to-date usable information to: (1) improve the knowledge and skills of allergists, so as to ultimately improve the overall quality of patient care; (2) to increase interest in this area; and (3) to present a unique contribution to the field of upper inflammatory disease.

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis to fragrances: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, M P; Soro, P; Silvestre, J F

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis due to fragrances usually manifests as subacute or chronic dermatitis because fragrances are found in a wide range of products to which patients are repeatedly exposed. The typical patient is a middle-aged woman with dermatitis on her hands and face, although other sites may be affected depending on the allergen and the product in which it is found. The standard patch test series of the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC) contains 4 fragrance markers: balsam of Peru, fragrance mix i, fragrance mix ii, and lyral. Testing with a specific fragrance series is recommended in patients with a positive result to any of these 4 markers. The use of a specific fragrance series and new legislation obliging manufacturers to specify the fragrances used in their products, will help to improve the management of allergic contact dermatitis due to fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  7. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic respiratory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappella, Antonio; Durham, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy involves the repeated administration of allergen products in order to induce clinical and immunologic tolerance to the offending allergen. Immunotherapy is the only etiology-based treatment that has the potential for disease modification, as reflected by longterm remission following its discontinuation and possibly prevention of disease progression and onset of new allergic sensitizations. Whereas subcutaneous immunotherapy is of proven value in allergic rhinitis and asthma there is a risk of untoward side effects including rarely anaphylaxis. Recently the sublingual route has emerged as an effective and safer alternative. Whereas the efficacy of SLIT in seasonal allergy is now well-documented in adults and children, the available data for perennial allergies and asthma is less reliable and particularly lacking in children. This review evaluates the efficacy, safety and longterm benefits of SCIT and SLIT and highlights new findings regarding mechanisms, potential biomarkers and recent novel approaches for allergen immunotherapy. PMID:23095870

  8. New aspects in allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To give selected new information on contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis with focus on diagnostic procedures and pitfalls. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies dealing with common contact allergens have improved our understanding of the relationship between positive patch...... contact dermatitis. The main culprits include fragrance chemicals, preservatives, and hair dyes. We are all more or less exposed to cosmetics and topical drugs on a daily basis. The labelling requirements given in the Cosmetics Directive is of great help in tracing the causative allergenic ingredients...... tests and the clinical interpretation and consequences for the patient. SUMMARY: Nickel allergy is still the most common contact allergy in Europe in spite of full implementation of the EU Nickel Directive in 2001. Contact allergens in cosmetics and topical drugs are another common cause of allergic...

  9. Severe chronic allergic (and related) diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Anto, J M; Demoly, P

    2012-01-01

    -up. Control is the degree to which therapy goals are currently met. These concepts have evolved over time for asthma in guidelines, task forces or consensus meetings. The aim of this paper is to generalize the approach of the uniform definition of severe asthma presented to WHO for chronic allergic...... and associated diseases (rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, chronic urticaria and atopic dermatitis) in order to have a uniform definition of severity, control and risk, usable in most situations. It is based on the appropriate diagnosis, availability and accessibility of treatments, treatment responsiveness...... and associated factors such as comorbidities and risk factors. This uniform definition will allow a better definition of the phenotypes of severe allergic (and related) diseases for clinical practice, research (including epidemiology), public health purposes, education and the discovery of novel therapies....

  10. Breastfeeding, Childhood Asthma, and Allergic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddy, Wendy H

    2017-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of childhood asthma has been increasing considerably, and the protection afforded by breastfeeding in its development has been the subject of controversy for more than 80 years. Previous systematic reviews have generally found a protective effect of breastfeeding on allergic outcomes, although many studies have methodological limitations. Although breastfeeding is protective against lower respiratory tract infection during infancy, such protection has not been demonstrated for asthma in all studies. Breastfeeding has health benefits for the mother and child. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of an infant's life, with continued breastfeeding for up to 2 years or longer, is recognized as the "gold" standard for infant feeding because human milk is uniquely suited to the human infant, and its nutritional content and bioactivity promote a healthy development. There is increasing concern that the practice of delaying complementary foods until 6 months may exacerbate the risk of allergic disease. Breast milk contains immunological components that protect against infections and allergic disease in infancy. The composition of human breast milk is complex, containing factors that interact with the infant immune system and intestinal milieu including allergens, cytokines, immunoglobulins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and chemokines. Transforming growth factor β is a cytokine in human milk involved in maintaining intestinal homeostasis, inflammation regulation, and oral tolerance development. Modern day society, with increased standards of hygiene, has changed the gut flora of Western infants, potentially impacting the risk of developing immune-mediated diseases including allergic disease and asthma. Microbial diversity is intrinsic to healthy immune maturation and function. Compared to breastfed infants, formula-fed infants had lower bacterial diversity and an altered intestinal microbiota in the first few weeks of life associated with

  11. Topical therapy for facial allergic dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Kondratyeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to assess clinical dynamics and morphofunctional skin parameters of patients with facial allergic dermatoses on the background of combined topical therapy. Materials and methods. 45 patients with various facial allergic dermatoses in dry and sensitive skin took part in the research. The methods included anamnesis taking, poll, objective examination and assessment of morphofunctional parameters of skin, as well as estimation of life quality dynamic index (LQDI. Main results. After a course of treatment with 0,05% solution of alclometasone dipropionate inflammation of dermatosis ceased in 45 (100% patients, itching and pains in 39 (86,7% patients, but complaints about dryness and peeling of facial skin remained in 41 (91,1% and 40 (88,8% patients respectively. On the background of therapy including emollient Aflocream the above mentioned symptoms did not appear in 43 (95,6% patients, wherein maximum effect was achieved in patients with allergic contact dermatitis - 14 (93,3%. After a course of topical therapy all patients showed statistically significant increase of epidermal moisture level, alongside with reduction of skin relief and degree of keratinization. During the assessment of LQDI a tendency to reduction of proportion of patients on whom the disease has a strong and extremely strong impact was noted in 10 patients (i.e. 22,2%, moderate influence - in 5 of them (11,45%, insignificant influence or its absence - in 30 (66,7% people. Conclusion. Combined therapy including the use of a topical corticosteroid Afloderm and an emollient Aflocream showed good clinical efficiency in patients with facial allergic dermatoses. The efficiency is also confirmed with improvements in morphofunctional characteristics of patients’ skin on the background of therapy.

  12. Spatially parallel processing of within-dimension conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnell, K J; Humphreys, G W

    2001-01-01

    Within-dimension conjunction search for red-green targets amongst red-blue, and blue-green, nontargets is extremely inefficient (Wolfe et al, 1990 Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 16 879-892). We tested whether pairs of red-green conjunction targets can nevertheless be processed spatially in parallel. Participants made speeded detection responses whenever a red-green target was present. Across trials where a second identical target was present, the distribution of detection times was compatible with the assumption that targets were processed in parallel (Miller, 1982 Cognitive Psychology 14 247-279). We show that this was not an artifact of response-competition or feature-based processing. We suggest that within-dimension conjunctions can be processed spatially in parallel. Visual search for such items may be inefficient owing to within-dimension grouping between items.

  13. Novel complex therapy of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Yanchenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the effectivity of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis complex therapy.Methods. 25 autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis patients (50 eyes were examined before and after complex treatment that included olopatadine hydrochloride 1 mg / ml (instillations 2 times a day, cetirizine 10 mg (1 tablet a day, and steroid drug (insufflations 2 times a day. Dry eye patients additionally received hyaluronic acid 1 mg / ml (instillations 2 times a day. 10 controls (20 eyes were prescribed only the above-mentioned treatment. In 15 study group patients (30 eyes, Blepharogel 1 was applied on lid margins. Routine eye examination, clinical symptom assessment, Schirmer’s and Norn’s tests, xerosis meter and lissamine green staining evaluation, and anterior segment photography with computed morphometry were performed.Results. Compositae allergy was diagnosed in all patients. Dry eye due to tear film instability, lipid deficiency, and mucin deficiency and epitheliopathy were diagnosed in 55 %, 35.5 % and 28.3 %, respectively. In study group, the treatment significantly and rapidly reduced patient-reported symptoms and blepharoconjunctivitis signs as well as significantly improved tear stability, lipid deficiency, mucin deficiency, and epitheliopathy as compared with controls.Conclusion. Blepharogel 1 as a component of complex therapy increases the efficacy of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis treatment.

  14. Novel complex therapy of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Yanchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the effectivity of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis complex therapy.Methods. 25 autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis patients (50 eyes were examined before and after complex treatment that included olopatadine hydrochloride 1 mg / ml (instillations 2 times a day, cetirizine 10 mg (1 tablet a day, and steroid drug (insufflations 2 times a day. Dry eye patients additionally received hyaluronic acid 1 mg / ml (instillations 2 times a day. 10 controls (20 eyes were prescribed only the above-mentioned treatment. In 15 study group patients (30 eyes, Blepharogel 1 was applied on lid margins. Routine eye examination, clinical symptom assessment, Schirmer’s and Norn’s tests, xerosis meter and lissamine green staining evaluation, and anterior segment photography with computed morphometry were performed.Results. Compositae allergy was diagnosed in all patients. Dry eye due to tear film instability, lipid deficiency, and mucin deficiency and epitheliopathy were diagnosed in 55 %, 35.5 % and 28.3 %, respectively. In study group, the treatment significantly and rapidly reduced patient-reported symptoms and blepharoconjunctivitis signs as well as significantly improved tear stability, lipid deficiency, mucin deficiency, and epitheliopathy as compared with controls.Conclusion. Blepharogel 1 as a component of complex therapy increases the efficacy of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis treatment.

  15. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cocamide diethanolamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Sarien; Gilissen, Liesbeth; Goossens, An

    2016-07-01

    Cocamide DEA (CAS no. 68603-42-9) is a non-ionic surfactant frequently used in industrial, household and cosmetic products for its foam-producing and stabilizing properties. Contact allergy has been reported quite rarely in the past, but recently several cases were published, raising the question of an increase in the frequency of allergic dermatitis caused by this substance. To describe cocamide DEA-allergic patients and their characteristics observed in our department. Medical charts of patients, investigated between 1990 and December 2015, were retrospectively reviewed for cocamide DEA-allergy. Demographic characteristics and patch test results were analyzed. Out of 1767 patients tested, 18 (1%) presented with an allergic reaction to cocamide DEA, all of them at least with hand dermatitis. Twelve patients had (past) occupational exposure to cocamide DEA. Out of the 18 patients, 15 showed (most often) multiple positive reactions and 7 also suffered from atopic dermatitis. Cocamide DEA allergy is relatively rare, despite frequent use, and an increasing trend was not observed. Reactions to cocamidopropyl betaine and cocamide MEA only occurred in some of the subjects tested. Shampoos and liquid hand soaps/cleansers dominated as sources of exposure. All patients presented with an impaired skin barrier due to atopic and/or previous contact dermatitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Allergic anaphylaxis due to subcutaneously injected heparin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Diana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heparins are one of the most used class of anticoagulants in daily clinical practice. Despite their widespread application immune-mediated hypersensitivity reactions to heparins are rare. Among these, the delayed-type reactions to s.c. injected heparins are well-known usually presenting as circumscribed eczematous plaques at the injection sites. In contrast, potentially life-threatening systemic immediate-type anaphylactic reactions to heparins are extremely rare. Recently, some cases of non-allergic anaphylaxis could be attributed to undesirable heparin contaminants. A 43-year-old patient developed severe anaphylaxis symptoms within 5–10 minutes after s.c. injection of enoxaparin. Titrated skin prick testing with wheal and flare responses up to an enoxaparin dilution of 1:10.000 indicated a probable allergic mechanism of the enoxaparin-induced anaphylaxis. The basophil activation test as an additional in-vitro test method was negative. Furthermore, skin prick testing showed rather broad cross-reactivity among different heparin preparations tested. In the presented case, history, symptoms, and results of skin testing strongly suggested an IgE-mediated allergic hypersensitivity against different heparins. Therefore, as safe alternative anticoagulants the patient could receive beneath coumarins the hirudins or direct thrombin inhibitors. Because these compounds have a completely different molecular structure compared with the heparin-polysaccharides.

  18. Allergic rhinitis and its associated co-morbidities at Bugando Medical Centre in Northwestern Tanzania; A prospective review of 190 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Said A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic rhinitis is one of the commonest atopic diseases which contribute to significant morbidity world wide while its epidemiology in Tanzania remains sparse. There was paucity of information regarding allergic rhinitis in our setting; therefore it was important to conduct this study to describe our experience on allergic rhinitis, associated co-morbidities and treatment outcome in patients attending Bugando Medical Centre. Methods This was descriptive cross-sectional study involving all patients with a clinical diagnosis of allergic rhinitis at Bugando Medical Centre over a three-month period between June 2011 and August 2011. Data was collected using a pre-tested coded questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS statistical computer software version 17.0. Results A total of 190 patients were studied giving the prevalence of allergic rhinitis 14.7%. The median age of the patients was 8.5 years. The male to female ratio was 1:1. Adenoid hypertrophy, tonsillitis, hypertrophy of inferior turbinate, nasal polyps, otitis media and sinusitis were the most common co-morbidities affecting 92.6% of cases and were the major reason for attending hospital services. Sleep disturbance was common in children with adenoids hypertrophy (χ2 = 28.691, P = 0.000. Allergic conjunctivitis was found in 51.9%. The most common identified triggers were dust, strong perfume odors and cold weather (P χ2 = 4.583, P = 0.032. In this study family history of allergic rhinitis was not a significant risk factor (P =0.423. The majority of patients (68.8% were treated surgically for allergic rhinitis co morbidities. Post operative complication and mortality rates were 2.9% and 1.6% respectively. The overall median duration of hospital stay of in-patients was 3 days (2 – 28 days. Most patients (98.4% had satisfactory results at discharge. Conclusion The study shows that allergic rhinitis is common in our settings representing 14.7% of all

  19. A Tuned Single Parameter for Representing Conjunction Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakaloic, D.; Hejduk, M. D.; Frigm, R. C.; Newman, L. K.

    2011-01-01

    Satellite conjunction assessment risk analysis is a subjective enterprise that can benefit from quantitative aids and, to this end, NASA/GSFC has developed a fuzzy logic construct - called the F-value - to attempt to provide a statement of conjunction risk that amalgamates multiple indices and yields a more stable intra-event assessment. This construct has now sustained an extended tuning procedure against heuristic analyst assessment of event risk. The tuning effort has resulted in modifications to the calculation procedure and the adjustment of tuning coefficients, producing a construct with both more predictive force and a better statement of its error.

  20. Temporal resolution for the perception of features and conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodelón, Clara; Fallah, Mazyar; Reynolds, John H

    2007-01-24

    The visual system decomposes stimuli into their constituent features, represented by neurons with different feature selectivities. How the signals carried by these feature-selective neurons are integrated into coherent object representations is unknown. To constrain the set of possible integrative mechanisms, we quantified the temporal resolution of perception for color, orientation, and conjunctions of these two features. We find that temporal resolution is measurably higher for each feature than for their conjunction, indicating that time is required to integrate features into a perceptual whole. This finding places temporal limits on the mechanisms that could mediate this form of perceptual integration.

  1. New concept in allergy: Non-allergic rats becomes allergic after induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Utomo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: As a theory, seemingly it is impossible that allergic diseases, including asthma, are the result of exposure to a transmissible agent. The fact that nearly all children with asthma are allergic, but only a small proportion of allergic children have asthma, at least raises the possibility that other factors are involved. Interestingly, non-allergic children become allergic after their parents came from working in allergic people for several months. Recent research revealed that periodontal pathogens are also transmissible from mother and caregivers to infants.Therefore, it is logical that non-allergic children could become allergic after exposed to periodontopathic bacteria. However, the mechanism is still unclear. Purpose: The objective of this study is to verify a new concept that non-allergic rat may become allergic after exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide. Methods: Randomized control series design experimental study was conducted to 24 male Wistar rats, two experimental groups and one control group. One group was subjected to intrasulcular injection of PgLPS1435/1450. Tissue examination were done for allergy biomarkers with peroxidase immunohistochemistry for leukotriene C4 (LTC4 and eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP in bronchus tissue. Serum level examination of interleukin 4 (IL-4, and immunoglobulin E (IgE was done with ELISA. Data were analyzes using ANOVA. Results: after four days, LTC4 and ECP expression increased significantly (p=0.001; even insignificant, IL-4 and IgE serum level also increased. Conclusion: PgLPS is able to stimulate immunocompetent cells which changed the host immune response of non-allergic rats. Therefore, it is possible that they become allergic.Latar belakang: Menurut teori, penularan penyakit alergi termasuk asma merupakan hal yang mustahil. Fakta menunjukkn bahwa hampir semua anak penderita asma mempunyai alergi, tetapi tidak semua anak alergi menderita asma, sehingga mungkin

  2. Impact of Aspergillus fumigatus in allergic airway diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Neelkamal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For decades, fungi have been recognized as associated with asthma and other reactive airway diseases. In contrast to type I-mediated allergies caused by pollen, fungi cause a large number of allergic diseases such as allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses, rhinitis, allergic sinusitis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Amongst the fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent cause of severe pulmonary allergic disease, including allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA, known to be associated with chronic lung injury and deterioration in pulmonary function in people with chronic asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF. The goal of this review is to discuss new understandings of host-pathogen interactions in the genesis of allergic airway diseases caused by A. fumigatus. Host and pathogen related factors that participate in triggering the inflammatory cycle leading to pulmonary exacerbations in ABPA are discussed.

  3. Gene transcripts as potential diagnostic markers for allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Malene Barré; Skov, Lone; Menné, Torkil

    2005-01-01

    The standard procedure for diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis is to perform a patch test. Because this has several disadvantages, the development of a new in vitro test system would be of immense value. Gene transcripts that distinguish allergics from non-allergics may have the potential...... widely available. The 26 differentially expressed genes identified in this study may potentially function as diagnostic markers for contact sensitivity....

  4. A Population-based Clinical Study of Allergic and Non-allergic Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, T.B.; Thomsen, S.F.; Nolte, H.

    2009-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to describe differences between allergic and non-allergic asthma in a large community-based sample of Danish adolescents and adults. Methods. A total of 1,186 subjects, 14 to 44 years of age, who in a screening questionnaire had reported a history of airway...... symptoms suggestive of asthma and/or allergy, or who were taking any medication for these conditions were clinically examined. All participants were interviewed about respiratory symptoms, and furthermore skin test reactivity, lung function, and airway responsiveness were measured. Results. A total of 489...

  5. The Description of Conjunction Found in the Novel The Man in The Iron Mask

    OpenAIRE

    Pratiwi, Florencia M

    2015-01-01

    This paper entiled ”The Description of Conjunction Found in the Novel The Man in The Iron Mask” is about the conjunctions used in the sentences of novel. This paper give information about how to used conjunctions when someone make a paper in writing. The writer uses the library research to collecting books and papers related to the topic also discussed and find out the types of conjunctions and the structure transformation of conjunction .They are Coordinating conjunction and Subordinating co...

  6. Gonococcal Conjunctivitis Despite Successful Treatment of Male Urethritis Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Remco P H; Verweij, Stephan P; McIntyre, James A; Schaftenaar, Erik

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of progressive, cephalosporin-susceptible, Neisseria gonorrhoeae conjunctivitis despite successful treatment of male urethritis syndrome. We hypothesize that conjunctival infection progressed due to insufficient penetration of cefixime and azithromycin and point out that extragenital infection and male urethritis may not be cured simultaneously in settings where the syndromic approach is used.

  7. Distribution of conjunctive and disjunctive forms in Xitsonga*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    approach, and the information packaging approach. ... information structure. = morphology. Examples of conjunctive and disjunctive forms in Xitsonga, isiZulu, Siswati, and Setswana are shown in (2). Descriptively speaking, the ... Updating the focus-based approach, Creissels (2014) argues for an information packaging.

  8. Bottom-up guidance in visual search for conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Michael J

    2007-02-01

    Understanding the relative role of top-down and bottom-up guidance is crucial for models of visual search. Previous studies have addressed the role of top-down and bottom-up processes in search for a conjunction of features but with inconsistent results. Here, the author used an attentional capture method to address the role of top-down and bottom-up processes in conjunction search. The role of bottom-up processing was assayed by inclusion of an irrelevant-size singleton in a search for a conjunction of color and orientation. One object was uniquely larger on each trial, with chance probability of coinciding with the target; thus, the irrelevant feature of size was not predictive of the target's location. Participants searched more efficiently for the target when it was also the size singleton, and they searched less efficiently for the target when a nontarget was the size singleton. Although a conjunction target cannot be detected on the basis of bottom-up processing alone, participants used search strategies that relied significantly on bottom-up guidance in finding the target, resulting in interference from the irrelevant-size singleton.

  9. Presentation of words to separate hemispheres prevents interword illusory conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liederman, J; Sohn, Y S

    1999-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that division of inputs between the hemispheres could prevent interword letter migrations in the form of illusory conjunctions. The task was to decide whether a centrally-presented consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) target word matched one of four CVC words presented to a single hemisphere or divided between the hemispheres in a subsequent test display. During half of the target-absent trials, known as conjunction trials, letters from two separate words (e.g., "tag" and "cop") in the test display could be mistaken for a target word (e.g., "top"). For the other half of the target-absent trails, the test display did not match any target consonants (Experiment 1, N = 16) or it matched one target consonant (Experiment 2, N = 29), the latter constituting true "feature" trials. Bi- as compared to unihemispheric presentation significantly reduced the number of conjunction, but not feature, errors. Illusory conjunctions did not occur when the words were presented to separate hemispheres.

  10. Working memory for conjunctions relies on the medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Ingrid R; Page, Katie; Moore, Katherine Sledge; Chatterjee, Anjan; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2006-04-26

    A prominent theory of hippocampal function proposes that the hippocampus is importantly involved in relating or binding together separate pieces of information to form an episodic representation. This hypothesis has only been applied to studies of long-term memory because the paradigmatic view of the hippocampus is that it is not critical for short-term forms of memory. However, relational processing is important in many working memory tasks, especially tasks using visual stimuli. Here, we test the hypothesis that the medial temporal lobes are important for relational memory even over short delays. The task required patients with medial temporal lobe amnesia and controls to remember three objects, locations, or object-location conjunctions over 1 or 8 s delays. The results show that working memory for objects and locations was at normal levels, but that memory for conjunctions was severely impaired at 8 s delays. Additional analyses suggest that the hippocampus per se is critical for accurate conjunction working memory. We propose that the hippocampus is critically involved in memory for conjunctions at both short and long delays.

  11. The Development of Conjunction Use in Advanced L2 Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroszek, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the results of a longitudinal study of how the use of conjunctions, as an aspect of spoken discourse competence of 13 selected advanced students of English, developed throughout their 3-year English as a foreign language (EFL) tertiary education. The analysis was carried out in relation to a number of variables, including 2…

  12. Illusory conjunctions reflect the time course of the attentional blink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Juan; Privado, Jesús; de Liaño, Beatriz Gil-Gómez; Suero, Manuel

    2011-07-01

    Illusory conjunctions in the time domain are binding errors for features from stimuli presented sequentially but in the same spatial position. A similar experimental paradigm is employed for the attentional blink (AB), an impairment of performance for the second of two targets when it is presented 200-500 msec after the first target. The analysis of errors along the time course of the AB allows the testing of models of illusory conjunctions. In an experiment, observers identified one (control condition) or two (experimental condition) letters in a specified color, so that illusory conjunctions in each response could be linked to specific positions in the series. Two items in the target colors (red and white, embedded in distractors of different colors) were employed in four conditions defined according to whether both targets were in the same or different colors. Besides the U-shaped function for hits, the errors were analyzed by calculating several response parameters reflecting characteristics such as the average position of the responses or the attentional suppression during the blink. The several error parameters cluster in two time courses, as would be expected from prevailing models of the AB. Furthermore, the results match the predictions from Botella, Barriopedro, and Suero's (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 27, 1452-1467, 2001) model for illusory conjunctions.

  13. Conjunction Errors in Recognition: Emergent Structure and Metacognitive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    Pictures consisted of component halves from either the same photographic scene (SS) or different scenes (DS). SS pictures possessed the emergent property of forming a continuous scene. In Experiment 1, conjunction lures were created by rearranging halves from studied DS pictures into new DS or SS lures. Despite equally familiar components,…

  14. Conjunctions in Argumentative Writing of Libyan Tertiary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Muftah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was an attempt to investigate the use of conjunctions in argumentative essays written by English as a Foreign Language fourth-year undergraduate Libyan students majoring in English at Omar Al-Mukhtar University in Libya. A corpus of 32 argumentative essays was collected from a sample of 16 students in order to be investigated…

  15. The Conjunction Fallacy and the Many Meanings of "And"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwig, Ralph; Benz, Bjorn; Krauss, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    According to the conjunction rule, the probability of A "and" B cannot exceed the probability of either single event. This rule reads "and" in terms of the logical operator [inverted v], interpreting A and B as an intersection of two events. As linguists have long argued, in natural language "and" can convey a wide range of relationships between…

  16. Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2 in patient with severe allergic asthma treated with omalizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rams, Anna; Żółciński, Marek; Zastrzeżyńska, Weronika; Polański, Stanisław; Serafin, Agnieszka; Wilańska, Joanna; Musiał, Jacek; Bazan-Socha, Stanisława

    2018-01-04

    Asthma therapy with monoclonal antibodies is a promising and effective approach for those with a severe and refractory type of disease. Although such a targeted therapy is considered to be safe, unusual complications may occur. We present a case of a 45 year-old female patient with severe allergic asthma and chronic spontaneous urticaria, who developed autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2 (APS-2) after 26 months of omalizumab administration. The patient was diagnosed with primary adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis accompanied by autoimmune atrophic gastritis. According to our knowledge this is the first description of APS-2 that developed in conjunction with omalizumab treatment, although we have no evidence that the observed phenomenon indicated a cause-effect relationship to omalizumab.

  17. Discrimination of single features and conjunctions by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M J; Chevalier, H; Lobaugh, N J

    2003-12-01

    Stimuli that are discriminated by a conjunction of features can show more rapid early processing in adults. To determine how this facilitation effect develops, the processing of visual features and their conjunction was examined in 7-12-year-old children. The children completed a series of tasks in which they made a target-non-target judgement as a function of shape only, colour only or shape and colour features, while event-related potentials were recorded. To assess early stages of feature processing the posteriorly distributed P1 and N1 were analysed. Attentional effects were seen for both components. P1 had a shorter latency and P1 and N1 had larger amplitudes to targets than non-targets. Task effects were driven by the conjunction task. P1 amplitude was largest, while N1 amplitude was smallest for the conjunction targets. In contrast to larger left-sided N1 in adults, N1 had a symmetrical distribution in the children. N1 latency was shortest for the conjunction targets in the 9-10-year olds and 11-12-year olds, demonstrating facilitation in children, but which continued to develop over the pre-teen years. These data underline the sensitivity of early stages of processing to both top-down modulations and the parallel binding of non-spatial features in young children. Furthermore, facilitation effects, increased speed of processing when features need to be conjoined, mature in mid-childhood, arguing against a hierarchical model of visual processing, and supporting a rapid, integrated facilitative model.

  18. Time Dependence of Collision Probabilities During Satellite Conjunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Doyle T.; Hejduk, Matthew D.; Johnson, Lauren C.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) team has recently implemented updated software to calculate the probability of collision (P (sub c)) for Earth-orbiting satellites. The algorithm can employ complex dynamical models for orbital motion, and account for the effects of non-linear trajectories as well as both position and velocity uncertainties. This “3D P (sub c)” method entails computing a 3-dimensional numerical integral for each estimated probability. Our analysis indicates that the 3D method provides several new insights over the traditional “2D P (sub c)” method, even when approximating the orbital motion using the relatively simple Keplerian two-body dynamical model. First, the formulation provides the means to estimate variations in the time derivative of the collision probability, or the probability rate, R (sub c). For close-proximity satellites, such as those orbiting in formations or clusters, R (sub c) variations can show multiple peaks that repeat or blend with one another, providing insight into the ongoing temporal distribution of risk. For single, isolated conjunctions, R (sub c) analysis provides the means to identify and bound the times of peak collision risk. Additionally, analysis of multiple actual archived conjunctions demonstrates that the commonly used “2D P (sub c)” approximation can occasionally provide inaccurate estimates. These include cases in which the 2D method yields negligibly small probabilities (e.g., P (sub c)) is greater than 10 (sup -10)), but the 3D estimates are sufficiently large to prompt increased monitoring or collision mitigation (e.g., P (sub c) is greater than or equal to 10 (sup -5)). Finally, the archive analysis indicates that a relatively efficient calculation can be used to identify which conjunctions will have negligibly small probabilities. This small-P (sub c) screening test can significantly speed the overall risk analysis computation for large numbers of conjunctions.

  19. Mediator profiles in tears during the conjunctival response induced by allergic reaction in the nasal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelikan, Zdenek

    2013-01-01

    The allergic reaction occurring primarily in the nasal mucosa can induce a secondary conjunctival response of an immediate (SICR), late (SLCR), or delayed (SDYCR) type in some patients with allergic conjunctivitis (AC). To investigate the concentration changes of histamine, tryptase, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN), leukotrienes (LTB 4, LTC4, LTE4), myeloperoxidase (MPO), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and interleukins (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5) in tears during the SICR, SLCR, and SDYCR. In 32 patients with AC, 11 SICR (ptears. The SICRs were associated with significant concentration changes in tears (ptears (ptears during the 32 PBS controls (p>0.1) or in the ten control patients (p>0.1). These results provide evidence for causal involvement of nasal allergy in some patients with AC, inducing secondary conjunctival response of immediate (SICR), late SLCR, or delayed SDYCR type, associated with different mediator, cytokine, and cellular profiles in the tears, suggesting involvement of different hypersensitivity mechanisms. These results also emphasize the diagnostic value of nasal allergen challenge combined with monitoring of the conjunctival response in some patients with AC.

  20. Difference in the Breast Milk Proteome between Allergic and Non-Allergic Mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, K.A.; Reina, F.M.; Boeren, J.A.; Zhang, L.; Koppelman, G.H.; Postma, D.S.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Wijga, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding has been linked to a reduction in the prevalence of allergy and asthma. However, studies on this relationship vary in outcome, which may partly be related to differences in breast milk composition. In particular breast milk composition may differ between allergic and

  1. Optic neuropathy due to allergic fungal rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiji Tresa Cyriac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An uncommon case of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis presented to the ophthalmology outpatient department of our hospital with complaints of blurred vision in the right eye of a few days duration and vague complaints of pain around the eyes. The visual acuity on examination was grossly reduced in the right eye and normal in the left eye. Color vision was normal. Anterior segment examination including pupils was normal. Dilated fundus examination was normal except for temporal pallor in the right optic disc. Automated perimetry and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan of brain and orbit were done. The imaging report showed a bilateral pansinusitis with pressure on the right optic nerve. Perimetry showed a superior field defect on the right side. ENT consultation and computed tomography (CT with contrast helped to diagnose this as a case of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. The patient was started on systemic steroids under the care of the ENT surgeon. After a few days, pre-operative assessment showed a gross improvement of visual acuity. Endoscopic sinus surgery was done to remove the polyps and thick mucus material. Histopathologic examination confirmed allergic fungal mucin. Days after surgery, the visual acuity improved further and repeat perimetry showed gross improvement in the visual field. Good history taking and a detailed ophthalmic examination, keeping in mind the probable causes of loss of vision of few days duration with no findings other than a decreased visual acuity and a suspicious disc, were key to the early diagnosis and investigation in this case. This helped in early referral and management of the case before permanent damage and irreversible visual loss occurred. The optic nerve is a cranial nerve which, once damaged permanently, will not regenerate. The amount of sinus involvement was extensive on both sides and invariably the left optic nerve would have been involved in a few days, if intervention was delayed.

  2. CT in childhood allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.; Bhagat, R.; Panchal, N.; Pant, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    CT of the thorax done during acute severe asthma in two paediatric patients demonstrated central bronchiectasis, a sine qua non for the diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Bronchography, regarded as the gold standard, was done subsequently on recovery. A comparative segmental analysis revealed that CT was able to identify immediately 24 of 27 segments which showed central bronchiectasis on bronchography. Early diagnosis with the aid of CT enabled immediate intervention which may have helped to prevent further lung damage in the paediatric patients. (orig.)

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis: Patient management and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowad, Christen M; Anderson, Bryan; Scheinman, Pamela; Pootongkam, Suwimon; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce

    2016-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common diagnosis resulting from exposure to a chemical or chemicals in a patient's personal care products, home, or work environment. Once patch testing has been performed, the education and management process begins. After the causative allergens have been identified, patient education is critical to the proper treatment and management of the patient. This must occur if the dermatitis is to resolve. Detailed education is imperative, and several resources are highlighted. Photoallergic contact dermatitis and occupational contact dermatitis are other considerations a clinician must keep in mind. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Diesel effects in allergic diseases: modulation of chemokines synthesis and development of an in vivo allergic model; Effets du diesel dans les maladies allergiques: modulation de la synthese de chimiokines et developpement d'un modele allergique in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senechal, St.

    2003-09-01

    Allergic diseases are characterized by an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-dependent inflammatory reaction, presenting a type 2 cytokines profile (IL-4 and IL-5), and by the presence of eosinophils. The particulate pollution in urban areas comes mainly from diesel engines. Diesel particulates and their associated hydrocarbons, are probably involved in the recent increase of allergic pathologies thanks to their capability to induce a type-2 immune response. In this work, the effect of organic extracts of diesel particulates on the development of a Th2-type inflammatory response are analyzed, in particular by the evaluation of the synthesis modulation of chemokines, molecules known for their attraction capacities with respect to inflammatory cells, and of Th1 or Th2-type lymphocytes. It is shown that the exposure of mono-nucleated cells and alveolar macrophages from people allergic to diesel particulates induces a diminution of IP-10 production (pro-Th1), and in conjunction with the allergen, an increase of MDC (pro-Th2), mediated by the CD28 route. The functional consequence is an increased capability to attract human Th2 clones, non-completely inhibited by an anti-MDC neutralizing Ac, suggesting the participation of some other chemokines. Other analyses have shown that the diesel alone induces an I-309 production (pro-Th2) and that the diesel/allergen combination leads to a production of PARC (pro-Th2) but also of MIG (pro-Th1), the functional result being an attraction of Th2 cells again. In parallel and surprisingly, an increase of the expression of chemokine receptors expressed on Th1 cells has been evidenced, in particular the CXCR3, combined to a loss of its chemo-attractive power. These properties have been linked to a clearance function of the receptors with respect to their ligands. These results suggest that diesel can amplify a type-2 noxious response to allergic patients, firstly by inducing pro-Th2 chemokines, and secondly by facilitating the clearance of pro-Th1

  5. PREMEDICATION PROTOCOLS IN DENTAL PRACTICE IN ALLERGIC PATIENTS.

    OpenAIRE

    Angelina Kisselova; Adriana Krasteva; Assya Krasteva

    2011-01-01

    The problem with choosing a suitable pre-medication protocols before local anesthesia in dentistry in allergic patients is always discussed, as in the dental practice different schemes are already proven (3,5). The propose of this communication is to share the experience on those pre-medication schemes in allergic patients during and outside pollen season.

  6. Expression of Pendrin Periostin in Allergic Rhinitis Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Ishida

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: : Production of pendrin and periostin is upregulated in allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, and aspirin-induced asthma. These findings suggest that pendrin can induce mucus production and that periostin can induce tissue fibrosis and remodeling in the nasal mucosa. Therefore, these mediators may be therapeutic target candidates for allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, and aspirin- induced asthma.

  7. Advances in pharmacotherapy for the treatment of allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, Jean; Bachert, Claus; Bernstein, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    , surpassing the efficacy of gold standard treatment, intranasal corticosteroids (INS), for the first time. It is indicated for the treatment of moderate-to-severe seasonal allergic rhinitis and perennial allergic rhinitis when monotherapy with either intranasal antihistamine or INS is NOT considered...

  8. Hyposensitization in nickel allergic contact dermatitis: Clinical and immunologic monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.J. Troost (Roger); M.M.A. Kozel (M. M A); C.G. van Helden-Meeuwsen; Th. van Joost (Theo); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); R. Benner (Robbert); E.P. Prens (Errol)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) previously sensitized T cells cause skin damage. If an ubiquitous allergen such as nickel is involved, no effective treatment is available. Down-regulation of this allergic response has been described after antigen presentation in the

  9. Leukotrienes and leukotriene modifiers in pediatric allergic diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    ... 12(1):3-12. 3. Leukotrienes and leukotriene modifiers in pediatric allergic diseases ... childhood allergic diseases. This review ... produce cysteinyl-LTs and LTB4 spontaneously in vitro.8. Although nonleukocyte cells generally do not have sufficient 5-LO and FLAP to synthesize .... uninterrupted sleep in these patients.55.

  10. Prevalence, severity and risk factors of allergic disorders among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To find out the prevalence and risk factors of allergic disorders. Methods: Data ..... with being continuously alert to their eating habits due to fear of allergic ... and fish.6,13,20,23 Genetic factors are known to be incrim- inated with ...

  11. Impact on allergic immune response after treatment with vitamin A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matheu, Victor; Berggård, Karin; Barrios, Yvelise

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Vitamin A may have some influence on the immune system, but the role in allergy modulation is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: To clarify whether high levels of retinoic acid (RA) affects allergic response in vivo, we used a murine experimental model of airway allergic disease...

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis from ethylhexyl salicylate and other salicylates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortz, Charlotte G; Thormann, Henrik; Goossens, An

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from salicylates present in topical products is uncommon. Most publications about ACD from salicylates are case reports describing only a few patients. Cross-reactivity between salicylates is not commonly reported. This article describes allergic contact dermatitis...... from ethylhexyl salicylate used as an ultraviolet filter and fragrance compound and reviews the published literature on contact allergy to salicylates....

  13. An update on mycobacteria and the development of allergic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkerts, G.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacteria can diminish allergic and asthmatic manifestations. This means that mycobacteria could offer therapeutical opportunities as an 'anti-allergic' vaccine.In humans, the genetic background and the environment probably contribute to the development of allergies. Over the last 20. years, a

  14. STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF EOSINOPHILIA IN ALLERGIC RHINITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis is a common condition, though not life threatening, causes significant morbidity in terms of quality of life. Confirmation of allergen as etiological agent is cumbersome. Hence need for a simple test is vital and eosinophil parameters were looked at to answer the quest. AIM: To find out the prevalence of e osinophilia in Allergic rhinitis . To assess the value of nasal cytogram as an alternative investigation in diagnosing allergic rhinitis . MATERIALS & METHODS: Prospective study of 200 cases divided into two groups of 100 each was done. One group clinically with allergic rhinitis and other without. All cases had clinical examination after history was taken, Blood Absolute eosinophil count, Nasal smear for eosinophils done and assessed. RESULTS: Of the 200 patients examined in two groups of 100 each, mean age of allergic rhinitis patients was 26.22 years . Allergic rhinitis was more common in males than females. Prevalence of nasal eosinophilia was 61%.and blood eosinophilia was 57% in allergic rhinitis patients. Nasal smear sensitivity was 61% and specificity w as 87% . CONCLUSION: Nasal smear eosinophilia is a valid test, can be quickly and easily performed and read. Being an in - expensive test can be used to screen the patients of allergic rhinitis

  15. Storage of features, conjunctions and objects in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, E K; Woodman, G F; Luck, S J

    2001-02-01

    Working memory can be divided into separate subsystems for verbal and visual information. Although the verbal system has been well characterized, the storage capacity of visual working memory has not yet been established for simple features or for conjunctions of features. The authors demonstrate that it is possible to retain information about only 3-4 colors or orientations in visual working memory at one time. Observers are also able to retain both the color and the orientation of 3-4 objects, indicating that visual working memory stores integrated objects rather than individual features. Indeed, objects defined by a conjunction of four features can be retained in working memory just as well as single-feature objects, allowing many individual features to be retained when distributed across a small number of objects. Thus, the capacity of visual working memory must be understood in terms of integrated objects rather than individual features.

  16. Illusory conjunctions of pitch and duration in unfamiliar tone sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W F; Hall, M D; Pressing, J

    2001-02-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors examined short-term memory for pitch and duration in unfamiliar tone sequences. Participants were presented a target sequence consisting of 2 tones (Experiment 1) or 7 tones (Experiments 2 and 3) and then a probe tone. Participants indicated whether the probe tone matched 1 of the target tones in both pitch and duration. Error rates were relatively low if the probe tone matched 1 of the target tones or if it differed from target tones in pitch, duration, or both. Error rates were remarkably high, however, if the probe tone combined the pitch of 1 target tone with the duration of a different target tone. The results suggest that illusory conjunctions of these dimensions frequently occur. A mathematical model is presented that accounts for the relative contribution of pitch errors, duration errors, and illusory conjunctions of pitch and duration.

  17. Wald Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Space Object Conjunction Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, James R.; Markley, F Landis

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows how satellite owner/operators may use sequential estimates of collision probability, along with a prior assessment of the base risk of collision, in a compound hypothesis ratio test to inform decisions concerning collision risk mitigation maneuvers. The compound hypothesis test reduces to a simple probability ratio test, which appears to be a novel result. The test satisfies tolerances related to targeted false alarm and missed detection rates. This result is independent of the method one uses to compute the probability density that one integrates to compute collision probability. A well-established test case from the literature shows that this test yields acceptable results within the constraints of a typical operational conjunction assessment decision timeline. Another example illustrates the use of the test in a practical conjunction assessment scenario based on operations of the International Space Station.

  18. Magnetotherapy in the treatment of viral conjunctivitis and keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasek, Jarosław; Pasek, Tomasz; Herba, Ewa; Misiak, Anna; Sieroń-Stołtny, Karolina; Sieroń, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    Ocular infections are one of the most frequent causes of ailments among the patients coming to ophthalmologic offices. This article presents one of the physical medicine's methods--magnetotherapy--which uses the alternating low frequency magnetic fields in the therapy of viral conjunctivitis and keratitis in a 49-year-old female patient. Basing on the obtained results it was stated that this method broadens the treatment possibilities becoming a precious supplement and support treatment method in ophthalmology.

  19. Selective suppression of leukocyte recruitment in allergic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CL Weller

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases result in a considerable socioeconomic burden. The incidence of allergic diseases, notably allergic asthma, has risen to high levels for reasons that are not entirely understood. With an increasing knowledge of underlying mechanisms, there is now more potential to target the inflammatory process rather than the overt symptoms. This focuses attention on the role of leukocytes especially Th2 lymphocytes that regulate allergic inflammation and effector cells where eosinophils have received much attention. Eosinophils are thought to be important based on the high numbers that are recruited to sites of allergic inflammation and the potential of these cells to effect both tissue injury and remodelling. It is hoped that future therapy will be directed towards specific leukocyte types, without overtly compromising essential host defence responses. One obvious target is leukocyte recruitment. This necessitates a detailed understanding of underlying mechanisms, particularly those involving soluble che-moattractants signals and cell-cell adhesion molecules.

  20. Methyldibromoglutaronitrile in rinse-off products causes allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C D; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The frequency of sensitivity to the cosmetic preservative methyldibromoglutaronitrile (MDBGN) has increased significantly in Europe. Most cases of allergic contact dermatitis from MDBGN are caused by leave-on cosmetic products. The risk of developing allergic contact dermatitis from...... series of MDBGN to determine their patch test threshold values. RESULTS: Seven presensitized individuals (37%) developed allergic contact dermatitis from the soap containing MDBGN. The mean dose of MDBGN per application was 2.2 micro g cm-2 and the reactions appeared between days 6 and 34. All nine...... rinse-off products has been less studied. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the allergic response elicited in presensitized individuals from exposure to a rinse-off product preserved with the maximum permitted level of MDBGN. METHODS: Nineteen contact allergic individuals and nine controls participated...

  1. Diagnosing Allergic Contact Dermatitis Through Elimination, Perception, Detection and Deduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpairoj, Korbkarn; Puangpet, Pailin; Thaiwat, Supitchaya; McFadden, John P

    2017-10-01

    Several authors have commented upon the skills of detection required in making a diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Here, we emphasise the search for clues in a systematic manner. We describe four stages as part of a systematic method for diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis. Firstly, elimination (or inclusion) of non-allergic diagnoses. Secondly, perception: the pre-patch test diagnosis and the 'three scenarios' principle. Thirdly, detection: optimising the sensitivity of the patch test process. Fourthly, deduction: diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis by associating the dermatitis with the allergen exposure. We further compare and contrast the pre-patch test history and examination with the markedly different one ('microhistory' and 'microexamination') used after patch testing. The importance of knowledge of contact dermatitis literature is emphasised with a review of recent publications. Finally, we also highlight the use of contact allergy profiling as an investigative tool in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis.

  2. Importins and Exportins Regulating Allergic Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Aggarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of macromolecules is a well-controlled process involving importins and exportins. These karyopherins recognize and bind to receptor-mediated intracellular signals through specific signal sequences that are present on cargo proteins and transport into and out of the nucleus through nuclear pore complexes. Nuclear localization signals (NLS present on cargo molecules to be imported while nuclear export signals (NES on the molecules to be exported are recognized by importins and exportins, respectively. The classical NLS are found on many transcription factors and molecules that are involved in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. In addition, several immune modulators, including corticosteroids and vitamin D, elicit their cellular responses by regulating the expression and activity of importin molecules. In this review article, we provide a comprehensive list of importin and exportin molecules and their specific cargo that shuttled between cytoplasm and the nucleus. We also critically review the role and regulation of specific importin and exportin involved in the transport of activated transcription factors in allergic diseases, the underlying molecular mechanisms, and the potential target sites for developing better therapeutic approaches.

  3. Occupational contact allergic dermatitis in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikov Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dental professionals may be at increased risk of developing occupational allergic diseases specially to methacrylates that can permeate protective disposable gloves. Case report. We presented a case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis in a 28-year-old dental technician. The patient had complained of itching and cracking of fingers for 6 months. The dermatitis improved over weekends. Skin erythema and scaling were present with primarily involvement of the fingertips. Patch testing with dental series gave positive vesicular reaction to methyl methacrylate. Follow-up after 6 months of allergen avoidance showed a complete regression of dermatitis. Conclusion. Methacrylates serve as bases for acrylic resins which are used in prosthetics. Methyl methacrylate as a small molecular acrylate can permeate thin protective disposable gloves. Using adequate personal protective equipment, like nitrile rubber gloves, is the most important preventive measure in this occupation. Health practitioners should recognize possible occupational hazards in dentistry and implement appropriate preventive measures to protect health of workers.

  4. Occupational allergic rhinitis from guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, L; Tupasela, O; Jolanki, R; Vaheri, E; Estlander, T; Keskinen, H

    1988-05-01

    Three cases of allergic rhinitis from a vegetable gum, guar gum, have been detected. Two subjects were exposed to fine guar gum powder (Emco Gum 563, Meyhall Chemical AG, Switzerland), an insulator in rubber cables, when opening cables in a power cable laboratory. After 1-2 years' exposure the patients developed rhinitis. Scratch-chamber tests, nasal provocation tests, nasal eosinophilia and a RAST test proved their allergy. A third subject developed allergic rhinitis from another guar gum product (Meyproid 5306, Meyhall Chemical AG) after 2 years' exposure in a paper factory. A positive skin test and nasal provocation test confirmed the diagnosis. A fourth case of possible allergy to guar gum after exposure to Meyproid 5306 in a paper factory is also presented. No final diagnosis was reached in this case (in 1974). The present subjects, only one of whom was atopic, developed allergy within 2 years, although their exposure to guar gum was not especially heavy. Therefore, when handling guar, adequate ventilation facilities should be provided and protective clothing, including a respiratory mask, should be worn.

  5. Is There a Conjunction Fallacy in Legal Probabilistic Decision Making?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz W. Wojciechowski

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Classical probability theory (CPT has represented the rational standard for decision making in human cognition. Even though CPT has provided many descriptively excellent decision models, there have also been some empirical results persistently problematic for CPT accounts. The tension between the normative prescription of CPT and human behavior is particularly acute in cases where we have higher expectations for rational decisions. One such case concerns legal decision making from legal experts, such as attorneys and prosecutors and, more so, judges. In the present research we explore one of the most influential CPT decision fallacies, the conjunction fallacy (CF, in a legal decision making task, involving assessing evidence that the same suspect had committed two separate crimes. The information for the two crimes was presented consecutively. Each participant was asked to provide individual ratings for the two crimes in some cases and conjunctive probability rating for both crimes in other cases, after all information had been presented. Overall, 360 probability ratings for guilt were collected from 120 participants, comprised of 40 judges, 40 attorneys and prosecutors, and 40 individuals without legal education. Our results provide evidence for a double conjunction fallacy (in this case, a higher probability of committing both crimes than the probability of committing either crime individually, in the group of individuals without legal education. These results are discussed in terms of their applied implications and in relation to a recent framework for understanding such results, quantum probability theory (QPT.

  6. Quantum Structure of Negation and Conjunction in Human Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diederik eAerts

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyze in this paper the data collected in a set of experiments investigating how people combine natural concepts. We study the mutual influence of conceptual conjunction and negation by measuring the membership weights of a list of exemplars with respect to two concepts, e.g., {it Fruits} and {it Vegetables}, and their conjunction {it Fruits And Vegetables}, but also their conjunction when one or both concepts are negated, namely, {it Fruits And Not Vegetables}, {it Not Fruits And Vegetables} and {it Not Fruits And Not Vegetables}. Our findings sharpen and advance existing analysis on conceptual combinations, revealing systematic deviations from classical (fuzzy set logic and probability theory. And, more important, our results give further considerable evidence to the validity of our quantum-theoretic framework for the combination of two concepts. Indeed, the representation of conceptual negation naturally arises from the general assumptions of our two-sector Fock space model, and this representation faithfully agrees with the collected data. In addition, we find a new significant and a priori unexpected deviation from classicality, which can exactly be explained by assuming that human reasoning is the superposition of an `emergent reasoning' and a `logical reasoning', and that these two processes are represented in a Fock space algebraic structure.

  7. Quantum structure of negation and conjunction in human thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Diederik; Sozzo, Sandro; Veloz, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    We analyze in this paper the data collected in a set of experiments investigating how people combine natural concepts. We study the mutual influence of conceptual conjunction and negation by measuring the membership weights of a list of exemplars with respect to two concepts, e.g., Fruits and Vegetables, and their conjunction Fruits And Vegetables, but also their conjunction when one or both concepts are negated, namely, Fruits And Not Vegetables, Not Fruits And Vegetables, and Not Fruits And Not Vegetables. Our findings sharpen and advance existing analysis on conceptual combinations, revealing systematic deviations from classical (fuzzy set) logic and probability theory. And, more important, our results give further considerable evidence to the validity of our quantum-theoretic framework for the combination of two concepts. Indeed, the representation of conceptual negation naturally arises from the general assumptions of our two-sector Fock space model, and this representation faithfully agrees with the collected data. In addition, we find a new significant and a priori unexpected deviation from classicality, which can exactly be explained by assuming that human reasoning is the superposition of an “emergent reasoning” and a “logical reasoning,” and that these two processes are represented in a Fock space algebraic structure. PMID:26483715

  8. Is There a Conjunction Fallacy in Legal Probabilistic Decision Making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Bartosz W; Pothos, Emmanuel M

    2018-01-01

    Classical probability theory (CPT) has represented the rational standard for decision making in human cognition. Even though CPT has provided many descriptively excellent decision models, there have also been some empirical results persistently problematic for CPT accounts. The tension between the normative prescription of CPT and human behavior is particularly acute in cases where we have higher expectations for rational decisions. One such case concerns legal decision making from legal experts, such as attorneys and prosecutors and, more so, judges. In the present research we explore one of the most influential CPT decision fallacies, the conjunction fallacy (CF), in a legal decision making task, involving assessing evidence that the same suspect had committed two separate crimes. The information for the two crimes was presented consecutively. Each participant was asked to provide individual ratings for the two crimes in some cases and conjunctive probability rating for both crimes in other cases, after all information had been presented. Overall, 360 probability ratings for guilt were collected from 120 participants, comprised of 40 judges, 40 attorneys and prosecutors, and 40 individuals without legal education. Our results provide evidence for a double conjunction fallacy (in this case, a higher probability of committing both crimes than the probability of committing either crime individually), in the group of individuals without legal education. These results are discussed in terms of their applied implications and in relation to a recent framework for understanding such results, quantum probability theory (QPT).

  9. Conjunctions in ELF academic discourse: a corpus-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Centonze

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – Conjunctions as fundamental elements in the construction of discourse cohesion represent a relatively neglected research area, due to their complexity and the bewildering number of “conjunctive relations” (Halliday and Hasan 1976: 226 that they may express in context, as also highlighted in Christiansen (2011. In addition to this, there does not seem to be a shared view as far as the classification and denomination of the different kinds of conjunctions are concerned (cf. Halliday and Hasan 1976; Vande Kopple 1985; Martin and Rose 2003; Hyland 2005b. The selection of a specific type of conjunction acquires more importance because they are typically open to so many different interpretations, especially when the participants in the speech event come from diverse lingua-cultural backgrounds (cf. Guido 2007; Guido 2008; Cogo et al. 2011.Following the taxonomy provided by Halliday and Hasan (1976 for conjunctions, our study attempts to shed light on the usage of conjunctions by ELF speakers in specific contexts. We shall consider ten transcripts taken from the VOICE Corpus (Seidlhofer et. al 2013, namely five interviews and five conversations in multicultural academic contexts (approximately 4,000 words each, and analyze the number of instances for each type of conjunction (additive, adversative, clausal, temporal as well as continuatives in depth, by adopting a quantitative as well as a qualitative method and by using TextSTAT 2.9 (Huning 2012. We shall then move on to the analysis of conjunctions with respect to their internal properties/collocates and eventually see the occurrence of conjunctions by comparing them with the two different speech events which are chosen as the subject of our study, i.e. interviews and conversations. We shall see the extent to which certain conjunctions are more restricted than others in terms of usage (cf. Leung 2005 in both types of speech events, despite the great number of options available to the

  10. Pilot study of mobile phone technology in allergic rhinitis in European countries: the MASK-rhinitis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, J; Caimmi, D P; Bedbrook, A; Bewick, M; Hellings, P W; Devillier, P; Arnavielhe, S; Bachert, C; Bergmann, K C; Canonica, G W; Chavannes, N H; Cruz, A A; Dahl, R; Demoly, P; De Vries, G; Mathieu-Dupas, E; Finkwagner, A; Fonseca, J; Guldemond, N; Haahtela, T; Hellqvist-Dahl, B; Just, J; Keil, T; Klimek, L; Kowalski, M L; Kuitunen, M; Kuna, P; Kvedariene, V; Laune, D; Pereira, A M; Carreiro-Martins, P; Melén, E; Morais-Almeida, M; Mullol, J; Muraro, A; Murray, R; Nogueira-Silva, L; Papadopoulos, N G; Passalacqua, G; Portejoie, F; Price, D; Ryan, D; Samolinski, B; Sheikh, A; Siroux, V; Spranger, O; Todo Bom, A; Tomazic, P V; Valero, A; Valovirta, E; Valiulis, A; VandenPlas, O; van der Meulen, S; van Eerd, M; Wickman, M; Zuberbier, T

    2017-06-01

    The use of Apps running on smartphones and tablets profoundly affects medicine. The MASK-rhinitis (MACVIA-ARIA Sentinel NetworK for allergic rhinitis) App (Allergy Diary) assesses allergic rhinitis symptoms, disease control and impact on patients' lives. It is freely available in 20 countries (iOS and Android platforms). To assess in a pilot study whether (i) Allergy Diary users were able to properly provide baseline characteristics (ii) simple phenotypic characteristics based upon data captured by the Allergy Diary could be identified and (iii) information gathered by this study could suggest novel research questions. The Allergy Diary users were classified into six groups according to the baseline data that they entered into the App: (i) asymptomatic; (ii) nasal symptoms excluding rhinorrhea; (iii) rhinorrhea; (iv) rhinorrhea plus 1-2 nasal/ocular symptoms; (v) rhinorrhea plus ≥3 nasal/ocular symptoms; and (vi) rhinorrhea plus all nasal/ocular symptoms. By 1 June 2016, 3260 users had registered with the Allergy Diary and 2710 had completed the baseline questionnaire. Troublesome symptoms were found mainly in the users with the most symptoms. Around 50% of users with troublesome rhinitis and/or ocular symptoms suffered work impairment. Sleep was impaired by troublesome symptoms and nasal obstruction. This is the first App (iOS and Android) to have tested for allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis. A simple questionnaire administered by cell phones enables the identification of phenotypic differences between a priori defined rhinitis groups. The results suggest novel concepts and research questions in allergic rhinitis that may not be identified using classical methods. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The role of topical moxifloxacin, a new antibacterial in Europe, in the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez-Del-Castillo, Jose; Verboven, Yves; Stroman, David; Kodjikian, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    -time curve from time zero to 24 hours (AUC(24))/minimum inhibitory concentration ratio required to inhibit the growth of 90% of organisms (MIC(90)) and thus favourable pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic characteristics. This can result in reduced time-to-cure and a lower number of treatment failures, leading to better disease management and a healthcare-economic benefit arising from the associated reduction in utilization of healthcare resources. The high potency and mean concentration in conjunctival tissue combined with the long residence time of topical moxifloxacin enables a dosing strategy of three times daily for 5 days. Topical moxifloxacin is also the first ophthalmic antibacterial in Europe provided as a multidose, self-preserved, topical solution, thus avoiding the risk of benzalkonium chloride preservative-related allergic reactions and swelling. In addition, topical moxifloxacin has a near neutral pH (6.8) and is well tolerated by patients. Given the characteristics of the novel topical fluoroquinolones, a change in the healthcare treatment strategy for acute infectious conjunctivitis is to be recommended. Topical application of fluoroquinolones, such as moxifloxacin multidose self-preserved solution, should be considered earlier in the treatment path for conjunctivitis. Notwithstanding the premium price attached to this novel topical antibacterial, use of topical moxifloxacin for bacterial conjunctivitis can be cost effective and even generate total healthcare budget savings by reducing both the costs of managing treatment failures and the use of clinicians' time to manage such failures.

  12. Conjunctive use Management under Uncertainty in Aquifer Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mohammad Rezapour Tabari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjunctive use operation policies play a vital role in the sustainability of water resources and their optimal allocation. To be realistic conditions of real water resource system should be considered in simulation and derivation of operating rules of real-world water resource system. In this research, the combined fuzzy logic and direct search optimization technique is used to account for the uncertainty associated with parameters affecting groundwater table level fluctuations. These parameters include specific yields and inflow recharge and outflow discharge from the aquifer, which are typically uncertain. A membership function is determined for each parameter using hydrogeologic and piezometric data. For each membership value ( level cut, the corresponding intervals are determined. These intervals are considered as constraints on the membership value of the groundwater table level fluctuations in the optimization model. The process is repeated for other  level cuts to obtain the fuzzy number. For the uncertainty influencing the water demands, a conjunctive use model with water resources constraints is developed. Using this model, the priorities for the different zones and their optimal allocations are determined. The results show that the better the real conditions are reflected in the conjunctive use model, the better will the system be reliably capable of handling the water demands. The results of the proposed model also indicate that it present reliable allocations compared to the static conventional models and that it performs more desirably and practically in allocating supplies to water demands as it duly includes the opinions of the decision-makers involved.

  13. Parietal lesions produce illusory conjunction errors in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond PIERRE Kesner

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available When several different objects are presented, visual objects are perceived correctly only if their features are identified and then bound together. Illusory-conjunction errors result when an object is correctly identified but is combined incorrectly. The parietal cortex (PPC has been shown repeatedly to play an important role in feature binding. The present study builds on a series of recent studies that have made use of visual search paradigms to elucidate the neural system involved in feature binding. This experiment attempts to define the role the PPC plays in binding the properties of a visual object that varies on the features of color and size in rats. Rats with PPC lesions or control surgery were exposed to three blocks of 20 trials administered over a 1-week period, with each block containing ten-one feature and ten-two feature trials. The target object consisted of one color object (e.g. black and white and one size object (e.g. short and tall. Of the ten one feature trials, five of the trials were tailored specifically for size discrimination and five for color discrimination. In the two-feature condition, the animal was required to locate the targeted object among four objects with two objects differing in size and two objects differing in color. The results showed a significant decrease in learning the task for the PPC lesioned rats compared to controls, especially for the two-feature condition. Based on a subsequent error analysis for color and size, the results showed a significant increase in illusory conjunction errors for the PPC lesioned rats relative to controls for color and relative to color discrimination, suggesting that the PPC may support feature binding as it relates to color. There was an increase in illusory conjunctions errors for both the PPC lesioned and control animals for size, but this appeared to be due to a difficulty with size discrimination.

  14. Jackfruit anaphylaxis in a latex allergic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongrakpanich, Supakanya; Klaewsongkram, Jettanong; Chantaphakul, Hiroshi; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

    2015-03-01

    Several fruits have been reported to crossreact with latex antigen in latex allergy patients but little is known regarding tropical fruits in particular. Here we report the case of a 34-year old nurse who developed anaphylaxis following the ingestion of dried jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus). The patient had a history of chronic eczema on both hands resulting from a regular wear of latex gloves. She and her family also had a history of atopy (allergic rhinitis and/or atopic dermatitis). The results of skin prick tests were positive for jackfruit, latex glove, kiwi and papaya, but the test was negative for banana. While we are reporting the first case of jackfruit anaphylaxis, further research needs to be conducted to identify the mechanisms underlying it. In particular, in-vitro studies need to be designed to understand if the anaphylaxis we describe is due to a cross reactivity between latex and jackfruit or a coincidence of allergy to these 2 antigens.

  15. Prevention of allergic disease in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne

    2004-01-01

    rhinoconjunctivitis. In one prospective observational study of a birth cohort of unselected infants we evaluated possible predictive/risk factors. In two prospective intervention studies including 1 yr birth cohorts of high-risk(HR) infants we investigated the effect of feeding HR infants exclusively breast milk (BM......The development and phenotypic expression of atopic diseases depends on a complex interaction between genetic factors, environmental exposure to allergens,and non-specific adjuvant factors, such as tobacco smoke, air pollution and infections. Preventive measures may include both exposure...... to allergens and adjuvant risk/protective factors and pharmacological treatment. These measures may address the general population, children at risk for development of atopic disease (high-risk infants), children with early symptoms of allergic disease or children with chronic disease. The objective...

  16. Allergic Broncho Pulmonary Aspergillosis Complicated by Nocardiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 70-year-old male with a history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and asthma who presented with increasing breathlessness for 5 months. He was diagnosed to have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA by serological and radiographic criteria. He was treated with steroids and itraconazole. After initial improvement, he developed fever with cough and mucopurulent sputum. X-ray chest revealed multiple cavities with air fluid level. Patient was treated with antibiotics without any response. Sputum was negative for acid fast bacilli (AFB. Sputum culture for bacteria and fungus did not reveal any significant growth; however a delayed growth of Nocardia was noted on fungal plates. Modified Ziehl Nelsen stain was positive for AFB. Patient was treated with cotrimoxazole. We discuss the serological and radiological criteria of ABPA, presentation and treatment of nocardia pulmonary infection and other possible causes of necrotizing pneumonia in immunocompromised settings.

  17. Occupational issues of allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus E

    2003-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is often of multifactorial origin, and it is difficult to determine the relative significance of the various contributing factors. Contact allergies are relevant in 20-50% of recognised occupational contact dermatitis cases. The reported frequency in different...... of the reported contact allergies is often uncertain. Many occupational contact dermatitis patients with documented contact allergies develop chronic eczema, in spite of work changes and attempted allergen avoidance. Recognition/non-recognition of a notified case may be based on circumstantial evidence, because......-effect relationships to be established with increased certainty. For prevention of allergic contact dermatitis it was a major step forward, with mandatory ingredient labelling of cosmetic products. However, improved labelling of the presence of contact allergens in household and industrial products is needed...

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1999-01-01

    From a clinical point of view, the prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) among children and adolescents seems to be low. However, many children have dermatitis, most often atopic dermatitis. In selected cases, ACD is suspected, and the child is tested. The question remains, whether...... the prevalence of ACD in children really is low or whether the possibility of ACD is not sufficiently considered. During the last decade, reports have appeared on series of children and adolescents with contact allergy and ACD. Few cases have been reported in infants, but the development of contact allergy...... and ACD increases with age. Most studies include selected groups of children and adolescents with suspected ACD. Few studies have examined unselected populations, and most consider only the prevalence of contact allergy without evaluating the clinical relevance, e.g., the prevalence of ACD. Furthermore...

  19. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Muñoz, P; Conde-Salazar, L; Vañó-Galván, S

    2014-11-01

    Contact dermatitis due to cosmetic products is a common dermatologic complaint that considerably affects the patient's quality of life. Diagnosis, treatment, and preventive strategies represent a substantial cost. This condition accounts for 2% to 4% of all visits to the dermatologist, and approximately 60% of cases are allergic in origin. Most cases are caused by skin hygiene and moisturizing products, followed by cosmetic hair and nail products. Fragrances are the most common cause of allergy to cosmetics, followed by preservatives and hair dyes; however, all components, including natural ingredients, should be considered potential sensitizers. We provide relevant information on the most frequent allergens in cosmetic products, namely, fragrances, preservatives, antioxidants, excipients, surfactants, humectants, emulsifiers, natural ingredients, hair dyes, sunscreens, and nail cosmetics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  20. Parallel search for conjunctions with stimuli in apparent motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casco, C; Ganis, G

    1999-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine whether apparent motion tends to follow the similarity rule (i.e. is attribute-specific) and to investigate the underlying mechanism. Stimulus duration thresholds were measured during a two-alternative forced-choice task in which observers detected either the location or the motion direction of target groups defined by the conjunction of size and orientation. Target element positions were randomly chosen within a nominally defined rectangular subregion of the display (target region). The target region was presented either statically (followed by a 250 ms duration mask) or dynamically, displaced by a small distance (18 min of arc) from frame to frame. In the motion display, the position of both target and background elements was changed randomly from frame to frame within the respective areas to abolish spatial correspondence over time. Stimulus duration thresholds were lower in the motion than in the static task, indicating that target detection in the dynamic condition does not rely on the explicit identification of target elements in each static frame. Increasing the distractor-to-target ratio was found to reduce detectability in the static, but not in the motion task. This indicates that the perceptual segregation of the target is effortless and parallel with motion but not with static displays. The pattern of results holds regardless of the task or search paradigm employed. The detectability in the motion condition can be improved by increasing the number of frames and/or by reducing the width of the target area. Furthermore, parallel search in the dynamic condition can be conducted with both short-range and long-range motion stimuli. Finally, apparent motion of conjunctions is insufficient on its own to support location decision and is disrupted by random visual noise. Overall, these findings show that (i) the mechanism underlying apparent motion is attribute-specific; (ii) the motion system mediates temporal

  1. The Treatment of Allergic Respiratory Disease During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazy, Jai; Schatz, M

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy may be complicated by new-onset or preexisting asthma and allergic rhinitis.This article reviews the recognition and management of asthma and allergic rhinitis during pregnancy, paying close attention to the general principles of allergy and use of asthma medication during pregnancy. Both allergic rhinitis and asthma can adversely affect both maternal quality of life and, in the case of maternal asthma, perinatal outcomes. Optimal management is thus important for both mother and baby. This article reviews the safety of asthma and allergy medications commonly used during pregnancy.

  2. Cognitive Mapping Based on Conjunctive Representations of Space and Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiping Zeng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is a challenge to build robust simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM system in dynamical large-scale environments. Inspired by recent findings in the entorhinal–hippocampal neuronal circuits, we propose a cognitive mapping model that includes continuous attractor networks of head-direction cells and conjunctive grid cells to integrate velocity information by conjunctive encodings of space and movement. Visual inputs from the local view cells in the model provide feedback cues to correct drifting errors of the attractors caused by the noisy velocity inputs. We demonstrate the mapping performance of the proposed cognitive mapping model on an open-source dataset of 66 km car journey in a 3 km × 1.6 km urban area. Experimental results show that the proposed model is robust in building a coherent semi-metric topological map of the entire urban area using a monocular camera, even though the image inputs contain various changes caused by different light conditions and terrains. The results in this study could inspire both neuroscience and robotic research to better understand the neural computational mechanisms of spatial cognition and to build robust robotic navigation systems in large-scale environments.

  3. Effect of rasanjana madhu ashchyotana in netra abhishyanda (mucopurulent conjunctivitis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Atul; Tanwar, Manoj

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the comparative efficacy of Ayurvedic formulation a Rasanjana Madhu (RM) eye drops and Honey Rose (HR) water eye drops in Netra Abhishyanda in mucopurulent conjunctivitis, the current study is planned. Total of 35 patients attending the outpatient department of Shalakya Tantra at R. G. G. Postgraduate Ayurvedic College, Paprola, Distt. Kangra, Himachal Pradesh with characteristic features of Netra Abhishyanda were selected for the present study. Twenty patients were given trial drug, i.e., RM eye drops, while 15 patients were given HR eye drops. Random sampling technique was adopted for the present study. The duration of the treatment was 7 days with 1 week follow-up. Patients receiving the trial group demonstrated reduction of redness, burning sensation, lacrimation, photophobia, foreign body sensation, discharge, and congestion, which were statistically significant with 93% patients cured or markedly improved category. Signs and symptoms stated above were also statistically reduced with HR eye drops, probably because of well-documented hygroscopic and bacteriocidal properties of honey. Based on the study, it can be concluded that, RM eye drops are very effective in the management of Netra Abhishyanda viz. Infective conjunctivitis.

  4. Unconscious analyses of visual scenes based on feature conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Ryosuke; Noguchi, Yasuki

    2015-06-01

    To efficiently process a cluttered scene, the visual system analyzes statistical properties or regularities of visual elements embedded in the scene. It is controversial, however, whether those scene analyses could also work for stimuli unconsciously perceived. Here we show that our brain performs the unconscious scene analyses not only using a single featural cue (e.g., orientation) but also based on conjunctions of multiple visual features (e.g., combinations of color and orientation information). Subjects foveally viewed a stimulus array (duration: 50 ms) where 4 types of bars (red-horizontal, red-vertical, green-horizontal, and green-vertical) were intermixed. Although a conscious perception of those bars was inhibited by a subsequent mask stimulus, the brain correctly analyzed the information about color, orientation, and color-orientation conjunctions of those invisible bars. The information of those features was then used for the unconscious configuration analysis (statistical processing) of the central bars, which induced a perceptual bias and illusory feature binding in visible stimuli at peripheral locations. While statistical analyses and feature binding are normally 2 key functions of the visual system to construct coherent percepts of visual scenes, our results show that a high-level analysis combining those 2 functions is correctly performed by unconscious computations in the brain. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Histological distinction between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L; Clemmensen, Ole; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1999-01-01

    Comparative light microscopic studies have revealed subtle differences between allergic and irritant reactions in the skin. In the search for specific differences, we focussed on the early inflammatory response. This pilot study was conducted to test the hypothesis that follicular spongiosis can...... differentiate between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions. 8 patients with known contact allergy to either colophony or quarternium-15 participated in the study. In each patient, allergic and irritant patch tests reactions were elicited, and 4-mm punch biopsies were taken after 6 8 h from...... clinically equipotent reactions. Paired sets of slides were assessed blindly by 2 pathologists. 1 patient showing a pityrosporum folliculitis was excluded from the study. All biopsies from allergic patch tests were characterized by follicular spongiosis, while biopsies from irritant patch tests showed...

  6. CT-semiotics and clinical aspects of extrinsic allergic alveolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrynnikova, I.P.; Momot, N.V.; Vakulenko, I.P.; Tanasichuk-Gazhieva, N.V

    2003-01-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis can be a difficult diagnostic problem. The comparison of the results of CT research with the clinical immunological and morphological data allowed to define the forms and diagnose the characteristic symptoms of the disease

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis to propolis in a violin maker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Heather D; Fogelman, Joshua P; Ramsay, David L; Cohen, David E

    2002-02-01

    Allergy to colophony is well noted in the literature, however, there have been few case reports of allergic contact dermatitis to propolis in musicians and instrument makers. We report a case of a stringed instrument craftsman who developed allergic contact dermatitis to propolis, a component of Italian varnish. A review of the components, applications, and the clinical manifestations of hypersensitivity reactions to propolis are presented.

  8. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Brent C.; Constant, Stephanie L.; Patierno, Steven R.; Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Ceryak, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  9. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Brent C. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Constant, Stephanie L. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Patierno, Steven R. [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); GW Cancer Institute, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Jurjus, Rosalyn A. [Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Biology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Ceryak, Susan M., E-mail: phmsmc@gwumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  10. Asthma and Allergic Diseases in Pregnancy: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Pali-Sch?ll, Isabella; Motala, Cassim; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2009-01-01

    Asthma and allergic disorders can affect the course and outcome of pregnancy. Pregnancy itself may also affect the course of asthma and related diseases. Optimal management of these disorders during pregnancy is vital to ensure the welfare of the mother and the baby. Specific pharmacological agents for treatment of asthma or allergic diseases must be cautiously selected and are discussed here with respect to safety considerations in pregnancy. Although most drugs do not harm the fetus, this k...

  11. Heart Rate Variability Analysis in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ying Lan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Very few studies investigate the role of the autonomic nervous system in allergic rhinitis. In this study, we evaluated the autonomic nervous system in allergic rhinitis patients using heart rate variability (HRV analysis. Methods. Eleven patients with allergic rhinitis and 13 healthy controls, aged between 19 and 40 years old, were enrolled in the study. Diagnosis of allergic rhinitis was based on clinical history, symptoms, and positive Phadiatop test. Electrocardiographic recordings on the sitting and supine positions were obtained for HRV analysis. Results. In the supine position, there were no significant statistical differences in very-low-frequency power (VLF, ≤0.04 Hz, low-frequency power (LF, 0.04–0.15 Hz, high-frequency power (HF, 0.15–0.40 Hz, and the ratio of LF to HF (LF/HF between the patient and control groups. The mean RR intervals significantly increased, while LF% and LF/HF significantly decreased in the patient group in the sitting position. Moreover, mean RR intervals, LF, and LF/HF, which were significantly different between the two positions in the control group, did not show a significant change with the posture change in the patient group. Conclusion. These suggest that patients with allergic rhinitis may have poor sympathetic modulation in the sitting position. Autonomic dysfunction may therefore play a role in the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis.

  12. Conjunctive irrigation through groundwater for crop production in Eastern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.S.; Singh, J.P.; Singh, S.R.; Khan, A.R.

    2002-05-01

    Ground water is the most reliable source for irrigation, quantum of which varies from place to place, rainfall, infiltration, geographical strata and surface ecology. The development of ground water in conjunction with surface within canal commands not only assures a reliable source of irrigation, it also helps in alleviation of water logging in the command due to excess seepage and unscientific water use by facilitating vertical drainage mechanism. The ground water resource needs to be developed in order to enhance area and timeliness of irrigation supply and overall agricultural productivity of land. In the high potential - low productivity areas in Assam, Bihar and West Bengal, A.P. and NE states, there is an immense potential to improve agricultural productivity through systematic groundwater exploitation. (author)

  13. Working memory for visual features and conjunctions in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, James M; Wilk, Christopher M; McMahon, Robert P; Buchanan, Robert W; Luck, Steven J

    2003-02-01

    The visual working memory (WM) storage capacity of patients with schizophrenia was investigated using a change detection paradigm. Participants were presented with 2, 3, 4, or 6 colored bars with testing of both single feature (color, orientation) and feature conjunction conditions. Patients performed significantly worse than controls at all set sizes but demonstrated normal feature binding. Unlike controls, patient WM capacity declined at set size 6 relative to set size 4. Impairments with subcapacity arrays suggest a deficit in task set maintenance: Greater impairment for supercapacity set sizes suggests a deficit in the ability to selectively encode information for WM storage. Thus, the WM impairment in schizophrenia appears to be a consequence of attentional deficits rather than a reduction in storage capacity.

  14. On the acquisition of temporal conjunctions in Finnish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassova, M

    2001-03-01

    This study concerns the acquisition of complex sentence structures in Finnish. Specifically, three simultaneous and sequential events were acted out with toys in an elicitation task, and the production of "and," "and then," "when," and "after" were observed. There were 48 children in a cross-sectional design at the age levels 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. Immediately after the complex event was presented, the child was asked the initial request "What happened?" If the child did not produce the whole event spontaneously, she or he was prompted by "What else happened?" Finally, the prompted request "When did X?" was asked (X referring to the second action component of the event). The results showed that prompting better revealed the ability of the children, especially that of the younger ones, to use temporal conjunctions in complex sentences, as well as the delicate interplay of language skills and their flexible use.

  15. Cross-modal illusory conjunctions between vision and touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinel, Caterina; Humphreys, Glyn W; Poli, Riccardo

    2002-10-01

    Cross-modal illusory conjunctions (ICs) happen when, under conditions of divided attention, felt textures are reported as being seen or vice versa. Experiments provided evidence for these errors, demonstrated that ICs are more frequent if tactile and visual stimuli are in the same hemispace, and showed that ICs still occur under forced-choice conditions but do not occur when attention to the felt texture is increased. Cross-modal ICs were also found in a patient with parietal damage even with relatively long presentations of visual stimuli. The data are consistent with there being cross-modal integration of sensory information, with the modality of origin sometimes being misattributed when attention is constrained. The empirical conclusions from the experiments are supported by formal models.

  16. Phthalate exposure through different pathways and allergic sensitization in preschool children with asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Callesen, Michael; Weschler, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    Studies in rodents indicate that phthalates can function as adjuvants, increasing the potency of allergens. Meanwhile, epidemiological studies have produced inconsistent findings regarding relationships between phthalate exposures and allergic disease in humans. The present study examined phthala...

  17. Memory and multitasking performance during acute allergic inflammation in seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trikojat, K; Buske-Kirschbaum, A; Plessow, F; Schmitt, J; Fischer, R

    2017-04-01

    In previous research, patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) showed poorer school and work performance during periods of acute allergic inflammation, supporting the idea of an impact of SAR on cognitive functions. However, the specific cognitive domains particularly vulnerable to inflammatory processes are unclear. In this study, the influence of SAR on memory and multitasking performance, as two potentially vulnerable cognitive domains essential in everyday life functioning, was investigated in patients with SAR. Non-medicated patients with SAR (n = 41) and healthy non-allergic controls (n = 42) performed a dual-task paradigm and a verbal learning and memory test during and out of symptomatic allergy periods (pollen vs. non-pollen season). Disease-related factors (e.g. symptom severity, duration of symptoms, duration of disease) and allergy-related quality of life were evaluated as potential influences of cognitive performance. During the symptomatic allergy period, patients showed (1) poorer performance in word list-based learning (P = 0.028) and (2) a general slowing in processing speed (P multitasking. Yet, typical parameters indicating specific multitasking costs were not affected. A significant negative association was found between learning performance and duration of disease (r = -0.451, P = 0.004), whereas symptom severity (r = 0.326; P = 0.037) and quality of life (r = 0.379; P = 0.015) were positively associated with multitasking strategy. Our findings suggest that SAR has a differentiated and complex impact on cognitive functions, which should be considered in the management of SAR symptoms. They also call attention to the importance of selecting sensitive measures and carefully interpreting cognitive outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. On the Determinants of the Conjunction Fallacy: Probability versus Inductive Confirmation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentori, Katya; Crupi, Vincenzo; Russo, Selena

    2013-01-01

    Major recent interpretations of the conjunction fallacy postulate that people assess the probability of a conjunction according to (non-normative) averaging rules as applied to the constituents' probabilities or represent the conjunction fallacy as an effect of random error in the judgment process. In the present contribution, we contrast such…

  19. The role of heparanase in pulmonary cell recruitment in response to an allergic but not non-allergic stimulus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Morris

    Full Text Available Heparanase is an endo-β-glucuronidase that specifically cleaves heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix. Expression of this enzyme is increased in several pathological conditions including inflammation. We have investigated the role of heparanase in pulmonary inflammation in the context of allergic and non-allergic pulmonary cell recruitment using heparanase knockout (Hpa-/- mice as a model. Following local delivery of LPS or zymosan, no significant difference was found in the recruitment of neutrophils to the lung between Hpa-/- and wild type (WT control. Similarly neutrophil recruitment was not inhibited in WT mice treated with a heparanase inhibitor. However, in allergic inflammatory models, Hpa-/- mice displayed a significantly reduced eosinophil (but not neutrophil recruitment to the airways and this was also associated with a reduction in allergen-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness, indicating that heparanase expression is associated with allergic reactions. This was further demonstrated by pharmacological treatment with a heparanase inhibitor in the WT allergic mice. Examination of lung specimens from patients with different severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD found increased heparanase expression. Thus, it is established that heparanase contributes to allergen-induced eosinophil recruitment to the lung and could provide a novel therapeutic target for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of asthma and other allergic diseases.

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis to turmeric in kumkum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendranath Lal M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A forty-three year old house-wife developed dermatitis over the center of forehead following application of kumkum, bindi and sticker (except one brand since six months. Patch testing with various brands of kumkum and regularly available sticker used by the patient elicited positive reaction except one brand used by the patient. Kumkum is made by mixing turmeric (Curcuma longa powder with small amount of lime (calcium hydroxide. She was patch tested with turmeric, to which she developed positive reaction. Subsequently she was patch tested with turmeric powder boiled and air-dried and also the acetone-extract and precipitate of the powder. She tested positive to all the extracts and precipitates, but the turmeric powder which was dried by boiling did not elicit positive reaction. She was advised to use boiled and dried turmeric to make kumkum for use. However, the kumkum powder prepared following boiling had lost its adhesive property and hence was unacceptable. She was offered Castellani′s paint and eosin with starch for application. Both were acceptable for 2 months, but she subsequently developed irritant reaction to the paint with starch. She continues to use the non-allergic sticker (Kanchan sticker kumkum while we are trying to find other alternatives to kumkum.

  1. Investigational new drugs for allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketti, Peter A; Alandijani, Sultan; Lin, Chen Hsing; Casale, Thomas B

    2017-03-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a multifactorial disease characterized by paroxysmal symptoms of sneezing, rhinorrhea, postnasal drip and nasal congestion. For over a century, subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) has been recognized as the most effective therapy to date that may modify the underlying disease course and provide long-term benefits for individuals refractory to pharmacotherapy. However, over the past 25 years, there has been substantial growth in developing alternative therapies to traditional SCIT. Areas covered: This article will review the most current literature focusing on advancements of AR therapies. Novel AR therapies that are currently under investigation include: the addition of omalizumab, an anti-immunoglobulin E (IgE) monoclonal antibody (mAb), to SCIT; altering the method of delivery of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) including sublingual (SLIT), epicutaneous (EIT), intralymphatic (ILIT), intranasal (INIT) and oral mucosal immunotherapy (OMIT); use of capsaicin spray; novel H3 and H4 antihistamines; activation of the innate immune system through Toll-like receptor agonists; and the use of chemically altered allergens, allergoids, recombinant allergens and relevant T-cell epitope peptides to improve the efficacy and safety of AIT. Expert opinion: These promising novel therapies may offer more effective and/or safer treatment options for AR patients, and in some instances, induce immunologic tolerance.

  2. Allergic asthma biomarkers using systems approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurab eSircar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is characterized by lung inflammation caused by complex interaction between the immune system and environmental factors such as allergens and inorganic pollutants. Recent research in this field is focused on discovering new biomarkers associated with asthma pathogenesis. This review illustrates updated research associating biomarkers of allergic asthma and their potential use in systems biology of the disease. We focus on biomolecules with altered expression, which may serve as inflammatory, diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers of asthma discovered in human or experimental asthma model using genomic, proteomic and epigenomic approaches for gene and protein expression profiling. These include high-throughput technologies such as state of the art microarray and proteomics Mass Spectrometry (MS platforms. Emerging concepts of molecular interactions and pathways may provide new insights in searching potential clinical biomarkers. We summarized certain pathways with significant linkage to asthma pathophysiology by analyzing the compiled biomarkers. Systems approaches with this data can identify the regulating networks, which will eventually identify the key biomarkers to be used for diagnostics and drug discovery.

  3. Anxiety and stress in mothers of food-allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Gar-Yen; Patel, Nisha; Umasunthar, Thisanayagam; Gore, Claudia; Warner, John O; Hanna, Heather; Phillips, Katherine; Zaki, Amirah Mohd; Hodes, Matthew; Boyle, Robert J

    2014-05-01

    Previous reports suggest that parents especially mothers of food-allergic children may have increased anxiety. Studies with an appropriate control group have not been undertaken, and the determinants of such anxiety are not known. We compared measures of anxiety and stress in mothers of food-allergic children and atopic non-food-allergic children, with anxiety and stress in mothers of children with no chronic illness. Cross-sectional study of mothers attending a hospital appointment for their 8- to 16-year-old child. Mothers of children with food allergy, asthma but no food allergy or no chronic illness completed questionnaires including State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale and measures of anxiety and psychologic adjustment in their child. Forty mothers of food-allergic children, 18 mothers of asthmatic children without food allergy and 38 mothers of children with no chronic illness (controls) were recruited. Mothers of food-allergic children showed increased state anxiety – median anxiety score 38.0 (IQR 30.0, 44.0) food allergy, 27.0 (22.0, 40.0) control p = 0.012; and increased stress – median stress score 18.5 (12.0, 22.0) food allergy, 14.0 (7.5, 19.5)control p = 0.035. No significant differences were seen between mothers in the asthmatic group and controls. In multivariate analysis, previous food anaphylaxis(p = 0.008) and poorly controlled asthma (p = 0.004) were associated with increased maternal anxiety. Child anxiety and adjustment did not differ between food-allergic and control groups. Mothers of food-allergic children have increased anxiety and stress compared with mothers of children with no chronic illness. Anaphylaxis and poorly controlled asthma are associated with maternal anxiety.

  4. Anxiety and stress in mothers of food-allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Gar-Yen; Patel, Nisha; Umasunthar, Thisanayagam; Gore, Claudia; Warner, John O; Hanna, Heather; Phillips, Katherine; Mohd Zaki, Amirah; Hodes, Matthew; Boyle, Robert J

    2014-02-07

    Previous reports suggest that parents especially mothers of food-allergic children may have increased anxiety. Studies with an appropriate control group have not been undertaken, and the determinants of such anxiety are not known. We compared measures of anxiety and stress in mothers of food-allergic children and atopic non-food-allergic children, with anxiety and stress in mothers of children with no chronic illness. Cross-sectional study of mothers attending a hospital appointment for their 8- to 16-year-old child. Mothers of children with food allergy, asthma but no food allergy or no chronic illness completed questionnaires including State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale and measures of anxiety and psychologic adjustment in their child. Forty mothers of food-allergic children, 18 mothers of asthmatic children without food allergy and 38 mothers of children with no chronic illness (controls) were recruited. Mothers of food-allergic children showed increased state anxiety - median anxiety score 38.0 (IQR 30.0, 44.0) food allergy, 27.0 (22.0, 40.0) control p = 0.012; and increased stress - median stress score 18.5 (12.0, 22.0) food allergy, 14.0 (7.5, 19.5) control p = 0.035. No significant differences were seen between mothers in the asthmatic group and controls. In multivariate analysis, previous food anaphylaxis (p = 0.008) and poorly controlled asthma (p = 0.004) were associated with increased maternal anxiety. Child anxiety and adjustment did not differ between food-allergic and control groups. Mothers of food-allergic children have increased anxiety and stress compared with mothers of children with no chronic illness. Anaphylaxis and poorly controlled asthma are associated with maternal anxiety. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The complexity of narrative interferes in the use of conjunctions in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Deborah Oliveira; Cáceres, Ana Manhani; Bento-Gaz, Ana Carolina Paiva; Befi-Lopes, Debora Maria

    2012-01-01

    To verify the use of conjunctions in narratives, and to investigate the influence of stimuli's complexity over the type of conjunctions used by children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children with typical language development. Participants were 40 children (20 with typical language development and 20 with SLI) with ages between 7 and 10 years, paired by age range. Fifteen stories with increasing of complexity were used to obtain the narratives; stories were classified into mechanical, behavioral and intentional, and each of them was represented by four scenes. Narratives were analyzed according to occurrence and classification of conjunctions. Both groups used more coordinative than subordinate conjunctions, with significant decrease in the use of conjunctions in the discourse of SLI children. The use of conjunctions varied according to the type of narrative: for coordinative conjunctions, both groups differed only between intentional and behavioral narratives, with higher occurrence in behavioral ones; for subordinate conjunctions, typically developing children's performance did not show differences between narratives, while SLI children presented fewer occurrences in intentional narratives, which was different from other narratives. Both groups used more coordinative than subordinate conjunctions; however, typically developing children presented more conjunctions than SLI children. The production of children with SLI was influenced by stimulus, since more complex narratives has less use of subordinate conjunctions.

  6. IN SUBJECTS ALLERGIC TO GRASS POLLEN, BASOPHIL SENSITIVITY DECREASES DURING SUBCUTANEOUS IMMUNOTHERAPY DUE TO BOTH HUMORAL FACTORS AND CELLULAR DESENSITIZATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Johannes Martin; Dahl, Ronald; Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Johannes Martin Schmid, Ronald Dahl, and Hans Juergen Hoffmann Department of Respiratory Medicine, Aarhus, Denmark Background: The major effect of SCIT is a change in allergen specific immunoglobulin. We measure the contribution of competing immunoglobulin to the effect of SCIT in patients...... with allergic rhino-conjunctivitis with basophil activation tests (BAT). Methods: We have randomized 24 patients to a treatment (18) and an open control group (6). Repeated BAT were performed at baseline and througout treatment. Heparinized blood was centrifuged, plasma was removed, the cells washed twice...... basophils. The LC50 was calculated as the log of the allergen concentration leading to half maximum basophil activation. Specific IgE and IgG4 was measured using ISAC panel. Results: We found a 15-fold reduction in basophil sensitivity in the treated group during updosing, compared to their baseline...

  7. Myeloid differentiation-2 is a potential biomarker for the amplification process of allergic airway sensitization in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Koyama

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Our data suggest MD-2 is a critical regulator of the establishment of allergic airway sensitization to HDM in mice. Serum MD-2 may represent a potential biomarker for the amplification of allergic sensitization and allergic inflammation.

  8. Advances and Evolving Concepts in Allergic Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Hui-Ying; Li, Evan; Landers, Cameron; Nguyen, An; Kheradmand, Farrah; Knight, J Morgan; Corry, David B

    2018-02-01

    Allergic asthma is a heterogeneous disorder that defies a unanimously acceptable definition, but is generally recognized through its highly characteristic clinical expression of dyspnea and cough accompanied by clinical data that document reversible or exaggerated airway constriction and obstruction. The generally rising prevalence of asthma in highly industrialized societies despite significant therapeutic advances suggests that the fundamental cause(s) of asthma remain poorly understood. Detailed analyses of both the indoor (built) and outdoor environments continue to support the concept that not only inhaled particulates, especially carbon-based particulate pollution, pollens, and fungal elements, but also many noxious gases and chemicals, especially biologically derived byproducts such as proteinases, are essential to asthma pathogenesis. Phthalates, another common class of chemical pollutant found in the built environment, are emerging as potentially important mediators or attenuators of asthma. Other biological products such as endotoxin have also been confirmed to be protective in both the indoor and outdoor contexts. Proasthmatic factors are believed to activate, and in some instances initiate, pathologic inflammatory cascades through complex interactions with pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) expressed on many cell types, but especially airway epithelial cells. PRRs initiate the release of proallergic cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-33, IL-25, and others that coordinate activation of innate lymphoid cells type 2 (ILC2), T helper type 2 cells, and immunoglobulin E-secreting B cells that together promote additional inflammation and the major airway remodeling events (airway hyperresponsiveness, mucus hypersecretion) that promote airway obstruction. Proteinases, with airway fungi and viruses being potentially important sources, are emerging as critically important initiators of these inflammatory cascades in part through their effects on clotting

  9. Allergic Inflammation Leads to Neuropathic Pain via Glial Cell Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Ryo; Fujii, Takayuki; Wang, Bing; Masaki, Katsuhisa; Kido, Mizuho A; Yoshida, Mari; Matsushita, Takuya; Kira, Jun-Ichi

    2016-11-23

    Allergic and atopic disorders have increased over the past few decades and have been associated with neuropsychiatric conditions, such as autism spectrum disorder and asthmatic amyotrophy. Myelitis presenting with neuropathic pain can occur in patients with atopic disorder; however, the relationship between allergic inflammation and neuropathic pain, and the underlying mechanism, remains to be established. We studied whether allergic inflammation affects the spinal nociceptive system. We found that mice with asthma, atopic dermatitis, or atopic diathesis had widespread and significantly more activated microglia and astroglia in the spinal cord than those without atopy, and displayed tactile allodynia. Microarray analysis of isolated microglia revealed a dysregulated phenotype showing upregulation of M1 macrophage markers and downregulation of M2 markers in atopic mice. Among the cell surface protein genes, endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB) was most upregulated. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that EDNRB expression was enhanced in microglia and astroglia, whereas endothelin-1, an EDNRB ligand, was increased in serum, lungs, and epidermis of atopic mice. No EDNRA expression was found in the spinal cord. Expression of FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B was significantly higher in the dorsal horn neurons of asthma mice than nonatopic mice. The EDNRB antagonist BQ788 abolished glial and neural activation and allodynia. We found increased serum endothelin-1 in atopic patients with myelitis and neuropathic pain, and activation of spinal microglia and astroglia with EDNRB upregulation in an autopsied case. These results suggest that allergic inflammation induces diffuse glial activation, influencing the nociceptive system via the EDNRB pathway. The prevalence of allergic disorders has markedly increased over the past few decades. Allergic disorders are associated with neuropsychiatric conditions; however, the relationship between allergic inflammation

  10. Illusory conjunctions in simultanagnosia: coarse coding of visual feature location?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, Simon M; Buxbaum, Laurel J; Coslett, H Branch

    2006-01-01

    Simultanagnosia is a disorder characterized by an inability to see more than one object at a time. We report a simultanagnosic patient (ED) with bilateral posterior infarctions who produced frequent illusory conjunctions on tasks involving form and surface features (e.g., a red T) and form alone. ED also produced "blend" errors in which features of one familiar perceptual unit appeared to migrate to another familiar perceptual unit (e.g., "RO" read as "PQ"). ED often misread scrambled letter strings as a familiar word (e.g., "hmoe" read as "home"). Finally, ED's success in reporting two letters in an array was inversely related to the distance between the letters. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that ED's illusory reflect coarse coding of visual feature location that is ameliorated in part by top-down information from object and word recognition systems; the findings are also consistent, however, with Treisman's Feature Integration Theory. Finally, the data provide additional support for the claim that the dorsal parieto-occipital cortex is implicated in the binding of visual feature information.

  11. Psychological stress and its relationship with persistent allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hennawi, Diaa El Din Mohamed; Ahmed, Mohamed Rifaat; Farid, Alaa Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Allergic rhinitis is considered to be a major health problem that impairs quality of life. A possible relationship with psychological stress may exist. The aim of this study is to verify the relationship between persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR) and psychological stress aiming to improve treatment and thereby quality of life (QOL) of patients. Patients with PAR (166) were diagnosed then analyzed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. Patients with allergic rhinitis and who were positive on the Kessler scale (122) were randomly divided equally into a control group which received levocetirizine and a study group which received levocetirizine and imipramine. Nasal symptom assessment and QOL assessment were performed in all patients after treatment. Of the 166 patients with PAR, 122 (73.5 %) were positive on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. There was a marked improvement in the study group compared with the control group as regards nasal symptoms with better QOL in the study group (6.93) compared with the control group (2.13). Psychological stress has a strong impact on persistent allergic rhinitis. When stress is controlled by a combined treatment of imipramine and levocetirizine, allergic rhinitis symptoms improved and a better QOL was obtained. 3b.

  12. Patterns of psychosocial adaptation and allergic disorders in Korean schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, JinAh; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kwon, Ji-Won; Song, Young Hwa; Yu, Jinho; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Jee, Hye Mi; Kim, Kyung Won; Kim, Kyu-Earn; Hong, Soo-Jong; Shin, Yee-Jin

    2011-01-01

    To date, there is little evidence to support an association between symptoms of pediatric allergic disorders and psychosocial factors in the general population, particularly in Asian countries. The current study aims to investigate the relationship between psychosocial factors and symptoms of allergic disorders and to investigate the association between behavior problems and biomarkers of atopy. A cross-sectional survey of parental responses to the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire and the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was conducted from one elementary school in Seoul, Korea. Skin prick tests for 18 major allergens were also performed. A total of 780 children with valid CBCL surveys were included in the study. Externalizing problems were significantly larger in children with asthmatic symptoms, while internalizing problems were significantly larger in children with symptoms of both asthma and allergic rhinitis. Social adaptations were significantly lower in children with symptoms of allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. Boys with more positive allergens via the skin prick tests showed larger internalizing problems. While school children with allergic symptoms have been reported to have more difficulties with psychosocial adaptation, the patterns of psychosocial problems varied somewhat according to the types of atopic disorder. There was a positive relationship between atopy and behavior problems, especially in boys. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The cost of productivity losses associated with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal-Peters, J; Crown, W H; Goetzel, R Z; Schutt, D C

    2000-03-01

    To measure the cost of absenteeism and reduced productivity associated with allergic rhinitis. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) was used to obtain information on days lost from work and lost productivity due to allergic rhinitis. Wage estimates for occupations obtained from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) were used to calculate the costs. Productivity losses associated with a diagnosis of allergic rhinitis in the 1995 NHIS were estimated to be $601 million. When additional survey information on the use of sedating over-the-counter (OTC) allergy medications, as well as workers' self-assessments of their reduction in at-work productivity due to allergic rhinitis, were considered, the estimated productivity loss increased dramatically. At-work productivity losses were estimated to range from $2.4 billion to $4.6 billion. Despite the inherent difficulty of measuring productivity losses, our lowest estimate is several times higher than previous estimates of the indirect medical costs associated with allergic rhinitis treatment. The most significant productivity losses resulted not from absenteeism but from reduced at-work productivity associated with the use of sedating OTC antihistamines.

  14. Methotrexate use in allergic contact dermatitis: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashaki; Burns, Erin; Burkemper, Nicole M

    2018-03-01

    Methotrexate, a folate antimetabolite, is used to treat atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although methotrexate's therapeutic efficacy has been noted in the literature, there are few data on the efficacy of methotrexate treatment for allergic contact dermatitis. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of methotrexate in treating allergic contact dermatitis at a single institution, and also to assess methotrexate efficacy in patients with chronic, unavoidable allergen exposure. We performed a retrospective chart review of 32 patients diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis by positive patch test reactions, and who received treatment with methotrexate from November 2010 to November 2014. Demographic and treatment-associated data were collected from electronic medical records. Ten patients were identified as allergen non-avoiders secondary to their occupation, and were subgrouped as such. Seventy-eight per cent (25/32) of patients showed either a partial or a complete response. Methotrexate had a comparable efficacy rate in the allergen non-avoiders subset, at 10 of 10. Of the 32 patients, 23% (5/22) had complete clearance of their dermatitis, and 1/10 of allergen non-avoiders had complete clearance of their dermatitis. Methotrexate is a well-tolerated and effective treatment for allergic contact dermatitis, and shows comparable efficacy to immunomodulatory agents such as cyclosporine and azathioprine, with robust efficacy despite persistent allergen exposure in patients with allergic contact dermatitis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Asthma and allergic rhinitis in adoptees and their adoptive parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J M; Cadoret, R J; Burns, T L; Troughton, E P

    1998-08-01

    Since the highest risk for the development of atopic disease is in early life, environmental risk factors need to be separated from the genetic component in this high risk period. Adoptees removed at birth and placed in adoptive families present a way to separate environmental and genetic factors at this early susceptible age. An opportunity for a pilot study of asthma and allergic rhinitis in adoptive families was presented when a psychiatrist (RC) was planning a behavioral study of young adult adoptees and their adoptive parents. A detailed questionnaire about allergic rhinitis and asthma was added after the psychiatrists' interview. Placement was not influenced by a history of allergy in adoptive or natural parents. The adoptee and at least one adoptive parent completed questionnaires in 367 families. The adoptees had been removed at birth and placed in the adoptive family within 3 months (83% within 1 month). Compared with adoptive families without asthma or allergic rhinitis, an adoptive mother with asthma or rhinitis, when the adoptive father was not affected, increased the risk for asthma in the adoptee (OR = 3.2, P adoptive mother alone (OR = 3.2, P Adoptive father asthma or allergic rhinitis showed a trend toward increased asthma in the adoptee (OR = 1.9, P adoption by parents with asthma or allergic rhinitis suggests that further well planned adoptee studies should be made.

  16. The role of the eosinophil-selective chemokine, eotaxin, in allergic and non-allergic airways inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conroy Dolores M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood eosinophilia and tissue infiltration by eosinophils are frequently observed in allergic inflammation and parasitic infections. This selective accumulation of eosinophils suggested the existence of endogenous eosinophil-selective chemoattractants. We have recently discovered a novel eosinophil-selective chemoattractant which we called eotaxin in an animal model of allergic airways disease. Eotaxin is generated in both allergic and non-allergic bronchopulmonary inflammation. The early increase in eotaxin paralled eosinophil infiltration in the lung tissue in both models. An antibody to IL-5 suppressed lung eosinophilia, correlating with an inhibition of eosinophil release from bone marrow, without affecting eotaxin generation. This suggests that endogenous IL-5 is important for eosinophil migration but does not appear to be a stimulus for eotaxin production. Constitutive levels of eotaxin observed in guinea-pig lung may be responsible for the basal lung eosinophilia observed in this species. Allergen-induced eotaxin was present mainly in the epithelium and alveolar macrophages, as detected by immunostaining. In contrast there was no upregulation of eotaxin by the epithelial cells following the injection of Sephadex beads and the alveolar macrophage and mononuclear cells surrounding the granuloma were the predominant positive staining cells. Eotaxin and related chemokines acting through the CCR3 receptor may play a major role in eosinophil recruitment in allergic inflammation and parasitic diseases and thus offer an attractive target for therapeutic intervention.

  17. Vitamin D in atopic dermatitis, asthma and allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searing, Daniel A; Leung, Donald Y M

    2010-08-01

    This review examines the scientific evidence behind the hypothesis that vitamin D plays a role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, along with a focus on emerging data regarding vitamin D and atopic dermatitis. Elucidated molecular interactions of vitamin D with components of the immune system and clinical data regarding vitamin D deficiency and atopic diseases are discussed. The rationale behind the sunshine hypothesis, laboratory evidence supporting links between vitamin D deficiency and allergic diseases, the clinical evidence for and against vitamin D playing a role in allergic diseases, and the emerging evidence regarding the potential use of vitamin D to augment the innate immune response in atopic dermatitis are reviewed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Histological distinction between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L; Clemmensen, Ole; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1999-01-01

    no recognizable changes except a slight follicular spongiosis in 1 patient. The 2 pathologists agreed independently on the correct classification in 6 out of 7 cases (p=0.0156). We tested an optimized model, selecting non-irritant allergens and a well-known irritant. Further investigations are needed to elucidate......Comparative light microscopic studies have revealed subtle differences between allergic and irritant reactions in the skin. In the search for specific differences, we focussed on the early inflammatory response. This pilot study was conducted to test the hypothesis that follicular spongiosis can...... differentiate between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions. 8 patients with known contact allergy to either colophony or quarternium-15 participated in the study. In each patient, allergic and irritant patch tests reactions were elicited, and 4-mm punch biopsies were taken after 6 8 h from...

  19. Radiological Findings in Two Patients with Cow's Milk Allergic Enterocolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouji Masumoto

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Cow's milk allergic enterocolitis is a common paediatric gastrointestinal disease. However, radiological findings from contrast studies have rarely been reported. We report two Japanese neonate patients with cow's milk allergic enterocolitis with vomiting, bloody stool and unique findings on upper gastrointestinal contrast study. Upper gastrointestinal contrast study showed folds of the small intestine to be thickened, such as in spasm, or ribbonlike cords in both cases. There was also poor passage from the duodenum to the jejunum in one case. In addition, there were spastic findings on lower gastrointestinal contrast study in part of the large colon in one case. Clinicians, including paediatric surgeons, treating neonates with bloody stool and/or vomiting should thus be aware that unique findings on upper and lower gastrointestinal contrast studies may be useful in suspecting cases with cow's milk allergic enterocolitis.

  20. [Farmer's lung--a form of exogenous allergic alveolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambale, M; Liebetrau, G

    1990-11-15

    Exogenic allergic alveolitides are caused by organic dusts which contain bacteria, moulds or vegetable and animal antigens. The farmer's lung as a form of the exogenic allergic alveolitis is a rare disease. The uncharacteristic symptomatology in the initial phase and in particular the retarded beginning of the symptom after several hours handicap the timely recognition in an early phase of the disease so that curative therapeutic measures are rarely possible. The cases of the disease are found only at the chronic stage, at the stage of the pulmonary fibrosis. Then the prognosis is unfavourable. In the Central Clinic for Heart and Lung Diseases Bad Berka 1,110 patients with alveolitides and lung fibroses were diagnosed in the period from 1975 to 1988. 306 of them could be clarified as exogenic allergic alveolitis, 61 of them (19.8%) were farmer's lungs.

  1. Omalizumab therapy for children and adolescents with severe allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Ciro

    2015-01-01

    Omalizumab, a therapeutic humanized monoclonal antibody specific for human IgE, was introduced in clinical practice more than a decade ago as an add-on therapy for moderate-to-severe allergic asthma in patients aged ≥12 years. Omalizumab has been demonstrated to be effective in adults with uncontrolled persistent asthma, with an excellent safety profile. In simple terms, omalizumab works by inhibiting the allergic cascade, that is, by neutralization of the circulating free IgE. This leads to reduction in the quantity of cell-bound IgE, downregulation of high-affinity IgE receptors, and, eventually, prevention of mediator release from effector cells. Evidence is far less abundant on the role of omalizumab in pediatric asthma. Although efficacy and safety of omalizumab in children and adolescents with uncontrolled, persistent allergic asthma has been recognized as well, further studies are needed to clarify a number of open questions in this specific patient population.

  2. The Anti-allergic Cromones: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajantha Sinniah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The anti-allergic cromones were originally synthesized in the 1960s by Fisons Plc, and the first drug to emerge from this program, disodium cromoglycate was subsequently marketed for the treatment of asthma and other allergic conditions. Whilst early studies demonstrated that the ability of the cromones to prevent allergic reactions was due to their ‘mast cell stabilizing’ properties, the exact pharmacological mechanism by which this occurred, remained a mystery. Here, we briefly review the history of these drugs, recount some aspects of their pharmacology, and discuss two new explanations for their unique actions. We further suggest how these findings could be used to predict further uses for the cromones.

  3. [Clinical symptomps, diagnosis and therapy of feline allergic dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favrot, C; Rostaher, A; Fischer, N

    2014-07-01

    Allergies are often suspected in cats and they are mainly hypersensitivity reactions against insect bites, food- or environmental allergens. Cats, with non flea induced atopic dermatitis, normally present with one oft he following reaction patterns: miliary dermatitis, eosinophilic dermatitis, selfinduced alopecia or head and neck excoriations. None of these reaction patterns is nevertheless pathognomonic for allergic dermatitis, therefore the diagnosis is based on the one hand on the exclusion of similar diseases on the other hand on the successful response on a certain therapy. Recently a study on the clinical presentation of cats with non flea induced atopic dermatitis was published. In this study certain criteria for diagnosing atopy in cats were proposed. For therapy of allergic cats cyclosporin, glucocorticoids, antihistamines, hypoallergenic diets and allergen specific immunotherapy are used. This article should provide a recent overview on the clinical symptoms, diagnosis and therapy of feline allergic dermatitis.

  4. Unproven diagnostic procedures in IgE-mediated allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggemann, B; Grüber, C

    2004-08-01

    A considerable body of literature on therapeutic aspects of complementary and alternative medicine has been published in recent years, but little is known on diagnostic procedures. This short review lists complementary and alternative diagnostic procedures for the diagnosis of allergic diseases and presents an assessment of their usefulness for the daily practice. The review of the literature revealed that neither the determination of specific immunoglobulin G-antibodies in serum, the hair-analysis, the cytotoxic test, kinesiology, iridology, or electrodermal testing represent useful tests for the daily practice. To date, no complementary or alternative diagnostic procedure can be recommended as a meaningful element in the diagnostic work-up of allergic diseases. This is especially true for food allergy: properly performed oral food challenges still represent the gold standard for implementing specific diets in food allergic individuals. Ineffective diagnostic approaches may be costly for the consumer and delay appropriate therapy.

  5. NEUROTROPHIN MEDIATION OF ALLERGIC AIRWAYS RESPONSES TO INHALED DIESEL PARTICLES IN MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF) partially mediate many features of allergic airways disease including airway hyper-responsiveness. Diesel exhaust particulates (DEP) associated with the combustion of diesel fuel exacerbate many of these allergic airways respons...

  6. NEUROTROPHIN RECEPTOR BLOCKADE ATTENUATES DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICULATE MATTER (DEP) ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC RESPONSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT BODY:Recent investigations have linked neurotrophins including NGF, NT-3, and BDNF to allergic airways diseases. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airway resistance associated with allergic airway responses in mice. Mice administered an antibody against the low aff...

  7. Cyclooxygenase-2 Regulates Th17 Cell Differentiation during Allergic Lung Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hong; Bradbury, J. Alyce; Dackor, Ryan T.; Edin, Matthew L.; Graves, Joan P.; DeGraff, Laura M.; Wang, Ping Ming; Bortner, Carl D.; Maruoka, Shuichiro; Lih, Fred B.; Cook, Donald N.; Tomer, Kenneth B.; Jetten, Anton M.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Th17 cells comprise a distinct lineage of proinflammatory T helper cells that are major contributors to allergic responses. It is unknown whether cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived eicosanoids regulate Th17 cells during allergic lung inflammation.

  8. Effects of Isoprene- and Toluene-Generated Smog on Allergic ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactions of organic compounds with nitric oxide (NO) and sunlight produce complex mixtures of pollutants including secondary organic aerosol (SOA), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and reactive aldehydes. The health effects of these photochemical smog mixtures in susceptible populations including asthmatics are unclear. We assessed effects of smog generated from mixtures of NO with isoprene (IS) or toluene (TL) on allergic inflammatory responses in Balb/cJ mice. House dust mite (HDM)-sensitized or control mice were all challenged with HDM intranasally 1 d prior to whole-body inhalation exposure to IS (chamber average 509 ppb NO2, 246 ppb O3, and 160 g/m3 SOA), TL (217 ppb NO2, 129 ppb O3, and 376 g/m3 SOA), or HEPA-filtered air (4 h/d for 2 days). Mice were necropsied within 3 h after the second exposure (2 d post-HDM challenge). Assessment of breathing parameters during exposure with double-chamber plethysmography showed a trend for increased specific airway resistance and decreased minute volume during the second day of TL exposure in both non-allergic and HDM-allergic mice. HDM-allergic air-exposed mice had significant increases in numbers of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) alveolar macrophages (AM) and eosinophils (EO), and trends for increases in BAL indices of lung injury in comparison with non-allergic air-exposed mice. Exposure to either IS or TL attenuated the increases in AM, EO, and lung injury markers in HDM-allergic mice. The results of this

  9. Is recurrent respiratory infection associated with allergic respiratory disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Tiago Bittencourt; Klering, Everton Andrei; da Veiga, Ana Beatriz Gorini

    2018-03-13

    Respiratory infections cause high morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study aims to estimate the relationship between allergic respiratory diseases with the occurrence of recurrent respiratory infection (RRI) in children and adolescents. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire and a questionnaire that provides data on the history of respiratory infections and the use of antibiotics were used to obtain data from patients. The relationship between the presence of asthma or allergic rhinitis and the occurrence of respiratory infections in childhood was analyzed. We interviewed the caregivers of 531 children aged 0 to 15 years. The average age of participants was 7.43 years, with females accounting for 52.2%. This study found significant relationship between: presence of asthma or allergic rhinitis with RRI, with prevalence ratio (PR) of 2.47 (1.51-4.02) and 1.61 (1.34-1.93), respectively; respiratory allergies with use of antibiotics for respiratory problems, with PR of 5.32 (2.17-13.0) for asthma and of 1.64 (1.29-2.09) for allergic rhinitis; asthma and allergic rhinitis with diseases of the lower respiratory airways, with PR of 7.82 (4.63-13.21) and 1.65 (1.38-1.96), respectively. In contrast, no relationship between upper respiratory airway diseases and asthma and allergic rhinitis was observed, with PR of 0.71 (0.35-1.48) and 1.30 (0.87-1.95), respectively. RRI is associated with previous atopic diseases, and these conditions should be considered when treating children.

  10. [Use of alternative medicine in the treatment of allergic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix Berumen, José Alfredo; González Díaz, Sandra Nora; Canseco González, Carlos; Arias Cruz, Alfredo

    2004-01-01

    The alternative medicine and the complementary medicine are forms of treatment very spread and frequently demanded by patients with allergic diseases. According to recent studies, homeopathy, acupuncture and herbal medicine are the most commonly used types of alternative medicine. To know the frequency in the use of different types of alternative medicine for the treatment of allergic diseases in patients attended at the Centro Regional de Alergia e Immunologia Clínica of the Hospital Universitario de Monterrey, Nuevo León. A transversal, descriptive and observational study was done by the use of questionnaires applied to patients and/or patients' relatives attended in this Center. This survey included questions to focus the investigation in the use of a Iternative medicine for the treatment of any allergic disease. The data analysis was done by descriptive statistics. Four hundred one questionnaires were applied. The average age of the patients was of 14 years (range from 1 to 73 years). Fourty-seven percent (189 patients) were female and 58.2% (212 patients) were male. The diagnoses included: allergic rhinitis in 215 patients (53.6), asthma in 97 (24.2%), rhinitis and asthma in 73 (18.2) and atopic dermatitis in 16 (4%). Out of the patients 34.4% (138) had used at least one type of alternative medicine for the treatment of their allergic disease. Homeopathy was the most commonly used type of alternative medicine (78.2%), followed by the natural medicine (31.5%). Alternative medicine for the treatment of allergic diseases is frequent in patients who attend to this center. Homeopathy and the natural medicine are the most used.

  11. Simplification of intradermal skin testing in Hymenoptera venom allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa; Stobiecki, Marcin; Brzyski, Piotr; Rogatko, Iwona; Nittner-Marszalska, Marita; Sztefko, Krystyna; Czarnobilska, Ewa; Lis, Grzegorz; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2017-03-01

    The direct comparison between children and adults with Hymenoptera venom anaphylaxis (HVA) has never been extensively reported. Severe HVA with IgE-documented mechanism is the recommendation for venom immunotherapy, regardless of age. To determine the differences in the basic diagnostic profile between children and adults with severe HVA and its practical implications. We reviewed the medical records of 91 children and 121 adults. Bee venom allergy was exposure dependent, regardless of age (P bee venom allergic group, specific IgE levels were significantly higher in children (29.5 kU A /L; interquartile range, 11.30-66.30 kU A /L) compared with adults (5.10 kU A /L; interquartile range, 2.03-8.30 kU A /L) (P venom were higher in bee venom allergic children compared with the wasp venom allergic children (P venom. At concentrations lower than 0.1 μg/mL, 16% of wasp venom allergic children and 39% of bee venom allergic children had positive intradermal test results. The median tryptase level was significantly higher in adults than in children for the entire study group (P = .002), as well as in bee (P = .002) and wasp venom allergic groups (P = .049). The basic diagnostic profile in severe HVA reactors is age dependent. Lower skin test reactivity to culprit venom in children may have practical application in starting the intradermal test procedure with higher venom concentrations. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The skin microbiome in healthy and allergic dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Rodrigues Hoffmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Changes in the microbial populations on the skin of animals have traditionally been evaluated using conventional microbiology techniques. The sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes has revealed that the human skin is inhabited by a highly diverse and variable microbiome that had previously not been demonstrated by culture-based methods. The goals of this study were to describe the microbiome inhabiting different areas of the canine skin, and to compare the skin microbiome of healthy and allergic dogs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA extracted from superficial skin swabs from healthy (n = 12 and allergic dogs (n = 6 from different regions of haired skin and mucosal surfaces were used for 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Principal coordinates analysis revealed clustering for the different skin sites across all dogs, with some mucosal sites and the perianal regions clustering separately from the haired skin sites. The rarefaction analysis revealed high individual variability between samples collected from healthy dogs and between the different skin sites. Higher species richness and microbial diversity were observed in the samples from haired skin when compared to mucosal surfaces or mucocutaneous junctions. In all examined regions, the most abundant phylum and family identified in the different regions of skin and mucosal surfaces were Proteobacteria and Oxalobacteriaceae. The skin of allergic dogs had lower species richness when compared to the healthy dogs. The allergic dogs had lower proportions of the Betaproteobacteria Ralstonia spp. when compared to the healthy dogs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The study demonstrates that the skin of dogs is inhabited by much more rich and diverse microbial communities than previously thought using culture-based methods. Our sequence data reveal high individual variability between samples collected from different patients. Differences in species richness was also seen between

  13. Triclosan Exposure and Allergic Sensitization in Norwegian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Randi J.; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Løvik, Martinus; Calafat, Antonia M.; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; London, Stephanie J.; Carlsen, Karin C. Lødrup

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to the synthetic antimicrobial chemical, triclosan, used in personal care products, has been hypothesized to lead to allergic disease. We investigated whether triclosan exposure was associated with allergic sensitization and symptoms in 10-year old Norwegian children. Methods Urinary concentrations of triclosan were measured in one first morning void from 623 children, collected 2001– 2004. Logistic regression models, controlling for urine specific gravity, parental allergic disease, maternal education, and household income, were fitted for allergic sensitization (either skin prick test positivity or serum specific IgE ≥0.35 kU/L to at least one of 15 evaluated inhalant and food allergens), current rhinitis, and current asthma (questionnaire and exercise challenge test). Results The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for allergic sensitization among those in the fourth quartile of triclosan concentration was 2.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 3.4) compared with the reference group (< the limit of detection) and the aOR per log10 unit increase in triclosan was 1.2 (95% CI: 1.0, 1.4). The aOR for current rhinitis was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.4) for the fourth quartile and 1.2 (95% CI:0.97, 1.4) per log10 unit increase in triclosan. Conclusion Triclosan concentrations were associated with allergic sensitization, especially inhalant and seasonal allergens rather thanfood allergens. Current rhinitis was associated with the highest levels of triclosan, whereas no association was seen for current asthma. These results are consistent with recent findings in other studies and provide additional evidence for an association between triclosan and allergy. PMID:23146048

  14. Cost-effectiveness of specific subcutaneous immunotherapy in patients with allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggenjürgen, Bernd; Reinhold, Thomas; Brehler, Randolf; Laake, Eckard; Wiese, Günther; Machate, Ulrich; Willich, Stefan N

    2008-09-01

    Specific immunotherapy is the only potentially curative treatment in patients with allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Health economic evaluations on this treatment, particularly in a German context, are sparse. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of specific subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) in addition to symptomatic treatment (ST) compared with ST alone in a German health care setting. The analysis was performed as a health economic model calculation based on Markov models. In addition, we performed a concomitant expert board composed of allergy experts in pediatrics, dermatology, pneumology, and otolaryngology. The primary perspective of the study was societal. Additional sensitivity analyses were performed to prove our results for robustness. The SCIT and ST combination was associated with annual cost savings of Euro140 per patient. After 10 years of disease duration, SCIT and ST reach the breakeven point. The overall incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was Euro-19,787 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), with a range that depended on patient age (adults, Euro-22,196; adolescents, Euro-14,747; children, Euro-12,750). From a third-party payer's perspective, SCIT was associated with slightly additional costs. Thus, the resulting ICER was Euro8,308 per QALY for all patients. Additional SCIT was associated with improved medical outcomes and cost savings compared with symptomatic treatment alone according to a societal perspective. Taking a European accepted ICER threshold of up to Euro50,000 per QALY into account, additional SCIT is considered clearly cost-effective compared with routine care in Germany. The degree of cost-effectiveness is strongly affected by costs related to SCIT and the target population receiving such treatment.

  15. Homeopathy for Allergic Rhinitis: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Kushal; Mathie, Robert T; Costelloe, Céire; Howick, Jeremy

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of homeopathic intervention in the treatment of seasonal or perennial allergic rhinitis (AR). Randomized controlled trials evaluating all forms of homeopathic treatment for AR were included in a systematic review (SR) of studies published up to and including December 2015. Two authors independently screened potential studies, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. Primary outcomes included symptom improvement and total quality-of-life score. Treatment effect size was quantified as mean difference (continuous data), or by risk ratio (RR) and odds ratio (dichotomous data), with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Meta-analysis was performed after assessing heterogeneity and risk of bias. Eleven studies were eligible for SR. All trials were placebo-controlled except one. Six trials used the treatment approach known as isopathy, but they were unsuitable for meta-analysis due to problems of heterogeneity and data extraction. The overall standard of methods and reporting was poor: 8/11 trials were assessed as "high risk of bias"; only one trial, on isopathy for seasonal AR, possessed reliable evidence. Three trials of variable quality (all using Galphimia glauca for seasonal AR) were included in the meta-analysis: nasal symptom relief at 2 and 4 weeks (RR = 1.48 [95% CI 1.24-1.77] and 1.27 [95% CI 1.10-1.46], respectively) favored homeopathy compared with placebo; ocular symptom relief at 2 and 4 weeks also favored homeopathy (RR = 1.55 [95% CI 1.33-1.80] and 1.37 [95% CI 1.21-1.56], respectively). The single trial with reliable evidence had a small positive treatment effect without statistical significance. A homeopathic and a conventional nasal spray produced equivalent improvements in nasal and ocular symptoms. The low or uncertain overall quality of the evidence warrants caution in drawing firm conclusions about intervention effects. Use of either Galphimia glauca or a homeopathic nasal spray

  16. Allergen immunotherapy for the prevention of allergic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Halken, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the Prevention of Allergic Disease. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT in the pre......BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the Prevention of Allergic Disease. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT...

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis from oleyl alcohol in Elidel cream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd

    2006-01-01

    We report an atopic dermatitis patient with recurrent hand dermatitis who developed a severe allergic contact dermatitis from the use of Elidel cream. Diagnostic patch tests showed an isolated contact allergy to the emulsifier oleyl alcohol present in the product. Pimecrolimus appeared to have had...... an aggravating effect on the dermatitis in spite of its immunosuppressive effects. The initial clinical appearance of the patient's widespread dermatitis was atypical with resemblance to subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Even though emulsifiers are widely used in topical products, contact allergic...

  18. Methylisothiazolinone in rinse-off products causes allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazar, K; Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Faurschou, A

    2015-01-01

    the potential to cause allergic contact dermatitis. METHODS: Nineteen MI-allergic subjects and 19 controls without MI allergy applied two liquid hand soaps five times per day on areas of 5 × 10 cm(2) on the ventral side of their forearms. One soap contained 100 ppm MI, the maximum allowed concentration......BACKGROUND: In recent years, the prevalence of contact allergy to the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI) has increased dramatically. Cosmetic products are one of the major sources of exposure. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether allowed concentrations of MI in cosmetic rinse-off products have...

  19. Mast Cell Interactions and Crosstalk in Regulating Allergic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Tania E; Bryce, Paul J; Hulse, Kathryn E

    2018-04-17

    This review summarizes recent findings on mast cell biology with a focus on IgE-independent roles of mast cells in regulating allergic responses. Recent studies have described novel mast cell-derived molecules, both secreted and membrane-bound, that facilitate cross-talk with a variety of immune effector cells to mediate type 2 inflammatory responses. Mast cells are complex and dynamic cells that are persistent in allergy and are capable of providing signals that lead to the initiation and persistence of allergic mechanisms.

  20. Illusory conjunctions are alive and well: a reply to Donk (1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzmetal, W; Diedrichsen, J; Ivry, R B

    2001-06-01

    When presented with a red T and a green O, observers occasionally make conjunction responses and indicate that they saw a green T. These errors have been interpreted as reflecting separable processing stages of feature detection and integration with the illusory conjunctions arising from a failure at the integration stage. Recently, M. Donk (1999) asserted that the phenomenon of illusory conjunctions is an artifact. Conjunction reports are actually the result of confusing a nontarget item (O in the example above) for a target item (the letter T) and (correctly) reporting the color associated with the (incorrectly) selected target. The authors demonstrate that although target-nontarget confusion errors are a potential source of conjunction reports, there is a plethora of findings that cannot be accounted for by this confusion model. A review of the literature indicates that in many studies, illusory conjunctions do result from a failure to properly integrate features.

  1. Attribute conjunctions and the part configuration advantage in object category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, J; Hummel, J E

    1996-07-01

    Five experiments demonstrated that in object category learning people are particularly sensitive to conjunctions of part shapes and relative locations. Participants learned categories defined by a part's shape and color (part-color conjunctions) or by a part's shape and its location relative to another part (part-location conjunctions). The statistical properties of the categories were identical across these conditions, as were the salience of color and relative location. Participants were better at classifying objects defined by part-location conjunctions than objects defined by part-color conjunctions. Subsequent experiments revealed that this effect was not due to the specific color manipulation or the role of location per se. These results suggest that the shape bias in object categorization is at least partly due to sensitivity to part-location conjunctions and suggest a new processing constraint on category learning.

  2. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies ten loci influencing allergic sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus; Matheson, Melanie C; Pers, Tune Hannes

    2013-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (present in allergic sensitization) has a central role in the pathogenesis of allergic disease. We performed the first large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) of allergic sensitization in 5,789 affected individuals and 10,056 controls and followed up th...

  3. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in patients with allergic rhinitis: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luukkainen Annika

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO is a tryptophan catalyzing enzyme. It has been suggested that it has a role in lower airway allergic inflammations, but its role in allergic rhinitis has not been investigated. Objective Our aim was to evaluate the expression of IDO in the nasal mucosa of allergic rhinitis patients allergic to birch pollen during peak exposure to birch pollen allergen and compare it to non-atopic patients. Methods IDO expression was immunohistochemically evaluated from nasal specimens obtained in- and off-season from otherwise healthy non-smoking volunteers both allergic to birch pollen (having mild or moderate allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and non-allergic controls. Results: The IDO expression levels were low in healthy controls and remained low also in patients allergic to birch pollen. There were no differences in the expression of IDO in- and off-season in either healthy or allergic subjects. Conclusions There is a controversy in the role of IDO in upper and lower airways during allergic airway disease. It seems that IDO is associated to allergic inflammations of the lower airways, but does not have a local role in the nasal cavity at least in mild or moderate forms of allergic rhinitis.

  4. Genetic Relatedness among Nontypeable Pneumococci Implicated in Sporadic Cases of Conjunctivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Jason H.; Musher, Daniel M.; Silberman, Ronald; Phan, Hoang M.; Watson, David A.

    1999-01-01

    Nontypeable Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of epidemic conjunctivitis. A previous molecular fingerprinting study identified a clone of nontypeable pneumococcus that was responsible for a recent outbreak of conjunctivitis. In the present study, we examined the extent to which pneumococci that cause sporadic cases of conjunctivitis are related to this epidemic strain. Using arbitrarily primed BOX-PCR, we have determined that, of 10 nontypeable pneumococci causing sporadic conjunctiv...

  5. A Preliminary Study of the Use of Conjunctions and the Quality of Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Taeko, Fujisaku

    1999-01-01

    This is a preliminary study that investigates the correlation between the use of conjunctions and the evaluation of writing by examining density and frequency of conjunctions used in student essay writing. Essays written by first-year university students are examined as the end product of high school English teaching in Japan. The results with the current data indicate that the quality of the written texts does not relate to mere density of the use of conjunctions or the use of complex conjun...

  6. Nonlinear Uncertainty Propagation of Satellite State Error for Tracking and Conjunction Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-18

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2017-0177 TR-2017-0177 NONLINEAR UNCERTAINTY PROPAGATION OF SATELLITE STATE ERROR FOR TRACKING AND CONJUNCTION RISK...Uncertainty Propagation of Satellite State Error for Tracking and Conjunction Risk Assessment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9453-16-1-0084 5b. GRANT NUMBER...prediction and satellite conjunction analysis. Statistical approach utilizes novel methods to build better uncertainty state characterization in the context

  7. The Analysis of Conjunction Used in the Articles of Time Magazine.

    OpenAIRE

    Trisnawati, Nila

    2011-01-01

    Kertas karya yang berjudul “The Analysis of Conjunction Used in the Articles of Time Magazine” ini membahas tentang penggunaan conjunction dalam kalimat yang terdapat pada majalah Time. Penelitian ini mengambil 6 artikel sebagai bahan penelitiannya. Tujuan dari pemilihan topik kertas karya ini adalah untuk mengetahui tentang sejauh mana para jurnalis dari majalah tersebut menggunakan conjunction dalam tulisan-tulisan yang mereka hasilkan. Dalam mengerjakan kertas karya ini, ...

  8. Genetic Relatedness among Nontypeable Pneumococci Implicated in Sporadic Cases of Conjunctivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Jason H.; Musher, Daniel M.; Silberman, Ronald; Phan, Hoang M.; Watson, David A.

    1999-01-01

    Nontypeable Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of epidemic conjunctivitis. A previous molecular fingerprinting study identified a clone of nontypeable pneumococcus that was responsible for a recent outbreak of conjunctivitis. In the present study, we examined the extent to which pneumococci that cause sporadic cases of conjunctivitis are related to this epidemic strain. Using arbitrarily primed BOX-PCR, we have determined that, of 10 nontypeable pneumococci causing sporadic conjunctivitis, 5 were clonal and closely related to a previous outbreak strain, whereas 5 others were genetically diverse. PMID:10565927

  9. Recent trends in chlamydial and gonococcal conjunctivitis among neonates and adults in an Irish hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quirke, Michael

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are two important and frequently overlooked causes of neonatal and adult conjunctivitis. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: In order to improve primary treatment, prevention, and control of infection caused by these organisms, an analysis of all cases presenting from July 2002 to December 2006 at a major Irish regional teaching hospital was performed. RESULTS: There were 51 cases of conjunctivitis in total. Among neonates and adults, C. trachomatis was the most common cause of conjunctivitis. Of the adult patients, 75% were men. The annual incidence of adult chlamydial conjunctivitis increased yearly from 2002 and correlated with an overall increase in genital chlamydia infection in the region. Neonatal chlamydial conjunctivitis has an overall incidence of 0.65\\/1000 live births and is continuing to rise annually. In 2006, gonococcal conjunctivitis accounted for 20% of all cases of conjunctivitis caused by sexually transmitted bacteria presenting to our hospital. CONCLUSIONS: The recent increase in the incidence of gonococcal keratitis serves to remind us that this important infection should be borne in mind when treating cases of purulent conjunctivitis. The diagnosis of chlamydial and gonococcal conjunctivitis requires a high index of suspicion and prompt treatment with systemic antibiotics.

  10. Illusory conjunctions die hard: a reply to Prinzmetal, Diedrichsen, and Ivry (2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donk, M

    2001-06-01

    M. Donk (1999) showed that various data patterns that have been considered as evidence for the existence of illusory conjunctions may be due to errors of target-nontarget confusion, an account that challenges the mere existence of illusory conjunction. In a reply, W. Prinzmetal, J. Diedrichsen, and R. B. Ivry (2001) argued against this conclusion, claiming that some earlier findings can be explained only when one assumes that illusory conjunctions exist. The current article shows that Prinzmetal et al.'s claims cannot refute any of Donk's earlier conclusions, suggesting indeed that one can only conclude that "illusory conjunctions are an illusion."

  11. Prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and dermatitis in primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: to establish the relative increase in the prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema in primary school children aged 13-14 years over a six year interval. Design: Cross sectional comparative study. Setting: Primary schools in three rural divisions at Uasin Gishu district in the Rift Valley Province of Kenya.

  12. December 2004 45 Bronchial Asthma, Allergic Rhinitis and chole

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2004-12-02

    Dec 2, 2004 ... Background: Gallbladder has not been associated with any allergic condition what so ever. However, certain patients with bronchial asthma and cholelithiasis have reported to the author improvement in their asthmatic attack after cholecystectomy. Methods: This was an observational study on 22 bronchial ...

  13. lUTIS OF ALLERGIC ORIGIN*·

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reaction as seen in hay-fever, urticaria, or a bee-sting; in these states a slight ... By using the fluid from an allergic oedematous swelling of one patient for an ... caria; re-test: house dust + +, grass pollen, + +. desensitized again. September ...

  14. Unexpected allergic reactions to food, a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michelsen-Huisman, A.D.; Os-Medendorp, H. van; Versluis, A.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Castenmiller, J.J.M.; Noteborn, H.P.J.M.; Houben, G.F.; Knulst, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Unexpected reactions occur in patients with food allergy, but frequency data are scare. This prospective study investigates the frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food in adults with a doctor's diagnosed food allergy. Participants complete an online questionnaire

  15. Diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M; Koch, C; Reimert, C M

    2000-01-01

    The diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients may be difficult to establish because ABPA shares many characteristics with coexisting atopy or other lung infections in these patients. This study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity...

  16. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis as a cause of bronchial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) occurs in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis. When aspergillus fumigatus spores are inhaled they grow in bronchial mucous as hyphae. It occurs in non immunocompromised patients and belongs to the hypersensitivity disorders induced by Aspergillus.

  17. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis : protocol for a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Roberts, Graham; Pfaar, Oliver; Muraro, Antonella; Ansotegui, Ignacio J; Calderon, Moises; Cingi, Cemal; Demoly, Pascal; Durham, Stephen; van Wijk, Ronald Gerth; Halken, Susanne; Hamelmann, Eckard; Hellings, Peter; Jacobsen, Lars; Knol, Edward; Linnemann, Desiree Larenas; Lin, Sandra; Maggina, Vivian; Oude-Elberink, Hanneke; Pajno, Giovanni; Panwankar, Ruby; Pastorello, Elideanna; Pitsios, Constantinos; Rotiroti, Giuseppina; Timmermans, Frans; Tsilochristou, Olympia; Varga, Eva-Maria; Wilkinson, Jamie; Williams, Andrew; Worm, Margitta; Zhang, Luo; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the Management of Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT

  18. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic asthma: Protocol for a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhami, S. (Sangeeta); Nurmatov, U. (Ulugbek); I. Agache; S. Lau (Susanne); Muraro, A. (Antonella); M. Jutel (M.); G. Roberts; C.A. Akdis; M. Bonini (Matteo); M. Calderon (Moises); T.B. Casale (Thomas); Cavkaytar, O. (Ozlem); L. Cox (Linda); P. Demoly; Flood, B. (Breda); Hamelmann, E. (Eckard); Izuhara, K. (Kenji); O. Kalayci; J. Kleine-Tebbe (Jörg); A. Nieto (Antonio); N. Papadopoulos; O. Pfaar (Oliver); L. Rosenwasser (Lanny); D. Ryan (Dermot); C.B. Schmidt-Weber; S.J. Szefler; U. Wahn (Ulrich); R. Gerth van Wijk (Roy); Wilkinson, J. (Jamie); A. Sheikh (Aziz)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for Allergic Asthma. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT in the management of

  19. Evaluation of Some Allergic Mediators in Elderly Individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, M.M.; Michael, M.I.

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a physiological process characterized by decreasing adaptation of the individual and accentuation of certain mechanisms e.g. arteriosclerotic plaque formation, oxidative stress and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, the present study was planned to evaluate immuno senescence on some allergic mediators in healthy individuals. Twenty-four male volunteers arranged into three groups according to their age were participated in this study. After their permission, personal and family history, full clinical examination and several laboratory confirmatory tests were determined to assure their healthy condition. Forty-eight h later another blood specimen was withdrawn where, complete blood picture, total immunoglobulin E (IgE), interleukin-4 (IL4), interleukin-5 (IL5) and γ-interferon (γ-INF) were estimated. Regarding the allergic mediators estimated in the present study, the third geriatric group had relative eosinophilia, positive correlation between IgE and γ-INF and high significant decrease in IgE and IL5. These results led to the conclusion that the immuno senescence in this group of individuals did not lead to any allergic related conditions and the impairment of functions associated with aged immune response most probably had no role on the prevalence of allergic disease in elderly individuals.

  20. Characterization of inflammatory cell infiltration in feline allergic skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taglinger, K; Day, M J; Foster, A P

    2007-11-01

    Sixteen cats with allergic dermatitis and six control cats with no skin disease were examined. Lymphoid and histiocytic cells in skin sections were examined immunohistochemically and mast cells were identified by toluidine blue staining. The 16 allergic cats showed one or more of several features (alopecia, eosinophilic plaques or granulomas, papulocrusting lesions), and histopathological findings were diverse. In control cats there were no cells that expressed IgM or MAC387, a few that were immunolabelled for IgG, IgA or CD3, and moderate numbers of mast cells. In allergic cats, positively labelled inflammatory cells were generally more numerous in lesional than in non-lesional skin sections, and were particularly associated with the superficial dermis and perifollicular areas. There were low numbers of plasma cells expressing cytoplasmic immunoglobulin; moderate numbers of MHC II-, MAC387- and CD3-positive cells; and moderate to numerous mast cells. MHC class II expression was associated with inflammatory cells morphologically consistent with dermal dendritic cells and macrophages, and epidermal Langerhans cells. Dendritic cells expressing MHC class II were usually associated with an infiltrate of CD3 lymphocytes, suggesting that these cells participate in maintenance of the local immune response by presenting antigen to T lymphocytes. These findings confirm that feline allergic skin disease is characterized by infiltration of activated antigen-presenting cells and T lymphocytes in addition to increased numbers of dermal mast cells. This pattern mimics the dermal inflammation that occurs in the chronic phase of both canine and human atopic dermatitis.

  1. Systemic allergic reaction and diarrhoea after pineapple ingestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, I.; Speelman, P.; Islam, A.

    1993-01-01

    Some foods may initiate allergic reactions. Anaphylaxis due to mangoes, oranges, nuts and other foods has been reported earlier. We report the clinical and laboratory features of 32 patients who became symptomatic shortly after they had eaten pineapples. Seventeen patients were males and 15 females

  2. Allergic Contact Dermatitis Is Associated with Significant Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research has confirmed the involvement of oxidative stress (OxS in allergic contact dermatitis whilst other inflammation-related biomarkers have been less studied. Objective. To evaluate systemic levels of selected inflammatory markers, OxS indices and adipokines as well as their associations in allergic contact dermatitis. Methods. In 40 patients, interleukin- (IL- 6, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1, and IL-10 levels were measured in sera with the Evidence Investigator Cytokine & Growth factors High-Sensitivity Array, total peroxide concentration (TPX and total antioxidant capacity (TAC by means of spectrophotometry, and the plasma concentrations of adiponectin and leptin by the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique. Results. TNF-α level (P < 0.01 and TPX (P < 0.0001 were increased whilst IL-10 (P < 0.05 and TAC (P < 0.0001 were decreased in the patients as compared to controls. Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis identified both, TPX and TAC (inversely, as possible independent markers for evaluating allergic contact dermatitis. Adiponectin level in patients was increased (P < 0.0001, but neither adiponectin nor leptin correlated significantly with the biomarkers of inflammation or OxS. Conclusion. OxS parameters, especially TPX and OSI, reflect the degree of systemic inflammation associated with allergic contact dermatitis in the best way. The relation between OxS and adiponectin level warrants further studies.

  3. Effect of tangeretin on ovalbumin-provoked allergic respiratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: These results demonstrate that tangeritin exerts protective effects against OVA-induced allergic respiratory asthma in Swiss albino mice, and that the drug can potentially be .... (0.1 mg/kg) was injected to suppress inhalation, and the mice were allowed ventilation from oxygen-filled air at 120 beats/min, with beat ...

  4. Elaeocarpusin Inhibits Mast Cell-Mediated Allergic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Jong Kim

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are major effector cells for allergic responses that act by releasing inflammatory mediators, such as histamine and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Accordingly, different strategies have been pursued to develop anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory candidates by regulating the function of mast cells. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of elaeocarpusin (EL on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation. We isolated EL from Elaeocarpus sylvestris L. (Elaeocarpaceae, which is known to possess anti-inflammatory properties. For this study, various sources of mast cells and mouse anaphylaxis models were used. EL suppressed the induction of markers for mast cell degranulation, such as histamine and β-hexosaminidase, by reducing intracellular calcium levels. Expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-4, was significantly decreased in activated mast cells by EL. This inhibitory effect was related to inhibition of the phosphorylation of Fyn, Lyn, Syk, and Akt, and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB. To confirm the effect of EL in vivo, immunoglobulin E-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA and ovalbumin-induced active systemic anaphylaxis (ASA models were induced. EL reduced the PCA reaction in a dose dependent manner. In addition, EL attenuated ASA reactions such as hypothemia, histamine release, and IgE production. Our results suggest that EL is a potential therapeutic candidate for allergic inflammatory diseases that acts via the inhibition of mast cell degranulation and expression of proinflammatory cytokines.

  5. Iron supplementation decreases severity of allergic inflammation in murine lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura P Hale

    Full Text Available The incidence and severity of allergic asthma have increased over the last century, particularly in the United States and other developed countries. This time frame was characterized by marked environmental changes, including enhanced hygiene, decreased pathogen exposure, increased exposure to inhaled pollutants, and changes in diet. Although iron is well-known to participate in critical biologic processes such as oxygen transport, energy generation, and host defense, iron deficiency remains common in the United States and world-wide. The purpose of these studies was to determine how dietary iron supplementation affected the severity of allergic inflammation in the lungs, using a classic model of IgE-mediated allergy in mice. Results showed that mice fed an iron-supplemented diet had markedly decreased allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity, eosinophil infiltration, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, compared with control mice on an unsupplemented diet that generated mild iron deficiency but not anemia. In vitro, iron supplementation decreased mast cell granule content, IgE-triggered degranulation, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines post-degranulation. Taken together, these studies show that iron supplementation can decrease the severity of allergic inflammation in the lung, potentially via multiple mechanisms that affect mast cell activity. Further studies are indicated to determine the potential of iron supplementation to modulate the clinical severity of allergic diseases in humans.

  6. The Role of Leukotriene B4 in Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ohnishi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukotriene B4 (LTB4 is a lipid mediator with potent chemoattractant properties and that is rapidly generated from activated innate immune cells such as neutrophils, macrophages, and mast cells. Elevated levels of LTB4 have been reported in various allergic diseases and these levels have been related to disease activity and response to treatment. Recent studies using LTB4 receptor-1 (BLT1 antagonists or BLT1-deficient mice have revealed that ligation of BLT1 by LTB4 is important for the activation and recruitment of inflammatory cells including neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes/macrophages, mast cells, dendritic cells, and more recently, effector T cells to inflamed tissues in various inflammatory diseases. The LTB4/BLT1 pathway appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of severe persistent asthma, aspirin- and exercise-induced asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis together with other mediators including cysteinyl leukotrienes, cytokines, and chemokines. LTB4 production is in general resistant to corticosteroid treatment. In fact, corticosteroids can upregulate BLT1 expression on corticosteroid-resistant inflammatory cells such as neutrophils, monocytes, and effector memory CD8+ T cells. As a result, this corticosteroid-resistant LTB4/BLT1 pathway may contribute to the development of inflammation in allergic diseases that do not respond to the introduction of corticosteroids. Inhibition of this pathway has potential therapeutic benefit in various allergic diseases that have involvement of corticosteroid-insensitivity.

  7. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: a rare cause of pleural effusion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, T M

    2012-02-03

    Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most ubiquitous of the airborne saprophytic fungi. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a syndrome seen in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis, and is characterized by hypersensitivity to chronic colonization of the airways with A. fumigatus. We report the case of a patient with ABPA presenting with pleural effusion. A 27-year-old male was referred with recurrent right pleural effusion. Past medical history was remarkable for asthma, allergic sinusitis, and recurrent pleurisy. Investigations revealed peripheral eosinophilia with elevated serum immunoglobulin E and bilateral pleural effusions with bilateral upper lobe proximal bronchiectasis. Precipitating serum antibodies to A. fumigatus were positive and the A. fumigatus immediate skin test yielded a positive reaction. A diagnosis of ABPA associated with bilateral pleural effusions was made and the patient was commenced on prednisolone. At review, the patient\\'s symptoms had considerably improved and his pleural effusions had resolved. ABPA may present with diverse atypical syndromes, including paratracheal and hilar adenopathy, obstructive lung collapse, pneumothorax and bronchopleural fistula, and allergic sinusitis. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a rare cause of pleural effusion and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with a pleural effusion, in particular those with a history of asthma.

  8. [Allergic transfusion reactions in a patient with multiple food allergies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, E; Schöniger, M; Münz, M; Hiefinger-Schindlbeck, R

    2012-07-01

    A 13-year-old girl with an osteosarcoma was treated by surgery and chemotherapy. During three transfusions of apheresis platelet concentrates allergic reactions occurred, partly in spite of premedication with an antihistamine and a corticoid. As the patient declared to be allergic to some foods, in-vitro tests for allergen-specific IgE antibodies were performed and showed markedly positive results for specific IgE to carrot and celery, less so to hazelnut, peanut and a lot of other food antigens. The donor of one of the unsuitable platelet concentrates remembered when questioned, that he had eaten carrots and chocolate with hazelnuts during the evening before platelet donation. Two washed platelet concentrates were transfused without any problem. Furthermore, transfusions of nine red blood cell concentrates and one unit of virus-inactivated frozen pooled plasma were well tolerated. Patients should be asked for allergies previous to transfusions to be alert to allergic reactions in patients with a positive history of food or drug allergies. If premedication with antihistamines does not prevent severe allergic transfusion reactions, transfusion of washed platelet concentrates and of virus-inactivated frozen pooled plasma can be considered. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. An ovine tracheal explant culture model for allergic airway inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeynaike Latasha

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The airway epithelium is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthmatic disease. However, much of our understanding of airway epithelial cell function in asthma has been derived from in vitro studies that may not accurately reflect the interactive cellular and molecular pathways active between different tissue constituents in vivo. Methods Using a sheep model of allergic asthma, tracheal explants from normal sheep and allergic sheep exposed to house dust mite (HDM allergen were established to investigate airway mucosal responses ex vivo. Explants were cultured for up to 48 h and tissues were stained to identify apoptotic cells, goblet cells, mast cells and eosinophils. The release of cytokines (IL-1α, IL-6 and TNF-α by cultured tracheal explants, was assessed by ELISA. Results The general morphology and epithelial structure of the tracheal explants was well maintained in culture although evidence of advanced apoptosis within the mucosal layer was noted after culture for 48 h. The number of alcian blue/PAS positive mucus-secreting cells within the epithelial layer was reduced in all cultured explants compared with pre-cultured (0 h explants, but the loss of staining was most evident in allergic tissues. Mast cell and eosinophil numbers were elevated in the allergic tracheal tissues compared to naïve controls, and in the allergic tissues there was a significant decline in mast cells after 24 h culture in the presence or absence of HDM allergen. IL-6 was released by allergic tracheal explants in culture but was undetected in cultured control explants. Conclusions Sheep tracheal explants maintain characteristics of the airway mucosa that may not be replicated when studying isolated cell populations in vitro. There were key differences identified in explants from allergic compared to control airways and in their responses in culture for 24 h. Importantly, this study establishes the potential for the

  10. Conjunctive Surface and Groundwater Management in Utah. Implications for Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Robert [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ruple, John [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Tanana, Heather [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Holt, Rebecca [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Unconventional fuel development will require scarce water resources. In an environment characterized by scarcity, and where most water resources are fully allocated, prospective development will require minimizing water use and seeking to use water resources in the most efficient manner. Conjunctive use of surface and groundwater provides just such an opportunity. Conjunctive use includes two main practices: First, integrating surface water diversions and groundwater withdrawals to maximize efficiency and minimize impacts on other resource users and ecological processes. Second, conjunctive use includes capturing surplus or unused surface water and injecting or infiltrating that water into groundwater aquifers in order to increase recharge rates. Conjunctive management holds promise as a means of addressing some of the West's most intractable problems. Conjunctive management can firm up water supplies by more effectively capturing spring runoff and surplus water, and by integrating its use with groundwater withdrawals; surface and groundwater use can be further integrated with managed aquifer recharge projects. Such integration can maximize water storage and availability, while simultaneously minimizing evaporative loss, reservoir sedimentation, and surface use impacts. Any of these impacts, if left unresolved, could derail commercial-scale unconventional fuel development. Unconventional fuel developers could therefore benefit from incorporating conjunctive use into their development plans. Despite its advantages, conjunctive use is not a panacea. Conjunctive use means using resources in harmony to maximize and stabilize long-term supplies it does not mean maximizing the use of two separate but interrelated resources for unsustainable short-term gains and it cannot resolve all problems or provide water where no unappropriated water exists. Moreover, conjunctive use may pose risks to ecological values forgone when water that would otherwise remain in a stream

  11. Exposure to Particulate Hexavalent Chromium Exacerbates Allergic Asthma Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Brent C.; Constant, Stephanie L.; Patierno, Steven R.; Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Ceryak, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. PMID:22178736

  12. Discovering susceptibility genes for allergic rhinitis and allergy using a genome-wide association study strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingyun; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Luo

    2015-02-01

    Allergic rhinitis and allergy are complex conditions, in which both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the pathogenesis. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) employing common single-nucleotide polymorphisms have accelerated the search for novel and interesting genes, and also confirmed the role of some previously described genes which may be involved in the cause of allergic rhinitis and allergy. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the genetic basis of allergic rhinitis and the associated allergic phenotypes, with particular focus on GWASs. The last decade has been marked by the publication of more than 20 GWASs of allergic rhinitis and the associated allergic phenotypes. Allergic diseases and traits have been shown to share a large number of genetic susceptibility loci, of which IL33/IL1RL1, IL-13-RAD50 and C11orf30/LRRC32 appear to be important for more than two allergic phenotypes. GWASs have further reflected the genetic heterogeneity underlying allergic phenotypes. Large-scale genome-wide association strategies are underway to discover new susceptibility variants for allergic rhinitis and allergic phenotypes. Characterization of the underlying genetics provides us with an insight into the potential targets for future studies and the corresponding interventions.

  13. Anti-idiotypes to anti-Lolp I (Rye) antibodies in allergic and non-allergic individuals. Influence of immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, R; Marsh, D G; Delespesse, G

    1986-01-01

    Anti-idiotypes (aId) reacting with anti-Lol I (Lolp I; Rye I) antibodies were detected by their ability to bind to radioiodinated F(ab')2 anti-Lol I. Sera were tested after removal of anti-Lol I and anti-heavy and light chain activity by adsorption on Lol I-Sepharose 4B and normal human serum Sepharose 4B. The binding of aId to Id was inhibited by affinity purified anti-Lol I but not by certain unrelated immunoglobulins; in some sera this binding was also inhibited by Lol I. The levels of aId were measured in serial bleedings collected over a 1 year period from Lol I-sensitive patients, allergic donors not sensitive to Lol I and non-allergic persons. In Lol I-allergic patients the levels of aId were significantly influenced by seasonal exposure to pollen and by immunotherapy with extracts of grass pollen. Moreover, in 12 out of 16 cases, there was also a significant inverse relationship between changes in serum levels of aId and of IgG or IgE anti-Lol I. Most interestingly, aId were also detected in non-allergic individuals; in this case, the levels of aId were not influenced by the pollen season. The data suggest that Id-aId interactions may play a role in the regulation of anti-Lol I antibody production. PMID:3492316

  14. Cytokine expression in the colostral cells of healthy and allergic mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrdý, Jiří; Novotná, Olga; Kocourková, Ingrid; Prokešová, Ludmila

    2012-05-01

    There is no doubt about the beneficial effect of breastfeeding on the newborn's immune system. It is not fully elucidated what the differences are between the colostrum/milk of healthy and allergic mothers and how beneficial breastfeeding by an allergic mother is. The gene expression of selected cytokines was tested in cells isolated from colostra of healthy and allergic mothers using quantitative real-time PCR. Allergic phenotype was evident in colostral cells of allergic mothers: gene expressions of IL-4, IL-13 and EGF were increased and those of IFN-gamma decreased in comparison with colostral cells of healthy mothers. The allergic phenotype of the colostral cells of allergic mothers supporting the bias to a Th2 type response was found. It remains a question if a small number of these cells could influence the immature newborn immune system.

  15. Emotion with tears decreases allergic responses to latex in atopic eczema patients with latex allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, Hajime

    2006-07-01

    Allergic responses are enhanced by stress, whereas they are reduced by laughter in atopic eczema patients. Emotion with tears decreases plasma IL-6 levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Thus, the effect of emotion with tears on allergic responses in patients with atopic eczema was studied. Sixty patients with atopic eczema having latex allergy viewed both the weather information video and the heart-warming movie, Kramer vs. Kramer. Just before and immediately after viewing each video, allergic responses to latex were measured. Viewing the weather information video did not cause emotion with tears in any patients, and it failed to modulate allergic responses. In contrast, viewing Kramer vs. Kramer caused emotion with tears in 44 of 60 patients, and it reduced allergic skin wheal responses to latex and latex-specific IgE production in them. Emotion with tears reduced allergic responses, and it may be useful in the treatment of allergic diseases.

  16. TREATMENT POLICY OF PEDIATRICIANS AGAINST ACUTE AND CHRONIC ALLERGIC PATHOLOGIES IN CHILDREN. DESLORATADINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Vishneva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, chronic idiopathic nettle rash, atopic dermatitis have been characterized by a stable growth in the prevalence of the allergic pathology over the last several decades. A similar pathogenesis of allergic diseases makes it possible to regard them as different manifestations of a systemic allergic inflammation. Histamine is one of the main mediators of an allergic inflammation, therefore first-line medications (drug of choice in the treatment of an allergic pathology, first of all, rhinitis and chronic nettle rash, are second-generation blockers of Н1-receptors. The proposed article discusses the issues connected with the use of antihistamines for children.Key words: allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, nettle rash, atopic dermatitis, treatment, antihistamines, children.

  17. The Students' Error in Using Conjunction (Because, Since, As, in Case) in the Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangaribuan, Tagor; Haddina, Elisa; Manik, Sondang

    2018-01-01

    This research deals with the students' error in using conjunction (because, since, as, in case) in the sentences. Conjunction is very important for the learners to develop a skill in grammar. And grammar is the most important part of language for anyone. Should be first understood before being able to construct sentences, rules based on the…

  18. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors. 172.510 Section 172.510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION....510 Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors. Natural...

  19. Mental Ability and Mismatch Negativity: Pre-Attentive Discrimination of Abstract Feature Conjunctions in Auditory Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlihan, Michael; Stelmack, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The relation between mental ability and the ability to detect violations of an abstract, third-order conjunction rule was examined using event-related potential measures, specifically mismatch negativity (MMN). The primary objective was to determine whether the extraction of invariant relations based on abstract conjunctions between two…

  20. A Study on the Developmental Characteristics of Adverbial Conjuncts by Chinese Non-English Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junmei, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Based on the Chinese Learner English Corpus, the present study seeks to investigate the developmental characteristics of the use of adverbial conjuncts. And the results show that at different learning stages Non-English majors use all kinds of adverbial conjuncts, but their occurrence frequencies are quite different, the enumerative adverbials are…

  1. Conjunct Use in Business News Stories and Academic Journal Articles: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Phillip R.

    1989-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of the use of conjuncts in two genres of written English, business news stories and academic journal articles, revealed a much higher frequency of conjunct use in the journal articles. A brief discussion focuses on the pedagogical implications of this study, and suggestions for further research are presented. (26…

  2. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) proteins induce allergic responses in nasobronchial allergic patients and BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Tripathi, Anurag; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2012-04-05

    Allergy to chickpea or Garbanzo bean (Cicer arietinum) has been reported in the Indian population. Little information is found regarding allergenic events involved in the chickpea allergy; therefore, chickpea allergenicity assessment was undertaken. In vivo and ex vivo studies were carried out using BALB/c mice. Chickpea skin prick test positive patients have been used to extend this study in humans. Identification of allergens was carried out by simulated gastric fluids assay for pepsin resistant polypeptides and validated by IgE western blotting using chickpea sensitive humans and sensitized mice sera. Our data have shown the occurrence of a systemic anaphylactic reaction resulting in reduced body temperature after challenge along with significantly increased levels of IgE, IgG1, MMCP-1, CCL-2 as well as histamine. Further, increased Th1/Th2 (mixed) cytokine response was observed in spleen cell culture supernatants. Jejunum, lungs and spleen showed prominent histopathological changes specific for allergic inflammation. Immunoblotting with pooled sera of either sensitized mice or human sera recognized seven similar IgE binding polypeptides that may be responsible for chickpea induced hypersensitivity reactions. This study has addressed the allergenic manifestations associated with chickpea consumption and identifies the proteins responsible for allergenicity which may prove useful in diagnosis and management of allergenicity of legumes especially chickpea. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevention of ligneous conjunctivitis by topical and subconjunctival fresh frozen plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khalid F

    2004-08-01

    To present a case of ligneous conjunctivitis where the recurrence of membranous conjunctivitis was prevented by subconjunctival and topical instillation of fresh frozen plasma. Interventional case report. A case of ligneous conjunctivitis with multiple recurrences since the age of 3 years developed recurrent membranous conjunctivitis after transconjunctival levator recession. Blood plasminogen activity was determined. The membrane was excised, and the membrane reappeared 4 days later. The patient was treated with excision of the membrane and subconjunctival injection of fresh frozen plasma and topical fresh frozen plasma. Plasminogen activity of the fresh frozen plasma was normal. Plasminogen blood functional activity was 52% (normal is 80%-120%). The patient had complete remission with no recurrences of membranous conjunctivitis after topical and subconjunctival fresh frozen plasma. Prophylactic use of topical and subconjunctival fresh frozen plasma may help in the prevention of membranes in susceptible patients with plasminogen deficiency.

  4. Analyzing the impact of conjunctive labeling as part of a regional wine branding strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Atkin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research studies have proven that place-based/regional branding methods have a positive effect on brand equity and economic benefits for companies. However, very small or specific regions may be confusing to consumers, so conjunctive labeling – or the process of advertising both a larger region and the sub-region of origin for a product – is suggested as a remedy for this situation. This study analyzes the impact of conjunctive labeling by comparing two national samples of consumers, before and two years after, conjunctive wine labeling was introduced in Sonoma County. The results show a higher awareness for both Sonoma County and its sub appellations (AVAs after conjunctive labeling was introduced than before. This demonstrates the potential benefit of associating sub-regional appellations with larger wine regions. Keywords: Regional branding, Appellations, Wine marketing, Conjunctive labeling, Place-based marketing

  5. Are Chinese Correlative Conjunctions Psychologically Real? An Investigation of the Combination Frequency Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingyue; Zhang, John X; Zhang, Yongwei

    2016-08-01

    The present study used an online grammaticality judgment task to examine whether Chinese discontinuous correlative conjunctions are psychologically real in mental lexicon. High- and low-frequency discontinuous correlative conjunctions were compared with random combinations differing in combination frequencies but matched for constituent word frequency. Forty graduate students participated in the study. Results showed that responses were faster and more accurate for high-frequency correlative conjunctions than low-frequency ones, but the effects were absent for random combinations. The results indicate that Chinese discontinuous correlative conjunctions have psychological reality in mental lexicon in addition to the representation of their constituent words, and that grammatical functions of correlative conjunctions may be a critical factor for the formation of such holistic representations. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Collision Avoidance Short Course: Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis - NASA Robotic CARA. Part I: ; Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejduk, M. D.; Frigm, Ryan C.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite conjunction assessment is perhaps the fastest growing area in space situational awareness and protection with military, civil and commercial satellite owner-operators embracing more and more sophisticated processes to avoid the avoidable - namely collisions between high value space assets and orbital debris. NASA and Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) have collaborated to offer an introductory short course on all the major aspects of the conjunctions assessment problem. This half-day course will cover satellite conjunction dynamics and theory. Joint Space Operations Center (JsPOC) conjunction data products, major risk assessment parameters and plots, conjunction remediation decision support, and present and future challenges. This briefing represents the NASA portion of the course.

  7. Diagnosing allergic rhinitis – is there a need?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eczema, asthma, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, food allergies and others. Rhinitis is the ... teenagers is 28%.1 ... This may be due to limited access to health care, but without ... particularly in black families, where repeated respiratory infections become ...

  8. Methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase contributes to allergic airway disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R Eyring

    Full Text Available Environmental exposures strongly influence the development and progression of asthma. We have previously demonstrated that mice exposed to a diet enriched with methyl donors during vulnerable periods of fetal development can enhance the heritable risk of allergic airway disease through epigenetic changes. There is conflicting evidence on the role of folate (one of the primary methyl donors in modifying allergic airway disease.We hypothesized that blocking folate metabolism through the loss of methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (Mthfr activity would reduce the allergic airway disease phenotype through epigenetic mechanisms.Allergic airway disease was induced in C57BL/6 and C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice through house dust mite (HDM exposure. Airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR were measured between the two groups. Gene expression and methylation profiles were generated for whole lung tissue. Disease and molecular outcomes were evaluated in C57BL/6 and C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice supplemented with betaine.Loss of Mthfr alters single carbon metabolite levels in the lung and serum including elevated homocysteine and cystathionine and reduced methionine. HDM-treated C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice demonstrated significantly less airway hyperreactivity (AHR compared to HDM-treated C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, HDM-treated C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice compared to HDM-treated C57BL/6 mice have reduced whole lung lavage (WLL cellularity, eosinophilia, and Il-4/Il-5 cytokine concentrations. Betaine supplementation reversed parts of the HDM-induced allergic airway disease that are modified by Mthfr loss. 737 genes are differentially expressed and 146 regions are differentially methylated in lung tissue from HDM-treated C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice and HDM-treated C57BL/6 mice. Additionally, analysis of methylation/expression relationships identified 503 significant correlations.Collectively, these findings indicate that the loss of folate as a methyl donor is a modifier of

  9. Allergic rhinitis and arterial blood pressure: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakallioglu, O; Polat, C; Akyigit, A; Cetiner, H; Duzer, S

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the likelihood of allergic rhinitis and potential co-morbidities, and to assess whether allergic rhinitis is associated with arterial blood pressure and hypertension. In this population-based study, 369 adults with allergic rhinitis and asthma were assessed via a questionnaire and immunoglobulin E levels. There were four groups: control (n = 90), allergic rhinitis (n = 99), asthma (n = 87) and hypertension (n = 93). Arterial blood pressure was measured in all groups. There were no significant differences in systolic or diastolic blood pressure between males and females in any group. Pairwise comparisons revealed no significant differences between: the control and allergic rhinitis groups, the control and asthma groups, or the allergic rhinitis and asthma groups. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure values of males and females were significantly higher in the hypertension group than the allergic rhinitis group. There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure for seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis patients. Rhinitis was not associated with increased blood pressure. Allergic rhinitis can coincide with asthma and hypertension. The findings do not support the need for blood pressure follow up in allergic rhinitis patients.

  10. Successful drug desensitization in patients with delayed-type allergic reactions to anti-tuberculosis drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krittaecho Siripassorn

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the outcomes of anti-tuberculosis drug desensitization. Methods: This was a retrospective study. Inclusion criteria were as follows: age >18 years, documented tuberculosis infection, a previous cutaneous allergic reaction to anti-tuberculosis drugs, and having undergone drug desensitization between January 2003 and March 2014. The definition of allergic reaction to anti-tuberculosis drugs included (1 a temporal relationship between drug use and the allergic reaction; (2 improvement in the allergic reaction after drug withdrawal; (3 recurrence of the allergic reaction after reintroduction of only the offending drug; and (4 absence of other causes. Results: A total of 19 desensitization procedures were performed. The drugs used for these procedures were isoniazid (n = 7, rifampicin (n = 6, or ethambutol (n = 6. Of note, severe allergic reactions (Stevens–Johnson syndrome (n = 4, erythema multiforme (n = 3, and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic syndrome (n = 1 were included. All patients underwent resolution of the previous allergic reactions before desensitization. The median duration of desensitization was 18 days. The success rate was 78.9%. The allergic reactions following failed desensitization were not severe; most were maculopapular rashes. Conclusions: The desensitization protocol for anti-tuberculosis drugs was associated with a high success rate, and the individuals who failed desensitization experienced mild allergic reactions. Keywords: Desensitization, Antituberculosis, Steven-Johnson syndrome, Allergic drug reaction, Tolerance induction, Drug allergy

  11. Does treatment of gastro-esophageal reflux disease with omeprazole decrease allergic rhinitis symptoms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Shirkani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allergic rhinitis is the most common type of allergic disease among population. Its accurate treatment is very important for cutting of allergic march. On the other hand, gasteroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is one of the most common gastrointestinal problems among allergic patients mainly asthmatic cases. It might conflict treatment. Despite of asthma, a few studies have been conducted on the impact of GERD treatment on allergic rhinitis symptoms. In this study, we assessed GERD treatment and its effects on improving of allergic rhinitis patients with GERD. Materials and Methods: In a prospective cross-sectional study, March - September 2012, 103 consecutive patients with persistent moderate to severe seasonal allergic rhinitis enrolled. For allergic rhinitis patients with GERD 20 mg omeperazole once daily for 6 weeks prescribed, empirically. Conventional allergy treatment continued and finally the allergic rhinitis symptoms were assessed clinically and recorded before, 5th, 10th and 30th days of omeprazole treatment period. Results: Our study included 103 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis who were divided into GERD (n=33, 38% and non-GERD (n=70, 68% groups with the mean age 28 and 25.7 years, respectively. The first group developed significant improvement for GERD symptoms on days 5, 10 and 30 after beginning of therapy (P=0.03. No association was found between GERD treatment and relief of allergic symptoms or TNSS improvement (P>0.05. Data analyzed by Epi info (ver 7 and SPSS software (ver 11.5, and by Chi squeare test and paired T test. P lower than 0.05 was considered as significant. Conclusion: This study showed no significant association between empirical treatment of GERD and improvement of allergic symptoms in patients with allergic rhinitis. However, further studies with a larger sample size might be needed.

  12. A Case Study of Inter-sentence Conjunctions in Chinese_English Legal Parallel Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a contrastive study of inter-sentence conjunctions in Chinese/English legal parallel texts. Conjunction is one of the five cohesive devices put forward by Halliday and Hasan (1976. Many scholars have applied their model of cohesion to the study of English and Chinese languages. As for the use of conjunction in Chinese and English, most scholars believe that there are more cases of conjunction in the English legal texts than in the Chinese ones because it is generally considered that Chinese is predominantly paratactic and English mainly hypotactic. Besides, up to now little detailed contrastive study has been done on conjunctions in Chinese/English non-literary texts. Legal language is a specialized language whose distinctive feature is the pursuit of precision. As a result of the importance attached to the letter of law and the pursuit of precision in legal texts, most studies on legal language are devoted to the characteristic features of legal language at the word and sentence level, to the exclusion of textual and pragmatic considerations. The present study will mainly look at the features of legal texts from the perspective of conjunction at the textual level and find out whether Chinese uses fewer cases of conjunction than English in legal texts. The Chinese and English legal parallel texts about arbitration rules will be used for this contrastive analysis. It is hoped that the findings of this research will test the explanatory force of hypotaxis and parataxis in the use of conjunction in legal texts and give a clearer picture of conjunction at the textual level in Chinese and English legal parallel texts, and therefore reconstruct the discourse on the Chinese language.

  13. Sublingual immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis: where are we now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Mauro, Marina; Ridolo, Erminia

    2015-01-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) was introduced in the 1980s as a safer option to subcutaneous immunotherapy and in the latest decade achieved significant advances. Its efficacy in allergic rhinitis is supported by a number of meta-analyses. The development of SLIT preparations in tablets to fulfill the requirements of regulatory agencies for quality of allergen extracts made available optimal products for grass-pollen-induced allergic rhinitis. Preparations of other allergens based on the same production methods are currently in progress. A notable outcome of SLIT, that is shared with subcutaneous immunotherapy, is the evident cost-effectiveness, showing significant cost savings as early as 3 months from starting the treatment, that become as high as 80% compared with drug treatment in the ensuing years.

  14. Role of Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells in Allergic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmi, Lorenzo; Liotta, Francesco; Maggi, Laura; Annunziato, Francesco

    2017-09-11

    The adaptive immune response orchestrated by type 2 T helper (Th2) lymphocytes, strictly cooperates with the innate response of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), in the protection from helminths infection, as well as in the pathogenesis of allergic disease. The aim of this review is to explore the pathogenic role of ILC2 in different type 2-mediated disorders. Recent studies have shown that epithelial cell-derived cytokines and their responding cells, ILC2, play a pathogenic role in bronchial asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis, and atopic dermatitis. The growing evidences of the contribution of ILC2 in the induction and maintenance of allergic inflammation in such disease suggest the possibility to target them in therapy. Biological therapies blocking ILC2 activation or neutralizing their effector cytokines are currently under evaluation to be used in patients with type 2-dominated diseases.

  15. Environment Changes Genetic Effects on Respiratory Conditions and Allergic Phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yong; Schwager, Michelle J; Backer, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases is disproportionately distributed among different populations, with an increasing trend observed in Western countries. Here we investigated how the environment affected genotype-phenotype association in a genetically homogeneous, but geographically...... separated population. We evaluated 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) corresponding to 8 genes (ADAM33, ALOX5, LT-α, LTC4S, NOS1, ORMDL3, TBXA2R and TNF-α), the lung function and five respiratory/allergic conditions (ever asthma, bronchitis, rhinitis, dermatitis and atopy) in two populations of Inuit......-phenotype associations relating to bronchitis and allergy susceptibility are dependent on the environment and that environmental factors/lifestyles modify genetic predisposition and change the genetic effects on diseases....

  16. Quality of life in children and adolescents with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos Henrique Martins da; Silva, Taís Estevão da; Morales, Nívea Macedo O; Fernandes, Karla P; Pinto, Rogério M C

    2009-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) remains a significant pediatric health problem because of the burden of uncontrolled symptoms on daily activities and on general well being. to assess the impact of AR on health-related quality of life (HRQL) of children and adolescents using a generic instrument, the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ - PF50). Between January and November 2004, parents or caregivers of 23 children and adolescents with AR without comorbidities and with positive prick tests for at least one air allergen were invited to participate of a cross-sectional study and asked to answer the self-administered CHQ-PF50. The scores were compared to those of healthy children and adolescents. Patient scores were lower (psize effect was higher in the physical score compared to the psychosocial summary score. allergic rhinitis has a global negative impact on the HRQL of children and adolescents, with major repercussions in physical function; AR also negatively affects family relations.

  17. Study Of Clinical Profile of Allergic Contact Dermatitis In Pune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayal S K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and twenty five cases of clinically diagnosed allergic contact dermatitis were studied. All patients were subjected to patch test with standard test allergens and also with suspected test allergens based on history and clinical profile. Allergic contact dermatitis due to Parthenium hysterophorus was commonest and found in 64% cases, followed by wearing apparel and jewellery in 16.8%, topical medicaments in 8% and cosmetics and occupational contactants in 5.6% cases each. The common individual allergens other than parthenium, were nickel in 8.8%, leather, hair dye and cement in 3.2% each, nitrofurazone and petrol, oil, lubricant (POL in 2.4% each. Patch test with suspected allergens was positive in 72% of cases.

  18. Chemokine Signaling in Allergic Contact Dermatitis: Toward Targeted Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey S; Rajagopal, Sudarshan; Atwater, Amber Reck

    2018-06-22

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease that results in significant cost and morbidity. Despite its high prevalence, therapeutic options are limited. Allergic contact dermatitis is regulated primarily by T cells within the adaptive immune system, but also by natural killer and innate lymphoid cells within the innate immune system. The chemokine receptor system, consisting of chemokine peptides and chemokine G protein-coupled receptors, is a critical regulator of inflammatory processes such as ACD. Specific chemokine signaling pathways are selectively up-regulated in ACD, most prominently CXCR3 and its endogenous chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11. Recent research demonstrates that these 3 chemokines are not redundant and indeed activate distinct intracellular signaling profiles such as those activated by heterotrimeric G proteins and β-arrestin adapter proteins. Such differential signaling provides an attractive therapeutic target for novel ACD therapies and other inflammatory diseases.

  19. Comparing the effects of ketotifen fumarate eye drops and ketotifen oral pills on symptom severity and quality of life in patients with allergic rhinitis: a double-blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Asghar; Karimi-Sari, Hamidreza; Khosravi, Mohammad Hossein; Arefzadeh, Esmaeil; Yavarahmadi, Mohammadhosein

    2015-05-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of nasal mucosa. Previous studies have shown the therapeutic effects of ketotifen eye drops on allergic conjunctivitis and rhinitis patients. This study was designed to compare the effects of ketotifen drops and oral ketotifen pills on symptoms and quality of life in allergic rhinitis patients. In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, patients with mild allergic rhinitis who were referred to the allergy clinic of Baqiyatallah Hospital from March to April 2014 were randomly allocated to 2 groups; the first group received ketotifen drops (1 drop every 12 hours) with placebo pills (2 pills daily), and the second group received placebo eye drops with ketotifen pills for 4 weeks. Symptoms (sneezing, runny nose, itching, and nasal obstruction) severity were examined and Rhinitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) scores were evaluated in the second and fourth weeks. A total of 140 patients were evaluated in 2 groups. The mean age was 30.33 years. There were no significant differences in demographic data between the groups (p > 0.05). Both groups showed a significant improvement in rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, nasal itching, coughing, sneezing, RQLQ, and nasal smear eosinophil percent compared to baseline amounts (p < 0.05). Improvements were significantly more in the drops group (p < 0.05). Because of the absence of systemic complications in ketotifen eye drops in patients with allergic rhinitis and their easy availability in Iran, using this medication instead of systemic therapies is suggested. Nevertheless, more studies are required to evaluate the long-term effects of using this drug and the recurrence rate of symptoms. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  20. Vitamin D in Atopic Dermatitis, Asthma and Allergic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Searing, Daniel A; Leung, Donald YM

    2010-01-01

    This review examines the scientific evidence behind the hypothesis that vitamin D plays a role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, with a particular focus on emerging data regarding vitamin D and atopic dermatitis. Both elucidated molecular interactions of vitamin D with components of the immune system, as well as clinical data regarding vitamin D deficiency and atopic diseases are discussed. The rationale behind the “sunshine hypothesis,” laboratory evidence supporting links between vi...

  1. A Clinical Evaluation of Definitive and Clinical Allergic Bronchopulmonary Mycosis

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuse, Hiroto; Nakata, Hiroko; Fukahori, Susumu; Tsuchida, Tomoko; Kawano, Tetsuya; Tomari, Shinya; Fukushima, Chizu; Matsuo, Nobuko; Asai, Sadahiro; Kohno, Shigeru

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The present study aims to overcome problems associated with the early diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) using the current criteria. Patients and Methods: Clinical features including radiographic findings from 10 patients with definitive ABPM based on the diagnostic criteria of Rosenberg-Patterson were compared with those from 9 patients with ABPM clinically diagnosed by respiratory allergy specialists. Results: ABPM should be considered in patients with peripher...

  2. [Research on prevalence and related factors in allergic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze-hai; Lin, Wen-sen; Li, Shu-yan; Zhao, Shao-cheng; Wang, Li; Yang, Zhong-gang; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Zhen-fu; Yu, Jin-zhen

    2011-03-01

    To obtain the prevalence and related factors in allergic rhinitis (AR) and other allergic diseases in rural area in China through epidemiological investigation with large sample and multi-faceted survey data. Face to face survey was conducted in different regions (rural areas of Cangzhou, Hebei, coastal fishing village of Bohai Bay, area of Wuling Mountain, Chengde, urban areas of Tianjin) from April 2007 to May 2009. In the same time, serum specific IgE (sIgE) was detected in the digits of every 0, 1or 5 in them. SPSS 13.0 software was used to analyze the data. Five thousand and ten cases were investigated. There were 823 cases with the symptoms or signs of AR (16.4%). Four hundred and two cases were found to have positive serum sIgE antibody in 1576 detected cases (25.5%). One hundred and fourty-six cases with nasal allergic symptoms or signs were diagnosed as AR. The incidence of AR was 9.3% (146/1576). The occurrence of allergic symptoms or signs had a significant statistical difference with factors such as age, occupation, atopic constitution (χ(2) value were 7.96, 9.73, 16.53, 8.95 respectively, all P cat epithelium in rural areas and dust mites in city. The incidence of AR is higher whether in urban or rural areas, it should be taken seriously as the impact on human health. The occurrence is closely related to physical characteristics and environmental factors.

  3. Skin prick test in patients with chronic allergic skin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Bains

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic allergic skin disorders are the inflammatory and proliferative conditions in which both genetic and environmental factors play important roles. Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU and atopic dermatitis (AD are among the most common chronic allergic skin disorders. These can be provoked by various food and aeroallergens. Skin prick tests (SPTs represent the cheapest and most effective method to diagnose type I hypersensitivity. Positive skin tests with a history suggestive of clinical sensitivity strongly incriminate the allergen as a contributor to the disease process. Aim s and Objectives: To determine the incidence of positive SPT in patients with chronic allergic skin disorders and to identify the various allergens implicated in positive SPT. Methods: Fifty patients of chronic allergic disorders were recruited in this study. They were evaluated by SPT with both food and aeroallergens. Results: In our study, SPT positivity in patients of CIU was 63.41% and in AD was 77.78%. Out of the 41 patients of CIU, the most common allergen groups showing SPT positivity were dust and pollen, each comprising 26.83% patients. SPT reaction was positive with food items (21.6%, insects (17.07%, fungus (12.20%, and Dermatophagoides farinae, that is, house dust mite (HDM (7.32%. The allergen which showed maximum positivity was grain dust wheat (19.51%. Among nine patients of AD, maximum SPT positivity was seen with Dermatophagoides farinae, pollen Amaranthus spinosus, grain dust wheat, and cotton mill dust; each comprising 22.22% of patients. Conclusion: Our study showed that a significant number of patients of CIU and AD showed sensitivity to dust, pollen, insects, Dermatophagoides farinae, and fungi on SPT. Thus, it is an important tool in the diagnosis of CIU and AD.

  4. ORTHODONTIC DEVICES VS. ALLERGIC REACTIONS IN CHILDREN AND YOUNG ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Sodor

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Scope. The scope of the study was to evaluate the adverse reactions upon the intra- and extraoral tissues, produced by the insertion of orthodontic devices, on a populational group of Romania, for determining the frequencies of the allergic reactions and for comparing them with the sex, age, urban/rural background, malocclusion, orthodontic device, oral hygiene prior to and during the orthodontic treatment. Materials and method. The observation sheets of 621 patients (255 boys and 366 girls with ages between 6 and 29 years, from the Orthodontics Clinics of the Policlinics of the “Sf. Spiridon” Urgency Hospital and from a private orthodontic consulting room of Iaşi, have been statistically evaluated with the SPSS 17.0 for Windows program. Results. Pearson correlation and linear regression evidenced the relations between the adverse reactions produced during the orthodontic treatment, on one side, and the age, dental hygiene and types of orthodontic devices, on the other. The results obtained put into evidence significant relations between the adolescent age and the allergy to nickel manifested in antecedents, between the scarce oral hygiene of the patients prior to the orthodontic treatment and gingival enlargement, between the scarce oral hygiene of the patients during the orthodontic treatment and the localized or generalized gingivitis and the bleedings and gingival overgrowths, between the mobile orthodontic devices and the allergic reactions to acrylic resins (p and t = 0.000. Relevant connections have been also evidenced between the fixed orthodontic devices and the allergic reactions to the polymeric biomaterials from the orthodontic devices (p = 0.005 and t = 0.034. Conclusions. Statistical evaluation of the adverse effects induced by orthodontic devices may be used for stating the development of allergic reactions to the substances entering the composition of orthodontic devices, with reference to the cytotoxicology and

  5. Effects of omalizumab therapy on allergic rhinitis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masieri, S; Cavaliere, C; Begvarfaj, E; Rosati, D; Minni, A

    2016-12-01

    The use of omalizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody able to binding Ig-E, is currently authorized only for treatment of severe bronchial asthma. The use of omalizumab in other Ig-E related diseases is off-label, although some studies have provided promising results about it. The aim of this study was to evaluate if therapy with omalizumab in patients affected by asthma and allergic rhinitis has an impact also on allergic rhinitis-related symptoms. A longitudinal study was conducted on 11 patients affected by severe asthma and a periodic allergic rhinitis. Patients were treated with omalizumab for 24 weeks with a monthly subcutaneous administration at the dosage recommended by the current guidelines. We observed at the start and at the end of treatment: rhinitis symptoms using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS); the state of nasal mucosa with fiberoptic nasal endoscopy; airways inflammation by measuring the Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO); asthmatic symptomatology by means of the Asthma Control Test; the amount of total Ig-E in a blood sample; and the use of symptomatic drugs before and after treatment. VAS scores to measure general symptomatology and symptoms including nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, itching and sneezing were significantly reduced. Turbinate hypertrophy was resolved in six of nine patients. Furthermore, eight patients (73%) reduced or eliminated the use of symptomatic drugs. Our data confirm the efficacy of omalizumab in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Controlled studies will now have to be carried out to confirm these preliminary data and will specify indications for a very efficacious but still significantly expensive therapy.

  6. Allergic Contact Dermatitis Due to Paraphenylenediamine: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encabo Durán, B; Romero-Pérez, D; Silvestre Salvador, J F

    2018-02-26

    Paraphenylenediamine (PPD) is an amine that is mainly used as an ingredient in hair dyes and henna tattoos. The incidence of allergic contact dermatitis to PPD is increasing, particularly in younger patients. In this article, we review the main sources of PPD and the substances with which it can interact and present a practical algorithm for diagnosing and treating suspected cases of PPD allergy. Copyright © 2018 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Determinants of allergic rhinitis in young children with asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Moussu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the preschool period, allergic rhinitis (AR is infrequent and thus under-diagnosed. However, recent works have highlighted the occurrence of AR in toddlers although the causes of AR in this young population remain unknown. The objective of this study was to identify determinants of AR in young children with asthma. METHODS: We carried out a case-control study of 227 children with active asthma and enrolled in the Trousseau Asthma Program. AR and other allergic diseases (asthma, food allergy and eczema were diagnosed by medical doctors using standardized questionnaires. Parental history of AR and asthma, biological markers of atopy (total IgE, blood eosinophilia, allergic sensitization towards food and aeroallergens and environmental parameters were also collected. RESULTS: Forty one of the children (18.1% had AR. By univariate logistic regression analysis, AR was mainly associated with peanut sensitization (OR = 6.75; p = 0.002; food allergy (OR = 4.31; p = 0.026; mold exposure (OR = 3.81 p<0.01 and parental history of AR (OR = 1.42; p = 0.046. Due to the strong link between food allergy and peanut sensitization three models of multivariate logistic regression were performed and confirmed that AR is associated with peanut sensitization but also food allergy and mold exposure. A random forest analysis was also performed to explain AR. The results reinforced the logistic analysis that peanut sensitization and mold exposure were the principal determinants of AR. CONCLUSIONS & CLINICAL RELEVANCE: These results stress the importance of investigating AR in young children with asthma to potentially diagnose a particularly severe allergic asthmatic phenotype. Moreover, these data evoke the hypothesis that peanut could be an aeroallergen.

  8. Birth order and paediatric allergic disease: A nationwide longitudinal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkawa, T; Yorifuji, T; Fujii, Y; Yashiro, M; Okada, A; Ikeda, M; Doi, H; Tsukahara, H

    2018-05-01

    Environmental factors seem to be related to the incidence of allergic disease. Children with a later birth order are often exposed to environments, where pathogens and endotoxins can be found, and thus have a higher risk of developing infectious diseases. Therefore, birth order is regarded as an indicator that reflects post-natal environment. However, longitudinal studies are limited on this subject. This study sought to elucidate the relationships between birth order and allergic disease. From a nationwide longitudinal study that followed children born in 2001 (n = 47 015), we selected doctors' visits for 3 types of allergic disease-bronchial asthma, food allergy and atopic dermatitis-from infancy to 12 years of age and conducted binomial log-linear regression analysis to evaluate the associations between birth order and these diseases. We adjusted for the child and parental factors and estimated risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each outcome. The associations between birth order and bronchial asthma were diverse; later birth order increased the risk in early childhood, but decreased the risks during school age. For example, the adjusted RR comparing third-born or higher and first-born children was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.05-1.35) between 30 and 42 months of age, but was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.65-0.89) between 10 and 11 years. Later birth order was generally protective for food allergy but increased the risk of atopic dermatitis. The influence of birth order depended on the type of allergic disease and the childhood period. Childhood is unique in terms of physical and immunological development, and the immune response to the post-natal environment in childhood appears to be heterogeneous. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Benzoyl Peroxide Resembling Impetigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changhyun; Craiglow, Brittany G; Watsky, Kalman L; Antaya, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy presented with recurring severe dermatitis of the face of 5-months duration that resembled impetigo. He had been treated with several courses of antibiotics without improvement. Biopsy showed changes consistent with allergic contact dermatitis and patch testing later revealed sensitization to benzoyl peroxide, which the patient had been using for the treatment of acne vulgaris. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Daily allergic multimorbidity in rhinitis using mobile technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J.; Devillier, P.; Anto, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    impact on work productivity using a mobile technology, the Allergy Diary. Methods: We undertook a 1-year prospective observational study in which 4 210 users and 32 585 days were monitored in 19 countries. Five visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed the daily burden of the disease (i.e., global evaluation...... approach examining daily symptoms with mobile technology, we found considerable intra-individual variability of allergic multimorbidity including a previously unrecognized extreme pattern of uncontrolled multimorbidity....

  11. Safety of influenza vaccination in children with allergic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hyeon-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Global guidelines strongly recommend annual influenza vaccination in people age 6 months and older, particularly in asthmatic children. There is no doubt about the benefit of influenza vaccination in asthmatic children. However, some of the vaccine's components may elicit an IgE mediated hypersensitivity or disease exacerbation, including life-threatening events, in children with allergic diseases. As a result, concerns regarding the safety of the vaccine still continue today. The influenza v...

  12. The challenges for nut-allergic consumers of eating out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leftwich, J; Barnett, J; Muncer, K; Shepherd, R; Raats, M M; Hazel Gowland, M; Lucas, J S

    2011-02-01

    For individuals with a nut allergy, the avoidance of allergens is particularly challenging in situations where they are not preparing their own food. Many allergic reactions occur when eating outside the home. To identify and explore the challenges faced by nut-allergic individuals (NAIs) when they are eating in restaurants and other eating establishments. A qualitative interview study was conducted with 32 adults with a clinical history of allergy to peanuts and/or tree nuts. The main strategies that participants adopted to manage the risk of allergic reactions when eating outside the home were avoidance and communication. They avoided types of restaurants, meal courses or particular foods. Seeking familiarity was a key strategy that enabled NAIs to reduce uncertainty and anxiety. Language differences were a major barrier to confident communication about food content. The need to check whether the food on offer may contain nuts was a source of social embarrassment for many participants and the desire to avoid this sometimes led to increased risk taking. Some did not disclose their allergy to restaurant staff as they feared a conservative reaction that would further constrain food choices. NAIs often have to plan where to eat out. The consequent lack of spontaneity was a source of regret to some. Communication patterns of nut-allergic adults are often grounded in legitimate everyday social considerations around embarrassment, choice and spontaneity. Education and training strategies are needed that recognize and take account of this. Focusing on communication deficits of NAIs may be unhelpful; responsibility for food safety must be shared with the food industry. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Allergic reactions in salmonellosis depends on the Serotype of pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mkrtchyan, M.S.; Zakaryan, М. K.; Mnatsakanyan, А. А.

    2013-01-01

    the members of the Salmonella genus are genetically close, they display wide variations in host-specificity, virulence, and disease manifestations. Gastroenteritis is most frequently caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Salmonella enteric serovar Enteritidis (S....../or progression of autoimmune diseases in humans. It is also thought that there is a high probability that infectious gastroenteritis increases the risk of subsequent autoimmune and allergic diseases....

  14. Childhood allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis presenting as a middle lobe syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Ashok; Gera, Kamal; Panjabi, Chandramani

    2016-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is infrequently documented in children with asthma. Although collapse is not uncommon, middle lobe syndrome (MLS) as a presentation of ABPA is rather a rarity. A 9-year-old female child with asthma presented with increase in intensity of symptoms along with a right midzone patchy consolidation on a chest radiograph. In addition, an ill-defined opacity abutting the right cardiac border with loss of cardiac silhouette was noted. A right lateral vie...

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis due to highly reactive halogenated compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, F C; Ive, F A

    1983-11-01

    Ten cases of dermatitis in a fine organic chemicals plant are reported. These cases were all due to exposure to chemical compounds with reactive bromine or chlorine atoms. This type of chemical is always extremely irritant, but evidence is put forward to suggest that these cases were the result of allergic sensitization. Chemicals with reactive halogen atoms should always be handled with extreme care and patch testing should be approached with caution.

  16. AMINO ACID BLOOD POOL OF CHILDREN WITH ALLERGIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmulich O. V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The amino acid blood pool of children with atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, urticaria, angioedema was investigated. The variability of blood plasma amino acid content (tryptophan, histidine, tyrosine, cysteine, methionine was observed. The changes of histidine and tryptophan levels might be connected with the formation of biogenic amines, such as histamine, serotonine, with take part in the development of allergic reactions and inflammatory processes in organism.

  17. A CLINICAL CASE OF ACUTE ALLERGIC MYOCARDITIS SIMULATING MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Shostak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe a clinical case of evolving acute eosinophilic myocarditis simulating coronary heart disease. Subjects and methods. Patient B. aged 62 years was admitted to Intensive Care Unit Fifteen, N.I. Pirogov First Moscow City Clinical Hospital, by being transferred from Thailand with a referral diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction made on November 1, 2012, with complaints of pressing and aching heart pains. At a Phuket hospital, his electrocardiogram recorded atrial fibrillation; indirect cardiac massage, electric pulse therapy, and mechanical ventilation were performed. After being admitted to the N.I. Pirogov First Moscow City Clinical Hospital, the patient underwent examination: estimation of laboratory indicators over time, electrocardiography (ECG, echocardiography, Holter ECG monitoring, and myocardial scintigraphy. Results. The patient had a history of an allergic reaction as urticaria to the ingestion of fish products. His examination showed practically all diagnostic criteria for allergic myocarditis: hypereosinophilia (the admission level of eosinophils was 9% with their further normalization; the characteristic clinical presentation of myocarditis (pressing retrosternal pain; elevated levels of cardiac specific enzymes (creatinine phosphokinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, troponin T; ECG changes – myocardial hypokinesis in the acute period, followed by its pattern normalization. of the pattern. Myocardial scintigraphy (by taking into account the fact that the patient had had a new allergic reaction episode, the investigators decided not to perform coronary angiography revealed decreased radiopharmaceutical accumulation in the lower left ventricular wall in the right coronary arterial bed; perfusion remained in the other myocardial walls. Conclusion. This clinical case reflects the specific features of the course of and difficulties in the diagnosis of acute allergic myocarditis that, in most cases, has no specific

  18. Role of Predatory Mites in Persistent Nonoccupational Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Poza Guedes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mites can sensitize and induce atopic disease in predisposed individuals and are an important deteriorating factor in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis. Although Pyroglyphidae mites have been extensively studied, very scarce reports are available on Cheyletidae spp. especially regarding human respiratory pathology. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the clinical role of this predator mite (Cheyletus eruditus as a respiratory antigen in a selected sensitized human population. Fifty-two adult patients were recruited from the outpatient allergy clinic to assess their eligibility for the study. The thirty-seven subjects with persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR who fulfilled the ARIA criteria had a positive IgE response confirmed by skin prick test (SPT to C. eruditus. Only those individuals (37/47 with a positive SPT to C. eruditus showed a positive nasal provocation test (NPT, while 10 patients with nonallergic mild-to-moderate persistent rhinitis, control group, had a negative NPT with C. eruditus. The present paper describes a new role for the predator mite Cheyletus eruditus as a respiratory allergen in a selected subset of patients in a subtropical environment afflicted with persistent nonoccupational allergic rhinitis.

  19. Anaphylaxis and allergic reactions during surgery and medical procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blas J Larrauri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis during anesthesia is an unpredictable, severe, and rare reaction. It has an incidence of 1/10 000 to 1/20 000 surgeries. In most series, the responsible drugs include neuromuscular blocking agents, latex, or antibiotics. The frequency and etiology of systemic allergic reactions in other medical procedures are largely unknown. The identification of responsible drugs of anaphylaxis is a complex task, requiring testing of all medications and substances used during surgery. We describe our experience in a retrospective study of 15 patients. Ten subjects developed anaphylaxis during surgery, two in endoscopic studies and one in a trans-vaginal ultrasound. The remaining two subjects, one in a trans-vaginal ultrasound and another during a dental procedure had a systemic allergic reaction. We studied all patients with all medications administered during the procedures, including latex and detergents and disinfectants. Three surgeries had to be suspended at induction of anesthesia, five were stopped incomplete and two were completed. Both patients that presented a reaction during endoscopy required intensive care unit admission and the rest were observed in a Hospital. The responsible drugs during surgery anaphylaxis were neuromuscular blocking agents, latex, patent blue, and ranitidine. Ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA was identified during endoscopic studies; latex was responsible in transvaginal ultrasounds; and amoxicillin in the dental procedure. The aim of the present article is to review our experience studying allergic systemic reactions and anaphylaxis during general anesthesia and medical procedures, emphasizing the severity of these reactions and the need for causative drug identification.

  20. Adverse reactions to orthodontic appliances in nickel-allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkman, Kristen K; Inda, Michael J; Reichl, Peter G; Zacharisen, Michael C

    2007-01-01

    Nickel allergy (NA) is common and causes more cases of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) than all other metals combined. Many orthodontic appliances (ODAs) contain nickel but their clinical relevance in nickel-allergic patients is unclear. We aimed to characterize the relationship between NA and ODAs because the medical literature investigating this is controversial. A survey concerning adverse reactions to ODAs in patients with NA was distributed to members of the Wisconsin Society of Orthodontics. Forty-three surveys were analyzed. The surveyed group was experienced, representing a mean of 21.2 years in practice and averaging 242 appliances placed per year per orthodontist. Most new patients with orthodontia were 10-18 years old. Most wires used were nickel-titanium alloy. Although 76% of orthodontists inquired about NA at initial evaluation, 37% still placed nickel-containing ODAs in known nickel-allergic patients. Fifty percent placed a single intraoral appliance, observing for reactions. Three orthodontists applied ODAs to the skin similar to patch testing. Only 8 patients with reactions to ODAs were described in detail, 6 were female patients and 6 were aged 13-14 years. Intraoral and extraoral reactions were mild; diffuse urticaria was reported in one patient. Treatment included removing the appliances or changing to nonnickel alternatives with favorable outcomes. These cases, which included >33,000 patients, suggest a prevalence of 0.03%. Adverse reactions to ODAs in patients with NA have been observed but are uncommon. Using suitable alternatives, patients usually can be accommodated.

  1. Anti-Allergic Properties of Curine, a Bisbenzylisoquinoline Alkaloid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Ribeiro-Filho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Chondrodendron platyphyllum (Menispermaceae. Recent findings have shed light on the actions of curine in different models of allergy and inflammation. Here we review the properties and mechanisms of action of curine focusing on its anti-allergic effects. Curine pre-treatment significantly inhibited the scratching behavior, paw edema and systemic anaphylaxis induced by either ovalbumin (OVA in sensitized animals or compound 48/80, through mechanisms of mast cell stabilization and inhibition of mast cell activation to generate lipid mediators. In addition, oral administration of curine significantly inhibited eosinophil recruitment and activation, as well as, OVA-induced airway hyper-responsiveness in a mouse model of asthma, through inhibition of the production of IL-13 and eotaxin, and of Ca2+ influx. In conclusion, curine exhibit anti-allergic effects in models of lung, skin and systemic allergy in the absence of significant toxicity, and as such has the potential for anti-allergic drug development.

  2. The potential protective role of taurine against experimental allergic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sun-Young; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2017-09-01

    Taurine has been widely evaluated as a potential therapeutic agent in chronic inflammatory disorders and various infections. However, the potential role of taurine in regulating allergic inflammatory responses is currently unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro effects of taurine on the levels of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and other pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of caspase-1 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB as well as the phosphorylations of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-triggered human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells. Furthermore, we assessed the therapeutic effects of taurine on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis (AR) animal models. Here, the obtained results showed that taurine dose-dependently inhibited the production and mRNA expression of TSLP and pro-inflammatory cytokines in HMC-1 cells exposed to PMACI. Taurine attenuated the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 in activated HMC-1 cells. Moreover, taurine brought a significant inhibition of the activities of NF-κB and caspase-1. In an OVA-induced AR animal model, the increased levels of nose rubbing, histamine, immunoglobulin E, TSLP, and interleukin IL-1β were dramatically reduced by the administration of taurine. In summary, taurine could serve as potential novel remedy of allergic inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Non-allergic rhinitis: a case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Lew D

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rhinitis is characterized by rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal congestion, nasal itch and/or postnasal drip. Often the first step in arriving at a diagnosis is to exclude or diagnose sensitivity to inhalant allergens. Non-allergic rhinitis (NAR comprises multiple distinct conditions that may even co-exist with allergic rhinitis (AR. They may differ in their presentation and treatment. As well, the pathogenesis of NAR is not clearly elucidated and likely varied. There are many conditions that can have similar presentations to NAR or AR, including nasal polyps, anatomical/mechanical factors, autoimmune diseases, metabolic conditions, genetic conditions and immunodeficiency. Here we present a case of a rare condition initially diagnosed and treated as typical allergic rhinitis vs. vasomotor rhinitis, but found to be something much more serious. This case illustrates the importance of maintaining an appropriate differential diagnosis for a complaint routinely seen as mundane. The case presentation is followed by a review of the potential causes and pathogenesis of NAR.

  4. Diagnostic and treatment challenges in management of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Bahadur Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among infections pertaining to head and neck rhinosinusitis holds a significant position both with regard to the prevalence and morbidity. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS was initially considered a counterpart of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis when first diagnosed by Sa firstein in 1976 due to its clinical presentations and seemingly similar pathogenesis. Initially only Aspergillus was known as the causative, but now various other fungal species are known to cause chronic rhinosinusitis; hence, the terminology allergic fungal sinusitis was preferred. Exposure to fungi results in similar as asthma in atopic individuals, but then, some nonatopic individuals may also present with similar symptoms. It has also been studied that the presence of serum immunoglobulin E does not ensure the presence of allergy. Till date, there are several controversies regarding pathogenesis, whether humoral or immune mediated, population at risk, variations in presentations, diagnostic parameters, and treatment protocols. In this review, we try to revisit and learn from past documented experiences to further our attempt toward better understanding of the disease process, its diagnosis, and management.

  5. INCIDENCE OF ALLERGIC FUNGAL SINUSITIS AMONG PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC RHINOSINUSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Gupta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This study aims to evaluate the incidence of allergic fungal sinusitis among patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS is a widely prevalent condition globally as well as in India. Fungal rhinosinusitis is classified into two subgroups: three invasive forms (acute necrotizing, chronic invasive, granulomatous invasive, and two noninvasive forms (fungal ball and allergic fungal. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients attending the Department of ENT at Adesh institute of medical science & research, Bathinda (Punjab between Jan 2016 and Dec 2016 one year duration 82 cases were included in this retrospective analysis with features suggestive of chronic rhinosinusitis. Based on clinical, endoscopic and radiological parameters, 82 cases were diagnosed to have rhinosinusitis. In these cases, postoperatively after HPE examination, 16 cases were confirmed to have mycotic infection. RESULTS Out of 16 cases, In Allergic fungal rhino sinusitis(AFRS, Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus was the most common fungus isolated ten cases (71.42%.. In fungal ball, A. flavus was isolated in two cases (14.25% and Aspergillus niger (A. niger was isolated in two cases (14.25%. In invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS mucormycosis was isolated in two cases (12.5%. CONCLUSION The incidence of ARFS is about 12.2% of chronic rhinosinusitis. The commonest age group is second & third decade

  6. [Clinical effect of bipolar radiofrequency thermotherapy on allergic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyake, Daisuke; Ochi, Kentaro; Takatsu, Mitsuharu; Shintani, Toshiharu; Umehara, Tsuyoshi; Koizuka, Izumi

    2004-07-01

    The clinical effect of bipolar radiofrequency thermotherapy on allergic rhinitis was evaluated. A bipolar radiofrequency system (CelonLab ENT) was used to treat 16 patients suffering from allergic rhinitis between February 2003 and August 2003. The thermotherapy was performed under local anesthesia at the otolaryngology outpatient clinic of St. Marianna University Toyoko Hospital. Data were collected by questionnaire and rhinomanometry preoperatively and 2 months postoperatively. The mean visual analogue scale (VAS) score for intraoperative pain was 31 mm (range, 0-100), and nearly all the patients felt no or a subtle pain during the thermotherapy. Postoperative pain was also well tolerated, with nearly all the patients not requiring analgesic drugs. Postoperative bleeding was minor, and none of the patients required additional treatment for bleeding. Nearly all the patients reported an improvement in their nasal patency, rhinorrhea, headaches, and sleeping. Statistically significant improvements were observed for all the measured VAS scores: nasal patency, rhinorrhea, headache, and olfactory function. Nasal resistance, as measured by anterior rhinomanometry, significantly improved after treatment. The effect of decongestion was also measured using anterior rhinomanometry. The ratio of nasal resistance before and after decongestion was significantly higher after thermotherapy, suggesting that nasal decongestion had a smaller effect on nasal patency after treatment. The current results suggest that the CelonLab ENT device is an effective and safe treatment for allergic rhinitis.

  7. B-Glucan exacerbates allergic asthma independent of fungal ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    BackgroundAllergic sensitization to fungi has been associated with asthma severity. As a result, it has been largely assumed that the contribution of fungi to allergic disease is mediated through their potent antigenicity.ObjectiveWe sought to determine the mechanism by which fungi affect asthma development and severity.MethodsWe integrated epidemiologic and experimental asthma models to explore the effect of fungal exposure on asthma development and severity.ResultsWe report that fungal exposure enhances allergen-driven TH2 responses, promoting severe allergic asthma. This effect is independent of fungal sensitization and can be reconstituted with β-glucan and abrogated by neutralization of IL-17A. Furthermore, this severe asthma is resistant to steroids and characterized by mixed TH2 and TH17 responses, including IL-13+IL-17+CD4+ double-producing effector T cells. Steroid resistance is dependent on fungus-induced TH17 responses because steroid sensitivity was restored in IL-17rc−/− mice. Similarly, in children with asthma, fungal exposure was associated with increased serum IL-17A levels and asthma severity.ConclusionOur data demonstrate that fungi are potent immunomodulators and have powerful effects on asthma independent of their potential to act as antigens. Furthermore, our results provide a strong rationale for combination treatment strategies targeting IL-17A for this subgroup of fungus-exposed patients with difficult-to-treat asthma. To describe th

  8. Extracellular vesicles in gastrointestinal cancer in conjunction with microbiota: On the border of Kingdoms

    KAUST Repository

    Barteneva, Natasha S.; Baiken, Yeldar; Fasler-Kan, Elizaveta; Alibek, Kenneth; Wang, Sheng; Maltsev, Natalia; Ponomarev, Eugeny D.; Sautbayeva, Zarina; Kauanova, Sholpan; Moore, Anna; Beglinger, Christoph; Vorobjev, Ivan A.

    2017-01-01

    that was not previously possible due to technical limitations.This review focuses on research evaluating the role of EV production in gastrointestinal (GI) cancer development in conjunction with GI microbiota and inflammatory diseases. We also discuss recent studies

  9. Assessment, Planning, and Execution Considerations for Conjunction Risk Assessment and Mitigation Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigm, Ryan C.; Levi, Joshua A.; Mantziaras, Dimitrios C.

    2010-01-01

    An operational Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) concept is the real-time process of assessing risk posed by close approaches and reacting to those risks if necessary. The most effective way to completely mitigate conjunction risk is to perform an avoidance maneuver. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has implemented a routine CARA process since 2005. Over this period, considerable experience has been gained and many lessons have been learned. This paper identifies and presents these experiences as general concepts in the description of the Conjunction Assessment, Flight Dynamics, and Flight Operations methodologies and processes. These general concepts will be tied together and will be exemplified through a case study of an actual high risk conjunction event for the Aura mission.

  10. Coordination and interpretation of vocal and visible resources: 'trail-off' conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Gareth

    2012-03-01

    The empirical focus of this paper is a conversational turn-taking phenomenon in which conjunctions produced immediately after a point of possible syntactic and pragmatic completion are treated by co-participants as points of possible completion and transition relevance. The data for this study are audio-video recordings of 5 unscripted face-to-face interactions involving native speakers of US English, yielding 28 'trail-off' conjunctions. Detailed sequential analysis of talk is combined with analysis of visible features (including gaze, posture, gesture and involvement with material objects) and technical phonetic analysis. A range of phonetic and visible features are shown to regularly co-occur in the production of 'trail-off' conjunctions. These features distinguish them from other conjunctions followed by the cessation of talk.

  11. The Temporal Dynamics of Visual Search: Evidence for Parallel Processing in Feature and Conjunction Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElree, Brian; Carrasco, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    Feature and conjunction searches have been argued to delineate parallel and serial operations in visual processing. The authors evaluated this claim by examining the temporal dynamics of the detection of features and conjunctions. The 1st experiment used a reaction time (RT) task to replicate standard mean RT patterns and to examine the shapes of the RT distributions. The 2nd experiment used the response-signal speed–accuracy trade-off (SAT) procedure to measure discrimination (asymptotic detection accuracy) and detection speed (processing dynamics). Set size affected discrimination in both feature and conjunction searches but affected detection speed only in the latter. Fits of models to the SAT data that included a serial component overpredicted the magnitude of the observed dynamics differences. The authors concluded that both features and conjunctions are detected in parallel. Implications for the role of attention in visual processing are discussed. PMID:10641310

  12. Caudate nucleus reactivity predicts perceptual learning rate for visual feature conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavis, Eric A; Frank, Sebastian M; Tse, Peter U

    2015-04-15

    Useful information in the visual environment is often contained in specific conjunctions of visual features (e.g., color and shape). The ability to quickly and accurately process such conjunctions can be learned. However, the neural mechanisms responsible for such learning remain largely unknown. It has been suggested that some forms of visual learning might involve the dopaminergic neuromodulatory system (Roelfsema et al., 2010; Seitz and Watanabe, 2005), but this hypothesis has not yet been directly tested. Here we test the hypothesis that learning visual feature conjunctions involves the dopaminergic system, using functional neuroimaging, genetic assays, and behavioral testing techniques. We use a correlative approach to evaluate potential associations between individual differences in visual feature conjunction learning rate and individual differences in dopaminergic function as indexed by neuroimaging and genetic markers. We find a significant correlation between activity in the caudate nucleus (a component of the dopaminergic system connected to visual areas of the brain) and visual feature conjunction learning rate. Specifically, individuals who showed a larger difference in activity between positive and negative feedback on an unrelated cognitive task, indicative of a more reactive dopaminergic system, learned visual feature conjunctions more quickly than those who showed a smaller activity difference. This finding supports the hypothesis that the dopaminergic system is involved in visual learning, and suggests that visual feature conjunction learning could be closely related to associative learning. However, no significant, reliable correlations were found between feature conjunction learning and genotype or dopaminergic activity in any other regions of interest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The efficacy of Otirin Nasal Spray® in the treatment of allergic rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Tech. (Homoeopathy) Allergic Rhinitis (AR) is the inflammation of the nasal and often conjunctival mucous membrane. It manifests due to the exposure of inhaled allergic agents and results in an immunoglobulin E (lgE) mediated reaction (DiPiro et al., 2002; Shargel et al., 2001). Allergic rhinitis is characterised by four principle symptoms, watery rhinorrhoea, nasal obstruction, nasal itching and sneezing (Min, 2010). In addition to the cardinal symptoms experienced during AR other commo...

  14. Food and Natural Materials Target Mechanisms to Effectively Regulate Allergic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    An immune hypersensitivity disorder called allergy is caused by diverse allergens entering the body via skin contact, injection, ingestion, and/or inhalation. These allergic responses may develop into allergic disorders, including inflammations such as atopic dermatitis, asthma, anaphylaxis, food allergies, and allergic rhinitis. Several drugs have been developed to treat these allergic disorders; however, long-term intake of these drugs could have adverse effects. As an alternative to these medicines, food and natural materials that ameliorate allergic disorder symptoms without producing any side effects can be consumed. Food and natural materials can effectively regulate successive allergic responses in an allergic chain-reaction mechanism in the following ways: [1] Inhibition of allergen permeation via paracellular diffusion into epithelial cells, [2] suppression of type 2 T-helper (Th) cell-related cytokine production by regulating Th1/Th2 balance, [3] inhibition of pathogenic effector CD4(+) T cell differentiation by inducing regulatory T cells (Treg), and [4] inhibition of degranulation in mast cells. The immunomodulatory effects of food and natural materials on each target mechanism were scientifically verified and shown to alleviate allergic disorder symptoms. Furthermore, consumption of certain food and natural materials such as fenugreek, skullcap, chitin/chitosan, and cheonggukjang as anti-allergics have merits such as safety (no adverse side effects), multiple suppressive effects (as a mixture would contain various components that are active against allergic responses), and ease of consumption when required. These merits and anti-allergic properties of food and natural materials help control various allergic disorders.

  15. Cutaneous Hypersensitivity Dermatoses in the Feline Patient: A Review of Allergic Skin Disease in Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Alison Diesel

    2017-01-01

    Feline allergic skin disease presents a unique set of challenges to the veterinary practitioner. Although there is some similarity to what is seen in the allergic canine patient, cutaneous hypersensitivity dermatoses in cats can manifest with strikingly different clinical signs, treatment options and outcomes, and secondary complications/disease entities. Additionally, less is known about the pathogenesis of feline allergic skin diseases, particularly “feline atopic syndrome” when compared to...

  16. Report of a patient with complex composites of hepatitis B virus, allergic asthma and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Shamsadin Athari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available HBV is a non-cytopathic virus and cell mediated immune response against this. Humoral mediated immune response are responsible for allergic diseases. Balance between these two subsets of Th CD4+ cells are result of the immune system response. A 56 year old woman presented with chronic HBV infection, allergic asthma, type 2 diabetes mellitus and high blood pressure and high blood lipid. Patients should be followed for the allergic and autoimmune diseases along with their viral reactivation.

  17. Relational and conjunctive binding functions dissociate in short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Mario A; Fabi, Katia; Luzzi, Simona; Cubelli, Roberto; Hernandez Valdez, Maria; Della Sala, Sergio

    2015-02-01

    Remembering complex events requires binding features within unified objects (conjunctions) and holding associations between objects (relations). Recent studies suggest that the two functions dissociate in long-term memory (LTM). Less is known about their functional organization in short-term memory (STM). The present study investigated this issue in patient AE affected by a stroke which caused damage to brain regions known to be relevant for relational functions both in LTM and in STM (i.e., the hippocampus). The assessment involved a battery of standard neuropsychological tasks and STM binding tasks. One STM binding task (Experiment 1) presented common objects and common colors forming either pairs (relations) or integrated objects (conjunctions). Free recall of relations or conjunctions was assessed. A second STM binding task used random polygons and non-primary colors instead (Experiment 2). Memory was assessed by selecting the features that made up the relations or the conjunctions from a set of single polygons and a set of single colors. The neuropsychological assessment revealed impaired delayed memory in AE. AE's pronounced relational STM binding deficits contrasted with his completely preserved conjunctive binding functions in both Experiments 1 and 2. Only 2.35% and 1.14% of the population were expected to have a discrepancy more extreme than that presented by AE in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Processing relations and conjunctions of very elementary nonspatial features in STM led to dissociating performances in AE. These findings may inform current theories of memory decline such as those linked to cognitive aging.

  18. Assessment of Uncertainty-Based Screening Volumes for NASA Robotic LEO and GEO Conjunction Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvet, Steven W.; Frigm, Ryan C.; Hejduk, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    Conjunction Assessment operations require screening assets against the space object catalog by placing a pre-determined spatial volume around each asset and predicting when another object will violate that volume. The selection of the screening volume used for each spacecraft is a trade-off between observing all conjunction events that may pose a potential risk to the primary spacecraft and the ability to analyze those predicted events. If the screening volumes are larger, then more conjunctions can be observed and therefore the probability of a missed detection of a high risk conjunction event is small; however, the amount of data which needs to be analyzed increases. This paper characterizes the sensitivity of screening volume size to capturing typical orbit uncertainties and the expected number of conjunction events observed. These sensitivities are quantified in the form of a trade space that allows for selection of appropriate screen-ing volumes to fit the desired concept of operations, system limitations, and tolerable analyst workloads. This analysis will specifically highlight the screening volume determination and selection process for use in the NASA Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis process but will also provide a general framework for other Owner / Operators faced with similar decisions.

  19. Age- and ability-related differences in young readers' use of conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Kate; Patson, Nikole; Andrews, Leanne

    2005-11-01

    Two studies investigating young readers' use of conjunctions are reported. In Study One, 145 eight- to ten-year-olds completed one of two narrative cloze tasks in which different types of conjunction were deleted. Performance for additive conjunctions was not affected by age in this study, but older children were more likely to select the target conjunction than were younger children for temporal, causal, and adversative terms. Performance was superior in the cloze task in which they were given a restricted choice of responses (three vs. seven). In Study Two, 35 eight- and nine-year-old good and poor comprehenders completed the three-choice cloze task. The poor comprehenders were less likely to select the target terms in general. Sentence-level comprehension skills did not account for their poor performance. The results indicate that understanding of the semantic relations expressed by conjunctions is still developing long after these terms are used correctly in children's speech. The findings are discussed in relation to the role of conjunctions in text comprehension.

  20. The treatment of allergic rhinitis improves the recovery from asthma and upper respiratory infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Sarti

    Full Text Available Forty-six asthmatic children with repeated respiratory infections presented symptoms of allergic rhinitis. All patients were treated locally for allergic rhinitis either with disodium cromoglycate or beclomethasone dipropionate. After six months of treatment, 95% of the children showed improvement of allergic rhinitis and 84% improvement of bronchial asthma, as well as fewer infections. We concluded that allergic rhinitis plays an important role in facilitating infections of the upper respiratory tract, and a possible association of rhinitis, viral infections and bronchial asthma is discussed.

  1. Assessment of sensitization to insect aeroallergens among patients with allergic rhinitis in Yazd City, Iran.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hassan Bemanian; Narges Alizadeh Korkinejad; Shima Shirkhoda; Mohammad Nabavi; Zahra Pourpak

    2012-01-01

    The  frequency of  allergic diseases such  as allergic rhinitis is considerable in general population. Insect aeroallergens are important allergens which can induce airway inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sensitization to insect aeroallergens in allergic rhinitis patients in Yazd as a desert city in Iran.A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 95 allergic rhinitis patients who were referred to allergy clinic of Yazd city. Skin prick tests (SPT) by stand...

  2. A review of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of allergic reactions in the dental office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochford, Christopher; Milles, Maano

    2011-02-01

    Since more than 50 million people in the United States have allergies, knowledge of the management of allergic reactions in the dental office is extremely important. Appropriate care may range from a simple referral to a primary care physician to lifesaving measures implemented during acute anaphylactic reactions. The authors present a basic review of the pathophysiology of allergic reactions and provide information detailing the diagnosis and management of allergic reactions that may be encountered in the dental office. Utilizing this information, the dental practitioner and ancillary staff will have a thorough understanding of allergic reactions and be prepared to successfully identify and treat these reactions.

  3. Cutaneous Hypersensitivity Dermatoses in the Feline Patient: A Review of Allergic Skin Disease in Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Diesel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Feline allergic skin disease presents a unique set of challenges to the veterinary practitioner. Although there is some similarity to what is seen in the allergic canine patient, cutaneous hypersensitivity dermatoses in cats can manifest with strikingly different clinical signs, treatment options and outcomes, and secondary complications/disease entities. Additionally, less is known about the pathogenesis of feline allergic skin diseases, particularly “feline atopic syndrome” when compared to dogs or people. This article aims to review what is currently known in regards to allergic skin disease in the feline patient, with focus on non-flea, non-food hypersensitivity dermatitis.

  4. Cutaneous Hypersensitivity Dermatoses in the Feline Patient: A Review of Allergic Skin Disease in Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel, Alison

    2017-05-09

    Feline allergic skin disease presents a unique set of challenges to the veterinary practitioner. Although there is some similarity to what is seen in the allergic canine patient, cutaneous hypersensitivity dermatoses in cats can manifest with strikingly different clinical signs, treatment options and outcomes, and secondary complications/disease entities. Additionally, less is known about the pathogenesis of feline allergic skin diseases, particularly "feline atopic syndrome" when compared to dogs or people. This article aims to review what is currently known in regards to allergic skin disease in the feline patient, with focus on non-flea, non-food hypersensitivity dermatitis.

  5. Stressors of School-age Children With Allergic Diseases: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iio, Misa; Hamaguchi, Mana; Nagata, Mayumi; Yoshida, Koichi

    2018-05-08

    Most studies of stress in children with chronic diseases have been geared toward parents and caregivers have not considered allergic diseases together. This study aimed to identify the stressors associated with allergic diseases in Japanese school-age children. Stressors associated with allergic diseases of 11 school-age children (seven boys and four girls; age range: 9-12 years) were investigated using semi-structured interviews. In the qualitative thematic analysis of stressors about allergic diseases, two themes: allergic disease-specific stressors and common stressors in chronic diseases, and 12 categories were identified. A thematic map was applied to four domains of stressor: physiological factors, psychological factors, social factors, and environmental factors. The results showed that school-age children with allergic diseases have a variety of stressors. Future studies should aim to develop an allergic disease-specific stress management program with school-age children. In children with allergic diseases, not only is stress management in daily life important, but also stress management for disease-specific matters to control the symptoms and maintain mental health. Stress management should be supported for school-age children with allergic diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Inducing maternal inflammation promotes leptin production in offspring but does not improve allergic symptoms in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko Imai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The intrauterine environment is considered to affect immunological development in fetus, leading to an increased risk of developing allergy. In particular, maternal lipopolysaccharides (LPS administration might regulate the development of allergic disease in offspring. Several studies have shown that being obese relates to a higher prevalence of allergic diseases compared to normal weight. The present study explored the effects of inducing maternal inflammation with LPS before pregnancy on body weight, physical composition including body fat, adipokine production, and pathology of allergic rhinitis in offspring. Main methods: Female mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of LPS (2 μg/g BW. After 5 days of LPS administration, female mice were mated with males, and experimental allergic rhinitis was induced in female offspring. Immunization and nasal challenge with ovalbumin (OVA were performed at 7 and 8 weeks of age. Allergic rhinitis-like symptoms, OVA-specific IgE and adipokines in sera, body weight, fat pad weight, and cytokine production by splenocytes in these 9-week-old offspring. Key findings: Maternal LPS administration results in a significant increase in body weight, visceral fat accumulation, and serum leptin concentration, and the dominance of Th1 in Th balance. Nevertheless, there was no statistical difference in OVA-specific IgE titer and allergic-like symptoms between the groups. Significance: In conclusion, maternal LPS promoted leptin production and altered Th balance in mice offspring, but not improved allergic symptoms in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis. It might suggest that inflammation during pregnancy plays a role in the adipose tissue function which could diversely influence allergic inflammation in offspring. Keywords: Immunology, Metabolism, Nutrition, Health Sciences

  7. 21 CFR 182.40 - Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings. 182.40 Section 182.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings. Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings that are generally recognized as safe for their intended...

  8. 21 CFR 582.40 - Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings. 582.40 Section 582.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings. Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings that are generally recognized as safe for their intended...

  9. ALLERGEN-SPECIFIC IMMUNOTHERAPY: VACCINES FOR ALLERGIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Fedorov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT is the most effective method of allergy treatment which consists of exposure to small doses of antigen responsible for development of allergic condition in the particular patient. Therefore, one may achieve desensitization to this antigen. The history of ASIT application lasts for more than 100 years, and, over this time, huge clinical evidence for the usage of the method has been accumulated. Use of ASIT causes reduction of allergy symptoms and treatment needs and, moreover, it has the potential for long-term clinical benefit, by preventing the development of allergy and its symptoms. The treatment affects basic immunological mechanisms responsible for the development of clinical symptoms. ASIT is an antiinflammatory, pathogenetic and prophylactic treatment of allergic airway disease. The review considers the results of major clinical trials of the ASIT applications for treatment of allergic diseases of the respiratory system (allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Various schemes of ASIT are discussed including its different variants (injectable and sublingual ASIT, the issues of preparation choice for ASIT from those currently available on the pharmaceutical market, patient selection criteria, and the issues of modern molecular allergodiagnostic (allergic sensitization mapping of the patient at molecular level, in order to optimize them. Immunological mechanisms of ASIT are also considered, since appropriate views are rather contraversial. The ASIT effect is mediated through the following basic immunological mechanisms: the suppressed increase of the eosinophil concentrations, reduced duration of the delayed hypersensitivity phase, as well as initiation and maintenance of the Th2-to-Th1-like immune response transition. Regulatory T-cells play a major role in implementation of the immunological mechanism in ASIT, they have a significant impact on the Th2 response suppression. Such suppression may proceed

  10. Local Effect of Neurotrophin-3 in Neuronal Inflammation of Allergic Rhinitis: Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İsmi, Onur; Özcan, Cengiz; Karabacak, Tuba; Polat, Gürbüz; Vayisoğlu, Yusuf; Güçlütürk, Taylan; Görür, Kemal

    2015-10-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a common inflammatory nasal mucosal disease characterized by sneezing, watery nasal discharge, nasal obstruction and itching. Although allergen-specific antibodies play a main role in the allergic airway inflammation, neuronal inflammation may also contribute to the symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Neuronal inflammation is primarily caused by the stimulation of sensory nerve endings with histamine. It has been shown that neurotrophins may also have a role in allergic reactions and neuronal inflammation. Nerve growth factor, neurotrophin 3 (NT-3), neurotrophin 4/5 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are members of the neurotrophin family. Although nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are well studied in allergic rhinitis patients, the exact role of Neurotrophin-3 is not known. To investigate the possible roles of neurotrophin-3 in allergic rhinitis patients. Case-control study. Neurotrophin-3 levels were studied in the inferior turbinate and serum samples of 20 allergic rhinitis and 13 control patients. Neurotrophin-3 staining of nasal tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and ELISA was used for the determination of serum Neurotrophin-3 levels. Neurotrophin-3 staining scores were statistically higher in the study group than in the control patients (p=0.001). Regarding serum Neurotrophin-3 levels, no statistically significant difference could be determined between allergic rhinitis and control patients (p=0.156). When comparing the serum NT-3 levels with tissue staining scores, there were no statistically significant differences in the allergic rhinitis and control groups (p=0.254 for allergic rhinitis and p=0.624 for control groups). We suggest that Neurotrophin-3 might affect the nasal mucosa locally without being released into the systemic circulation in allergic rhinitis patients.

  11. Breast feeding and allergic diseases in infants—a prospective birth cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kull, I; Wickman, M; Lilja, G; Nordvall, S; Pershagen, G

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the effect of breast feeding on allergic disease in infants up to 2 years of age. Methods: A birth cohort of 4089 infants was followed prospectively in Stockholm, Sweden. Information about various exposures was obtained by parental questionnaires when the infants were 2 months old, and about allergic symptoms and feeding at 1 and 2 years of age. Duration of exclusive and partial breast feeding was assessed separately. Symptom related definitions of various allergic diseases were used. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated in a multiple logistic regression model. Adjustments were made for potential confounders. Results: Children exclusively breast fed during four months or more exhibited less asthma (7.7% v 12%, ORadj = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.8), less atopic dermatitis (24% v 27%, ORadj = 0.8, 95% CI 0.7 to 1.0), and less suspected allergic rhinitis (6.5% v 9%, ORadj = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 1.0) by 2 years of age. There was a significant risk reduction for asthma related to partial breast feeding during six months or more (ORadj = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.9). Three or more of five possible allergic disorders—asthma, suspected allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, food allergy related symptoms, and suspected allergic respiratory symptoms after exposure to pets or pollen—were found in 6.5% of the children. Exclusive breast feeding prevented children from having multiple allergic disease (ORadj = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.9) during the first two years of life. Conclusion: Exclusive breast feeding seems to have a preventive effect on the early development of allergic disease—that is, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and suspected allergic rhinitis, up to 2 years of age. This protective effect was also evident for multiple allergic disease. PMID:12456543

  12. Obese and Allergic Related Asthma Phenotypes Among Children Across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Mindy K; Romero, Tahmineh; Sim, Myung S; Szilagyi, Peter G

    2018-04-19

    Pediatric asthma is heterogeneous with phenotypes that reflect differing underlying inflammation and pathophysiology. Little is known about the national prevalence of certain obesity and allergy related asthma phenotypes or associated characteristics. We therefore assessed the national prevalence, risk factors, and parent-reported severity of four asthma phenotypes: not-allergic-not-obese, allergic-not-obese, obese-not-allergic, and allergic-and-obese. We analyzed data from the 2007-2008 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) of 10-17 year-olds with parent-reported asthma. We described sociodemographic and health risk factors of each phenotype and then applied logistic and ordinal regression models to identify associated risk factors and level of severity of the phenotypes. Among 4,427 children with asthma in this NSCH cohort, the association between race and phenotype is statistically significant (p<0.0001); white children with asthma were most likely to have allergic-not-obese asthma while black and Hispanic children with asthma were most likely to have the obese-non-allergic phenotype (p<0.001). ADD/ADHD was more likely to be present in allergic-not-obese children (OR 1.50, CI 1.14-1.98, p = 0.004). The phenotype with the highest risk for more severe compared to mild asthma was the obese-and-allergic asthma phenotype (OR 3.34, CI 2.23-5.01, p<0.001). Allergic-not-obese asthma comprised half of our studied asthma phenotypes, while obesity-related asthma (with or without allergic components) comprised one-fifth of asthma phenotypes in this cohort representative of the U.S. Children with both obese and allergic asthma are most likely to have severe asthma. Future management of childhood asthma might consider more tailoring of treatment and management plans based upon different childhood asthma phenotypes.

  13. Seasonal changes in nasal cytology in mite-allergic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelardi M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Matteo Gelardi,1 Diego G Peroni,2 Cristoforo Incorvaia,3 Nicola Quaranta,1 Concetta De Luca,1 Salvatore Barberi,4 Ilaria Dell'Albani,5 Massimo Landi,6 Franco Frati,5 Olivier de Beaumont7 1Otolaryngology Unit, Department of Neuroscience and Sensory Organs, University of Bari, Bari, Italy; 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; 3Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, ICP Hospital, Milan, Italy; 4Department of Pediatrics, San Paolo Hospital, Milan, Italy; 5Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 6Department of Pediatrics, National Healthcare System, ASL TO1, Turin, Italy; 7Medical Affairs Department, Stallergenes, Antony, France Background: House dust mites (HDMs are a major cause of allergic rhinitis (AR and asthma worldwide. Recent studies suggested that the allergen load presents seasonal modifications, giving rise to seasonal variation in nasal inflammation and symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate by nasal cytology whether nasal inflammation in mite-allergic patients changes with the seasons of the year. Methods: The study included 16 patients (seven males and nine females, mean age 38.1 years with persistent AR caused by monosensitization to HDMs. Nasal cytology was performed in all patients once monthly for 1 year. Results: Nasal cytology showed that the cells most commonly detected in the nasal mucosa were neutrophils. During the period from October to April, a peak in the number of neutrophils and also the presence of significant numbers of eosinophils, mast cells, and lymphocytes/plasma cells were found, which shows the occurrence of more intense inflammation during these months. Conclusion: Nasal cytology provides useful data in detecting nasal inflammation and its association with the clinical stage of AR. The seasonal variations in nasal cytology are likely to be induced by the fluctuations in the HDM allergen that have been uncovered in recent investigations. Keywords: allergens

  14. Effects of yttrium 90 on experimental allergic arthritis in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier-Ruge, W.; Mueller, W.; Pavelka, K.

    1976-01-01

    Fifteen weeks after allergic arthritis developed in the knee joint of 17 immunized rabbits, 8 animals were given an injection of 200 μCi yttrium 90( 90 Y) into the left joint cavity and 7 were injected with 400 μCi. The animals were sacrificed at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks, and at 6 to 12 months after the injection. Two uninjected animals used as morphological controls were sacrificed 13 weeks after immunization, and showed allergic arthritis had progressed to severe inflammation of the knee joint marked by massive round-cell infiltration, oedema, and proliferation of synovial mesothelium in the synovial villi and joint capsule. Treatment with 90 Y was effective 2 weeks after injection and the disappearance of inflammatory odema and marked regression of round-cell infiltration. This was accompanied by degeneration of the synovial mesothelium and fibrosis of the subsynovial tissue and synovial vessels as a secondary effect of the radiation. In the animals with severe allergic arthritis, the healing effects of 90 Y were more marked than the secondary effects of the radiation which were dose-dependent. Treatment with 90 Y of arthritic knee joints with the lowest effective dose of the isotope - if necessay with repeated application - seems justified. A single large dose does not have a greater therapeutic effect and causes more radiation damage to the joint. In view of the possible secondary effects in the joint, the indication for 90 Y therapy should be restricted, particularly in young patients, to cases of chronic relapsing arthritis unresponsive to other treatment. (U.K.)

  15. Aspergillus fumigatus viability drives allergic responses to inhaled conidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Ajay P; Croston, Tara L; Lemons, Angela R; Goldsmith, W T; Marshall, Nikki B; Kashon, Michael L; Germolec, Dori R; Beezhold, Donald H; Green, Brett J

    2018-04-13

    Aspergillus fumigatus induced allergic airway disease has been shown to involve conidial germination in vivo but the immunological mechanisms remain uncharacterized. A subchronic murine exposure model was used to examine the immunological mediators that are regulated in response to either culturable or non-culturable A. fumigatus conidia. Female B6C3F1/N mice were repeatedly dosed via inhalation with 1 x 105 viable or heat inactivated conidia (HIC), twice a week for 13 weeks (26 exposures). Control mice inhaled HEPA-filtered air. The influence of A. fumigatus conidial germination on the pulmonary immunopathological outcomes was evaluated by flow cytometry analysis of cellular infiltration in the airways, assessment of lung mRNA expression, and quantitative proteomics and histopathology of whole lung tissue. Repeated inhalation of viable conidia, but not HIC, resulted in allergic inflammation marked by vascular remodeling, extensive eosinophilia, and accumulation of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs) in the murine airways. More specifically, mice that inhaled viable conidia resulted in a mixed TH1 and TH2 (IL-13) cytokine response. Recruitment of eosinophils corresponded with increased Ccl11 transcripts. Furthermore, genes associated with M2 or alternatively activated macrophage polarization (e.g. Arg1, Chil3 and Retnla) were significantly upregulated in viable A. fumigatus exposed mice. In mice inhaling HIC, CD4+ T cells expressing IFN-γ (TH1) dominated the lymphocytic infiltration. Quantitative proteomics of the lung revealed metabolic reprogramming accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress stimulated by oxidative stress from repetitive microbial insult. Our studies demonstrate that A. fumigatus conidial viability in vivo is critical to the immunopathological presentation of chronic fungal allergic disease. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Allergic aspergillosis and the antigens of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bharat; Singh, Seema; Asif, Abdul R; Oellerich, Michael; Sharma, Gainda L

    2014-01-01

    Incidence of fungal infections has increased alarmingly in past few decades. Of the fungal pathogens, the Aspergillus fumigatus has been a major cause of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) which has five main stages--the acute, remission, exacerbation, glucocorticoid dependent and fibrotic stage. The diagnosis of ABPA remains difficult due to its overlapping clinical and radiological features with tuberculosis and cystic fibrosis. From past few decades, the crude fractions of A. fumigatus have been used for immunodiagnosis of ABPA. Most of the detection kits based on crude fractions of A. fumigatus are quite sensitive but have low specificity. Till date 21 known and 25 predicted allergens of A. fumigatus have been identified. Of these allergens, only five recombinants (rAsp f1-f4 and f6) are commercially used for diagnosis of allergic aspergillosis. Remaining allergens of A. fumigatus have been restricted for use in specific diagnosis of ABPA, due to sharing of common antigenic epitopes with other allergens. Complete sequencing of A. fumigatus genome identified 9926 genes and the reports on the proteome of A. fumigatus have shown the presence of large number of their corresponding proteins in the pathogen. The analysis of immunoproteomes developed from crude fractions of A. fumigatus by IgG/IgE reactivity with ABPA patients and animal sera have identified the panel of new antigens. A brief description on the current status of A. fumigatus antigens is provided in this review. The implementation of advance recombinant expression and peptidomic approaches on the A. fumigatus antigens may help in the selection of appropriate molecules for the development of tools for more specific early diagnosis of ABPA, and desensitization therapies for patients of allergic disorders.

  17. Preservatives as important etiologic factors of allergic contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kręcisz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preservatives present in cosmetics and other industrial products can cause allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of allergy to selected preservatives in consecutive patients examined due to contact dermatitis in the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, and to establish whether individuals sensitized to formaldehyde react simultaneously to formaldehyde releasers. Material and Methods: A group of 405 patients (308 females and 97 males was examined in 2011–2013. In all participants patch tests with a series of 13 preservatives (paraben mix, formaldehyde, Quaternium 15, chloromethylisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone mix, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, diazolidinyl urea, imidazolidinyl urea, DMDM hydantoin, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, benzalkonium chloride, sodium metabisulfite, produced by Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden were performed. Results: Of the 405 patients 74 (including 52 females showed positive results of patch tests. Contact allergy to at least 1 preservative was noted in 47 (11.6% patients, including 34 (11% females and 13 (13.4% males. Methylisothiazolinone proved to be the most frequent sensitizer – 4.7% (5.2% females, 3.1% males while parabens, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol and imidazolidinyl urea (0.2% were found to be the least frequent. Fourteen (3.4% participants, 10 women and 4 men, were allergic to formaldehyde and/or formaldehyde releasers. In 11 (78.6% of them monovalent hypersensitivity was observed. In 13 (3.2% of the examined group patients allergy to preservatives might have been of occupational origin. Conclusions: Preservatives, particularly isothiazolinones, are significant causal factors of allergic contact dermatitis, including occupational cases. Individuals sensitized to formaldehyde may react simultaneously to formaldehyde releasers, however, such reactions are relatively rare. Med Pr 2015;66(3:327–332

  18. Fexofenadine hydrochloride in the treatment of allergic disease: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Axelrod

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available David Axelrod1, Leonard Bielory2Division of Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology, UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School, 1Department of Medicine, 2Departments of Medicine, Pediatrics, Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Newark, New Jersey, USAAbstract: Fexofenadine is a selective, non-sedating H1 receptor antagonist, marketed in the United States since 2000. The FDA approved an oral suspension in 2006, for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria in children. The tablet, capsule, and oral suspension are bioequivalent. Although fexofenadine does not use P450 CYP 3A4 it does interact with a number of drugs at P-glycoprotein and organic anion transporter polypeptides. The risk of toxicity from other drugs may increase with the administration of fexofenadine. Orange and grapefruit juices reduce the bioavailability of fexofenadine. Fexofenadine has been shown to have an impact on inflammatory mediators, other than histamine, such as decreasing the production of LTC4, LTD4, LTE4, PGE2, and PGF2α; inhibiting cyclo-oxygenase 2, thromboxane; limiting iNOS generation of NO; decreasing cytokine levels (ICAM-1, ELAM-1, VCAM-1, RANTES, I-TAC, MDC, TARC, MMP-2, MMP-9, tryptase; and diminishing eosinophil adherence, chemotaxis, and opsonization of particles. These effects may provide benefit to some of the inflammatory responses of an acute allergic reaction and provide a basis for future development of H1 antagonists with stronger anti-inflammatory effects. These studies also support the contention that fexofenadine is effective for the treatment of allergic rhinits and chronic idiopathic urticaria.Keywords: fexofenadine, allergy, oral suspension, formulations, pharmacology

  19. Effects of yttrium 90 on experimental allergic arthritis in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier-Ruge, W [Sandoz A.G., Basel (Switzerland); Mueller, W; Pavelka, K

    1976-02-01

    Fifteen weeks after allergic arthritis developed in the knee joint of 17 immunized rabbits, 8 animals were given an injection of 200 ..mu..Ci yttrium 90(/sup 90/Y) into the left joint cavity and 7 were injected with 400 ..mu..Ci. The animals were sacrificed at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks, and at 6 to 12 months after the injection. Two uninjected animals used as morphological controls were sacrificed 13 weeks after immunization, and showed allergic arthritis had progressed to severe inflammation of the knee joint marked by massive round-cell infiltration, oedema, and proliferation of synovial mesothelium in the synovial villi and joint capsule. Treatment with /sup 90/Y was effective 2 weeks after injection and the disappearance of inflammatory odema and marked regression of round-cell infiltration. This was accompanied by degeneration of the synovial mesothelium and fibrosis of the subsynovial tissue and synovial vessels as a secondary effect of the radiation. In the animals with severe allergic arthritis, the healing effects of /sup 90/Y were more marked than the secondary effects of the radiation which were dose-dependent. Treatment with /sup 90/Y of arthritic knee joints with the lowest effective dose of the isotope - if necessay with repeated application - seems justified. A single large dose does not have a greater therapeutic effect and causes more radiation damage to the joint. In view of the possible secondary effects in the joint, the indication for /sup 90/Y therapy should be restricted, particularly in young patients, to cases of chronic relapsing arthritis unresponsive to other treatment.

  20. Spectrum of Misdiagnosis of Allergic Bronchopulmonary Mycosis: Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Rana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM is most commonly seen in cystic fibrosis and bronchial asthma. Most of patients are misdiagnosed at initial outpatient department visit due to low suspicion, lack of awareness of entity and similarity in clinical symptoms and radiological findings with other common pulmonary diseases. Pulmonary tuberculosis is the most common entity diagnosed, and anti-tubercular treatment is the most commonly abused chemotherapy. Careful history taking, astute initial examination and awareness may help in curbing wrong diagnosis and treatment. This article present two cases of ABPM who were initially misdiagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis and carcinoma lung, respectively.

  1. Desacetylmatricarin, an anti-allergic component from Taraxacum platycarpum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, H; Choi, E J; Yoo, G S; Kim, K M; Ryu, S Y; Ho, C

    1998-08-01

    The bioassay-guided fractionation of Taraxacum platycarpum (Compositae) extract led to the isolation of a desacetylmatricarin (1) as an active principle responsible for the anti-allergic property. It showed a potent inhibitory activity upon the beta-hexosaminidase release from RBL-2H3 cells in a dose-dependent manner and the IC50 was 7.5 microM. Two structurally related guaianolide sesquiterpenes, achillin and leucodin, were also examined and their IC50 values were determined as 100 microM and 80 microM, respectively.

  2. Methyldibromoglutaronitrile in rinse-off products causes allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Devantier; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, T

    2004-01-01

    in a double-blind, randomized repeated open application test (ROAT) using two coded liquid soaps with and without MDBGN. Areas of 50 cm2 on the lower arms were washed with the soaps twice a day for up to 28 days; two of the subjects continued for 34 days. The subjects were also patch tested with a dilution...... series of MDBGN to determine their patch test threshold values. RESULTS: Seven presensitized individuals (37%) developed allergic contact dermatitis from the soap containing MDBGN. The mean dose of MDBGN per application was 2.2 micro g cm-2 and the reactions appeared between days 6 and 34. All nine...

  3. Kaposi′s Varicelliform Eruption In Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thappa Devinder Mohan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42 year old male having airborne allergic contact dermatitis suddenly developed high grade fever, chills and prostation on 7th day of admission. Two days later he developed generalized papulovescles which became haemorrhagic and crusted within one to two days. These lesions later evolved into grouped erosions. Simultaneously, he developed swelling of the face and generalized lymphadenopathy. Tzanck smear demonstrated giant cell and the patients was diagnosed as having kaposis’s varicelliform eruption. He responded to oral acycolvir. The case is reported for its rarity.

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates in disposable blue diathermy pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, S. K.; Shaw, S.

    1999-01-01

    We report 2 cases of elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates from disposable blue diathermy pads used on patients who underwent routine surgery. Their reactions were severe, and took approximately 5 weeks to resolve. Both patients gave a prior history of finger tip dermatitis following the use of artificial sculptured acrylic nails, which is a common, but poorly reported, cause of acrylate allergy. Patch testing subsequently confirmed allergies to multiple acrylates present in both the conducting gel of disposable blue diathermy pads, and artificial sculptured acrylic nails. We advocate careful history taking prior to surgery to avoid unnecessary exposure to acrylates in patients already sensitized. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10364952

  5. Probiotics and down-regulation of the allergic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliomäki, Marko A; Isolauri, Erika

    2004-11-01

    The first clinical trials with probiotics, especially in the treatment of atopic eczema, have yielded encouraging results. Experimental studies have found that probiotics exert strain-specific effects in the intestinal lumen and on epithelial cells and immune cells with anti-allergic potential. These effects include enhancement in antigen degradation and gut barrier function and induction of regulatory and proinflammatory immune responses, the latter of which occurs more likely beyond the intestinal epithelium. Future studies should address more accurately how these and other possible mechanisms operate in the complex gastrointestinal macroenvironment in vivo and how these mechanisms are related to the clinical effects in a dose-dependent manner.

  6. Homeopathy for allergic rhinitis: protocol for a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis is a global health problem that is often treated with homeopathy. The objective of this review will be to evaluate the effectiveness of homeopathic treatment of allergic rhinitis. Methods/Design The authors will conduct a systematic review. We will search Medline, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, AMED, CAM-Quest, Google Scholar and reference lists of identified studies up to December 2013. The review will include randomized controlled trials that evaluate homeopathic treatment of allergic rhinitis. Studies with participants of all ages, with acute or chronic comorbidities will be included. Patients with immunodeficiency will not be included. The diagnosis will be based on the published guidelines of diagnosis and classification. Studies of all homeopathy modalities (clinical, complex and classical homeopathy, and isopathy) will be included. We will include trials with both active controls (conventional therapy, standard care) and placebo controls. The primary outcomes are: an improvement of global symptoms recorded in validated daily or weekly diaries and any scores from validated visual analogue scales; the total Quality of Life Score (such as the Juniper RQLQ);individual symptoms scores which include any appropriate measures of nasal obstruction, runny nose, sneezing, itching, and eye symptoms; and number of days requiring medication. Secondary outcomes selected will include serum immunoglobin E (IgE) levels, individual ocular symptoms, adverse events, and the use of rescue medication. Treatment effects will be measured by calculating the mean difference and the standardized mean difference with 95% confidence interval (CI) for continuous data. Risk ratio or, if feasible, odds ratio will be calculated with 95% CI for dichotomous data. After assessing clinical and statistical heterogeneity, meta-analysis will be performed, if appropriate. The individual participant will be the unit of analysis. Descriptive information on missing data will be

  7. Miliary nodules in a patient of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N A; Sumon, S M; Rahman, A; Hossain, M A; Ferdous, J; Bari, M R

    2014-04-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergilosis (ABPA) is immunological pulmonary disease caused by hypersensitivity of aspergillus fumigatus usually occurs in patients with chronic asthma, cystic fibrosis and bronchiactasis. This disease may present with divers radiological presentation like; fleeting pulmonary opacities, bronchiactasis, mucoid impaction, perihilar opacity (hailer lymphadenopathy), and lung mass or pleural effusion. We describe the case of a 30 year old housewife who presented with progressive dysponea, low grade fever, dry cough, weight loss and miliary nodule in chest radiograph and high-resolution CT (HRCT) in a tertiary level hospital of Bangladesh. A diagnosis of ABPA was established on the basis of sputum routine microscopy and culture examination for fungus (Aspergillus).

  8. Space Weather Impacts to Conjunction Assessment: A NASA Robotic Orbital Safety Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrist, Richard; Ghrist, Richard; DeHart, Russel; Newman, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recognizes the risk of on-orbit collisions from other satellites and debris objects and has instituted a process to identify and react to close approaches. The charter of the NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) task is to protect NASA robotic (unmanned) assets from threats posed by other space objects. Monitoring for potential collisions requires formulating close-approach predictions a week or more in the future to determine analyze, and respond to orbital conjunction events of interest. These predictions require propagation of the latest state vector and covariance assuming a predicted atmospheric density and ballistic coefficient. Any differences between the predicted drag used for propagation and the actual drag experienced by the space objects can potentially affect the conjunction event. Therefore, the space environment itself, in particular how space weather impacts atmospheric drag, is an essential element to understand in order effectively to assess the risk of conjunction events. The focus of this research is to develop a better understanding of the impact of space weather on conjunction assessment activities: both accurately determining the current risk and assessing how that risk may change under dynamic space weather conditions. We are engaged in a data-- ]mining exercise to corroborate whether or not observed changes in a conjunction event's dynamics appear consistent with space weather changes and are interested in developing a framework to respond appropriately to uncertainty in predicted space weather. In particular, we use historical conjunction event data products to search for dynamical effects on satellite orbits from changing atmospheric drag. Increased drag is expected to lower the satellite specific energy and will result in the satellite's being 'later' than expected, which can affect satellite conjunctions in a number of ways depending on the two satellites' orbits

  9. Clinical use of gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution for treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cervantes LJ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Lorenzo J Cervantes, Francis S MahDepartment of Ophthalmology, Cornea and External Disease, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USAAbstract: Bacterial conjunctivitis is a common infectious disease of the eye, characterized by conjunctival hyperemia, eyelid edema, and purulent discharge. Although the prevalence and incidence are not well reported, bacterial conjunctivitis represents one of the most frequent causes of patient visits to both primary care physicians and ophthalmologists. Most cases of nongonococcal and nonchlamydial bacterial conjunctivitis are self-limiting and may resolve without intervention. There is a place for treatment, however, which allows for a shorter time to clinical and microbiological resolution which may decrease the mild morbidity, decrease health care costs of visits and potential complications, return patients back to school or the work force, and limit the potential spread of this communicable infection. Gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution is a broad spectrum 8-methoxyfluroroquinolone bactericidal antibiotic, with good activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus species, and Gram-negative pathogens. It also has a relatively good resistance profile, making it a more than adequate choice in the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis when therapy is warranted.Keywords: gatifloxacin, Zymar®, Zymaxid®, bacterial conjunctivitis

  10. Differential age-related effects on conjunctive and relational visual short-term memory binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Christine

    2017-12-28

    An age-related associative deficit has been described in visual short-term binding memory tasks. However, separate studies have suggested that ageing disrupts relational binding (to associate distinct items or item and context) more than conjunctive binding (to integrate features within an object). The current study directly compared relational and conjunctive binding with a short-term memory task for object-colour associations in 30 young and 30 older adults. Participants studied a number of object-colour associations corresponding to their individual object span level in a relational task in which objects were associated to colour patches and a conjunctive task where colour was integrated into the object. Memory for individual items and for associations was tested with a recognition memory test. Evidence for an age-related associative deficit was observed in the relational binding task, but not in the conjunctive binding task. This differential impact of ageing on relational and conjunctive short-term binding is discussed by reference to two underlying age-related cognitive difficulties: diminished hippocampally dependent binding and attentional resources.

  11. Microbiological study of neonatal conjunctivitis with special reference to chlamydia trachomatis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohile Mukula

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the microbial agents, chiefly Chlamydia trachomatis and other bacteria, in neonatal conjunctivitis. METHODS: Conjunctival specimens from 70 newborns with conjunctivitis were subjected to bacterial culture and sensitivity testing, monoclonal antibody based C. trachomatis antigen detection test and species-specific Chlamydia antibody detection in the sera of babies and their mothers, by micro-immunofluorescence assay. RESULTS: Bacteria were isolated from 35 (50% babies; the majority (20, 57.14% were Staphylococcus epidermidis. C. trachomatis antigen was detected in conjunctival smears of 17 (24% babies, and 6 (35.29% of them were positive for other bacteria. Six babies and their mothers tested positive for C. trachomatis Ig G antibodies. At follow-up after 14 weeks, 6 (35.29% of the Chlamydia antigen-positive babies were found to have developed recurrent conjunctivitis. CONCLUSION: C. trachomatis is responsible for almost a quarter of all cases of neonatal conjunctivitis, with recurrences in 35% of cases. Bacteria could be isolated from 50% of the patients though the exact role of Staphylococcus epidermidis, isolated from 28.65% of the neonatal conjunctivitis cases, remains unclear.

  12. Communications with Mars During Periods of Solar Conjunction: Initial Study Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, D.; Hastrup, R.

    2001-07-01

    During the initial phase of the human exploration of Mars, a reliable communications link to and from Earth will be required. The direct link can easily be maintained during most of the 780-day Earth-Mars synodic period. However, during periods in which the direct Earth-Mars link encounters increased intervening charged particles during superior solar conjunctions of Mars, the resultant effects are expected to corrupt the data signals to varying degrees. The purpose of this article is to explore possible strategies, provide recommendations, and identify options for communicating over this link during periods of solar conjunctions. A significant improvement in telemetry data return can be realized by using the higher frequency 32 GHz (Ka-band), which is less susceptible to solar effects. During the era of the onset of probable human exploration of Mars, six superior conjunctions were identified from 2015 to 2026. For five of these six conjunctions, where the signal source is not occulted by the disk of the Sun, continuous communications with Mars should be achievable. Only during the superior conjunction of 2023 is the signal source at Mars expected to lie behind the disk of the Sun for about one day and within two solar radii (0. 5 deg) for about three days.

  13. Illusory conjunctions and perceptual grouping in a visual search task in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, V J; Dewis, S A; Lewin, T J

    1998-07-27

    This report describes part of a series of experiments, conducted within the framework of feature integration theory, to determine whether patients with schizophrenia show deficits in preattentive processing. Thirty subjects with a DSM-III-R diagnosis of schizophrenia and 30 age-, gender-, and education-matched normal control subjects completed two computerized experimental tasks, a visual search task assessing the frequency of illusory conjunctions (i.e. false perceptions) under conditions of divided attention (Experiment 3) and a task which examined the effects of perceptual grouping on illusory conjunctions (Experiment 4). We also assessed current symptomatology and its relationship to task performance. Contrary to our hypotheses, schizophrenia subjects did not show higher rates of illusory conjunctions, and the influence of perceptual grouping on the frequency of illusory conjunctions was similar for schizophrenia and control subjects. Nonetheless, specific predictions from feature integration theory about the impact of different target types (Experiment 3) and perceptual groups (Experiment 4) on the likelihood of forming an illusory conjunction were strongly supported, thereby confirming the integrity of the experimental procedures. Overall, these studies revealed no firm evidence that schizophrenia is associated with a preattentive abnormality in visual search using stimuli that differ on the basis of physical characteristics.

  14. Inhibitory guidance in visual search: the case of movement-form conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Kevin; Allen, Harriet A; Braithwaite, Jason J; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2012-02-01

    We used a probe-dot procedure to examine the roles of excitatory attentional guidance and distractor suppression in search for movement-form conjunctions. Participants in Experiment 1 completed a conjunction (moving X amongst moving Os and static Xs) and two single-feature (moving X amongst moving Os, and static X amongst static Os) conditions. "Active" participants searched for the target, whereas "passive" participants viewed the displays without responding. Subsequently, both groups located (left or right) a probe dot appearing in either an occupied or an unoccupied location. In the conjunction condition, the active group located probes presented on static distractors more slowly than probes presented on moving distractors, reversing the direction of the difference found within the passive group. This disadvantage for probes on static items was much stronger in conjunction than in single-feature search. The same pattern of results was replicated in Experiment 2, which used a go/no-go procedure. Experiment 3 extended the go/no-go procedure to the case of search for a static target and revealed increased probe localisation times as a consequence of active search, primarily for probes on moving distractor items. The results demonstrated attentional guidance by inhibition of distractors in conjunction search.

  15. Modulation of neurotrophin and neurotrophin receptor expression in nasal mucosa after nasal allergen provocation in allergic rhinitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raap, U.; Fokkens, W.; Bruder, M.; Hoogsteden, H.; Kapp, A.; Braunstahl, G.-J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) feature both allergic airway inflammation and a hyperresponsiveness to nonspecific stimuli which is partly neuronally controlled. Still, it is unclear whether or not neurotrophins are involved in airway pathophysiology of AR and in nasobronchial

  16. SQ house dust mite sublingually administered immunotherapy tablet (ALK) improves allergic rhinitis in patients with house dust mite allergic asthma and rhinitis symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Holger; Canonica, G Walter; Backer, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: House dust mite (HDM) allergy is associated with persistent allergic rhinitis (AR) and allergic asthma. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of a SQ HDM sublingually administered immunotherapy tablet (ALK, Hørsholm, Denmark) in adults and adolescents with HDM respiratory...... allergic disease and report the AR results. METHODS: Six hundred four subjects at least 14 years old with HDM AR and mild to moderate HDM allergic asthma were randomized 1:1:1:1 to double-blinded daily treatment with 1, 3, 6 SQ-HDM or placebo. End-of-treatment rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms and medication...... score were predefined extrapulmonary end points. A subgroup analysis was conducted post hoc in subjects with a total combined rhinitis score (TCRS) > 0 (ie, with AR symptoms and/or AR medication use during the 4-week baseline period). The subgroup was comprised of 498 subjects (82%). RESULTS...

  17. The ARIA score of allergic rhinitis using mobile technology correlates with quality-of-life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Arnavielhe, S; Bedbrook, A

    2018-01-01

    Mobile technology has been used to appraise allergic rhinitis control but more data are needed. In order to better assess the importance of mobile technologies in rhinitis control, the ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma) score ranging from 0 to 4 of the Allergy Diary was compared wi...

  18. Brief Report: "Allergic Symptoms" in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. More than Meets the Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidou, Asimenia; Alysandratos, Konstantinos-Dionysios; Asadi, Shahrzad; Zhang, Bodi; Francis, Konstantinos; Vasiadi, Magdalini; Kalogeromitros, Dimitrios; Theoharides, Theoharis C.

    2011-01-01

    Many children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have either family and/or personal history of "allergic symptomatology", often in the absence of positive skin or RAST tests. These symptoms may suggest mast cell activation by non-allergic triggers. Moreover, children with mastocytosis or mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS), a spectrum of rare…

  19. Real-life study showing better control of allergic rhinitis by immunotherapy than regular pharmacotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droessaert, V.; Timmermans, M.; Dekimpe, E.; Seys, S.; Ceuppens, J. J.; Fokkens, W. J.; Hellings, P. W.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment for allergic rhinitis (AR) aims at reducing the burden of allergic inflammation, either by suppression of the nasal inflammation with pharmacotherapy or by inducing tolerance via immunotherapy (IT). At present, we lack information on the comparison between the degree of symptom control in

  20. Frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food: A systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, A.; Knulst, A.C.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Michelsen, A.; Houben, G.F.; Baumert, J.L.; Os-Medendorp, H. van

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Food allergic patients have to deal with an avoidance diet. Confusing labelling terms or precautionary labels can result in misinterpretation and risk-taking behaviour. Even those patients that strictly adhere to their diet experience (sometimes severe) unexpected allergic reactions to

  1. Quality of life is significantly impaired in non-allergic rhinitis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segboer, Christine L.; Terreehorst, Ingrid; Gevorgyan, Artur; Hellings, Peter W.; van Drunen, Cornelis M.; Fokkens, Wytske J.

    2017-01-01

    In contrast to the well-known significant impairment of quality of life (QoL) in allergic rhinitis (AR), the degree of impairment in QoL in non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) remained unknown for a long time, due to a lack of a validated questionnaire to assess QoL in the NAR patient group. In this study a

  2. Cofactors in allergic reactions to food : physical exercise and alcohol are the most important

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, Astrid; van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; Kruizinga, Astrid G; Blom, W Marty; Houben, Geert F; Knulst, André C

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Involvement of cofactors, like physical exercise, alcohol consumption and use of several types of medication, are associated with more severe food allergic symptoms. However, there is limited evidence on how often cofactors play a role in food allergic reactions. The study aimed to get

  3. Control of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Test (CARAT) : dissemination and applications in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azevedo, Pedro; Correia-de-Sousa, Jaime; Bousquet, Jean; Bugalho-Almeida, Antonio; Del Giacco, Stefano R.; Demoly, Pascal; Haahtela, Tari; Jacinto, Tiago; Garcia-Larsen, Vanessa; van der Molen, Thys; Morais-Almeida, Mario; Nogueira-Silva, Luis; Pereira, Ana M.; Roman-Rodrigues, Miguel; Silva, Barbara G.; Tsiligianni, Ioanna G.; Yaman, Hakan; Yawn, Barbara; Fonseca, Joao A.

    Asthma frequently occurs in association with allergic rhinitis and a combined management approach has been suggested. The Control of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Test (CARAT) is the first questionnaire to assess control of both diseases concurrently. However, to have an impact on healthcare it needs

  4. Trichuris suis ova therapy for allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Peter; Arnved, John; Rønborg, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic helminth infections can protect against allergic airway inflammation in experimental models and have been associated with a reduced risk of atopy and a reduced course of asthma in some observational studies. Although no clinical evidence exists to support the use of helminth therapy...... for allergic disease, the helminth Trichuris suis has demonstrated efficacy in treatment of inflammatory bowel disease....

  5. Parental Burden in Families with a Young Food-Allergic Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komulainen, Kati

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the parental burden in families with a food-allergic child under the age of four. This study was carried out using a descriptive correlational research design. The subjects of this study were 104 families with a young food-allergic child who observed a restricted diet. The majority of the children were…

  6. Unintended allergens in precautionary labelled and unlabelled products pose significant risks to UK allergic consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remington, B.C.; Baumert, J.L.; Blom, W.M.; Houben, G.F.; Taylor, S.L.; Kruizinga, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Allergens in food may pose a risk to allergic consumers. While there is EU regulation for allergens present as an ingredient, this is not the case for unintended allergen presence (UAP). Food companies use precautionary allergen labels to inform allergic individuals of a potential risk

  7. Frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food : A systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, A.; Knulst, A. C.; Kruizinga, A. G.; Michelsen, A.; Houben, G. F.; Baumert, J. L.; van Os-Medendorp, H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Food allergic patients have to deal with an avoidance diet. Confusing labelling terms or precautionary labels can result in misinterpretation and risk-taking behaviour. Even those patients that strictly adhere to their diet experience (sometimes severe) unexpected allergic reactions to

  8. Systematic Review on the Definition of Allergic Diseases in Children : The MeDALL Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinart, Mariona; Albang, Richard; Maier, Dieter; Duran-Tauleria, Enric; Mena, Guillermo; Gimeno-Santos, Elena; Solà, Ivan; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Guerra, Stefano; Stein, Renato T; Benet, Marta; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Herr, Marie; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Momas, Isabelle; Pin, Isabelle; Rancière, Fanny; Smit, Henriëtte A; Varraso, Raphaelle; Bonfill, Xavier; Keil, Thomas; Bousquet, Jean; Antó, Josep M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During the last decades, a large number of phenotypes and disease classifications of allergic diseases have been proposed. Despite the heterogeneity across studies, no systematic review has been conducted on phenotype classification and the criteria that define allergic diseases. We

  9. Targeted testing with diethylthiourea often reveals clinically relevant allergic contact dermatitis caused by neoprene rubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Anne B-H; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Mortz, Charlotte G

    2012-01-01

    Background. Diethylthiourea is widely used in the rubber industry, particularly in neoprene rubber, and may cause allergic contact dermatitis. However, as thiourea allergens are not part of the European baseline series, the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis caused by thiourea compounds...

  10. Anti-allergic properties of Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) and contribution of its glucosylxanthone mangiferin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Dagmar García; Balmaseda, Ivones Hernández; León, Alina Alvarez; Hernández, Belkis Cancio; Montiel, Lucía Márquez; Garrido, Gabino Garrido; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Hernández, René Delgado

    2006-03-01

    Vimang is the brand name of formulations containing an extract of Mangifera indica L., ethnopharmacologically used in Cuba for the treatment of some immunopathological disorders, including bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis and other allergic diseases. However, the effects of Vimang on allergic response have not been reported until now. In this study, the effects of Vimang and mangiferin, a C-glucosylxanthone isolated from the extract, on different parameters of allergic response are reported. Vimang and mangiferin showed a significant dose-dependent inhibition of IgE production in mice and anaphylaxis reaction in rats, histamine-induced vascular permeability and the histamine release induced by compound 48/80 from rat mast cells, and of lymphocyte proliferative response as evidence of the reduction of the amount of B and T lymphocytes able to contribute to allergic response. In these experiments, ketotifen, promethazine and disodium cromoglicate were used as reference drugs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Vimang had an effect on an in-vivo model of inflammatory allergy mediated by mast cells. These results constitute the first report of the anti-allergic properties of Vimang on allergic models, as well as suggesting that this natural extract could be successfully used in the treatment of allergic disorders. Mangiferin, the major compound of Vimang, contributes to the anti-allergic effects of the extract.

  11. Secular trends of allergic asthma in Danish adults. The Copenhagen Allergy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Nielsen, N H; Madsen, F

    2001-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported increases in asthma prevalence among children world-wide. Less is known about similar trends in adults. We aimed to investigate whether the prevalence of allergic asthma symptoms had increased in an adult general population. Two cross-sectional surveys using identical......, the prevalence of allergic asthma symptoms increased significantly in this adult general population over a 9-year period....

  12. Tyrosol Suppresses Allergic Inflammation by Inhibiting the Activation of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase in Mast Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Gyu Je

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis, rhinitis, asthma, and anaphylaxis are attractive research areas. Tyrosol (2-(4-hydroxyphenylethanol is a polyphenolic compound with diverse biological activities. In this study, we investigated whether tyrosol has anti-allergic inflammatory effects. Ovalbumin-induced active systemic anaphylaxis and immunoglobulin E-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis models were used for the immediate-type allergic responses. Oral administration of tyrosol reduced the allergic symptoms of hypothermia and pigmentation in both animal models. Mast cells that secrete allergic mediators are key regulators on allergic inflammation. Tyrosol dose-dependently decreased mast cell degranulation and expression of inflammatory cytokines. Intracellular calcium levels and activation of inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK regulate cytokine expression and degranulation. Tyrosol blocked calcium influx and phosphorylation of the IKK complex. To define the molecular target for tyrosol, various signaling proteins involved in mast cell activation such as Lyn, Syk, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K, and Akt were examined. Our results showed that PI3K could be a molecular target for tyrosol in mast cells. Taken together, these findings indicated that tyrosol has anti-allergic inflammatory effects by inhibiting the degranulation of mast cells and expression of inflammatory cytokines; these effects are mediated via PI3K. Therefore, we expect tyrosol become a potential therapeutic candidate for allergic inflammatory disorders.

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis in Danish children referred for patch testing - a nationwide multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Anne Birgitte; Deleuran, Mette; Mortz, Charlotte Gotthard

    2014-01-01

    -17 years, 25.1% had one or more positive patch test reactions. The associated relevance was 66.4%. The most common sensitizers were metals, fragrances, and hair dyes. The frequency of positive patch test reactions and allergic contact dermatitis was significantly higher among girls. CONCLUSIONS: Allergic...

  14. Allergic Contact Dermatitis with Diffuse Erythematous Reaction from Diisopropanolamine in a Compress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Rind

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Compresses containing a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID are commonly used in Japan. However, this treatment may induce both allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis from the NSAIDs and their ingredients. Here, we describe a case of allergic contact dermatitis with diffuse erythematous reaction due to diisopropanolamine in the applied compress. The absorption of diisopropanolamine might have been enhanced by the occlusive condition.

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis from 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, a paint mildewcide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathias, C G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hamann, K

    1983-01-01

    Severe allergic contact dermatitis from a paint mildewcide, 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, developed in a worker formulating latex paints within a paint manufacturing company, Guinea pig maximization testing demonstrated this to be a moderate sensitizer. Further cases of allergic contact...... dermatitis may be encountered as the use of this biocide increases in the market place....

  16. Laryngeal effects of nasal allergen provocation in singers with allergic rhinitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verguts, Monique M. L.; Eggermont, Anita; Decoster, Wivine; de Jong, Felix I. C. R. S.; Hellings, Peter W.

    2011-01-01

    In spite of our recent insight into nasobronchial interaction mechanisms in allergic airway disease, the association between allergic rhinitis and voice complaints remains obscure. To evaluate the effects of nasal allergen provocation and seasonal grass pollen exposure on subjective and objective

  17. The pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis : cellular aspects with special emphasis on Langerhans cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Fokkens (Wytske)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractPresent ideas concerning the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis are largely deduced from systemic investigations and extrapolated from studies in the skin and the lung. Studies on allergic rhinitis generally comprise clinical aspects and/or biochemical, humoral and cellular features of

  18. Shared genetic origin of asthma, hay fever and eczema elucidates allergic disease biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, Manuel A; Vonk, Judith M; Baurecht, Hansjörg; Marenholz, Ingo; Tian, Chao; Hoffman, Joshua D; Helmer, Quinta; Tillander, Annika; Ullemar, Vilhelmina; van Dongen, Jenny; Lu, Yi; Rüschendorf, Franz; Esparza-Gordillo, Jorge; Medway, Chris W; Mountjoy, Edward; Burrows, Kimberley; Hummel, Oliver; Grosche, Sarah; Brumpton, Ben M; Witte, John S; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Willemsen, Gonneke; Zheng, Jie; Rodríguez, Elke; Hotze, Melanie; Franke, Andre; Revez, Joana A; Beesley, Jonathan; Matheson, Melanie C; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Bain, Lisa M; Fritsche, Lars G; Gabrielsen, Maiken E; Balliu, Brunilda; Nielsen, Jonas B; Zhou, Wei; Hveem, Kristian; Langhammer, Arnulf; Holmen, Oddgeir L; Løset, Mari; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Willer, Cristen J; Arnold, Andreas; Homuth, Georg; Schmidt, Carsten O; Thompson, Philip J; Martin, Nicholas G; Duffy, David L; Novak, Natalija; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2017-01-01

    Asthma, hay fever (or allergic rhinitis) and eczema (or atopic dermatitis) often coexist in the same individuals, partly because of a shared genetic origin. To identify shared risk variants, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS; n = 360,838) of a broad allergic disease phenotype that

  19. Prevalence of rhinitis allergic in populations of several states of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleazar Mancilla-Hernández

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: With the use of the questionnaire diagnosis of allergic rhinitis for epidemiological studies in the four cities in four different states, we found a prevalence of allergic rhinitis of 15% in ≥13 yearpopulation and 13% in ≤12 year-old children.

  20. A New Caching Technique to Support Conjunctive Queries in P2P DHT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobatake, Koji; Tagashira, Shigeaki; Fujita, Satoshi

    P2P DHT (Peer-to-Peer Distributed Hash Table) is one of typical techniques for realizing an efficient management of shared resources distributed over a network and a keyword search over such networks in a fully distributed manner. In this paper, we propose a new method for supporting conjunctive queries in P2P DHT. The basic idea of the proposed technique is to share a global information on past trials by conducting a local caching of search results for conjunctive queries and by registering the fact to the global DHT. Such a result caching is expected to significantly reduce the amount of transmitted data compared with conventional schemes. The effect of the proposed method is experimentally evaluated by simulation. The result of experiments indicates that by using the proposed method, the amount of returned data is reduced by 60% compared with conventional P2P DHT which does not support conjunctive queries.