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Sample records for coniferous gymnosperm pinus

  1. Envelope-like retrotransposons in the plant kingdom: evidence of their presence in gymnosperms (Pinus pinaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Célia; Simões, Marta; Oliveira, Maria Margarida; Rocheta, Margarida

    2008-11-01

    Retroviruses differ from retrotransposons due to their infective capacity, which depends critically on the encoded envelope. Some plant retroelements contain domains reminiscent of the env of animal retroviruses but the number of such elements described to date is restricted to angiosperms. We show here the first evidence of the presence of putative env-like gene sequences in a gymnosperm species, Pinus pinaster (maritime pine). Using a degenerate primer approach for conserved domains of RNaseH gene, three clones from putative envelope-like retrotransposons (PpRT2, PpRT3, and PpRT4) were identified. The env-like sequences of P. pinaster clones are predicted to encode proteins with transmembrane domains. These sequences showed identity scores of up to 30% with env-like sequences belonging to different organisms. A phylogenetic analysis based on protein alignment of deduced aminoacid sequences revealed that these clones clustered with env-containing plant retrotransposons, as well as with retrotransposons from invertebrate organisms. The differences found among the sequences of maritime pine clones isolated here suggest the existence of different putative classes of env-like retroelements. The identification for the first time of env-like genes in a gymnosperm species may support the ancestrality of retroviruses among plants shedding light on their role in plant evolution.

  2. Studies on adsorption of crystal violet dye from aqueous solution onto coniferous pinus bark powder (CPBP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Rais

    2009-01-01

    The present study shows that the coniferous pinus bark powder (CPBP) can be used as a potential adsorbent for the removal of crystal violet (basic dye) from aqueous solutions. Experiments were carried out as a function of contact time, concentration, temperature, pH and dosage. The amount of dye uptake was found to vary with increasing initial solution pH and maximum adsorption was observed at pH 8. The equilibrium was attained in 2 h. The amount of dye uptake (mg/g) was found to increase with increase in dye concentration and contact time. The % adsorption was found to decrease with increase in amount of adsorbent. The thermodynamic parameters were also calculated and the positive value of ΔH o indicates the endothermic nature of adsorption. The applicability of the three isotherm's model for the present data follows the order: Langmuir > Temkin > Freundlich. The kinetics of crystal violet on to the adsorbent can be described well by pseudo-second order > Elovich > pseudo-first order equation.

  3. Comparative study of two coniferous species (Pinus pinaster Aiton and Cupressus sempervirens L. var. dupreziana [A. Camus] Silba) essential oils: chemical composition and biological activity

    OpenAIRE

    Amri, Ismail; Hanana, Mohsen; Gargouri, Samia; Jamoussi, Bassem; Hamrouni, Lamia

    2013-01-01

    Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) and Saharan cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L. var. dupreziana [A. Camus] Silba) are two cone-bearing seed coniferous woody plants. The chemical composition of their essential oils, isolated from needles and leaves by hydrodistillation, was analyzed with gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 66 and 28 compounds were identified, which represented 99.5% and 98.9% of total pine and cypress oils, respectively. Pin...

  4. Soil Respiration at Different Stand Ages (5, 10, and 20/30 Years) in Coniferous (Pinus tabulaeformis Carrière) and Deciduous (Populus davidiana Dode) Plantations in a Sandstorm Source Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xin; Li, Fadong; Zhang, Wanjun

    2016-01-01

    respiration and its temperature sensitivity at three stand ages (5, 10, and 20 or 30 years) in two plantations of coniferous (Pinus tabulaeformis Carrière) and deciduous (Populus davidiana Dode) species using an automated chamber system in 2013 in the Beijing-Tianjin sandstorm source area. Results showed...... that mean soil respiration in the 5-, 10-, and 20/30-year-old plantations was 3.37, 3.17, and 2.99 μmol·m−2·s−1 for P. tabulaeformis and 2.92, 2.85, and 2.57 μmol·m−2·s−1 for P. davidiana, respectively. Soil respiration decreased with stand age for both species. There was no significant difference in soil...... respiration between the two plantation species at ages 5 and 10 years (p > 0.05). Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration, which ranged from 1.85–1.99 in P. tabulaeformis and 2.20–2.46 in P. davidiana plantations, was found to increase with stand age. Temperature sensitivity was also significantly higher...

  5. Soil Respiration at Different Stand Ages (5, 10, and 20/30 Years in Coniferous (Pinus tabulaeformis Carrière and Deciduous (Populus davidiana Dode Plantations in a Sandstorm Source Area

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    Xin Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of stand age and forest type on soil respiration is crucial for predicting the potential of soil carbon sequestration. Thus far, however, there is no consensus regarding the variations in soil respiration caused by stand age and forest type. This study investigated soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity at three stand ages (5, 10, and 20 or 30 years in two plantations of coniferous (Pinus tabulaeformis Carrière and deciduous (Populus davidiana Dode species using an automated chamber system in 2013 in the Beijing-Tianjin sandstorm source area. Results showed that mean soil respiration in the 5-, 10-, and 20/30-year-old plantations was 3.37, 3.17, and 2.99 μmol·m−2·s−1 for P. tabulaeformis and 2.92, 2.85, and 2.57 μmol·m−2·s−1 for P. davidiana, respectively. Soil respiration decreased with stand age for both species. There was no significant difference in soil respiration between the two plantation species at ages 5 and 10 years (p > 0.05. Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration, which ranged from 1.85–1.99 in P. tabulaeformis and 2.20–2.46 in P. davidiana plantations, was found to increase with stand age. Temperature sensitivity was also significantly higher in P. davidiana plantations and when the soil water content was below 12.8%. Temperature sensitivity incorporated a combined response of soil respiration to soil temperature, soil water content, soil organic carbon, and fine root biomass and, thus, provided an ecological metric for comparing forest carbon dynamics of these species.

  6. The Pinus taeda genome is characterized by diverse and highly diverged repetitive sequences

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    Yandell Mark

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In today's age of genomic discovery, no attempt has been made to comprehensively sequence a gymnosperm genome. The largest genus in the coniferous family Pinaceae is Pinus, whose 110-120 species have extremely large genomes (c. 20-40 Gb, 2N = 24. The size and complexity of these genomes have prompted much speculation as to the feasibility of completing a conifer genome sequence. Conifer genomes are reputed to be highly repetitive, but there is little information available on the nature and identity of repetitive units in gymnosperms. The pines have extensive genetic resources, with approximately 329000 ESTs from eleven species and genetic maps in eight species, including a dense genetic map of the twelve linkage groups in Pinus taeda. Results We present here the Sanger sequence and annotation of ten P. taeda BAC clones and Genome Analyzer II whole genome shotgun (WGS sequences representing 7.5% of the genome. Computational annotation of ten BACs predicts three putative protein-coding genes and at least fifteen likely pseudogenes in nearly one megabase of sequence. We found three conifer-specific LTR retroelements in the BACs, and tentatively identified at least 15 others based on evidence from the distantly related angiosperms. Alignment of WGS sequences to the BACs indicates that 80% of BAC sequences have similar copies (≥ 75% nucleotide identity elsewhere in the genome, but only 23% have identical copies (99% identity. The three most common repetitive elements in the genome were identified and, when combined, represent less than 5% of the genome. Conclusions This study indicates that the majority of repeats in the P. taeda genome are 'novel' and will therefore require additional BAC or genomic sequencing for accurate characterization. The pine genome contains a very large number of diverged and probably defunct repetitive elements. This study also provides new evidence that sequencing a pine genome using a WGS approach is

  7. Re-evaluating the isotopic divide between angiosperms and gymnosperms using n-alkane δ13C values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, R. T.; McInerney, F. A.

    2009-12-01

    Angiosperm δ13C values are typically 1-3‰ more negative than those of co-occurring gymnosperms. This is known for both bulk leaf and compound-specific values from n-alkanes, which are stable, straight-chain hydrocarbons (C23-C35) found in the epicuticular leaf wax of vascular plants. For n-alkanes, there is a second distinction between the δ13C values of angiosperms and gymnosperms—δ13C values generally decrease with increasing chain-length in angiosperms, while in gymnosperms they increase. These two distinctions have been used to support the ‘plant community change hypothesis’ explaining the difference between the terrestrial and marine carbon isotope excursions during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM.) Preserved n-alkanes from terrestrial paleosols in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming reveal a negative carbon isotope excursion during the PETM of 4-5‰, which is 1-2‰ greater than the excursion recorded by marine carbonates. The local plant community, known from macrofossils as well as palynoflora, shifted from a deciduous, mixed angiosperm/gymnosperm flora to a suite of evergreen angiosperm species during the PETM. At the end of the PETM, the community returned to a mixed deciduous flora very similar to the original. This change in the plant community could thus magnify the terrestrial negative carbon isotope excursion to the degree necessary to explain its divergence from the marine record. However, the comparison between modern angiosperms and gymnosperms has been made mostly between broadleaf, deciduous angiosperms and evergreen, coniferous gymnosperms. New data analyzing deciduous, coniferous gymnosperms, including Metasequoia glyptostroboides and Taxodium distichum, suggests that the division previously ascribed to taxonomy may actually be based on leaf habit and physiology, specifically broadleaf, deciduous versus needle-leaf, evergreen plants. If differences in n-alkane δ13C values can be described not as angiosperms versus gymnosperms

  8. THE BIOTECHNOLOGY OF EMBRYOGENIC CELL LINES OBTAINING AND PLANTLETS OF CONIFEROUS SPECIES IN SIBERIA IN CULTURE IN VITRO

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    Tretiakova I.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Experiments of culturing the immature isolated embryos and megagamethophytes of Siberian coniferous species were carried out on different modified media: ½ LV medium for Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila, MSG and AI media (patent № 2431651 for Larix sibirica and Larix gmelinii, DCR medium for Picea ajanensis. For induction of embryogenic callus every species needs the optimized medium supplemented with L-glutamine, casein hydrolysate, ascorbic acid and hormones with different concentrations and their different proportions. The active proliferation of embryonal masses is observed on the same medium with reduced concentration of cytokinins. The proliferation of embryonal masses was significantly improved when they were subcultured after dispersing in liquid medium. The somatic embryos from embryonal masses are matured on basal medium with ABA (60-120 mM and PEG. In spite of species specificity the embryogenesis of morphogenic structures had the same scheme: elongation and asymmetric division of somatic cells, formation of initial cells and embryonal tubes, development of globular, torpedo and bipolar somatic embryos, embryos maturation and germination. However, not all donor-plants of coniferous species can form the embryogenic cell lines and somatic embryos. The active development of embryonal masses and formation of somatic embryos are observed from zygotic embryo of hybrid seeds of P. sibirica and L. sibirica. The obtained embryogenic lines were characterized by different proliferative activity. During 10 months cultivation the value of embryonal masses in different lines was 140-570 g. The number of somatic embryos varies from 210 to 410 per 100 mg of callus fresh weight. Decreasing proliferation activity did not observed during 24-45 months cultivation. However, development of somatic embryos in long cultivated lines decreased. Maturation of somatic embryos and development of plantlets were established in L. sibirica and P. pumila 50

  9. Antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils from coniferous trees.

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    Hong, Eui-Ju; Na, Ki-Jeung; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2004-06-01

    Essential oils have potential biological effects, i.e., antibiotic, anticarcinogenic, and sedative effects during stress. In the present study, we investigated the antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils extracted from the coniferous species Pinus densiflora, Pinus koraiensis, and Chamaecyparis obtusa, because their biological activities have not been yet elucidated. The essential oils were quantified using gas chromatography and identified in gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis. Simultaneously, antibacterial and antifungal assays were performed using the essential oils distilled from the needles of coniferous trees. The major components and the percentage of each essential oil were: 19.33% beta-thujene in P. densiflora; 10.49% alpha-pinene in P. koraiensis; 10.88% bornyl acetate in C. obtusa. The essential oils from P. densiflora and C. obtusa have antibacterial effects, whereas essential oils from P. koraiensis and C. obtusa have antifungal effects. These results indicate that the essential oils from the three coniferous trees, which have mild antimicrobial properties, can inhibit the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungi.

  10. The chromosomal distribution of histone methylation marks in gymnosperms differs from that of angiosperms.

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    Fuchs, Jörg; Jovtchev, Gabriele; Schubert, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    The chromosomal distribution of seven histone methylation marks (H3K4me2, H3K9me1,2,3 and H3K27me1,2,3) was analysed in the gymnosperm species Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies. Similarly to the situation in other investigated eukaryotes, dimethylation of lysine 4 of histone H3 is restricted to euchromatin in gymnosperms. Surprisingly, also H3K9me1-a mark classified as heterochromatin-specific in angiosperms-labels the euchromatin in P. sylvestris and P. abies. The other investigated methylation marks are either equally distributed along the chromosomes, as H3K9me2 and H3K27me1 (in both species) and H3K9me3 (in P. abies), or enriched at specific types of heterochromatin, as H3K9me3 (in P. sylvestris) and H3K27me2 and H3K27me3 in both species. Although the methylation marks themselves are apparently conserved, their functional specificity within the frame of the 'epigenetic code' might have diverged during evolution.

  11. Drought responses of two gymnosperm species with contrasting stomatal regulation strategies under elevated [CO2] and temperature.

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    Duan, Honglang; O'Grady, Anthony P; Duursma, Remko A; Choat, Brendan; Huang, Guomin; Smith, Renee A; Jiang, Yanan; Tissue, David T

    2015-07-01

    Future climate regimes characterized by rising [CO2], rising temperatures and associated droughts may differentially affect tree growth and physiology. However, the interactive effects of these three factors are complex because elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature may generate differential physiological responses during drought. To date, the interactive effects of elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature on drought-induced tree mortality remain poorly understood in gymnosperm species that differ in stomatal regulation strategies. Water relations and carbon dynamics were examined in two species with contrasting stomatal regulation strategies: Pinus radiata D. Don (relatively isohydric gymnosperm; regulating stomata to maintain leaf water potential above critical thresholds) and Callitris rhomboidea R. Br (relatively anisohydric gymnosperm; allowing leaf water potential to decline as the soil dries), to assess response to drought as a function of [CO2] and temperature. Both species were grown in two [CO2] (C(a) (ambient, 400 μl l(-1)) and C(e) (elevated, 640 μl l(-1))) and two temperature (T(a) (ambient) and T(e) (ambient +4 °C)) treatments in a sun-lit glasshouse under well-watered conditions. Drought plants were then exposed to a progressive drought until mortality. Prior to mortality, extensive xylem cavitation occurred in both species, but significant depletion of non-structural carbohydrates was not observed in either species. Te resulted in faster mortality in P. radiata, but it did not modify the time-to-mortality in C. rhomboidea. C(e) did not delay the time-to-mortality in either species under drought or T(e) treatments. In summary, elevated temperature (+4 °C) had greater influence than elevated [CO2] (+240 μl l(-1)) on drought responses of the two studied gymnosperm species, while stomatal regulation strategies did not generally affect the relative contributions of hydraulic failure and carbohydrate depletion to mortality under severe drought.

  12. Acidification-induced chemical changes in coniferous forest soils in southern Sweden 1988-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joensson, U.; Rosengren, U.; Thelin, G.; Nihlgaard, B

    2003-05-01

    Acidification of south-Swedish coniferous forest soils continues and soil nutrient status is no longer sustainable in a long-term perspective. - Thirty-two Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands in southern Sweden were studied for a period of 12 years to evaluate acidification-induced chemical changes in the soil. Soil, at 20-30 cm depth in the mineral layer, was sampled three times during this period (1988, 1993 and 1999). The results show that pH(BaCl{sub 2}) in mineral soil decreased by, on average, 0.17 units between 1988 and 1999, accompanied by an increase in aluminium (Al) concentration and a decrease in base saturation in the soil. In 1999, the base saturation was below 5% in 58% of the 32 sites compared with 16% in 1988 and 7% in 1993. Concentrations of calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) are low and decreasing. Based on C/N ratios in humus, 45% of the sites may be subjected to leaching of considerable amounts of nitrate. The results show that the acidification of coniferous forest soils in southern Sweden is continuing, and that the negative effects on the nutrient status in soil are extensive. The results are compared with reference values for productive, long-term sustainably managed boreal coniferous or mixed forest soils and implications for long-term sustainability are discussed.

  13. Sexual stability in the nearly dioecious Pinus johannis (Pinaceae).

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    Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Molina-Freaner, Francisco; Whipple, Amy V; Gehring, Catherine A; Domínguez, C A

    2013-03-01

    Even though dioecy is a dominant sexual system among gymnosperms, little is known about its evolutionary history. Pinus johannis may represent a model system because unisexual and monoecious individuals compose its populations. The presence of unisexual individuals in other Pinus species is a consequence of sexual lability. Here we determined whether P. johannis represents the first example of a dioecious or nearly dioecious reproductive system in conifers by evaluating its sexual stability. • To assess the stability of sexual expression, we quantified the proportion of male vs. female reproductive structures produced by trees over multiple years and tested for the presence of sexual dimorphism. Sexual lability hypotheses were also examined by looking at the relationship between environmental factors and sexual expression and by comparing the reproductive behavior of P. johannis with its closest labile relative, P. edulis. • Pinus johannis is nearly dioecious: ~99% of individuals are unisexual or express a low proportion of the opposite gender with few changes in sexual expression through time. We found sexual dimorphism consistent with sexual stability. Sexual expression did not vary with tree size/age, abiotic environment, or herbivore removal, providing evidence against sexual lability. Individuals of P. johannis tended to produce only male or female strobili, whereas those of P. edulis were mainly monoecious with a gradient in the female to male strobili ratio. • This study represents the first report of a nearly stable dioecious Pinus species. The variety of sexual morphs coexisting in the same population makes P. johannis a model for studying the evolution of dioecy in gymnosperms.

  14. Interactions between western gall rust and its Pinus hosts, P. jeffreyi and P. contorta, in Sierra De San Pedro Martir National Park, Northern Baja California, Mexico

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    Detlev R. Vogler; Brian W. Geils

    2008-01-01

    The Sierra de San Pedro Martir is a mountain range in north-central Baja that comprises the southern-most extension of the Californian coniferous flora, including Pinus jeffreyi, P. contorta, P. lambertiana, Abies concolor, and Calocedrus decurrens. These forests are similar...

  15. Isotope studies to determine dry deposition of sulfate to deciduous and coniferous trees: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted at two locations near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, with radioactive 35 S (87 day half-life) to examine the cycling behavior of sulfur in yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), red maple (Acer rubrum), and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) trees. Some findings pertain to methods development for estimating dry deposition of sulfur to forest canopies and the magnitude of sulfur emissions from natural sources (Task II). We will determine through field studies, the internal cycling, storage, and biogenic emission of sulfur, as traced by 35 SO 4 2- , in environments impacted by atmospheric sulfate deposition; and will determine through isotope dilution studies, the contribution of foliar leaching and dry deposition to net throughfall (NTF) sulfate concentrations beneath deciduous and coniferous trees in such environments. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  16. HS-SPME analysis of volatile organic compounds of coniferous needle litter

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    Isidorov, V. A.; Vinogorova, V. T.; Rafałowski, K.

    The composition of volatile emission of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) and spruce ( Picea exelsa) litter was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and samples were collected by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method. The list of identified compounds includes over 60 organic substances of different classes. It was established that volatile emission contain not only components of essential oils of pine and spruce needles but also a large number of organic compounds which are probably secondary metabolites of litter-decomposing fungi. They include lower carbonyl compounds and alcohols as well as products of terpene dehydration and oxidation. These data show that the processes of litter decomposition are an important source of reactive organic compounds under canopy of coniferous forests.

  17. Slower phloem transport in gymnosperm trees can be attributed to higher sieve element resistance.

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    Liesche, Johannes; Windt, Carel; Bohr, Tomas; Schulz, Alexander; Jensen, Kaare H

    2015-04-01

    In trees, carbohydrates produced in photosynthesizing leaves are transported to roots and other sink organs over distances of up to 100 m inside a specialized transport tissue, the phloem. Angiosperm and gymnosperm trees have a fundamentally different phloem anatomy with respect to cell size, shape and connectivity. Whether these differences have an effect on the physiology of carbohydrate transport, however, is not clear. A meta-analysis of the experimental data on phloem transport speed in trees yielded average speeds of 56 cm h(-1) for angiosperm trees and 22 cm h(-1) for gymnosperm trees. Similar values resulted from theoretical modeling using a simple transport resistance model. Analysis of the model parameters clearly identified sieve element (SE) anatomy as the main factor for the significantly slower carbohydrate transport speed inside the phloem in gymnosperm compared with angiosperm trees. In order to investigate the influence of SE anatomy on the hydraulic resistance, anatomical data on SEs and sieve pores were collected by transmission electron microscopy analysis and from the literature for 18 tree species. Calculations showed that the hydraulic resistance is significantly higher in the gymnosperm than in angiosperm trees. The higher resistance is only partially offset by the considerably longer SEs of gymnosperms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Analysis of the WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX gene family in Pinus pinaster: New insights into the gene family evolution.

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    Alvarez, José M; Bueno, Natalia; Cañas, Rafael A; Avila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M; Ordás, Ricardo J

    2018-02-01

    WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX (WOX) genes are key players controlling stem cells in plants and can be divided into three clades according to the time of their appearance during plant evolution. Our knowledge of stem cell function in vascular plants other than angiosperms is limited, they separated from gymnosperms ca 300 million years ago and their patterning during embryogenesis differs significantly. For this reason, we have used the model gymnosperm Pinus pinaster to identify WOX genes and perform a thorough analysis of their gene expression patterns. Using transcriptomic data from a comprehensive range of tissues and stages of development we have shown three major outcomes: that the P. pinaster genome encodes at least fourteen members of the WOX family spanning all the major clades, that the genome of gymnosperms contains a WOX gene with no homologues in angiosperms representing a transitional stage between intermediate- and WUS-clade proteins, and that we can detect discrete WUS and WOX5 transcripts for the first time in a gymnosperm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental study of liquid evaporation rate from coniferous biomass

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    Bulba E.E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of experimental studies of moisture evaporation from coniferous wood (spruce, pine are presented. The dependences of the mass evaporation rate on temperature and time are obtained. The calculation of the accommodation coefficient for the corresponding temperature ranges has been performed. The analysis of temperature regimes of drying of two typical coniferous wood species is carried out.

  20. Slower phloem transport in gymnosperm trees can be attributed to higher sieve element resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liesche, Johannes; Windt, Carel; Bohr, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    resulted from theoretical modeling using a simple transport resistance model. Analysis of the model parameters clearly identified sieve element (SE) anatomy as the main factor for the significantly slower carbohydrate transport speed inside the phloem in gymnosperm compared with angiosperm trees. In order......In trees, carbohydrates produced in photosynthesizing leaves are transported to roots and other sink organs over distances of up to 100 m inside a specialized transport tissue, the phloem. Angiosperm and gymnosperm trees have a fundamentally different phloem anatomy with respect to cell size, shape...... and connectivity. Whether these differences have an effect on the physiology of carbohydrate transport, however, is not clear. A meta-analysis of the experimental data on phloem transport speed in trees yielded average speeds of 56 cm h−1 for angiosperm trees and 22 cm h−1 for gymnosperm trees. Similar values...

  1. Radio-ecological conditions of band coniferous forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strilchuk, Yu.G.; Osintsev, A.Yu.; Kuzin, D.E.; Bryantseva, N.V.; Tonevitskaya, O.V.; Zhadyranova, A.A.; Kashirskij, V.V.; Korovina, O.Yu.; Lukashenko, S.N.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Band coniferous forests are located at the right bank of Irtysh river in two oblasts of Kazakhstan - East Kazakhstan and Pavlodar.This is a unique and only forest of this type. Something similar to this natural treasure with climate-regulating, sanitary, soil-protective, water-preserving functions can be found in Canada only. Total area of the band forest comprises 870500 hectares. The forest is mainly presented by pines (Pinus silvestris). These forests are of relict nature and are of great environmental, social and economic value. The band forests located in northern, north-western and western parts of SNTS were subjected several time to radioactive impacts from atmospheric nuclear tests performed at SNTS. Nuclear clouds from 12 ground and 28 atmospheric explosions passed over these territories. Four nuclear tests performed on 29th of August 1949, 29th of July 1955, 7th of August 1962 and 26th of November 1962 resulted in higher radiation dose rates registered on land there. It seems that this particular tests stipulated radioactive contamination of the forests. The first nuclear test performed on 29th of August 1949 resulted in considerable radioactive contamination of the band forests. Contamination was registerd in Novopokrovskij and Beskaragajskij districts of Semipalatinsk oblast as well as in several districts of Altai Territory. The second test that could bring radioactive contamination to the forests was performed on 7th of August 1962 when instead of planned atmospheric explosion, there was achieved surface explosion with comparatively high radioactive contamination of the lands towards Altai Territory. Within the State program ''Forest preservation and expansion of forest in the Republic of Kazakhstan'' there was performed in 2006 a radiological surveying of the lands in pipe forest of near-Irtysh region. There were studied soil and vegetation as well as woods of the band coniferous forests. Part of territory, wherethrough nuclear clouds went

  2. Fungal mycelium and decomposition of needle litter in three contrasting coniferous forests

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    Virzo De Santo, Amalia; Rutigliano, Flora Angela; Berg, Björn; Fioretto, Antonietta; Puppi, Gigliola; Alfani, Anna

    2002-08-01

    The fungal mycelium ingrowth and the rates of mass loss and respiration of needle litter of Pinus pinea, Pinus laricio, Pinus sylvestris, and Abies alba were investigated, in three coniferous forests, over a 3-year period by means of a composite set of incubations. In the early stages, the fungal flora of the decomposing needles was dominated by dematiaceous hyphomycetes and coelomycetes. Basidiomycetes reached a peak after 6 months on pine needles, but were absent from the N-rich needles of A. alba. Soil fungi ( Penicillium, Trichoderma, Absidia, Mucor sp. pl.) became most frequent in later stages. At the end of the study period, the total mycelium amount showed the lowest values in all pine needles incubated in the P. laricio forest and the highest ones in P. pinea needles incubated in the P. pinea forest. In all data sets, as in data for boreal forests examined for comparison, the concentration of litter fungal mycelium versus litter mass loss followed a common exponential model. However, in later stages, the amount of litter fungal mycelium was very close to that of the humus at the incubation site, thus supporting the hypothesis of a logistic growth pattern. Respiration rates of decomposing litters varied with season and decreased with litter age to values close to those of the humus at the incubation site. Respiration of water-saturated litter was negatively correlated with the total mycelium concentration, and this was consistent with the observation that in far-decomposed litter only a minor fraction of the total mycelium is alive.

  3. Dynamics of radiation damage and repair processes in coniferous stands in a 10-km region of the Chernobyl nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozubov, G.M.; Taskaev, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    Properties of morphogenesis, growth dynamics, anatomy and ultrastructure of wood and needle, reproductive processes in coniferous plants were studied under different level of radiation effect in the 10-km zone in 1986-1992. It was established that the full drying of pine forests began under absorbed dose 80-100 Gy/year. Threshold doses, after which repair processes were possible, reached to 10-12 Gy/year for Picea abies and 50 Gy/year for Pinus sylvestris. Three maine stages are revealed in dynamics of radiation damage and repair processes in studied conifers and their morphological and functional characteristic is presented. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Molecular response to water stress in two contrasting Mediterranean pines (Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea).

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    Perdiguero, Pedro; Barbero, María Del Carmen; Cervera, María Teresa; Collada, Carmen; Soto, Alvaro

    2013-06-01

    Adaptation to water stress has determined the evolution and diversification of vascular plants. Water stress is forecasted to increase drastically in the next decades in certain regions, such as in the Mediterranean basin. Consequently, a proper knowledge of the response and adaptations to drought stress is essential for the correct management of plant genetic resources. However, most of the advances in the understanding of the molecular response to water stress have been attained in angiosperms, and are not always applicable to gymnosperms. In this work we analyse the transcriptional response of two emblematic Mediterranean pines, Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea, which show noticeable differences in their performance under water stress. Using microarray analysis, up to 113 genes have been detected as significantly induced by drought in both species. Reliability of expression patterns has been confirmed by RT-PCR. While induced genes with similar profiles in both species can be considered as general candidate genes for the study of drought response in conifers, genes with diverging expression patterns can underpin the differences displayed by these species under water stress. Most promising candidate genes for drought stress response include genes related to carbohydrate metabolism, such as glycosyltransferases or galactosidases, sugar transporters, dehydrins and transcription factors. Additionally, differences in the molecular response to drought and polyethylene-glycol-induced water stress are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Soil CO2 efflux among four coniferous forest types of Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Javid Ahmad; Ganie, Khursheed Ahmad; Sundarapandian, Somaiah

    2015-11-01

    Soil CO2 efflux was measured in four different coniferous forest types (Cedrus deodara (CD), Pinus wallichiana (PW), mixed coniferous (MC), and Abies pindrow (AP)) for a period of 2 years (April 2012 to December 2013). The monthly soil CO2 efflux ranged from 0.8 to 4.1 μmoles CO2 m(-2) s(-1) in 2012 and 1.01 to 5.48 μmoles CO2 m(-2) s(-1) in 2013. The soil CO2 efflux rate was highest in PW forest type in both the years, while it was lowest in MC and CD forest types during 2012 and 2013, respectively. Soil temperature (TS) at a depth of 10 cm ranged from 3.8 to 19.4 °C in 2012 and 3.5 to 19.1 °C in 2013 in all the four forest types. Soil moisture (MS) ranged from 19.8 to 58.6% in 2012 and 18.5 to 58.6% in 2013. Soil CO2 efflux rate was found to be significantly higher in summer than the other seasons and least during winter. Soil CO2 efflux showed a significant positive relationship with TS (R2=0.52 to 0.74), SOC% (R2=0.67), pH (R2=0.68), and shrub biomass (R2=0.51), whereas, only a weak positive relationship was found with soil moisture (R2=0.16 to 0.41), tree density (R2=0.25), tree basal area (R2=0.01), tree biomass (R2=0.07), herb biomass (R2=0.01), and forest floor litter (R2=0.02). Thus, the study indicates that soil CO2 efflux in high mountainous areas is greatly influenced by seasons, soil temperature, and other environmental factors.

  6. Altitudinal variation in soil organic carbon stock in coniferous subtropical and broadleaf temperate forests in Garhwal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Munesh

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Himalayan zones, with dense forest vegetation, cover a fifth part of India and store a third part of the country reserves of soil organic carbon (SOC. However, the details of altitudinal distribution of these carbon stocks, which are vulnerable to forest management and climate change impacts, are not well known. Results This article reports the results of measuring the stocks of SOC along altitudinal gradients. The study was carried out in the coniferous subtropical and broadleaf temperate forests of Garhwal Himalaya. The stocks of SOC were found to be decreasing with altitude: from 185.6 to 160.8 t C ha-1 and from 141.6 to 124.8 t C ha-1 in temperature (Quercus leucotrichophora and subtropical (Pinus roxburghii forests, respectively. Conclusion The results of this study lead to conclusion that the ability of soil to stabilize soil organic matter depends negatively on altitude and call for comprehensive theoretical explanation

  7. Palyno-morphological characteristics of gymnosperm flora of pakistan and its taxonomic implications with LM and SEM methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Raees; Ul Abidin, Sheikh Zain; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad; Liu, Jie; Amina, Hafiza

    2018-01-01

    The present study is intended to assess gymnosperms pollen flora of Pakistan using Light Microscope (LM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for its taxonomic significance in identification of gymnosperms. Pollens of 35 gymnosperm species (12 genera and five families) were collected from its various distributional sites of gymnosperms in Pakistan. LM and SEM were used to investigate different palyno-morphological characteristics. Five pollen types (i.e., Inaperturate, Monolete, Monoporate, Vesiculate-bisaccate and Polyplicate) were observed. Six In equatorial view seven types of pollens were observed, in which ten species were sub-angular, nine species were Traingular, six species were Perprolate, three species were Rhomboidal, three species were semi-angular, two species were rectangular and two species were prolate. While five types of pollen were observed in polar view, in which ten species were Spheroidal, nine species were Angular, eight were Interlobate, six species were Circular, two species were Elliptic. Eighteen species has rugulate and 17 species has faveolate ornamentation. Eighteen species has verrucate and 17 have gemmate type sculpturing. The data was analysed through cluster analysis. The study showed that these palyno-morphological features have significance value in classification and identification of gymnosperms. Based on these different palyno-morphological features, a taxonomic key was proposed for the accurate and fast identifications of gymnosperms from Pakistan. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. EST analysis in Ginkgo biloba: an assessment of conserved developmental regulators and gymnosperm specific genes

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    Runko Suzan J

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ginkgo biloba L. is the only surviving member of one of the oldest living seed plant groups with medicinal, spiritual and horticultural importance worldwide. As an evolutionary relic, it displays many characters found in the early, extinct seed plants and extant cycads. To establish a molecular base to understand the evolution of seeds and pollen, we created a cDNA library and EST dataset from the reproductive structures of male (microsporangiate, female (megasporangiate, and vegetative organs (leaves of Ginkgo biloba. Results RNA from newly emerged male and female reproductive organs and immature leaves was used to create three distinct cDNA libraries from which 6,434 ESTs were generated. These 6,434 ESTs from Ginkgo biloba were clustered into 3,830 unigenes. A comparison of our Ginkgo unigene set against the fully annotated genomes of rice and Arabidopsis, and all available ESTs in Genbank revealed that 256 Ginkgo unigenes match only genes among the gymnosperms and non-seed plants – many with multiple matches to genes in non-angiosperm plants. Conversely, another group of unigenes in Gingko had highly significant homology to transcription factors in angiosperms involved in development, including MADS box genes as well as post-transcriptional regulators. Several of the conserved developmental genes found in Ginkgo had top BLAST homology to cycad genes. We also note here the presence of ESTs in G. biloba similar to genes that to date have only been found in gymnosperms and an additional 22 Ginkgo genes common only to genes from cycads. Conclusion Our analysis of an EST dataset from G. biloba revealed genes potentially unique to gymnosperms. Many of these genes showed homology to fully sequenced clones from our cycad EST dataset found in common only with gymnosperms. Other Ginkgo ESTs are similar to developmental regulators in higher plants. This work sets the stage for future studies on Ginkgo to better understand seed and

  9. Coniferous Canopy BRF Simulation Based on 3-D Realistic Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-yun; Guo, Zhi-feng; Qin, Wen-han; Sun, Guo-qing

    2011-01-01

    It is difficulties for the computer simulation method to study radiation regime at large-scale. Simplified coniferous model was investigate d in the present study. It makes the computer simulation methods such as L-systems and radiosity-graphics combined method (RGM) more powerf ul in remote sensing of heterogeneous coniferous forests over a large -scale region. L-systems is applied to render 3-D coniferous forest scenarios: and RGM model was used to calculate BRF (bidirectional refle ctance factor) in visible and near-infrared regions. Results in this study show that in most cases both agreed well. Meanwhiie at a tree and forest level. the results are also good.

  10. Genes Sufficient for Synthesizing Peptidoglycan are Retained in Gymnosperm Genomes, and MurE from Larix gmelinii can Rescue the Albino Phenotype of Arabidopsis MurE Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaofei; Li, Ningning; Kudo, Hiromi; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Jinyu; Wang, Li; Zhang, Wenbo; Takechi, Katsuaki; Takano, Hiroyoshi

    2017-03-01

    The endosymbiotic theory states that plastids are derived from a single cyanobacterial ancestor that possessed a cell wall. Peptidoglycan (PG), the main component of the bacteria cell wall, gradually degraded during plastid evolution. PG-synthesizing Mur genes have been found to be retained in the genomes of basal streptophyte plants, although many of them have been lost from the genomes of angiosperms. The enzyme encoded by bacterial MurE genes catalyzes the formation of the UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid (UDP-MurNAc) tripeptide in bacterial PG biosynthesis. Knockout of the MurE gene in the moss Physcomitrella patens resulted in defects of chloroplast division, whereas T-DNA-tagged mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana for MurE revealed inhibition of chloroplast development but not of plastid division, suggesting that AtMurE is functionally divergent from the bacterial and moss MurE proteins. Here, we could identify 10 homologs of bacterial Mur genes, including MurE, in the recently sequenced genomes of Picea abies and Pinus taeda, suggesting the retention of the plastid PG system in gymnosperms. To investigate the function of gymnosperm MurE, we isolated an ortholog of MurE from the larch, Larix gmelinii (LgMurE) and confirmed its presence as a single copy per genome, as well as its abundant expression in the leaves of larch seedlings. Analysis with a fusion protein combining green fluorescent protein and LgMurE suggested that it localizes in chloroplasts. Cross-species complementation assay with MurE mutants of A. thaliana and P. patens showed that the expression of LgMurE cDNA completely rescued the albefaction defects in A. thaliana but did not rescue the macrochloroplast phenotype in P. patens. The evolution of plastid PG and the mechanism behind the functional divergence of MurE genes are discussed in the context of information about plant genomes at different evolutionary stages. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of

  11. Fire history of coniferous riparian forests in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Van de Water; M. North

    2010-01-01

    Fire is an important ecological process in many western U.S. coniferous forests, yet high fuel loads, rural home construction and other factors have encouraged the suppression of most wildfires. Using mechanical thinning and prescribed burning, land managers often try to reduce fuels in strategic areas with the highest fuel loads. Riparian forests, however, are often...

  12. X ray microanalysis of leaf and seed elemental composition among four species of living fossil gymnosperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Chongyan; Li Yongliang; Chen Xiaoduan; Liu Jinying; Zhou Yunlong

    2002-01-01

    The leaf and seed elemental composition and average mass fraction are analysed or four species of living fossil gymnosperm: Ginkgo biloba L., Cathaya argyrophylla Chun et Kuang, Glyptostrobus pensilis (D. Don) Koch and Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng by SEM X ray microanalysis method. The results show that the elemental composition is different and the elemental average mass fraction is evidently different between the seed and leaf for the same species. The elemental composition and average mass fraction between seed and seed wing is different in Cathaya argyrophylla and Metasequoia glyptostroboides. Among three type leaf of Glyptostrobus pensilis, the elemental composition is the same, but average mass fraction is very different

  13. Ginkgotides: Proline-Rich Hevein-Like Peptides from Gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka H; Tan, Wei Liang; Serra, Aida; Xiao, Tianshu; Sze, Siu Kwan; Yang, Daiwen; Tam, James P

    2016-01-01

    Hevein and hevein-like peptides belong to the family of chitin-binding cysteine-rich peptides. They are classified into three subfamilies, the prototypic 8C- and the 6C- and 10C-hevein-like peptides. Thus far, only five 8C-hevein-like peptides have been characterized from three angiosperms and none from gymnosperm. To determine their occurrence and distribution in the gymnosperm, Ginkgo biloba leaves were examined. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of 11 novel 8C-hevein-like peptides, namely ginkgotides gB1-gB11. Proteomic analysis showed that the ginkgotides contain 41-44 amino acids (aa), a chitin-binding domain and are Pro-rich, a distinguishing feature that differs from other hevein-like peptides. Solution NMR structure determination revealed that gB5 contains a three β-stranded structure shaped by a cystine knot with an additional disulfide bond at the C-terminus. Transcriptomic analysis showed that the ginkgotide precursors contain a three-domain architecture, comprised of a C-terminal tail (20 aa) that is significantly shorter than those of other 8C- and 10C-hevein-like peptides, which generally contain a protein cargo such as a Barwin-like protein (126 aa) or class I chitinase (254 aa). Transcriptomic data mining found an additional 48 ginkgotide homologs in 39 different gymnosperms. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ginkgotides and their homologs belong to a new class of 8C-hevein-like peptides. Stability studies showed that ginkgotides are highly resistant to thermal, acidic and endopeptidase degradation. Ginkgotides flanked at both the N- and C-terminal ends by Pro were resistant to exopeptidase degradation by carboxypeptidase A and aminopeptidase. Antifungal assays showed that ginkgotides inhibit the hyphal growth of phyto-pathogenic fungi. Taken together, ginkgotides represent the first suite of hevein-like peptides isolated and characterized from gymnosperms. As a group, they represent a novel class of 8C-hevein-like peptides that

  14. Ginkgotides: Proline-rich Hevein-like Peptides from Gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka Ho Wong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hevein and hevein-like peptides belong to the family of chitin-binding cysteine-rich peptides. They are classified into three subfamilies, the prototypic 8C- and the 6C- and 10C-hevein-like peptides. Thus far, only five 8C-hevein-like peptides have been characterized from three angiosperms and none from gymnosperm. To determine their occurrence and distribution in the gymnosperm, Ginkgo biloba leaves were examined. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of eleven novel 8C-hevein-like peptides, namely ginkgotides gB1–gB11. Proteomic analysis showed that the ginkgotides contain 41–44 amino acids (aa, a chitin-binding domain and are Pro-rich, a distinguishing feature that differs from other hevein-like peptides. Solution 1H-NMR structure determination revealed that gB5 contains a three β-stranded structure shaped by a cystine knot with an additional disulfide bond at the C-terminus. Transcriptomic analysis showed that the ginkgotide precursors contain a three-domain architecture, comprised of a C-terminal tail (20 aa that is significantly shorter than those of other 8C- and 10C-hevein-like peptides, which generally contain a protein cargo such as a Barwin-like protein (126 aa or class I chitinase (254 aa. Transcriptomic data mining found an additional 48 ginkgotide homologs in 39 different gymnosperms. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ginkgotides and their homologs belong to a new class of 8C-hevein-like peptides. Stability studies showed that ginkgotides are highly resistant to thermal, acidic and endopeptidase degradation. Ginkgotides flanked at both the N- and C-terminal ends by Pro were resistant to exopeptidase degradation by carboxypeptidase A and aminopeptidase. Antifungal assays showed that ginkgotides inhibit the hyphal growth of phyto-pathogenic fungi. Taken together, ginkgotides represent the first suite of hevein-like peptides isolated and characterized from gymnosperms. As a group, they represent a novel class of 8C

  15. Factors affecting the remotely sensed response of coniferous forest plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danson, F.M.; Curran, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    Remote sensing of forest biophysical properties has concentrated upon forest sites with a wide range of green vegetation amount and thereby leaf area index and canopy cover. However, coniferous forest plantations, an important forest type in Europe, are managed to maintain a large amount of green vegetation with little spatial variation. Therefore, the strength of the remotely sensed signal will, it is hypothesized, be determined more by the structure of this forest than by its cover. Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) and SPOT-1 HRV data were used to determine the effects of this structural variation on the remotely sensed response of a coniferous forest plantation in the United Kingdom. Red and near infrared radiance were strongly and negatively correlated with a range of structural properties and with the age of the stands but weakly correlated with canopy cover. A composite variable, related to the volume of the canopy, accounted for over 75% of the variation in near infrared radiance. A simple model that related forest structural variables to the remotely sensed response was used to understand and explain this response from a coniferous forest plantation

  16. Soil organic matter composition and quality across fire severity gradients in coniferous and deciduous forests of the southern boreal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesel, Jessica R.; Hockaday, William C.; Kolka, Randall K.; Townsend, Philip A.

    2015-06-01

    Recent patterns of prolonged regional drought in southern boreal forests of the Great Lakes region, USA, suggest that the ecological effects of disturbance by wildfire may become increasingly severe. Losses of forest soil organic matter (SOM) during fire can limit soil nutrient availability and forest regeneration. These processes are also influenced by the composition of postfire SOM. We sampled the forest floor layer (i.e., full organic horizon) and 0-10 cm mineral soil from stands dominated by coniferous (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) or deciduous (Populus tremuloides Michx.) species 1-2 months after the 2011 Pagami Creek wildfire in northern Minnesota. We used solid-state 13C NMR to characterize SOM composition across a gradient of fire severity in both forest cover types. SOM composition was affected by fire, even when no statistically significant losses of total C stocks were evident. The most pronounced differences in SOM composition between burned and unburned reference areas occurred in the forest floor for both cover types. Carbohydrate stocks in forest floor and mineral horizons decreased with severity level in both cover types, whereas pyrogenic C stocks increased with severity in the coniferous forest floor and decreased in only the highest severity level in the deciduous forest floor. Loss of carbohydrate and lignin pools contributed to a decreased SOM stability index and increased decomposition index. Our results suggest that increases in fire severity expected to occur under future climate scenarios may lead to changes in SOM composition and dynamics with consequences for postfire forest recovery and C uptake.

  17. Evaluation of the load carrying capacity of large cross section coniferous timber in standing structures

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    Arriaga, F.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 85 large section timber pieces (Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus pinaster Alt. found in a number of old buildings were visually analyzed and graded pursuant to Spanish standard UNE 56544 and German standard 4074. The object was to formulate a non-destructive method to reliably and effectively determine the mechanical properties of existing timber structures with large cross sections. A new system is proposed based on the chief visual grading parameters and consisting in a single grade; the percentage of rejections with this system is low. In this regard, a specific strength class is established for large cross section members in existing coniferous wood structures, namely F14/E9/D380 (MOR of 14 N/mm2, MOE of 9 kN/mm2 and characteristic density of 380 kg/m3. The use of ultrasonic velocity is proposed to define the next higher strength class - F16/E10/D380, to which timber with velocities of 4,900 m/s or over would be assigned.

    Se han clasificado visualmente 85 piezas de madera de gruesa sección (Pino silvestre y Pino pinaster procedentes de varios edificios antiguos de acuerdo con las normas UNE 56544 y DIN 4074. El objetivo es establecer una metodología no destructiva para asignar propiedades mecánicas a las piezas de estructuras existentes de madera con gruesas escuadrías con un nivel de seguridad y de rendimiento aceptables. Se propone un único grado de calidad con un porcentaje bajo de rechazos, aplicando los principales parámetros de la clasificación visual. De esta forma, se establece una clase resistente específica para las piezas de gruesa escuadría de estructuras de madera de conifera existentes definida como FI4/E9/D380 (resistencia característica a flexión igual a 14 N/mm2, módulo de elasticidad de 9 kN/mn2 y densidad característica de 380 kg/m3. Para alcanzar una clase resistente superior se propone utilizar el parámetro añadido de la

  18. Estimates of ion sources in deciduous and coniferous throughfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, L.J.

    1990-01-01

    Estimates of external and internal sources of ions in net throughfall deposition were derived for a deciduous and coniferous canopy by use of multiple regression. The externel source component appears to be dominated by dry deposition of Ca2+, SO2 and NO3- during dormant and growing seasons for the two canopy types. Increases in the leaching rates of K+ and Mg2+ during the growing season reflect the presence of leaves in the deciduous canopy and increased physiological activity in both canopies. Internal leaching rates for SO42- doubled during the growing season presumably caused by increased physiological activity and uptake of SO2 through stomates. Net deposition of SO42- in throughfall during the growing season appears highly dependent on stomatal uptake of SO2. Estimates of SO2 deposition velocities were 0.06 cm s-1 and 0.13 cm s-1 for the deciduous and coniferous canopies, respectively, during the dormant season, and 0.30 cm s-1 and 0.43 cm s-1 for the deciduous and coniferous canopies, respectively, during the growing season. For the ions of major interest with respect to ecosystem effects, namely H+, NO3- and SO42-, precipitation inputs generally outweighed estimates of dry deposition input. However, net throughfall deposition of NO3- and SO42- accounted for 20-47 and 34-50 per cent, respectively, of total deposition of those ions. Error estimates of ion sources were at least 50-100 per cent and the method is subject to several assumptions and limitations.

  19. Experimental investigation of the processes of dehumidification of coniferous biomass

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    Bulba Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work includes the results of experimental studies of the moisture removal processes in the temperature range from 333 K to 413 K from coniferous woods which are typical for many regions. There are obtained the dependences of the mass rate of moisture removal on time and temperature. The effect of the evaporation of bound moisture was identified for the wood species studied. There are calculated the accommodation coefficient and the partial pressure at the evaporation surface for each type of biomass.

  20. Effects of air pollution and simulated acid rain on the ground vegetation of coniferous forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenkirchen, H.

    1993-01-01

    Descriptive and experimental studies on the ground vegetation of coniferous forests in Bavaria indicated the following phenomena: a. In N-limited pine forests recent eutrophication effects occur. b. The structure of the moss layer in coniferous forests sensitively reacts to very acid throughfall water (pH [de

  1. Assessing seasonality of biochemical CO2 exchange model parameters from micrometeorological flux observations at boreal coniferous forest

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    T. Vesala

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The seasonality of the NEE of the northern boreal coniferous forests was investigated by means of inversion modelling using eddy covariance data. Eddy covariance data was used to optimize the biochemical model parameters. Our study sites consisted of three Scots pine (l. Pinus sylvestris forests and one Norway spruce (l. Picea abies forest that were located in Finland and Sweden. We obtained temperature and seasonal dependence for the biochemical model parameters: the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vc(max and the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax. Both of the parameters were optimized without assumptions about their mutual magnitude. The values obtained for the biochemical model parameters were similar at all the sites during summer time. To describe seasonality, different temperature fits were made for the spring, summer and autumn periods. During summer, average Jmax across the sites was 54.0 μmol m−2 s−1 (variance 31.2 μmol m−2 s−1 and Vc(max was 12.0 μmol m−2 s−1 (variance 6.6 μmol m−2 s−1 at 17°C. The sensitivity of the model to LAI and atmospheric soil water stress was also studied. The impact of seasonality on annual GPP was 17% when only summertime parameterization was used throughout the year compared to seasonally changing parameterizations.

  2. Photosynthesis and respiration in the needles of Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila and their putative hybrids

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    A.P. Zotikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A putative interspecific hybridization in Pinaceae family was investigated. Very rarely the physiological methods were involved in hybridization processes that occurs in the hybrid zones. It is well known that in most gymnosperms, the plastid genome is inherited from the paternal component while the mitochondrion is inherited from the maternal one. Therefore functioning pattern of organelles in the hybrid plant can suggest parent, from which they were inherited. The aim of this study was to indirectly establish the inheritance energy-transducing organelles (mitochondria, chloroplast according to their functioning. Current year needles from Siberian Stone Pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Japanese Stone Pine (Pinus pumila (Pall. Regel as parent species and their putative hybrids were collected from Baikal Region. The photosynthesis rate was determined by using the spectrophotometer. The study of emission CO2 under dark respiration of needle was conducted with laser optical-acoustic gasanalyzer. The quantity was measured at 1, 2 and 3 hour after experiment start. The rate of the photoreduction ferricyanide potassium was characterized by the primary photochemical processes activity at the level of photosystem II. Comparison of pure species was shown that Japanese Stone Pine had higher functional activity of chloroplast as compared with SiberianStone Pine in spite of the fact that they are growing in similar environment conditions. Two of three analyzed hybrids had decreasedactivity of their chloroplasts. Unfortunately, in this case we can't conclude if the chloroplasts were inherited from Siberian Stone Pine orfrom Japanese Stone Pine. Chloroplast activity of the third hybrid was approximately similar to that of Japanese Stone Pine suggesting thatits chloroplasts were inherited from this parent. Consequently, the Siberian Stone Pine and the Japanese Stone Pine were maternal and paternal, respectively parents of

  3. Some physicochemical characteristics of pinus (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster and Pinus canariensis) seeds from North Algeria, their lipid profiles and volatile contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Nabil; Khettal, Bachra; Aid, Yasmine; Kherfellah, Souraya; Sobhi, Widad; Barragan-Montero, Veronique

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of seeds of some pinus species (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster and Pinus canariensis) grown in North Algeria were determined. The results showed that the seeds consist of 19.8-36.7% oil, 14.25-26.62% protein, 7.8-8.6% moisture. Phosphorus, potassium and magnesium were the predominant elements present in seeds. Pinus seed's oil physicochemical properties show acid values (4.9-68.9), iodine values (93.3-160.4) and saponification values (65.9-117.9). Oil analysis showed that the major unsaturated fatty acids for the four species were linoleic acid (30-59%) and oleic acid (17.4-34.6%), while the main saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid (5-29%). Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry analysis of P. halepensis Mill., P. pinaster and P. canariensis volatile oils indicated that the major volatile compound was the limonene with relative percentage of 3.1, 7.5 and 10.8, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Seed plant phylogeny inferred from all three plant genomes: Monophyly of extant gymnosperms and origin of Gnetales from conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaw, Shu-Miaw; Parkinson, Christopher L.; Cheng, Yuchang; Vincent, Thomas M.; Palmer, Jeffrey D.

    2000-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among the five groups of extant seed plants are presently quite unclear. For example, morphological studies consistently identify the Gnetales as the extant sister group to angiosperms (the so-called “anthophyte” hypothesis), whereas a number of molecular studies recover gymnosperm monophyly, and few agree with the morphology-based placement of Gnetales. To better resolve these and other unsettled issues, we have generated a new molecular data set of mitochondrial small subunit rRNA sequences, and have analyzed these data together with comparable data sets for the nuclear small subunit rRNA gene and the chloroplast rbcL gene. All nuclear analyses strongly ally Gnetales with a monophyletic conifers, whereas all mitochondrial analyses and those chloroplast analyses that take into account saturation of third-codon position transitions actually place Gnetales within conifers, as the sister group to the Pinaceae. Combined analyses of all three genes strongly support this latter relationship, which to our knowledge has never been suggested before. The combined analyses also strongly support monophyly of extant gymnosperms, with cycads identified as the basal-most group of gymnosperms, Ginkgo as the next basal, and all conifers except for Pinaceae as sister to the Gnetales + Pinaceae clade. According to these findings, the Gnetales may be viewed as extremely divergent conifers, and the many morphological similarities between angiosperms and Gnetales (e.g., double fertilization and flower-like reproductive structures) arose independently. PMID:10760277

  5. Organic geochemical studies of the transformation of gymnospermous xylem during peatification and coalification to subbituminous coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, P.G.; Lerch, H. E.; Verheyen, T.V.

    1990-01-01

    It is generally recognized that xylem from trees that are buried in peat swamps is transformed first to huminite macerals in brown coal and then to vitrinite macerals in bituminous coal by processes collectively known as coalification. In order to understand the chemical nature of coalification of xylem and the chemical structures that eventually evolve in coal, we examined a series of gymnospermous xylem samples coalified to varying degrees. The samples included modern fresh xylem, modern degraded xylem in peat, and xylem coalified to ranks of brown coal (lignite B), lignite A, and subbituminous coal. The organic geochemical methods used in this study included solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The NMR method provided average compositional information, and the pyrolysis provided detailed molecular information. Although the samples examined include different plants of different geologic ages, they all share a common feature in that they are gymnospermous and presumably have or had a similar kind of lignin. The data obtained in this study provide enough details to allow delineation of specific coalification pathway for the xylem is microbial degradation in peat (peatification), leading to selective removal of cellulosic components. These components constitute a large fraction of the total mass of xylem, usually greater than 50%. Although cellulosic components can survive degradation under certain conditions, their loss during microbial degradation is the rule rather than exception during peatification. As these components of xylem are degraded and lost, lignin, another major component of xylem, is selectively enriched because it is more resistant to microbial degradation than the cellulosic components. Thus, lignin survives peatification in a practically unaltered state and becomes the major precursor of coalified xylem. During its transformation to brown coal and lignite A, lignin in xylem is altered

  6. Diversity and significance of eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea associated with coniferous trees in Poland: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiedrowicz Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the approximately 200 eriophyoid mite species associated with coniferous trees worldwide, 33 species (of the families Eriophyidae and Phytoptidae infest conifers in Poland, and 24 of them can cause visible feeding symptoms. In this paper we discuss the importance of eriophyoid mites to coniferous plants in Poland and their potential impact on the decorative value of ornamental plants. We emphasize the general lack of knowledge about the diversity of eriophyoid mites associated with coniferous trees and its role in the management and control of this economically important mite group.

  7. Bioecology of the fungus Sphaeropsis sapinea dyko & Sutton - agents of pinus species decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijašević Tanja

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sphaeropsis sapinea is a cosmopolitan fungus, identified in more than 50 countries of the world, on all continents, but it is primarily the species of warm lands. It is also a polyphagous fungus recorded from 11 coniferous genera. The most endangered and the most frequent host plants are Pinus species - it occurs on 48 pine species, among which the most susceptible are Pinus Radiata, P. nigra, P. sylvestris, P. ponderosa, P. resinosa, P. mugo, P. pinaster and P. elliotti. The greatest damage is caused on the introduced Pinus species and on those cultivated in artificial plantations, shelterbelts and in urban environments. In Yugoslavia S. sapinea is widely distributed both in the continental and in the Mediterranean parts. It was identified from ten pine species and six hosts from other coniferous genera. By the study in our country, the new hosts of this fungus were detected - Pinus jeffrey, P. peuce and P. heldreichii. The most endangered species in our country is Austrian pine, both in urban environments, and in plantations The symptoms of the disease are bud wilt, curling, stunting and necrosis of current year shoots and needles, dieback of top shoots, parts of crown or tree tops, branch and stem bark canker, root collar rot on the young plants in nurseries and their dying. This fungus also prevents seed germination of Pinus species and causes blue sap stain of the freshly cut wood, although sap stain was also observed on standing trees. More rarely it causes root rot and crown wilt of Pinus species. The main symptoms of infection, both of young plants and older trees, are the dieback of current year shoots S. sapinea can penetrate through buds, bark of young shoots and needles. The critical time of infection is the period from mid April to mid May. Then infection mainly penetrates through the bark of young shoots, which results in their dying. Infection through the needles occurs mainly at the time of their sudden growth or during summer

  8. Micrometeorological measurement of the dry deposition flux of sulphate and nitrate aerosols to coniferous forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyers, G.P.; Duyzer, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Dry deposition fluxes of sulphate and nitrate have been determined over a coniferous canopy using the aerodynamic gradient technique. Vertical concentration gradients of sulphate and nitrate were measured with filters; the gradient of ammonium bisulphate was measured with thermodenuders. Filter

  9. Phylogenetic assemblage structure of North American trees is more strongly shaped by glacial-interglacial climate variability in gymnosperms than in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ziyu; Sandel, Brody; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2016-05-01

    How fast does biodiversity respond to climate change? The relationship of past and current climate with phylogenetic assemblage structure helps us to understand this question. Studies of angiosperm tree diversity in North America have already suggested effects of current water-energy balance and tropical niche conservatism. However, the role of glacial-interglacial climate variability remains to be determined, and little is known about any of these relationships for gymnosperms. Moreover, phylogenetic endemism, the concentration of unique lineages in restricted ranges, may also be related to glacial-interglacial climate variability and needs more attention. We used a refined phylogeny of both angiosperms and gymnosperms to map phylogenetic diversity, clustering and endemism of North American trees in 100-km grid cells, and climate change velocity since Last Glacial Maximum together with postglacial accessibility to recolonization to quantify glacial-interglacial climate variability. We found: (1) Current climate is the dominant factor explaining the overall patterns, with more clustered angiosperm assemblages toward lower temperature, consistent with tropical niche conservatism. (2) Long-term climate stability is associated with higher angiosperm endemism, while higher postglacial accessibility is linked to to more phylogenetic clustering and endemism in gymnosperms. (3) Factors linked to glacial-interglacial climate change have stronger effects on gymnosperms than on angiosperms. These results suggest that paleoclimate legacies supplement current climate in shaping phylogenetic patterns in North American trees, and especially so for gymnosperms.

  10. Molecular evolution of rbcL in three gymnosperm families: identifying adaptive and coevolutionary patterns

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sen, Lin

    2011-06-03

    Abstract Background The chloroplast-localized ribulose-1, 5-biphosphate carboxylase\\/oxygenase (Rubisco), the primary enzyme responsible for autotrophy, is instrumental in the continual adaptation of plants to variations in the concentrations of CO2. The large subunit (LSU) of Rubisco is encoded by the chloroplast rbcL gene. Although adaptive processes have been previously identified at this gene, characterizing the relationships between the mutational dynamics at the protein level may yield clues on the biological meaning of such adaptive processes. The role of such coevolutionary dynamics in the continual fine-tuning of RbcL remains obscure. Results We used the timescale and phylogenetic analyses to investigate and search for processes of adaptive evolution in rbcL gene in three gymnosperm families, namely Podocarpaceae, Taxaceae and Cephalotaxaceae. To understand the relationships between regions identified as having evolved under adaptive evolution, we performed coevolutionary analyses using the software CAPS. Importantly, adaptive processes were identified at amino acid sites located on the contact regions among the Rubisco subunits and on the interface between Rubisco and its activase. Adaptive amino acid replacements at these regions may have optimized the holoenzyme activity. This hypothesis was pinpointed by evidence originated from our analysis of coevolution that supported the correlated evolution between Rubisco and its activase. Interestingly, the correlated adaptive processes between both these proteins have paralleled the geological variation history of the concentration of atmospheric CO2. Conclusions The gene rbcL has experienced bursts of adaptations in response to the changing concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. These adaptations have emerged as a result of a continuous dynamic of mutations, many of which may have involved innovation of functional Rubisco features. Analysis of the protein structure and the functional implications of such

  11. Evidence for potential impacts of ozone on Pinus cembra L. at mountain sites in Europe: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, G.; Manning, W.J.; Tausz, M.; Bytnerowicz, A.

    2006-01-01

    We summarize what is known about the impact of ozone (O 3 ) on Pinus cembra in the timberline ecotone of the central European Alps and the Carpathian Mountains. In the central European Alps exposure to ambient and two-fold ambient O 3 throughout one growing season did neither cause any visible injury nor affect the photosynthetic machinery and biochemical parameters in current to 1-year-old needles. By contrast, in the southern French Alps and in the Carpathians 1-year-old needles of Pinus cembra trees showed visual symptoms similar to those observed in O 3 stressed pine stands in southern California. For the southern French Alps the observed symptoms could clearly be attributed O 3 and differences in O 3 uptake seems to be the likely key factor for explaining the observed decline. For the Carpathians however, other reasons such as drought may not be excluded in eliciting the observed symptoms. Thus, the action of O 3 has always to be evaluated in concert with other environmental impacts, determining the tree's sensitivity to stress. - An overview of ozone effects on Pinus cembra an important European coniferous tree species in the timberline ecotone

  12. Evidence for potential impacts of ozone on Pinus cembra L. at mountain sites in Europe: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieser, G. [Division Alpine Timberline Ecophysiology, Bundesamt und Forschungszentrum fuer Wald, Rennweg 1, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)]. E-mail: gerhard.wieser@uibk.ac.at; Manning, W.J. [Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts, Amsherst, MA 01003 (United States); Tausz, M. [Institute of Plant Sciences, Karl-Franzens Universitaet Graz, Schubertstrasse 51, 8010 Graz (Austria); School of Forest and Ecosystem Science, University of Melbourne, Water Street, Creswick Victoria 3363 (Australia); Bytnerowicz, A. [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Riverside (United States)

    2006-01-15

    We summarize what is known about the impact of ozone (O{sub 3}) on Pinus cembra in the timberline ecotone of the central European Alps and the Carpathian Mountains. In the central European Alps exposure to ambient and two-fold ambient O{sub 3} throughout one growing season did neither cause any visible injury nor affect the photosynthetic machinery and biochemical parameters in current to 1-year-old needles. By contrast, in the southern French Alps and in the Carpathians 1-year-old needles of Pinus cembra trees showed visual symptoms similar to those observed in O{sub 3} stressed pine stands in southern California. For the southern French Alps the observed symptoms could clearly be attributed O{sub 3} and differences in O{sub 3} uptake seems to be the likely key factor for explaining the observed decline. For the Carpathians however, other reasons such as drought may not be excluded in eliciting the observed symptoms. Thus, the action of O{sub 3} has always to be evaluated in concert with other environmental impacts, determining the tree's sensitivity to stress. - An overview of ozone effects on Pinus cembra an important European coniferous tree species in the timberline ecotone.

  13. Carbon sequestration in managed temperate coniferous forests under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, Caren C.; Beukema, Sarah; Nitschke, Craig R.; Coates, K. David; Scheller, Robert M.

    2016-03-01

    Management of temperate forests has the potential to increase carbon sinks and mitigate climate change. However, those opportunities may be confounded by negative climate change impacts. We therefore need a better understanding of climate change alterations to temperate forest carbon dynamics before developing mitigation strategies. The purpose of this project was to investigate the interactions of species composition, fire, management, and climate change in the Copper-Pine Creek valley, a temperate coniferous forest with a wide range of growing conditions. To do so, we used the LANDIS-II modelling framework including the new Forest Carbon Succession extension to simulate forest ecosystems under four different productivity scenarios, with and without climate change effects, until 2050. Significantly, the new extension allowed us to calculate the net sector productivity, a carbon accounting metric that integrates aboveground and belowground carbon dynamics, disturbances, and the eventual fate of forest products. The model output was validated against literature values. The results implied that the species optimum growing conditions relative to current and future conditions strongly influenced future carbon dynamics. Warmer growing conditions led to increased carbon sinks and storage in the colder and wetter ecoregions but not necessarily in the others. Climate change impacts varied among species and site conditions, and this indicates that both of these components need to be taken into account when considering climate change mitigation activities and adaptive management. The introduction of a new carbon indicator, net sector productivity, promises to be useful in assessing management effectiveness and mitigation activities.

  14. Soil and vegetation changes after clear-felling coniferous forests: effects of varying removal of logging residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Bengt.

    1995-01-01

    Effects of the intensity of logging residue harvesting on soil nutrient status and ground vegetation cover were examined over a 16-year period in two series of field experiments in Sweden. Short-term effects of slash harvesting and stump removal on soil water chemistry were studied after clear-felling a Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stand in SW Sweden. Soil water concentrations of NH4 + , and NO 3 - and K + were lower shortly after whole-tree harvesting (i.e. stem and slash harvesting) than shortly after conventional stem-only harvesting or complete tree harvesting (i.e. stem, slash and stump removal). However, 5 years later there were no longer differences in nutrient concentrations detected between treatments, and nutrient levels approached those normally found in drainage water from forest land. Similar studies focussed on long-term (16 years) effects were conducted on four coniferous forest sites in Sweden, two in north and the other two in the south. In each region one site was situated in a pure Scots pine stand (Pinus sylvestris L.) and the other in a pure Norway spruce stand. In general, the intensity of slash harvesting had no effect on the total pools of nitrogen or carbon in the soil. Furthermore, this study showed experimentally that the harvesting of logging residues results in long-term soil acidification and depletions of exchangeable base cations, manganese and zinc pools, which lead in turn to a reduction in base saturation levels. A major implication for practical forestry was that guidelines and recommendations concerning the large-scale utilization of logging residues should be based more on the nutritional and soil acidifying consequences of this practice than on its potential effect on soil organic matter storage. It would also be possible to mitigate the detrimental effects that slash harvesting has on site conditions by applying wood-ash or other nutrients in inorganic form. 53 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  15. Soil and vegetation changes after clear-felling coniferous forests: effects of varying removal of logging residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Bengt

    1995-11-01

    Effects of the intensity of logging residue harvesting on soil nutrient status and ground vegetation cover were examined over a 16-year period in two series of field experiments in Sweden. Short-term effects of slash harvesting and stump removal on soil water chemistry were studied after clear-felling a Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stand in SW Sweden. Soil water concentrations of NH4{sup +}, and NO{sub 3}{sup -} and K{sup +} were lower shortly after whole-tree harvesting (i.e. stem and slash harvesting) than shortly after conventional stem-only harvesting or complete tree harvesting (i.e. stem, slash and stump removal). However, 5 years later there were no longer differences in nutrient concentrations detected between treatments, and nutrient levels approached those normally found in drainage water from forest land. Similar studies focussed on long-term (16 years) effects were conducted on four coniferous forest sites in Sweden, two in north and the other two in the south. In each region one site was situated in a pure Scots pine stand (Pinus sylvestris L.) and the other in a pure Norway spruce stand. In general, the intensity of slash harvesting had no effect on the total pools of nitrogen or carbon in the soil. Furthermore, this study showed experimentally that the harvesting of logging residues results in long-term soil acidification and depletions of exchangeable base cations, manganese and zinc pools, which lead in turn to a reduction in base saturation levels. A major implication for practical forestry was that guidelines and recommendations concerning the large-scale utilization of logging residues should be based more on the nutritional and soil acidifying consequences of this practice than on its potential effect on soil organic matter storage. It would also be possible to mitigate the detrimental effects that slash harvesting has on site conditions by applying wood-ash or other nutrients in inorganic form. 53 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  16. A Floricaula/Leafy gene homolog is preferentially expressed in developing female cones of the tropical pine Pinus caribaea var. caribaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Carnier Dornelas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In angiosperms, flower formation is controlled by meristem identity genes, one of which, FLORICAULA (FLO/LEAFY (LFY, plays a central role. It is not known if the formation of reproductive organs of pre-angiosperm species is similarly regulated. Here, we report the cloning of a conifer (Pinus caribaea var. caribaea FLO/LFY homolog, named PcLFY. This gene has a large C-terminal region of high similarity to angiosperm FLO/LFY orthologs and shorter regions of local similarity. In contrast to angiosperms, conifers have two divergent genes resembling LFY. Gymnosperm FLO/LFY proteins constitute a separate clade, that can be divided into two divergent groups. Phylogenetic analysis of deduced protein sequences has shown that PcLFY belongs to the LFY-like clade. Northern hybridization analysis has revealed that PcLFY is preferentially expressed in developing female cones but not in developing male cones. This expression pattern was confirmed by in situ hybridization and is consistent with the hypothesis of PcLFY being involved in the determination of the female cone identity. Additionally, mutant complementation experiments have shown that the expression of the PcLFY coding region, driven by the Arabidopsis LFY promoter, can confer the wild-type phenotype to lfy-26 transgenic mutants, suggesting that both gymnosperm and angiosperm LFY homologs share the same biological role.

  17. Atmospheric deposition in coniferous and deciduous tree stands in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Anna; Astel, Aleksander; Boczoń, Andrzej; Polkowska, Żaneta

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the transformation of precipitation in terms of quantity and chemical composition following contact with the crown layer in tree stands with varied species composition, to investigate the effect of four predominant forest-forming species (pine, spruce, beech, and oak) on the amount and composition of precipitation reaching forest soils, and to determine the sources of pollution in atmospheric precipitation in forest areas in Poland. The amount and chemical composition (pH, electric conductivity, alkalinity, and chloride, nitrate, sulfate, phosphate, ammonium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron aluminum, manganese, zinc, copper, total nitrogen, and dissolved organic carbon contents) of atmospheric (bulk, BP) and throughfall (TF) precipitation were studied from January to December 2010 on twelve forest monitoring plots representative of Polish conditions. The study results provided the basis for the determination of the fluxes of pollutants in the forest areas of Poland and allowed the comparison of such fluxes with values provided in the literature for European forest areas. The transformation of precipitation in the canopy was compared for different tree stands. The fluxes of substances in an open field and under canopy were influenced by the location of the plot, including the regional meteorological conditions (precipitation amounts), vicinity of the sea (effect of marine aerosols), and local level of anthropogenic pollution. Differences between the plots were higher in TF than in BP. The impact of the vegetation cover on the chemical composition of precipitation depended on the region of the country and dominant species in a given tree stand. Coniferous species tended to cause acidification of precipitation, whereas deciduous species increased the pH of TF. Pine and oak stands enriched precipitation with components that leached from the canopy (potassium, manganese, magnesium) to a higher degree than spruce and

  18. Compatible above-ground biomass equations and carbon stock estimation for small diameter Turkish pine (Pinus brutia Ten.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakici, Oytun Emre; Kucuk, Omer; Ashraf, Muhammad Irfan

    2018-04-15

    Small trees and saplings are important for forest management, carbon stock estimation, ecological modeling, and fire management planning. Turkish pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) is a common coniferous species and comprises 25.1% of total forest area of Turkey. Turkish pine is also important due to its flammable fuel characteristics. In this study, compatible above-ground biomass equations were developed to predict needle, branch, stem wood, and above-ground total biomass, and carbon stock assessment was also described for Turkish pine which is smaller than 8 cm diameter at breast height or shorter than breast height. Compatible biomass equations are useful for biomass prediction of small diameter individuals of Turkish pine. These equations will also be helpful in determining fire behavior characteristics and calculating their carbon stock. Overall, present study will be useful for developing ecological models, forest management plans, silvicultural plans, and fire management plans.

  19. Influences of evergreen gymnosperm and deciduous angiosperm tree species on the functioning of temperate and boreal forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augusto, Laurent; De Schrijver, An; Vesterdal, Lars

    2015-01-01

    It has been recognized for a long time that the overstorey composition of a forest partly determines its biological and physical-chemical functioning. Here, we review evidence of the influence of evergreen gymnosperm (EG) tree species and deciduous angiosperm (DA) tree species on the water balance...... present the current state of the art, define knowledge gaps, and briefly discuss how selection of tree species can be used to mitigate pollution or enhance accumulation of stable organic carbon in the soil. The presence of EGs generally induces a lower rate of precipitation input into the soil than DAs......, resulting in drier soil conditions and lower water discharge. Soil temperature is generally not different, or slightly lower, under an EG canopy compared to a DA canopy. Chemical properties, such as soil pH, can also be significantly modified by taxonomic groups of tree species. Biomass production...

  20. In vitro propagation of female Ephedra foliata Boiss. & Kotschy ex Boiss.: an endemic and threatened Gymnosperm of the Thar Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodha, Deepika; Rathore, Nisha; Kataria, Vinod; Shekhawat, N S

    2014-07-01

    Ephedra foliata Boiss. & Kotschy ex Boiss., (family - Ephedraceae), is an ecologically and economically important threatened Gymnosperm of the Indian Thar Desert. A method for micropropagation of E. foliata using nodal explant of mature female plant has been developed. Maximum bud-break (90 %) of the explant was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg l(-1) of benzyl adenine (BA) + additives. Explant produces 5.3 ± 0.40 shoots from single node with 3.25 ± 0.29 cm length. The multiplication of shoots in culture was affected by salt composition of media, types and concentrations of plant growth regulators (PGR's) and their interactions, time of transfer of the cultures. Maximum number of shoots (26.3 ± 0.82 per culture vessel) were regenerated on MS medium modified by reducing the concentration of nitrates to half supplemented with 200 mg l(-1) ammonium sulphate {(NH4) 2SO4} (MMS3) + BA (0.25 mg l(-1)), Kinetin (Kin; 0.25 mg l(-1)), Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA; 0.1 mg l(-1)) and additives. The in vitro produced shoots rooted under ex vitro on soilrite moistened with one-fourth strength of MS macro salts in screw cap bottles by treating the shoot base (s) with 500 mg l(-1) of Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for 5 min. The micropropagated plants were hardened in the green house. The described protocol can be applicable for (i) large scale plant production (ii) establishment of plants in natural habitat and (iii) germplasm conservation of this endemic Gymnosperm of arid regions.

  1. Response of needle dark respiration of Pinus koraiensis and Pinus sylvestriformis to elevated CO2 concentrations for four growing seasons' exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU YuMei; HAN ShiJie; ZHANG HaiSen; XIN LiHua; ZHENG JunQiang

    2007-01-01

    The long-term effect of elevated CO2 concentrations on needle dark respiration of two coniferous species-Pinus koraiensis and Pinus sylvestriformis on the Changbai Mountain was investigated using open-top chambers. P. Koraiensis and P. Sylvestriformis were exposed to 700,500μmol·mol-1 CO2 and ambient CO2(approx.350 μmol·mol-1)for four growing seasons. Needle dark respiration was measurd during the second, third and fourth growing seasons' exposure to elevated CO2.The results showed that needle dark respiration rate increased for P. Koraiensis and P. Sylvestriformis grown at elevated CO2 concentrations during the second growing season, could be attributed to the change of carbohydrate and/or nitrogen content of needles. Needle dark respiration of P. Koraiensis was stimulated and that of P. Sylvestriformis was inhibited by elevated CO2 concentrations during the third growing season. Different response of the two tree species to elevated CO2 mainly resulted from the difference in the growth rate. Elevated CO2 concentrations inhibited needle dark respiration of both P. Koraiensis and P. Sylvestriformis during the fourth growing season. There was consistent trend between the short-term effect and the long-term effect of elevated CO2 on needle dark respiration in P. Sylvestriformis during the third growing season by changing measurement CO2 concentrations. However, the short-term effect was different from the long-term effect for P. Koraiensis. Response of dark respiration of P. Koraiensis and P. Sylvestriformis to elevated CO2 concentrations was related to the treatment time of CO2 and the stage of growth and development of plant. The change of dark respiration for the two tree species was determined by the direct effect of CO2 and long-term acclimation. The prediction of the long-term response of needle dark respiration to elevated CO2 concentration based on the short-term response is in dispute.

  2. Calibration of the L-MEB model over a coniferous and a deciduous forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jennifer P.; Saleh-Contell, Kauzar; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the L-band Microwave Emission of the Biosphere (L-MEB) model used in the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Level 2 Soil Moisture algorithm is calibrated using L-band (1.4 GHz) microwave measurements over a coniferous (Pine) and a deciduous (mixed/Beech) forest. This resulted...

  3. Substantial secondary organic aerosol formation in a coniferous forest: observations of both day- and nighttime chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    A. K. Y. Lee; J. P. D. Abbatt; W. R. Leaitch; S.-M. Li; S. J. Sjostedt; S. J. Sjostedt; J. J. B. Wentzell; J. Liggio; A. M. Macdonald

    2016-01-01

    Substantial biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) formation was investigated in a coniferous forest mountain region at Whistler, British Columbia. A largely biogenic aerosol growth episode was observed, providing a unique opportunity to investigate BSOA formation chemistry in a forested environment with limited influence from anthropogenic emissions. Positive matrix factorization of aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) measurement identifie...

  4. Rehabilitation of monotonous exotic coniferous plantations: a case study of spontaneous establishment of different tree species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jonášová, Magda; van Hees, A.; Prach, Karel

    -, č. 28 (2006), s. 141-148 ISSN 0925-8574 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : restoration of coniferous plantations * natural regeneration * forest management Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.331, year: 2006

  5. Analyzing the ecosystem carbon dynamics of four European coniferous forests using a biogeochemistry model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Churkina, G.; Tenhunen, J.; Thornton, P.; Falge, E.; Elbers, J.A.; Erhard, M.; Grünwald, T.; Kowalski, A.; Rannik, Ü.; Sprinz, D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides the first steps toward a regional-scale analysis of carbon (C) budgets. We explore the ability of the ecosystem model BIOME-BGC to estimate the daily and annual C dynamics of four European coniferous forests and shifts in these dynamics in response to changing environmental

  6. Radiation-induced cell death in embryogenic cells of coniferous plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshito; Homma-Takeda, Shino; Yukawa, Masae; Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Sasamoto, Hamako; Takahagi, Masahiko

    2004-01-01

    Reproductive processes are particularly radiosensitive in plant development, which was clearly illustrated in reduction of seed formation in native coniferous plants around Chernobyl after the nuclear accident. For the purpose to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on embryonic formation in coniferous plants, we used an embryo-derived embryogenic cell culture of a Japanese native coniferous plant, Japanese cedar (Cryplomeria japonica). The embryogenic cells were so radiosensitive that most of the cells died by X-ray irradiation of 5 Gy. This indicated that the embryogenic cells are as radiosensitive as some mammalian cells including lymphocytes. We considered that this type of radiosensitive cell death in the embryogenic cells should be responsible for reproductive damages of coniferous plants by low dose of ionizing radiation. The cell death of the embryogenic cells was characteristic of nuclear DNA fragmentation, which is typically observed in radiation-induced programmed cell death, i.e. apoptosis, in mammalian cells. On the other hand, cell death with nuclear DNA fragmentation did not develop by X-ray irradiation in vegetative cells including meristematic cells of Japanese cedar. This suggests that an apoptosis-like programmed cell death should develop cell-specifically in embryogenic cells by ionizing radiation. The abortion of embryogenic cells may work to prevent transmission of radiation-induced genetic damages to the descendants. (author)

  7. Temporal and spatial variation of nitrogen transformations in a coniferous forest soils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laverman, A.M.; Zoomer, H.R.; van Verseveld, H.W.; Verhoef, H.A.

    2000-01-01

    Forest soils show a great degree of temporal and spatial variation of nitrogen mineralization. The aim of the present study was to explain temporal variation in nitrate leaching from a nitrogen-saturated coniferous forest soil by potential nitrification, mineralization rates and nitrate uptake by

  8. Temporal and spatial variation of nitrogen transformations in a coniferous soil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laverman, A.M.; Zoomer, H.R.; van Verseveld, H.W.; Verhoef, H.A.

    2000-01-01

    Forest soils show a great degree of temporal and spatial variation of nitrogen mineralization. The aim of the present study was to explain temporal variation in nitrate leaching from a nitrogen-saturated coniferous forest soil by potential nitrification, mineralization rates and nitrate uptake by

  9. Absorption of Power Plants СО2 Emissions by Coniferous Tree Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvorova G.G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the ability of coniferous (common pine, siberian larch and siberian spruce stands growing in 9 municipal districts of the Irkutsk region to absorb СО2 technogenic emission of heat power plants. (EIGAF index is suggested to characterize gas-absorbing (СО2–absorbing activity; the index reflects proportion between СО2 technogenic emission and photosynthetic productivity (GPP of coniferous tree stands. СО2–absorbing capacity in 8 of the monitored districts has been shown to significantly exceed the amount of carbon dioxide emission from heat power sector. The index values EIGAF=0.01-0.97 demonstrate that СО2 technogenic emission amounts to 1-97% of coniferous stands photosynthetic productivity in the areas under study. At the same time, the most industrially developed Angarsk district shows СО2 photosynthetic absorption to be 8-12 times lower than technogenic СО2 emission. Reasons of low gas-absorbing capacity of coniferous tree stands of this area are discussed.

  10. Chemical ecology and management of bark beetles in western coniferous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Fettig

    2013-01-01

    The future looks bright for the development and use of semiochemical-based tools in forests, particularly in remote and sensitive areas where other management techniques (e.g., the use of insecticides) may not be appropriate. This editorial provides an concise overview of chemical ecology and management of bark beetles in western coniferous forests.

  11. Measurement of the dry deposition flux of NH3 on to coniferous forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyzer, J.H.; Verhagen, H.L.M.; Weststrate, J.H.; Bosveld, F.C.

    1992-01-01

    The dry deposition flux of NH3 to coniferous forest was determined by the micrometeorological gradient method using a 36m high tower. Aerodynamic characteristics of the site were studied, using a second tower erected in the forest 100m from the first. Fluxes and gradients of heat and momentum

  12. Minimizing measurement uncertainties of coniferous needle-leaf optical properties, part I: methodological review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yanez Rausell, L.; Schaepman, M.E.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Malenovsky, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Optical properties (OPs) of non-flat narrow plant leaves, i.e., coniferous needles, are extensively used by the remote sensing community, in particular for calibration and validation of radiative transfer models at leaf and canopy level. Optical measurements of such small living elements are,

  13. Private and public incomes in dehesas and coniferous forests in Andalusia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paola Ovando; Pablo Campos; Jose L. Oviedo; Alejandro Caparrós

    2015-01-01

    We apply an ecosystem accounting system to estimate the total social income accrued from private and public products in a group of agroforestry farms in Andalusia (Spain). We provide bio-physical and economic indicators for two contrasting farm types, a sub-group of 15 publicly owned coniferous forests and a sub-group of 24 privately owned dehesa farms. Total social...

  14. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  15. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg(-1)) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg(-1)). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark-in pyroclastic wounds-and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg(-1)) and bark (6.0 μg kg(-1)) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  16. The role of hybridization during ecological divergence of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) and limber pine (P. flexilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Mitra; Bagley, Justin C; Friedline, Christopher J; Whipple, Amy V; Schoettle, Anna W; Leal-Sàenz, Alejandro; Wehenkel, Christian; Molina-Freaner, Francisco; Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Gonzalez-Elizondo, M Socorro; Sniezko, Richard A; Cushman, Samuel A; Waring, Kristen M; Eckert, Andrew J

    2018-03-01

    Interactions between extrinsic factors, such as disruptive selection and intrinsic factors, such as genetic incompatibilities among loci, often contribute to the maintenance of species boundaries. The relative roles of these factors in the establishment of reproductive isolation can be examined using species pairs characterized by gene flow throughout their divergence history. We investigated the process of speciation and the maintenance of species boundaries between Pinus strobiformis and Pinus flexilis. Utilizing ecological niche modelling, demographic modelling and genomic cline analyses, we illustrated a divergence history with continuous gene flow. Our results supported an abundance of advanced generation hybrids and a lack of loci exhibiting steep transition in allele frequency across the hybrid zone. Additionally, we found evidence for climate-associated variation in the hybrid index and niche divergence between parental species and the hybrid zone. These results are consistent with extrinsic factors, such as climate, being an important isolating mechanism. A build-up of intrinsic incompatibilities and of coadapted gene complexes is also apparent, although these appear to be in the earliest stages of development. This supports previous work in coniferous species demonstrating the importance of extrinsic factors in facilitating speciation. Overall, our findings lend support to the hypothesis that varying strength and direction of selection pressures across the long lifespans of conifers, in combination with their other life history traits, delays the evolution of strong intrinsic incompatibilities. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Regeneration of Pinus cubensis Griseb. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raima Cantillo Ardebol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Micropropagation of plants from the genus Pinus has been done in several species. However, micropropagation of Pinus cubensis Griseb has not been reported. This species has a great economical importance. Then, the aim of the current research was to achieve in vitro propagation of Pinus cubensis Griseb. to increase the number of individuals in their natural habitat. The concentration of sodium hypochlorite and immersion time were determined for seeds disinfection and embryos establishment. The effect of the presence or absence of the seed coat was also studied. Two growth regulators and three concentrations of each one were tested to achieve the emission of axillary buds in the multiplication phase. Five subcultures every 21 days were done. Rooting and acclimatization were carried out simultaneously. Shoots were individualized and immersed in a rooting solution. Zygotic embryos of P. cubensis wer e dev el o ped in vitro. The highest percentages of disinfection and germination were obtained by introducing the seeds in a solution of sodium hypochlorite at 20% for 15 minutes, planting them after that without the seed coat. The number and length of axillary buds increased by using 22.5 µM of 6-benzylaminopurine and 5.4 µM naphthaleneacetic acid in the multiplication phase. The in vitro propagation of Pinus cubensis Griseb. from zygotic embryos was achieved for the first time. A protocol was also established, reaching 50% of survival in the acclimatization phase. Key words: acclimatization, axillary buds, forestry, multiplication, pinus

  18. Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinaster, Pinus pinea and Pinus sylvestris Essential Oils Chemotypes and Monoterpene Hydrocarbon Enantiomers, before and after Inoculation with the Pinewood Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana M; Mendes, Marta D; Lima, Ana S; Barbosa, Pedro M; Ascensão, Lia; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G; Mota, Manuel M; Figueiredo, A Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the causal agent of pine wilt disease, a serious threat to global forest populations of conifers, especially Pinus spp. A time-course study of the essential oils (EOs) of 2-year-old Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinaster, Pinus pinea and Pinus sylvestris following inoculation with the PWN was performed. The constitutive and nematode inoculation induced EOs components were analyzed at both the wounding or inoculation areas and at the whole plant level. The enantiomeric ratio of optically active main EOs components was also evaluated. External symptoms of infection were observed only in P. pinaster and P. sylvestris 21 and 15 days after inoculation, respectively. The EO composition analysis of uninoculated and unwounded plants revealed the occurrence of chemotypes for P. pinaster, P. halepensis and P. sylvestris, whereas P. pinea showed a homogenous EO composition. When whole plants were evaluated for EO and monoterpene hydrocarbon enantiomeric chemical composition, no relevant qualitative and quantitative differences were found. Instead, EO analysis of inoculated and uninoculated wounded areas revealed an increase of sesquiterpenes and diterpenic compounds, especially in P. pinea and P. halepensis, comparatively to healthy whole plants EOs. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  19. Carbon stocks of three secondary coniferous forests along an altitudinal gradient on Loess Plateau in inland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Nan, Hongwei

    2018-01-01

    Natural forests in inland China are generally distributed in montane area and secondary due to a semi-arid climate and past anthropogenic disturbances. However, quantification of carbon (C) stock in these forests and the role of altitude in determining C storage and its partition among ecosystem components are unclear. We sampled 54 stands of three secondary coniferous forests (Larix principis-rupprechtii (LP) forest, Picea meyerii (PM) forest and Pinus tabulaeformis (PT) forest) on Loess Plateau in an altitudinal range of 1200-2700m a.s.l. C stocks of tree layer, shrub layer, herb layer, coarse wood debris, forest floor and soil were estimated. We found these forests had relatively high total C stocks. Driven by both higher vegetation and soil C stocks, total C stocks of LP and PM forests in the high altitudinal range were 375.0 and 368.4 t C ha-1 respectively, significantly higher than that of PT forest in the low altitudinal range (230.2 t C ha-1). In addition, understory shrubs accounted for about 20% of total biomass in PT forest. The proportions of vegetation to total C stock were similar among in the three forests (below 45%), so were the proportions of soil C stock (over 54%). Necromass C stocks were also similar among these forests, but their proportions to total C stock were significantly lower in LP and PM forests (1.4% and 1.6%) than in PT forest (3.0%). Across forest types, vegetation biomass and soil C stock simultaneously increased with increasing altitude, causing fairly unchanged C partitioning among ecosystem components along the altitudinal gradient. Soil C stock also increased with altitude in LP and PT forests. Forest floor necromass decreased with increasing altitude across the three forests. Our results suggest the important role of the altitudinal gradient in C sequestration and floor necromass of these three forests in terms of alleviated water conditions and in soil C storage of LP and PM forests in terms of temperature change. PMID

  20. Pinus taeda AND Pinus oocarpa PLYWOOD MANUFACTURING WITH FENOL-FORMALDHEYDE RESIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of the plywood, manufactured from Pinus taeda and Pinus oocarpa, with 20 and 24 years old respectively, using three differentformulations of the fenol-formaldheyde resin. The results of the glue line shearing tests not showed statistical differences between the species and three resin formulations. In the hot water test, all of the boards were classified as “BR” and, the boards of the Pinus oocarpa produced with formulations (1and (3, were classified as “WBP”. The different resin formulations not influenced on the modulus ofelasticity (MOE and modulus of rupture (MOR The boards of Pinus taeda with formulations (1 and(2 showed higher values of MOE in comparison of the Pinus oocarpa. The MOR of the Pinus oocarpa withformulation (2 was higher than Pinus taeda. The mechanical properties of the plywood wereprobably influenced by wood variability related to sapwood and hartwood, thickness of growth ringsand, springwood and summerwood.

  1. A Pleistocene record of a rare endemic gymnosperm, Neocallitropsis pancheri (Cupressaceae), from the Plaine des Lacs, New Caledonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suprin, B.; Hope, G.

    2001-01-01

    A log found submerged in a small lake in south east New Caledonia has been identified as the now rare endemic conifer Neocallitropsis pancheri (Carr.) Laubenf. (Cupressaceae). Tree ring counts are in reasonable agreement with two radiocarbon dates from the centre and outer wood of the log, indicating an age at death of about 250 years. The tree lived about 12,000 C14 years ago and was as large as modern individuals of presumed similar age. Widespread erosion and the replacement of mixed rainforest by Gymnostoma dominated maquis, associated with episodes of fire, occurred in this area for an unknown period after 25,000 BP. The growth of this moisture dependant and fire sensitive gymnosperm by 12,000 BP suggests that a moister and more stable climate may have been re-established before the start of the Holocene. The species is now almost removed from the Plaine des Lacs, possibly being excluded by widespread natural fires in the Holocene, and those associated with European logging in the early colonial period

  2. Evaluation of the present genetic conservation efforts in Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Quercus spp., Fagus sylvatica, and Pinus pinaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.

    2015-01-01

    Information on genetic diversity and gene conservation activities were combined with climatic data to evaluate the present genetic conservation efforts in Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Quercus spp., Fagus sylvatica, and Pinus pinaster. Combinations of climatic variables explained much of the

  3. Effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations on Pinus ponderosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surano, K.A.; Kercher, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report details the results from an experiment of the effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) saplings and seedlings. The study began in 1983 as a pilot study designed to explore the feasibility of using open-top chambers for continuous multi-year exposures on sapling-sized trees and to examine possible CO 2 responses so that future research could be adequately designed. however, following the first year of exposure, preliminary results from the study indicated that measurements of CO 2 responses should be intensified. Open-top chambers proved suitable for use in multiyear exposures of mature trees. With respect to the preliminary examination of CO 2 responses, many interesting observations were made. The nature of the preliminary results suggests that future long-term field CO 2 exposures on perennial species may be critical to the understanding and preparation for future environments. Other research reported here attempted to adapt an existing western coniferous forest growth and succession model for use in elevated CO 2 scenarios using differential species responses, and assessed the usefulness of the model in that regard. Seven papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  4. Effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on Pinus ponderosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surano, K.A.; Kercher, J.R. [eds.

    1993-10-01

    This report details the results from an experiment of the effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) saplings and seedlings. The study began in 1983 as a pilot study designed to explore the feasibility of using open-top chambers for continuous multi-year exposures on sapling-sized trees and to examine possible CO{sub 2} responses so that future research could be adequately designed. however, following the first year of exposure, preliminary results from the study indicated that measurements of CO{sub 2} responses should be intensified. Open-top chambers proved suitable for use in multiyear exposures of mature trees. With respect to the preliminary examination of CO{sub 2} responses, many interesting observations were made. The nature of the preliminary results suggests that future long-term field CO{sub 2} exposures on perennial species may be critical to the understanding and preparation for future environments. Other research reported here attempted to adapt an existing western coniferous forest growth and succession model for use in elevated CO{sub 2} scenarios using differential species responses, and assessed the usefulness of the model in that regard. Seven papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  5. Comparative analysis of the small RNA transcriptomes of Pinus contorta and Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Ryan D; Aksay, Gozde; Dolgosheina, Elena; Ebhardt, H Alexander; Magrini, Vincent; Mardis, Elaine R; Sahinalp, S Cenk; Unrau, Peter J

    2008-04-01

    The diversity of microRNAs and small-interfering RNAs has been extensively explored within angiosperms by focusing on a few key organisms such as Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana. A deeper division of the plants is defined by the radiation of the angiosperms and gymnosperms, with the latter comprising the commercially important conifers. The conifers are expected to provide important information regarding the evolution of highly conserved small regulatory RNAs. Deep sequencing provides the means to characterize and quantitatively profile small RNAs in understudied organisms such as these. Pyrosequencing of small RNAs from O. sativa revealed, as expected, approximately 21- and approximately 24-nt RNAs. The former contained known microRNAs, and the latter largely comprised intergenic-derived sequences likely representing heterochromatin siRNAs. In contrast, sequences from Pinus contorta were dominated by 21-nt small RNAs. Using a novel sequence-based clustering algorithm, we identified sequences belonging to 18 highly conserved microRNA families in P. contorta as well as numerous clusters of conserved small RNAs of unknown function. Using multiple methods, including expressed sequence folding and machine learning algorithms, we found a further 53 candidate novel microRNA families, 51 appearing specific to the P. contorta library. In addition, alignment of small RNA sequences to the O. sativa genome revealed six perfectly conserved classes of small RNA that included chloroplast transcripts and specific types of genomic repeats. The conservation of microRNAs and other small RNAs between the conifers and the angiosperms indicates that important RNA silencing processes were highly developed in the earliest spermatophytes. Genomic mapping of all sequences to the O. sativa genome can be viewed at http://microrna.bcgsc.ca/cgi-bin/gbrowse/rice_build_3/.

  6. Influence of meteorological parameters on interception of cloud droplets in a coniferous forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, G; Winkler, P [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Meteorologisches Observatorium Hamburg (Germany, F.R.)

    1989-11-01

    The deposition of trace substances in a high elevated coniferous forest by interception of cloud droplets depends on numerous meteorological parameters. Sensitivity studies with a deposition model show that the variation of the vertical wind profile in the stand and the capture efficiency have a large influence on the deposition flux. Different drop size distributions with equal LWC's lead to changes of only 10% in the deposition flux. A higher ion concentration in small droplets has only a small influence on the trace substance deposition. A realistic estimate of the deposition is most likely achieved by using hourly observed meteorological parameters as model input values. The deposition of trace substances into a high elevated coniferous forest by interception of cloud droplets can be as high as the deposition via rain. (orig.).

  7. Ecosystem carbon stocks in Pinus palustris forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Samuelson; Tom Stokes; John R. Butnor; Kurt H. Johnsen; Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke; Pete Anderson; Jason Jackson; Lorenzo Ferrari; Tim A. Martin; Wendell P. Cropper

    2014-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) restoration in the southeastern United States offers opportunities for carbon (C) sequestration. Ecosystem C stocks are not well understood in longleaf pine forests, which are typically of low density and maintained by prescribed fire. The objectives of this research were to develop allometric equations for...

  8. The extractives of Pinus pinaster wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Hemingway; W. E. Hillis; L. S. Lau

    1973-01-01

    The extractives in Pinus pinaster wood grown in South Australia were examined as part of an assessment of the suitability of this wood for manufacture of absorbent tissues from bisulphite pulps. The average petroleum solubility of the wood was 2.0% but the amount and composition of the petroleum extract varied widely depending upon the age of the...

  9. Silvical characteristics of pitch pine (Pinus rigida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little

    1959-01-01

    Pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) grows over a wide geographical range - from central Maine to New York and extreme southeastern Ontario, south to Virginia and southern Ohio, and in the mountains to eastern Tennessee, northern Georgia, and western South Carolina. Because it grows mostly on the poorer soils, its distribution is spotty.

  10. Nanocarbon materials obtained of coniferous trees in the composition of black powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkhair Mansurov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Obtained black powders from coniferous wood. The carbon content of up to 90% can be used in warfare, pyrotechnics and industries. In the Republic of Kazakhstan does not produce gunpowder. In the energy-intensive materials laboratory, developed industrial black powders (ordinary, composed of components produced in the republic of Kazakhstan. Sulfur, activated carbon, based on apricot seeds and rice husks, softwood sawdust, which have lower costs than their foreign counterparts.

  11. The effect of slight thinning of managed coniferous forest on landscape appreciation and psychological restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Norimasa; Saito, Haruo; Fujiwara, Akio; Horiuchi, Masahiro

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the influence of slight thinning (percentage of woods: 16.6%, basal area: 9.3%) on landscape appreciation and the psychological restorative effect of an on-site setting by exposing respondents to an ordinarily managed coniferous woodland. The experiments were conducted in an experimental plot in the same coniferous woodland in May (unthinned) and October 2013 (thinned). The respondents were the same 15 individuals for both experiments. Respondents were individually exposed to the enclosed plot and the forest-view plot within the same tent for 15 min. In both sessions, respondents were required to answer three questionnaires measuring their mood (Profile of Mood States), emotion (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule), and feeling of restoration (Restorative Outcome Scale) to investigate the psychological restorative effect before and after the experiment. They completed two other questionnaires measuring appreciation for the environment (Semantic Differential) and the restorative properties of the environment (Perceived Restorativeness Scale) following the experiments. We first analyzed the difference in landscape appreciation between the unthinned and thinned conditions. We did not find any statistical difference in appreciation for the environment (Semantic Differential) or the restorative properties of the environment (Perceived Restorativeness Scale); rather, we found that weather conditions had a primary influence on landscape appreciation. With respect to the psychological restorative effect, a two-way repeated analysis of valiance (ANOVA) revealed significant main effects for a selection of indices, depending on the presence or absence of thinning. However, multiple comparison analyses revealed that these effects seemed to be due to the difference in the experimental experience rather than the presence or absence of thinning. In conclusion, the effect of the slight thinning of the managed coniferous forest was too weak to be reflected in the

  12. A comparison of estimation methods for fitting Weibull, Johnson's SB and beta functions to Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata and Pinus sylvestris stands in northwest Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorgoseo, J. J.; Rojo, A.; Camara-Obregon, A.; Dieguez-Aranda, U.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the Weibull, Johnson's SB and beta distributions, fitted with some of the most usual methods and with different fixed values for the location parameters, for describing diameter distributions in even-aged stands of Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata and Pinus sylvestris in northwest Spain. A total of 155 permanent plots in Pinus sylvestris stands throughout Galicia, 183 plots in Pinus pinaster stands throughout Galicia and Asturias and 325 plots in Pinus radiata stands in both regions were measured to describe the diameter distributions. Parameters of the Weibull function were estimated by Moments and Maximum Likelihood approaches, those of Johnson's SB function by Conditional Maximum Likelihood and by Knoebel and Burkhart's method, and those of the beta function with the method based on the moments of the distribution. The beta and the Johnson's SB functions were slightly superior to Weibull function for Pinus pinaster stands; the Johnson's SB and beta functions were more accurate in the best fits for Pinus radiata stands, and the best results of the Weibull and the Johnson's SB functions were slightly superior to beta function for Pinus sylvestris stands. However, the three functions are suitable for this stands with an appropriate value of the location parameter and estimation of parameters method. (Author) 44 refs.

  13. Cadmium and copper change root growth and morphology of Pinus pinea and Pinus pinaster seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arduini, I.; Onnis, A. (Dipart. di Agronomia e Gestione dell' Agro-Ecosistema, Univ. degli Studi Pisa, Pisa (Italy)); Boldbold, D.L. (Forstbotanishces Institut, Univ. Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany))

    1994-01-01

    Heavy metal loads in forest soils have been increasing over time due to atmospheric inputs. Accumulation in the upper soil layers could affect establishment of seedlings and forest regeneration. Mediterranean species show a high initial root development, allowing seedlings to reach the moisture of deeper soil layers. In the present work seedlings of stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) and maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), were grown in culture solution supplied with 0.0, 0.1, 1 or 5 [mu]M CdSO[sub 4] or with 1 [mu]M CdSO[sub 4] and 1 [mu]M CuSO[sub 4] combined. In both species tap-root elongation was drastically reduced in the 5 [mu]M Cd[sup 2+] and in the (Cd[sup 2+] - Cu[sup 2+]) treatments. A supply of 0.1 or 1 [mu]M Cd[sup 2+] however, enhanced root elongation in Pinus pinea without significantly influencing root elongation in Pinus pinaster. In both species the root density (weight per unit length) and the width of the cortex increased in response to Cd[sup 2+] exposure. In Pinus pinaster the mitotic index decreased at the higher Cd[sup 2+] concentrations and when Cd[sup 2+] and Cu[sup 2+] were combined. The data suggest that cell elongation is more sensitive to Cd[sup 2+] than cell division. The number and length of the lateral roots were also affected by Cd[sup 2+] treatment to a higher degree in Pinus pinaster than in Pinus pinea, reflecting the different Cd-tolerance of the two species. (au)

  14. Response of needle dark respiration of Pinus koraiensis and Pinus sylvestriformis to elevated CO2 concentra-tions for four growing seasons’ exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The long-term effect of elevated CO2 concentrations on needle dark respiration of two coniferous spe- cies—Pinus koraiensis and Pinus sylvestriformis on the Changbai Mountain was investigated using open-top chambers. P. koraiensis and P. sylvestriformis were exposed to 700, 500 μmol·mol-1 CO2 and ambient CO2 (approx. 350 μmol·mol-1) for four growing seasons. Needle dark respiration was meas- ured during the second, third and fourth growing seasons’ exposure to elevated CO2. The results showed that needle dark respiration rate increased for P. koraiensis and P. sylvestriformis grown at elevated CO2 concentrations during the second growing season, could be attributed to the change of carbohydrate and/or nitrogen content of needles. Needle dark respiration of P. koraiensis was stimu- lated and that of P. sylvestriformis was inhibited by elevated CO2 concentrations during the third growing season. Different response of the two tree species to elevated CO2 mainly resulted from the difference in the growth rate. Elevated CO2 concentrations inhibited needle dark respiration of both P. koraiensis and P. sylvestriformis during the fourth growing season. There was consistent trend be- tween the short-term effect and the long-term effect of elevated CO2 on needle dark respiration in P. sylvestriformis during the third growing season by changing measurement CO2 concentrations. How- ever, the short-term effect was different from the long-term effect for P. koraiensis. Response of dark respiration of P. koraiensis and P. sylvestriformis to elevated CO2 concentrations was related to the treatment time of CO2 and the stage of growth and development of plant. The change of dark respiration for the two tree species was determined by the direct effect of CO2 and long-term acclimation. The prediction of the long-term response of needle dark respiration to elevated CO2 concentration based on the short-term response is in dispute.

  15. Phylogenetic assemblage structure of North American trees is more strongly shaped by glacial–interglacial climate variability in gymnosperms than in angiosperms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ziyu; Sandel, Brody Steven; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2016-01-01

    and tropical niche conservatism. However, the role of glacial-interglacial climate variability remains to be determined, and little is known about any of these relationships for gymnosperms. Moreover, phylogenetic edemism, patterns of unique lineages in restricted ranges is also related to glacial...... to recolonization to quantify glacial-interglacial climate variability. We found: i) Current climate is the dominant factor explaining the overall patterns, with more clustered angiosperm assemblages towards lower temperature, consistent with tropical niche conservatism. ii) Long-term climate stability...

  16. [Comparison of chemical components of essential oils in needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm from Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Changmao; Duan, Wengui; Cen, Bo; Tan, Jianhui

    2006-11-01

    Essential oils were extracted by steam distillation from the needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm grown in Guangxi. Various factors such as pine needle dosage and extraction time which may influence the oil yield were investigated. The optimum conditions were found to be as follows: pine needle dosage 700 g, extraction time 5 h. The essential oil yields from the needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm were 0.45% and 0.19%, respectively. Moreover, the chemical compositions of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sixty four components in the essential oil from needle of Pinus massoniana Lamb were separated and twenty of them (98.59%) were identified while seventy three components in the essential oil from needle of Pinus elliottottii Engelm were separated and twenty nine of them (94.23%) were identified. Generally, the compositions of the essential oils from needles of the two varieties were similar but the contents of some compounds differed greatly. Especially, the content of alpha-pinene in the essential oils from Pinus massoniana Lamb needles was 2.6 times as that from Pinus elliottottii Engelm needles, but the content of beta-pinene was less than the latter. Mono- and sesquiterpenes were the main composition of the essential oils from Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm needles.

  17. Comparative mapping in Pinus: sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.).Tree Genet Genomes 7:457-468

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen D. Jermstad; Andrew J. Eckert; Jill L. Wegrzyn; Annette Delfino-Mix; Dean A Davis; Deems C. Burton; David B. Neale

    2011-01-01

    The majority of genomic research in conifers has been conducted in the Pinus subgenus Pinus mostly due to the high economic importance of the species within this taxon. Genetic maps have been constructed for several of these pines and comparative mapping analyses have consistently revealed notable synteny. In contrast,...

  18. Modeling natural regeneration biomass of Pinus stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cubas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Reliable biomass data are very important in the evaluation of ecosystems, and help in understanding the contribution of forests in climate change. Variables that describe the size of the tree, like diameter and height are directly associated with biomass, which allows the use of regression models to estimate this element. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate by regression models, the biomass of different compartments of natural regeneration of trees of a Pinus taeda L. stand. The data were obtained through direct destructive method, using 100 randomly selected trees in the understory of a stand of Pinus taeda. We analyzed three arithmetical models, three logarithmic and two models developed by Stepwise process. Logarithmic equations developed by Stepwise procedure showed the best estimates of total and stems biomass. However, for needles and twigs compartments the best adjust was observed with Husch model and for root biomass Berkhout model proved to be the most suitable.

  19. Possibilities of the chemical analysis of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viksna, A.

    1999-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is a good bio indicator. This species is widely distributed in Europe, including Latvia, is easily identified, and is used in bio indication studies. It is known that the concentrations of most elements in needles change with time. These changes are connected to the processes involved in the uptake, transportation, storage and retranslocation of the elements. Scots pine keeps their needles for several years (3 to 4 years) and are suitable for the study of time related processes. The chemical composition of pine needles is used for the study the deposition and impact of air pollutants. Coniferous needles are covered with epicuticular wax, which act as a trap for airborne deposits. A comparison of chemical composition of pine needles that were unwashed and washed with chloroform made it possible to distinguish which elements were on the needles and to evaluate the character of pollution. The most important stage of the analysis of pine needles is sampling. Nutrient concentrations in the needles of coniferous trees have been shown to vary with the needle age and tree age, the phase of the annual physiological cycle, availability of nutrients in the soil and needle position within the crown. It is very important to take representative sample for the analysis. In the current work the trace element concentrations of the single needle were analysed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) and total reflection X-ray spectrometry (TXRF). The results of analysis showed that concentration of some elements depends from the position of needle within branch for the same needle age class. The concentrations of trace elements in the single needles within main shoot were more or less constant compare with other order shoots at given needle age class. Some higher variations in the elemental concentrations between single needles were observed in the tip part of main shoot. The actual distribution of the elements within a needle has

  20. Foliar fungi of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)

    OpenAIRE

    Millberg, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is an ecologically and economically important tree species in Fennoscandia. Scots pine needles host a variety of fungi, some with the potential to profoundly influence their host. These fungi can have beneficial or detrimental effects with important implications for both forest health and primary production. In this thesis, the foliar fungi of Scots pine needles were investigated with the aim of exploring spatial and temporal patterns, and development with needle...

  1. Contenido de carotenos en el follaje de Pinus caribaea Morelet y Pinus tropicalis Morelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Quert Álvarez

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis del material vegetal de las especies Pinus caribaea Morelet y Pinus tropicalis Morelet, con el objetivo de determinar su contenido de caroteno tomando como base las condiciones y tiempo de exposición del follaje de las especies objeto de estudio al sol y a la sombra, y teniendo en cuenta la extracción del aceite esencias como factores influyentes en la variación de las concentraciones de caroteno. Para determinar el contenido de caroteno se tomaron muestras del follaje entre 1 y 20 d, expuesto a las condiciones de trabajo en intervalos de 1, 3, 6, 10 y 20 d, tanto antes como después de extraer el aceite esencial. Los resultados obtenidos para ambas especies demostraron que el follaje expuesto a la sombra contiene un mayor porcentaje de caroteno que el expuesto al sol, como era de esperar; el tiempo de exposición influye significativamente en este contenido, así como la extracción del aceite esencial que aumenta el contenido de caroteno; los valores máximos fueron de 130,7 y 157,2 mg/kg de follaje y los mínimos de 55,3 y 57,2 mg/kg de follaje para Pinus caribaea Morelet y Pinus tropicalis Morelet respectivamente.An analysis of the vegetable material from the species Pinus cariabaea Morelet and Pinus tropicalis Morelet was carried out and their content of carotene was determined taking as the basis the conditions and time of exposure of the foliage of the species studied to the sun and shade, and also taking into account the extraction of the essential oil as factors influencing on the variation of carotene concentrations. For the determination of the carotene content, samples of the foliage between 1 and 20 exposed to working conditions at intervals of 1, 3, 6, 10 and 20 d were taken, both before and after the extraction of the essential oil. Results obteined from both species showed that the foliage exposed to shade contains a higher percentage of carotene than the one exposed to the sun, as it was expected to

  2. Scenario Modeling of Thermal Influence from Forest Fire Front on a Coniferous Tree Trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranovskiy Nikolay V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scenario research results of heat transfer and tissue damage in three-layered tree trunk influenced by heat flux from forest fire are presented. The problem is solved in two-dimensional statement in polar coordinates. The typical range of influence parameters (heat flux from forest fire front, trunk radius, coniferous species, air temperature, duration of exposure and distance from fire line is considered. Temperature distributions in different moments of time are obtained. Condition of tree damage by forest fire influence is under consideration in this research. Information summarized using tables with scenario and fire consequences results.

  3. The importance of micrometeorological variations for photosynthesis and transpiration in a boreal coniferous forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schurgers, Guy; Lagergren, F.; Molder, M.

    2015-01-01

    the importance of vertical variations in light, temperature, CO2 concentration and humidity within the canopy for fluxes of photosynthesis and transpiration of a boreal coniferous forest in central Sweden. A leaf-level photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model was used for aggregating these processes to canopy...... abovecanopy and within-canopy humidity, and despite large gradients in CO2 concentration during early morning hours after nights with stable conditions, neither humidity nor CO2 played an important role for vertical heterogeneity of photosynthesis and transpiration....

  4. The extent of immission damage to coniferous forests in the GDR around the year 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, E.

    1991-01-01

    The economic effects of air pollution extend to the economic result of forestry and also directly to the state of forests; the latter damage includes loss of supplies, growth and unsuitability for felling and the adverse effect on forests as a place for rest and recreation. In this publication, results of calculations on the extent of this damage to the coniferous forests of the former DDR (differentiated according to spruce and pine and to the degree of damage) are submitted. The knowledge of the amount of this damage is of economic and forestry policy interest and it is gaining increasing trade importance. (orig.) [de

  5. Distributions of ectomycorrhizal and foliar endophytic fungal communities associated with Pinus ponderosa along a spatially constrained elevation gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Elizabeth A; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2018-05-13

    Understanding distributions of plant-symbiotic fungi is important for projecting responses to environmental change. Many coniferous trees host ectomycorrhizal fungi (EM) in association with roots and foliar endophytic fungi (FE) in leaves. We examined how EM and FE associated with Pinus ponderosa each vary in abundance, diversity, and community structure over a spatially constrained elevation gradient that traverses four plant communities, 4°C in mean annual temperature, and 15 cm in mean annual precipitation. We sampled 63 individuals of Pinus ponderosa in 10 sites along a 635 m elevation gradient that encompassed a geographic distance of 9.8 km. We used standard methods to characterize each fungal group (amplified and sequenced EM from root tips; isolated and sequenced FE from leaves). Abundance and diversity of EM were similar across sites, but community composition and distributions of the most common EM differed with elevation (i.e., with climate, soil chemistry, and plant communities). Abundance and composition of FE did not differ with elevation, but diversity peaked in mid-to-high elevations. Our results suggest relatively tight linkages between EM and climate, soil chemistry, and plant communities. That FE appear less linked with these factors may speak to limitations of a culture-based approach, but more likely reflects the small spatial scale encompassed by our study. Future work should consider comparable methods for characterizing these functional groups, and additional transects to understand relationships of EM and FE to environmental factors that are likely to shift as a function of climate change. © 2018 Botanical Society of America.

  6. Needle Terpenes as Chemotaxonomic Markers in Pinus: Subsections Pinus and Pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitić, Zorica S; Jovanović, Snežana Č; Zlatković, Bojan K; Nikolić, Biljana M; Stojanović, Gordana S; Marin, Petar D

    2017-05-01

    Chemical compositions of needle essential oils of 27 taxa from the section Pinus, including 20 and 7 taxa of the subsections Pinus and Pinaster, respectively, were compared in order to determine chemotaxonomic significance of terpenes at infrageneric level. According to analysis of variance, six out of 31 studied terpene characters were characterized by a high level of significance, indicating statistically significant difference between the examined subsections. Agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis has shown separation of eight groups, where representatives of subsect. Pinaster were distributed within the first seven groups on the dendrogram together with P. nigra subsp. laricio and P. merkusii from the subsect. Pinus. On the other hand, the eighth group included the majority of the members of subsect. Pinus. Our findings, based on terpene characters, complement those obtained from morphological, biochemical, and molecular parameters studied over the past two decades. In addition, results presented in this article confirmed that terpenes are good markers at infrageneric level. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  7. Growth and dynamic modulus of elasticity of Pinus patula × Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field establishment of South Africa's most important commercial pine species, Pinus patula, is severely hampered by the pitch canker fungus, Fusarium circinatum. Importantly, hybrids between P. patula and other pine species tolerant to the pitch canker fungus, such as P. tecunumanii and P. oocarpa, have been identified ...

  8. The flexural properties of young Pinus elliottii × Pinus caribaea var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the bending strength and stiffness properties of young Pinus elliottii × P. caribaea var. hondurensis timber from the Southern Cape, South Africa, and to evaluate the predictability of these properties from acoustic measurements on standing trees, logs and their sawn boards.

  9. Rust resistance in seedling families of Pinus albicaulis and Pinus strobiformis and implications for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. A. Sniezko; A. Kegley; R. Danchok; J. Hamlin; J. Hill; D. Conklin

    2011-01-01

    Infection and mortality levels from Cronartium ribicola, the fungus causing white pine blister rust, are very high in parts of the geographic range of Pinus albicaulis (whitebark pine) and P. strobiformis (Southwestern white pine). Genetic resistance to this non-native fungus will be one of the key factors in maintaining or restoring populations of these species in...

  10. The role of litterfall in transferring Fukushima-derived radiocesium to a coniferous forest floor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teramage, Mengistu T., E-mail: teramaget@yahoo.com [Center for Research in Isotopes and Environmental Dynamics, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba shi, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki [Center for Research in Isotopes and Environmental Dynamics, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba shi, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Gomi, Takashi [Department of International Environmental and Agricultural Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchuu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    The deposition of Fukushima-derived radiocesium via falling litter in a coniferous forest 180 km downwind immediately following the nuclear power plant accident was investigated. The litterfall contribution to the transfer of radiocesium from the forest canopy to the forest floor was determined, and this pathway was compared with hydrological pathways. The results demonstrated that during the observation period, a total of approximately 5.5 kBq m{sup −2} of Fukushima-derived radiocesium was deposited on the forest floor through throughfall (53%), stemflow (2.3%) and litterfall (45%) routes. The data revealed that the contributions of hydrological pathways became less important as time passed. However, the litterfall route, which transferred approximately 31% (2.5 ± 0.6 kBq m{sup −2}) of the local fallout within the observation period, continued depositing radiocesium onto the forest floor. - Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram summarizing the depositional routes of radiocesium in the cypress forest during the observation period (March to October, 2011). - Highlights: • Fukushima-derived radiocesium deposition in a coniferous forest was explored. • Approximately 68% of the radiocesium was deposited onto the forest floor. • The ecological half-life of the radiocesium in the forest canopy was 180 days. • The roles of hydrological pathways decreased over time. • The litterfall route continued to deposit radiocesium onto the forest floor.

  11. Delimbing and Cross-cutting of Coniferous Trees–Time Consumption, Work Productivity and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcadie Ciubotaru

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This research established the time consumption, work time structure, and productivity for primary processing in felling areas of coniferous trees felled with a chainsaw. Delimbing and partial cross-cutting were taken into consideration. The research was conducted in a mixed spruce and fir tree stand situated in the Carpathian Mountains. The team of workers consisted of a chainsaw operator and assistant with over 10 years of experience. The results indicated a total time of 536.32 s·m−3 (1145.26 s·tree−1, work performance (including delays of 6.716 m3·h−1 (3.14 tree·h−1, and work productivity (without delays of 35.459 m3·h−1 (16.58 tree·h−1. The chainsaw productivity during tree cross-cutting was 82.29 cm2·s−1. Delimbing accounted for 96.18% of the real work time, while cross-cutting accounted for 3.82%. The time consumption for delimbing and cross-cutting, as well as the work productivity and performance in the primary processing of coniferous trees in the felling area, were influenced by the breast height diameter, stem length, and tree volume, while the chainsaw productivity was influenced by the diameter of the cross-cut sections. The relationships between the aforementioned dependent and independent variables were determined by simple and linear multiple regression equations.

  12. Methodology for iodine-129 determination in coniferous plant by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, E.E.; Thyssen, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The measurement methods of iodine-129 ( 129 I) include liquid scintillation counting, mass spectrometry analysis, X-ray spectrometry and neutron activation analysis. The combination of long half-life and low radiation energy, limit the sensitivity of a direct measurement in environmental matrixes. The neutron activation analysis (NAA) permits the increase in the sensitivity because of the high thermal neutron cross section of 129 I. The reaction produced is 129 I (n,γ) 130 I and the Eγ (536 keV) of iodine-130 (t 1/2 = 12,6 hours) is measured. The developed methodology allows the determination of 129 I in coniferous needles using NAA. The chemical treatment removes the interferences present in the matrix, as well as the Bromine-82 originated in the activation process. The analytical method is divided in six steps: a) digestion by alkaline fusion; b) radiochemical purification of 129 I by distillation followed by solvent extraction; c) distillation and adsorption on activated charcoal; d) neutron irradiation; e) radiochemical purification of 130 I by distillation followed by solvent extraction; f) gamma spectrometry. Iodine-131 tracer is added, and a chemical recovery of 95% in the distillations is obtained. The whole process recovery is within 70% and 85%. The detection limit is 0.48 mBq. Several factors affect this value, such as sample type, variety of coniferous, natural iodine concentration, irradiation time and neutron flux. (author) [es

  13. Management Effectiveness of a Secondary Coniferous Forest for Landscape Appreciation and Psychological Restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Norimasa; Fujiwara, Akio; Saito, Haruo; Horiuchi, Masahiro

    2017-07-18

    We investigated the influence of forest management on landscape appreciation and psychological restoration in on-site settings by exposing respondents to an unmanaged, dense coniferous (crowding) forest and a managed (thinned) coniferous forest; we set the two experimental settings in the forests of the Fuji Iyashinomoroi Woodland Study Center. The respondents were individually exposed to both settings while sitting for 15 min and were required to answer three questionnaires to analyze the psychological restorative effects before and after the experiment (feeling (the Profile of Mood States), affect (the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule), and subjective restorativeness (the Restorative Outcome Scale). To compare landscape appreciation, they were required to answer another two questionnaires only after the experiment, for scene appreciation (the semantic differential scale) and for the restorative properties of each environment (the Perceived Restorativeness Scale). Finally, we obtained these findings: (1) the respondents evaluated each forest environment highly differently and evaluated the thinned forest setting more positively; (2) the respondents' impressions of the two physical environments did not appear to be accurately reflected in their evaluations; (3) forest environments have potential restorative effects whether or not they are managed, but these effects can be partially enhanced by managing the forests.

  14. The full annual carbon balance of a subtropical coniferous plantation is highly sensitive to autumn precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingjie; Wang, Huimin; Wen, Xuefa; Zhang, Tao; Di, Yuebao; Wang, Yidong; Wang, Jianlei; Cheng, Chuanpeng; Zhang, Wenjiang

    2017-08-30

    Deep understanding of the effects of precipitation on carbon budgets is essential to assess the carbon balance accurately and can help predict potential variation within the global change context. Therefore, we addressed this issue by analyzing twelve years (2003-2014) of observations of carbon fluxes and their corresponding temperature and precipitation data in a subtropical coniferous plantation at the Qianyanzhou (QYZ) site, southern China. During the observation years, this coniferous ecosystem experienced four cold springs whose effects on the carbon budgets were relatively clear based on previous studies. To unravel the effects of temperature and precipitation, the effects of autumn precipitation were examined by grouping the data into two pools based on whether the years experienced cold springs. The results indicated that precipitation in autumn can accelerate the gross primary productivity (GPP) of the following year. Meanwhile, divergent effects of precipitation on ecosystem respiration (Re) were found. Autumn precipitation was found to enhance Re in normal years but the same regulation was not found in the cold-spring years. These results suggested that for long-term predictions of carbon balance in global climate change projections, the effects of precipitation must be considered to better constrain the uncertainties associated with the estimation.

  15. Input of trace substances to coniferous forests by fog interception at high elevations of Black Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, P.; Pahl, S.

    1993-10-01

    The deposition of trace substances to a coniferous forest has been estimated by means of a one-dimensional cloud droplet deposition model. For a period of 21 months the liquid water content has been measured and 89 samples of cloud water from the weather station Feldberg have been analysed for chemical composition. These data and meteorological routine observations have been used as input parameters for the deposition model. Deposition calculations to a 40 years old coniferous forest for the period 1982-1991 showed that the cloud water deposition amounts to 33% of the precipitation amount on the average and varies between 23 and 43% in single years. The highest cloud water deposition rates occur during fall and winter. The trace substance concentration in cloud water has been found to be higher than in precipitation, by a factor between 6 and 12, depending on the type of ions. Typically seasonal variations of normalized ion concentrations could be shown to exist as well as dependencies on wind direction. Air mass transport from the industries of the Stuttgart area resulted in higher trace substance concentrations in cloud water. The deposition of trace substances via fog interception during the summer months is as high and in the winter months higher than that by wet deposition. The forests at high elevations of Black Forest are charged appreciably by fog interception. (orig.). 31 figs., 5 tabs., 39 refs [de

  16. Growth and provenance variation of Pinus caribaea var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CAMCORE has visited 33 populations of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis in Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Quintana Roo, Mexico. Seed collections have been made in 29 provenances from 1, 325 mother trees. A total of 21 provenances and sources of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis were ...

  17. Germination and early seedling growth of Pinus densata Mast. provenances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulan Xu; Nianhui Cai; Bin He; Ruili Zhang; Wei Zhao; Jianfeng Mao; Anan Duan; Yue Li; Keith Woeste

    2016-01-01

    We studied seed germination and early seedling growth of Pinus densata to explore the range of variability within the species and to inform afforestation practices. Phenotypes were evaluated at a forest tree nursery under conditions that support Pinus yunnanensis, one of the presumed parental species of P. densata...

  18. Critical water stress levels in Pinus patula seedlings and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Critical water stress levels in Pinus patula seedlings and their relation to measures of seedling morphology. ... Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... A pot trial was implemented to determine the effect of soil water stress following transplanting on shoot water potential and stomatal conductance of Pinus patula ...

  19. Effect on nursery and field performance of Pinus patula seedlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fusarium circinatum is an important fungal pathogen of Pinus species. In South Africa, it is the most significant pathogen of Pinus patula seedlings in forestry nurseries where it presents a substantial constraint to productivity and can continue to cause mortality in-field for up to two years after establishment. This study ...

  20. Morphological evaluation of the Pinus kesiya complex (Pinaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Businský, R.; Frantík, Tomáš; Vít, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 300, č. 2 (2014), s. 273-285 ISSN 0378-2697 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : morphological var iation * Pinus densata ssp. tibetica * Pinus kesiya complex Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.422, year: 2014

  1. An evaluation of wood properties of Pinus caribeae (Morelet) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the effects of within tree variation on wood density, ring width and anisotropic shrinkage of Pinus caribeae (Morelet) among tree partitions in Oluwa pine plantation. Five 15-year old Pinus caribeae (Morelet) in three partitions were randomly selected from the plantation and felled for the study. Wood ...

  2. Hydrogen apparent fractionation between source water and epicuticular waxes of Pinus sylvestris in North East Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, S. L.; Grace, J.; Pedentchouk, N.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrogen isotopic composition of plant biomass provides crucial information about plant ecophysiology and local hydrology. Little is known about the apparent fractionation between hydrogen in source water and epicuticular leaf waxes of coniferous tree species that dominate the boreal forest ecosystem exposed to prolonged periods of sunlight during the growing season. In this study, single rope canopy access techniques were used to harvest needle and twig material from the upper, middle and lower crown of north and south facing branches of Pinus sylvestris within the subarctic forest of North East Finland. Samples were collected towards the beginning of the growing season in July and repeated in late September 2010. Leaf and twig waters were extracted cryogenically and analysed for D-enrichment. Individual n-alkanes are currently being quantified and analyzed for 13C/12C and D/H compositions. The molecular and isotopic data are supplemented by long-term in-situ cuvette photosynthetic assimilation measurements as well as relative humidity (RH), air temperature, precipitation and wind speed data collected by Helsinki University (SMEAR I). In addition RH, air temperature, wind speed and incoming solar radiation measurements were made at each individual sample point at the time of harvesting to quantify meteorological and microclimatological variation within individual trees. The outcome of this investigation will provide important insights into plant biochemistry and physiology of a crucial climate sensitive higher plant species subjected to continuous low light throughout the season. Furthermore, this work will expand our understanding of modern and palaeo-hydrology not only in northern Finland but also in other boreal forests around the world.

  3. Influencia de la poda en el desarrollo de masas de Pinus radiata D. Don y Pinus pinaster Aiton en Asturias

    OpenAIRE

    Hevia Cabal, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Esta tesis evaluó la influencia de diferentes intensidades de poda sobre el crecimiento, desarrollo y persistencia de masas regulares jóvenes de Pinus radiata D. Don y Pinus pinaster Aiton en Asturias, dentro de una selvicultura sostenible enfocada a la producción de madera de calidad.

  4. Regeneration of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) three decades after stand-replacing fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan D. Coop; Anna W. Schoettle

    2009-01-01

    Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) are important highelevation pines of the southern Rockies that are forecast to decline due to the recent spread of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) into this region. Proactive management strategies to promote the evolution of rust resistance and maintain ecosystem function...

  5. [Microelement contents of litter, soil fauna and soil in Pinus koraiensis and broad-leaved mixed forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiu-qin; Li, Jin-xia; Dong, Wei-hua

    2007-02-01

    The analysis on the Mn, Zn and Cu contents of litter, soil fauna and soil in Pinus korazenszis and broad-leaved mixed forest in Liangshui Natural Reserve of Xiaoxing' an Mountains showed that the test microelement contents in the litter, soil fauna and soil all followed the sequence of Mn > Zn > Cu, but varied with these environmental components, being in the sequence of soil > litter > soil fauna for Mn, soil fauna > litter and soil for Zn, and soil fauna > soil > litter for Cu. The change range of test microelement contents in litter was larger in broad-leaved forest than in coniferous forest. Different soil fauna differed in their microelement-enrichment capability, e. g. , earthworm, centipede, diplopod had the highest content of Mn, Zn and Cu, respectively. The contents of test microelements in soil fauna had significant correlations with their environmental background values, litter decomposition rate, food habit of soil fauna, and its absorbing selectivity and enrichment to microelements. The microelements contained in 5-20 cm soil layer were more than those in 0-5 cm soil layer, and their dynamics differed in various soil layers.

  6. Découverte d'une flore à Ptéridophytes et Gymnospermes dans le Crétacé inférieur de la région de Tataouine (Sud tunisien)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barale, Georges; Philippe, Marc; Tayech-Mannai, Beya; Zarbout, Mohamed

    1997-08-01

    This is the first discovery of imprint flora in the Early Cretaceous of the Tataouine area (South Tunisia). The global composition shows a richness in Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. The floristic assemblage is composed of Gondwanan elements closely related to those of a Madagascan flora.

  7. Evaluation of meteorological parameters over a coniferous forest in a single-column chemistry-climate model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzeveld, L.N.; Klemm, O.; Rappenglück, B.; Valverde-Canossa, J.

    2006-01-01

    The simulated micrometerology by a single-column chemistry-climate model (SCM) has been evaluated by comparison with BEWA2000 field campaign measurements over a coniferous forest, July-August 2001. This comparison indicates the limitations in the representation of the SCM's micrometeorological

  8. Methane oxidation in soil profiles of Dutch and Finnish coniferous forests with different soil texture and atmospheric nitrogen deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saari, A.; Martikainen, P.J.; Ferm, A.; Ruuskanen, J.; Boer, W. de; Troelstra, S.R.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    We studied methane oxidation capacity in soil profiles of Dutch and Finnish coniferous forests. The Finnish sites (n = 9) had nitrogen depositions from 3 to 36 kg N ha⁻¹ a⁻¹. The deposition of N on the Dutch sites (n = 13) was higher ranging from 50 to 92 kg N ha⁻¹ a⁻¹. The Dutch sites had also

  9. Methane oxidation in soil profiles of Dutch and Finnish coniferous forests with different soil texture and atmospheric nitrogen deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saari, A.; Martikainen, P.J.; Ferm, A.; Ruuskanen, J.; De Boer, W.; Troelstra, S.R.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    We studied methane oxidation capacity in soil profiles of Dutch and Finnish coniferous forests. The Finnish sites (n = 9) had nitrogen depositions from 3 to 36 kg N ha(-1) a(-1). The deposition of N on the Dutch sites (n = 13) was higher ranging from 50 to 92 kg N ha(-1) a(-1). The Dutch sites had

  10. Regression modeling and mapping of coniferous forest basal area and tree density from discrete-return lidar and multispectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Hudak; Nicholas L. Crookston; Jeffrey S. Evans; Michael K. Falkowski; Alistair M. S. Smith; Paul E. Gessler; Penelope Morgan

    2006-01-01

    We compared the utility of discrete-return light detection and ranging (lidar) data and multispectral satellite imagery, and their integration, for modeling and mapping basal area and tree density across two diverse coniferous forest landscapes in north-central Idaho. We applied multiple linear regression models subset from a suite of 26 predictor variables derived...

  11. Dry coniferous forest restoration and understory plant diversity: The importance of community heterogeneity and the scale of observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erich Kyle Dodson; David W. Peterson

    2010-01-01

    Maintaining understory plant species diversity is an important management goal as forest restoration and fuel reduction treatments are applied extensively to dry coniferous forests of western North America. However, understory diversity is a function of both local species richness (number of species in a sample unit) and community heterogeneity (beta diversity) at...

  12. Minimizing measurement uncertainties of coniferous needle-leaf optical properties, part II: experimental set-up and error analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yanez Rausell, L.; Malenovsky, Z.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    We present uncertainties associated with the measurement of coniferous needle-leaf optical properties (OPs) with an integrating sphere using an optimized gap-fraction (GF) correction method, where GF refers to the air gaps appearing between the needles of a measured sample. We used an optically

  13. Genetic variability and differentiation among populations of the Azorean endemic gymnosperm Juniperus brevifolia: baseline information for a conservation and restoration perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís; Elias, Rui B; Moura, Mónica; Meimberg, Harald; Dias, Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    The Azorean endemic gymnosperm Juniperus brevifolia (Seub.) Antoine is a top priority species for conservation in Macaronesia, based on its ecological significance in natural plant communities. To evaluate genetic variability and differentiation among J. brevifolia populations from the Azorean archipelago, we studied 15 ISSR and 15 RAPD markers in 178 individuals from 18 populations. The average number of polymorphic bands per population was 65 for both ISSR and RAPD. The majority of genetic variability was found within populations and among populations within islands, and this partitioning of variability was confirmed by AMOVA. The large majority of population pairwise F(ST) values were above 0.3 and below 0.6. The degree of population genetic differentiation in J. brevifolia was relatively high compared with other species, including Juniperus spp. The genetic differentiation among populations suggests that provenance should be considered when formulating augmentation or reintroduction strategies.

  14. The NAC transcription factor family in maritime pine (Pinus Pinaster): molecular regulation of two genes involved in stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Ma Belén; Cánovas, Francisco M; Ávila, Concepción

    2015-10-24

    NAC transcription factors comprise a large plant-specific gene family involved in the regulation of diverse biological processes. Despite the growing number of studies on NAC transcription factors in various species, little information is available about this family in conifers. The goal of this study was to identify the NAC transcription family in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), to characterize ATAF-like genes in response to various stresses and to study their molecular regulation. We have isolated two maritime pine NAC genes and using a transient expression assay in N. benthamiana leaves estudied the promoter jasmonate response. In this study, we identified 37 NAC genes from maritime pine and classified them into six main subfamilies. The largest group includes 12 sequences corresponding to stress-related genes. Two of these NAC genes, PpNAC2 and PpNAC3, were isolated and their expression profiles were examined at various developmental stages and in response to various types of stress. The expression of both genes was strongly induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), mechanical wounding, and high salinity. The promoter regions of these genes were shown to contain cis-elements involved in the stress response and plant hormonal regulation, including E-boxes, which are commonly found in the promoters of genes that respond to jasmonate, and binding sites for bHLH proteins. Using a transient expression assay in N. benthamiana leaves, we found that the promoter of PpNAC3 was rapidly induced upon MeJA treatment, while this response disappeared in plants in which the transcription factor NbbHLH2 was silenced. Our results suggest that PpNAC2 and PpNAC3 encode stress-responsive NAC transcription factors involved in the jasmonate response in pine. Furthermore, these data also suggest that the jasmonate signaling pathway is conserved between angiosperms and gymnosperms. These findings may be useful for engineering stress tolerance in pine via biotechnological approaches.

  15. Dancing together and separate again: gymnosperms exhibit frequent changes of fundamental 5S and 35S rRNA gene (rDNA) organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S; Kovařík, A

    2013-07-01

    In higher eukaryotes, the 5S rRNA genes occur in tandem units and are arranged either separately (S-type arrangement) or linked to other repeated genes, in most cases to rDNA locus encoding 18S-5.8S-26S genes (L-type arrangement). Here we used Southern blot hybridisation, PCR and sequencing approaches to analyse genomic organisation of rRNA genes in all large gymnosperm groups, including Coniferales, Ginkgoales, Gnetales and Cycadales. The data are provided for 27 species (21 genera). The 5S units linked to the 35S rDNA units occur in some but not all Gnetales, Coniferales and in Ginkgo (∼30% of the species analysed), while the remaining exhibit separate organisation. The linked 5S rRNA genes may occur as single-copy insertions or as short tandems embedded in the 26S-18S rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS). The 5S transcript may be encoded by the same (Ginkgo, Ephedra) or opposite (Podocarpus) DNA strand as the 18S-5.8S-26S genes. In addition, pseudogenised 5S copies were also found in some IGS types. Both L- and S-type units have been largely homogenised across the genomes. Phylogenetic relationships based on the comparison of 5S coding sequences suggest that the 5S genes independently inserted IGS at least three times in the course of gymnosperm evolution. Frequent transpositions and rearrangements of basic units indicate relatively relaxed selection pressures imposed on genomic organisation of 5S genes in plants.

  16. CYP79 P450 monooxygenases in gymnosperms: CYP79A118 is associated with the formation of taxiphyllin in Taxus baccata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Katrin; Jia, Qidong; Huber, Meret; Handrick, Vinzenz; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Nelson, David R; Chen, Feng; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Köllner, Tobias G

    2017-09-01

    Conifers contain P450 enzymes from the CYP79 family that are involved in cyanogenic glycoside biosynthesis. Cyanogenic glycosides are secondary plant compounds that are widespread in the plant kingdom. Their biosynthesis starts with the conversion of aromatic or aliphatic amino acids into their respective aldoximes, catalysed by N-hydroxylating cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP) of the CYP79 family. While CYP79s are well known in angiosperms, their occurrence in gymnosperms and other plant divisions containing cyanogenic glycoside-producing plants has not been reported so far. We screened the transcriptomes of 72 conifer species to identify putative CYP79 genes in this plant division. From the seven resulting full-length genes, CYP79A118 from European yew (Taxus baccata) was chosen for further characterization. Recombinant CYP79A118 produced in yeast was able to convert L-tyrosine, L-tryptophan, and L-phenylalanine into p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime, indole-3-acetaldoxime, and phenylacetaldoxime, respectively. However, the kinetic parameters of the enzyme and transient expression of CYP79A118 in Nicotiana benthamiana indicate that L-tyrosine is the preferred substrate in vivo. Consistent with these findings, taxiphyllin, which is derived from L-tyrosine, was the only cyanogenic glycoside found in the different organs of T. baccata. Taxiphyllin showed highest accumulation in leaves and twigs, moderate accumulation in roots, and only trace accumulation in seeds and the aril. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that CYP79A118 was expressed in plant organs rich in taxiphyllin. Our data show that CYP79s represent an ancient family of plant P450s that evolved prior to the separation of gymnosperms and angiosperms. CYP79A118 from T. baccata has typical CYP79 properties and its substrate specificity and spatial gene expression pattern suggest that the enzyme contributes to the formation of taxiphyllin in this plant species.

  17. Transcriptomic analysis highlights epigenetic and transcriptional regulation during zygotic embryo development of Pinus pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vega-Bartol, José J; Simões, Marta; Lorenz, W Walter; Rodrigues, Andreia S; Alba, Rob; Dean, Jeffrey F D; Miguel, Célia M

    2013-08-30

    It is during embryogenesis that the plant body plan is established and the meristems responsible for all post-embryonic growth are specified. The molecular mechanisms governing conifer embryogenesis are still largely unknown. Their elucidation may contribute valuable information to clarify if the distinct features of embryo development in angiosperms and gymnosperms result from differential gene regulation. To address this issue, we have performed the first transcriptomic analysis of zygotic embryo development in a conifer species (Pinus pinaster) focusing our study in particular on regulatory genes playing important roles during plant embryo development, namely epigenetic regulators and transcription factors. Microarray analysis of P. pinaster zygotic embryogenesis was performed at five periods of embryo development from early developing to mature embryos. Our results show that most changes in transcript levels occurred in the first and the last embryo stage-to-stage transitions, namely early to pre-cotyledonary embryo and cotyledonary to mature embryo. An analysis of functional categories for genes that were differentially expressed through embryogenesis highlighted several epigenetic regulation mechanisms. While putative orthologs of transcripts associated with mechanisms that target transposable elements and repetitive sequences were strongly expressed in early embryogenesis, PRC2-mediated repression of genes seemed more relevant during late embryogenesis. On the other hand, functions related to sRNA pathways appeared differentially regulated across all stages of embryo development with a prevalence of miRNA functions in mid to late embryogenesis. Identification of putative transcription factor genes differentially regulated between consecutive embryo stages was strongly suggestive of the relevance of auxin responses and regulation of auxin carriers during early embryogenesis. Such responses could be involved in establishing embryo patterning. Later in

  18. Identification and Functional Characterization of Monofunctional ent-Copalyl Diphosphate and ent-Kaurene Synthases in White Spruce Reveal Different Patterns for Diterpene Synthase Evolution for Primary and Secondary Metabolism in Gymnosperms1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Christopher I.; Dullat, Harpreet K.; Yuen, Mack; Ralph, Steven G.; Jancsik, Sharon; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    The biosynthesis of the tetracyclic diterpene ent-kaurene is a critical step in the general (primary) metabolism of gibberellin hormones. ent-Kaurene is formed by a two-step cyclization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate via the intermediate ent-copalyl diphosphate. In a lower land plant, the moss Physcomitrella patens, a single bifunctional diterpene synthase (diTPS) catalyzes both steps. In contrast, in angiosperms, the two consecutive cyclizations are catalyzed by two distinct monofunctional enzymes, ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS) and ent-kaurene synthase (KS). The enzyme, or enzymes, responsible for ent-kaurene biosynthesis in gymnosperms has been elusive. However, several bifunctional diTPS of specialized (secondary) metabolism have previously been characterized in gymnosperms, and all known diTPSs for resin acid biosynthesis in conifers are bifunctional. To further understand the evolution of ent-kaurene biosynthesis as well as the evolution of general and specialized diterpenoid metabolisms in gymnosperms, we set out to determine whether conifers use a single bifunctional diTPS or two monofunctional diTPSs in the ent-kaurene pathway. Using a combination of expressed sequence tag, full-length cDNA, genomic DNA, and targeted bacterial artificial chromosome sequencing, we identified two candidate CPS and KS genes from white spruce (Picea glauca) and their orthologs in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). Functional characterization of the recombinant enzymes established that ent-kaurene biosynthesis in white spruce is catalyzed by two monofunctional diTPSs, PgCPS and PgKS. Comparative analysis of gene structures and enzyme functions highlights the molecular evolution of these diTPSs as conserved between gymnosperms and angiosperms. In contrast, diTPSs for specialized metabolism have evolved differently in angiosperms and gymnosperms. PMID:20044448

  19. POTENSI ALELOPAT DAUN PINUS (Pinus spp. SEBAGAI BIOHERBISIDA PRA TUMBUH PADA GULMA KROKOT (Portulaca oleracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfy Ditya Cahyanti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to study the effectof pine leaf as allelophaty on purslane germination. Theexperiment were conducted at screen house Departmentof Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, BrawijayaUniversity. The research is experimental design by nonfactorial Completely Randomized Blok Design, with threereplications, consisted of eleven levels. Purslane seeds sprout with control treatment, signifi cantly different from seedssprout ability in treatment solution leaves Pinus merkusii 2000ppm, and solution leaves of P. longaeva 2000 ppm. The resultshowed that 2000 ppm of P. merkusii extraction signifi cantlysuppressed 46% of purslane germination whereas 2000 ppmPinus longeava extraction signifi cantly suppressed of 41%campared to without any treatments (control.

  20. Ecophysiological behaviour of hardwood species in renaturalization processes of coniferous plantations [Campania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghetti, M.; Saracino, A.; D'Alessandro, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Coniferous plantations may play a nurse effect for natural regeneration of native hardwood species, which would otherwise be conditioned by intraspecific competition due to trees of the upper layers or be prevented by high radiation load of open environments. Regulation of canopy cover by means of thinning generates temporary or permanent variations of levels of irradiance in lower forest layers. These affect the capability of recruitment and establishment and the ecophysiological behaviour of natural regeneration. Here we present a review of the notions on effects of relative irradiance variations on ecophysiological behaviour of native tree species in lower layers of mesophile and meso-xerophile forests, giving some specific examples produced during the national project PRIN 2003 FOR BIO [it

  1. Belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal communities respond to liming in three southern Swedish coniferous forest stands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Rasmus; Clemmensen, Karina

    2009-01-01

    In this study we report on changes in the belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in southern Swedish coniferous forests as a consequence of liming with 3-7 ton limestone per hectare 16 years prior to the study. A total of 107 ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified from 969 independently...... sampled root tips by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA. Forty, 59 and 51 species were identified in three pine and spruce forests. Within all sites only about 25% of the species overlapped between the limed and the reference areas. However, the most abundant species...... were often found in both limed and reference plots and 60-70% of the root tips at each site were colonised by species occurring in both limed and reference plots. Across all three sites, fungal species belonging to the genus Tylospora and the order Pezizales became significantly more frequent in limed...

  2. Transfer equations for cesium-137 for coniferous forest understorey plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, E.; Hiersche, L.; Kammerer, L.; Krajewska, G.; Krestel, R.; Mahler, S.; Roemmelt, R.

    1994-01-01

    The transfer of cesium-137 from organic soil horizons to understorey vegetation has been studied on two coniferous tree sites. In total, 14 different plants preferably taking up their nutrients from organic soil layers were taken into account. A relatively good correlation was found to exist between the transfer factor (Bq/kg plant dry wt./Bq/kg O-horizons dry wt.) for dicotyledons (r=0.51) and berry plants (r=0.63), but there was no correlation for monocotyledons (r= 0 .15). The correlations could not be improved by additionally taking potassium in plant and soil into account. These results are discussed in respect to different parameters influencing the amount of cesium-137 uptake, including plants supported by mycorrhizal fungi

  3. Susceptible conditions for debarking by deer in subalpine coniferous forests in central Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayato Iijima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, deer have expanded their distribution to higher altitude ranges including subalpine forests. However, culling deer and construction of deer fence in subalpine forests are difficult because of steep slopes and complex topography. Thus it is necessary to clarify the factors which are associated with debarking by deer for the effective protection of subalpine forests. In this study, we examined which factors are associated with debarking by sika deer (Cervus nippon in subalpine coniferous forests. Methods: We conducted our survey in Minami-Alps National Park, central Japan. We established 24 10 m× 40 m plots and surveyed the occurrence of debarking on saplings >30 cm in height and 3 cm in DBH, as well as sapling density within each plot. Minimum distances to nearest grassland of plots were calculated (tentatively assuming grassland would attract deer and would cause high debarking pressure in the surrounding subalpine forests. Results: The mean percentage of debarked live saplings was higher than that of live trees. The mean percentage of debarked saplings which had already died was 81.6 %. Debarking of saplings increased with lower elevation, taller sapling size, and marginally increased near grassland. Sapling density was lower in plots with low basal area of conspecific trees near grassland and differed among species. Sapling density marginally decreased with decreasing elevation and increasing stand tree density. Debarking of trees was positively related to small DBH and low elevation, and marginally increased near grassland and differed among species. Conclusions: Our results suggest that tall saplings in subalpine forests of low elevation or near subalpine grassland were susceptible to debarking by deer and monitoring of these areas may permit the early detection of the impacts of deer in subalpine coniferous forests. Keywords: Abies, Cervus nippon, Debarking, Grassland, Picea, Sapling density, Subalpine region

  4. Changes in Biomass Carbon and Soil Organic Carbon Stocks following the Conversion from a Secondary Coniferous Forest to a Pine Plantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaifeng Li

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate changes of tree carbon (C and soil organic carbon (SOC stock following a conversion in land use, an issue that has been only insufficiently addressed. For this study, we examined a chronosequence of 2 to 54-year-old Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis plantations that replaced the original secondary coniferous forest (SCF in Southwest China due to clearing. C stocks considered here consisted of tree, understory, litter, and SOC (0-1 m. The results showed that tree C stocks ranged from 0.02±0.001 Mg C ha-1 to 141.43±5.29 Mg C ha-1, and increased gradually with the stand age. Accumulation of tree C stocks occurred in 20 years after reforestaion and C stock level recoverd to SCF. The maximum of understory C stock was found in a 5-year-old stand (6.74±0.7 Mg C ha-1 with 5.8 times that of SCF, thereafter, understory C stock decreased with the growth of plantation. Litter C stock had no difference excluding effects of prescribed burning. Tree C stock exhibited a significant decline in the 2, 5-year-old stand following the conversion to plantation, but later, increased until a steady state-level in the 20, 26-year-old stand. The SOC stocks ranged from 81.08±10.13 Mg C ha-1 to 160.38±17.96 Mg C ha-1. Reforestation significantly decreased SOC stocks of plantation in the 2-year-old stand which lost 42.29 Mg C ha-1 in the 1 m soil depth compared with SCF by reason of soil disturbance from sites preparation, but then subsequently recovered to SCF level. SOC stocks of SCF had no significant difference with other plantation. The surface profile (0-0.1 m contained s higher SOC stocks than deeper soil depth. C stock associated with tree biomass represented a higher proportion than SOC stocks as stand development proceeded.

  5. Genetic Analysis of Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus sylvestris forma turfosa L. Using RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta ÁBRAHÁM

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the level of genetic diversity within and among Ciuc basin, Romania (populations from Mohos and Luci raised bogs in Harghita Mountain and Sumuleu in Ciuc Mountain Pinus sylvestris populations using molecular markers. Two of populations (Mohos and Luci seems to be the descendants that survived the continental glaciation. Genetic diversity was analyzed by RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Nine primers were selected for analysis, which generated reproducible bands. On base of presence or absence of homologues bands Nei’s gene diversity, the percentage of polymorphic loci and Nei’s unbiased genetic distance were calculated. The level of genetic variation among populations was found to be low. For both populations the variation values among populations were higher than within populations. The fossil records and geological historical data explain the extremely low genetic diversity of this species. Pinus sylvestris experienced strong bottlenecks during its evolutionary history, which caused the loss of genetic variation. Genetic drift and breeding in post-bottlenecked small populations may be the major forces that contribute to low genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of populations. Human activities may have accelerated the loss of genetic diversity in Pinus sylvestris.

  6. Volatile constituents of Pinus roxburghii from Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Paudel, Prajwal; Raut, Josna; Deo, Akash; Dosoky, Noura S; Setzer, William N

    2013-01-01

    Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Is one of 3 species of pine found in Nepal, the oil of which is traditionally used to treat cuts, wounds, boils, and blisters. To obtain, analyze, and examine the anti-microbial and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils of P. roxburghii. Three plant parts (cone, needle, and bark) of Pinus roxburghii were collected in Biratnagar, Nepal. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and the chemical compositions were determined by GC-MS. The needle and cone essential oils were screened for anti-microbial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Aspergillus niger; brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality; and in-vitro cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells. GC-MS analysis for the cone oil revealed 81 compounds with 78 components being identified (95.5% of the oil) while 98.3% of needle oil was identified to contain 68 components and 98.6% of the bark oil (38 components) was identified. The 3 essential oils were dominated by sesquiterpenes, particularly (E)-caryophyllene (26.8%-34.5%) and α-humulene (5.0%-7.3%) as well as monoterpene alcohols terpinen-4-ol (4.1%-30.1%) and α-terpineol(2.8%-5.0%). The monoterpene δ-3-carene was present only in needle and cone essential oils (2.3% and 6.8%, respectively). Bio-activity assays of the cone essential oil of P. roxburghii showed remarkable cytotoxic activity (100% killing of MCF-7 cells at 100 μg/mL) along with notable brine shrimp lethality (LC50 =11.8 μg/mL). The cone essential oil did not show anti-bacterial activity, but it did exhibit anti-fungal activity against Aspergillus niger (MIC=39 μg/mL). The bioactivity of P. roxburghii essential oil is consistent with its traditional medicinal use.

  7. Phytochemical analysis of Pinus eldarica bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iravani, S.; Zolfaghari, B.

    2014-01-01

    Bark extract of Pinus pinaster contains numerous phenolic compounds such as catechins, taxifolin, and phenolic acids. These compounds have received considerable attentions because of their anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, antimetastatic and high antioxidant activities. Although P. pinaster bark has been intensely investigated in the past; there is comparably less information available in the literature in regard to P. eldarica bark. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of P. eldarica commonly found in Iran. A reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the determination of catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and taxifolin in P. pinaster and P. eldarica was developed. A mixture of 0.1% formic acid in deionized water and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile was used as the mobile phase, and chromatographic separation was achieved on a Nova pack C18 at 280 nm. The two studied Pinus species contained high amounts of polyphenolic compounds. Among four marker compounds, the main substances identified in P. pinaster and P. eldarica were taxifolin and catechin, respectively. Furthermore, the composition of the bark oil of P. eldarica obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Thirty-three compounds accounting for 95.1 % of the oil were identified. The oils consisted mainly of mono- and sesquiterpenoid fractions, especially α-pinene (24.6%), caryophyllene oxide (14.0%), δ-3-carene (10.7%), (E)-β-caryophyllene (7.9%), and myrtenal (3.1%). PMID:25657795

  8. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Cardil Forradellas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU. PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future.Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012, in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea.Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height.Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume.Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior.Abbreviations used: PU: Pinus uncinata Ram.

  9. Analisis Komponen Kimia Dan Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Minyak Atsiri Daun Pinus (Pinus Merkusii Jungh.Et Devries) Dari Kabupaten Samosir

    OpenAIRE

    Siringo-Ringo, Mawar

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil of pinus leaves (Pinus merkusii Jungh.et deVries) have been isolated by hydrodestilation method using Stahl. Pinus leaves have destilated for five hours roduced essential oil 0.1531% (w/w). The results of the analyse use GC-MS showed 23 peaks and can be identified 20 compounds and have five major compounds are Limonene (22.72%), α-Pinene (17.53%), β-Caryophyllene (16.76%), β-Ocimene (14.68%), and Germacren-d (11.24%). Antibacterial activity of the test have been done using ag...

  10. Draft genome sequence of Burkholderia sordidicola S170, a potential plant growth promoter isolated from coniferous forest soil in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lladó, Salvador; Xu, Zhuofei; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia species are key players in the accumulation of carbon from cellulose decomposition in coniferous forest ecosystems. We report here the draft genome of Burkholderia sordidicola strain S170, containing features associated with known genes involved in plant growth promotion...

  11. Late Eocene white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) from southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingqing; Zhou, Wenjun; Kodrul, Tatiana M; Naugolnykh, Serge V; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-11-09

    Fossil records indicate that the genus Pinus L. split into two subgenera by the Late Cretaceous, although subgenus Strobus (D. Don) Lemmon is less well documented than subgenus Pinus L., especially in eastern Asia. In this paper, Pinus maomingensis sp. nov. is established based on a compressed seed cone from the upper Eocene of the Maoming Basin of southern China. This species is attributed to genus Pinus, subgenus Strobus, section Quinquefoliae Duhamel, subsection Strobus Loudon based on the combination of morphological characters obtained from the cone scales, specifically from the terminal umbo, rhombic apophysis, and cuticle structure. Associated fascicles of needle leaves with deciduous sheaths and bulbous bases are recognized as Pinus sp. and also represent Pinus subgenus Strobus. This new discovery from the Maoming Basin constitutes the first megafossil record of subgenus Strobus from southern China and implies that the members of this subgenus arrived in the southern region of China by the late Eocene. The extant species of subgenus Strobus are mainly distributed in northern temperate and tropical to subtropical mountainous regions. We propose that the Maoming Basin was adjacent to a mountainous region during the late Eocene.

  12. Leaf anatomical changes in Populus trichocarpa, Quercus rubra, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Pinus ponderosa exposed to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, L.M.; Bassman, J.H.; Edwards, G.E.; Robberecht, R.; Franceshi, V.R.

    1998-01-01

    Leaf anatomical characteristics are important in determining the degree of injury sustained when plants are exposed to natural and enhanced levels of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (280–320 nm). The degree to which leaf anatomy can adapt to the increasing levels of UV-B radiation reaching the earth's surface is poorly understood in most tree species. We examined four tree species, representing a wide range of leaf anatomical characteristics, to determine responses of leaf area, specific leaf weight, and leaf tissue parameters after exposure to ambient and enhanced levels of UV-B radiation. Seedlings were grown in a greenhouse with photosynthetically active radiation of 39 mol m −2 day −1 and under one of three daily irradiances of biologically effective UV-B radiation (UV-BBE) supplied for 10 h per day: (1) approximate ambient level received at Pullman, Washington on June 21 (1 x ); two times ambient (2 x ), or three times ambient (3 x ). We hypothesized the response of each species to UV-B radiation would be related to inherent anatomical differences. We found that the conifers responded anatomically to nearly an equal degree as the broad-leaved trees, but that different tissues were involved. Populus trichocarpa, an indeterminate broadleaf species, showed significantly thicker palisade parenchyma in recently mature leaves at the 3 x level and in older leaves under the 2 x level. In addition, individual leaf area was generally greater with increased UV-B irradiance. Quercus rubra, a semi-determinate broadleaf species, exhibited significantly thicker palisade parenchyma at the 2 x and 3 x levels as compared to controls. Psuedotsuga menziesii, an evergreen coniferous species with bifacially flattened needles, and Pinus ponderosa, an evergreen coniferous species with a complete hypodermis, showed no significant change in leaf area or specific leaf weight under enhanced UV-B radiation. Epidermal thickness was unchanged in P. menziesii. However, P. ponderosa

  13. Influence of soil fungi (basidiomycetes) on the migration of Cs 134 + 137 and Sr 90 in coniferous forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roemmelt, R.; Hiersche, L.; Schaller, G.; Wirth, E.

    1990-01-01

    During the first three years after the Chernobyl event high Cs 134 + 137 activities in fruitbodies of basidiomycetes have been measured. A decline of activities with time has not yet been observed. The activities are considerably higher compared to agricultural products from the same area. In order to study the movement of radiocesium in coniferous forest sites, the activities in soil, fungi, and plants have been measured. Based on these results a model to describe the cesium cycling in coniferous forest ecosystems is proposed with special emphasis on the influence of soil fungi and plants on the migration of cesium. As measurements of Sr 90 in forest ecosystems are rare this nuclide has been included in the investigations. (author)

  14. Fire Regime along Latitudinal Gradients of Continuous to Discontinuous Coniferous Boreal Forests in Eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Portier

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fire is the main disturbance in North American coniferous boreal forests. In Northern Quebec, Canada, where forest management is not allowed, the landscape is gradually constituted of more opened lichen woodlands. Those forests are discontinuous and show a low regeneration potential resulting from the cumulative effects of harsh climatic conditions and very short fire intervals. In a climate change context, and because the forest industry is interested in opening new territories to forest management in the north, it is crucial to better understand how and why fire risk varies from the north to the south at the transition between the discontinuous and continuous boreal forest. We used time-since-fire (TSF data from fire archives as well as a broad field campaign in Quebec’s coniferous boreal forests along four north-south transects in order to reconstruct the fire history of the past 150 to 300 years. We performed survival analyses in each transect in order to (1 determine if climate influences the fire risk along the latitudinal gradient; (2 fractionate the transects into different fire risk zones; and (3 quantify the fire cycle—defined as the time required to burn an area equivalent to the size of the study area—of each zone and compare its estimated value with current fire activity. Results suggest that drought conditions are moderately to highly responsible for the increasing fire risk from south to north in the three westernmost transects. No climate influence was observed in the last one, possibly because of its complex physical environment. Fire cycles are shortening from south to north, and from east to west. Limits between high and low fire risk zones are consistent with the limit between discontinuous and continuous forests, established based on recent fire activity. Compared to the last 40 years, fire cycles of the last 150–300 years are shorter. Our results suggest that as drought episodes are expected to become more frequent

  15. 90SR uptake by Pinus ponderosa and Pinus radiata seedlings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entry, J.A.; Emmingham, W.H.; Rygiewicz, P.T.

    1994-01-01

    Strontium-90 ( 90 Sr) is a radionuclide characteristic of fallout from nuclear reactor accidents and nuclear weapons testing. Prior studies have shown that Pinus ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings can remove appreciable quantities of 90 Sr from soil and store it in plant tissue. In this study, we inoculated P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings with one of five isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Inoculated and noninoculated (control) seedlings were compared for their ability to remove 90 Sr from an organic growth medium. Ectomycorrhizal P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings are able to remove 3-5 times more 90 Sr from contaminated soil than seedlings without ectomycorrhizae. (Author)

  16. Dendrochronology of bristlecone pine, Pinus longaeva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Since 1953 the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research has conducted dendrochronological studies of bristlecone pine Pinus longaeva D.K. Bailey, sp. nov.) in the White Mountains of California. This research resulted in the establishment of a continuous tree-ring sequence of 8253 yr. The millennia-old pines have emerged as a unique source of chronological data and the precisely dated wood is essential to certain paleoenvironmental and geophysical investigations. Over 1000 dendrochronologically dated decade samples of bristlecone pine supplied to three C-14 laboratories have been used to calibrate the radiocarbon time scale for the past seven millennia, a development of far reaching consequences in the fields of archaeology and geology. In addition, recent advances in other methods of analyzing past climatic variability - techniques involving stable isotope ratios, amino acid racemization, remanent magnetism and trace element abundances - have greatly increased the demand for wood of known age and, hence, for chronology development. Spanning the past 7500 yr, 1138 prepared decade samples, with a total weight of nearly 16 kg are available for study. (author)

  17. Substantial secondary organic aerosol formation in a coniferous forest: observations of both day- and nighttime chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Y. Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Substantial biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA formation was investigated in a coniferous forest mountain region in Whistler, British Columbia. A largely biogenic aerosol growth episode was observed, providing a unique opportunity to investigate BSOA formation chemistry in a forested environment with limited influence from anthropogenic emissions. Positive matrix factorization of aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS measurement identified two types of BSOA (BSOA-1 and BSOA-2, which were primarily generated by gas-phase oxidation of monoterpenes and perhaps sesquiterpenes. The temporal variations of BSOA-1 and BSOA-2 can be explained by gas–particle partitioning in response to ambient temperature and the relative importance of different oxidation mechanisms between day and night. While BSOA-1 arises from gas-phase ozonolysis and nitrate radical chemistry at night, BSOA-2 is likely less volatile than BSOA-1 and consists of products formed via gas-phase oxidation by OH radical and ozone during the day. Organic nitrates produced through nitrate radical chemistry can account for 22–33 % of BSOA-1 mass at night. The mass spectra of BSOA-1 and BSOA-2 have higher values of the mass fraction of m/z 91 (f91 compared to the background organic aerosol. Using f91 to evaluate BSOA formation pathways in this unpolluted, forested region, heterogeneous oxidation of BSOA-1 is a minor production pathway of BSOA-2.

  18. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Some Coniferous Plants Cultivated in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Taghreed A; El-Hela, Atef A; El-Hefnawy, Hala M; Al-Taweel, Areej M; Perveen, Shagufta

    2017-01-01

    Family Cupressaceae is the largest coniferous plant family. Essential oils of many species belonging to family Cupressaceae are known to have several biological activities specially antimicrobial activity. The essential oils from aerial parts of Calocedrus decurrens Torr., Cupressus sempervirens stricta L. and Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. were prepared by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the essential oils has been elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis. The prepared essential oils were examined against selected species of Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and Candida species. Broth dilution methods were used to detect minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Sixteen compounds were identified in the essential oils of both Calocedrus decurrens and Cupressus sempervirens L. and fifteen compounds were identified in the essential oil of Tetraclinis articulata . δ-3-Carene (43.10%), (+)-Cedrol (74.03%) and Camphor (21.23%) were the major constituents in the essential oils of Calocedrus decurrens , Cupressus sempervirens L. and Tetraclinis articulata , respectively. The essential oils showed strong antimicrobial activities against the selected microorganisms in concentration range 0.02 3- 3.03 µL/mL. This study could contribute to the chemotaxonomic characterization of family Cupressaceae. In addition, it proved that the essential oils under investigation possess potential antimicrobial properties.

  19. Allometric biomass equations for 12 tree species in coniferous and broadleaved mixed forests, Northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huaijiang; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhao, Xiuhai; Fousseni, Folega; Wang, Jinsong; Dai, Haijun; Yang, Song; Zuo, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Understanding forest carbon budget and dynamics for sustainable resource management and ecosystem functions requires quantification of above- and below-ground biomass at individual tree species and stand levels. In this study, a total of 122 trees (9-12 per species) were destructively sampled to determine above- and below-ground biomass of 12 tree species (Acer mandshuricum, Acer mono, Betula platyphylla, Carpinus cordata, Fraxinus mandshurica, Juglans mandshurica, Maackia amurensis, P. koraiensis, Populus ussuriensis, Quercus mongolica, Tilia amurensis and Ulmus japonica) in coniferous and broadleaved mixed forests of Northeastern China, an area of the largest natural forest in the country. Biomass allocation was examined and biomass models were developed using diameter as independent variable for individual tree species and all species combined. The results showed that the largest biomass allocation of all species combined was on stems (57.1%), followed by coarse root (21.3%), branch (18.7%), and foliage (2.9%). The log-transformed model was statistically significant for all biomass components, although predicting power was higher for species-specific models than for all species combined, general biomass models, and higher for stems, roots, above-ground biomass, and total tree biomass than for branch and foliage biomass. These findings supplement the previous studies on this forest type by additional sample trees, species and locations, and support biomass research on forest carbon budget and dynamics by management activities such as thinning and harvesting in the northeastern part of China.

  20. Modelling three-dimensional distribution of photosynthetically active radiation in sloping coniferous stands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knyazikhin, Yu.; Kranigk, J.; Miessen, G.; Panfyorov, O.; Vygodskaya, N.; Gravenhorst, G.

    1996-01-01

    Solar irradiance is a major environmental factor governing biological and physiological processes in a vegetation canopy. Solar radiation distribution in a canopy and its effect are three-dimensional in nature. However, most of the radiation models up to now have been one-dimensional. They can be successfully applied to large-scale studies of forest functioning. The one-dimensional modelling technique, however, does not provide adequate interpretation of small scale processes leading to forest growth. In this article we discuss a modelling strategy for the simulation of three-dimensional radiation distribution in a vegetation canopy of a small area (about 0.25–0.3 ha). We demonstrate its realisation to predict the three-dimensional radiative regime of phytosynthetically active radiation in a real coniferous stand located on hilly surroundings. Our model can be used to investigate the influence of different climatic conditions, forest management methods and field sites on the solar energy available for forest growth in small heterogeneous areas. Further, a three-dimensional process-oriented model helps to derive global variables affecting bio-physiological processes in a vegetation canopy shifting from small scale studies of the functioning of forests to regional, continental, and global scale problems. (author)

  1. Woody biomass production lags stem-girth increase by over one month in coniferous forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuny, Henri E; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K; Frank, David; Fonti, Patrick; Mäkinen, Harri; Prislan, Peter; Rossi, Sergio; Del Castillo, Edurne Martinez; Campelo, Filipe; Vavrčík, Hanuš; Camarero, Jesus Julio; Bryukhanova, Marina V; Jyske, Tuula; Gričar, Jožica; Gryc, Vladimír; De Luis, Martin; Vieira, Joana; Čufar, Katarina; Kirdyanov, Alexander V; Oberhuber, Walter; Treml, Vaclav; Huang, Jian-Guo; Li, Xiaoxia; Swidrak, Irene; Deslauriers, Annie; Liang, Eryuan; Nöjd, Pekka; Gruber, Andreas; Nabais, Cristina; Morin, Hubert; Krause, Cornelia; King, Gregory; Fournier, Meriem

    2015-10-26

    Wood is the main terrestrial biotic reservoir for long-term carbon sequestration(1), and its formation in trees consumes around 15% of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions each year(2). However, the seasonal dynamics of woody biomass production cannot be quantified from eddy covariance or satellite observations. As such, our understanding of this key carbon cycle component, and its sensitivity to climate, remains limited. Here, we present high-resolution cellular based measurements of wood formation dynamics in three coniferous forest sites in northeastern France, performed over a period of 3 years. We show that stem woody biomass production lags behind stem-girth increase by over 1 month. We also analyse more general phenological observations of xylem tissue formation in Northern Hemisphere forests and find similar time lags in boreal, temperate, subalpine and Mediterranean forests. These time lags question the extension of the equivalence between stem size increase and woody biomass production to intra-annual time scales(3, 4, 5, 6). They also suggest that these two growth processes exhibit differential sensitivities to local environmental conditions. Indeed, in the well-watered French sites the seasonal dynamics of stem-girth increase matched the photoperiod cycle, whereas those of woody biomass production closely followed the seasonal course of temperature. We suggest that forecasted changes in the annual cycle of climatic factors(7) may shift the phase timing of stem size increase and woody biomass production in the future.

  2. MLAOS: A Multi-Point Linear Array of Optical Sensors for Coniferous Foliage Clumping Index Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Qu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The canopy foliage clumping effect is primarily caused by the non-random distribution of canopy foliage. Currently, measurements of clumping index (CI by handheld instruments is typically time- and labor-intensive. We propose a low-cost and low-power automatic measurement system called Multi-point Linear Array of Optical Sensors (MLAOS, which consists of three above-canopy and nine below-canopy optical sensors that capture plant transmittance at different times of the day. Data communication between the MLAOS node is facilitated by using a ZigBee network, and the data are transmitted from the field MLAOS to a remote data server using the Internet. The choice of the electronic element and design of the MLAOS software is aimed at reducing costs and power consumption. A power consumption test showed that, when a 4000 mAH Li-ion battery is used, a maximum of 8–10 months of work can be achieved. A field experiment on a coniferous forest revealed that the CI of MLAOS may reveal a clumping effect that occurs within the canopy. In further work, measurement of the multi-scale clumping effect can be achieved by utilizing a greater number of MLAOS devices to capture the heterogeneity of the plant canopy.

  3. Water migration of macroelements in coniferous-broad-leaved forests of Sikhote-Alin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Kozhevnikova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the natural water chemical composition spatial variability studies results in the mountain forest catchment are presented. It’s shown that the catchment biotic components’ impact upon water chemical composition is detected even at input as atmospheric precipitation. The input fluxes are acid, sulfate ones with high ratio of hydrogen, potassium and dissolved organic matter. Diversity of ecotopic conditions determines the further transformation of natural water chemical composition. The role of tree crowns in the transformation increases while the crown closure and stands’ age increase. According to macrocomponents transformation and rain acidity neutralization, forest associations form the sequence: mixed > coniferous > young deciduous ones. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC, potassium and calcium become the main components of water chemical composition, while sulfates dominate among anions. For vegetation period, 9–11 kg/ha of sulfates come below tree crown. Biogenic elements transport is gradually limited in soil profile at the migration stage. Sulfate-potassium composition throughfall in spruce-fir and secondary forests community transforms into sulfate-sodium-calcium. Hydrocarbonates predominate in soil water in broad-leaved-pine type of forest, and potassium output decreases 10 times. Geochemical type of river water keeps features of chemical composition of soil drained by river section. Negligible output of sulfates, hydrocarbonates and calcium from ecosystem is established for the headwaters. Negative balance of hydrocarbonates and calcium is compensated by significant input of these components with throughfall at catchments with predominantly pine-broad-leaved forest types.

  4. The Gymnosperm Cytochrome P450 CYP750B1 Catalyzes Stereospecific Monoterpene Hydroxylation of (+)-Sabinene in Thujone Biosynthesis in Western Redcedar1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaukopf, Markus; Yuen, Macaire M.S.; Withers, Stephen G.; Mattsson, Jim; Russell, John H.; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Western redcedar (WRC; Thuja plicata) produces high amounts of oxygenated thujone monoterpenoids associated with resistance against herbivore feeding, particularly ungulate browsing. Thujones and other monoterpenoids accumulate in glandular structures in the foliage of WRC. Thujones are produced from (+)-sabinene by sabinol and sabinone. Using metabolite analysis, enzyme assays with WRC tissue extracts, cloning, and functional characterization of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, we established that trans-sabin-3-ol but not cis-sabin-3-ol is the intermediate in thujone biosynthesis in WRC. Based on transcriptome analysis, full-length complementary DNA cloning, and characterization of expressed P450 proteins, we identified CYP750B1 and CYP76AA25 as the enzymes that catalyze the hydroxylation of (+)-sabinene to trans-sabin-3-ol. Gene-specific transcript analysis in contrasting WRC genotypes producing high and low amounts of monoterpenoids, including a glandless low-terpenoid clone, as well as assays for substrate specificity supported a biological role of CYP750B1 in α- and β-thujone biosynthesis. This P450 belongs to the apparently gymnosperm-specific CYP750 family and is, to our knowledge, the first member of this family to be functionally characterized. In contrast, CYP76AA25 has a broader substrate spectrum, also converting the sesquiterpene farnesene and the herbicide isoproturon, and its transcript profiles are not well correlated with thujone accumulation. PMID:25829465

  5. Phylogeny of the gymnosperm genus Cycas L. (Cycadaceae) as inferred from plastid and nuclear loci based on a large-scale sampling: Evolutionary relationships and taxonomical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Zhang, Shouzhou; Nagalingum, Nathalie S; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Lindstrom, Anders J; Gong, Xun

    2018-05-18

    The gymnosperm genus Cycas is the sole member of Cycadaceae, and is the largest genus of extant cycads. There are about 115 accepted Cycas species mainly distributed in the paleotropics. Based on morphology, the genus has been divided into six sections and eight subsections, but this taxonomy has not yet been tested in a molecular phylogenetic framework. Although the monophyly of Cycas is broadly accepted, the intrageneric relationships inferred from previous molecular phylogenetic analyses are unclear due to insufficient sampling or uninformative DNA sequence data. In this study, we reconstructed a phylogeny of Cycas using four chloroplast intergenic spacers and seven low-copy nuclear genes and sampling 90% of extant Cycas species. The maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference phylogenies suggest: (1) matrices of either concatenated cpDNA markers or of concatenated nDNA lack sufficient informative sites to resolve the phylogeny alone, however, the phylogeny from the combined cpDNA-nDNA dataset suggests the genus can be roughly divided into 13 clades and six sections that are in agreement with the current classification of the genus; (2) although with partial support, a clade combining sections Panzhihuaenses + Asiorientales is resolved as the earliest diverging branch; (3) section Stangerioides is not monophyletic because the species resolve as a grade; (4) section Indosinenses is not monophyletic as it includes Cycas macrocarpa and C. pranburiensis from section Cycas; (5) section Cycas is the most derived group and its subgroups correspond with geography. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fusariose em Mudas de Pinus taeda Fusarium disease on Pinus taeda seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Grigoletti Júnior

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Viveiros comerciais têm apresentado mudas de Pinus taeda com sintomas de murcha e seca de ponteiros e morte, na Região Sul do Brasil. Isolamento em meio BDA e câmara úmida, teste de patogenicidade e microcultivo foram feitos para identificar o patógeno. Uma espécie de Fusarium foi isolada, cuja identificação encontra-se em andamento. Verificou-sepelos postulados de Koch que Fusarium sp. foi o agente causal dessa doença.
    Nurseries has presented Pinus taeda seedling with symptoms of wilt, tip blight and death, in Southern Region of Brazil. Isolation on PDA medium, moist chamber, pathogenicity test and microculture were made to identify the pathogen. A species of Fusarium was isolated, which is under identification. It was verified by Koch postulates that Fusarium sp. was the causal agent of this disease.

  7. Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster needles as passive samplers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccardo, Maria Teresa; Pala, Mauro; Bonaccurso, Bruna; Stella, Anna; Redaelli, Anna; Paola, Gaudenzio; Valerio, Federico

    2005-01-01

    Nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed in pine needles of different ages (from 6 to 30 months) collected from two species, Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster, in seven sites located along a transect from a suburban to a rural area of Genoa (Italy). In all sites and for both species, concentrations of more volatile PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene) were higher than those for other less volatile PAHs, which are preferentially sorbed to airborne particulates (benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzofluoranthenes, benzo[a]pyrene). Concentrations of total PAHs found in P. nigra in the rural sites were, on the average, 2.3 times higher than those in P. pinaster growing nearby. In both pine species, concentrations of volatile PAHs increased according to needle age. Annual trends of other PAHs were more variable, with a general decrease in older needles. P. pinaster needles are shown to be more reliable passive samplers, since they are more resistant to plant diseases, and considerable variation in PAH concentration was observed in P. nigra needles with moulds and fungi. - The suitability of the pine needles as passive air samplers for persistent trace organics is demonstrated

  8. Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster needles as passive samplers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccardo, Maria Teresa [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy)]. E-mail: chimamb@istge.it; Pala, Mauro [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Bonaccurso, Bruna [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Stella, Anna [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Redaelli, Anna [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Paola, Gaudenzio [Botany Department, Genoa University, C.so Dogali 1 canc., 16136 Genova (Italy); Valerio, Federico [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy)

    2005-01-01

    Nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed in pine needles of different ages (from 6 to 30 months) collected from two species, Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster, in seven sites located along a transect from a suburban to a rural area of Genoa (Italy). In all sites and for both species, concentrations of more volatile PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene) were higher than those for other less volatile PAHs, which are preferentially sorbed to airborne particulates (benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzofluoranthenes, benzo[a]pyrene). Concentrations of total PAHs found in P. nigra in the rural sites were, on the average, 2.3 times higher than those in P. pinaster growing nearby. In both pine species, concentrations of volatile PAHs increased according to needle age. Annual trends of other PAHs were more variable, with a general decrease in older needles. P. pinaster needles are shown to be more reliable passive samplers, since they are more resistant to plant diseases, and considerable variation in PAH concentration was observed in P. nigra needles with moulds and fungi. - The suitability of the pine needles as passive air samplers for persistent trace organics is demonstrated.

  9. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardil Forradellas, A.; Molina Terrén, D.M.; Oliveres, J.; Castellnou, M.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU). PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future. Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012), in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season) in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha) located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea. Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height. Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume. Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior. (Author)

  10. Differential effects of plant ontogeny and damage type on phloem and foliage monoterpenes in jack pine (Pinus banksiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbilgin, Nadir; Colgan, L Jessie

    2012-08-01

    Coniferous trees have both constitutive and inducible defences that deter or kill herbivores and pathogens. We investigated constitutive and induced monoterpene responses of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) to a number of damage types: a fungal associate of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), Grosmannia clavigera (Robinson-Jeffrey & R.W. Davidson); two phytohormones, methyl jasmonate (MJ) and methyl salicylate (MS); simulated herbivory; and mechanical wounding. We only included the fungal, MJ and mechanical wounding treatments in the field experiments while all treatments were part of the greenhouse studies. We focused on both constitutive and induced responses between juvenile and mature jack pine trees and differences in defences between phloem and needles. We found that phytohormone applications and fungal inoculation resulted in the greatest increase in monoterpenes in both juvenile and mature trees. Additionally, damage types differentially affected the proportions of individual monoterpenes: MJ-treated mature trees had higher myrcene and β-pinene than fungal-inoculated mature trees, while needles of juveniles inoculated with the fungus contained higher limonene than MJ- or MS-treated juveniles. Although the constitutive monoterpenes were higher in the phloem of juveniles than mature jack pine trees, the phloem of mature trees had a much higher magnitude of induction. Further, induced monoterpene concentrations in juveniles were higher in phloem than in needles. There was no difference in monoterpene concentration between phytohormone applications and G. clavigera inoculation in mature trees, while in juvenile trees MJ was different from both G. clavigera and simulated herbivory in needle monoterpenes, but there was no difference between phytohormone applications and simulated herbivory in the phloem.

  11. PRODUÇÃO DE CHAPAS DE MADEIRA COMPENSADA DE CINCO ESPÉCIES DE PINUS TROPICAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial de utilização de 5 espécies de pinus tropicais para produção de painéis compensados. As espécies estudadas foram: Pinus caribaea, Pinus chiapensis, Pinus maximinoi, Pinus oocarpa, Pinus tecunumannii e Pinus taeda, sendo esta última espécie como testemunha. Foram produzidos compensados de 5 lâminas com resinas uréia-formaldeído e fenol-formaldeído. Os resultados de inchamento e recuperação em espessura foram estatisticamente iguais entre as espécies estudadas, com exceção para inchamento em espessura das chapas coladas com resina fenol-formaldeído. As chapas de Pinus maximinoi e Pinus oocarpa, apresentaram melhores resultados de módulos de elasticidade. Para o módulo de ruptura, as chapas de Pinus maxininoi, Pinus oocarpa e Pinus taeda, coladas com resina fenol-formaldeído, apresentaram valores estatisticamente superiores em relação às demais espécies. Quanto a resistência da linha de cola, as chapas de Pinus maximinoi, Pinus taeda e Pinus chiapensis, foram as que apresentaram melhor desempenho. Com base nos resultados gerais da pesquisa, pode-se destacar a potencialidade da madeira de Pinus maximinoi e Pinus oocarpa para produção de chapas de madeira compensada.

  12. Adaptive genetic potential of coniferous forest tree species under climate change: implications for sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Georgeta; Birsan, Marius-Victor; Teodosiu, Maria; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Daia, Mihai; Mirancea, Ionel; Ivanov, Paula; Alin, Alexandru

    2017-04-01

    coniferous species for a sustainable forest management in the context of climate change), financed by the Executive Agency for Higher Education, Research, Development and Innovation Funding, grant number PN-II-PC-PCCA-2013-4-0695.

  13. The accuracy of matrix population model projections for coniferous trees in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mantgem, P.J.; Stephenson, N.L.

    2005-01-01

    1 We assess the use of simple, size-based matrix population models for projecting population trends for six coniferous tree species in the Sierra Nevada, California. We used demographic data from 16 673 trees in 15 permanent plots to create 17 separate time-invariant, density-independent population projection models, and determined differences between trends projected from initial surveys with a 5-year interval and observed data during two subsequent 5-year time steps. 2 We detected departures from the assumptions of the matrix modelling approach in terms of strong growth autocorrelations. We also found evidence of observation errors for measurements of tree growth and, to a more limited degree, recruitment. Loglinear analysis provided evidence of significant temporal variation in demographic rates for only two of the 17 populations. 3 Total population sizes were strongly predicted by model projections, although population dynamics were dominated by carryover from the previous 5-year time step (i.e. there were few cases of recruitment or death). Fractional changes to overall population sizes were less well predicted. Compared with a null model and a simple demographic model lacking size structure, matrix model projections were better able to predict total population sizes, although the differences were not statistically significant. Matrix model projections were also able to predict short-term rates of survival, growth and recruitment. Mortality frequencies were not well predicted. 4 Our results suggest that simple size-structured models can accurately project future short-term changes for some tree populations. However, not all populations were well predicted and these simple models would probably become more inaccurate over longer projection intervals. The predictive ability of these models would also be limited by disturbance or other events that destabilize demographic rates. ?? 2005 British Ecological Society.

  14. Fire intensity impacts on post-fire temperate coniferous forest net primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Aaron M.; Kolden, Crystal A.; Smith, Alistair M. S.; Boschetti, Luigi; Johnson, Daniel M.; Cochrane, Mark A.

    2018-02-01

    Fire is a dynamic ecological process in forests and impacts the carbon (C) cycle through direct combustion emissions, tree mortality, and by impairing the ability of surviving trees to sequester carbon. While studies on young trees have demonstrated that fire intensity is a determinant of post-fire net primary productivity, wildland fires on landscape to regional scales have largely been assumed to either cause tree mortality, or conversely, cause no physiological impact, ignoring the impacted but surviving trees. Our objective was to understand how fire intensity affects post-fire net primary productivity in conifer-dominated forested ecosystems on the spatial scale of large wildland fires. We examined the relationships between fire radiative power (FRP), its temporal integral (fire radiative energy - FRE), and net primary productivity (NPP) using 16 years of data from the MOderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) for 15 large fires in western United States coniferous forests. The greatest NPP post-fire loss occurred 1 year post-fire and ranged from -67 to -312 g C m-2 yr-1 (-13 to -54 %) across all fires. Forests dominated by fire-resistant species (species that typically survive low-intensity fires) experienced the lowest relative NPP reductions compared to forests with less resistant species. Post-fire NPP in forests that were dominated by fire-susceptible species were not as sensitive to FRP or FRE, indicating that NPP in these forests may be reduced to similar levels regardless of fire intensity. Conversely, post-fire NPP in forests dominated by fire-resistant and mixed species decreased with increasing FRP or FRE. In some cases, this dose-response relationship persisted for more than a decade post-fire, highlighting a legacy effect of fire intensity on post-fire C dynamics in these forests.

  15. Growth ring analysis of fossil coniferous woods from early cretaceous of Araripe Basin (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etiene F. Pires

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth ring analysis on silicified coniferous woods from the Missão Velha Formation (Araripe Basin - Brazil has yielded important information about periodicity of wood production during the Early Cretaceous in the equatorial belt. Despite warm temperatures, dendrological data indicate that the climate was characterized by cyclical alternation of dry and rainy periods influenced by cyclical precipitations, typical of tropical wet and dry or savanna climate. The abundance of false growth rings can be attributed to both occasional droughts and arthropod damage. The present climate data agree with palaeoclimatic models that inferred summer-wet biomes for the Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous boundary in the southern equatorial belt.A partir de análise de anéis de crescimento em lenhos de coníferas silicificadas provenientes da Formação Missão Velha(Bacia do Araripe - Brasil, obteve-se importantes informações a respeito da periodicidade de produção lenhosa duranteo início do Cretáceo, na região do equador. Apesar das estimativas de temperatura apresentarem-se elevadas, os dados dendrológicos indicam que o clima foi caracterizado pela alternância cíclica de períodos secos e chuvosos, influenciado por precipitações periódicas, típico das condições atuais de climatropical úmido e seco ou savana. A abundância de falsosanéis de crescimento pode ser atribuída tanto a secas ocasionais quanto a danos causados por artrópodes. Os dados paleoclimáticos aqui obtidos corroboram com modelos paleoclimáticos que inferem a ocorrência de um bioma de verões úmidos para o limite Neojurássico/Eocretáceo ao sul do equador.

  16. Lidar and Hyperspectral Remote Sensing for the Analysis of Coniferous Biomass Stocks and Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halligan, K. Q.; Roberts, D. A.

    2006-12-01

    Airborne lidar and hyperspectral data can improve estimates of aboveground carbon stocks and fluxes through their complimentary responses to vegetation structure and biochemistry. While strong relationships have been demonstrated between lidar-estimated vegetation structural parameters and field data, research is needed to explore the portability of these methods across a range of topographic conditions, disturbance histories, vegetation type and climate. Additionally, research is needed to evaluate contributions of hyperspectral data in refining biomass estimates and determination of fluxes. To address these questions we are a conducting study of lidar and hyperspectral remote sensing data across sites including coniferous forests, broadleaf deciduous forests and a tropical rainforest. Here we focus on a single study site, Yellowstone National Park, where tree heights, stem locations, above ground biomass and basal area were mapped using first-return small-footprint lidar data. A new method using lidar intensity data was developed for separating the terrain and vegetation components in lidar data using a two-scale iterative local minima filter. Resulting Digital Terrain Models (DTM) and Digital Canopy Models (DCM) were then processed to retrieve a diversity of vertical and horizontal structure metrics. Univariate linear models were used to estimate individual tree heights while stepwise linear regression was used to estimate aboveground biomass and basal area. Three small-area field datasets were compared for their utility in model building and validation of vegetation structure parameters. All structural parameters were linearly correlated with lidar-derived metrics, with higher accuracies obtained where field and imagery data were precisely collocated . Initial analysis of hyperspectral data suggests that vegetation health metrics including measures of live and dead vegetation and stress indices may provide good indicators of carbon flux by mapping vegetation

  17. Energetic and exergetic analysis of steam production for the extraction of coniferous essential oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friso, Dario; Grigolato, Stefano; Cavalli, Raffaele

    2011-01-01

    Bioenergy production is optimal when the energy production process is both efficient and benefits from local resources. Energetic and exergetic analyses are applied to highlight efficiency differences between small-size systems that are based on the co-generation of heating and power (CHP) versus the co-generation of heating and power with steam production (CHP-S). Both systems use the Organic fluid Rankine Cycle (ORC). The recovery of heat from flue gases is considered to be a way of increasing energy efficiency. In the CHP-S case, steam (at low pressure) is used to extract essential oils from fresh twigs and needles of coniferous trees throughout a steam distillation process. When the systems work at a thermal combustion power of 1350 kW, energetic analysis shows that the energy efficiency of the CHP-S plant (89.4%) is higher than that of the CHP plant (77.9%). Exergetic analysis shows that the efficiency of the CHP-S plant is 2.2% higher than that of the CHP plant. -- Highlights: → Bioenergy production is optimal when the energy production process is efficient. → Energetic and exergetic analyses are applied to highlight efficiency differences between the co-generation of heating and power (CHP) versus the co-generation of heating and power with steam production (CHP-S). → The recovery of heat from flue gases is a way of increasing energy efficiency. → The energetic and exergetic analysis shows that the efficiency of the CHP-S plant is higher than that of the CHP plant.

  18. Small scale temporal distribution of radiocesium in undisturbed coniferous forest soil: Radiocesium depth distribution profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramage, Mengistu T; Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki

    2016-04-01

    The depth distribution of pre-Fukushima and Fukushima-derived (137)Cs in undisturbed coniferous forest soil was investigated at four sampling dates from nine months to 18 months after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. The migration rate and short-term temporal variability among the sampling profiles were evaluated. Taking the time elapsed since the peak deposition of pre-Fukushima (137)Cs and the median depth of the peaks, its downward displacement rates ranged from 0.15 to 0.67 mm yr(-1) with a mean of 0.46 ± 0.25 mm yr(-1). On the other hand, in each examined profile considerable amount of the Fukushima-derived (137)Cs was found in the organic layer (51%-92%). At this moment, the effect of time-distance on the downward distribution of Fukushima-derived (137)Cs seems invisible as its large portion is still found in layers where organic matter is maximal. This indicates that organic matter seems the primary and preferential sorbent of radiocesium that could be associated with the physical blockage of the exchanging sites by organic-rich dusts that act as a buffer against downward propagation of radiocesium, implying radiocesium to be remained in the root zone for considerable time period. As a result, this soil section can be a potential source of radiation dose largely due to high radiocesium concentration coupled with its low density. Generally, such kind of information will be useful to establish a dynamic safety-focused decision support system to ease and assist management actions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of ground fires on element dynamics in mountainous coniferous forest in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Näthe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances such as fires are a natural phenomenon of forested ecosystems, having a different impact on (micro- climate (e.g. emissions of gases and aerosols, ecology (destruction of flora and fauna and nutrient cycles especially in the soils. Forest fires alter the spatial distribution (forest floor vs. mineral soil, binding forms (organic vs. inorganic and availability (water solubility of organic substances and nutrients. The effects of fires on chemical, biological and physical soil properties in forested ecosystems have been intensively studied in the last decades, especially in the Mediterranean area and North America. However, differences in fire intensity, forest type (species, age and location (climate, geological substrate, nutrient status lead to divergent results. Furthermore, only a few case studies focused on the effects of ground fires in hilly landscapes, on the vertical and lateral water-driven fluxes of elements (C, N, nutrients, as well as on the input of fire-released terrestrial nutrients into aquatic ecosystems. Thus, this study will evaluate the effects of low-severity fires on nutrient cycling in a coniferous forest in a hilly landscape connected to an aquatic system. At three spatially independent sites three paired plots (control and manipulated were chosen at a forested site in Thuringia, Germany. All plots are similar in the vegetation cover and pedogenetic properties.In relation to control sites, this study will examine the effects of low-severity fires on:a the mobilization of organic carbon and nutrients (released from ash material and the forest floor via leachate and erosion paths,b the binding form (inorganic/organic of elements and organic compounds, and c the particle size fraction (DOM/POM of elements and organic compounds.The goal of this study is a better understanding of the impact of forest fires on element cycling and release in a hilly landscape connected to an aquatic system, supposedly driven by

  20. Arthropods and passerine birds in coniferous forest. The impact of acidification and needle-loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnarsson, B. [Goeteborg Univ., Dept. of Zoology, Sect. of Animal Ecology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    The micro-habitat structure on coniferous trees changes as a result of needle-loss. This structural change in the vegetation may affect arthropods living in spruce Picea abies by indirect mechanisms, e.g. altered relations between prey and predators. The impact of acidification and needle-loss on some tree-living arthropods and passerine birds is reviewed. New information about the taxonomic composition of spiders in relation to needle density in a field experiments is reported. The main combined findings from the review and field experiments are: 1) Acid precipitation may be toxic because of high H{sup +} concentrations. However, simulated acid rain (pH 4.0) did not reduce the growth rate of a spruce-living spider. There is a present no evidence of toxic effect on arthropods at this level of pH. 2) Experiments in the field and laboratory and data from natural populations suggested that spruce-living arthropods are affected by the needle density of branches. These data showed a positive correlation between needle density and spider abundance. However, a large-scale field experiment could not confirm this relationship. 3) The interaction between bird predation and needle density was examined in a large-scale field experiment. There were strong negative effects of bird predation on arthropod abundance. Moreover, the taxonomic composition among spiders changed as a result of bird predation: raptorial spiders increased their relative abundance whereas sheetweb spiders decreased their relative abundance when bird predation was excluded. There were also some cases of bird predation/needle density interactions. In the absence of bird predation, the needle density affected the spider size distribution: large spiders were more common on needle-sparse branches than on needle-dens ones. The species composition was affected by similar interactions, e.g. bird predation effects on crab spiders (Thomisidae) were found on needle-sparse branches only. (Abstract Truncated)

  1. Hydraulic architecture and tracheid allometry in mature Pinus palustris and Pinus elliottii trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Benecke, C A; Martin, T A; Peter, G F

    2010-03-01

    Pinus palustris Mill. (longleaf pine, LL) and Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii (slash pine, SL) frequently co-occur in lower coastal plain flatwoods of the USA, with LL typically inhabiting slightly higher and better-drained microsites than SL. The hydraulic architecture and tracheid dimensions of roots, trunk and branches of mature LL and SL trees were compared to understand their role in species microsite occupation. Root xylem had higher sapwood-specific hydraulic conductivity (k(s)) and was less resistant to cavitation compared with branches and trunk sapwood. Root k(s) of LL was significantly higher than SL, whereas branch and trunk k(s) did not differ between species. No differences in vulnerability to cavitation were observed in any of the organs between species. Across all organs, there was a significant but weak trade-off between water conduction efficiency and safety. Tracheid hydraulic diameter (D(h)) was strongly correlated with k(s) across all organs, explaining >73% of the variation in k(s). In contrast, tracheid length (L(t)) explained only 2.4% of the variability. Nevertheless, for trunk xylem, k(s) was 39.5% higher at 20 m compared with 1.8 m; this increase in k(s) was uncorrelated with D(h) and cell-wall thickness but was strongly correlated with the difference in L(t). Tracheid allometry markedly changed between sapwood of roots, trunks and branches, possibly reflecting different mechanical constraints. Even though vulnerability to cavitation was not different for sapwood of roots, branches or the trunks of LL and SL, higher sapwood to leaf area ratio and higher maximum sapwood-specific hydraulic conductivity in roots of LL are functional traits that may provide LL with a competitive advantage on drier soil microsites.

  2. Produção de chapas de madeira compensada de cinco espécies de pinus tropicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was developed aiming at evaluating the feasibility of the use of 5 species of tropical pine to plywood manufacture. The following species were studied: Pinus caribaea, Pinus chiapensis, Pinus maximinoi, Pinus oocarpa, Pinus tecunumannii and Pinus taeda, being the last used as the referential species. Plywood were manufactured with 5 plies, bonded with ureaformaldheyde and fenol-formaldheyde resin. The results of thickness sweeling and recovering were the same for all species studied, with exception to thickness sweeling for the boards glued with fenolformaldheyde resin. The boards made from Pinus maximinoi and Pinus oocarpa, showed the higher values in modulus of elasticity. The boards of Pinus maximinoi, Pinus oocarpa and Pinus taeda, glued with fenol-formaldheyde resin, resulted in higher values of the modulus of rupture, in comparison to other species. For the glue line strength, the boards of Pinus maximinoi, Pinus taeda and Pinus chiapensis, showed the better results. Based on the general results of this research it, could be said that the Pinus maximinoi and Pinus oocarpa present the high potentiality to plywood manufacture.

  3. PRODUÇÃO DE CHAPAS DE MADEIRA COMPENSADA DE CINCO ESPÉCIES DE PINUS TROPICAIS

    OpenAIRE

    Setsuo Iwakiri; Danielle Previdi Olandoski; Gabriela Leonhardt; Martha Andreia Brand

    2001-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial de utilização de 5 espécies de pinus tropicais para produção de painéis compensados. As espécies estudadas foram: Pinus caribaea, Pinus chiapensis, Pinus maximinoi, Pinus oocarpa, Pinus tecunumannii e Pinus taeda, sendo esta última espécie como testemunha. Foram produzidos compensados de 5 lâminas com resinas uréia-formaldeído e fenol-formaldeído. Os resultados de inchamento e recuperação em espessura foram estatisticamente iguais entre as ...

  4. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pinus roxburghii Sarg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirender Kaushik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chir Pine, Pinus roxburghii, named after William Roxburgh, is a pine native to the Himalaya. Pinus roxburghii Sarg. (Pinaceae is traditionally used for several medicinal purposes in India. As the oil of the plant is extensively used in number of herbal preparation for curing inflammatory disorders, the present study was undertaken to assess analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of its bark extract. Dried and crushed leaves of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with alcohol. The alcoholic extract at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg body weight was subjected to evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animal models. Analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests in Swiss albino mice; acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma in Wistar albino rats. Diclofenac sodium and indomethacin were employed as reference drugs for analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies, respectively. In the present study, the alcoholic bark extract of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. demonstrated significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in the tested models.

  5. A new C-methylated flavonoid glycoside from Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, M J; Choi, J H; Chung, H Y; Jung, J H; Choi, J S

    2001-12-01

    A new C-methyl flavonol glycoside, 5,7,8,4'-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxy-6-methylflavone 8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), has been isolated from the needles of Pinus densiflora, together with kaempferol 3-O-beta-(6"-acetyl)-galactopyranoside.

  6. Impacts of prescribed fire on Pinus rigida Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas J. Carlo; Heidi J. Renninger; Kenneth L. Clark; Karina V.R. Schäfer

    2016-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the impacts of prescribed fire on three upland forest stands in the Northeastern Atlantic Plain, NJ, USA, was conducted. Effects of prescribed fire on water use and gas exchange of overstory pines were estimated via sap-flux rates and photosynthetic measurements on Pinus rigida Mill. Each study site had two sap-flux plots...

  7. Evaluation of genetic diversity of Portuguese Pinus sylvestris L.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 92; Online resources. Evaluation of genetic diversity of Portuguese Pinus sylvestris L. populations based on molecular data and inferences about the future use of this germplasm. J. Cipriano A. Carvalho C. Fernandes M. J. Gaspar J. Pires J. Bento L. Roxo J. Louzada J. Lima- ...

  8. Growth process and diameter structure of Pinus tabulaeformis forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... and sunny slope Pinus tabulaeformis forest were investigated in hilly loess-gully ... tabulaeformis, the main species of tree for forestation, ... Biomass in different artificial P. tabulaformis stands ..... The change of plant diversity during natural ... elements and stand biomass in forest communities in Hilly Loess.

  9. Genomic DNA extraction from sapwood of Pinus roxburghii for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method for extraction of genomic DNA from sapwood tissues of mature tall trees of Pinus roxburghii, where collection of needle tissues is extremely difficult has been standardized. The extracted DNA was comparable to that obtained from the needle tissue in terms of yield and purity. The yield of extracted DNA ranged ...

  10. Bishop pine (Pinus muricata) of inland Marin County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    1986-01-01

    The locations and characteristics of five, small, previously undescribed stands of bishop pine (Pinus muricata) in central Marin Co., California, are reported. Three stands lie on dry sites in the Kent Lake Drainage north of Mt. Tamalpais: San Geronimo Ridge, a spur ridge above Little Carson Cr., and Oat Hill. These stands are anomalous in occurring...

  11. Experiments in rooting bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    1987-01-01

    Presented here are results of rooting studies using hedges established from juvenile seedlings of "blue" and "green" foliaged bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) from Mendocino and Sonoma Counties, California. Rootability, averaged over all clones and all setting dates, was 88%. The average time for 50% of the...

  12. A holistic approach to genetic conservation of Pinus strobiformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.M. Waring; R. Sniezko; B.A. Goodrich; C. Wehenkel; J.J. Jacobs

    2017-01-01

    Pinus strobiformis (southwestern white pine) is threatened by both a rapidly changing climate and the tree disease white pine blister rust, caused by an introduced fungal pathogen, Cronartium ribicola. We began a proactive program in ~2009 to sustain P. strobiformis that includes genetic conservation, research, and management strategies. Research...

  13. Evolutionary relationships of Slash Pine ( Pinus elliottii ) with its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    llozymes in bud tissue and monoterpene contents in xylem oleoresin of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) were analyzed from populations across the natural distribution, as well as those from other species in the AUSTRALES pines. Allozyme diversity measures of slash pine were similar to those found in other southern pines.

  14. Evaluation of seed production of scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to investigate seed production in a 13 years-old scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) clonal seed orchard, including 30 clones. Eight of cone and seed traits as number of fertile and infertile scales, cone volume, cone number, filled and empty seed number, seed efficiency and 1000 seed weight were ...

  15. evaluation of the leave and bud decoctions pinus halepensis mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 déc. 2014 ... L'espèce Pinus halepensis Mill (ou pin d'Alep), appartenant à la famille des Pinaceae, a ... au moyen d'un moulin électrique à usage domestique (model Moulinex D5001) au niveau du ..... central ltaly Flavour Frag. J., 2003 ...

  16. Pinus ponderosa : A checkered past obscured four species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann Willyard; David S. Gernandt; Kevin Potter; Valerie Hipkins; Paula E. Marquardt; Mary Frances Mahalovich; Stephen K. Langer; Frank W. Telewski; Blake Cooper; Connor Douglas; Kristen Finch; Hassani H. Karemera; Julia Lefler; Payton Lea; Austin Wofford

    2016-01-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Molecular genetic evidence can help delineate taxa in species complexes that lack diagnostic morphological characters. Pinus ponderosa (Pinaceae; subsection Ponderosae ) is recognized as a problematic taxon: plastid phylogenies of exemplars were paraphyletic, and mitochondrial phylogeography suggested at...

  17. Growth models for Pinus patula in Angola | Delgado-Matas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study developed growth models for Pinus patula Schiede ex Schltdl. et Cham. for the Central Highlands of Angola for simulating the development of stand characteristics. The model set included dominant height, individual-tree diameter increment, individual-tree height and self-thinning models. The study was based ...

  18. Some physical and strength properties of immature Pinus patula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine physical and strength properties of immature Pinus patula grown in Iringa and Njombe regions of Tanzania. Sample trees aged 5 to 15 years were collected from farmers' woodlots. The trees were categorized into 5 age classes: 5 - 7, 8 - 10, 11 - 12, 13 - 14 and 15 years. Four trees from ...

  19. Impact of the eocene on the evolution of Pinus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    1993-01-01

    Pinus evolved in middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere in the middle Mesozoic. By the late Cretaceous pines had spread east and west throughout Laurasia, attaining high diversity in eastern Asia, the eastern United States, and western Europe, but having little representation at high northern latitudes. Changing climates in the early Tertiary...

  20. An interesting chemical polymorphism in Pinus sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Szweykowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra- and interpopulational polymorphism in the production of phenolic compounds is described in Polish populations of Pinus sylvestris L. Two mutually exclusive forms of pine trees are present in changing proportions in all populations studied. This allows three groups of populations to be distinguished. The character of this differentiation is discussed.

  1. Percentile-based Weibull diameter distribution model for Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a site index equation and stem volume model developed for Pinus kesiya in the Philippines, a yield prediction system was created to predict the volume per ha (VPH) for each diameter class and, subsequently, the total volume of a stand. To evaluate the yield prediction system, the predicted mean VPH for each ...

  2. Woodland: dynamics of average diameters of coniferous tree stands of the principal forest types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ziganshin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of age dynamics of average diameters of deciduous tree stands of different forest types at Highland Khamar-Daban (natural woodland in South-East Baikal Lake region has been done. The aggregate data of average tree, the analysis of age dynamics of average diameters of a deciduous tree stands of stand diameters by age classes, as well as tree stand current periodic and overall average increment are presented and discussed in the paper. Forest management appraisal is done. The most representative forest types have been selected to be analyzed. There were nine of them including three Siberian stone pine Pinus sibirica Du Tour stands, three Siberian fir Abies sibirica Ledeb. stands, one Siberian spruce Picea obovata Ledeb. stand, and two dwarf Siberian pine Pinus pumila (Pallas Regel stands. The whole high-altitude range of mountain taiga has been evaluated. Mathematical and statistic indicators have been calculated for every forest type. Stone pine stands are the largest. Dynamics of mean diameters of forest stands have been examined by dominant species for every forest type. Quite a number of interesting facts have been elicited. Generally, all species have maximal values of periodic annual increment that is typical for young stands, but further decrease of increment is going on differently and connects to the different lifetime of wood species. It is curious that annual increment of the dwarf Siberian pine stands almost does not decrease with aging. As for mean annual increment, it is more stable than periodic annual increment. From the fifth age class (age of stand approaching maturity mean annual increment of cedar stands varies from 0.20 to 0.24 cm per year; from 0.12–0.15 to 0.18–0.21 cm per year – in fir stands; from 0.18 to 0.24 cm per year – in spruce stands; and from 0.02–0.03 to 0.05–0.06 cm per year – in draft pine stands. Mean annual increment of dwarf Siberian pine increases with aging and increment of other

  3. Radionuclide behaviour and transport in a coniferous woodland ecosystem. Vegetation, invertebrates and wood mice, Apodemus sylvaticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copplestone, D.; Johnson, M.S.; Toal, M.E.; Jones, S.R.; Jackson, D.

    1999-01-01

    Activity concentrations of radionuclides (134Cs, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am) were measured in vegetation, invertebrates and wood mice, Apodemus sylvaticus, collected in Lady Wood, a coniferous woodland in the vicinity of the British Nuclear Fuels reprocessing plant at Sellafield, Cumbria, UK. Vegetation was of low diversity and biomass with activity concentrations ranging from 1 to 5 Bq kg -1 (134Cs), 0.3-0.5 Bq kg -1 (238Pu), 0.8-8 Bq kg -1 (239+240Pu), and 0.6-16 Bq kg -1 (241Am), dry wt. Caesium-137 activity concentrations were high compared to the reference site in Cheshire, varying between 65 and 280 Bq kg -1 . Marked inter-specific and temporal differences in radionuclide activity concentrations were recorded for invertebrate populations. Caesium-137, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am activity concentrations in detritivorous invertebrates were consistently higher than in all other invertebrate groups reflecting contamination of the leaf litter. The activity concentrations in detritivores increased during the autumn and winter, reflecting changes in diet as food sources varied throughout the year. Activity concentrations in invertebrates caught in Lady Wood were generally an order of magnitude higher than for the reference site. Activity concentrations in wood mice varied between 7 and 150 Bq kg -1 (137Cs), 0.1-0.3 Bq kg -1 (238Pu), 0.1-0.6 Bq kg -1 (239+240Pu) and 0.2-0.4 Bq kg -1 (241Am). There were clear differences in the activity concentration of 137Cs (P<0.01), 239+240Pu (P<0.05) and 241Am (P<0.05) in animals caught in Lady Wood compared to the reference site. However, the activity concentrations for 238Pu were similar at both sites, reflecting a low gastrointestinal transfer. Seasonal variation in activity concentrations was observed for 137Cs, 238Pu and 241Am. This variation is attributed to changes in the age structure of the population and diet throughout the year

  4. Growth and photosynthetic responses of two pine species (Pinus koraiensis and Pinus rigida) in a polluted industrial region in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, D.S.; Kayama, M.; Jin, H.O.; Lee, C.H.; Izuta, T.; Koike, T.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of pollutants on two pine species (Pinus koraiensis and Pinus rigida) in an industrial region in Korea, using a physiological approach. The concentrations of fluorine (F) and chlorine (Cl) in the atmosphere, in precipitation and soil water at the damaged site were all significantly higher than at a control site. Moreover, the concentrations of F, Cl and Mn in pine needles were significantly higher, and essential elements and chlorophyll in needles were significantly lower at the damaged site than at the control site. The photosynthetic capacities, shoot length and survival statistics of needles of the two pines were all significantly reduced at the damaged site compared to the control site, especially P. rigida. Based on our comparison of photosynthetic responses and the concentrations of F, Cl and Mn in needles of the two pine species, P. koraiensis is more resistant to excess Mn in its needles than P. rigida. - Pinus koraiensis seems to be more pollution tolerant than Pinus rigida

  5. Carbon stable isotope-climate association in tree rings of Pinus pinaster and Pinus sylvestris in Mediterranean environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogino, Stella M; Bravo, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Carbon isotope ratios, recorded as "1"3C/"1"2C variations in tree rings of woody species, are the result of physiological changes related to environmental conditions. The objective of this work was to analyze the association among carbon thirteen variability (δ"1"3C), climate variables and tree-ring growth of Pinus pinaster and Pinus sylvestris in central Spain. Pulverized woody material from the period 1975-1999 from four trees for each pine species was analyzed. To detect common patterns in δ"1"3C within each species and between δ"1"3C and growth indices, a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed. δ"1"3C of trees and the residual tree-ring chronologies were used at the PCA. Multilevel mixed linear models were applied between intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) and climate variables. Our results show an inverse significant correlation between δ"1"3C and tree-ring growth of both species. Winter and spring air moisture was negatively correlated with iWUE of Pinus pinaster. July maximum temperature was positively correlated with iWUE of Pinus sylvestris. As δ"1"3C is significantly related to climate and growth and it may be recommended as a valuable tool for tree growth dynamic analysis to withstand increasingly stressful climate conditions

  6. Using field data to assess model predictions of surface and ground fuel consumption by wildfire in coniferous forests of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydersen, Jamie M.; Collins, Brandon M.; Ewell, Carol M.; Reiner, Alicia L.; Fites, Jo Ann; Dow, Christopher B.; Gonzalez, Patrick; Saah, David S.; Battles, John J.

    2014-03-01

    Inventories of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from wildfire provide essential information to the state of California, USA, and other governments that have enacted emission reductions. Wildfires can release a substantial amount of GHGs and other compounds to the atmosphere, so recent increases in fire activity may be increasing GHG emissions. Quantifying wildfire emissions however can be difficult due to inherent variability in fuel loads and consumption and a lack of field data of fuel consumption by wildfire. We compare a unique set of fuel data collected immediately before and after six wildfires in coniferous forests of California to fuel consumption predictions of the first-order fire effects model (FOFEM), based on two different available fuel characterizations. We found strong regional differences in the performance of different fuel characterizations, with FOFEM overestimating the fuel consumption to a greater extent in the Klamath Mountains than in the Sierra Nevada. Inaccurate fuel load inputs caused the largest differences between predicted and observed fuel consumption. Fuel classifications tended to overestimate duff load and underestimate litter load, leading to differences in predicted emissions for some pollutants. When considering total ground and surface fuels, modeled consumption was fairly accurate on average, although the range of error in estimates of plot level consumption was very large. These results highlight the importance of fuel load input to the accuracy of modeled fuel consumption and GHG emissions from wildfires in coniferous forests.

  7. Accelerated Stem Growth Rates and Improved Fiber Properties of Loblolly Pine: Functional Analysis Of CyclinD from Pinus taeda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. John Cairney, School of Biology and Institute of Paper Science and Technology @ Georgia Tech, Georgia Institute of Technology; Dr. Gary Peter, University of Florida; Dr. Ulrika Egertsdotter, Dept. of Forestry, Virgina Tech; Dr. Armin Wagner, New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd. (Scion Research.)

    2005-11-30

    A sustained supply of low-cost, high quality raw materials is essential for the future success of the U.S. forest products industry. To maximize stem (trunk) growth, a fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate cell divisions within the cambial meristem is essential. We hypothesize that auxin levels within the cambial meristem regulate cyclin gene expression and this in turn controls cell cycle progression as occurs in all eukaryotic cells. Work with model plant species has shown that ectopic overexpression of cyclins promotes cell division thereby increasing root growth > five times. We intended to test whether ectopic overexpression of cambial cyclins in the cambial zone of loblolly pine also promotes cell division rates that enhance stem growth rates. Results generated in model annual angiosperm systems cannot be reliably extrapolated to perennial gymnosperms, thus while the generation and development of transgenic pine is time consuming, this is the necessary approach for meaningful data. We succeeded in isolating a cyclin D gene and Clustal analysis to the Arabidopsis cyclin D gene family indicates that it is more closely related to cyclin D2 than D1 or D3 Using this gene as a probe we observed a small stimulation of cyclin D expression in somatic embryo culture upon addition of auxin. We hypothesized that trees with more cells in the vascular cambial and expansion zones will have higher cyclin mRNA levels. We demonstrated that in trees under compressive stress where the rates of cambial divisions are increased on the underside of the stem relative to the top or opposite side, there was a 20 fold increase in the level of PtcyclinD1 mRNA on the compressed side of the stem relative to the opposite. This suggests that higher secondary growth rates correlate with PtcyclinD1 expression. We showed that larger diameter trees show more growth during each year and that the increased growth in loblolly pine trees correlates with more cell

  8. Terpene chemodiversity of relict conifers Picea omorika, Pinus heldreichii, and Pinus peuce, endemic to Balkan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Biljana; Ristić, Mihailo; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D; Bojović, Srdjan

    2011-12-01

    Terpenes are often used as ecological and chemotaxonomic markers of plant species, as well as for estimation of geographic variability. Essential oils of relic and Balkan endemic/subendemic conifers, Picea omorika, Pinus heldreichii, and P. peuce, in central part of Balkan Peninsula (Serbia and Montenegro), on the level of terpene classes and common terpene compounds were investigated. In finding terpene combinations, which could show the best diversity between species and their natural populations, several statistical methods were applied. Apart from the content of different terpene classes (P. omorika has the most abundant O-containing monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes; P. heldreichii and P. peuce have the largest abundance of sesquiterpene and monoterpene hydrocarbons, resp.), the species are clearly separated according to terpene profile with 22 common compounds. But, divergences in their populations were established only in combination of several compounds (specific for each species), and they were found to be the results of geomorphologic, climatic, and genetic factors. We found similarities between investigated species and some taxa from literature with respect to terpene composition, possibly due to hybridization and phylogenetic relations. Obtained results are also important regarding to chemotaxonomy, biogeography, phylogeny, and evolution of these taxa. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  9. A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda and Pinus elliottii and extent of linkage disequilibrium in two genotype-phenotype discovery populations of Pinua taeda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared W. Westbrook; Vikram E. Chhatre; Le-Shin Wu; Srikar Chamala; Leandro Gomide Neves; Patricio Munoz; Pedro J. Martinez-Garcia; David B. Neale; Matias Kirst; Keithanne Mockaitis; C. Dana Nelson; Gary F. Peter; John M. Davis; Craig S. Echt

    2015-01-01

    A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine) was constructed by merging three previously published P. taeda maps with a map from a pseudo-backcross between P. elliottii and P. taeda. The consensus map positioned 3856 markers via...

  10. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry in the identification of organic compounds in atmospheric aerosols from coniferous forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallio, M.; Jussila, M.; Rissanen, T.; Anttila, P.; Hartonen, K.; Reissell, A.; Vreuls, R.J.J.; Adahchour, M.; Hyotylainen, T.

    2006-01-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOF-MS) was applied in the identification of organic compounds in atmospheric aerosols from coniferous forest. The samples were collected at Hyytiälä, Finland, as part of the QUEST campaign, in

  11. Moving water well: comparing hydraulic efficiency in twigs and trunks of coniferous, ring-porous, and diffuse-porous saplings from temperate and tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine McCulloh; John S. Sperry; Barbara Lachenbruch; Frederick D. Meinzer; Peter B. Reich; Steven Voelker

    2010-01-01

    Coniferous, diffuse-porous and ring-porous trees vary in their xylem anatomy, but the functional consequences of these differences are not well understood from the scale of the conduit to the individual. Hydraulic and anatomical measurements were made on branches and trunks from 16 species from temperate and tropical areas, representing all three wood types. Scaling of...

  12. KAJIAN KONSERVASI Pinus merkusii strain Tapanuli DI SUMATERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendi Suhendi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Di Indonesia, Pinus yang tumbuh secara alami hanyalah Pinus merkusii di Sumatera yang terdiri dari strain Tapanuli, strain Kerinci dan strain Aceh. Berdasarkan persebarannya, strain Tapanuli tidak banyak dijumpai karena tercampur dengan jenis-jenis kayu daun lebar. Secara alami, strain Tapanuli ditemukan di Cagar Alam Dolok Sipirok dan Cagar Alam Dolok Saut. Dalam bentuk hutan tanaman, strain Tapanuli dibuat oleh masyarakat atau rakyat dengan anakan alam dan diambil secara cabutan di Tegakan Benih Dolok Tusam, dan sekarang sudah habis ditebang karena digantikan oleh tanaman kopi. Di wilayah kerja Dinas Kehutanan Propinsi Sumatera Utara hampir tidak pernah didapatkan informasi tentang keberadaan strain Tapanuli. Konservasi in situ dalam bentuk Cagar Alam perlu dilengkapi dengan konservasi ex situ. Sebagai langkah awal konservasi, terlebih dahulu perlu dikaji permudaan alamnya. Di samping itu, analisis kebijakan berkaitan dengan pentingnya eksplorasi dengan metode sensus pada semua kawasan konservasi di Sumatera perlu dipertimbangkan, dan pertemuan formal antar pengambil kebijakan di Departemen Kehutanan perlu direkomendasikan

  13. Indirect estimations and spatial variation in leaf area index of coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in Forsmark and Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagesson, Torbern

    2006-12-01

    Two sites in Sweden are investigated for a potential deep repository of the nuclear waste, the Laxemar investigation area (57 deg 5 min N, 16 deg 7 min E) and the Forsmark investigation area (60 deg 4 min N, 18 deg 2 min E). In the characterisation of these sites, development of site descriptive models is an important part. Leaves are the main surface were an exchange of matter and energy between the atmosphere and the biosphere takes place, and leaf area index (LAI) of the vegetation cover is an important variable correlated to a number of ecophysiological parameters and hereby an important parameter in ecosystem models. In the investigation areas, LAI of boreal and temperate ecosystems were therefore estimated indirectly through optical measurements using the LAI-2000 (LI-COR, Cambridge UK) and TRAC (Tracing Radiation and Architecture of Canopies). On average, measured maximum LAI was 3.40 in Laxemar and 3.43 in Forsmark; minimum LAI was 1.65 in Laxemar and 1.97 in Forsmark. Forest inventory data showed that LAI is positively correlated with basal area, stand height, stand volume and breast height tree diameter. For the coniferous stands, there was also a linearly negative relationship with age. In the Laxemar investigation area, there were no significant relationships for LAI with a satellite derived kNN (kNearest Neighbor) data set with stand height, stand volume and stand age. The kNN data set can therefore not be used to extrapolate measured LAI over the Laxemar investigation area. There were significant relationships between LAI and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in the Laxemar investigation area. A NDVI image could be used to extrapolate LAI over the entire investigation area. For the Forsmark investigation area, effective LAI for all stands were correlated to NDVI and this relationship could then be used for extrapolation. The effective LAI image was afterwards corrected for average

  14. Indirect estimations and spatial variation in leaf area index of coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in Forsmark and Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagesson, Torbern [Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Analysis, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    Two sites in Sweden are investigated for a potential deep repository of the nuclear waste, the Laxemar investigation area (57 deg 5 min N, 16 deg 7 min E) and the Forsmark investigation area (60 deg 4 min N, 18 deg 2 min E). In the characterisation of these sites, development of site descriptive models is an important part. Leaves are the main surface were an exchange of matter and energy between the atmosphere and the biosphere takes place, and leaf area index (LAI) of the vegetation cover is an important variable correlated to a number of ecophysiological parameters and hereby an important parameter in ecosystem models. In the investigation areas, LAI of boreal and temperate ecosystems were therefore estimated indirectly through optical measurements using the LAI-2000 (LI-COR, Cambridge UK) and TRAC (Tracing Radiation and Architecture of Canopies). On average, measured maximum LAI was 3.40 in Laxemar and 3.43 in Forsmark; minimum LAI was 1.65 in Laxemar and 1.97 in Forsmark. Forest inventory data showed that LAI is positively correlated with basal area, stand height, stand volume and breast height tree diameter. For the coniferous stands, there was also a linearly negative relationship with age. In the Laxemar investigation area, there were no significant relationships for LAI with a satellite derived kNN (kNearest Neighbor) data set with stand height, stand volume and stand age. The kNN data set can therefore not be used to extrapolate measured LAI over the Laxemar investigation area. There were significant relationships between LAI and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in the Laxemar investigation area. A NDVI image could be used to extrapolate LAI over the entire investigation area. For the Forsmark investigation area, effective LAI for all stands were correlated to NDVI and this relationship could then be used for extrapolation. The effective LAI image was afterwards corrected for average

  15. Genomic DNA extraction from sapwood of Pinus roxburghii for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ashish

    2013-02-22

    Feb 22, 2013 ... A method for extraction of genomic DNA from sapwood tissues of mature tall trees of Pinus roxburghii, .... DNA as a template. PCR was performed on a thermal cycler. (Biorad, Mycycler) incorporating 10 ng genomic DNA to a 25 µl reaction mix containing 1X Taq buffer, 3 mM MgCl2, 0.2 mM each of dNTPs ...

  16. MICROBIOTA OF PINUS POLLEN AS ADJUVANT FACTOR OF ALLERGY

    OpenAIRE

    Tetiana Shevtsova; Miroslava Kačániová; Jana Petrová; Ján Brindza; Kateryna Garkava

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria, their endotoxin and mold found on pollen can be a reason of respiratory symptoms in sensitized individuals. This question concerns an anemophilous pollen more acute. In this work quantitative by dilution plating method and qualitative microbial analysis by MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper of pollen and other plants organs of Pinus sylvestris L., P. nigra Arnold, P. mugo Turra, P. armandii Franch., P. wallichiana A.B. Jacks from Nitra, Slovakia are performed which shows quantitative and species...

  17. Biological invasion of Pinus ponderosa and Pinus contorta: case study of a forest plantation in Northwestern Patagonia; Invasion biologica de Pinus ponderosa y Pinus contorta: estudio de caso de una plantacion en la Patagonia noroccidental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezzotti, A.; Sbrancia, R.; Mortoro, A.; Monte, C.

    2009-07-01

    In the Southern Hemisphere, Pinus species from plantations can bring about processes of biological invasion that cause significant and permanent changes on the structure and functioning of surrounding natural ecosystems. The invasive character of Pinus ponderosa (P) and Pinus contorta (C) was examined for a 20-year old plantation located in the Alicura Forest Station (40 degree centigrade 40' S and 71 degree centigrade 00' W), through the analysis of abundance, age and spatial structures, and dispersal of natural regeneration. Seedlings and saplings were located largely within the plantation boundaries, and exhibited a density of 6.9 ind / ha (41 % for P and 59 % for C), a clustered spatial pattern with clumps dispersed not randomly, and a mean dispersal rate of 9.5 m / yr for P. ponderosa and 5.4 m / yr for P. contorta. Both species were invading the adjacent area, according to technical criteria based on ecological responses. However, regeneration niche is strongly hindering tree establishment and dispersal, probably due to high plant cover, presence of vertic soils, and absence of ectomycorrhizal fungi. These results can contribute to predict the capability of P. contorta and P. ponderosa to become invasive, in order to maximize the positive balance of forestry based on these species in northwestern Patagonia. (Author) 50 refs.

  18. Ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoo, Zahoor Ahmad; Reshi, Zafar A

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to document the ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India. The extensive field surveys carried out in the Kashmir Himalaya at five study sites resulted in the collection and identification of 76 potential ectomycorrhizal fungal species associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana. Maximum 32 number of species were found associated with Pinus wallichiana, 19 with Cedrus deodara and 25 species were found growing in association with both the conifers. The present study reveals that Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India harbour diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal species.

  19. Mineral Analysis of Pine Nuts (Pinus spp.) Grown in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhanen, Leo P; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2013-04-03

    Mineral analysis of seven Pinus species grown in different regions of New Zealand; Armand pine ( Pinus armandii Franch), Swiss stone pine ( Pinus cembra L.), Mexican pinyon ( Pinus cembroides Zucc. var. bicolor Little), Coulter pine ( Pinus coulteri D. Don), Johann's pine ( Pinus johannis M.F. Robert), Italian stone pine ( Pinus pinea L.) and Torrey pine ( Pinus torreyana Parry ex Carrière), was carried out using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) analysis. Fourteen different minerals (Al, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, S and Zn) were identified in all seven varieties, except that no Al or Na was found in Pinus coulteri D. Don. New Zealand grown pine nuts are a good source of Cu, Mg, Mn, P and Zn, meeting or exceeding the recommended RDI for these minerals (based on an intake of 50 g nuts/day) while they supplied between 39%-89% of the New Zealand RDI for Fe. Compared to other commonly eaten tree-nuts New Zealand grown pine nuts are an excellent source of essential minerals.

  20. Plantation-Seeding Forest Plantations – the New Method for Regeneration of Coniferous Forests at Large Clearings on Burned Lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Tarakanov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The new method of restoration of coniferous stands on large felling areas on burnt lands that lack seed trees is discussed. It involves limited planting of big grafted seedlings of quality wood, that have a high level of seed production, with the purpose of the subsequent natural sowing on these territories. Results of two-year-old research on approbation of the method on cuttings on large felling areas on burnt lands in conditions of the mid-Ob' river pine forests are stated. A good viability of «seed cultures» is noted. There is damage of the grafting pines by elk. Therefore there is a problem of protecting plantations against elk. For preservation of a high level of genetic variability of pine stands it is desirable to use in «seed cultures» the best trees from local plantings.

  1. Interannual Variations in Ecosystem Oxidative Ratio in Croplands, Deciduous Forest, Coniferous Forest, and Early Successional Forest Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, C. A.; Hockaday, W. C.; Gallagher, M. E.; Calligan, L.

    2009-12-01

    Ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP) can vary significantly with annual variations in precipitation and temperature. These climate variations can also drive changes in plant carbon allocation patterns. Shifting allocation patterns can lead to variation in net ecosystem biochemical stocks (e.g. kg cellulose, lignin, protein, and lipid/ha), which can in turn lead to shifts in ecosystem oxidative ratio (OR). OR is the molar ratio of O2 released : CO2 fixed during biosynthesis. Major plant biochemicals vary substantially in oxidative ratio, ranging from average organic acid OR values of 0.75 to average lipid OR values of 1.37 (Masiello et al., 2008). OR is a basic property of ecosystem biochemistry, and is also an essential variable needed to constrain the size of the terrestrial biospheric carbon sink (Keeling et al., 1996). OR is commonly assumed to be 1.10 (e.g. Prentice et al., 2001), but small variations in net ecosystem OR can drive large errors in estimates of the size of the terrestrial carbon sink (Randerson et al., 2006). We hypothesized that interannual changes in climate may drive interannual variation in ecosystem OR values. Working at Kellogg Biological Station NSF LTER, we measured the annual average OR of coniferous and deciduous forests, an early successional forest, and croplands under both corn and soy. There are clear distinctions between individual ecosystems (e.g., the soy crops have a higher OR than the corn crops, and the coniferous forests have a higher OR than the deciduous forests), but the ecosystems themselves retained remarkably constant annual OR values between 1998 and 2008.

  2. Underestimated effects of low temperature during early growing season on carbon sequestration of a subtropical coniferous plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.-J. Zhang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of air temperature in early growing season on the carbon sequestration of a subtropical coniferous plantation was discussed through analyzing the eddy flux observations at Qianyanzhou (QYZ site in southern China from 2003 to 2008. This site experienced two cold early growing seasons (with temperature anomalies of 2–5 °C in 2005 and 2008, and a severe summer drought in 2003.
    Results indicated that the low air temperature from January to March was the major factor controlling the inter-annual variations in net carbon uptake at this site, rather than the previously thought summer drought. The accumulative air temperature from January to February showed high correlation (R2=0.970, p<0.001 with the annual net ecosystem production (NEP. This was due to the controls of early-month temperature on the plant phenology developing and the growing season length at this subtropical site. The cold spring greatly shortened the growing season length and therefore reduced the carbon uptake period. The eddy flux observations showed a carbon loss of 4.04 g C m−2 per growing-season day at this coniferous forest site. On the other hand, the summer drought also reduced the net carbon uptake strength because the photosynthesis was more sensitive to water deficit stress than the ecosystem respiration. However, the impact of summer drought occurred within a relatively shorter period and the carbon sequestration went back to the normal level once the drought was relieved.

  3. Influence of gap-scale disturbance on developmental and successional pathways in Quercus-Pinus stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.A. Weber; J.L. Hart; C. Schweitzer; D.C. Dey

    2014-01-01

    Quercus-Pinus forests of the eastern USA cover millions of hectares and span a variety of ecoregions. Understanding the influence of natural disturbance on developmental and successional pathways is important for managers that wish to sustain Pinus spp. in these mixtures. Quantifying developmental and successional patterns in this...

  4. Development of site index curves for Pinus kesiya in the Philippines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of site index curves for Pinus kesiya in the Philippines. RIC Lumbres, YJ Lee, YO Seo, FG Calora JR. Abstract. This study was conducted to develop a height–age growth model and site index curves for site quality evaluation of old secondary-growth stands of Pinus kesiya in the northern Philippines.

  5. Resistance to white pine blister rust in Pinus flexilis and P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Richard A. Sniezko; Angelia Kegley; Jerry Hill; Kelly S. Burns

    2010-01-01

    The non-native fungus Cronartium ribicola, that causes white pine blister rust (WPBR), is impacting or threatening limber pine, Pinus flexilis, and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata. In the Southern Rockies, where the rust invasion is still expanding, we have the opportunity to be proactive and prepare the landscape for invasion. Genetic...

  6. CONTINUIDADE ESPACIAL DE CARACTERÍSTICAS DENDROMÉTRICAS DE PINUS (Pinus pinaster Aiton E DE ATRIBUTOS DO SOLO / SPATIAL CONTINUITY OF DENDROMETRICS CHARACTERISTICS OF PINUS (Pinus pinaster Aiton AND SOIL ATTRIBUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GLÉCIO M. SIQUEIRA

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a relação e a continuidade espacial de características dendrométricas de pinus (Pinus pinaster Aiton e de atributos do solo. As amostragens foram realizadas em uma área de 0,25 ha cultivada com Pinus pinaster em Muras (Província de Lugo, Galícia, Espanha. Os atributos amostrados foram: o diâmetro da base das árvores (DB; o diâmetro a 0,30 m acima da base (D30; o diâmetro a altura do peito (a 1,3 m de altura, DAP, altura das árvores (ALT, profundidade do perfil do solo (PROF e a condutividade elétrica aparente do solo a 0,3 m de profundidade (CEa-H e a 1,5 m de profundidade (CEa-V. O uso da geoestatística permitiu caracterizar a variabilidade espacial de todos os atributos em estudo, com exceção da profundidade da rocha que apresentou efeito pepita puro. Os dados apresentaram moderada razão de dependência espacial entre amostras. Os mapas de variabilidade espacial não demonstram uma relação entre os mapas dos atributos de solo e planta estudados.Palavras-Chave: geoestatística; silvicultura de precisão; condutividade elétrica aparente do solo.

  7. Comparison of chemical compositions and antimicrobial activities of essential oils from three conifer trees; Pinus densiflora, Cryptomeria japonica, and Chamaecyparis obtusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Byung-Kyu; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Sang Hee; Hong, Soon-Kwang

    2009-04-01

    The chemical compositions, and antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils extracted from three coniferous species, Pinus densiflora, Cryptomeria japonica, and Chamaecyparis obtusa, were investigated. Gas chromatography mass analysis of the essential oils revealed that the major components and the percentage of each essential oil were 16.66% beta-phellandrene and 14.85% alpha-pinene in P. densiflora; 31.45% kaur-16-ene and 11.06% sabinene in C. japonica; and 18.75% bicyclo [2, 2, 1] heptan-2-ol and 17.41% 2-carene in Ch. obtusa. The antimicrobial assay by agar disc diffusion method showed that 2.2 microg of Ch. obtusa oil inhibited most effectively the growth of Escherichia coli ATCC 33312 and Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 10031, whereas the C. japonica oil gave weak antimicrobial activity. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for bacterial strains were in the range of 5.45-21.8 mg/ml depending on essential oils, but most Gram-negative bacteria were resistant even at 21.8 mg oil/ml. P. densiflora oil showed the most effective antifungal activity and the MIC values for Cryptococcus neoformans B42419 and Candida glabrata YFCC 062CCM 11658 were as low as 0.545 and 2.18 mg/ml, respectively. Cryp. neoformans B42419 was the most sensitive to all essential oils in the range of 0.545-2.18 mg/ml. Our data clearly showed that the essential oils from the three conifers had effective antimicrobial activity, especially against fungi.

  8. Pine weevil (Hylobius abietis) antifeedants from lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratt, K; Sunnerheim, K; Nordenhem, H; Nordlander, G; Langström, B

    2001-11-01

    Pine weevils (Hylobius abietis) fed less on bark of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) than on bark of Scots pine (P. sylvestris). Two pine weevil antifeedants, ethyl trans-cinnamate and ethyl 2,3-dibromo-3-phenyl-propanoate, were isolated from bark of lodgepole pine. These two compounds significantly reduced pine weevil feeding in a laboratory bioassay. In field assays, the second compound significantly decreased pine weevil damage on planted seedlings. Ethyl 2,3-dibromo-3-phenylpropanoate has not previously been reported as a natural product.

  9. Pinus pinaster Knot: A Source of Polyphenols against Plasmopara viticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaston, Julien; Richard, Tristan; Cluzet, Stéphanie; Palos Pinto, Antonio; Dufour, Marie-Cécile; Corio-Costet, Marie-France; Mérillon, Jean-Michel

    2017-10-11

    Pine knot extract from Pinus pinaster byproducts was characterized by UHPLC-DAD-MS and NMR. Fourteen polyphenols divided into four classes were identified as follows: lignans (nortrachelogenin, pinoresinol, matairesinol, isolariciresinol, secoisolariciresinol), flavonoids (pinocembrin, pinobanksin, dihydrokaempferol, taxifolin), stilbenes (pinosylvin, pinosylvin monomethyl ether, pterostilbene), and phenolic acids (caffeic acid, ferulic acid). The antifungal potential of pine knot extract, as well as the main compounds, was tested in vitro against Plasmopara viticola. The ethanolic extract showed a strong antimildew activity. In addition, pinosylvins and pinocembrin demonstrated significant inhibition of zoospore mobility and mildew development. These findings strongly suggest that pine knot is a potential biomass that could be used as a natural antifungal product.

  10. Genetic diversity and gene exchange in Pinus oocarpa, a Mesoamerican pine with resistance to the pitch canker fungus (Fusarium circinatum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.S. Dvorak; K.M. Potter

    2009-01-01

    Eleven highly polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to determine the genetic structure and levels of diversity in 51 natural populations of Pinus oocarpa across its geographic range of 3000 km in Mesoamerica. The study also included 17 populations of Pinus patula and Pinus tecunumanii chosen for their resistance or susceptibility to the pitch canker fungus based...

  11. Expression of a gymnosperm PIN homologous gene correlates with auxin immunolocalization pattern at cotyledon formation and in demarcation of the procambium during Picea abies somatic embryo development and in seedling tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palovaara, Joakim; Hallberg, Henrik; Stasolla, Claudio; Luit, Bert; Hakman, Inger

    2010-04-01

    In seed plants, the body organization is established during embryogenesis and is uniform across gymnosperms and angiosperms, despite differences during early embryogeny. Evidence from angiosperms implicates the plant hormone auxin and its polar transport, mainly established by the PIN family of auxin efflux transporters, in the patterning of embryos. Here, PaPIN1 from Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.), a gene widely expressed in conifer tissues and organs, was characterized and its expression and localization patterns were determined with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization during somatic embryo development and in seedlings. PaPIN1 shares the predicted structure of other PIN proteins, but its central hydrophilic loop is longer than most PINs. In phylogenetic analyses, PaPIN1 clusters with Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. PIN3, PIN4 and PIN7, but its expression pattern also suggests similarity to PIN1. The PaPIN1 expression signal was high in the protoderm of pre-cotyledonary embryos, but not if embryos were pre-treated with the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). This, together with a high auxin immunolocalization signal in this cell layer, suggests a role of PaPIN1 during cotyledon formation. At later stages, high PaPIN1 expression was observed in differentiating procambium, running from the tip of incipient cotyledons down through the embryo axis and to the root apical meristem (RAM), although the mode of RAM specification in conifer embryos differs from that of most angiosperms. Also, the PaPIN1 in situ signal was high in seedling root tips including root cap columella cells. The results thus suggest that PaPIN1 provides an ancient function associated with auxin transport and embryo pattern formation prior to the separation of angiosperms and gymnosperms, in spite of some morphological differences.

  12. Composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest respond to spatial climatic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingli; Zhou, Yong; Zhou, Guangsheng; Xiao, Chunwang

    2014-01-01

    Although some studies have indicated that climate changes can affect Pinus koraiensis mixed forest, the responses of composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forests to climatic changes are unknown and the key climatic factors controlling the composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest are uncertain. Field survey was conducted in the natural Pinus koraiensis mixed forests along a latitudinal gradient and an elevational gradient in Northeast China. In order to build the mathematical models for simulating the relationships of compositional and structural attributes of the Pinus koraiensis mixed forest with climatic and non-climatic factors, stepwise linear regression analyses were performed, incorporating 14 dependent variables and the linear and quadratic components of 9 factors. All the selected new models were computed under the +2°C and +10% precipitation and +4°C and +10% precipitation scenarios. The Max Temperature of Warmest Month, Mean Temperature of Warmest Quarter and Precipitation of Wettest Month were observed to be key climatic factors controlling the stand densities and total basal areas of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest. Increased summer temperatures and precipitations strongly enhanced the stand densities and total basal areas of broadleaf trees but had little effect on Pinus koraiensis under the +2°C and +10% precipitation scenario and +4°C and +10% precipitation scenario. These results show that the Max Temperature of Warmest Month, Mean Temperature of Warmest Quarter and Precipitation of Wettest Month are key climatic factors which shape the composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest. Although the Pinus koraiensis would persist, the current forests dominated by Pinus koraiensis in the region would all shift and become broadleaf-dominated forests due to the dramatic increase of broadleaf trees under the future global warming and increased precipitation.

  13. Incubation of air-pollution-control residues from secondary Pb smelter in deciduous and coniferous organic soil horizons: Leachability of lead, cadmium and zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrastny, Vladislav, E-mail: vladislavchrastny@seznam.cz [University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Science, Studentska 13, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vanek, Ales [Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Komarek, Michael [Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Farkas, Juraj [Czech Geological Survey, Geologicka 6, 152 00 Praha 5 (Czech Republic); Drabek, Ondrej; Vokurkova, Petra [Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Nemcova, Jana [University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Agriculture, Studentska 13, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb smelter fly ash was incubated in forest soil horizons to assess metal mobility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The metal mobilization depends on pH and the ratio of humic/fulvic acids to SOM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lowest mobilization of Pb, Zn and Cd took place in horizon H (coniferous forest). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A huge amount of Cd was found to have leached in the horizon F (deciduous forest). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More vulnerable to metal leaching from APC residues is soil from deciduous forest. - Abstract: The leachability of air-pollution-control (APC) residues from a secondary lead smelter in organic soil horizons (F and H) from a deciduous and a coniferous forest during incubation periods of 0, 3 and 6 months were compared in this work. While the concentration of Pb, Zn and Cd associated with the exchangeable/acid extractable fraction in the horizon F from the coniferous forest was higher compared to the deciduous, significantly lower concentrations in the humified horizon H was found. It is suggested that lower pH and a higher share of fulvic acids fraction (FAs) of solid phase soil organic matter (SOM) in the humified soil horizon H from the coniferous compared to the deciduous forest is responsible for a higher metal association with solid phase SOM and therefore a lower metal leaching in a soil system. From this point of view, the humified soil horizon H from the deciduous forest represents a soil system more vulnerable to Pb, Zn and Cd leaching from APC residues.

  14. Genetic and morphological diversity of Trisetacus species (Eriophyoidea: Phytoptidae) associated with coniferous trees in Poland: phylogeny, barcoding, host and habitat specialization

    OpenAIRE

    Lewandowski, Mariusz; Skoracka, Anna; Szydło, Wiktoria; Kozak, Marcin; Druciarek, Tobiasz; Griffiths, Don A.

    2014-01-01

    Eriophyoid species belonging to the genus Trisetacus are economically important as pests of conifers. A narrow host specialization to conifers and some unique morphological characteristics have made these mites interesting subjects for scientific inquiry. In this study, we assessed morphological and genetic variation of seven Trisetacus species originating from six coniferous hosts in Poland by morphometric analysis and molecular sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I ge...

  15. Effects of land use and fine-scale environmental heterogeneity on net ecosystem production over a temperate coniferous forest landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, David P.; Guzy, Michael; Lefsky, Michael A.; Tuyl, Steve van; Sun, Osbert; Law, Beverly E. [Oregon State Univ. Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Forest Science; Daly, Chris [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Geosciences

    2003-04-01

    In temperate coniferous forests, spatial variation in net ecosystem production (NEP) is often associated with variation in stand age and heterogeneity in environmental factors such as soil depth. However, coarse spatial resolution analyses used to evaluate the terrestrial contribution to global NEP do not generally incorporate these effects. In this study, a fine-scale (25 m grid) analysis of NEP over a 164-km{sup 2} area of productive coniferous forests in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States was made to evaluate the effects of including fine scale information in landscape-scale NEP assessments. The Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) sensor resolved five cover classes in the study area and further differentiated between young, mature and old-growth conifer stands. ETM+ was also used to map current leaf area index (LAI) based on an empirical relationship of observed LAI to spectral vegetation indices. A daily time step climatology, based on 18 years of meteorological observations, was distributed (1 km resolution) over the mountainous terrain of the study area using the DAYMET model. Estimates of carbon pools and flux associated with soil, litter, coarse woody debris and live trees were then generated by running a carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC) to a state that reflected the current successional status and LAI of each grid cell, as indicated by the remote sensing observations. Estimated annual NEP for 1997 over the complete study area averaged 230 g C m{sup 2}, with most of the area acting as a carbon sink. The area-wide NEP is strongly positive because of reduced harvesting in the last decade and the recovery of areas harvested between 1940 and 1990. The average value was greater than would be indicated if the entire area was assumed to be a mature conifer stand, as in a coarse-scale analysis. The mean NEP varied interannually by over a factor of two. This variation was 38% less than the interannual variation for a single point. The integration of process

  16. Effects of land use and fine-scale environmental heterogeneity on net ecosystem production over a temperate coniferous forest landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, David P.; Guzy, Michael; Lefsky, Michael A.; Tuyl, Steve van; Sun, Osbert; Law, Beverly E.; Daly, Chris

    2003-01-01

    In temperate coniferous forests, spatial variation in net ecosystem production (NEP) is often associated with variation in stand age and heterogeneity in environmental factors such as soil depth. However, coarse spatial resolution analyses used to evaluate the terrestrial contribution to global NEP do not generally incorporate these effects. In this study, a fine-scale (25 m grid) analysis of NEP over a 164-km 2 area of productive coniferous forests in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States was made to evaluate the effects of including fine scale information in landscape-scale NEP assessments. The Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) sensor resolved five cover classes in the study area and further differentiated between young, mature and old-growth conifer stands. ETM+ was also used to map current leaf area index (LAI) based on an empirical relationship of observed LAI to spectral vegetation indices. A daily time step climatology, based on 18 years of meteorological observations, was distributed (1 km resolution) over the mountainous terrain of the study area using the DAYMET model. Estimates of carbon pools and flux associated with soil, litter, coarse woody debris and live trees were then generated by running a carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC) to a state that reflected the current successional status and LAI of each grid cell, as indicated by the remote sensing observations. Estimated annual NEP for 1997 over the complete study area averaged 230 g C m 2 , with most of the area acting as a carbon sink. The area-wide NEP is strongly positive because of reduced harvesting in the last decade and the recovery of areas harvested between 1940 and 1990. The average value was greater than would be indicated if the entire area was assumed to be a mature conifer stand, as in a coarse-scale analysis. The mean NEP varied interannually by over a factor of two. This variation was 38% less than the interannual variation for a single point. The integration of process models

  17. Root architecture and wind-firmness of mature Pinus pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danjon, Frédéric; Fourcaud, Thierry; Bert, Didier

    2005-11-01

    This study aims to link three-dimensional coarse root architecture to tree stability in mature timber trees with an average of 1-m rooting depth. Undamaged and uprooted trees were sampled in a stand damaged by a storm. Root architecture was measured by three-dimensional (3-D) digitizing. The distribution of root volume by root type and in wind-oriented sectors was analysed. Mature Pinus pinaster root systems were organized in a rigid 'cage' composed of a taproot, the zone of rapid taper of horizontal surface roots and numerous sinkers and deep roots, imprisoning a large mass of soil and guyed by long horizontal surface roots. Key compartments for stability exhibited strong selective leeward or windward reinforcement. Uprooted trees showed a lower cage volume, a larger proportion of oblique and intermediate depth horizontal roots and less wind-oriented root reinforcement. Pinus pinaster stability on moderately deep soils is optimized through a typical rooting pattern and a considerable structural adaptation to the prevailing wind and soil profile.

  18. Modelagem do crescimento e de biomassa individual de Pinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Schikowski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo testar modelos matemáticos para estimativas de biomassa de diferentes compartimentos de Pinus spp., a partir de variáveis de fácil mensuração. Os dados utilizados são provenientes de plantios localizados no centro sul do estado do Paraná. Foram utilizados dados de peso seco total e parcial de 35 árvores de Pinus spp., obtidos por meio do método destrutivo direto. De cada árvore amostrada foram medidos também o CAP (circunferência à altura do peito e a altura total. Os modelos para estimativa de biomassa de folhagem não apresentaram bom desempenho, verificado pelos indicadores de ajuste. Entretanto, para os compartimentos: galhos, raízes, casca, fuste e para biomassa total, os ajustes apresentaram elevados valores de R² e baixos valores de Syx%. O modelo de crescimento de Richards obteve melhor desempenho que os demais testados para a estimativa da biomassa total.

  19. The complete plastid genome of Bunge's pine Pinus bungeana (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Hu; Zhu, Juan; Yang, Yi-Xin; Yang, Jie; He, Jing-Wen; Zhao, Gui-Fang

    2016-07-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of Bunge's pine Pinus bungeana Zucc. ex Endl. chloroplast genome (cp DNA) was determined in this study. The cpDNA was 117 861 bp in length, containing a pair of 475 bp inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb), which were separated by large and small single copy regions (LSC and SSC) of 65 373 and 51 538 bp, respectively. The cpDNA contained 111 genes, including 71 protein-coding genes (71 PCG species), 4 ribosomal RNA genes (4 rRNA species) and 36 tRNA genes (32 tRNA species). In these genes, 13 harbored a single intron and 1 (ycf3) contained a couple of introns. The overall AT content of Bunge's pine cpDNA is 61.2%, while the corresponding values of the LSC, SSC and IR regions are 61.9%, 60.2% and 62.5%, respectively. A phylogenetic reconstruction based on the maximum parsimony analysis suggested that all the sampled Pinus species clustered a monophyletic clade and have a high bootstrap support, and the cpDNA of P. bungeana is closely related to that of congeneric P. gerardiana.

  20. Incubation of air-pollution-control residues from secondary Pb smelter in deciduous and coniferous organic soil horizons: leachability of lead, cadmium and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrastný, Vladislav; Vaněk, Aleš; Komárek, Michael; Farkaš, Juraj; Drábek, Ondřej; Vokurková, Petra; Němcová, Jana

    2012-03-30

    The leachability of air-pollution-control (APC) residues from a secondary lead smelter in organic soil horizons (F and H) from a deciduous and a coniferous forest during incubation periods of 0, 3 and 6 months were compared in this work. While the concentration of Pb, Zn and Cd associated with the exchangeable/acid extractable fraction in the horizon F from the coniferous forest was higher compared to the deciduous, significantly lower concentrations in the humified horizon H was found. It is suggested that lower pH and a higher share of fulvic acids fraction (FAs) of solid phase soil organic matter (SOM) in the humified soil horizon H from the coniferous compared to the deciduous forest is responsible for a higher metal association with solid phase SOM and therefore a lower metal leaching in a soil system. From this point of view, the humified soil horizon H from the deciduous forest represents a soil system more vulnerable to Pb, Zn and Cd leaching from APC residues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sequencing of the needle transcriptome from Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst L. reveals lower substitution rates, but similar selective constraints in gymnosperms and angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jun

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A detailed knowledge about spatial and temporal gene expression is important for understanding both the function of genes and their evolution. For the vast majority of species, transcriptomes are still largely uncharacterized and even in those where substantial information is available it is often in the form of partially sequenced transcriptomes. With the development of next generation sequencing, a single experiment can now simultaneously identify the transcribed part of a species genome and estimate levels of gene expression. Results mRNA from actively growing needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies was sequenced using next generation sequencing technology. In total, close to 70 million fragments with a length of 76 bp were sequenced resulting in 5 Gbp of raw data. A de novo assembly of these reads, together with publicly available expressed sequence tag (EST data from Norway spruce, was used to create a reference transcriptome. Of the 38,419 PUTs (putative unique transcripts longer than 150 bp in this reference assembly, 83.5% show similarity to ESTs from other spruce species and of the remaining PUTs, 3,704 show similarity to protein sequences from other plant species, leaving 4,167 PUTs with limited similarity to currently available plant proteins. By predicting coding frames and comparing not only the Norway spruce PUTs, but also PUTs from the close relatives Picea glauca and Picea sitchensis to both Pinus taeda and Taxus mairei, we obtained estimates of synonymous and non-synonymous divergence among conifer species. In addition, we detected close to 15,000 SNPs of high quality and estimated gene expression differences between samples collected under dark and light conditions. Conclusions Our study yielded a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms as well as estimates of gene expression on transcriptome scale. In agreement with a recent study we find that the synonymous substitution rate per year (0.6 × 10

  2. Chemical composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal, phytotoxic and antioxidant activities of Mediterranean Pinus brutia and Pinus pinea resin essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulukanli, Zeynep; Karabörklü, Salih; Bozok, Fuat; Ates, Burhan; Erdogan, Selim; Cenet, Menderes; Karaaslan, Merve Göksin

    2014-12-01

    Essential oils of the resins of Pinus brutia and Pinus pinea were evaluated for their biological potential. Essential oils were characterized using GC-MS and GC/FID. in vitro antimicrobial, phytotoxic, antioxidant, and insecticidal activities were carried out using the direct contact and the fumigant assays, respectively. The chemical profile of the essential oils of the resins of P. pinea and P. brutia included mainly α-pinene (21.39% and 25.40%), β-pinene (9.68% and 9.69%), and caryophyllene (9.12% and 4.81%). The essential oils of P. pinea and P. brutia exerted notable antimicrobial activities on Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis, insecticidal activities on Ephestia kuehniella eggs, phytotoxic activities on Lactuca sativa, Lepidium sativum, and Portulaca oleracea, as well as antioxidant potential. Indications of the biological activities of the essential oils suggest their use in the formulation of ecofriendly and biocompatible pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Levels and sources of PAHs in selected sites from Portugal: biomonitoring with Pinus pinea and Pinus pinaster needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratola, Nuno; Amigo, José Manuel; Alves, Arminda

    2010-04-01

    Pine needle samples from two pine species (Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L.) were collected at 29 sites scattered throughout Portugal, in order to biomonitor the levels and trends of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The values obtained for the sum of all PAHs ranged from 76 to 1944 ng/g [dry weight (dw)]. Despite the apparent matrix similarities between both pine species, P. pinaster needles revealed higher mean entrapment levels than P. pinea (748 and 399 ng/g (dw) per site, respectively). The urban and industrial sites have the highest average of PAH incidence [for P. pinea, 465 and 433 ng/g (dw) per site, respectively, and for P. pinaster, 1147 and 915 ng/g (dw)], followed by the rural sites [233 ng/g and 711 ng/g (dw) per site, for P. pinea and P. pinaster, respectively]. The remote sites, both from P. pinaster needles, show the least contamination, with 77 ng/g (dw) per site. A predominance of 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs was observed in most samples, with phenanthrene having 30.1% of the total. Naphthalene prevailed in remote sites. Rainfall had no influence on the PAHs levels, but there was a relationship between higher wind speeds and lower concentrations. PAH molecular ratios revealed the influence of both petrogenic and pyrogenic sources.

  4. Impact of solar activity on growth of pine trees (Pinus cembra: 1610 - 1970; Pinus pinaster: 1910 -1989)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surový, P.; Dorotovič, I.; Karlovský, V.; Rodrigues, J. C.; Rybanský, M.; Fleischer, P.

    2010-12-01

    In this work we have focused on the analysis of the data on the annual growth of cembra pine (Pinus cembra) grown in the Kôprová dolina Valley in the High Tatra Mountains. The database covers the period of 1406 - 1970, however, the sunspot data (minima and maxima) at the NGDC web site are only available since 1610. Moreover, reliable sunspot data are only available since 1749. The results of this analysis agree with the observation made in our previous work, i.e. there is a negative impact of high SA on the pine tree growth. However, it should be noted that statistical significance of the results is low. We also applied wavelet analysis to the data on the tree growth evolution, with the results indicating growth variations' period of about 20 years (duration of approximately two solar cycles or one magnetic cycle, respectively). A negative impact of the SA was also observed in growth of a 90 year-old maritime pine tree (Pinus pinaster) grown in northern Portugal. The width of the annual rings was smaller in the years of maximum SA; furthermore, it was found that it is the latewood growth that it is affected while the earlywood growth is not, and consequently the latewood additions also show a significative negative correlation with SA.

  5. Assessment of Soil Water Composition in the Northern Taiga Coniferous Forests of Background Territories in the Industrially Developed Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukina, N. V.; Ershov, V. V.; Gorbacheva, T. T.; Orlova, M. A.; Isaeva, L. G.; Teben'kova, D. N.

    2018-03-01

    The composition of soil water under coniferous forests of Murmansk oblast—an industrially developed region of northern Russia—was investigated. The studied objects were dwarf-shrub-green-moss spruce forests and dwarf-shrub-lichen pine forests on Al-Fe-humus podzols ( Albic Rustic Podzols) that are widespread in the boreal zone. The concentrations and removal of organic carbon performing the most important biogeochemical and pedogenic functions were estimated. The results proved significant intra- and inter-biogeocenotic variability in the composition of atmospheric depositions and soil water. Carbon removal with soil water from organic and mineral horizons within elementary biogeoareas (EBGA) under tree crowns was 2-5 and 2-3 times (in some cases, up to 10 times) greater than that in the intercrown areas, respectively. The lowest critical level of mineral nitrogen (0.2 mg/L) was, as a rule, exceeded in tree EBGAs contrary to intercrown areas. Concentrations of sulfates and heavy metals in water of tree EBGA were 3-5 times greater than those in inter-crown areas. Significant inter-biogeocenotic variations related to differences in the height of trees and tree stand density were found. It is argued that adequate characterization of biochemical cycles and assessment of critical levels of components in soil water of forest ecosystems should be performed with due account for the intra- and inter-biogeocenotic variability.

  6. Fluxes of oxidised and reduced nitrogen above a mixed coniferous forest exposed to various nitrogen emission sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neirynck, J. [Research Institute for Nature and Forest, Gaverstraat 4, B-9500 Geraardsbergen (Belgium)]. E-mail: johan.neirynck@inbo.be; Kowalski, A.S. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicida, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Calle Fuentenueva, SP-18071 Granada (Spain); Carrara, A. [Fundacion CEAM, Parque Technologico, Calle Charles H. Darwin 14, SP-46980 Paterna (Valencia) (Spain); Genouw, G. [Research Institute for Nature and Forest, Gaverstraat 4, B-9500 Geraardsbergen (Belgium); Berghmans, P. [Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Ceulemans, R. [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Antwerp) (Belgium)

    2007-09-15

    Concentrations of nitrogen gases (NH{sub 3}, NO{sub 2}, NO, HONO and HNO{sub 3}) and particles (pNH{sub 4} and pNO{sub 3}) were measured over a mixed coniferous forest impacted by high nitrogen loads. Nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) represented the main nitrogen form, followed by nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}). A combination of gradient method (NH{sub 3} and NO {sub x} ) and resistance modelling techniques (HNO{sub 3}, HONO, pNH{sub 4} and pNO{sub 3}) was used to calculate dry deposition of nitrogen compounds. Net flux of NH{sub 3} amounted to -64 ng N m{sup -2} s{sup -1} over the measuring period. Net fluxes of NO {sub x} were upward (8.5 ng N m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) with highest emission in the morning. Fluxes of other gases or aerosols substantially contributed to dry deposition. Total nitrogen deposition was estimated at -48 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} and consisted for almost 80% of NH {sub x} . Comparison of throughfall nitrogen with total deposition suggested substantial uptake of reduced N ({+-}15 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) within the canopy. - Reduced nitrogen was found to be the main contributor to total deposition which was predominantly governed by dry deposition.

  7. Chemical composition of the essential oil from carnation coniferous (Dianthus acicularis Fisch. ex Ledeb) growing wild in Northern Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillov, Vitaliy; Stikhareva, Tamara; Suleimen, Yerlan; Serafimovich, Mariya; Kabanova, Svetlana; Mukanov, Bolat

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate volatile compounds from the aerial parts of Dianthus acicularis of the genus Dianthus of the family Caryophyllaceae grown wild in Northern Kazakhstan for the first time. D. acicularis is a typical Trans-Volga-Kazakhstani endemic. D. acicularis has high resistance to the bacterial wilt, a serious disease caused by Burkholderia caryophylli. The qualitative and quantitative compositions of the specimens of the essential oils were analysed by the method of GC-MS. The main constituents of D. acicularis essential oil were methyl ketones - 2-pentadecanone (26.9-32.2%) and 2-tridecanone (4.7-17.7%), identified for the first time in the Dianthus genus. The methyl ketone activity provides protection of the plants from herbivores and fungal pathogens. One can suppose that the presence of 2-pentadecanone and 2-tridecanone in the essential oil of carnation coniferous provides its resistance to different insects and pathogens, including the resistance to the bacterial wilt.

  8. For the Aphid fauna in the territory of Yenisei river basin. Communication 1. Aphids on coniferous plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Gurov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on new and previously not well-known data on insufficiently studied fauna of aphids living on coniferous trees in Central Siberia of the basin of Yenisei river. This region is the extensive transect of latitudinal geographic zones from semi-desert in the South to the arctic deserts in the North. That is why this region is very peculiar. This is the reason for insufficient study of regional entomological fauna. Aphids (Homoptera: Aphidoideaare a very taxonomically and ecologically heterogeneous group of insects. The aphids living on conifer trees are notstudied completely on the territory of Yenisei basin. Due to this, the studying of not well-known and economicallyimportant aphids is actual. For example, the insufficient study of regional aphids is confirmed by the fact, that duringthree weeks only of the work for INTAS-94-0930 Project two new aphid species were found and described on thisterritory. Also, the new species of family Mindaridae, which was described in Mongolia in 1980, was found in Siberiafor the first time. These finds indicate the real possibility to describe an interesting conifer aphid complex in the absolutely unstudied forested territory between Angara and Lower Tunguska rivers. Geographical location, dates ofcollection and feeding preferences of different species are described. A general review of Yenisei basin Siberian aphidfauna is suggested for the first time ever.

  9. Fluxes of oxidised and reduced nitrogen above a mixed coniferous forest exposed to various nitrogen emission sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neirynck, J.; Kowalski, A.S.; Carrara, A.; Genouw, G.; Berghmans, P.; Ceulemans, R.

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of nitrogen gases (NH 3 , NO 2 , NO, HONO and HNO 3 ) and particles (pNH 4 and pNO 3 ) were measured over a mixed coniferous forest impacted by high nitrogen loads. Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) represented the main nitrogen form, followed by nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH 3 ). A combination of gradient method (NH 3 and NO x ) and resistance modelling techniques (HNO 3 , HONO, pNH 4 and pNO 3 ) was used to calculate dry deposition of nitrogen compounds. Net flux of NH 3 amounted to -64 ng N m -2 s -1 over the measuring period. Net fluxes of NO x were upward (8.5 ng N m -2 s -1 ) with highest emission in the morning. Fluxes of other gases or aerosols substantially contributed to dry deposition. Total nitrogen deposition was estimated at -48 kg N ha -1 yr -1 and consisted for almost 80% of NH x . Comparison of throughfall nitrogen with total deposition suggested substantial uptake of reduced N (±15 kg N ha -1 yr -1 ) within the canopy. - Reduced nitrogen was found to be the main contributor to total deposition which was predominantly governed by dry deposition

  10. Factor contribution to fire occurrence, size, and burn probability in a subtropical coniferous forest in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tao; Wang, Yao; Guo, Zhixing; Li, Yijia

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of factors including fuel type, fire-weather conditions, topography and human activity to fire regime attributes (e.g. fire occurrence, size distribution and severity) has been intensively discussed. The relative importance of those factors in explaining the burn probability (BP), which is critical in terms of fire risk management, has been insufficiently addressed. Focusing on a subtropical coniferous forest with strong human disturbance in East China, our main objective was to evaluate and compare the relative importance of fuel composition, topography, and human activity for fire occurrence, size and BP. Local BP distribution was derived with stochastic fire simulation approach using detailed historical fire data (1990-2010) and forest-resource survey results, based on which our factor contribution analysis was carried out. Our results indicated that fuel composition had the greatest relative importance in explaining fire occurrence and size, but human activity explained most of the variance in BP. This implies that the influence of human activity is amplified through the process of overlapping repeated ignition and spreading events. This result emphasizes the status of strong human disturbance in local fire processes. It further confirms the need for a holistic perspective on factor contribution to fire likelihood, rather than focusing on individual fire regime attributes, for the purpose of fire risk management.

  11. Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Pinus laricio Needles and Their Responses to Prescribed Burnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lila Ferrat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a dominant ecological factor in Mediterranean-type ecosystems. Management strategies include prescribed (controlled burning, which has been used in the management of several species, such as Pinus nigra ssp laricio var. Corsicana, a pine endemic to Corsica of great ecological and economic importance. The effects of prescribed burning on Pinus laricio have been little studied. The first aim of this study was to characterize total and simple phenolic compounds in Pinus laricio. The second aim was to understand: i the short term (one to three months and medium term (three years effects of prescribed burning, and ii the effects of periodic prescribed burning on the production of phenolic compounds in Pinus laricio. The first result of this study is the presence of total and simple phenolic compounds in the needles of Pinus laricio. 3-Vanillyl propanol is the major compound. After a prescribed burning, the synthesis of total phenolic compounds increases in Pinus laricio for a period of three months. Total phenolic compounds could be used as bioindicators for the short-term response of Pinus laricio needles to prescribed burning. Simple phenolic compounds do not seem to be good indicators of the impact of prescribed burning because prescribed burnings are low in intensity.

  12. Characterization of phenolic compounds in Pinus laricio needles and their responses to prescribed burnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannac, Magali; Pasqualini, Vanina; Greff, Stéphane; Fernandez, Catherine; Ferrat, Lila

    2007-07-30

    Fire is a dominant ecological factor in Mediterranean-type ecosystems. Management strategies include prescribed (controlled) burning, which has been used in the management of several species, such as Pinus nigra ssp laricio var. Corsicana, a pine endemic to Corsica of great ecological and economic importance. The effects of prescribed burning on Pinus laricio have been little studied. The first aim of this study was to characterize total and simple phenolic compounds in Pinus laricio. The second aim was to understand: i) the short term (one to three months) and medium term (three years) effects of prescribed burning, and ii) the effects of periodic prescribed burning on the production of phenolic compounds in Pinus laricio. The first result of this study is the presence of total and simple phenolic compounds in the needles of Pinus laricio. 3-Vanillyl propanol is the major compound. After a prescribed burning, the synthesis of total phenolic compounds increases in Pinus laricio for a period of three months. Total phenolic compounds could be used as bioindicators for the short-term response of Pinus laricio needles to prescribed burning. Simple phenolic compounds do not seem to be good indicators of the impact of prescribed burning because prescribed burnings are low in intensity.

  13. Productivity and adaptation of Pinus in the north litoral of Bahia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros Ferraz, E.S. de; Rezende, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The productivity and climatic adaptation of two species of Pinus in the north litoral of Bahia State has been studied through the variability of wood density in a comercial plantation. The gamma-ray attenuation method of the 100 mCi 241-Am source, 59,6 KeV, was used for density variability analysis. The results show that Pinus caribaea hondurensis is better adapted to the region than Pinus caribaea caribaea, with a superior mean productivity of 26% at 8 years. (Author) [pt

  14. Quality of Pinus elliottii sawn timber from tapped forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Gonzalez de Cademartori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the quality of Pinus elliottii sawn timber extracted from tapped forests and processed in a sawmill in São José do Norte (RS. Four butt logs and four upper logs for each of the three existing diameter grades were selected and sawed. The wood pieces were analyzed after sawing and after kiln drying. The presence of knots, which occurred due to the absence of forest management and influenced the qualitative classification of the wood pieces, was observed mainly in the samples from upper logs. The process of resin tapping contributed to a higher incidence of resin pockets in the samples from butt logs, also influencing the qualitative classification of the samples. The appearance of drying defects did not modify the classification of the wood samples from butt and upper logs.

  15. Protein synthesis in the embryo of Pinus thunbergii seed, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Naoaki; Sasaki, Satohiko.

    1977-01-01

    14 C-Amino acid incorporating activity in the absence of exogenous mRNA was found in a cell-free system from embryos of light-germinated Pinus thunbergii seeds, but not in that from dark-imbibed seed embryos. Template activity in the cell-free system from the light-germinated seed embryos was observed in the ribosome fraction, especially the polyribosome fraction, but not in the 100,000 x g supernatant fraction (s100). These facts suggest that the nature of the block in protein synthesis during the imbibition of seeds in the dark is due to the lack or inactivity of mRNA. The s100 from light-germinated seed embryos was found to be less active in amino acid incorporation than that from dark-imbibed seed embryos. (auth.)

  16. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-09-01

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0-10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0-10 cm (for ammonium N (-N), P greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment.

  17. NUTRIENTS CONCENTRATION AND RETRANSLOCATION IN THE Pinus taeda L. NEEDLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at evaluating nutrients concentration and retranslocation in the Pinus taeda L. needles, this study was developed in two stands, in native grass area and in second rotation area, with same species and same age (7.5 years old in Cambará do Sul, RS. The needles were collected in plants in four orthogonal points (South, North, East and West, sampled new needles, mature needles and old needles. The material was dried in a stove, milled and chemically analyzed (macro and micronutrients. The concentrations of N, P, K, B, Cu and Zn had decreased, of Ca, Fe and Mn increased, and the Mg and S have remained constant with the age of the needles. The retranslocation rate (old-new needles was more than 50% for most nutrients, except for Mn and Fe, showed that cumulative effect and the Ca reference element.

  18. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Pinus eldarica Bark Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Iravani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, development of reliable experimental protocols for synthesis of metal nanoparticles with desired morphologies and sizes has become a major focus of researchers. Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using organisms has emerged as a nontoxic and ecofriendly method for synthesis of metal nanoparticles. The objectives of this study were production of silver nanoparticles using Pinus eldarica bark extract and optimization of the biosynthesis process. The effects of quantity of extract, substrate concentration, temperature, and pH on the formation of silver nanoparticles are studied. TEM images showed that biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (approximately in the range of 10–40 nm were predominantly spherical in shape. The preparation of nano-structured silver particles using P. eldarica bark extract provides an environmentally friendly option, as compared to currently available chemical and/or physical methods.

  19. Anatomic Study of Female Sterility of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Pengjun; Li Fenglan; Zheng Caixia

    2003-01-01

    The anatomic research on the mutant clone of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. in the seed orchard in Xingcheng, LiaoningProvince was carried out. The female cone of the mutant clone looked like normal, but its ovules degenerated in the early stage. Thispaper tries to find out the reason and time of ovule abortion. It seems that the ovule abortion is probably caused by female sterilitybecause the microspores of this mutant clone were normal. Through the serial observations on the one-year-old macrosporangiatesand the ovules of two-year-old female cones of mutant and normal clone, it is found that the reason of ovule abortion in mutant cloneis the failure of the mitosis of free nuclei in the female gametophyte, and the time is about in the early April.

  20. Needles of Pinus halepensis as biomonitors of bioaerosol emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Galès

    Full Text Available We propose using the surface of pine trees needles to biomonitor the bioaerosol emissions at a composting plant. Measurements were based on 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, a bioindicator of composting plant emissions. A sampling plan was established based on 29 samples around the emission source. The abundance of 16S rRNA gene copies of S. rectivirgula per gram of Pinus halepensis needles varied from 104 to 102 as a function of the distance. The signal reached the background level at distances around the composting plant ranging from 2 km to more than 5.4 km, depending on the local topography and average wind directions. From these values, the impacted area around the source of bioaerosols was mapped.

  1. Uso dello spazio da parte dello scoiattolo comune (Sciurus vulgaris in bosco di conifere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adamo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Nell?ambito di un progetto di ricerca sull?ecologia dello scoiattolo comune in boschi di conifere delle Alpi, abbiamo avviato uno studio con la radiotelemetria per indagare i fattori che influiscono sull?uso dello spazio da parte degli animali. I risultati riportati nel presente lavoro si riferiscono a due anni successivi caratterizzati da una diversa disponibilità alimentare. L?area di studio si trovava nel Parco Nazionale del Gran Paradiso, in Val di Rhemes, all?interno di una pecceta subalpina (Picea abies 85%, Larix decidua 11%, alberi morti 4%. La produzione energetica del bosco (semi delle conifere è stata valutata moltiplicando il n. di piante per ettaro x il n. medio di coni prodotti (contati su 60 alberi campione x il n. medio di semi per cono x il peso medio dei semi, trasformando poi la biomassa in Mj. Le catture sono state effettuate tre volte l?anno nel 2001 e 2002 con 30 trappole incruente Tomahawk tipo 201. Diciotto scoiattoli nel 2001 e 13 nel 2002 sono stati dotati di radiocollare (PD-2C Holohil Systems Ltd. e seguiti in estate e autunno. Sono stati calcolati i seguenti parametri: home range MCP 100%, MCP 95% (animali con singole escursioni, 100% Cluster-based (animali che usavano differenti aree di attività; stime delle core-area mono e multinucleari effettuate con la tecnica della Cluster Analysis 85%; sovrapposizione delle core-area. Nel 2001, all?inizio dell?estate, 4 maschi su 8 e 7 femmine su 8 sono emigrati nella valle adiacente o a quote più basse. Nel 2002, tutti gli individui sono rimasti residenti. La dimensione media degli home range stagionali nel 2001 è stata di 83,30 ± 48,72 ha (n = 30 contro 31,04 ± 16,65 ha (n = 19 nel 2002, la media delle core-area è stata 18,18 ± 17,74 ha nel 2001 e 9,36 ± 5,40 ha in 2002 (Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA: home range H = 22,6; g.l. = 1, P < 0,0001; core-area H = 4,55, g.l. = 1, P = 0,033. La sovrapposizione delle core-area maschio/femmina e femmina/maschio

  2. Evaporation from Pinus caribaea plantations on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterloo, M.J.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Vugts, H.F.; Rawaqa, T.T.

    1999-01-01

    Wet canopy and dry canopy evaporation from young and mature plantations of Pinus caribaea on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions in southwestern Viti Levu, Fiji, were determined using micrometeorological and hydrological techniques. Modeled annual evaporation totals (ET) of

  3. Evaporation from Pinus caribaea plantations on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterloo, M.J.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Vugts, H.F.; Rawaqa, T.T.

    1999-01-01

    Wet canopy and dry canopy evaporation from young and mature plantations of Pinus caribaea on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions in southwestern Viti Levu, Fiji, were determined using micrometeorological and hydrological techniques. Modeled annual evaporation totals (ET) of

  4. First discovery of fossil winged seeds of Pinus L. (family Pinaceae ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mahasin Ali Khan

    2017-07-04

    Jul 4, 2017 ... review the historical phytogeography and highlight the phytogeographic implication of this genus. Keywords. ... In the present paper, winged seeds of Pinus are described ..... the Himalayas and the onset and development of.

  5. Study of influence of 2.4 GHz electromagnetic waves on electrophysical properties of coniferous trees wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurahimov, Nursulton; Lagunov, Alexey; Melehov, Vladimir

    2017-09-01

    Climate change has a significant impact on changing weather conditions in the Arctic. Wood is a traditional building material in the North of Russia. Supports of communication lines are made of wood. Dry wood is a solid dielectric with a low conductivity. At the same time it is porous material having high hygroscopicity. The presence of moisture leads to wood rotting. To prevent rotting of a support it needs to be impregnated with antiseptics. A tree dried by means of convection drying cannot provide required porosity of wood for impregnation. Our studies of electrophysical properties of coniferous species showed that microwave drying of wood increases the porosity of the wood. Wood dried in this way is easily impregnated with antiseptics. Thorough wood drying requires creating optimal conditions in a microwave oven. During the drying process in a chamber there is a resonant phenomenon. These phenomena depend on electro-physical properties of the material placed in the chamber. Dielectric constant of wood has the most influence. A resonator method to determine the dielectric constant of the wood was used. The values of permittivity for the spruce and pine samples were determined. The measured value of the dielectric constant of wood was used to provide optimal matching of the generator with the resonator in a wood-drying resonator type microwave chamber, and to maintain it in the process of wood drying. It resulted in obtaining the samples with a higher permeability of wood in radial and longitudinal direction. This creates favorable conditions for wood impregnation with antiseptics and flame retardants. Timber dried by means of electromagnetic waves in the 2.4 GHz band has a deeper protective layer. The support made of such wood will serve longer as supports of communication lines.

  6. [Dynamics of total organic carbon (TOC) in hydrological processes in coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest of Dinghushan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guangcai; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhang, Deqiang; Wang, Xu; Chu, Guowei; Liu, Yan

    2005-09-01

    The total flux and concentration of total organic carbon (TOC) in hydrological processes in coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest of Dinghushan were measured from July 2002 to July 2003. The results showed that the TOC input by precipitation was 41.80 kg x hm(-2) x yr(-1), while its output by surface runoff and groundwater (soil solution at 50 cm depth) was 17.54 and 1.80 kg x hm(-2) x yr(-1), respectively. The difference between input and output was 22.46 kg x hm(-2) x yr(-1), indicating that the ecosystem TOC was in positive balance. The monthly variation of TOC flux in hydrological processes was very similar to that in precipitation. The mean TOC concentration in precipitation was 3.64 mg x L(-1), while that in throughfall and stemflow increased 6.10 and 7.39 times after rain passed through the tree canopies and barks. The mean TOC concentration in surface runoff and in soil solution at 25 and 50 cm depths was 12.72, 7.905 and 3.06 mg x L(-1), respectively. The monthly TOC concentration in throughfall and stemflow had a similar changing tendency, showing an increase at the beginning of growth season (March), a decrease after September, and a little increase in December. The TOC concentration in runoff was much higher during high precipitation months. No obvious monthly variation was observed in soil solution TOC concentration (25 and 50 cm below the surface). Stemflow TOC concentration differed greatly between different tree species. The TOC concentration in precipitation, throughfall, and soil solution (25 and 50 cm depths) decreased with increasing precipitation, and no significant relationship existed between the TOC concentrations in stemflow, surface runoff and precipitation. The TOC concentrations in the hydrological processes fluctuated with precipitation intensity, except for that in stemflow and soil solutions.

  7. Spatial and Temporal Variabilities of Solar and Longwave Radiation Fluxes below a Coniferous Forest in the French Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicart, J. E.; Ramseyer, V.; Lejeune, Y.; Essery, R.; Webster, C.; Rutter, N.

    2017-12-01

    At high altitudes and latitudes, snow has a large influence on hydrological processes. Large fractions of these regions are covered by forests, which have a strong influence on snow accumulation and melting processes. Trees absorb a large part of the incoming shortwave radiation and this heat load is mostly dissipated as longwave radiation. Trees shelter the snow surface from wind, so sub-canopy snowmelt depends mainly on the radiative fluxes: vegetation attenuates the transmission of shortwave radiation but enhances longwave irradiance to the surface. An array of 13 pyranometers and 11 pyrgeometers was deployed on the snow surface below a coniferous forest at the CEN-MeteoFrance Col de Porte station in the French Alps (1325 m asl) during the 2017 winter in order to investigate spatial and temporal variabilities of solar and infrared irradiances in different meteorological conditions. Sky view factors measured with hemispherical photographs at each radiometer location were in a narrow range from 0.2 to 0.3. The temperature of the vegetation was measured with IR thermocouples and an IR camera. In clear sky conditions, the attenuation of solar radiation by the canopy reached 96% and its spatial variability exceeded 100 W m-2. Longwave irradiance varied by 30 W m-2 from dense canopy to gap areas. In overcast conditions, the spatial variabilities of solar and infrared irradiances were reduced and remained closely related to the sky view factor. A simple radiative model taking into account the penetration through the canopy of the direct and diffuse solar radiation, and isotropic infrared emission of the vegetation as a blackbody emitter, accurately reproduced the dynamics of the radiation fluxes at the snow surface. Model results show that solar transmissivity of the canopy in overcast conditions is an excellent proxy of the sky view factor and the emitting temperature of the vegetation remained close to the air temperature in this typically dense Alpine forest.

  8. The influence of coniferous canopies on understorey vegetation and soils in mountain forests of the northern Calcareous Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewald, Joerg

    2000-01-01

    Compositional and edaphic gradients were studied in montane forests of the Bavarian Alps (Germany), in which natural mixed deciduous-coniferous tree layers have been altered by past management in favour of Picea abies. Data on species composition and ecological factors were collected in a stratified random sample of 84 quadrats comprising a gradient from pure Picea to pure Fagus sylvatica stands. Data about the understorey composition were subjected to indirect (DCA) and direct gradient analysis (RDA) with the proportion of Picea in the canopy as a constraining variable. Three principal components of a matrix containing seven descriptors of mineral soil, relief and tree layer cover were included as covariables describing the variability of primary ecological factors. Gradients of organic topsoil morphology and chemistry were extracted correspondingly. Responses of individual species, species group and topsoil attributes were studied by simple and partial correlation analysis. Mosses were significantly more abundant and diverse under Picea stands. Few graminoid and herb species were partially associated with Picea, and total understorey richness and cover did not differ systematically by stand type. No relationship between tree layer and understorey diversity was detected at the studied scale. Juvenile Fagus sylvatica was the only woody species significantly less abundant under Picea. In the topsoil lower base saturation, lower pH and larger C/N ratios in the litter layer were partially attributable to the proportion of Picea, only for base saturation a relationship was detected in greater soil depth also. The frequency of broad humus form types did not differ by tree species, nor was overall depth of organic forest floor attributable to canopy composition

  9. Modeling the early-phase redistribution of radiocesium fallouts in an evergreen coniferous forest after Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmon, P.; Gonze, M.-A.; Mourlon, Ch.

    2015-10-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, the scientific community gained numerous data on the transfer of radiocesium in European forest ecosystems, including information regarding the short-term redistribution of atmospheric fallout onto forest canopies. In the course of international programs, the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) developed a forest model, named TREE4 (Transfer of Radionuclides and External Exposure in FORest systems), 15 years ago. Recently published papers on a Japanese evergreen coniferous forest contaminated by Fukushima radiocesium fallout provide interesting and quantitative data on radioactive mass fluxes measured within the forest in the months following the accident. The present study determined whether the approach adopted in the TREE4 model provides satisfactory results for Japanese forests or whether it requires adjustments. This study focused on the interception of airborne radiocesium by forest canopy, and the subsequent transfer to the forest floor through processes such as litterfall, throughfall, and stemflow, in the months following the accident. We demonstrated that TREE4 quite satisfactorily predicted the interception fraction (20%) and the canopy-to-soil transfer (70% of the total deposit in 5 months) in the Tochigi forest. This dynamics was similar to that observed in the Höglwald spruce forest. However, the unexpectedly high contribution of litterfall (31% in 5 months) in the Tochigi forest could not be reproduced in our simulations (2.5%). Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed; and sensitivity of the results to uncertainty in deposition conditions was analyzed. - Highlights: • Transfer of radiocesium atmospheric fallout in evergreen forests was modeled. • The model was tested using observations from Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents. • Model predictions of canopy interception and depuration agree with measurements. • Unexpectedly high contribution of litterfall for the

  10. Improving winter leaf area index estimation in evergreen coniferous forests and its significance in carbon and water fluxes modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Chen, J. M.; Luo, X.

    2016-12-01

    Modeling of carbon and water fluxes at the continental and global scales requires remotely sensed LAI as inputs. For evergreen coniferous forests (ENF), severely underestimated winter LAI has been one of the issues for mostly available remote sensing products, which could cause negative bias in the modeling of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET). Unlike deciduous trees which shed all the leaves in winter, conifers retains part of their needles and the proportion of the retained needles depends on the needle longevity. In this work, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) was used to model GPP and ET at eight FLUXNET Canada ENF sites. Two sets of LAI were used as the model inputs: the 250m 10-day University of Toronto (U of T) LAI product Version 2 and the corrected LAI based on the U of T LAI product and the needle longevity of the corresponding tree species at individual sites. Validating model daily GPP (gC/m2) against site measurements, the mean RMSE over eight sites decreases from 1.85 to 1.15, and the bias changes from -0.99 to -0.19. For daily ET (mm), mean RMSE decreases from 0.63 to 0.33, and the bias changes from -0.31 to -0.16. Most of the improvements occur in the beginning and at the end of the growing season when there is large correction of LAI and meanwhile temperature is still suitable for photosynthesis and transpiration. For the dormant season, the improvement in ET simulation mostly comes from the increased interception of precipitation brought by the elevated LAI during that time. The results indicate that model performance can be improved by the application the corrected LAI. Improving the winter RS LAI can make a large impact on land surface carbon and energy budget.

  11. Growth decline assessment in Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus nigra Arnold. forest by using 3-PG model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael M. Navarro-Cerrillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: We assessed the ability of the 3-PG process-based model to accurately predict growth of Pinus sylvestris and P. nigra plantations across a range of sites, showing declining growth trends, in southern Spain. Area of study: The study area is located in “Sierra de Los Filabres” (Almería. Material and methods: The model was modified in fifteen parameters to predict diameter (DBH, cm, basal area increment (BAI, cm2 yr-1 and leaf area index (LAI, m2 m-2 in healthy trees and trees showing declining growth. We assumed that a set of specific physiological parameters (stem partitioning ratio-pFS20, maximum litterfall rate-γFx, maximum canopy conductance-gCx, specific leaf area for mature aged stands-σ1, age at which specific leaf area = ½ (σ0 + σ1, age at full canopy cover-tc, and canopy boundary layer conductance-gB included in 3-PG would be suitable for predicting growth decline related to climate conditions. The calibrated model was evaluated using dendrochronological and LAI data obtained from plots. Main results: Observed and simulated DBH showed a high correlation (R2 > 0.99 between modelled and measured values for both species. In contrast, modelled and observed BAI showed lower correlation (R2 < 0.68. Sensitivity analysis on 3-PG outputs showed that the foliage parameters - maximum litterfall rate, maximum canopy conductance, specific leaf area for mature aged stands, age at which specific leaf area, and age at full canopy cover - were important for DBH and BAI predictions under drought stress. Research highlights: Our overall results indicated that the 3-PG model could predict growth response of pine plantations to climatic stress with desirable accuracy in southern Spain by using readily available soil and climatic data with physiological parameters derived from experiments. Keywords: Hybrid process model; forest management models; growth prediction; Pinus spp, Parameterization; forest decline.

  12. Greek Pinus essential oils: larvicidal activity and repellency against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsaviti, Katerina; Giatropoulos, Athanassios; Pitarokili, Danae; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Michaelakis, Antonios; Tzakou, Olga

    2015-02-01

    The needle volatiles metabolites of seven Pinus spp.: Pinus nigra (3 samples), Pinus stankewiczii, Pinus brutia, Pinus halepensis, Pinus canariensis, Pinus pinaster and Pinus strobus from Greece were determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. P. nigra and P. canariensis essential oils were dominated by α-pinene (24.9-28.9 % and 15 %, respectively) and germacrene D (20.3-31.9 % and 55.8 %, respectively), whereas P. brutia and P. strobus by α-pinene (20.6 % and 31.4 %, respectively) and β-pinene (31.7 % and 33.6 %, respectively). P. halepensis and P. pinaster oils were characterized by β-caryophyllene (28.5 % and 22.5 %, respectively). Finally, β-pinene (31.4 %), germacrene D (23.3 %) and α-pinene (17.5 %) were the most abundant compounds in the needle oil of P. stankewiczii. Additionally the larvicidal and repellent properties of their essential oils were evaluated against Aedes albopictus, a mosquito of great ecological and medical importance. The results of bioassays revealed that repellent abilities of the tested essential oils were more potent than their larvicidal activities. The essential oils of P. brutia, P. halepensis and P. stankewiczii presented considerable larvicidal activity (LC50 values 67.04 mgL(-1) and 70.21 mgL(-1), respectively), while the others were weak to inactive against larvae. The essential oils of P. halepensis, P. brutia, and P. stankewiczii presented a high repellent activity, even at the dose of 0.2 μL cm(-2), while in the dose of 0.4 μL cm(-2), almost all the tested EOs displayed protection against the mosquito.

  13. Belowground legacies of Pinus contorta invasion and removal result in multiple mechanisms of invasional meltdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickie, Ian A; St John, Mark G; Yeates, Gregor W; Morse, Chris W; Bonner, Karen I; Orwin, Kate; Peltzer, Duane A

    2014-01-01

    Plant invasions can change soil biota and nutrients in ways that drive subsequent plant communities, particularly when co-invading with belowground mutualists such as ectomycorrhizal fungi. These effects can persist following removal of the invasive plant and, combined with effects of removal per se, influence subsequent plant communities and ecosystem functioning. We used field observations and a soil bioassay with multiple plant species to determine the belowground effects and post-removal legacy caused by invasion of the non-native tree Pinus contorta into a native plant community. Pinus facilitated ectomycorrhizal infection of the co-occurring invasive tree, Pseudotsuga menziesii, but not conspecific Pinus (which always had ectomycorrhizas) nor the native pioneer Kunzea ericoides (which never had ectomycorrhizas). Pinus also caused a major shift in soil nutrient cycling as indicated by increased bacterial dominance, NO3-N (17-fold increase) and available phosphorus (3.2-fold increase) in soils, which in turn promoted increased growth of graminoids. These results parallel field observations, where Pinus removal is associated with invasion by non-native grasses and herbs, and suggest that legacies of Pinus on soil nutrient cycling thus indirectly promote invasion of other non-native plant species. Our findings demonstrate that multi-trophic belowground legacies are an important but hitherto largely unconsidered factor in plant community reassembly following invasive plant removal. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  14. COMPARAÇÃO GRÁFICA ENTRE CURVAS DE ÍNDICE DE SÍTIO PARA Pinus elliottii E Pinus taeda DESENVOLVIDAS NO SUL DO BRASIL

    OpenAIRE

    Helio Tonini; César Augusto Guimarães Finger; Paulo Renato Schneider; Peter Spathelf

    2002-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivos estudar o crescimento em altura dominante para Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda, mediante comparações entre as curvas de índice de sítio construídas para algumas regiões do estado do Rio Grande do Sul e outros Estados da Federação. Essas comparações indicaram que as curvas feitas por Tonini (2000) para as regiões da Serra do Sudeste e Litoral no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, não apresentaram o mesmo desenvolvimento em relação às curvas feitas por Scolforo e Macha...

  15. Comparative seasonal variations of spectral signatures of broad-leaved and coniferous stands from Landsat data. Comparison with other perennial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaume, R.; Combeau, A.

    1984-01-01

    Spectral signatures of two distinct forest test areas were identified from digital data including 15 LANDSAT scenes covering the same geographical area: a broad-leaved forest (oak and beech) and a coniferous forest (scotch pine). Seasonal variations of the signatures were examined and were expressed in terms of various data: date, solar height and phenological state of vegetation cover. Results were compared to these obtained from other perennial surface conditions (grassland, bare soils) . Range of the seasonal variations of radiance is noted, as well as evolutionary peculiarities on each band and between themes. Rationing of spectral bands (particularly MSS 5 and 7) and their variation with time are specified [fr

  16. Behavior of 7Be and 210Pb deposited via rainwater on a coniferous forest, a broad-leaved forest, and grassland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaki, S.; Sugihara, S.; Maeda, Y.; Osaki, T.

    2007-01-01

    Fall water, stem flow water and falling litter in a coniferous forest (C. japonica) and a broad-leaved forest (L. edulis), and rainwater on a grassland near the forests were collected, and their 7 Be and 210 Pb contents were measured. The average residence times of 7 Be and 210 Pb in the forest crowns were calculated from the balances of their radionuclides, those in the forest crown of C. japonica were 88 days for 7 Be and 9.2 years for 210 Pb, and those in the forest crown of L. edulis were 52 days and <1 year, respectively. (author)

  17. Microclimate, Water Potential, Transpiration, and Bole Dielectric Constant of Coniferous and Deciduous Tree Species in the Continental Boreal Ecotone of Central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, R.; McDonald, K.; Way, J.; Oren, R.

    1994-01-01

    Tree canopy microclimate, xylem water flux and xylem dielectric constant have been monitored in situ since June 1993 in two adjacent natural forest stands in central Alaska. The deciduous stand represents a mature balsam poplar site on the Tanana River floodplain, while the coniferous stand consists of mature white spruce with some black spruce mixed in. During solstice in June and later in summer, diurnal changes of xylem water potential were measured to investigate the occurrence and magnitude of tree transpiration and dielectric constant changes in stems.

  18. Head balance of coniferous forest in years with extreme precipitation and its long-term changes in the regions of Bydgoszcz and Wroclaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubnowska, J.; Gąsiorek, E.; Łabędzki, L.; Musiał, E.

    2005-01-01

    Climate changes, particularly visible in the last decades of the 20th century have paramount influence on human economic activity. Heat balance is one of the factors affecting the climate. That impact is noticeable when variations in heat balance components are examined e.g. in coniferous forest. This paper presents analyses of these variations during the growing season (III-X) in the years with maximal and minimal precipitation sums. The study shows also the changes in heat balance components in Wroclaw-Swojec in the years 1964-2000 and in Bydgoszcz in the years 1945-2003 [pl

  19. The DAL10 gene from Norway spruce (Picea abies) belongs to a potentially gymnosperm-specific subclass of MADS-box genes and is specifically active in seed cones and pollen cones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsbecker, Annelie; Sundström, Jens; Tandre, Karolina; Englund, Marie; Kvarnheden, Anders; Johanson, Urban; Engström, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Transcription factors encoded by different members of the MADS-box gene family have evolved central roles in the regulation of reproductive organ development in the flowering plants, the angiosperms. Development of the stamens and carpels, the pollen- and seed-bearing organs, involves the B- and C-organ-identity MADS-box genes. B- and C-type gene orthologs with activities specifically in developing pollen- and seed-bearing organs are also present in the distantly related gymnosperms: the conifers and the gnetophytes. We now report on the characterization of DAL10, a novel MADS-box gene from the conifer Norway spruce, which unlike the B- and C-type conifer genes shows no distinct orthology relationship to any angiosperm gene or clade in phylogenetic analyses. Like the B- and C-type genes, it is active specifically in developing pollen cones and seed cones. In situ RNA localization experiments show DAL10 to be expressed in the cone axis, which carry the microsporophylls of the young pollen cone. In contrast, in the seed cone it is expressed both in the cone axis and in the bracts, which subtend the ovuliferous scales. Expression data and the phenotype of transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing DAL10 suggest that the gene may act upstream to or in concert with the B- and C-type genes in the establishment of reproductive identity of developing cones.

  20. Extraction of cellulose nanofibers from Pinus oocarpa residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manrich, Anny; Martins, Maria Alice, E-mail: anny@daad-alumni.de [EMBRAPA Instrumentacao, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Moraes, Jheyce Cristina; Pasquoloto, Camila [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Pinus oocarpa, which wood is moderately hard and tough, is planted in Brazil for reforestation and employed for timber production used in constructions. The wood residues, such as shavings, bark and sawdust represent 30% to 50% of the total volume of wood production, of which the sawdust is 10%{sup 1}. Cellulose nanofibers is nanomaterials having a diameter between 5 nm and 20 nm and a length of up to hundreds of nm. To obtain nanofibers from cellulose sources, such as sisal and sugarcane bagasse, is used chemical processes, in which the lignocellulosic material initially undergoes pre-treatments to promote partial separation of the cellulose, such as mercerisation and bleaching thus disposing lignin and hemicellulose components. Sequentially, by controlled acid hydrolysis, amorphous regions of the cellulose are removed, and crystalline cellulose is isolated in the form of cellulose nanofibers. In this work, nanofibers from sawdust of Pinnus oocarpa, containing 44.8 wt% of cellulose 20.6 wt% hemicellulose and 30.0 wt% insoluble lignin were isolated by mercerisation (NaOH 5%, 80°C, 120 min), followed by bleaching (NaOH + acetic acid + NaClO{sub 2}, 80 deg C, 240min) and acid hydrolysis (60 wt% sulfuric acid, 45 °C, 40min). Nanofibers obtained were characterized by DRX and SEM-FEG. Results showed that, for used conditions, fiber acid hydrolysis was not complete, therefore a biphasic suspension was formed. Crystallinity index achieved was not much higher than that from pinus fiber itself, increasing from 62% to 65% and signs of cellulose type II were observed. SEM images showed elongated fibers, which have diameter of 15 ± 5 nm and length of hundreds of nm, what means that they have a large L/D aspect ratio. Nanofiber extraction yield was very low (1.3 wt% of initial residue). All steps of the process are being reviewed aiming at better results. 1) Morais, S. A. L.; Nascimento E. A. e D. C. Melo, 2005, R. Árvore, 29, 3, 461-470. (author)

  1. Genetic diversity and the mating system of a rare Mexican Piñon, Pinus pinceana, and a comparison with Pinus maximartinezii (Pinaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Thomas Ledig; Miguel A. Capó-Arteaga; Paul D. Hodgskiss; Hassan Sbay; Celestino Flores-López; M. Thompson Conkle; Basilio Bermejo-Velázquez

    2001-01-01

    Weeping piñon (Pinus pinceana) has a restricted and fragmented range, trees are widely scattered within populations, and reproduction is limited. Nevertheless, genetic diversity was high; based on 27 isozyme loci in 18 enzyme systems, unbiased expected heterozygosity averaged 0.174. Differentiation also was high (FST = 0.152),...

  2. Changes in whole-tree water relations during ontogeny of Pinus flexilis and Pinus ponderosa in a high-elevation meadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Dylan G; Kolb, Thomas E; DeWald, Laura E

    2002-07-01

    We measured sap flux in Pinus ponderosa Laws. and Pinus flexilis James trees in a high-elevation meadow in northern Arizona that has been invaded by conifers over the last 150 years. Sap flux and environmental data were collected from July 1 to September 1, 2000, and used to estimate leaf specific transpiration rate (El), canopy conductance (Gc) and whole-plant hydraulic conductance (Kh). Leaf area to sapwood area ratio (LA/SA) increased with increasing tree size in P. flexilis, but decreased with increasing tree size in P. ponderosa. Both Gc and Kh decreased with increasing tree size in P. flexilis, and showed no clear trends with tree size in P. ponderosa. For both species, Gc was lower in the summer dry season than in the summer rainy season, but El did not change between wet and dry summer seasons. Midday water potential (Psi(mid)) did not change across seasons for either species, whereas predawn water potential (Psi(pre)) tracked variation in soil water content across seasons. Pinus flexilis showed greater stomatal response to vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and maintained higher Psi(mid) than P. ponderosa. Both species showed greater sensitivity to VPD at high photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; > 2500 micromol m-2 s-1) than at low PAR (Pinus species, and was influenced by changes in LA/SA. Whole-tree water use and El were similar between wet and dry summer seasons, possibly because of tight stomatal control over water loss. 2002 Heron Publishing--Victoria, Canada

  3. Growth dynamics of fine roots in a coniferous fern forest site close to Forsmark in the central part of Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Hans; Stadenberg, Ingela

    2007-12-01

    The seasonal growth dynamics of live and dead roots for trees and the field layer species (g/m 2 , varying diameter fractions) and live/dead ratios were analysed at a fresh/moist coniferous fern forest site close to the nuclear power plant at Forsmark in the central eastern parts of Sweden. The changes in depth distribution of fine roots were observed at depth intervals of the top humus horizon down to 40 cm in the mineral soil profile. The bulk of living fine roots of trees ( 2 . The total quantity of fine roots (live + dead) amounted to 543, 434, 314 and 546 g/m 2 . Considerable quantities of fine roots (< 1 mm in diameter) were attributed to field-layer species (about 18% of the total biomass during the whole period of investigation). The turnover rate (the rate of construction of new roots) for tree fine roots < 1 mm in diameter amounted to at least the size of the average fine-root biomass. Our methods of estimating fine-root production and mortality, involved periodic measurements of live and dead dry weight of the fine roots from sequential core samples of the forest soil. The collected data give a proper and instant measure of the spatial and temporal distribution of fine roots in the undisturbed soil-profile. Data from other fine-root investigations suggest turnover rates in agreement with our present findings. Differences between root growth and turnover should be expected between trees of different age, tree species and different forest sites, but also between different years. Substantial variations in fine-root biomass, necromass and live/dead ratios are found in different forest sites. Correct methods for estimating the amount of live and dead fine-roots in the soil at regular time intervals are essential for any calculation of fine-root turnover. Definition of root vitality differs in literature, making it difficult to compare results from different root investigators. Our investigation clarifies the importance of using distinct morphological criteria

  4. Composition and chemical variability of Corsican Pinus halepensis cone oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Anne-Marie; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix; Bighelli, Ange

    2014-09-01

    The composition of the essential oil isolated from cones of Pinus halepensis grown in Corsica has been investigated by a combination of chromatographic (CC, GC) and spectroscopic (MS, 13C NMR) techniques. In total, 48 compounds that accounted for 95.5% of the whole composition have been identified. α-Pinene (47.5%) was the major component followed by myrcene (11.0%), (E)-β-caryophyllene (8.3%) and caryophyllene oxide (5.9%). Various diterpenes have been identified by 13C NMR in the fractions of CC. Fifteen oil samples isolated from cones harvested in three forests have been analyzed and two groups of similar importance have been differentiated within the 15 compositions. Oil samples of the first group contained α-pinene (mean 45.0 g/100 g, SD = 5.5) as the major component. The composition of samples of the second group was dominated by myrcene (mean 30.3 g/100g, SD = 9.0) and α-pinene (mean 24.6 g/100 g, SD = 3.1).

  5. Antioxidative properties of the essential oil from Pinus mugo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassmann, Johanna; Hippeli, Susanne; Vollmann, Renate; Elstner, Erich F

    2003-12-17

    The essential oil from Pinus mugo (PMEO) was tested on its antioxidative capacity. For this purpose, several biochemical test systems were chosen (e.g., the Fenton System, the xanthine oxidase assay, or the copper-induced oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)). The results show that there is moderate or weak antioxidative activity when tested in aqueous environments, like in the Fenton system, xanthine oxidase induced superoxide radical formation, or in the HOCl driven fragmentation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). In contrast, when tested in more lipophilic environments (e.g., the ACC-cleavage by activated neutrophils in whole blood) the PMEO exhibits good antioxidative activity. PMEO does also show good antioxidative capacity in another lipophilic test system (i.e., the copper induced oxidation of LDL). Some components of PMEO (i.e., Delta(3)-carene, camphene, alpha-pinene, (+)-limonene and terpinolene) were also tested. As the PMEO, they showed weak or no antioxidant activity in aqueous environments, but some of them were effective antioxidants regarding ACC-cleavage by activated neutrophils in whole blood or copper-induced LDL-oxidation. Terpinolene, a minor component of PMEO, exhibited remarkable protection against LDL-oxidation.

  6. Biocontrol of Fusarium circinatum Infection of Young Pinus radiata Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Iturritxa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pitch canker, caused by the fungus Fusarium circinatum, is a major disease of Pinus radiata currently controlled to some extent in nurseries by good hygiene and application of synthetic fungicides. The aim of this study was to evaluate alternative strategies to control fungal infections in nurseries and young pine plantations. The antagonistic effects of biocontrol bacteria and essential oils against F. circinatum in vitro and in young P. radiata trees were assessed. Pseudomonas fluorescens, Erwinia billingiae, and Bacillus simplex reduced the growth of the fungus in vitro by 17%–29%, and decreased the density of the mycelial mat. In young P. radiata trees, the length of F. circinatum lesions was reduced by 22%–25% by the same bacterial strains. Direct application of cinnamon and/or clove essential oils to wounds in stems of two-year-old P. radiata trees also limited the damage caused by F. circinatum. Lesion length was reduced by 51% following treatment with cinnamon oil (10% v/v, and by 45% following treatment with clove oil (15% v/v or a combination of both oils. However, the oils were toxic to younger trees. The biocontrol bacteria and essential oils show promise as prophylactic treatments to reduce the devastating effects of F. circinatum on P. radiata.

  7. A single ectomycorrhizal fungal species can enable a Pinus invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Jeremy; Horton, Thomas R; Pauchard, Aníbal; Nuñnez, Martin A

    2015-05-01

    Like all obligately ectomycorrhizal plants, pines require ectomycorrhizal fungal symbionts to complete their life cycle. Pines introduced into regions far from their native range are typically incompatible with local ectomycorrhizal fungi, and, when they invade, coinvade with fungi from their native range. While the identities and distributions of coinvasive fungal symbionts of pine invasions are poorly known, communities that have been studied are notably depauperate. However, it is not yet clear whether any number of fungal coinvaders is able to support a Pinaceae invasion, or whether very depauperate communities are unable to invade. Here, we ask whether there is evidence for a minimum species richness of fungal symbionts necessary to support a pine/ectomycorrhizal fungus coinvasion. We sampled a Pinus contorta invasion front near Coyhaique, Chile, using molecular barcoding to identify ectomycorrhizal fungi. We report that the site has a total richness of four species, and that many invasive trees appear to be supported by only a single ectomycorrhizal fungus, Suillus luteus. We conclude that a single ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus can suffice to enable a pine invasion.

  8. Hydraulic adjustments underlying drought resistance of Pinus halepensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Tamir; Cohen, Shabtai; Yakir, Dan

    2011-06-01

    Drought-induced tree mortality has increased over the last decades in forests around the globe. Our objective was to investigate under controlled conditions the hydraulic adjustments underlying the observed ability of Pinus halepensis to survive seasonal drought under semi-arid conditions. One hundred 18-month saplings were exposed in the greenhouse to 10 different drought treatments, simulating combinations of intensities (fraction of water supply relative to control) and durations (period with no water supply) for 30 weeks. Stomata closed at a leaf water potential (Ψ(l)) of -2.8 MPa, suggesting isohydric stomatal regulation. In trees under extreme drought treatments, stomatal closure reduced CO(2) uptake to -1 µmol m(-2) s(-1), indicating the development of carbon starvation. A narrow hydraulic safety margin of 0.3 MPa (from stomatal closure to 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity) was observed, indicating a strategy of maximization of CO2 uptake in trees otherwise adapted to water stress. A differential effect of drought intensity and duration was observed, and was explained by a strong dependence of the water stress effect on the ratio of transpiration to evapotranspiration T/ET and the larger partitioning to transpiration associated with larger irrigation doses. Under intense or prolonged drought, the root system became the main target for biomass accumulation, taking up to 100% of the added biomass, while the stem tissue biomass decreased, associated with up to 60% reduction in xylem volume.

  9. The Transcriptomic Responses of Pinus massoniana to Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfeng Du

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Masson pine (Pinus massoniana is a major fast-growing timber species planted in southern China, a region of seasonal drought. Using a drought-tolerance genotype of Masson pine, we conducted large-scale transcriptome sequencing using Illumina technology. This work aimed to evaluate the transcriptomic responses of Masson pine to different levels of drought stress. First, 3397, 1695 and 1550 unigenes with differential expression were identified by comparing plants subjected to light, moderate or severe drought with control plants. Second, several gene ontology (GO categories (oxidation-reduction and metabolism and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways (plant hormone signal transduction and metabolic pathways were enriched, indicating that the expression levels of some genes in these enriched GO terms and pathways were altered under drought stress. Third, several transcription factors (TFs associated with circadian rhythms (HY5 and LHY, signal transduction (ERF, and defense responses (WRKY were identified, and these TFs may play key roles in adapting to drought stress. Drought also caused significant changes in the expression of certain functional genes linked to osmotic adjustment (P5CS, abscisic acid (ABA responses (NCED, PYL, PP2C and SnRK, and reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging (GPX, GST and GSR. These transcriptomic results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of drought stress adaptation in Masson pine.

  10. Pharmaceutical and nutraceutical effects of Pinus pinaster bark extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iravani, S.; Zolfaghari, B.

    2011-01-01

    In everyday life, our body generates free radicals and other reactive oxygen species which are derived either from the endogenous metabolic processes (within the body) or from external sources. Many clinical and pharmacological studies suggest that natural antioxidants can prevent oxidative damage. Among the natural antioxidant products, Pycnogenol® (French Pinus pinaster bark extract) has been received considerable attention because of its strong free radical-scavenging activity against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. P. pinaster bark extract (PBE) contains polyphenolic compounds (these compounds consist of catechin, taxifolin, procyanidins of various chain lengths formed by catechin and epicatechin units, and phenolic acids) capable of producing diverse potentially protective effects against chronic and degenerative diseases. This herbal medication has been reported to have cardiovascular benefits, such as vasorelaxant activity, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibiting activity, and the ability to enhance the microcirculation by increasing capillary permeability. Moreover, effects on the immune system and modulation of nitrogen monoxide metabolism have been reported. This article provides a brief overview of clinical studies describing the beneficial and health-promoting effects of PBE. PMID:22049273

  11. Ophiostomatoid fungi associated with declined Pinus pinaster stands in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Álvarez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: We studied the presence of fungi and distribution patterns in relation to the health status of declining Pinus pinaster trees. Area of study: Trees in two declining stands in Central Spain were allotted to three declining classes. Material and Methods: Trees in two declining stands in Central Spain were allotted to three declining classes (healthy, declining and recently dead and 3 trees of each class were felled in each stand. Wood slides (phloem and xylem were taken at six positions along the trees and samples collected from fungal identification. Main results: A total of 21 fungal taxa were isolated and identified; eleven of these species belonged to the Ophiostomatoid group. Ophiostoma minus was the most frequently isolated fungus and was identified in 22% of the samples, mainly associated to dead and diseased trees. Research highlights: Together these results suggest a putative association of O. minor with the decline in this area, and thus we suggest paying more attention to this fungus as a potential agent of decline in P. pinaster stands.

  12. Flow cytometric and morphological analyses of Pinus pinaster somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marum, Liliana; Loureiro, João; Rodriguez, Eleazar; Santos, Conceição; Oliveira, M Margarida; Miguel, Célia

    2009-09-25

    An approach combining morphological profiling and flow cytometric analysis was used to assess genetic stability during the several steps of somatic embryogenesis in Pinus pinaster. Embryogenic cell lines of P. pinaster were established from immature zygotic embryos excised from seeds obtained from open-pollinated trees. During the maturation stage, phenotype of somatic embryos was characterized as being either normal or abnormal. Based upon the prevalent morphological traits, different types of abnormal embryos underwent further classification and quantification. Nuclear DNA content of maritime pine using the zygotic embryos was estimated to be 57.04 pg/2C, using propidium iodide flow cytometry. According to the same methodology, no significant differences (P< or =0.01) in DNA ploidy were detected among the most frequently observed abnormal phenotypes, embryogenic cell lines, zygotic and normal somatic embryos, and somatic embryogenesis-derived plantlets. Although the differences in DNA ploidy level do not exclude the occurrence of a low level of aneuploidy, the results obtained point to the absence of major changes in ploidy level during the somatic embryogenesis process of this economically important species. Therefore, our primary goal of true-to-typeness was assured at this level.

  13. Transcriptome analysis of Pinus massoniana Lamb. microstrobili during sexual reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xiao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The normal megastrobilli and microstrobilli before and after the sexual reversal in Pinus massoniana Lamb. were studied and classified using a transcriptomic approach. In the analysis, a total of 190,023 unigenes were obtained with an average length of 595 bp. The annotated unigenes were divided into 56 functional groups and 130 metabolic pathways involved in the physiological and biochemical processes related to ribosome biogenesis, carbon metabolism, and amino acid biosynthesis. Analysis revealed 4,758 differentially expressed genes (DEGs between the mega- and microstrobili from the polycone twig. The DEGs between the mega- and microstrobili from the normal twig were 5,550. In the polycone twig, 1,188 DEGs were identified between the microstrobili and the sexually reversed megastrobili. Concerning plant hormone signal transduction pathways, the DEGs from both the normal and polycone twigs displayed distinct male or female associated expression patterns. There were 36 common hormone-related DEGs from the two types of twigs of P. massoniana. Interestingly, expression of these DEGs was up-regulated in the bisexual strobili, which underwent the sexual reversal. A portion of MADS-box genes in the bisexual strobili were up-regulated relative to expression in microstrobili.

  14. Pinus Roxburghii essential oil anticancer activity and chemical composition evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Arfaa; Manzoor, Qaisar; Iqbal, Munawar; Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Sajid, Anam

    2018-01-01

    The present study was conducted to appraise the anticancer activity of Pinus roxburghii essential oil along with chemical composition evaluation. MTT assay revealed cytotoxicity induction in colon, leukemia, multiple myeloma, pancreatic, head and neck and lung cancer cells exposed to essential oil. Cancer cell death was also observed through live/dead cell viability assay and FACS analysis. Apoptosis induced by essential oil was confirmed by cleavage of PARP and caspase-3 that suppressed the colony-forming ability of tumor cells and 50 % inhibition occurred at a dose of 25 μg/mL. Moreover, essential oil inhibited the activation of inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB and inhibited expression of NF-κB regulated gene products linked to cell survival (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, c-Myc, c-IAP2), proliferation (Cyclin D1) and metastasis (MMP-9). P. roxburghii essential oil has considerable anticancer activity and could be used as anticancer agent, which needs further investigation to identify and purify the bioactive compounds followed by in vivo studies.

  15. [Cold hardiness of Pinus ponderosa, P. banksian and P. tabulaeformis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yuehua; Zhou, Yongxue; Fan, Junfeng; Liu, Yingzhou; Pang, Kejia

    2006-08-01

    By the method of artificial freezing, this paper made a comparative study on the cold hardiness of Pinus ponderosa, P. banksiana and P. tabulaeformis, with their inherent mechanisms approached. The results showed that the cold hardiness of these three species was in the sequence of P. banksiana > P. tabulaeformis > P. ponderosa. P. banksiana had high bound water/free water ratio (7.0) and ABA content (164.3 microg x g(-1) FW) but low K+ (2450 microg x g(-1) DW) and soluble sugar (12.0%) , P. tabulaeformis had higher contents of ABA (95.8 microg x g(-1) FW), K+ (4538 microg x g(-1) DW) and soluble sugar (18.68%) but low bound water/free water ratio (2.58), while P. ponderosa had high soluble sugar content (18.05%) but low bound water/free water ratio (2.18) and K+ (2275 microg x g(-1) DW) and ABA (63.3 microg x g(-1) FW) contents. These differences might be the reasons resulting in the different cold hardiness of these three species. Low chlorophyll content and high carotenoid/chlorophyll ratio might also contribute to the cold hardiness of P. banksiana. Therefore, though the test species are all of cold hardiness, their inherent mechanisms may be different.

  16. Aboveground Tree Biomass for Pinus ponderosa in Northeastern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd A. Hamilton

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest managers need accurate biomass equations to plan thinning for fuel reduction or energy production. Estimates of carbon sequestration also rely upon such equations. The current allometric equations for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa commonly employed for California forests were developed elsewhere, and are often applied without consideration potential for spatial or temporal variability. Individual-tree aboveground biomass allometric equations are presented from an analysis of 79 felled trees from four separate management units at Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest: one unthinned and three separate thinned units. A simultaneous set of allometric equations for foliage, branch and bole biomass were developed as well as branch-level equations for wood and foliage. Foliage biomass relationships varied substantially between units while branch and bole biomass estimates were more stable across a range of stand conditions. Trees of a given breast height diameter and crown ratio in thinned stands had more foliage biomass, but slightly less branch biomass than those in an unthinned stand. The observed variability in biomass relationships within Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest suggests that users should consider how well the data used to develop a selected model relate to the conditions in any given application.

  17. Response of Pinus ponderosa Seedlings to Stylet-Bearing Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglierchio, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    Of 12 stylet-bearing nematodes used for inoculations, Pratylenchus penetrans, P. brachyurus, P. vulnus, Ditylenchus destructor, Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, and M. hapla reproduced on Pinus ponderosa, while Xiphinema index, Aphelenchus avenae, Paratylenehus neoamblycephalus, Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and Macroposthonia xenoplax did not. P. vulnus, P. brachyurus, P. penetrans, A. avenae, D. destructor, T. semipenetrans, and P. neoamblycephalus significantly suppressed both the shoot and root wet weights of ponderosa pine seedlings obtained from stands in five different locations. X. index significantly suppressed root wet weights, M. xenoplax siguificantly suppressed shoot wet weight, and M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. hapla suppressed neither at the inoculation levels used. Injurious nematodes tended to suppress root growth more than shoot growth. Seedlings from two locations produced greater shoot growth wet weight than did seedlings from the other three locations. The more injurious nematodes tended to cause an increase in the water content of shoots. Frequency analyses of seedling population shoot-root ratios indicated that ponderosa pine seedlings could be selected for better shoot-root ratios as well as for resistance to several pathogenic nematodes. PMID:19300659

  18. MICROBIOTA OF PINUS POLLEN AS ADJUVANT FACTOR OF ALLERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Shevtsova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria, their endotoxin and mold found on pollen can be a reason of respiratory symptoms in sensitized individuals. This question concerns an anemophilous pollen more acute. In this work quantitative by dilution plating method and qualitative microbial analysis by MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper of pollen and other plants organs of Pinus sylvestris L., P. nigra Arnold, P. mugo Turra, P. armandii Franch., P. wallichiana A.B. Jacks from Nitra, Slovakia are performed which shows quantitative and species differences in mesophilic aerobic (0.00-6.27 log cfu/g and anaerobic bacteria (0.00-3.70 log cfu/g, enterococci (0.00 log cfu/g, coliform bacteria (0.00-5.29 log cfu/g, lactobacilli (0.00-4.20 log cfu/g, microscopic fungi and yeasts (2.60-5.29 log cfu/g content. Representatives of Pseudomonas (14, Bacillus (2, Acinetobacter (1, Arthrobacter (1, Pantoea (1, Klebsiella (1, Penicillium (6, Aspergillus (4, Cladosporium (1, Debaryomyces (1 genera were revealed on pine trees. The allergenic potential of the identified association of microorganisms on pollen has been evaluated based on published data. The results may be useful for aerobiologists, allergists and microbiologists, at least at the local level.

  19. Ethnobotany and phytopharmacology of Pinus roxburghii Sargent: a plant review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Pawan; Kaushik, Dhirender; Khokra, Sukhbir Lal

    2013-11-01

    Traditional medicine is a blend of information gathered over generations from various communities and cultures. Pinus roxburghii Sargent (Pinaceae) commonly known as "chir pine" is widely used in traditional and folkloric systems of medicine. The all parts of the plant are believed to possess medicinal qualities in Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine. In these traditional systems of medicine, the plant is used to heal many diseases, including afflictions of the eyes, ears, throat, blood, and skin. The plant parts are rich in various bioactive compounds such as α-pinene, abietic acid, quercetin and xanthone. Resin acids and flavanoid form a major portion of these bioactive compounds. This review presents examples of traditional medicinal uses for P. roxburghii, and subsequently explores the current understanding of the chemical, pharmacological, and biochemical properties of the extracts and the main active constituents found in each tissue of the plant. Clinical trial information is also included where available. Careful evaluation of these data may be helpful for scientists and researchers to discover and evaluate the specific chemical entities responsible for the traditional medicinal uses of P. roxburghii.

  20. Fatty acid profiles of great tit ( Parus major) eggs differ between urban and rural habitats, but not between coniferous and deciduous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Alejandra; Andersson, Martin N.; Wang, Hong-Lei; Salmón, Pablo; Watson, Hannah; Burdge, Graham C.; Isaksson, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    Early-life nutrition is an important determinant of both short- and long-term performance and fitness. The avian embryo develops within an enclosed package of nutrients, of which fatty acids (FA) are essential for many aspects of development. The FA composition of yolk depends on maternal nutrition and condition prior to egg formation, which may be affected by the external environment. To test if maternal environment affects yolk FA composition, we investigated whether the FA composition of great tit ( Parus major) egg yolks differed between urban and rural habitats, and between deciduous and coniferous habitats. The results reveal differences in FA composition between eggs laid in urban and rural habitats, but not between eggs from the coniferous and deciduous habitats. To a large extent, this difference likely reflects dietary differences associated with urban habitats rather than dominating vegetation type. Specifically, urban yolks contained lower proportions of both ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA), which are important for chick development. We also found a positive association between the proportion of saturated fatty acids and laying date, and a negative association between the proportion of ω-6 PUFA and clutch size. Given that urbanization is expanding rapidly, future studies should investigate whether factors such as anthropogenic food in the urban environment underlie these differences and whether they impair chick development.

  1. Selectivity of Pinus sylvestris extract and essential oil to estrogen-insensitive breast cancer cells Pinus sylvestris against cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoai, Nguyen Thi; Duc, Ho Viet; Thao, Do Thi; Orav, Anne; Raal, Ain

    2015-10-01

    So far, the anticancer action of pine tree extracts has mainly been shown for the species distributed widely around the Asian countries. Therefore, this study was performed to examine the potential cytotoxicity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) native also to the European region and growing widely in Estonia. The cytotoxic activity of methanol extract and essential oil of Scots pine needles was determined by sulforhodamine B assay in different human cancer cell lines. This needle extract was found to suppress the viability of several human cancer cell lines showing some selectivity to estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231(half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] 35 μg/ml) in comparison with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells, MCF-7 (IC50 86 μg/ml). It is the strongest cytotoxic effect at all measured, thus far for the needles and leaves extracts derived from various pine species, and is also the first study comparing the anticancer effects of pine tree extracts on molecularly different human breast cancer cells. The essential oil showed the stronger cytotoxic effect to both negative and positive breast cancer cell lines (both IC50 29 μg/ml) than pine extract (IC50 42 and 80 μg/ml, respectively). The data from this report indicate that Scots pine needles extract and essential oil exhibits some potential as chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent for mammary tumors unresponsive to endocrine treatment.

  2. Paleoclimatic implications of glacial and postglacial refugia for Pinus pumila in western Beringia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, P M; Lozhkin, A V; Solomatkina, T B; Brown, T A

    2010-02-05

    Palynological results from Julietta Lake currently provide the most direct evidence to support the existence of a glacial refugium for Pinus pumila in mountains of southwestern Beringia. Both percentages and accumulation rates indicate the evergreen shrub survived until at least {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. in the Upper Kolyma region. Percentage data suggest numbers dwindled into the late glaciation, whereas pollen accumulation rates point towards a more rapid demise shortly after {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. Pinus pumila did not re-establish in any great numbers until {approx}8100 14C yr B.P., despite the local presence {approx}9800 14C yr B.P. of Larix dahurica, which shares similar summer temperature requirements. The postglacial thermal maximum (in Beringia {approx}11,000-9000 14C yr B.P.) provided Pinus pumila shrubs with equally harsh albeit different conditions for survival than those present during the LGM. Regional records indicate that in this time of maximum warmth Pinus pumila likely sheltered in a second, lower-elevation refugium. Paleoclimatic models and modern ecology suggest that shifts in the nature of seasonal transitions and not only seasonal extremes have played important roles in the history of Pinus pumila over the last {approx}21,000 14C yr B.P.

  3. Plutonium in coniferous forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.; Kostiainen, E.

    2002-01-01

    Our aim was to study the uptake of plutonium by trees, undervegetation and some wild foods. The ratio of 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu in soil samples was determined for comparisons of the fallout origin. In twelve years the Chernobyl derived plutonium has not reached the mineral soil. This refers to a very slow downward migration in podsolic soil. The study confirmed also the low Pu uptake by vegetation and an insignificant contribution to human doses through wild foods. (au)

  4. Cytogenetic variability in pinus sylvestris L. populations experiencing anthropogenic influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudalova, A.; Geras'kin, S.; Vasiliev, D.; Dikarev, V.

    2004-01-01

    Techno-genic pollution has become one of the most significant ecological factors determining biosphere existence and development. An analysis of genetic consequences of the radiation accidents in the South Urals and Chernobyl has shown that mutation and recombination processes are considerably accelerated in plant and animal's populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This implies that there are complicated adaptation processes leading to changes in genetic structure of populations and increasing genetic load. Pinus sylvestris L. populations growing at the territory of the 'radon' Leningrad regional radioactive waste reprocessing enterprise and Sosnovy Bor town were monitored 6 years (1997-2002) by a set of cyto-genetical and morphological tests. Cytogenetic damage levels within intercalary meristem of needle as well as in root meristem of seedlings were found to significantly exceed corresponding controls. A higher radioresistance of the Scots pine seeds analyzed was demonstrated with an acute γ-radiation that also revealed a selection process directed at an enhancement of repair efficiency and resulting in a shift of mean values of radioresistance in populations towards higher values. An enlargement of variance of studied cytogenetic parameters was found in the populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This indicates, with an account of phenomenon of the enhanced radioresistance, that there are processes of cyto-genetical adaptation in the investigated regions. An analysis of the structure of ecological-genetical variability was carried out with the purpose of separating two components in the inter-population variability - the first is engaged to the genetically determined variability of biological characteristics intrinsic for this species, and the second is responsible for the variability originating from anthropogenic contamination of the natural habitat. Changes of these two types of variability were studied in dependence on time and techno

  5. Cytogenetic variability in pinus sylvestris L. populations experiencing anthropogenic influence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudalova, A.; Geras' kin, S.; Vasiliev, D.; Dikarev, V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Techno-genic pollution has become one of the most significant ecological factors determining biosphere existence and development. An analysis of genetic consequences of the radiation accidents in the South Urals and Chernobyl has shown that mutation and recombination processes are considerably accelerated in plant and animal's populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This implies that there are complicated adaptation processes leading to changes in genetic structure of populations and increasing genetic load. Pinus sylvestris L. populations growing at the territory of the 'radon' Leningrad regional radioactive waste reprocessing enterprise and Sosnovy Bor town were monitored 6 years (1997-2002) by a set of cyto-genetical and morphological tests. Cytogenetic damage levels within intercalary meristem of needle as well as in root meristem of seedlings were found to significantly exceed corresponding controls. A higher radioresistance of the Scots pine seeds analyzed was demonstrated with an acute {gamma}-radiation that also revealed a selection process directed at an enhancement of repair efficiency and resulting in a shift of mean values of radioresistance in populations towards higher values. An enlargement of variance of studied cytogenetic parameters was found in the populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This indicates, with an account of phenomenon of the enhanced radioresistance, that there are processes of cyto-genetical adaptation in the investigated regions. An analysis of the structure of ecological-genetical variability was carried out with the purpose of separating two components in the inter-population variability - the first is engaged to the genetically determined variability of biological characteristics intrinsic for this species, and the second is responsible for the variability originating from anthropogenic contamination of the natural habitat. Changes of these two types of variability were studied in dependence on

  6. Pinus ponderosa: A checkered past obscured four species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willyard, Ann; Gernandt, David S; Potter, Kevin; Hipkins, Valerie; Marquardt, Paula; Mahalovich, Mary Frances; Langer, Stephen K; Telewski, Frank W; Cooper, Blake; Douglas, Connor; Finch, Kristen; Karemera, Hassani H; Lefler, Julia; Lea, Payton; Wofford, Austin

    2017-01-01

    Molecular genetic evidence can help delineate taxa in species complexes that lack diagnostic morphological characters. Pinus ponderosa (Pinaceae; subsection Ponderosae) is recognized as a problematic taxon: plastid phylogenies of exemplars were paraphyletic, and mitochondrial phylogeography suggested at least four subdivisions of P. ponderosa. These patterns have not been examined in the context of other Ponderosae species. We hypothesized that putative intraspecific subdivisions might each represent a separate taxon. We genotyped six highly variable plastid simple sequence repeats in 1903 individuals from 88 populations of P. ponderosa and related Ponderosae (P. arizonica, P. engelmannii, and P. jeffreyi). We used multilocus haplotype networks and discriminant analysis of principal components to test clustering of individuals into genetically and geographically meaningful taxonomic units. There are at least four distinct plastid clusters within P. ponderosa that roughly correspond to the geographic distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes. Some geographic regions have intermixed plastid lineages, and some mitochondrial and plastid boundaries do not coincide. Based on relative distances to other species of Ponderosae, these clusters diagnose four distinct taxa. Newly revealed geographic boundaries of four distinct taxa (P. benthamiana, P. brachyptera, P. scopulorum, and a narrowed concept of P. ponderosa) do not correspond completely with taxonomies. Further research is needed to understand their morphological and nuclear genetic makeup, but we suggest that resurrecting originally published species names would more appropriately reflect the taxonomy of this checkered classification than their current treatment as varieties of P. ponderosa. © 2017 Willyard et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons public domain license (CC0 1.0).

  7. The Roll of Canopy on Interception and Redistribution of Anthropogenic Radionuclides Derived from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Coniferous Forest Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, H.; Onda, Y.; Kawaguchi, S.; Gomi, T.

    2011-12-01

    Soil, vegetation and other ecological compartments are expected to be highly contaminated by the deposited radionuclides after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident triggered by a magnitude 9.1 earthquake and the resulting tsunami on Marchi 11, 2011. A large proportion of radionuclides which deposited on forest area are trapped by canopies, throughfall and stemflow are the most important pathways for the input of radionuclides into the soil of forest floor. In this study, to investigate the roll of forest canopy on interception and redistribution of the deposited radionuclides, a series of field monitoring experiment of throughfall and stemflow were conducted in coniferous forest plantations in Tochigi prefecture, 170 km southwest from the NPP. A set of 20 throughfall collectors with latticelike distribution and 5 stemflow collectors were located in the 10m × 10m interception plot, and the activities of caesium (137Cs, 134Cs) and radioiodine (131I) in throughfall and stemflow were quantified by using a high purity n-type germanium coaxial gamma ray detectors. Rainfall, throughfall, and stemflow samples were collected from 10 rainfall events, which includes first rainfall event after the NPP accident. The cumulative fallout of radionuclides in the study site was 3400 Bq m-2 for 137Cs, 3300 Bq m-2 for 134Cs, and 26000 Bq m-2 for 131I, respectively. The 137Cs in rainfall decreased exponentially with time since the NPP accident. For the rainfall event of 28 March, which is first rainfall event after the NPP accident, both the amount and concentration of caesium clearly increased with throughfall, whereas the concentration of radioiodine decreased with throughfall. For the subsequent rainfall events, the concentration of caesium decreased with throughfall, whereas radioiodine was not detected as a result of decay due to short half-life. At the end of May, approximately 30% and 60% of total caesium deposited after the NPP accident remained on the

  8. Antraquinona e surfactante para otimizaçao do processo Kraft com Pinus Spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Mocelin, Ezequiel Zatoni

    2013-01-01

    A madeira de Pinus é atualmente a matéria-prima mais utilizada na obtenção de fibras longas para papel, juntamente com o processo Kraft pela sua versatilidade e por produzir fibras com boa resistência. As atuais perspectivas florestais apontam para uma escassez da madeira de Pinus para os diversos fins, seja para madeira processada, seja para celulose e papel. O processo Kraft tem como desvantagem o baixo rendimento em celulose, devido à solubilização não somente da lignina como também parte ...

  9. Dendroclimatic analysis of Pinus pseudostrobus and Pinus devoniana in the municipalities of Áporo and Zitácuaro (Michoacán, Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Marlès Magre

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the first study on dendroclimatology of Pinus pseudostrobus and Pinus devoniana in the state of Michoacán (Mexico, specifically in the municipalities of Áporo and Zitácuaro, both municipalities within the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve (MBBR. The sampling in Áporo, northwest of the MBBR, was held in Los Ejidos del Rincón del Soto and Arroyo Seco, in Sierra Chincúa (May 2011. In Zitácuaro, southwest of the reserve, a sampling was performed in the Ejido de San Juan de Zitácuaro, in the area of Ocotal and Palma, and Meso Sedano (June 2011. There were a total of 38 Pinus pseudostrobus and 12 Pinus devoniana sampled in both areas of the study and distributed in 28 trees in the municipality of Áporo and 22 in Zitácuaro. Two samples per tree were taken at 1.3 m height, resulting in a total of 100 tree cores. The dendrochronological series in Áporo for the species Pinus pseudostrobus were extended to 62 years (1949-2010 and for Pinus devoniana 86 years (1925-2010; and the series in Zitácuaro for Pinus pseudostrobus and Pinus devoniana were extended to 47 years (1964-2010 and 44 years (1967-2010, respectively. The ring chronologies were validated using the program COFECHA, which calculates the cross correlations between individual series of the tree-growth, five series were eliminated due to very low or negative correlations. The climate data from Zitácuaro were obtained from two weather stations located in the same municipality. And, in the case of Áporo, the data was obtained from stations located in Senguio. The growth rates related to the climate were obtained by removing the growth trend of each tree due to the age, size and other factors such as the competition, using the program ARSTAN. The following statistics were used to evaluate the quality of the residual chronologies and to determine the potential dendrochronology of species for the different populations: the average correlation between series (Rbar

  10. Growth decline assessment in Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus nigra Arnold. forest by using 3-PG model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro-Cerrillo, R.M.; Beira, J.; Suarez, J.; Xenakis, G.; Sánchez-Salguero, R.; Hernández-Clemente, R.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: We assessed the ability of the 3-PG process-based model to accurately predict growth of Pinus sylvestris and P. nigra plantations across a range of sites, showing declining growth trends, in southern Spain. Area of study: The study area is located in “Sierra de Los Filabres” (Almería). Material and methods: The model was modified in fifteen parameters to predict diameter (DBH, cm), basal area increment (BAI, cm2 yr-1) and leaf area index (LAI, m2 m-2) in healthy trees and trees showing declining growth. We assumed that a set of specific physiological parameters (stem partitioning ratio-pFS20, maximum litterfall rate-γFx, maximum canopy conductance-gCx, specific leaf area for mature aged stands-σ1, age at which specific leaf area = ½ (σ0 + σ1), age at full canopy cover-tc, and canopy boundary layer conductance-gB) included in 3-PG would be suitable for predicting growth decline related to climate conditions. The calibrated model was evaluated using dendrochronological and LAI data obtained from plots. Main results: Observed and simulated DBH showed a high correlation (R2 > 0.99) between modelled and measured values for both species. In contrast, modelled and observed BAI showed lower correlation (R2 < 0.68). Sensitivity analysis on 3-PG outputs showed that the foliage parameters - maximum litterfall rate, maximum canopy conductance, specific leaf area for mature aged stands, age at which specific leaf area, and age at full canopy cover - were important for DBH and BAI predictions under drought stress. Research highlights: Our overall results indicated that the 3-PG model could predict growth response of pine plantations to climatic stress with desirable accuracy in southern Spain by using readily available soil and climatic data with physiological parameters derived from experiments. (Author)

  11. Crescimento em altura dominante do Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda em solos arenizados degradados no oeste do Rio Grande do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Paulo Renato; Elesbão, Luiz Ernesto Grilo; Schneider, Paulo Sérgio Pigato; Longhi, Régis Villanova

    2013-01-01

    A introdução de espécies florestais de rápido crescimento em áreas com solos arenizados e degradados pode ser uma alternativa tanto para a prevenção como para a minimização desse problema. O trabalho objetivou avaliar o crescimento em altura dominante do Pinus elliottii Engelm. e Pinus taeda L. em relação aos solos arenizados e degradados por ação antrópica, no oeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS). Para isso, foram selecionadas árvores dominantes em povoamentos com 29 anos de idade, em á...

  12. Crescimento em diâmetro do Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda em áreas arenizadas e degradadas no Oeste do Rio Grande do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Paulo Renato; Elesbão, Luiz Ernesto Grilo; Schneider, Paulo Sérgio Pigato; Longhi, Régis Villanova

    2014-01-01

    Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar o desempenho do Pinus elliottii Engelm. e Pinus taeda L. em áreas arenizadas e degradadas por ação antrópica, na região da fronteira oeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Em povoamentos, foram selecionadas árvores médias, que foram abatidas e seccionadas pelo método de Smalian, a fim de obter discos de madeira para a análise dendrocronológica, para a obtenção do diâmetro por idade. O crescimento em diâmetro, quando comparado entre espécies...

  13. Stem compression reversibly reduces phloem transport in Pinus sylvestris trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Nils; Tarvainen, Lasse; Lim, Hyungwoo; Tor-Ngern, Pantana; Palmroth, Sari; Oren, Ram; Marshall, John; Näsholm, Torgny

    2015-10-01

    Manipulating tree belowground carbon (C) transport enables investigation of the ecological and physiological roles of tree roots and their associated mycorrhizal fungi, as well as a range of other soil organisms and processes. Girdling remains the most reliable method for manipulating this flux and it has been used in numerous studies. However, girdling is destructive and irreversible. Belowground C transport is mediated by phloem tissue, pressurized through the high osmotic potential resulting from its high content of soluble sugars. We speculated that phloem transport may be reversibly blocked through the application of an external pressure on tree stems. Thus, we here introduce a technique based on compression of the phloem, which interrupts belowground flow of assimilates, but allows trees to recover when the external pressure is removed. Metal clamps were wrapped around the stems and tightened to achieve a pressure theoretically sufficient to collapse the phloem tissue, thereby aiming to block transport. The compression's performance was tested in two field experiments: a (13)C canopy labelling study conducted on small Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees [2-3 m tall, 3-7 cm diameter at breast height (DBH)] and a larger study involving mature pines (∼15 m tall, 15-25 cm DBH) where stem respiration, phloem and root carbohydrate contents, and soil CO2 efflux were measured. The compression's effectiveness was demonstrated by the successful blockage of (13)C transport. Stem compression doubled stem respiration above treatment, reduced soil CO2 efflux by 34% and reduced phloem sucrose content by 50% compared with control trees. Stem respiration and soil CO2 efflux returned to normal within 3 weeks after pressure release, and (13)C labelling revealed recovery of phloem function the following year. Thus, we show that belowground phloem C transport can be reduced by compression, and we also demonstrate that trees recover after treatment, resuming C

  14. The genetic structure of the mountain forest butterfly Erebia euryale unravels the late Pleistocene and postglacial history of the mountain coniferous forest biome in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Thomas; Haubrich, Karola

    2008-05-01

    The distribution of the mountain coniferous forest biome in Europe throughout time is not sufficiently understood. One character species of this habitat type is the large ringlet, Erebia euryale well reflecting the extension of this biome today, and the genetic differentiation of this species among and within mountain systems may unravel the late Pleistocene history of this habitat type. We therefore analysed the allozyme pattern of 381 E. euryale individuals from 11 populations in four different European mountain systems (Pyrenees, Alps, Carpathians, Rila). All loci analysed were polymorphic. The mean F(ST) over all samples was high (20%). Furthermore, the mean genetic distance among samples was quite high (0.049). We found four different groups well supported by cluster analyses, bootstraps and hierarchical variance analyses: Pyrenees, western Alps, eastern Alps and southeastern Europe (Carpathians and Rila). The genetic diversity of the populations was highest in the southeastern European group and stepwise decreased westwards. Interestingly, the populations from Bulgaria and Romania were almost identical; therefore, we assume that they were not separated by the Danube Valley, at least during the last ice age. On the contrary, the differentiation among the three western Alps populations was considerable. For all these reasons, we assume that (i) the most important refugial area for the coniferous mountain forest biome in Europe has been located in southeastern Europe including at least parts of the Carpathians and the Bulgarian mountains; (ii) important refugial areas for this biome existed at the southeastern edge of the Alps; (iii) fragments of this habitat types survived along the southwestern Alps, but in a more scattered distribution; and (iv) relatively small relicts have persisted somewhere at the foothills of the Pyrenees.

  15. Growth and nutrition of coniferous forests on acidic mineral soils - status and effects of liming and fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikstroem, Ulf

    2001-01-01

    Deposited air-borne S- and N- containing pollutants acidify forest soils in southern Sweden. It has been suggested that this may severely affect forest yield. Liming and/or application of specific nutrients, e.g. phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), have been proposed as countermeasures. The influence of such measures, and of nitrogen (N) addition, was investigated in two experimental series over 5-10 years. Stem growth and needle element concentrations were assessed, predominantly in high-yielding Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands, 30-60 years old, growing on acidic mineral soils in southern Sweden. The effect on crown transparency was also evaluated in some of the Norway spruce stands. The treatments included liming (500-6,000 kg ha -1 ), and N addition at low annual doses (2x10 kg N ha -1 ) and in single shots (150 kg N ha -1 ). Combinations of lime+N, lime+PK and lime+PKN were also tested. The effects were generally weak or negligible, except that growth was significantly increased by N fertilization in the Scots pine stands, and by lime+PKN in some of the Norway spruce stands. In another study, the survival and growth of Norway spruce seedlings were found to be more or less unaffected when planted in pre-harvest acidified, limed or N fertilized soil, although the Ca and Zn concentrations in their needles rose after liming, while those of Mn and Al declined. In closed-canopy stands of Norway spruce and Scots pine with N concentrations of more than 15-16 mg (g DM) -1 in current-year needles, N fertilization was indicated to not necessarily stimulate increased growth. Other indicators of highly N-rich forests (e.g. elevated arginine levels) also start to appear above this level. The closed-canopy stands growing on the most acidic soils showed no signs of severe damage or nutrient deficiencies. These findings, together with the small or negligible effects of the tested countermeasures against soil acidification

  16. Genetic conservation and management of the Californian endemic, Torrey Pine (Pinus torreyana Parry)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Hamilton; Jessica W. Wright; F. Thomas. Ledig

    2017-01-01

    Torrey pine (Pinus torreyana) is one of the rarest pine species in the world. Restricted to one mainland and one island population in California, Torrey pine is a species of conservation concern under threat due to low population sizes, lack of genetic variation, and environmental stochasticity. Previous research points to a lack of within population variation that is...

  17. Geographic patterns of genetic variation and population structure in Pinus aristata, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Betsy A. Goodrich; Valerie Hipkins; Christopher Richards; Julie Kray

    2012-01-01

    Pinus aristata Engelm., Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, has a narrow core geographic and elevational distribution, occurs in disjunct populations, and is threatened by rapid climate change, white pine blister rust, and bark beetles. Knowledge of genetic diversity and population structure will help guide gene conservation strategies for this species. Sixteen sites...

  18. Alkanes and terpenes in wood and leaves of Pinus jeffreyi and P. sabiniana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Adams; Jessica W. Wright

    2012-01-01

    The wood oils of Pinus jeffreyi and P. sabiniana contain considerable amounts of heptane (76.6%, 92%), on a monoterpene basis. However, when entire wood extractables is considered, the amounts drop considerably (3.4%, 36.8%) with the major portion of the wood oils being diterpene acids. The leaf oil of P. jeffreyi...

  19. Pinus ponderosa: a taxonomic review with five subspecies in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Z. Callaham

    2013-01-01

    Various forms of Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C. Lawson are found from British Columbia southward and eastward through 16 states and, perhaps, into Mexico. The status of many names previously associated with this species, but excluded here, has been clarified. Accumulated evidence based on variation in morphology and xylem monoterpenes,...

  20. The variation of microfibril angle in South African grown Pinus patula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been shown for some species that the microfibril angle (MFA) of the S2 layer of tracheids is strongly related to the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of wood, even more so than wood density, especially in wood formed during juvenile growth. The objectives of this study were to describe the variation in MFA in young Pinus ...

  1. DNA analysis for section identification of individual Pinus pollen grains from Belukha glacier, Altai Mountains, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Fumio; Uetake, Jun; Motoyama, Hideaki; Imura, Satoshi; Kanda, Hiroshi; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Kaneko, Ryo; Takeuchi, Nozomu; Fujita, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Pollen taxon in sediment samples can be identified by analyzing pollen morphology. Identification of related species based on pollen morphology is difficult and is limited primarily to genus or family. Because pollen grains of various ages are preserved at below 0 °C in glaciers and thus are more likely to remain intact or to suffer little DNA fragmentation, genetic information from such pollen grains should enable identification of plant taxa below the genus level. However, no published studies have attempted detailed identification using DNA sequences obtained from pollen found in glaciers. As a preliminary step, this study attempted to analyze the DNA of Pinus pollen grains extracted from surface snow collected from the Belukha glacier in the Altai Mountains of Russia in the summer of 2003. A 150-bp rpoB fragment from the chloroplast genome in each Pinus pollen grain was amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and DNA products were sequenced to identify them at the section level. A total of 105 pollen grains were used for the test, and sequences were obtained from eight grains. From the sequences obtained, the pollen grains were identified as belonging to the section Quinquefoliae. Trees of the extant species Pinus sibirica in the section Quinquefoliae are currently found surrounding the glacier. The consistency of results for this section suggests that the pollen in the glacier originated from the same Pinus trees as those found in the immediate surroundings. (letter)

  2. Mortalidade em florestas de Pinus palustris causada por tempestade de raios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth W. Outcalt; Jorge Paladino Corrêa de Lima; Jose Américo de Mello Filho

    2002-01-01

    The importance of lightning as an ignition source for the fire driven Pinus palustris ecosystem is widely recognized. Lightning also impacts this system on a smaller scale by causing individual tree mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the level of mortality due to lightning activity at the Department of Energy's Savannah...

  3. The wood quality of Pinus chiapensis (Mart.) Andresen grown in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The wood quality of Pinus chiapensis (Mart.) Andresen grown in the Mpumalanga forest region: scientific paper. ... When present, the amounts of included resin, pieces of bark and other debris at the occluded pruning cuts, were small and of little practical significance. The wood machined without any difficulty in the wet and ...

  4. Composition of the essential oils of Pinus nigra Arnold from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Turkey, Composition of the essential oils of Pin

    2010-01-01

    Essential oil composition of the needles of Pinus nigra Arnold collected from different localities in Turkey was investigated by GC and GC/MS. The main components in the oils were a-pinene, b-pinene, b-caryophyllene, and germacrene D.

  5. Composition of the essential oils of Pinus nigra Arnold from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Turkey, Composition of the essential oils of Pin; SEZİK, Ekrem; ÜSTÜN, Osman; DEMİRCİ, Betül; BAŞER, K. Hüsnü Can

    2014-01-01

    Essential oil composition of the needles of Pinus nigra Arnold collected from different localities in Turkey was investigated by GC and GC/MS. The main components in the oils were a-pinene, b-pinene, b-caryophyllene, and germacrene D.

  6. Chloroplast microsatellites reveal population genetic diversity in red pine, Pinus resinosa Ait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig S. Echt; L.L. DeVerno; M. Anzidei; G.G. Vendramin

    1998-01-01

    Variation in paternally inherited chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) DNA was used to study population genetic structure in red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.), a species characterized by morphological uniformity, no allozyme variation, and limited RAPD variation. Using nine cpSSR loci, a total of 23 chloroplast haplotypes and 25 cpSSR alleles were were...

  7. Climate-related genetic variation in a threatened tree species, Pinus albicaulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus V. Warwell; Ruth G. Shaw

    2017-01-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: With ongoing climate change, understanding of intraspecific adaptive variation is critical for conservation and restoration of plant species. Such information is especially scarce for threatened and endangered tree species, such as Pinus albicaulis Engelm. Therefore, our principal aims were to assess adaptive variation and characterize its...

  8. Inheritance of the bark reaction resistance mechanism in Pinus monticola infected by Cronartium ribicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray J. Hoff

    1986-01-01

    Necrotic reactions in branch or main stems of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl.) caused by infection by the blister rust fungus (Cronartium ribicola J. C. Fisch. ex Rabenh.) are a major mechanism of resistance. Overall, 26 percent of the seedlings eliminated the fungus via this defense system. Heritability based upon crossing family groups averaged 33 percent...

  9. Inheritance of allozyme variants in bishop pine (Pinus muricata D.Don)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    1985-01-01

    Isozyme phenotypes are described for 45 structural loci and I modifier locus in bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don,) and segregation data are presented for a subset of 31 polymorphic loci from 19 enzyme systems. All polymorphic loci had alleles that segregated within single-focus Mendelian expectations, although one pair of alleles at each of three...

  10. Influence of ammonia and ozone on growth and drought sensitivity of Pinus sylvestris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dueck, Th.A.; Zuin, A.; Elderson, J.

    1998-01-01

    Four-year-old Pinus sylvestris trees were exposed to ammonia (16, 55, 110 ppb for 24 h d-1)and ozone (0, 45 and 68 ppb, 9 h d-1) in a factorial design in open-top chambers for 15 months. Treatment effects on tree growth and architecture were assessed during two growing seasons; effects on

  11. CO2 AND O3 ALTER PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND WATER VAPOR EXCHANGE FOR PINUS PONDEROSA NEEDLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Effects of CO2 and O3 were determined for a key component of ecosystem carbon and water cycling: needle gas exchange (photosynthesis, conductance, transpiration and water use efficiency). The measurements were made on Pinus ponderosa seedlings grown in outdoor, sunlit, mesoc...

  12. Soil enzyme activities in Pinus tabuliformis (Carriere) plantations in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiwei Wang; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Ruiheng Lv; Chen Xiao; Guolei Li; Yong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Changes in forest stand structure may alter the activity of invertase, urease, catalase and phenol oxidase after thinning Pinus tabuliformis (Carriére) plantations in Yanqing County of Beijing, China. We examined changes in these soil enzymes as influenced by time since thinning (24, 32, and 40 years since thinning) for 3 seasons (spring, summer and autumn)...

  13. Fungal endophytes in woody roots of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Hoff; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Geral I. McDonald; Jonalea R. Tonn; Mee-Sook Kim; Paul J. Zambino; Paul F. Hessburg; J. D. Rodgers; T. L. Peever; L. M. Carris

    2004-01-01

    The fungal community inhabiting large woody roots of healthy conifers has not been well documented. To provide more information about such communities, a survey was conducted using increment cores from the woody roots of symptomless Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) growing in dry forests...

  14. Patterns of resistance to Cronartium ribicola in Pinus aristata, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. W. Schoettle; R. A. Sniezko; A. Kegley; R. Danchok; K. S. Burns

    2012-01-01

    The core distribution of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata Engelm., extends from central Colorado into northern New Mexico, with a disjunct population on the San Francisco Peaks in northern Arizona. Populations are primarily at high elevations and often define the alpine treeline; however, the species can also be found in open mixed conifer stands with...

  15. WATER-USE ALONG A HYDROLOGICAL GRADIENT IN CENTRAL FLORIDA: A TALE OF TWO PINUS SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although central Florida is relatively flat, the distribution of species on the landscape is controlled by subtle changes in elevation. Along a four-meter elevation gradient, xeric sandhill vegetation dominated by Pinus palustris (Longleaf pine) gives way to mesic pine flatwoods...

  16. Biomass production in an age series of Pinus patula plantation in Tamil Nadu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S C; Srivastava, V K

    1984-09-01

    Distribution of organic matter in different tree components of 3, 5, 9, 11 and 13 years old plantations of Pinus patula has been discussed. The total biomass ranged from 7 tonnes (3 years) to 194 tonnes (9 years) per ha with 82 to 87% being contributed by the above ground parts and 13 to 18% by root.

  17. Nuclear genetic variation across the range of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa): Phylogeographic, taxonomic and conservation implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Valerie D. Hipkins; Mary F. Mahalovich; Robert E. Means

    2015-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) is among the most broadly distributed conifer species of western North America, where it possesses considerable ecological, esthetic, and commercial value. It exhibits complicated patterns of morphological and genetic variation, suggesting that it may be in the process of differentiating into distinct regional...

  18. Forest floor depth mediates understory vigor in xeric Pinus palustris ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Kevin Hiers; Joseph J. O' Brien; Rodney E. Will; Robert J. Mitchell

    2007-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) woodlands and savannas are among the most frequently burned ecosystems in the world with fire return intervals of 1–10 years. This fire regime has maintained high levels of biodiversity in terms of both species richness and endemism. Land use changes have reduced the area of this ecosystem by .95%, and inadequate fire...

  19. Polyamine levels during the development of zygotic and somatic embryos of Pinus radiata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh Minocha; Dale R. Smith; Cathie Reeves; Kevin D. Steele; Subhash C. Minocha

    1999-01-01

    Changes in the cellular content of three polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) were compared at different stages of development in zygotic and somatic embryos of Pinus radiata D. Don. During embryo development, both the zygotic and the somatic embryos showed a steady increase in spermidine content, with either a small decrease or no...

  20. Using flotation in ethanol to separate filled and empty seeds of Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the separation of filled and empty seeds of Crimean pine [Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe] by flotation in ethanol and the effect of this treatment on seed germination were investigated. Flotation tests in 96% ethanol by the density method and then germination tests were made on the seeds ...

  1. Interrelationships among light, photosynthesis and nitrogen in the crown of mature Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. W. Schoettle; W. K. Smith

    1999-01-01

    Scaling leaf-level measurements to estimate carbon gain of entire leaf crowns or canopies requires an understanding of the distribution of photosynthetic capacity and corresponding light microenvironments within a crown. We have compared changes in the photosynthetic light response and nitrogen (N) content (per unit leaf area) of Pinus contorta Dougl. ssp. latifolia...

  2. Effects of air pollution on morphological and anatomical characteristics of Pinus Eldarica Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidreza Safdari; Moinuddin Ahmed; Margaret S. Devall; Vilma Bayramzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution, including automobile exhaust pollution, can affect anatomical and morphological characteristics of wood. In order to evaluate this subject, the Pinus eldarica trees of Chitgar Park in Tehran, which extends from a crowded highway in the south (polluted site) to the semi polluted midsection and to Alborz Mountain in the north (unpolluted...

  3. Fusarium spp. and Pinus strobus seedlings: root disease pathogens and taxa associated with seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. M. Ocamb; J. Juzwik; F. B. Martin

    2002-01-01

    Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L .) seeds were sown in soil infested wlth Fusarium proliferatum, root necrosis developed on seedling roots, and F. proliferatum as reisolated from symptomatic roots; thus, demonstrating that F. proliferatum is pathogenic to eastern white pine seedling. Soils...

  4. Simulatd Nitrogen Cycling Response to Elevated CO2 in Pinus taeda and Mixed Dediduous Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.W. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    Interactions between elevated CO2 and N cycling were explored with a nutrient cycling model (NuCM, Johnson et al. 1993, 1995) for a Pinus tuedu L. site at Duke University North Carolina, and a mixed deciduous site at Walker Branch, Tennessee. The simulations tested whether N limitation would prevent growth increases in response to elevated CO...

  5. A Comparison of Fire Intensity levels for stand replacement of table mountain pine (Pinus pungens Lamb.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Waldrop; Patrick H. Brose

    1999-01-01

    Stand-replacement prescribed fire has been recommended to regenerate stands of table mountain pine (Pinus pungens Lamb.) in the Southern Appalachian Mountains because the species has serotinous cones and is shade intolerant. A 350 ha prescribed fire in northeast Georgia provided an opportunity to observe overstory mortality and regeneration of table...

  6. Effects of temperature on Pinus patula seedlings growing in pots in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The re-establishment of Pinus patula seedlings into sites with high harvesting residue (slash) loads can negatively affect the survival of these plants. Field trials have examined the role that insect pests and fungal diseases play in causing this phenomenon. Research has also indicated that temperatures at ground level tend ...

  7. Results from four Pinus patula water planting trials in the summer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Planting with water is used by some forestry companies in South Africa to reduce post-planting water stress. Four trials were implemented to test the response in survival of Pinus patula to water applied at planting. Two trials each were situated in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands and Mpumalanga escarpment. The first trial at ...

  8. Growth and physiological responses to varied environments among populations of Pinus ponderosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianwei Zhang; Bert M. Cregg

    2005-01-01

    We investigated population responses in physiology, morphology, and growth of mature Pinus ponderosa trees to an environmental gradient across Nebraska, USA. Ten populations from western Nebraska and eastern Wyoming were grown in three 26-year-old provenance tests from the warmest and wettest site in the east (Plattsmouth) to the intermediate site in...

  9. Adaptation des semis de Pin pignon ( Pinus pinea L.) au stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adaptation des semis de Pin pignon ( Pinus pinea L.) au stress combiné hydrique et thermique par des marqueurs biochimiques. ... Objectif: L'objectif de ce travail consiste à analyser les effets d'un stress hydrique et ... from 32 Countries:.

  10. Comparative genetic responses to climate in the varieties of Pinus ponderosa and Pseudotsuga menziesii: reforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Barry C. Jaquish; Cuauhtemoc Saenz-Romero; Dennis G. Joyce; Laura P. Leites; J. Bradley St Clair; Javier Lopez-Upton

    2014-01-01

    Impacts of climate change on the climatic niche of the sub-specific varieties of Pinus ponderosa and Pseudotsuga menziesii and on the adaptedness of their populations are considered from the viewpoint of reforestation. In using climate projections from an ensemble of 17 general circulation models targeting the decade surrounding 2060, our analyses suggest that a...

  11. EFFECTS OF CARBON DIOXIDE AND OZONE ON GROWTH AND BIOMASS ALLOCATION IN PINUS PONDEROSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The future productivity of forests will be affected by combinations of elevated atmospheric CO2 and O3. Because productivity of forests will, in part, be determined by growth of young trees, we evaluated shoot growth and biomass responses of Pinus ponderosa seedlings exposed to ...

  12. CARBON ISOTOPE DISCRIMINATION AND GROWTH RESPONSE OF OLD PINUS PONDEROSA TREES TO STAND DENSITY REDUCTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stand density reductions have been proposed as a method by which old-growth ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests of North America can be converted back to pre-1900 conditions, thereby reducing the danger of catastrophic forest fires and insect attacks while increasing product...

  13. Reproduction ecology of Pinus halepensis : a monoecious, wind-pollinated and partially serotinous Mediterranean pine tree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goubitz, Shirrinka

    2001-01-01

    Fire is an important factor in the evolution and ecology of Mediterranean plant species. The fire frequency has increased in the 20st century. Pines are the most important tree species in the area. Pinus halepensis is the only natural pine in parts of the east Mediterranean basin, such as Israel and

  14. The genetics of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata mill.) with implications for restoration and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Stewart; Rodney E. Will; Barbara S. Crane; C. Dana Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) is an important commercial timber resource and forest ecosystem component in the southeastern USA. The species occurs in mainly drier sites as an early- to mid-successional species, is fireadapted, and it plays an important role in the fire ecology of the region. However, shortleaf pine genetics are not well-studied, especially in...

  15. Water availability and genetic effects on wood properties of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. A. Gonzalez-Benecke; T. A. Martin; Alexander Clark; G. F. Peter

    2010-01-01

    We studied the effect of water availability on basal area growth and wood properties of 11-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees from contrasting Florida (FL) (a mix of half-sib families) and South Carolina coastal plain (SC) (a single, half-sib family) genetic material. Increasing soil water availability via irrigation increased average wholecore specific...

  16. Effects of intermediate-severity disturbance on composition and structure in mixed Pinus-hardwood stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Trammell; Justin Hart; Callie Schweitzer; Daniel C. Dey; Michael Steinberg

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, forest managers intend to create or maintain mixed Pinus-hardwood stands. This stand assemblage may be driven by a variety of objectives but is often motivated by the desire to enhance native forest diversity and promote resilience to perturbations. Documenting the effects of natural disturbances on species composition and stand...

  17. Assessing the gene content of the megagenome: sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Gonzalez-Ibeas; Pedro J. Martinez-Garcia; Randi A. Famula; Annette Deflino-Mix; Kristian A. Stevens; Carol A. Loopstra; Charles H. Landley; David B. Neale; Jill L. Wegryzn

    2016-01-01

    Sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Douglas) is within the subgenus Strobus with an estimated genome size of 31 Gbp. Transcriptomic resources are of particular interest in conifers due to the challenges presented in their megagenomes for gene identification. In this study, we present the first comprehensive survey of the P. lambertiana...

  18. Cogongrass ( Imperata cylindrica ) affects above- and belowground processes in commercial loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda ) stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam N. Trautwig; Lori G. Eckhardt; Nancy J. Loewenstein; Jason D. Hoeksema; Emily A. Carter; Ryan L. Nadel

    2017-01-01

    Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica), an invasive grass species native to Asia, has been shown to reduce tree vigor in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantations, which comprise more than 50% of growing stock in commercial forests of the United States. I. cylindrica produces exudates with possible allelopathic effects that may influence abundance of P. taeda symbionts, such...

  19. Assessing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) restoration after southern pine beetle kill using a compact experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.-P. Berrill; C.M. Dagley

    2010-01-01

    A compact experimental design and analysis is presented of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) survival and growth in a restoration project in the Piedmont region of Georgia, USA. Longleaf pine seedlings were planted after salvage logging and broadcast burning in areas of catastrophic southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) attacks on even-aged mixed pine-hardwood...

  20. Prospects for the biological control of invasive Pinus species (Pinaceae) in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hoffmann, JH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available of Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra) not attacked by the specialized pine cone weevil, Pissodes validirostris? A case of host selection vs. host suitability. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 99: 157?163. DWAF. 2004. Key issue paper for a policy...

  1. Classification of Pinus patula, P. tecunumanii, P. oocarpa, P. caribaea var. hondurensis, and Related Taxonomic Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.E. Squillace; Jesse P. Perry

    1992-01-01

    Stem xylem terpenes of 75 pine populations were studied to determine relationships among taxonomic entities. Typical Pinus patula populations occurring in areas north and west of Oaxaca, Mexico, had very high proportions of 3-phellandrene and low proportions of other constituents. Terpene compositions of populations of variety longipeduncalatain...

  2. Nursery response of container Pinus palustris seedlings to nitrogen supply and subsequent effects on outplanting performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Paul Jackson; R. Kasten Dumroese; James P. Barnett

    2012-01-01

    Container longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) seedlings often survive and grow better after outplanting than bareroot seedlings. Because of this, most longleaf pine are now produced in containers. Little is known about nursery fertilization effects on the quality of container longleaf pine seedlings and how that influences outplanting performance. We compared various...

  3. Biomass and nutrients of Pinus massoniana plantations in southern China: simulations for different management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huixia Yang; Silong Wang; Jianwei Zhang; Bing Fan; Weidong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    We measured the dynamics of both biomass and nutrient pools on 7-, 17-, 31- and 51-year-old Pinus massoniana plantations in southern China. Using a chronosequence approach, we found that biomass of each component increased with aging while its proportion decreased except stem-wood. Nutrient pools varied with biomass pools except for foliage. For all harvest intensities...

  4. Growth dynamics of fine roots in a coniferous fern forest site close to Forsmark in the central part of Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Hans; Stadenberg, Ingela (SLU, Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2007-12-15

    The seasonal growth dynamics of live and dead roots for trees and the field layer species (g/m2, varying diameter fractions) and live/dead ratios were analysed at a fresh/moist coniferous fern forest site close to the nuclear power plant at Forsmark in the central eastern parts of Sweden. The changes in depth distribution of fine roots were observed at depth intervals of the top humus horizon down to 40 cm in the mineral soil profile. The bulk of living fine roots of trees (< 1 mm in diameter) were found in the mineral soil horizon the total profile down to 40 cm of the mineral soil, where 89, 82, 83 and 89% of the total amount in the whole profile were found. The upper 2.5 cm part of the humus layer contained 83, 81, 100 and 100% of all roots of the humus layer on the four different sampling occasions. High amounts of living fine roots were found in the upper 10 cm of the mineral soil horizon viz. 84, 76, 91 and 69% of the total mineral soil layer. Consequently, both the top soil horizons of the humus and the mineral soil layers were heavily penetrated by living fine roots. The highest proportion of living fine roots was found in the top 2.5 cm of the humus layer. Accordingly, the live/dead ratio of fine roots (< 1 mm in diameter) decreased from the top of the humus layer to the lower part of mineral soil horizon from 8.0-0.3, 0.8-0.2, 4.4-0.4 and 3.3-0.7 (g g-1) for the four sampling occasions, respectively. We concluded that the decrease in the live/ dead ratio was related to decreased vitality with depth of the fine roots in the soil profile. The highest live/dead ratio was found in the upper 2.5 cm of the humus layer for both the tree and field-layer species. This distribution pattern was most evident for tree fine roots < 1 mm in diameter. The mean fine-root biomass (live tissue < 1 mm in diameter) of tree species for the total profile varied on the four sampling occasions between 317, 113, 139 and 248 g m-2. The related fine root necromass (dead tissue

  5. Volume de madeira de Pinus taeda L. em diferentes espaços vitais de crescimento. Wood volume of Pinus taeda L. at different growing spacings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo LIMA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pinus taeda L. é uma das espécies do gênero Pinus mais plantadas na região Sul do Brasil por apresentar excelente crescimento e ótima adaptação às condições climáticas e de solo. Essa espécie é utilizada em larga escala, principalmente para a produção de celulose, construção civil, laminação, produção de móveis, particulados e serraria. Objetivou-se avaliar a produção volumétrica de Pinus taeda L. em diferentes espaços vitais de crescimento (entre 1 m2 e 16 m2 por planta propiciados por nove diferentes espaçamentos entre árvores de um ensaio em cinco blocos ao acaso. O trabalho baseou-se nas medidas de altura e DAP em 25 árvores internas da parcela, aos sete anos após plantio das mudas oriundas de pomar de sementes clonal. Valores estimados de volume por hectare foram inversamente proporcionais ao aumento do espaço vital, alcançando entre 74,2 e 274,8 m3 /ha. Os incrementos médios em volume atingiram entre 10,60 e 39,25 m3 /ha/ano. Concluiu-se que, se o objetivo é a produção volumétrica mesmo com diâmetros pequenos, deve-se optar por espaços vitais menores. Quando se deseja maiores diâmetros, a opção é por espaços maiores. No presente caso, o melhor compromisso entre produção volumétrica e diâmetros grandes pode estar nos espaços vitais intermediários, entre 5 e 8 m2 para cada árvore. Pinus taeda L. is one of the most Pinus species planted in southern Brazil, because it presents excellent growth and optimum adaptation to climatic and soil condition. The species is used in large scale, mainly for cellulose production, construction, laminating, production of furniture, particulates and sawmill. It was aimed to evaluate the Pinus taeda L. volumetric production at different growth vital spaces (ranging 1 m² and 16 m² per plant provided by nine different spacings between plants, the trial was installed in a randomized blocks with five replications. The study was based on height and DBH measurements

  6. Cytoprotective effects of essential oil of Pinus halepensis L. against aspirin-induced toxicity in IEC-6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzenna, Hafsia; Hfaiedh, Najla; Bouaziz, Mouhamed; Giroux-Metges, Marie-Agnès; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Talarmin, Hélène

    2017-12-01

    Essential oils from Pinus species have been reported to have various therapeutic properties. This study was undertaken to identify the chemical composition and cytoprotective effects of the essential oil of Pinus halepensis L. against aspirin-induced damage in cells in vitro. The cytoprotection of the oil against toxicity of aspirin on the small intestine epithelial cells IEC-6 was tested. The obtained results have shown that 35 different compounds were identified. Aspirin induced a decrease in cell viability, and exhibited significant damage to their morphology and an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. However, the co-treatment of aspirin with the essential oil of Pinus induced a significant increase in cell viability and a decrease in SOD and CAT activities. Overall, these finding suggest that the essential oil of Pinus halepensis L. has potent cytoprotective effect against aspirin-induced toxicity in IEC-6 cells.

  7. Association of Pinus banksiana Lamb. and Populus tremuloides Michx. seedling fine roots with Sistotrema brinkmannii (Bres.) J. Erikss. (Basidiomycotina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynette R. Potvin; Dana L. Richter; Martin F. Jurgensen; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2012-01-01

    Sistotrema brinkmannii (Bres.) J. Erikss. (Basidiomycotina, Hydanaceae), commonly regarded as a wood decay fungus, was consistently isolated from bareroot nursery Pinus banksiana Lamb. seedlings. S. brinkmannii was found in ectomycorrhizae formed by Thelephora terrestris Ehrh., ...

  8. First report of shoot blight and dieback caused by Diplodia pinea on Pinus pinaster and P. radiata trees in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T. Linaldeddu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage caused by Diplodia pinea on Pinus pinaster and P. radiata forests are reported for the fi rst time in Tunisia. The affected plants show shoot blight, canker and branch dieback. On decaying and dead branches pycnidia of D. pinea are observed. The fungus was repeatedly isolated from the bark of symptomatic branches. The results of pathogenicity tests confirm the virulence of D. pinea and the susceptibility of both Pinus species to infection.

  9. The Influence of DEM Quality on Mapping Accuracy of Coniferous- and Deciduous-Dominated Forest Using TerraSAR‑X Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Kändler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a factor that largely contributes to the increase of forest areas affected by natural damages. Therefore, the development of methodologies for forest monitoring and rapid assessment of affected areas is required. Space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR imagery with high resolution is now available for large-scale forest mapping and forest monitoring applications. However, a correct interpretation of SAR images requires an adequate preprocessing of the data consisting of orthorectification and radiometric calibration. The resolution and quality of the digital elevation model (DEM used as reference is crucial for this purpose. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to analyze the influence of the DEM quality used in the preprocessing of the SAR data on the mapping accuracy of forest types. In order to examine TerraSAR-X images to map forest dominated by deciduous and coniferous trees, High Resolution SpotLight images were acquired for two study sites in southern Germany. The SAR images were preprocessed with a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM DEM (resolution approximately 90 m, an airborne laser scanning (ALS digital terrain model (DTM (5 m resolution, and an ALS digital surface model (DSM (5 m resolution. The orthorectification of the SAR images using high resolution ALS DEMs was found to be important for the reduction of errors in pixel location and to increase the classification accuracy of forest types. SAR images preprocessed with ALS DTMs resulted in the highest classification accuracies, with kappa coefficients of 0.49 and 0.41, respectively. SAR images preprocessed with ALS DTMs resulted in greater accuracy than those preprocessed with ALS DSMs in most cases. The classification accuracy of forest types using SAR images preprocessed with the SRTM DEM was fair, with kappa coefficients of 0.23 and 0.32, respectively.Analysis of the radar backscatter indicated that sample plots dominated by coniferous trees

  10. Usage of the pruned log index for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda and slash pine (Pinus elliottii Aplicação do Índice de Tora Podada para Pinus taeda e Pinus elliottii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Jeton Cardoso

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The assessment of the quality of clearwood produced in pruned plantations of pine is necessary, especially to set price and know the utilization potential. The pruned log index (PLI, index used in Chile and New Zealand to characterize the quality of the logs, is a function of measurable variables of each log as diameter with defects, diameter 1.3 m from the largest end and the ratio between the cylinder volume common to the entire length of the log and the scaling volume through the method Smalian. This study aims at evaluating the ITP usage for slash pine (Pinus elliottii logs at the age 24 years and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda at 19, harvested
    in the regions of Ibaiti, Paraná, and Itapeva, São Paulo. The PLI values did not exceed 2.3, which  indicates that there is little clearwood on the logs. This has been proven through the veneering results, in which the potentially clear volume in relation to the log volume ranged between 52% and 55%, but 10.3% at the maximum, was turned into clearwood veneer. The slicing procedure in the lathe proved to be suitable, since it allowed the diameter of the knotty core to be measured as soon as the knot came out. The PLI showed itself as applicable for the Brazilian conditions.

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.62.119

  1. Biological characterization of young and aged embryogenic cultures of Pinus pinaster (Ait.)

    OpenAIRE

    Klimaszewska, Krystyna; Noceda, Carlos; Pelletier, Gervais; Label, Philippe; Rodriguez, Roberto; Lelu-Walter, Marie-Anne

    2009-01-01

    Pinus pinaster (Ait.) somatic embryogenesis (SE) has been developed during the last decade, and its application in tree improvement programs is underway. Nevertheless, a few more or less important problems still exist, which have an impact on the efficiency of specific SE stages. One phenomenon, which had been observed in embryogenic tissue (embryonal mass, EM) initiated from immature seed, has been the loss of the ability to produce mature somatic embryos after the tissue had been cultured f...

  2. Dehydrins in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) and their expression related to drought stress response

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco-Conde, Tania; Yakovlev, Igor; Majada, J.P. (Juan); Johnsen, Øystein

    2014-01-01

    Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) is an important commercial species throughout its Atlantic distribution. With the anticipated increase in desiccation of its habitat as a result of climate change, the selection of genotypes with increased survival and growth capability under these conditions for breeding programs is of great interest for this species. We aimed to study the response to a realistic drought stress under controlled conditions, looked for a method to measure dehydration resistance, ...

  3. Drought Tolerance in Pinus halepensis Seed Sources As Identified by Distinctive Physiological and Molecular Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Taïbi, Khaled; Campo, Antonio D. del; Vilagrosa Carmona, Alberto; Bellés, José M.; López-Gresa, María Pilar; Pla, Davinia; Calvete, Juan J.; López-Nicolás, José M.; Mulet, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Drought is one of the main constraints determining forest species growth, survival and productivity, and therefore one of the main limitations for reforestation or afforestation. The aim of this study is to characterize the drought response at the physiological and molecular level of different Pinus halepensis (common name Aleppo pine) seed sources, previously characterized in field trials as drought-sensitive or drought-tolerant. This approach aims to identify different traits capable of pre...

  4. Drought resistance of Pinus sylvestris seedlings conferred by plastic root architecture rather than ectomycorrhizal colonisation

    OpenAIRE

    Moser , Barbara; Kipfer , Tabea; Richter , Sarah; Egli , Simon; Wohlgemuth , Thomas

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Abstract ContextIncreased summer drought is considered as a threat to the regeneration of Pinus sylvestris in the Central Alps. To a certain degree, seedlings are able to mitigate negative effects of drought by altering root/shoot ratios. But, seedlings may also enhance access to water and nutrients by cooperation with ectomycorrhizal fungi. AimsWe tested the importance of both mechanisms for drought resistance of P. sylvestris seedlings during early establishment and ...

  5. Soil type affects Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum (Pinaceae) seedling growth in simulated drought experiments 1

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsey, Alexander J.; Kilgore, Jason S.

    2013-01-01

    Premise of the study: Effects of drought stress and media type interactions on growth of Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum germinants were investigated. Methods and Results: Soil properties and growth responses under drought were compared across four growth media types: two native soils (dolomitic limestone and granite), a soil-less industry standard conifer medium, and a custom-mixed conifer medium. After 35 d of growth, the seedlings under drought stress (reduced watering) produced less sh...

  6. Genetic diversity of Pinus halepensis Mill. populations detected by RAPD loci

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez , Aránzazu; Alía , Ricardo; Bueno , María

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Genetic diversity of Pinus halepensis Mill. was analysed in nine populations (six Spanish populations and one each from Tunisia, France and Greece). Twenty four RAPD loci were amplified with 60 megagametophyte DNA samples from each population. Populations' contribution to Nei gene diversity and to allelic richness were calculated. Results showed higher within population genetic variation but also a $G_{{\\rm ST}} = 13.6\\%$ higher than those detected in previous studies ...

  7. Chemical composition and antimicrobial potency of essential oils from roots of Pinus growing in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia FEKIH; Hocine ALLALI; Abdeslem Nacer AREZKI AIT; Salima MERGHACHE; Djamila MAGHNIA; Jean COSTA

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the chemical composition and antimicrobial potency of essential oils of three roots of genus Pinus (P. halepensis, P. pinea and P. pinaster) growing in Algeria for the first time. The essential oils used in the present study were isolated by hydrodistillation using a Cleavenger-type apparatus according the European Pharmacopoeia, and identified by GC and GC-MS. 14, 12, 11 constituents were identified, representing an average of 98.8 %, 9...

  8. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Pinus pinaster

    OpenAIRE

    Nouara Ait Mimoune; Djouher Ait Mimoune; Aziza Yataghene

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of essential oils of Pinus pinaster. Methods: Essential oils were extracted from the needles by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the obtained essential oils was analyzed using GC-MS technique. The antimicrobial potential has been tested against six microorganisms performing the disc diffusion assay. Results: Twenty-three components have been identified. β-caryophyllene (30.9%) and β-seli...

  9. Application of gamma radiation to the nodes detection in Pinus Radiata (D.Don) wood pieces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, J.R.; Dinator, Maria I; Karsulovic C, Jose T.; Leon G, Adolfo

    1996-01-01

    Attenuation of 59.5 KeV photons provided by an Am-241 source, has been used to detect knots in lumber pieces from Pinus Radiata (D.Don). It is shown that the linear attenuation coefficient is a sensitive parameter to detect singularities in the structure of this material. The scanning of the piece provides profiles which define the position and extension of the singularity. (author)

  10. Produção de compensados de Pinus taeda L. E Pinus oocarpa Schiede com diferentes formulações de adesivo uréia formaldeído Plywood manufacturing from Pinus elliottii L. and Pinus oocarpa Schiede with different formulations of the urea-formaldheyde resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade de painéis compensados de Pinus taeda e de Pinus oocarpa, com 20 e 24 anos de idade, respectivamente, utilizando três diferentes formulações de adesivo uréia-formaldeído. Foram produzidos 18 painéis, com três repetições por tratamento. As formulações com maior proporção relativa de resina não influenciaram de forma conclusiva as propriedades físico-mecânicas dos painéis.Os painéis de P. oocarpa apresentaram valores médios de resistência da linha de cola, módulos de elasticidade e de ruptura superiores àqueles dos painéis de P. taeda. Os resultados das propriedades físico-mecânicas dos painéis indicaram grande potencial de utilização de lâminas de P. oocarpa para produção de compensados.The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of both Pinus taeda and Pinus oocarpa plywood, 20 and 24-years-old, respectively, using three different formulations of urea formaldheyde resin. A total of 18 boards were produced, using three repetitions per treatment. The formulations containing a high relative proportion of the resin did not show a conclusive influence on the physical and mechanical properties of the boards. The boards made from P. oocarpa showed higher average values of the glue line strength, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture in comparison to boards of P. taeda. The results showed that the evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of the board, indicate that the veneers of P. oocarpa have a high potentiality for plywood production.

  11. Late Holocene expansion of Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) in the Central Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jodi R; Betancourt, Julio L.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    "Aim: Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) experienced one of the most extensive and rapid post-glacial plant migrations in western North America. We used plant macrofossils from woodrat (Neotoma) middens to reconstruct its spread in the Central Rocky Mountains, identify other vegetation changes coinciding with P. ponderosa expansion at the same sites, and relate P. ponderosa migrational history to both its modern phylogeography and to a parallel expansion by Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma).

  12. Climate-influenced ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seed masting trends in western Montana, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Keyes, Christopher R.; Gonzalez, Ruben Manso

    2015-01-01

    Aim of study: The aim of this study was to analyze 10-year records of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seed production, in order to confirm synchronic seed production and to evaluate cyclical masting trends, masting depletion effect, and climate-masting relationships. Area of study: The study area was located in a P. ponderosa stand in the northern Rocky Mountains (western Montana, USA). Material and methods: The study was conducted in one stand that had been subjected to a silvicul...

  13. Site index models for calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten. in Thasos Island, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriaki Kitikidou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A site index model for Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten. in Thasos island (North Aegean sea, Greece is presented. The model was fitted and validated from 150 stem analyses, obtained from 75 fixed-area plots from five experimental sites. Four height growth equations of difference form were tested and the BAILEY and CLUTTER (1974 function was considered appropriate due to its good performance with both fitting and validation data. The results show errors lower than 5% and little bias.

  14. Reproductive Success and Inbreeding Differ in Fragmented Populations of Pinus rzedowskii and Pinus ayacahuite var. veitchii, Two Endemic Mexican Pines under Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paty Castilleja Sánchez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed production, quality, germination and seedling establishment are indicators of reproductive success in conifers. Monitoring of these parameters is essential to determine the viability of populations for the purposes of conservation. We analyze cone and seed traits as indicators of reproductive success in the endangered Rzedowski´s pine (Pinus rzedowskii (Madrigal et Caballero and near-threatened veitchii pine (Pinus ayacahuite var. veitchii (Shaw in west-central Michoacán, Mexico. These traits were systematically quantified and their variation assessed using Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMMs. We found that the reproductive success of Rzedowski’s pine seems to be critical, presenting low seed efficiency (17.10%, germination (5.0% and seedling establishment (27.7%, with high levels of inbreeding (0.79. In contrast, veitchii pine presents moderate seed efficiency (54.9%, high germination (71.5% and seedling establishment (84%–97% and low inbreeding (0.33. Reproductive indicators differed significantly among zones and populations for each species, where fragment sizes mainly affected seed production and efficiency. This result indicates that fragmentation has played a more important role in the reproductive success of Rzedowski’s pine than in veitchii pine, perhaps by limiting pollen flow among zones and populations and producing higher levels of inbreeding and lower seed efficiency in the former species. We propose a conservation strategy for these important pine species in order to increase their long-term genetic viability.

  15. Crescimento em altura dominante do Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda em solos arenizados degradados no oeste do Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Renato Schneider

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de espécies florestais de rápido crescimento em áreas com solos arenizados e degradados pode ser uma alternativa tanto para a prevenção como para a minimização desse problema. O trabalho objetivou avaliar o crescimento em altura dominante do Pinus elliottii Engelm. e Pinus taeda L. em relação aos solos arenizados e degradados por ação antrópica, no oeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS. Para isso, foram selecionadas árvores dominantes em povoamentos com 29 anos de idade, em áreas com dois níveis de degradação, as quais foram abatidas e seccionadas pelo método de Smalian para a obtenção de discos de madeira para a análise dendrocronológica e determinação da altura dominante por idade, no período de 1982 a 2010. Os crescimentos em altura dominante dessas espécies, quando comparados entre si e por nível de degradação do solo, apresentaram tendências diferentes de desenvolvimento no tempo, indicando a presença de polimorfismo das curvas.

  16. Crescimento em diâmetro do Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda em áreas arenizadas e degradadas no Oeste do Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Renato Schneider

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar o desempenho do Pinus elliottii Engelm. e Pinus taeda L. em áreas arenizadas e degradadas por ação antrópica, na região da fronteira oeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Em povoamentos, foram selecionadas árvores médias, que foram abatidas e seccionadas pelo método de Smalian, a fim de obter discos de madeira para a análise dendrocronológica, para a obtenção do diâmetro por idade. O crescimento em diâmetro, quando comparado entre espécies, apresentou tendências diferentes de níveis de desenvolvimento no tempo. O uso de variáveis dummy no modelo de crescimento permitiu definir uma equação única para estimar o diâmetro em função da idade para ambas as espécies, considerando os níveis de degradação do solo médio e baixo, como variáveis necessárias para estimar o crescimento destas espécies nestes tipos de solos arenizados e degradados.

  17. COMPARAÇÃO GRÁFICA ENTRE CURVAS DE ÍNDICE DE SÍTIO PARA Pinus elliottii E Pinus taeda DESENVOLVIDAS NO SUL DO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Tonini

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos estudar o crescimento em altura dominante para Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda, mediante comparações entre as curvas de índice de sítio construídas para algumas regiões do estado do Rio Grande do Sul e outros Estados da Federação. Essas comparações indicaram que as curvas feitas por Tonini (2000 para as regiões da Serra do Sudeste e Litoral no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, não apresentaram o mesmo desenvolvimento em relação às curvas feitas por Scolforo e Machado (1988, para os estados do Paraná e Santa Catarina; Brasil (1989a, para a região de Passo Fundo RS, Marcolin (1990, para o Segundo Planalto Paranaense e Selle (1993, para a região de Cambará do Sul. No entanto, o comportamento em relação às curvas de índice de sítio feitas por Brasil (1989b, para a região de São Francisco de Paula mostraram-se semelhantes, havendo somente uma diferença de nível entre estas.

  18. Mycorrhization of containerised Pinus nigra seedlings with Suillus granulatus under open field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarevic, J.; Keca, N.; Martinovie, A.

    2012-07-01

    Seedling mycorrhization acts as an efficient tool for improving the quality of seedlings. In this study, the effectiveness of Suillus granulatus, originating from Pinus heldreichii forests (Montenegro), to produce containerized ectomycorrhizal seedlings of autochthonous Pinus nigra in open field conditions was investigated. Spore (106, 107, 108) and vegetative (1:16, 1:8, 1:4) inoculation on ectomycorrhizal formation and seedling growth were tested. Spore and vegetative inoculums of autochthonous Pisolithus arhizus were used in the same trial as additional control treatments. The utilization of vegetative and spore inoculums of autochthonous S. granulatus has proven to be an effective method of obtaining containerized ectomycorrhizal P. nigra seedlings under open field conditions after 11 months. S. granulatus spore inoculations resulted in well developed ectomycorrhiza, decreasing the growth of the P. nigra seedlings in the first growing season. Mycelial inoculations resulted in slightly developed S. granulatus ectomycorrhiza, which increased the growth of the seedlings. Therefore, it would be feasible to use spore inocula of S. granulatus, with 10{sup 6} spores per plant, to produce ectomycorrhizal P. nigra plants on a large scale. Controlled mycorrhizal inoculation of seedlings is not a common practice in Montenegrin and Serbian nurseries; as such, the obtained results will contribute to the enhancement of nursery production of Pinus nigra and other conifers. This also could be assumed as a starting point for many further efforts and investigations with autochthonous fungal and plant material in this region. (Author) 47 refs.

  19. Soil water balance in different densities of Pinus taeda in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz Moretti Souza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to quantify and compare water balance components over the course of a year for different Pinus taeda planting densities in an oxisol in southern Brazil. This experiment was conducted on 6-year-old trees in a clay oxisol at the Monte Alegre Farm, a property of the Klabin Company. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replicates and five treatments with different amounts of soil coverage: T100 (100% coverage - standard planting coverage; (T75, 75; T50, 50; and T25, 25%, and; T0 (without cover - clearcutting. The soil water storage and actual evapotranspiration under non-standard conditions were determined in a weekly estimated soil water balance (SWB with measured components. By the end of the year, the treatments had not reached field capacity or wilting point storage. The average value of total downward drainage was 100.2 mm, and the highest values occurred in the T75 and T100 treatments. The lowest population density (T25 had the highest actual evapotranspiration (ETr, due to the growth of the remaining Pinus taeda trees. The highest evapotranspiration occurred in September, due to the resumption of Pinus taeda growth.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of needle essential oil of Pinus peuce Griseb. (Pinaceae from Macedonian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Karapandzova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of needle essential oil, obtained by hydrodistillation from wild Pinus peuce Griseb. (Pinaceae, growing on three different locations in R. Macedonia were investigated in period 2008/2009. Carried out GC/FID/MS analysis, one hundred and three constituents were identified belonging to the six different classes of components: monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and other non-terpene components, representing 88.61/94.04% of the entire oil. The most abundant constituents were α-pinene (12.89/27.34%, β-pinene (6.16/13.13%, limonene + β-phellandrene (2.09/6.64% and bornyl acetate (2.92/11.67% as well as trans-(E-caryophyllene (4.63/7.13% and germacrene D (8.75/20.14%. Antimicrobial screening of Pinus peuce needle essential oil was made by hole-plate diffusion and broth dilution method against 13 bacterial isolates of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and one strain of Candida albicans. The most sensitive bacteria against tested Pinus peuce essential oils were Streptococcus pneumonia encompassing Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Acinetobacter spp. and Streptococcus pyogenes. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the oils ranged from 7.5- 62.5 µl/ml.

  1. Laboratory Evaluation of the Anti-stain Efficacy of Crude Wood Vinegar for Pinus densiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha Salim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Korea, Pinus densiflora is one of the most important indigenous tree species in terms of making high-value wood products. Therefore, Korean sawmills exercise extreme caution to prevent fungal discoloration such as that caused by sapstains and molds on the timber. In this study, the effectiveness of using natural crude wood vinegar to inhibit sapstains and molds, especially on Pinus densiflora (Japanese red pine was examined. Pinus densiflora wood samples were dipped in absolute and diluted wood vinegar at different concentrations (1:1, 2:1, and 3:1; deionized water to wood vinegar dilution ratio for 3 minutes and immediately air-dried. In addition, volatile wood vinegar was also used in this study to imitate the condition of wood vinegar when exposed to open air. The degree of discoloration was examined and evaluated every 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks according to the ASTM D4445-91 Standard Method for laboratory test. Crude wood vinegar inhibited sapstains more efficiently than it inhibited molds. Wood vinegar at a 1:1 concentration was found to be the most optimum treatment for inhibiting sapstains for at least 8 weeks.

  2. Effects Of Drought Stress on Germination in Fourteen Provenances of Pinus Brutia Ten. Seeds in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Şevik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pinus brutia Ten., Red pine, known to be tough drought resistant pine specie, could effectively be used for afforestation of disturbed areas. It is of great interest for the afforestation in arid zones. Appropriate seed sources for the specific areas guarantees reforestation success. Away from its native areas Pinus brutia Ten. is planted for its ornamental value and timber production purposes. Selection of drought resistant provenances can very well increase the survival success. In this study, the effects of water potential on germination were studied in fourteen provenances of Pinus brutia Ten. from Turkey. Water potentials between 0 and -8 bars were obtained using polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG-6000 solutions. Seeds were kept for 35 day at 20 ± 0.5°C. A decrease in water potential produced a marked reduction in germination percentage and germination value. As a result, significant variations between the provenances were found. It was determined that, under a -8 bar water stress, Isparta-Bucak and Mersin-Silifke, respectively corresponding to 58% and 57% of the control group, were the least water stress affected provenances.

  3. Fusarium oxysporum and F. verticillioides associated with damping-off in Pinus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caciara Gonzatto Maciel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Occurrence of Fusarium spp. is one of the problems, most limiting to growth of seedlings, in nurseries. This pathogen can be transmitted via seeds and causes damages to the seedlings during pre- and post-emergence stages. The present study aimed to identify Fusarium spp. at the species level based on morphological and molecular characteristics and to verify the pathogenicity of these isolates in seeds lots of Pinus elliottii and P. taeda. For this, we used two Fusarium isolates and five lots of Pinus spp. seeds. Morphological characterization was performed based on a key, specific to Fusarium spp. identification, whereas, molecular identification was carried out by amplification and sequencing of the regions from internal transcribed spacer (ITS and the elongation factor 1-α (tef1. The pathogenicity test was conducted through the contact of the seeds with fungal culture for 48 h, followed by sowing them in sand. The variables evaluated were emergency speed index, percentage of emergency, non-emergency seeds, symptomatic seedlings, and seedling damping-off. One isolate, F1UFSM, was identified as F. verticillioides and another isolate, F2UFSM, was identified as F. oxysporum. Both the isolates were pathogenic to the seeds of Pinus spp., causing a reduction in the percentage of emergence and seedling damping-off.

  4. Effects of Fusarium circinatum on Disease Development and Gas Exchange in the Seedlings of Pinus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan-Soo Woo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Four-year-old seedlings of Pinus thunbergii, Pinus densiflora and Pinus rigida were inoculated with Fusarium circinatum isolate (FT-7, the pitch canker fungus, from P. thunbergii, to evaluate the effects of the pathogen on disease development and gas exchange rate. Needle dehydration was evident on 2 of 10 seedlings of P. thunbergii and P. rigida at 18 and 21 days after inoculation, respectively, while no symptoms were observed in P. densiflora seedlings throughout the experiment. Gas exchange stopped completely in 4 of 5 measured seedlings of P. thunbergii and 2 of 5 measured seedlings of P. rigida at 25 days after inoculation, and in the remaining 3 seedlings of P. rigida at 39 days after inoculation. Disease development in P. thunbergii seedlings was faster than that in P. rigida seedlings. By the time, the experiment was ended at 78 days after inoculation, 9 of 10 seedlings of P. rigida and 8 of 10 seedlings of P. thunbergii seedlings treated with FT-7 was almost dead, but all seedlings of P. densiflora were still healthy. We suggest that P. densiflora is resistant to F. circinatum in the current study, and gas exchange rate of the species after inoculation does not differ significantly compared to that of untreated control.

  5. Chloroplast evolution in the Pinus montezumae complex: a coalescent approach to hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, J A; Schaal, B A

    2000-08-01

    This study addresses the evolutionary history of the chloroplast genomes of two closely related pine species, Pinus hartwegii Lindl. and P. montezumae Lamb (subsect. Ponderosae) using coalescent theory and some of the statistical tools that have been developed from it during the past two decades. Pinus hartwegii and P. montezumae are closely related species in the P. montezumae complex (subsect. Ponderosae) of Mexico and Central America. Pinus hartwegii is a high elevation species, whereas P. montezumae occurs at lower elevations. The two species occur on many of the same mountains throughout Mexico. A total of 350 individuals of P. hartwegii and P. montezumae were collected from Nevado de Colima (Jalisco), Cerro Potosí (Nuevo León), Iztaccihuatl/Popocatepetl (México), and Nevado de Toluca (México). The chloroplast genome of P. hartwegii and P. montezumae was mapped using eight restriction enzymes. Fifty-one different haplotypes were characterized; 38 of 160 restriction sites were polymorphic. Clades of most parsimoniously related chloroplast haplotypes are geographically localized and do not overlap in distribution, and the geographically localized clades of haplotypes include both P. hartwegii and P. montezumae. Some haplotypes in the clades occur in only one of the two species, whereas other haplotypes occur in both species. These data strongly suggest ancient and/or ongoing hybridization between P. hartwegii and P. montezumae and a shared chloroplast genome history within geographic regions of Mexico.

  6. Experimental study of Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini on Hyperlipidemia and lipid in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim, Dae-Hyun

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of Pinus densiflora on hyperlipidemia and lipid in rats, we divided the rats into groups(Normal group, Control group and Sample group and perfomed the experimental research. Hyperlipidemia and lipid in rats were induced by high fat diets for 8weeks. The sample group was administerd the extract of Pinus densiflora for 14 days and control group was administerd equal dose of oral. And then we measured the amount of serum triglyceride, Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, Free Fatty Acid, phospholipid, Insuline, Laptin, Body weight, epididymis fat weight & rate, epididymis fat cell, Cardiac Risk Factor(CRF. The results were as followers : 1. Sample Group showed decreasing effects on Total cholesterol, Trigylceride, LDL-cholesterol, and Phospholipid levels in serum and CRF significantly. 2. Sample Group showed increasing effects on HDL-cholesterol level in serum significantly. 3. Sample Group showed decreasing effects on Insuline in serum significantly. 4. Sample Group showed increasing effects on Laptin in serum significantly. 5. Sample Group showed decreasing effects on Body weight, epididymis fat weight & rate, epididymis fat cell significantly. According to the above results, Pinus densiflora showed significant decreasing effects on hyperlipidemia and lipid in rats, it is considered that it is appropriate to apply for hyperlipidemia, obesity.

  7. Clinal differentiation and putative hybridization in a contact zone of Pinus ponderosa and P. arizonica (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperson, B K; Telewski, F W; Plovanich-Jones, A E; Grimes, J E

    2001-06-01

    The widely distributed Pinus subsection Ponderosae is a species complex that has a transition zone among taxa in the southwestern United States. In southern Arizona and New Mexico at least two recognized taxa, Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum and Pinus arizonica or P. ponderosa var. arizonica, are known to coexist in close proximity. In this study, we report the existence of populations where the taxa are sympatric. One of the key characteristics distinguishing taxa is the number of needles per fascicle; P. ponderosa typically has three, P. arizonica has five. We examined the spatial distribution of needle-number types in a belt transect that covers a transition zone from nearly pure three-needle types at the top of Mount Lemmon to five-needle types downslope, in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona. The spatial distribution is inconsistent with there being both free interbreeding among types and selective neutrality of types. Trees with intermediate types, having combinations of three, four, and five needles and/or mean numbers of needles between 3.0 and 5.0, are spatially concentrated in the middle of the transition zone. The spatial distribution supports the occurrence of hybridization and introgression, and this is consistent with reported crossabilities of the types. The results suggest that selection is acting, either on needle number per se or on other traits of the ecotype with which it may be in linkage disequilibrium, to maintain the observed steep clinal differentiation.

  8. Spatial pattern of allozyme variation in a contact zone of Pinus Ponderosa and P. arizonica (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperson, Bryan K; Chung, Myong Gi; Telewski, Frank W

    2003-01-01

    The spatial distribution of genotypes for nine polymorphic allozyme loci was examined in a contact zone between Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum and another tree regarded as either a separate species, Pinus arizonica, or variety, Pinus ponderosa var. arizonica, in southern Arizona. Previous work had identified a steep elevational cline for a key taxonomic trait, number of leaf-needles per fascicle, on the south slope of Mt. Lemmon. The present results indicate that the taxa are not fully interbreeding in this contact zone, because allozyme genotypes are considerably more spatially structured than expected for the dispersal characteristics of pines. The amount of spatial differentiation is also much less than that observed for needle number. It appears that this is due to the lack of differentiation for allozyme gene frequencies for the two types of trees, which is further evidenced by analysis of samples from two other populations away from the contact zone. It is likely that if the two taxa were isolated in the past, it was not for long enough nor complete enough to allow mutation-drift to create substantial differentiation between them. Another possible explanation is that introgression after recontact is so advanced that any differences have been erased throughout the Santa Catalina mountain range.

  9. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE Pinus elliottii YIELD IN THE SOUTHEASTERN MOUNTAIN RANGE, RIO GRANDE DO SUL

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    Eduardo Pagel Floriano

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for Pinus elliottii Engelm. at Serra do Sudeste, Rio Grande do Sul, with the following objectives: to check production costs and possible revenues; to perform the economic and financial analysis of Pinus elliottii's wood production under regional conditions; and to determine the rotation of maximum Net Present Value (NPV. The costs for planting the stands were estimated at $2,292.09/ha and the annual maintenance ranged from R$ 134.84 to R$ 363.98 per hectare. Departing from the Site Index 28, with NPV of R$ 1,147.17/ha, Pinus' wood production becomes interesting. At the IS 26, with 6.86% Internal Rate of Return (IRR, it would be possible to pay the 6.75% Propflora's interest. Analysis of different rotations for IS 28 showed maximum VPL with rotation of 26 years, thinning in cycle of 4 years, starting up the cuts to 10 years. The economic analysis was performed with considerable caution, using productivity moderated levels, costs within patterns that can be considered between middle and high and moderated prices for today's wood market. Even with the restrictions imposed on the analysis, results are promising; especially in view of the regional market prices' increase tendency and the probability of wood veneer industries comes to absorb the larger log's size production in a closed future.

  10. Strenght of the glue line of edge glued panels of Pinus taeda made with different adhesives

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    Merielen de Carvalho Lopes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study compares the strength of the glue line of edge glued panels of Pinus taeda made with different industrial adhesives. Three types of adhesives (poly(vinyl acetate (PVAc, emulsion polymer isocyanate (EPI and polyurethane (PU glued in two side gluing orientation (radial and tangential and analyzed after the conditioning tests (dry and wet were analyzed. The 360 specimens were prepared for determining the shear strength of edge glued panels of Pinus taeda, and these were tested in a universal testing machine called EMIC. The shear strength of the glue line at dry condition was lower in the tangential side for the three types of adhesives analyzed. The PU adhesive showed the highest values of shear strength in the applied conditions, differing from PVAc and EPI adhesive when tested on dry condition and did not differ from the others adhesives when tested on wet condition. The highest percentage of wood failure was observed after the shear strength test at dry condition to EPI adhesive glued in the radial side. And in the wet condition, the EPI adhesive and PU adhesive glued in tangential side showed higher mean values of wood failure. Thus, it was possible to conclude that the strength of the glue line of Pinus taeda wood was influenced by the type of adhesive and side gluing orientation, and showed differently behavior according to the condition of use (wet or dry.

  11. De Novo Sequencing and Assembly Analysis of Transcriptome in Pinus bungeana Zucc. ex Endl.

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    Qifei Cai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To enrich the molecular data of Pinus bungeana Zucc. ex Endl. and study the regulating factors of different morphology controled by apical dominance. In this study, de novo assembly of transcriptome annotation was performed for two varieties of Pinus bungeana Zucc. ex Endl. that are obviously different in morphology. More than 147 million reads were produced, which were assembled into 88,092 unigenes. Based on a similarity search, 11,692 unigenes showed significant similarity to proteins from Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. From this collection of unigenes, a large number of molecular markers were identified, including 2829 simple sequence repeats (SSRs. A total of 158 unigenes expressed differently between two varieties, including 98 up-regulated and 60 down-regulated unigenes. Furthermore, among the differently expressed genes (DEGs, five genes which may impact the plant morphology were further validated by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. The five genes related to cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX, two-component response regulator ARR-A family (ARR-A, plant hormone signal transduction (AHP, and MADS-box transcription factors have a close relationship with apical dominance. This new dataset will be a useful resource for future genetic and genomic studies in Pinus bungeana Zucc. ex Endl.

  12. SHEAR STRENGTH IN THE GLUE LINE OF Eucalyptus sp. AND Pinus sp.WOOD

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    Juliana Jerásio Bianche

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To evaluate the adhesive efficiency on the union of glued joints in a particular temperature and humidity conditions for a specified time the adhesive must be submitted to specific load tests, such as shear in the glue line. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shear strength in the glue line of Eucalyptus sp and Pinus sp.woods. Five adhesives (castor oil, sodium silicate, modified silicate, , PVA and resorcinol-formaldehyde, three weights (150 g/m2, 200 g/m2, and 250 g/m2 and two species (Eucalyptus sp. and Pinus sp. of wood were used. Twelve specimens were obtained from each repetition per treatment, corresponding to 108 specimens that were conditioned at a temperature of 23 ± 1°C and relative humidity of 50 ± 2%. The interaction between the weight and type of adhesive was significant for the shear strength in the glue line of eucalyptus wood. However, no interaction between the weight and the adhesive was found for pinus, only the isolated from the adhesive effect. Chemical bonds originated in the polymerization of resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesives and castor bi-component conferred upon these adhesives the greatest resistance in the glue line. Castor and resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesives showed the highest shear strength values in the line of glue and wood failure. Castor adhesive presented satisfactory performance for bonding of eucalyptus and pine woods.

  13. Long-term effects of clear-cutting and biomass removal on soil water chemistry at three coniferous sites in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zetterberg, Therese; Olsson, Bengt

    2011-07-01

    The long-term effects (27-36 years) of conventional and whole-tree harvest on soil water chemistry (50 cm depth) have been examined at three coniferous sites. One of the most important findings of our study were that WTH caused a long-term (27-30 years), but temporary loss, of exchangeable Ca{sub 2}{sup +} measured as lower soil water concentrations at 50 cm depth as a result of large amounts of Ca{sub 2}{sup +} being removed during harvest. In addition, WTH resulted in lower soil water pH and ANC. Treatment effects were also noted for SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} which could be the combined results of lower dry deposition in WTH-plots and/or increased retention in the mineral soil. The main treatment differences are temporary and had disappeared during the second study period between 2008 and 2010 (i.e. 32 to 35 years after harvest). These results are in agreement with previous soil studies carried out at the same sites. The implications of WTH effect are discussed in the context of validating model forecasts and need for ash-recycling.

  14. Transport and concentration of abscisic acid (ABA) and auxin (IAA) in deciduous and coniferous trees. Transport und Gehalt von Abscisinsaeure (ABA) und Auxin (IAA) in Laub- und Nadelblaettern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartung, W.

    1988-09-01

    Abscisic acid and indoleacetic acid were chosen to examine whether intact deciduous and coniferous tissues from spruce, hemlock fir, spinage, barley and sorrel or isolated mesophyll protoplasts from barley and closing cell preparations from Valerianella locusta are affected by sulphur dioxide in terms of changes in the concentration, transportation and distribution of such plant hormones. The distribution of phytohormones like ABA and IAA over the individual cell compartments is determined by the different pH gradients of the latter. Owing to their acidity these hormones are accumulated in alkaline cell inclusion bodies like chloroplasts and cytosol. Potentially acid air pollutants like SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} lead to acidification of previously alkaline cell compartments, due to which fact the cellular pH gradients are reduced. This, in turn, gives rise to a redistribution of phytohormones to the effect that certain target cells such as closing cells of leaves or meristem cells come under the influence of altered hormone concentrations and compositions. This is bound to affect the processes controlling the development, growth and stress behaviour of plants. (orig.) With 55 refs., 2 tabs., 16 figs.

  15. Remote detection of canopy water stress in coniferous forests using the NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator and the thermal infrared multispectral scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Lars L.; Running, Steven W.; Riggs, George A.

    1990-01-01

    Water stress was induced in two coniferous forest stands in West Germany by severing tree sapwood. Leaf water potential, Psi(L), measurements indicated that maximum, naturally occurring levels of water stress developed in the stressed plots while control plots exhibited natural diurnal trends. Images of each site were obtained with the Thematic Mapper Simulator (NS001) and the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) 12 to 15 days after stress induction. NS001 bands 2 to 6, NS001 indices combining bands 4 and 6, and NS001 and TIMS thermal bands showed significant radiance differences between stressed and control plots when large differences in Psi(L) and relative water content (RWC) existed during the morning overflights at Munich. However, the NS001 and TIMS sensors could not detect the slightly smaller differences in Psi(L) and RWC during the Munich afternoon and Frankfurt overflights. The results suggest that routine detection of canopy water stress under operational conditions is difficult utilizing current sensor technology.

  16. Use of 15N-labelled nitrogen deposition to quantify the source of nitrogen in runoff at a coniferous-forested catchment at Gardsjoen, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjonaas, O. Janne; Wright, Richard F.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the source of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N) in runoff, approx. 35 kg N enriched with the stable isotope 15 N (2110 per mille δ 15 N) was added to a mature coniferous forested catchment for one whole year. The total N input was approx. 50 kg ha -1 year -1 . The enrichment study was part of a long-term whole-catchment ammonium nitrate addition experiment at Gardsjoen, Sweden. The 15 N concentrations in precipitation, throughfall, runoff and upper forest floor were measured prior to, during, and 3-9 years following the 15 N addition. During the year of the 15 N addition the δ 15 N level in runoff largely reflected the level in incoming N, indicating that the leached NO 3 - came predominantly from precipitation. Only 1.1% of the incoming N was lost during the year of the tracer addition. The cumulative loss of tracer N over a 10-year period was only 3.9% as DIN and 1.1% as DON. - 15 N tracer addition showed that initially the main source of NO 3 - in runoff was N from atmospheric deposition

  17. Root-associated fungal communities in three Pyroleae species and their mycobiont sharing with surrounding trees in subalpine coniferous forests on Mount Fuji, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shuzheng; Nakano, Takashi; Hattori, Masahira; Nara, Kazuhide

    2017-11-01

    Pyroleae species are perennial understory shrubs, many of which are partial mycoheterotrophs. Most fungi colonizing Pyroleae roots are ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and share common mycobionts with their Pyroleae hosts. However, such mycobiont sharing has neither been examined in depth before nor has the interspecific variation in sharing among Pyroleae species. Here, we examined root-associated fungal communities in three co-existing Pyroleae species, including Pyrola alpina, Pyrola incarnata, and Orthilia secunda, with reference to co-existing ECM fungi on the surrounding trees in the same soil blocks in subalpine coniferous forests. We identified 42, 75, and 18 fungal molecular operational taxonomic units in P. alpina, P. incarnata, and O. secunda roots, respectively. Mycobiont sharing with surrounding trees, which was defined as the occurrence of the same mycobiont between Pyroleae and surrounding trees in each soil block, was most frequent among P. incarnata (31 of 44 plants). In P. alpina, sharing was confirmed in 12 of 37 plants, and the fungal community was similar to that of P. incarnata. Mycobiont sharing was least common in O. secunda, found in only 5 of 32 plants. Root-associated fungi of O. secunda were dominated by Wilcoxina species, which were absent from the surrounding ECM roots in the same soil blocks. These results indicate that mycobiont sharing with surrounding trees does not equally occur among Pyroleae plants, some of which may develop independent mycorrhizal associations with ECM fungi, as suggested in O. secunda at our research sites.

  18. Genetic and morphological diversity of Trisetacus species (Eriophyoidea: Phytoptidae) associated with coniferous trees in Poland: phylogeny, barcoding, host and habitat specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Mariusz; Skoracka, Anna; Szydło, Wiktoria; Kozak, Marcin; Druciarek, Tobiasz; Griffiths, Don A

    2014-08-01

    Eriophyoid species belonging to the genus Trisetacus are economically important as pests of conifers. A narrow host specialization to conifers and some unique morphological characteristics have made these mites interesting subjects for scientific inquiry. In this study, we assessed morphological and genetic variation of seven Trisetacus species originating from six coniferous hosts in Poland by morphometric analysis and molecular sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene and the nuclear D2 region of 28S rDNA. The results confirmed the monophyly of the genus Trisetacus as well as the monophyly of five of the seven species studied. Both DNA sequences were effective in discriminating between six of the seven species tested. Host-dependent genetic and morphological variation in T. silvestris and T. relocatus, and habitat-dependent genetic and morphological variation in T. juniperinus were detected, suggesting the existence of races or even distinct species within these Trisetacus taxa. This is the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Trisetacus species. The findings presented here will stimulate further investigations on the evolutionary relationships of Trisetacus as well as the entire Phytoptidae family.

  19. Distribution of chemical compartments of soil organic matter and c stocks of a cambisol from south Brazil as affected by Pinus afforestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Cesar Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and stocks of soil organic matter (SOM compartments after Pinus monoculture introduction in a native pasture area of a Cambisol, Santa Catarina, Brazil, were investigated. Pinus introduction increased soil acidity, content of exchangeable Al+3 and diminished soil nutrients. Nevertheless, soil C stock increased in all humic fractions of the 0-5 cm layer after Pinus afforestation. In the subsurface, the vegetation change only promoted SOM redistribution from the NaOH-extractable humic substances to a less hydrophobic humin fraction. Under Pinus, soil organo-mineral interactions were relevant up to a 15 cm depth, while in pasture environment, this mechanism occurred mainly in the surface layer.

  20. Intra- and interpopulation relationships and taxonomic status of Pinus nigra Arnold in Croatia according to morphology and anatomy of needles

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    Zlatko Liber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra- and interpopulational relationships and taxonomic status of six natural black pine populations (Pinus nigra Arnold from Croatia were analyzed. Special attention in this research was paid to the establishment of taxonomic status and distribution of stenoendemic Dalmatian black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. dalmatica (Vis. Franco. Three morphological and twenty-one anatomical traits of needles were used as well as analysis by the methods of multivariate statistics. Most of the researched individuals showed strong population affiliation, whereas a clinal transition of morphological and anatomical traits of needles was determined among the populations. The opinion of the existence of three subspecies of black pine on the territory of Republic of Croatia (Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. nigra, Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. dalmatica (Vis. Franco and Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. illyrica (Vid. Fukarek was confirmed. For each of the three subspecies new ranges were represented. Four Croatian populations were included in the stenoendemic subspecies of the Dalmatian black pine (Brač, Hvar, Grobnik and Pelješac, and a new distribution, broken in two, was suggested. Since the Dalmatian black pine has been reduced to several populations only, and there are some signs of continuous diminishing of its range, this research points out the need of making an action plan to preserve all natural populations of this subspecies.

  1. Comparing the intra-annual wood formation of three European species (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea and Pinus sylvestris) as related to leaf phenology and non-structural carbohydrate dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelot, Alice; Simard, Sonia; Rathgeber, Cyrille; Dufrêne, Eric; Damesin, Claire

    2012-08-01

    Monitoring cambial phenology and intra-annual growth dynamics is a useful approach for characterizing the tree growth response to climate change. However, there have been few reports concerning intra-annual wood formation in lowland temperate forests with high time resolution, especially for the comparison between deciduous and coniferous species. The main objective of this study was to determine how the timing, duration and rate of radial growth change between species as related to leaf phenology and the dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) under the same climatic conditions. We studied two deciduous species, Fagus sylvatica L. and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl., and an evergreen conifer, Pinus sylvestris L. During the 2009 growing season, we weekly monitored (i) the stem radial increment using dendrometers, (ii) the xylem growth using microcoring and (iii) the leaf phenology from direct observations of the tree crowns. The NSC content was also measured in the eight last rings of the stem cores in April, June and August 2009. The leaf phenology, NSC storage and intra-annual growth were clearly different between species, highlighting their contrasting carbon allocation. Beech growth began just after budburst, with a maximal growth rate when the leaves were mature and variations in the NSC content were low. Thus, beech radial growth seemed highly dependent on leaf photosynthesis. For oak, earlywood quickly developed before budburst, which probably led to the starch decrease quantified in the stem from April to June. For pine, growth began before the needles unfolding and the lack of NSC decrease during the growing season suggested that the substrates for radial growth were new assimilates of the needles from the previous year. Only for oak, the pattern determined from the intra-annual growth measured using microcoring differed from the pattern determined from dendrometer data. For all species, the ring width was significantly influenced by growth duration

  2. Eficiência dos herbicidas oxadiazil, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen e Imazapyr sobre a cultura de pinus Efficiency of the oxadiazil, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen and imazapyr herbicides on Pinus cropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson da Silva

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a seletividade de alguns herbicidas para mudas de Pinus caribaea var. Hondurensis e suas eficiências no controle de plantas daninhas. As mudas com 20 cm de altura, produzidas em tubetes, foram transplantadas num espaçamento de 2,0 m x 2,0 m, em parcelas de quatro fileiras com 10,0 m de comprimento. Os tratamentos utilizados foram oxadiazil (600; 800 e 1000 g ha-1, oxadiazon (1140; 1520 e 1900 g ha-1, oxyfluorfen (720 g ha-1, imazapyr (250 g ha-1 e testemunhas (capinada e sem capina, dispostos em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Os herbicidas foram aplicados sete dias após o transplante, usando-se pulverizador costal, pressurizado com CO2, calibrado para 200 L ha- 1 de calda. As principais plantas daninhas com maior infestação foram: Brachiaria plantaginea e Ipomoea grandifolia e com menor infestação: Galinsoga parviflora e Bidens pilosa. O oxadiazil apresentou excelente controle de B. plantaginea, I. grandifolia e G. parviflora, não sendo eficiente para controle de B. pilosa, embora proporcionasse controle superior ao observado pelo oxadiazon. O oxadiazon foi eficiente até 45 dias após o tratamento para B. plantaginea, G. parviflora e até 90 dias para I. grandifolia. Tanto o oxyfluorfen quanto o imazapyr apresentaram excelente controle das plantas daninhas. De todos os herbicidas avaliados, apenas o imazapyr não deve ser recomendado para aplicação sobre o dossel de Pinus caribaea var. Hondurensis, em face da toxicidade provocada.The selectivity of some herbicides were evaluated on Pinus caribaea var. Hondurensis seedlings as well as these herbicide efficiencies in the weed control. When the tubule-produced seedlings were 20 cm height they were transplanted at 2,0 m x 2,0 m spacings in fourrows plots with 10,0 m length. The treatments with oxadiazil (600; 800 and 1000 g ha-1, oxadiazon (1140; 1520 and 1900 g ha-1, oxyfluorfen (720 g ha-1, imazpyr (250 g ha-1 and controls (weeded and without weeding were disposed

  3. Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. Results We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-β-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-β-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. Conclusion In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine. PMID:23679205

  4. Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dawn E; Yuen, Macaire M S; Jancsik, Sharon; Quesada, Alfonso Lara; Dullat, Harpreet K; Li, Maria; Henderson, Hannah; Arango-Velez, Adriana; Liao, Nancy Y; Docking, Roderick T; Chan, Simon K; Cooke, Janice Ek; Breuil, Colette; Jones, Steven Jm; Keeling, Christopher I; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2013-05-16

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-β-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-β-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine.

  5. Microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasonic extraction to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in needles and bark of Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L. by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratola, Nuno; Lacorte, Sílvia; Barceló, Damià; Alves, Arminda

    2009-01-15

    Two different extraction strategies (microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasonic extraction (USE)) were tested in the extraction of the 16 US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from pine trees. Extraction of needles and bark from two pine species common in the Iberian Peninsula (Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L.) was optimized using two amounts of sample (1g and 5 g) and two PAHs spiking levels (20 ng/g and 100 ng/g). In all cases, the clean-up procedure following extraction consisted in solid-phase extraction (SPE) with alumina cartridges. Quantification was done by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry (MS), using five deuterated PAH surrogate standards as internal standards. Limits of detection were globally below 0.2 ng/g. The method was robust for the matrices studied regardless of the extraction procedures. Recovery values between 70 and 130% were reached in most cases, except for high molecular weight PAHs (indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene and benzo[ghi]perylene). A field study with naturally contaminated samples from eight sites (four in Portugal and four in Catalonia, Spain) showed that needles are more suitable biomonitors for PAHs, yielding concentrations from 2 to 17 times higher than those found in bark. The levels varied according to the sampling site, with the sum of the individual PAH concentrations between 213 and 1773 ng/g (dry weight). Phenanthrene was the most abundant PAH, followed by fluoranthene, naphthalene and pyrene.

  6. Isoenzymatic variability in progeny of Pinus mugo Turra x Pinus sylvestris L. hybrids from Bór na Czerwonem, in experimental culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Bobowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the genetic structure of 12-year old seedlings. They were grown in an experimental culture representing the progeny of natural hybrids of Pinus mugo Turra and Pinus sylvestris L. from the peatbog Bór na Czerwonem. The studies were carried out on seedlings, employing electrophoresis of enzymatic proteins from winter buds. Parallel isoenzymatic analyses were also conducted for trees of P. mugo Turra from Tatra Mountains and for P. sylvestris L. trees from Białowieża in order to determine similarities of the hybrids to the 'pure' species, thought to represent parental forms, and for natural hybrids from Bór na Czerwonem. The obtained electrophoretic patterns made the determination of genetic structure of the population possible, namely of the observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, Wright's fixation index and coefficients of similarity according to Nei and Hedrick. Genetic distances between the populations were also estimated. The variability of 11 enzymatic loci demonstrated the highest level of variability in the population of hybrids. Coefficients of genetic differentiation (GST and of gene flow, (Nm suggested a close relationship of the hybrids to P. mugo which may indicate an introgressive type of the hybrid swarm, from which the studied trees originated. The analysis of genetic similarity coefficients, according to Nei and Hedrick, demonstrated also an extensive similarity of the two hybrid groups to P. mugo. However, upon analysis of individual enzymatic loci, some of them highly resembled P. mugo while others were similar to P. sylvestris. The closest genetic similarity was demonstrated for the group of hybrids from the peatbog and the respective of hybrides group from culture. The variable gene expression as well as asymmetric inheritance of isoenzymes provided additional evidence of the introgressive character of the studied trees from the hybrid population.

  7. 13C discriminations of Pinus sylvestris vs. Pinus ponderosa at a dry site in Brandenburg (eastern Germany): 100-year growth comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ralf; Insinna, Patrick A; Götz, Bernhard; Junge, Sebastian; Boettger, Tatjana

    2007-06-01

    The carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C, per thousand) and discrimination (Delta, per thousand) of old grown North American Pinus ponderosa Dougl. Ex P. et C. Laws. and European Pinus sylvestris L. were determined using trees grown under almost identical growing conditions in a mixed stand in Bralitz, Northeast Germany. Single-tree delta(13)C analyses of tree-ring cellulose of both species were carried out at a yearly resolution for the period 1901-2001 and the results compared with growth (basal area increment). Annual mean delta(13)C values for P. ponderosa ranged from-21.6 per thousand to-25.2 per thousand and for P. sylvestris from-21.4 per thousand to-24.4 per thousand. Accordingly, (13)C discrimination (Delta) showed higher values for P. ponderosa throughout the investigation period. Five characteristic periods of Delta were identified for both the tree species, reflecting positive and negative influences of environmental factors. Good growing conditions such as after-thinning events had a positive effect on Delta, reflecting higher values, while poor conditions like aridity and air pollution had a negative influence, reflecting lower values. The dynamics of Delta were likewise reflected in the growth (basal area increment, BAI). Higher (13)C discrimination values of P. ponderosa led to higher BAIs of P. ponderosa in comparison with P. sylvestris. Correlation function analyses confirmed that P. sylvestris was more dependent on precipitation than P. ponderosa, which showed a closer relationship with temperature. The results confirm that under predominantly dry growing conditions, P. ponderosa showed better growth performance than P. sylvestris, indicating better common intrinsic water-use efficiency and, therefore, higher rates of net photosynthesis at a given transpiration. In view of the prospect of climate change, the results are very significant for assessing both trees' physiological properties and, hence, their potential for coping with future growing

  8. Assessing Ecosystem Drought Response in CLM 4.5 Using Site-Level Flux and Carbon-Isotope Measurements: Results From a Pacific Northwest Coniferous Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, H.; Raczka, B. M.; Koven, C. D.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Lin, J. C.; Bowling, D. R.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The frequency, extent, and severity of droughts are expected to increase in the western United States as climate changes occur. The combination of warmer temperature, larger vapor pressure deficit, reduced snowfall and snow pack, earlier snow melt, and extended growing seasons is expected to lead to an intensification of summer droughts, with a direct impact on ecosystem productivity and therefore on the carbon budget of the region. In this scenario, an accurate representation of ecosystem drought response in land models becomes fundamental, but the task is challenging, especially in regards to stomatal response to drought. In this study we used the most recent release of the Community Land Model (CLM 4.5), which now includes photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination and revised photosynthesis and hydrology schemes, among an extensive list of updates. We evaluated the model's performance at a coniferous forest site in the Pacific northwest (Wind River AmeriFlux Site), characterized by a climate that has a strong winter precipitation component followed by a summer drought. We ran the model in offline mode (i.e., decoupled from an atmospheric model), forced by observed meteorological data, and used site observations (e.g., surface fluxes, biomass values, and carbon isotope data) to assess the model. Previous field observations indicated a significant negative correlation between soil water content and the carbon isotope ratio of ecosystem respiration (δ13CR), suggesting that δ13CR was closely related to the photosynthetic discrimination against 13CO2 as controlled by stomatal conductance. We used these observations and latent-heat flux measurements to assess the modeled stomatal conductance values and their responses to extended summer drought. We first present the model results, followed by a discussion of potential CLM model improvements in stomatal conductance responses and in the representation of soil water stress (parameter βt) that would more precisely

  9. Modeling the impact of drought on canopy carbon and water fluxes for a subtropical evergreen coniferous plantation in southern China through parameter optimization using an ensemble Kalman filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Ju

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil and atmospheric water deficits have significant influences on CO2 and energy exchanges between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems. Model parameterization significantly affects the ability of a model to simulate carbon, water, and energy fluxes. In this study, an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF and observations of gross primary productivity (GPP and latent heat (LE fluxes were used to optimize model parameters significantly affecting the calculation of these fluxes for a subtropical coniferous plantation in southeastern China. The optimized parameters include the maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax, the slope in the modified Ball-Berry model (M and the coefficient determining the sensitivity of stomatal conductance to atmospheric water vapor deficit (D0. Optimized Vcmax and M showed larger variations than D0. Seasonal variations of Vcmax and M were more pronounced than the variations between the two years. Vcmax and M were associated with soil water content (SWC. During dry periods, SWC at the 20 cm depth explained 61% and 64% of variations of Vcmax and M, respectively. EnKF parameter optimization improved the simulations of GPP, LE and SH, mainly during dry periods. After parameter optimization using EnKF, the variations of GPP, LE and SH explained by the model increased by 1% to 4% at half-hourly steps and by 3% to 5% at daily time steps. Further efforts are needed to differentiate the real causes of parameter variations and improve the ability of models to describe the change of stomatal conductance with net photosynthesis rate and the sensitivity of photosynthesis capacity to soil water stress under different environmental conditions.

  10. Effects of Climatic Factors and Ecosystem Responses on the Inter-Annual Variability of Evapotranspiration in a Coniferous Plantation in Subtropical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingjie; Wen, Xuefa; Wang, Huimin; Zhang, Wenjiang; Dai, Xiaoqin; Song, Jie; Wang, Yidong; Fu, Xiaoli; Liu, Yunfen; Sun, Xiaomin; Yu, Guirui

    2014-01-01

    Because evapotranspiration (ET) is the second largest component of the water cycle and a critical process in terrestrial ecosystems, understanding the inter-annual variability of ET is important in the context of global climate change. Eight years of continuous eddy covariance measurements (2003–2010) in a subtropical coniferous plantation were used to investigate the impacts of climatic factors and ecosystem responses on the inter-annual variability of ET. The mean and standard deviation of annual ET for 2003–2010 were 786.9 and 103.4 mm (with a coefficient of variation of 13.1%), respectively. The inter-annual variability of ET was largely created in three periods: March, May–June, and October, which are the transition periods between seasons. A set of look-up table approaches were used to separate the sources of inter-annual variability of ET. The annual ETs were calculated by assuming that (a) both the climate and ecosystem responses among years are variable (Vcli-eco), (b) the climate is variable but the ecosystem responses are constant (Vcli), and (c) the climate is constant but ecosystem responses are variable (Veco). The ETs that were calculated under the above assumptions suggested that the inter-annual variability of ET was dominated by ecosystem responses and that there was a negative interaction between the effects of climate and ecosystem responses. These results suggested that for long-term predictions of water and energy balance in global climate change projections, the ecosystem responses must be taken into account to better constrain the uncertainties associated with estimation. PMID:24465610

  11. Native and exotic plant cover vary inversely along a climate gradient 11 years following stand-replacing wildfire in a dry coniferous forest, Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Erich K; Root, Heather T

    2015-02-01

    Community re-assembly following future disturbances will often occur under warmer and more moisture-limited conditions than when current communities assembled. Because the establishment stage is regularly the most sensitive to climate and competition, the trajectory of recovery from disturbance in a changing environment is uncertain, but has important consequences for future ecosystem functioning. To better understand how ongoing warming and rising moisture limitation may affect recovery, we studied native and exotic plant composition 11 years following complete stand-replacing wildfire in a dry coniferous forest spanning a large gradient in climatic moisture deficit (CMD) from warm and dry low elevation sites to relatively cool and moist higher elevations sites. We then projected future precipitation, temperature and CMD at our study locations for four scenarios selected to encompass a broad range of possible future conditions for the region. Native perennials dominated relatively cool and moist sites 11 years after wildfire, but were very sparse at the warmest and driest (high CMD) sites, particularly when combined with high topographic sun exposure. In contrast, exotic species (primarily annual grasses) were dominant or co-dominant at the warmest and driest sites, especially with high topographic sun exposure. All future scenarios projected increasing temperature and CMD in coming decades (e.g., from 4.5% to 29.5% higher CMD by the 2080's compared to the 1971-2000 average), even in scenarios where growing season (May-September) precipitation increased. These results suggest increasing temperatures and moisture limitation could facilitate longer term (over a decade) transitions toward exotic-dominated communities after severe wildfire when a suitable exotic seed source is present. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Duration of fuels reduction following prescribed fire in coniferous forests of U.S. national parks in California and the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Lalemand, Laura; Keifer, MaryBeth; Kane, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Prescribed fire is a widely used forest management tool, yet the long-term effectiveness of prescribed fire in reducing fuels and fire hazards in many vegetation types is not well documented. We assessed the magnitude and duration of reductions in surface fuels and modeled fire hazards in coniferous forests across nine U.S. national parks in California and the Colorado Plateau. We used observations from a prescribed fire effects monitoring program that feature standard forest and surface fuels inventories conducted pre-fire, immediately following an initial (first-entry) prescribed fire and at varying intervals up to >20 years post-fire. A subset of these plots was subjected to prescribed fire again (second-entry) with continued monitoring. Prescribed fire effects were highly variable among plots, but we found on average first-entry fires resulted in a significant post-fire reduction in surface fuels, with litter and duff fuels not returning to pre-fire levels over the length of our observations. Fine and coarse woody fuels often took a decade or longer to return to pre-fire levels. For second-entry fires we found continued fuels reductions, without strong evidence of fuel loads returning to levels observed immediately prior to second-entry fire. Following both first- and second-entry fire there were increases in estimated canopy base heights, along with reductions in estimated canopy bulk density and modeled flame lengths. We did not find evidence of return to pre-fire conditions during our observation intervals for these measures of fire hazard. Our results show that prescribed fire can be a valuable tool to reduce fire hazards and, depending on forest conditions and the measurement used, reductions in fire hazard can last for decades. Second-entry prescribed fire appeared to reinforce the reduction in fuels and fire hazard from first-entry fires.

  13. Tree-ring analysis of crown competition and climatic sensitivity in Pinus strobus and P. sylvestris stands in the Elbe River Sandstone Mountains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mácová, Marcela

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2001), s. 103-113 ISSN 1125-7865 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6005801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : dendroclimatology * Pinus strobus * Pinus sylvestris Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  14. Managing succession in conifer plantations: converting young red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) plantations to native forest types by thinning and underplantiing

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Parker; Ken A. Elliott; Daniel C. Dey; Eric Boysen; Steven G. Newmaster

    2001-01-01

    The effects of thinning on growth and survival of white pine (Pinus strobus L.), white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), and red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and understory plant diversity were examined in a young red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) plantation. Five years after thinning, seedling diameter,...

  15. Chemical, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Investigations of Pinus cembra L. Bark and Needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Miron

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical constituents and biological activity of Pinus cembra L. (Pinaceae, native to the Central European Alps and the Carpathian Mountains, are not well known. The aim of the present work was to examine the phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of hydromethanolic extracts of Pinus cembra L. bark and needles. Bark extract had higher concentrations of total phenolics (299.3 vs. 78.22 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract, flavonoids (125.3 vs. 19.84 mg catechin equivalents/g extract and proanthocyanidins (74.3 vs. 12.7 mg cyanidin equivalents/g extract than needle extract and was more active as a free radical scavenger, reducing agent and antimicrobial agent. The EC50 values in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS and reducing power assays were 71.1, 6.3 and 26 mg/mL for bark extract and 186.1, 24 and 104 mg/mL for needle extract, respectively. In addition, needle extract showed ferrous ions chelating effects (EC50 = 1,755 μg/mL. The antimicrobial effects against Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were assessed by the agar diffusion method. Both extracts (4 mg/well were active against all the microorganisms tested; bark extract showed higher inhibition on all strains. These results indicate that Pinus cembra L. bark and needles are good sources of phytochemicals with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

  16. Drought Tolerance in Pinus halepensis Seed Sources As Identified by Distinctive Physiological and Molecular Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taïbi, Khaled; Del Campo, Antonio D; Vilagrosa, Alberto; Bellés, José M; López-Gresa, María Pilar; Pla, Davinia; Calvete, Juan J; López-Nicolás, José M; Mulet, José M

    2017-01-01

    Drought is one of the main constraints determining forest species growth, survival and productivity, and therefore one of the main limitations for reforestation or afforestation. The aim of this study is to characterize the drought response at the physiological and molecular level of different Pinus halepensis (common name Aleppo pine) seed sources, previously characterized in field trials as drought-sensitive or drought-tolerant. This approach aims to identify different traits capable of predicting the ability of formerly uncharacterized seedlings to cope with drought stress. Gas-exchange, water potential, photosynthetic pigments, soluble sugars, free amino acids, glutathione and proteomic analyses were carried out on control and drought-stressed seedlings in greenhouse conditions. Gas-exchange determinations were also assessed in field-planted seedlings in order to validate the greenhouse experimental conditions. Drought-tolerant seed sources presented higher values of photosynthetic rates, water use efficiency, photosynthetic pigments and soluble carbohydrates concentrations. We observed the same pattern of variation of photosynthesis rate and maximal efficiency of PSII in field. Interestingly drought-tolerant seed sources exhibited increased levels of glutathione, methionine and cysteine. The proteomic profile of drought tolerant seedlings identified two heat shock proteins and an enzyme related to methionine biosynthesis that were not present in drought sensitive seedlings, pointing to the synthesis of sulfur amino acids as a limiting factor for drought tolerance in Pinus halepensis . Our results established physiological and molecular traits useful as distinctive markers to predict drought tolerance in Pinus halepensis provenances that could be reliably used in reforestation programs in drought prone areas.

  17. Drought Tolerance in Pinus halepensis Seed Sources As Identified by Distinctive Physiological and Molecular Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Taïbi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the main constraints determining forest species growth, survival and productivity, and therefore one of the main limitations for reforestation or afforestation. The aim of this study is to characterize the drought response at the physiological and molecular level of different Pinus halepensis (common name Aleppo pine seed sources, previously characterized in field trials as drought-sensitive or drought-tolerant. This approach aims to identify different traits capable of predicting the ability of formerly uncharacterized seedlings to cope with drought stress. Gas-exchange, water potential, photosynthetic pigments, soluble sugars, free amino acids, glutathione and proteomic analyses were carried out on control and drought-stressed seedlings in greenhouse conditions. Gas-exchange determinations were also assessed in field-planted seedlings in order to validate the greenhouse experimental conditions. Drought-tolerant seed sources presented higher values of photosynthetic rates, water use efficiency, photosynthetic pigments and soluble carbohydrates concentrations. We observed the same pattern of variation of photosynthesis rate and maximal efficiency of PSII in field. Interestingly drought-tolerant seed sources exhibited increased levels of glutathione, methionine and cysteine. The proteomic profile of drought tolerant seedlings identified two heat shock proteins and an enzyme related to methionine biosynthesis that were not present in drought sensitive seedlings, pointing to the synthesis of sulfur amino acids as a limiting factor for drought tolerance in Pinus halepensis. Our results established physiological and molecular traits useful as distinctive markers to predict drought tolerance in Pinus halepensis provenances that could be reliably used in reforestation programs in drought prone areas.

  18. Novel taxa in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex from Pinus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, D.A.; Wingfield, M.J.; Wingfield, B.D.; Rodas, C.A.; Marincowitz, S.; Steenkamp, E.T.

    2015-01-01

    The pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum has caused devastation to Pinus spp. in natural forests and non-natives in commercially managed plantations. This has drawn attention to the potential importance of Fusarium species as pathogens of forest trees. In this study, we explored the diversity of Fusarium species associated with diseased Pinus patula, P. tecunumanii, P. kesiya and P. maximinoi in Colombian plantations and nurseries. Plants displaying symptoms associated with a F. circinatum-like infection (i.e., stem cankers and branch die-back on trees in plantations and root or collar rot of seedlings) were sampled. A total of 57 isolates were collected and characterised based on DNA sequence data for the translation elongation factor 1-α and β-tubulin gene regions. Phylogenetic analyses of these data allowed for the identification of more than 10 Fusarium species. These included F. circinatum, F. oxysporum, species within the Fusarium solani species complex and seven novel species in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (formerly the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex), five of which are described here as new. Selected isolates of the new species were tested for their pathogenicity on Pinus patula and compared with that of F. circinatum. Of these, F. marasasianum, F. parvisorum and F. sororula displayed levels of pathogenicity to P. patula that were comparable with that of F. circinatum. These apparently emerging pathogens thus pose a significant risk to forestry in Colombia and other parts of the world. PMID:26955193

  19. THE ROLE OF TREEFALL COMPLEXES IN REGENERATION OF TREE SPECIES AND IN MAINTAINING OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY OF NATURAL BEECH AND DARK CONIFEROUS-BEECH FORESTS OF THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Ripa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of maintaining biological diversity mechanisms is important for elaborating methods for the restoration of natural forests that most fully implement ecosystem functions. The objectives of work are: to identify intact beech and dark coniferous-beech forests of the Carpathians on the basis of analyzing history of nature management and field studies; to characterize the population structure of the main tree species in the intact forests of the Carpathians; to determine the renewal of various species of trees, shrubs, herbs and bryophytes to treefall microsites in the forest types studied. The objects of the research are monodominant beech forests and mixed (dark coniferous-beech forests of the Ukrainian Carpathians, in which beech (Fagus sylvatica, white fir (Abies alba and European spruce (Picea abies are the main dominant of tree sinusia. Monodominant beech forests (the age of stands 250–350 years were studied on 9 sample plots (from 1 to 1.05 ha laid in the Ugolsky forest range of the Carpathian Biosphere Reserve at an altitude of 600 to 1000 m above sea level, and also on the 2 sample plots (from 1 to 1.09 hectares laid in the Lower Volovets forestry at an altitude of 600–800 meters above sea level. Uneven-aged dark coniferous-beech forest (the age of forest stands is 250–300 years old was explored on one sample plot (1.2 ha laid in the Podlisnivsky forestry of the Carpathian National Park at an altitude of 750 m above sea level. Population analysis of the main tree and shrub species as well as geobotanical releves was made on the sample plots. Treefall microsite complexes were investigated to identify the peculiarities in the location of tree undergrowth, herb and moss species in beech and mixed forests. The following elements of treefall microsite complex were singled out: treefall pit, treefall mound and tree trunk. At each treefall microsite complex the research was carried out according to the following scheme: an

  20. Comparação gráfica entre curvas de índice de sítio para Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda desenvolvidas no sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Helio Tonini; César Augusto Finger Guimarães; Paulo Renato Schneider; Peter Spathelf

    2002-01-01

    This research had as main objective to study the dominant height growth of Pinus elliottii and Pinus taeda through site index curves comparisons in some regions of Rio Grande do Sul State and other states of the country. These comparisons showed that the site index curves made by Tonini (2000), for the southeastern mountain and coast land in Rio Grande do Sul State did not show the same pattern of those by Scolforo e Machado (1988), for Paraná and Santa Catarina, Brazil (1989a) fo...

  1. Comparação gráfica entre curvas de índice de sítio para Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda desenvolvidas no sul do Brasil.

    OpenAIRE

    Helio Tonini; César Augusto Guimarães Finger; Paulo Renato Schneider; Peter Spathelf

    2010-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivos estudar o crescimento em altura dominante para Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda, mediante comparações entre as curvas de índice de sítio construídas para algumas regiões do estado do Rio Grande do Sul e outros Estados da Federação. Essas comparações indicaram que as curvas feitas por Tonini (2000) para as regiões da Serra do Sudeste e Litoral no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, não apresentaram o mesmo desenvolvimento em relação às curvas feitas por Scolforo e Macha...

  2. Reproductive biology and early establishment of Pinus elliottii var. elliottii in Brazilian sandy coastal plain vegetation: implications for biological invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Campanhã Bechara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pinus is the most invasive woody taxon, exceeded only by herbaceous plants. This study reports the reproductive biology and early establishment of Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii, describing its invasive properties in a protected natural area of the Brazilian coastal sandy plains. We evaluated the seed germination and rain, longevity of seed viability and the initial dynamics of the seedlings of Pinus elliottii var elliottii through field and laboratory experiments. We recorded a continuous seed rain of about 204.0 viable seeds m- 2 per year, with a 90 % germination rate. The seeds exhibited a low longevity of viability in the soil and a dense, permanent seedling bank that may explain the high levels of pine invasion. The environmental impact caused by the pine's biological invasion suggests the recommendation for its immediate eradication, together with a restoration plan to restitute the native biodiversity gradually.

  3. Pinus roxburghii plant needles as a three-season biomonitor for elemental air pollution monitoring along roadside

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daud, Muhammad; Wasim, Mohammad; Khalid, Nasir; Waheed, Shahida [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Chemistry Div.

    2015-07-01

    The present study deals with the determination of 36 elements in Pinus roxburghii plant needles to assess their potential as biomonitor for elemental air pollution monitoring. The elemental quantification was made by employing Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) techniques. The needles of Pinus roxburghii were collected in spring, summer and winter seasons from various sites in Islamabad. The method validation was performed by analyzing two certified reference materials i.e., Citrus leaves - NIST-SRM-1572 and IAEA-Soil-7. Pollution level was assessed by using three indicators: enrichment factor, pollution load index and average toxic element concentration. The results indicated that the needles of Pinus roxburghii plant had potential to monitor the extent of air pollution in the vicinity of high traffic areas.

  4. 13C/12C ratio variations in Pinus longaeva (bristlecone pine) cellulose during the last millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinsted, M.J.; Wilson, A.T.; Ferguson, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Delta 13 C values are presented for cellulose samples prepared from two dendrochronologically dated Pinus longaeva (bristlecone pine) trees which grew during the last 1000 years. Delta 13 C variations for these forest border trees are similar to upper tree line ring-width variations for the same species and English high summer temperature variations for the same time period. However, the delta 13 C variations appear to be unrelated to lower forest border ring-width variations and cellulose deltaD variations for the same specimens. (Auth.)

  5. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil of Six Pinus Taxa Native to China

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Qing; Liu, Zhihong; Li, Zhouqi

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by steam distillation from needles of six China endemic Pinus taxa (P. tabulaeformis, P. tabulaeformis f. shekanensis, P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, P. tabulaeformis var. umbraculifera, P. henryi and P. massoniana) were analysed by GC/MS. A total of 72 components were separated and identified by GC/MS from the six taxa. The major constituents of the essential oils were: α-pinene (6.78%–20.55%), bornyl acetale (3.32%–12.71%), β-caryophellene (18.26%–26.31%), α-...

  6. Diferenciación adaptativa entre poblaciones de Pinus canariensis Chr. Sm. ex DC

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez Rodriguez, Rosana

    2009-01-01

    RESUMEN En el presente trabajo se han caracterizado la variabilidad genética y la plasticidad fenotípica de caracteres adaptativos en los distintos estados de desarrollo de Pinus canariensis. En dos ensayos de sequía llevados a cabo bajo condiciones controladas, las plántulas de pino canario mostraron adaptaciones morfológicas y fisiológicas adecuadas para la captación de agua y optimización de la fotosíntesis en ambientes áridos. Entre estas respuestas, ...

  7. Soil Enzyme Activities in Pinus tabuliformis (Carriére) Plantations in Northern China

    OpenAIRE

    Weiwei Wang; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Ruiheng Lv; Chen Xiao; Guolei Li; Yong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Changes in forest stand structure may alter the activity of invertase, urease, catalase and phenol oxidase after thinning Pinus tabuliformis (Carriére) plantations in Yanqing County of Beijing, China. We examined changes in these soil enzymes as influenced by time since thinning (24, 32, and 40 years since thinning) for 3 seasons (spring, summer and autumn) following harvesting at two depths in the mineral soil (0–10 cm and 10–20 cm). Invertase and urease increased significantly with time sin...

  8. Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) by Black Bear (Ursus americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; Arundel, Terry A.

    2013-01-01

    We report a discovery of black bears (Ursus americanus) consuming seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) on north slopes of the San Francisco Peaks near Flagstaff, Arizona, in high-elevation, mixed-species conifer forest. In one instance, a bear had obtained seeds from cones excavated from a larder horde made by a red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine by bears had not been previously documented. This discovery adds to the number of species of pine used by bears for food as well as the geographic range within which the behavior occurs.

  9. Change of the temporal and spatial distribution of precipitation by a tree cover of Pinus pinaser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Suarez, J. A.; Diaz-Fierros, F.; Soto, B.

    2009-01-01

    Throughfall and stem flow volume generation was measured over 1 year period in a Pinus pinaster stand 9 years old. Throughfall was measured using 8 collectors in a fixed position connected to a tipping bucket rainfall gauge in a representative 10 x 10 m plot of the forest and stem flow was measured in three trees using a rubber ring around the trunk connected to a tipping bucket rainfall gauge. The two tipping bucket rainfall gauges was connected to a data logger programmed to record data every 5 minutes. (Author) 4 refs.

  10. Storage products and tissue interaction in the ovule of Pinus silvestris (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Engels

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The organel-sequence in ovular cells of Pinus silvestris was investigated by light- and electronmicroscopy during the post-pollination and pre-fertilization period. Changes in starch and lipid storage suppose starch to be a pool for lipid synthesis and a reserve for ovule development. The base nucellus plays an important role in the distribution of metabolites all over the ovular tissues. Lipid, starch and callose are of interest for the cells to protect them against low temperatures by means of isolation, antifreeze and plug formation respectively.

  11. Madera de compresión en Pinus radiata III: propiedades de pulpas kraft

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-vaz,J.E; Ananias,R. A; Valenzuela,L; Torres,M; Rodriguez,S

    2012-01-01

    Estudios anteriores en estos mismos árboles de Pinus radiata con fustes levemente inclinados, demostraron que la madera de compresión leve que ellos exhibían presentaba: traqueidas más cortas, mayor densidad, mayor proporción de lignina, mayor proporción de extraíbles en etanol tolueno y menor proporción de alfa celulosa que la madera opuesta y que la madera de árboles sin madera de compresión. En el presente estudio se analiza las propiedades pulpables de la madera de compresión y la de sus ...

  12. Interannual variations in needle and sapwood traits of Pinus edulis branches under an experimental drought

    OpenAIRE

    Guérin, Marceau; Martin‐Benito, Dario; von Arx, Georg; Andreu‐Hayles, Laia; Griffin, Kevin L.; Hamdan, Rayann; McDowell, Nate G.; Muscarella, Robert; Pockman, William; Gentine, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In the southwestern USA, recent large‐scale die‐offs of conifers raise the question of their resilience and mortality under droughts. To date, little is known about the interannual structural response to droughts. We hypothesized that piñon pines (Pinus edulis) respond to drought by reducing the drop of leaf water potential in branches from year to year through needle morphological adjustments. We tested our hypothesis using a 7‐year experiment in central New Mexico with three wateri...

  13. Densidad de la madera de Pinus ponderosa (Dougl. Ex Laws) en tres localidades de Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    JOVANOVSKI, A; JARAMILLO, M; LOGUERCIO, G; ANTEQUERA, S

    2002-01-01

    Se estudió el ancho de anillo, la densidad básica de la madera y su variación y la relación entre ancho de anillo y densidad en Pinus ponderosa (Dougl. Ex. Laws) creciendo en tres localidades de la Patagonia andina argentina. El ancho de anillo obtenido se corresponde con una conífera de rápido crecimiento, mientras que la densidad media es levemente menor que la de la especie creciendo en los sitios de origen en Estados Unidos. Ring-width growth, wood specific gravity and its variation, a...

  14. Essential oils composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. (Pinaceae growing on Pelister Mtn., Republic of Macedonia

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    Marija Karapandzova

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The composition of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from needles, from branches without needles and from branches with needles of Pinus peuce Griseb. (Pinaceae from Pelister Mtn. (R. Macedonia was analyzed by GC/FID/MS. One hundred and seven components (40 monoterpenes, 37 sesquiterpenes, 9 diterpenes and 21 other components - aliphatic and cyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic alcohols, aldehydes, and acids; phenols and other oxygenated benzene derivates were identified. The most abundant constituents were terpene hydrocarbons, encompassing the monoterpenes: α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene + β-phellandrene and bornyl acetate and the sesquiterpenes: trans (E-caryophyllene and germacrene D.

  15. Sapwood area ofPinus contorta stands as a function of mean size and density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James N; Dean, Thomas J

    1986-09-01

    An indirect test of the relationship between leaf area and the combination of mean size and density is made in stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.). Total sapwood cross-sectional area of these stands is a function of the product of density and mean diameter raised to an exponent of about 1.6. Results from other studies, representing four species, suggest that this relationship between sapwood area and the combination of mean size and density may be general. The implications of the relationship are discussed in the context of evapotranspiration, competition and self-thinning.

  16. Effect of gamma rays doses on pollen germination, polysiphony and pollen tube elongation in Pinus patula Schiede et Deppe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katiyar, S.R.; Chauhan, Y.S.

    1987-01-01

    The present study aimed to study the effects of gamma radiation ( 60 Co) on pollen germination and pollen tube elongation in Pinus patula. Pollen germination and pollen tube elongation are stimulated by low doses of radiation. Although higher doses of radiation inhibit the germination of pollen, pollen tube elongation remains unaffected. Thus in Pinus patula pollen tube elongation is less radiosensitive than pollen germination. Compared to control pollen, irradiated pollen produced more number of long pollen tubes. Therefore pollen tube size can be improved using low doses of radiation. (author). 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tables

  17. A Comparative Study on Turpentine Oils of Oleoresins of Pinus sylvestris L. from Three Districts of Denizli

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    İbrahim Tümen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Oleoresin samples collected from Pinus sylvestris L. trees from Acıpayam, Çal and Çamlıbel, three different locations in Denizli-Turkey. The constituents of the turpentine oil, obtained by hydrodistillation of oleoresin of Pinus sylvestris L., were identified by GC-MS. Fifty four constituents were detected from the turpentine oil, which constituted about between 96.2% and 98.2% of the total amount. Major constituents of the oil were a-pinene, b-pinene, camphene, longifolene, D3-carene, limonene and b-caryophyllene

  18. Establishing gene models from the Pinus pinaster genome using gene capture and BAC sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane-Zonjic, Pedro; Cañas, Rafael A; Bautista, Rocío; Gómez-Maldonado, Josefa; Arrillaga, Isabel; Fernández-Pozo, Noé; Claros, M Gonzalo; Cánovas, Francisco M; Ávila, Concepción

    2016-02-27

    In the era of DNA throughput sequencing, assembling and understanding gymnosperm mega-genomes remains a challenge. Although drafts of three conifer genomes have recently been published, this number is too low to understand the full complexity of conifer genomes. Using techniques focused on specific genes, gene models can be established that can aid in the assembly of gene-rich regions, and this information can be used to compare genomes and understand functional evolution. In this study, gene capture technology combined with BAC isolation and sequencing was used as an experimental approach to establish de novo gene structures without a reference genome. Probes were designed for 866 maritime pine transcripts to sequence genes captured from genomic DNA. The gene models were constructed using GeneAssembler, a new bioinformatic pipeline, which reconstructed over 82% of the gene structures, and a high proportion (85%) of the captured gene models contained sequences from the promoter regulatory region. In a parallel experiment, the P. pinaster BAC library was screened to isolate clones containing genes whose cDNA sequence were already available. BAC clones containing the asparagine synthetase, sucrose synthase and xyloglucan endotransglycosylase gene sequences were isolated and used in this study. The gene models derived from the gene capture approach were compared with the genomic sequences derived from the BAC clones. This combined approach is a particularly efficient way to capture the genomic structures of gene families with a small number of members. The experimental approach used in this study is a valuable combined technique to study genomic gene structures in species for which a reference genome is unavailable. It can be used to establish exon/intron boundaries in unknown gene structures, to reconstruct incomplete genes and to obtain promoter sequences that can be used for transcriptional studies. A bioinformatics algorithm (GeneAssembler) is also provided as a

  19. Impact of Pinus Afforestation on Soil Chemical Attributes and Organic Matter in South Brazilian highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro Dick, D.; Benvenuti Leite, S.; Dalmolin, R.; Almeida, H.; Knicker, H.; Martinazzo, R.

    2009-04-01

    The region known as Campos de Cima da Serra, located at 800 to 1400 m above sea level in the northeas of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, is covered by a mosaic of natural grassland and Araucaria forest. Cattle raising, introduced by the first European settlers about 200 years ago, is the traditional economic activity in the region, occurring extensively and continuously on the natural pasture. In the last 30 years, while seeking for higher profits, local farmers have introduced agricultural crops and Pinus Taeda plantations in the original pasture lands. Pinus plantations are established in this area as dense monocultures and not as a sylvipastoral system, representing, thus, a severe threaten to the Campos' biodiversity. The soils are shallow, though very acidic (pH 4.2) and rich in exchangeable Al (28 to 47% of Al saturation), and present high contents of SOM in the surface layer (in general, higher than 4 %), which shows a low decomposition degree, as indicated by its high proportion of C-O alkyl groups (51 to 59 %). Considering that the biome sustainability of this region is being progressively affected by the change of land use and that systematic studies about exotic trees afforestation in that region are very scarce, our main objective was to investigate the impact of the introduction of Pinus on the SOM composition and chemical attributes of highland soils in 8 (Pi8) and 30 (Pi30) years old plantations, using as reference the original condition under native pasture (NP). In each studied Leptosol, soil samples were collected from three layers down to 15 cm ( 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm). Contents of exchangeable cations and of micronutrients and soil pH were determined. The SOM composition was investigated by means of elemental analyses, FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy (three replicates). Prior to the spectroscopic analyses, samples were demineralized with 10% HF solution and organic matter loss was monitored. From the FTIR spectra, an aromaticity index

  20. Variation of weigh and viability of seeds of Pinus tropicalis from different populations

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    Marta Bonilla Vichot

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pinus tropicalis Morelet is endemic in the province of Pinar del Rio and Isla de la Juventud. In this paper the variation is evaluated in weight and viability of seeds from 4 seed areas of the province of Pinar del Rio, Cuba, which were harvested in July and stored for five months at room temperature until They were made to the corresponding analysis. Samples of each of the sources weretaken to determine the weight of 1000 seeds, as established methodology ISTA (1993. Viability was also determined from the tetrazolium Test. It was observed that the individual weight of the seeds of Pinus tropicalis has 0,0051g values to 0,050g, while the average weight of 1000 seeds shows variation by origin, showing the greatest weight to the seeds from the seed mass Ceja del Negro (orchard seedling genetically enhanced trees, which directly influences the quality of seeds. The viability was also superior in the origin of Ceja del Negro.

  1. Simulation of Tsunami Resistance of a Pinus Thunbergii tree in Coastal Forest in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanko, K.; Suzuki, S.; Noguchi, H.; Hagino, H.

    2015-12-01

    Forests reduce fluid force of tsunami, whereas extreme tsunami sometimes breaks down the forest trees. It is difficult to estimate the interactive relationship between the fluid and the trees because fluid deform tree architecture and deformed tree changes flow field. Dynamic tree deformation and fluid behavior should be clarified by fluid-structure interaction analysis. For the initial step, we have developed dynamic simulation of tree sway and breakage caused by tsunami based on a vibrating system with multiple degrees of freedom. The target specie of the simulation was Japanese black pine (pinus thunbergii), which is major specie in the coastal forest to secure livelihood area from the damage by blown sand and salt in Japanese coastal area. For the simulation, a tree was segmented into 0.2 m long circular truncated cones. Turning moment induced by tsunami and self-weight was calculated at each segment bottom. Tree deformation was computed on multi-degree-of-freedom vibration equation. Tree sway was simulated by iterative calculation of the tree deformation with time step 0.05 second with temporally varied flow velocity of tsunami. From the calculation of bending stress and turning moment at tree base, we estimated resistance of a Pinus thunbergii tree from tsunami against tree breakage.

  2. Effect of Pinus radiata derived biochars on soil sorption and desorption of phenanthrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Honghua; Lin Kunde; Wang Hailong; Gan, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Biochars are anthropogenic carbonaceous sorbent and their influences on the sorption of environmental contaminants need to be characterized. Here we evaluated the effect of Pinus radiata derived biochars on soil sorption and desorption of phenanthrene. Two biochars separately produced at 350 o C and 700 o C and three soils were tested. Biochar amendment generally enhanced the soil sorption of phenanthrene. The biochar produced at 700 o C generally showed a greater ability at enhancing a soil's sorption ability than that prepared at 350 o C. The single-step desorption measurement showed an apparent hysteresis in biochar-amended soils. After 28 d equilibration, the sorptive capacity of biochar-amended soil (with an organic carbon content of 0.16%) significantly decreased. This study clearly suggested that biochar application enhanced soil sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds, but the magnitude of enhancement depended on the preparation of biochars, the indigenous soil organic carbon levels, and the contact time between soil and biochar. - Pinus radiata derived biochars influence soil sorption and desorption of phenanthrene.

  3. Liming and fertilisation in Pinus taeda plantations with severe nutrient deficiency in savanna soils

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    Araína Hulmann Batista

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soils with high acidity and low exchangeable bases may be responsible for low yields of Pinus taeda in a forest plantation at Jaguariaíva, Paraná State, Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of liming and fertilisation, applied over litter, on two selected areas with Pinus taeda plantations. Soil, litter and pine needles were evaluated for K, Ca and Mg concentrations and soil acidity parameters. Seven treatments were applied: (i complete (N, P, K, Zn, Cu, B, Mo, and lime; (ii without N, P, and K; (iii without Zn, Cu, B, and Mo; (iv without K; (v without Zn; (vi without lime; and (vii control (without nutrients and lime. Soil samples were collected at five soil depths (0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm simultaneously with litter samples. Needles were also collected from the first and second pine flushes. Liming induced soil pH, Ca2+, and Mg2+ increases, and the opposite was observed for Al3+ and Al saturation. Fertilisation increased soil exchangeable K+ concentrations and needle and litter K concentrations. The low Ca and Mg concentrations found in the plant needles might be attributable to their low mobility.

  4. Xylose-rich polysaccharides from the primary walls of embryogenic cell line of Pinus caribaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, A; Domon, J M; David, H; Joseleau, J P

    1997-08-01

    Embryogenic cell lines of Pinus caribaea were isolated from somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos. Previous studies showed that the proteins and glycoproteins were characteristic of the embryogenic state. In the present work we were seeking typical feature in the polysaccharide from the cell walls of embryogenic calli at nine days of culture. Sequential extraction with water, ammonium oxalate, dimethyl sulfoxide, sodium borohydride and 4.3 M potassium hydroxide revealed that the extracted polysaccharides contained high proportions of arabinose and significant amounts of xylose. Fractionation of the hydrosoluble polymers on DEAE cellulose afforded a xylose-rich fraction (80% xylose, 24% glucose and lower properties of fucose and mannose). Methylation analysis and 13C-NMR spectra showed that the glycan backbone consisted of beta 1 --> 4 linked xylosyl residues Similar study of the fractions extracted respectively with DMSO and 4.3 M KOH showed the presence of polydisperse glycoxylans but excluded the presence of xyloglucan in significant amount. This could be a characteristic feature of embryogenic cells walls of Pinus caribaea or could be typical of cells grown as calluses. In the various fractions obtained from DEAE cellulose chromatography of the alkaline extract the infrequent occurrence of fucoxylans beside an arabinogalactan showed again the unusual nature of the cell wall polymers of this embryogenic lines, which seems to differ greatly from those found in the primary wall of cells from suspension cultures.

  5. Ecophysiological responses of Pinus leucodermis at high elevation in the Mediterranean area

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    Guerrieri MR

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pinus leucodermis Antoine (= Pinus heldreichii var. leucodermis is a species of the Balkan flora which in Italy grows in a small area between the Regions of Basilicata and Calabria, in the Pollino National Park. A relict of the oro-Mediterranean Tertiary forests, it is found from the lower vegetation belt, where it is mixed with evergreen sclerophyllous vegetation, up to the alpine vegetation belt beyond the closed formations of Fagus sylvatica, where it makes up stands with very old, isolated and big trees growing in open spaces between rocks. The ecophysiological and dendrochronolgy features of the P. leucodermis stands growing on the west slope of Serra di Crispo (Monte Pollino, between 1800 and 2000 m a.s.l., have been studied during recent years and some of the results are presented in this work. Ecophysiological measurements in situ show that reduced atmospheric vapour pressure deficit conditions, due to humid currents from the western Tyrrhenian Sea, allow the trees to escape from summer drought. When day summer weather conditions are optimal P. leucodermis exhibits a remarkable photosynthetic activity and adaptation to high irradiance. The tree ring width chronology documents a marked reduction of radial growth from 1950 to 1985, followed by a strong recovery, still continuing. In the same period differences between the annual minimum and maximum temperatures tend to increase. Anthropic and grazing pressure is reduced markedly after the institution of the National Park of Pollino.

  6. A review of Sphaeropsis sapinea occurrence on Pinus species in Bulgaria

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    Margarita Georgieva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sphaeropsis sapinea (Fr. Dyko & Sutton causes shoot blight and canker disease throughout the world on conifers predisposed by stress. The disease is most important to Pinus species that are affected from the seedling stage in nurseries to mature trees in ornamental planting, forest plantations and natural stands. In Bulgaria, the first findings of the disease were noted in 1989 on Pinus nigra plantations in the North-eastern part of the country. Over the past few years, new emergency and severe damages have developed rapidly as a consequence of the prolonged drought periods during the last growing seasons. The high existence of S. sapinea outbreaks contributed considerably to the physiological weakness of pine trees that become more susceptible to attack by aggressive xylophages and other fungal pathogens. Disease occurrence and its pathogenicity are economically important affecting a number of pine trees from all ages. In Bulgaria, S. sapinea has been obtained on six pine species P. nigra, P. strobus, P. radiata, P. ponderosa, P. pinaster and P. halepensis. The aim of this review is to present the available knowledge on distribution, host specificity, biology, ecology, management of the disease, and to discuss its current prevalence and pathogenicity effect on pine species in Bulgaria.

  7. Photosynthetic temperature adaptation of Pinus cembra within the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Gerhard; Oberhuber, Walter; Walder, Lisa; Spieler, Daniela; Gruber, Andreas

    2010-04-01

    Temperature is suggested to determine the upper limit of tree life. Therefore, future climate warming may be of importance for tree distribution within the European Alps, where low temperatures limit carbon metabolism.We focused on the effects of air and soil temperature on net photosynthesis (P(n)) of Pinus cembra an evergreen climax species of the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps. Light response and temperature response curves were estimated along an altitudinal gradient ranging from the forest limit up to the krummholz limit in both summer and fall.In general, P(n) was significantly lower in fall as compared to summer. Nevertheless, independent from season mean P(n) values tended to increase with elevation and were positively correlated with root zone temperatures. The specific leaf area by contrast declined with increasing elevation. Furthermore, the temperature optimum of net photosynthesis declined with increasing elevation and was positively correlated with the mean maximum air temperature of the 10 days prior the date of measurement.Thus, our findings appear to reflect a long-term adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus of Pinus cembra to the general temperature conditions with respect to elevation combined with a short term acclimation to the prevailing temperature regime.

  8. Photosynthesis, chloroplast pigments, and antioxidants in Pinus canariensis under free-air ozone fumigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Then, Ch.; Herbinger, K.; Luis, V.C.; Heerdt, C.; Matyssek, R.; Wieser, G.

    2009-01-01

    High O 3 levels, driving uptake and challenging defense, prevail on the Canary Islands, being associated with the hot and dry summers of the Mediterranean-type climate. Pinus canariensis is an endemic conifer species that forms forests across these islands. We investigated the effects of ozone on photosynthesis and biochemical parameters of P. canariensis seedlings exposed to free-air O 3 fumigation at Kranzberg Forest, Germany, where ambient O 3 levels were similar to those at forest sites in the Canary Islands. The twice-ambient O 3 regime (2xO 3 ) neither caused visible injury-like chlorotic or necrotic spots in the needles nor significantly affected violaxanthin, antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin levels and the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle. In parallel, stomatal conductance for water vapour, net photosynthesis, intercellular CO 2 concentration, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, as well as antioxidant levels were hardly affected. It is concluded that presently prevailing O 3 levels do not impose severe stress on P. canariensis seedlings. - Twice-ambient ozone does not significantly affect the physiological behavior of Pinus canariensis seedlings

  9. The effects of high energy radiation on the pulping properties of Pinus radiation and Eucalyptus regnans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, K.G.; Garland, C.P.; Higgins, H.G.

    1976-01-01

    Studies have been made of the effects of high energy radiation on the pulping behaviour of Eucalyptus regnans and Pinus radiata. Pre-irradiation of wood chips with small doses of 60 Co gamma radiation (up to about 0.2 Mrad) caused little degradation of the cellulose, and had only minor effects on the kraft pulping properties of both wood species. Pulp yield, Kappa number and strength properties of the pulps showed little change. There was also little effect on the bisulphite cooking of Pinus radiata. As the dose was increased to 1 Mrad, degradation of cellulose (as indicated by degree of polymerisation measurements) became significant, and Kraft pulp yields from both woods showed small reductions. The Kappa number and physical properties of these pulps were little affected at this dose level. A gamma radiation dose of 10 Mrad produced marked depolymerisation of the cellulose, and big reductions in kraft and neutral sulphite semi-chemical pulp yields. The kraft pulps showed a much higher lignin content. Some low dose (0.15 Mrad) irradiations on thin chips were carried out with a 1 MeV electron accelerator. In contrast to comparable gamma irradiations, this treatment produced discernible changes in kraft pulping behaviour. The pulp yield, under the same cooking conditions, appears to be slightly higher, but the Lignin content of the pulp was increased. (Author)

  10. PpRT1: the first complete gypsy-like retrotransposon isolated in Pinus pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheta, Margarida; Cordeiro, Jorge; Oliveira, M; Miguel, Célia

    2007-02-01

    We have isolated and characterized a complete retrotransposon sequence, named PpRT1, from the genome of Pinus pinaster. PpRT1 is 5,966 bp long and is closely related to IFG7 gypsy retrotransposon from Pinus radiata. The long terminal repeats (LTRs) have 333 bp each and show a 5.4% sequence divergence between them. In addition to the characteristic polypurine tract (PPT) and the primer binding site (PBS), PpRT1 carries internal regions with homology to retroviral genes gag and pol. The pol region contains sequence motifs related to the enzymes protease, reverse transcriptase, RNAseH and integrase in the same typical order known for Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons. PpRT1 was extended from an EST database sequence indicating that its transcription is occurring in pine tissues. Southern blot analyses indicate however, that PpRT1 is present in a unique or a low number of copies in the P. pinaster genome. The differences in nucleotide sequence found between PpRT1 and IFG7 may explain the strikingly different copy number in the two pine species genome. Based on the homologies observed when comparing LTR region among different gypsy elements we propose that the highly conserved LTR regions may be useful to amplify other retrotransposon sequences of the same or close retrotransposon family.

  11. Characterization of a type-A response regulator differentially expressed during adventitious caulogenesis in Pinus pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, José M; Cortizo, Millán; Ordás, Ricardo J

    2012-12-15

    The molecular cloning and characterization of PipsRR1, a type-A response regulator in Pinus pinaster, is reported here. Type-A response regulators mediate downstream responses to cytokinin and act as negative feedback regulators of the signal transduction pathway. Some type-A response regulators in Arabidopsis have been related to de novo meristem formation. However, little information exists in Pinus spp. The PipsRR1 gene contains 5 exons, as do all type-A response regulators in Arabidopsis, and the deduced protein contains a receiver domain with the conserved DDK residues and a short C terminal extension. Expression analysis showed that the PipsRR1 gene is differentially expressed during the first phases of adventitious caulogenesis induced by benzyladenine in P. pinaster cotyledons, suggesting that PipsRR1 plays a role in caulogenesis in conifers. Additionally, a binary vector carrying the PipsRR1 promoter driving GFP:GUS expression was constructed to analyze the promoter activity in P. pinaster somatic embryos. The results of genetic transformation showed GUS activity during somatic embryo mass proliferation and embryo maturation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Using Landsat satellite imagery to detect small-size forest stands of Pinus nigra Arn. and Pinus sylvestris L. affected by Scolytidae; Uso de imagenes satelite Landsat para la deteccion de rodales de Pinus nigra Arn. y Pinus sylvestris L. afectados por escolitidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, E.; Bonet, J. A.; Eizaguirre, M.

    2009-07-01

    Medium resolution images from multispectral sensors like Landsat TM have been extensively used for decades in order to identify decline and defoliation generated by insects and other forest pests. The present work analyses the usefulness of these kinds of images to detect small-size stands of Pinus nigra Arn. and Pinus sylvestris L. affected by Scolytidae attacks. The study area was located in the Solsones region (Eastern Pyrenees), selecting 34 training zones (17 damaged small-size stands and 17 healthy small-size stands). The exploratory analysis of the images was conducted with the ERDAS IMAGINE 8.x. program.The results of the study showed significant differences between the affected and non-affected stands in 5 of the 7 spectral bands analysed. TM5 and TM7 bands were identified as those having the highest power to detect damaged stands. The digital levels obtained and the spaces of characteristics created, both showed trends to group small-size affected stands versus healthy, achieving improvements in the methodological procedure employed. (Author) 31 refs.

  13. Biogeochemical assessment of environmental risk by the example of Pinus sylvestris L.

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    Rybakov Dmitry Sergeevich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using annual rings of Pinus sylvestris L. to assess chemical pollution in the Republic of Karelia is discussed. With the help of principal component factor analysis the relationship between the contents of chemical elements and dendrological parameters – the width of annual rings and wood density - was revealed. The main factors contributing to the pollution of the northern part of the Republic of Karelia by the emission from iron-ore enterprise JSC «Karelsky Okatysh» are frequent ecologically significant wind directions, the distance from the source and the total mass of the emission. The value of radial growth (the average width of annual rings for five-years of Pinus sylvestris L. is connected negatively with the content of Cu, Cd, Ni and Fe. As an element of nutrition, Mn is positively correlated with the density of wood wherein it is an antagonist of Fe and partially of Cr in northern areas . Several peaks of Pb content coincide with the most intense tests of atomic weapons. Sharp maximums of Pb can also be due to a cross-border pollution and emission from regional sources.

  14. Production of laminated veneer lumber LVL using veneer of Schizolobium amazonicum, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the quality of laminated veneer lumber - LVL manufactured with veneers of Schizolobium amazonicum (paricá, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda. The LVL panels were manufactured in the laboratory conditions composed by seven veneers, 2,0 mm thickness, with different structural compositions, using phenol-formaldehyde resin. The veneers of Schizolobium amazonicum- paricá- were pre-classified by using stress wave machine. The veneers of Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda were disposed in the face layer to reinforce the structural strength of LVL panels. The LVL quality was evaluated using glue line shear strength and static bending test (MOE and MOR, edge and flat. Grading of paricá veneers based on MOEd did not affected significantly the results of the glue line shear strength and MOE and MOR edge. For the MOE and MOR flat, the use of veneers of MOEd grade 1 contributed significantly to increasing the average values of these properties. In the same way, using the Eucalyptus saligna veneers on the face of LVL resulted in higher average values of MOE and MOR, edge and flat.

  15. [Spectral features analysis of Pinus massoniana with pest of Dendrolimus punctatus Walker and levels detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhang-Hua; Liu, Jian; Yu, Kun-Yong; Gong, Cong-Hong; Xie, Wan-Jun; Tang, Meng-Ya; Lai, Ri-Wen; Li, Zeng-Lu

    2013-02-01

    Taking 51 field measured hyperspectral data with different pest levels in Yanping, Fujian Province as objects, the spectral reflectance and first derivative features of 4 levels of healthy, mild, moderate and severe insect pest were analyzed. On the basis of 7 detecting parameters construction, the pest level detecting models were built. The results showed that (1) the spectral reflectance of Pinus massoniana with pests were significantly lower than that of healthy state, and the higher the pest level, the lower the reflectance; (2) with the increase in pest level, the spectral reflectance curves' "green peak" and "red valley" of Pinus massoniana gradually disappeared, and the red edge was leveleds (3) the pest led to spectral "green peak" red shift, red edge position blue shift, but the changes in "red valley" and near-infrared position were complicated; (4) CARI, RES, REA and REDVI were highly relevant to pest levels, and the correlations between REP, RERVI, RENDVI and pest level were weak; (5) the multiple linear regression model with the variables of the 7 detection parameters could effectively detect the pest levels of Dendrolimus punctatus Walker, with both the estimation rate and accuracy above 0.85.

  16. Growth and Survival Variation among Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. Provenances

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    Süleyman Gülcü

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tree height, basal diameter, and survival were examined in thirteen-year-old provenance test established by 30 seed sources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. at two exotic sites of the species in Southern part of Turkey. Variations within provenance and among provenances and relations among the traits were estimated to compare Scots pine provenance and two other native species. Averages of tree height and basal diameter were 350 cm and 52.7 mm in Aydogmus site and 385 cm and 51.2 mm in Kemer site, respectively. There were large differences within and among provenances for the characters. Sites were similar (p>0.05 for the characters, while there were significant differences (p≤0.05 among provenances within site according to results of variance analysis (ANOVA. Scots pine provenances were higher and had more thickness than that of black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold and Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich. which were natural species of the region. There were positive and significant (p<0.05 correlations between height and basal diameter in the species. Average survivals were 56% and 35% of the provenances in the sites. They were 71% and 11% in black pine and 53% in Taurus cedar for the sites respectively.

  17. Primer registro de Naupactus ruizi (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea asociado con Pinus ponderosa (Gymnospermae: Pinaceae en Patagonia

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    Cecilia A. GOMEZ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Naupactus ruizi (Brèthes es un gorgojo de rostro corto, distribuido en la Argentina y Chile, que habita en ambientes áridos asociado con vegetación xerofítica y alcanza el rango más austral entre los miembros de la tribu Naupactini. Un relevamiento de insectos y de patógenos como plagas potenciales, realizado durante el 2005 en plantaciones de Pinus spp. en la Patagonia andina argentina, resultó en el hallazgo de adultos de N. ruizi que se alimentaban de acículas de Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. Este hallazgo es sorprendente dado que las especies de Naupactini, consumen casi exclusivamente angiospermas. Interpretamos que el cambio de huésped, habría ocurrido como consecuencia de una colonización reciente favorecida por la amplia distribución geográfica del gorgojo y su capacidad para sobrevivir en hábitats marginales, donde probablemente las plantas nativas son escasas y el nuevo huésped presenta una gran abundancia local.

  18. Short Communication. Physiological effects of Rhizopogon Roseolus on Pinus halepensis seedlings

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    J.A. Alfonso Domínguez Núñez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The inoculation of forest seedlings with ectomycorrhizal fungi can improve the morphological and physiological qualities of plants, especially those used for regeneration of arid areas. Rhizopogon roseolus is an ectomycorrhizal fungus (ECM commonly used for reforestation. In this study, the specific objectives were to know some morphophysiological effects of Rhizopogon Roseolus on Pinus halepensis seedlings under standard nursery conditionsArea of study: ETSI Montes and EUIT Forestal, Madrid.Material and Methods: In nursery, under well watered conditions and peat growing substrates, Aleppo pine seedlings were inoculated with R. roseolus. Five months after the inoculations, we examined the growth, water parameters (osmotic potential at full turgor [Ψπfull], osmotic potential at zero turgor [Ψπ0], and the tissue modulus of elasticity near full turgor [Emax], mycorrhizal colonization, and concentration and content of macronutrients in the seedlings. Subsequently, a trial was conducted to assess the root growth potential.Main results: The mycorrhization decreased the height and diameter of mycorrhizal seedlings but increased the root weight and root branching. R. roseolus did not cause any significant effect on the regeneration of new roots or on any of the tested hydric parameters, but it did improve N uptake of the seedlings.Research highlights: The mycorrhizal inoculation increased the N uptake. The mycorrhizal inoculation caused opposite effects on some growth parametersKeywords: Osmotic adjustment; elastic adjustment; mineral nutrition; root growth potential; nursery; Rhizopogon roseolus;  Pinus halepensis. 

  19. Phisyological quality of Pinus elliotti Engelm. seeds subjected to differents storage methods

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    Adriano Geraldo Fonseca

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growing demand for forest products, it is necessary to increase knowledge about the tree species of economic importance, especially in relation to seed storage. One method to study forest species is the storage of seeds. Cryopreservation is the cheapest and the most efficient method of seed preservation. The objective of this study was to test the behavior of Pinus elliottii Engelm. seeds storaged on liquid nitrogen; laboratory environment and refrigerator. The experiment was conducted in the seed Laboratory of the Federal University of the Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valley. The seeds were donated by Rigesa Ltda on June 2007. Three types of storage were tested: 1 liquid nitrogen temperature of -196 º C, 2 laboratory environment, 3 refrigerator. All treatments were evaluated at 0, 40, 80 and 120 days of storage. The vigor, germination and germination rate tests were mounted on gerbox with blotters and moistened with distilled water and kept in BOD incubator chamber at 25 º C. Seeds length, green mass and dry mass were also evaluated. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey test at 5% significance level. It was found that there was loss of quality of the Pinus elliottii seeds in all treatments. Cryopreservation of P. elliotii seeds can be used as an alternative of storage in genebanks.

  20. Fauna do solo em áreas com Eucalyptus spp. E Pinus elliottii, Santa Maria, RS

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    Maria Izabel Jacques Soares

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This work started in the spring in 1996 and finished in the winter in 1997 and it had as its objective to study the populational survey of soil fauna in the Pinus elliotti and Eucalyptus spp. in areas situaded in “Campus” at Federal University of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. An extractor was utilized to collect the soil from 10 sample points, in the 0-5, 5-10, 10-15 and 15-20 cm of soil depth, in each season of the year. With this study it was possible to identify some representants of Phylum Annelida and Arthropoda who belong to fauna-soil-vegetable context. The individual total, its percentile and number of individual for square meter were obtained. It was observed the predominance of Phylum Arthropoda and, in special, of Insecta class in the Eucalyptus spp. area; and the Phylum Annelida in the Pinus elliottii area. The depth variable originated mathematical models to explain the populational distribution for each studied areas. The seasons of year variable did not show a significative difference. It was not possible to establish a populational distribution model.

  1. Selection of seed lots of Pinus taeda L. for tissue culture

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    Diego Pascoal Golle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to identify the fungi genera associated with three Pinus taeda L. seed lots and to assess the sanitary and physiological quality of these lots for use as selection criteria for tissue culture and evaluate the in vitro establishment of explants from seminal origin in different nutritive media. It was possible to discriminate the lots on the sanitary and physiological quality, as well as to establish in vitro plants of Pinus taeda from cotyledonary nodes obtained from aseptic seed germination of a selected lot by the sanitary and physiological quality higher. The nutritive media MS, ½ MS and WPM were equally suitable for this purpose. For the sanitary analysis the fungal genera Fusarium, Penicillium and Trichoderma were those of the highest sensitivity. For the physiological evaluation were important the variables: abnormal seedlings, strong normal seedlings; length, fresh and dry weight of strong normal seedlings. The analyzes were favorable to choose lots of seeds for in vitro culture and all culture media were adequate for the establishment of this species in tissue culture.

  2. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil from cones of Pinus koraiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Ho; Yang, Hye-Young; Lee, Hong-Sub; Hong, Soon-Kwang

    2008-03-01

    The essential oil from the cones of Pinus koraiensis was prepared after removing the seeds, and its chemical composition analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hydrodistillation of the P. koraiensis cones yielded 1.07% (v/w) of essential oil, which was almost three times the amount of essential oil extracted from the needles of the same plant. Moreover, the antimicrobial activities of the oil against the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi were evaluated using the agar disc diffusion method and broth microdilution method. Eighty-seven components, comprising about 96.8% of the total oil, were identified. The most abundant oil components were limonene (27.90%), alpha-pinene (23.89%), beta-pinene (12.02%), 3-carene (4.95%), beta-myrcene (4.53%), isolongifolene (3.35%), (-)-bornyl acetate (2.02%), caryophyllene (1.71%), and camphene (1.54%). The essential oil was confirmed to have significant antimicrobial activities, especially against pathogenic fungal strains such as Candida glabrata YFCC 062 and Cryptococcus neoformans B 42419. Therefore, the present results indicate that the essential oil from the cones of Pinus koraiensis can be used in various ways as a nontoxic and environmentally friendly disinfectant.

  3. High seed dispersal ability of Pinus canariensis in stands of contrasting density inferred from genotypic data

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    Unai López de Heredia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Models that combine parentage analysis from molecular data with spatial information of seeds and seedlings provide a framework to describe and identify the factors involved in seed dispersal and recruitment of forest species. In the present study we used a spatially explicit method (the gene shadow model in order to assess primary and effective dispersal in Pinus canariensis. Area of study: Pinus canariensis is endemic to the Canary Islands (Spain. Sampling sites were a high density forest in southern slopes of Tenerife and a low density stand in South Gran Canaria. Materials and methods: We fitted models based on parentage analysis from seeds and seedlings collected in two sites with contrasting stand density, and then compared the resulting dispersal distributions. Main results: The results showed that: 1 P. canariensis has a remarkable dispersal ability compared to other pine species; 2 there is no discordance between primary and effective dispersals, suggesting limited secondary dispersal by animals and lack of Janzen-Connell effect; and 3 low stand densities enhance the extent of seed dispersal, which was higher in the low density stand. Research highlights: The efficient dispersal mechanism of P. canariensis by wind inferred by the gene shadow model is congruent with indirect measures of gene flow, and has utility in reconstructing past demographic events and in predicting future distribution ranges for the species.

  4. ORIGEM DOS COMPOSTOS HIDROFÓBICOS E SEUS EFEITOS EM FLORESTAS DE Pinus E Eucalyptus

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    Eduardo Saldanha Vogelmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophobicity can be understood as the soil water repellency or difficulty to soil wetting. This is associated with the coating of soil particles by hydrophobic organic substances and currently there are numerous reports of water repellency in forest areas of Eucalyptus and Pinus. Thus, this study aims at reviewing and listing the aspects related to the origin of hydrophobic compounds and the effects of the water dynamics in the forest environment, as well as implications in growth and development of trees in Eucalyptus and Pinus forests. It is recognized that the local vegetation and some bacteria and fungi, depending on their chemical composition, may release hydrophobic organic substances. Another risk factor is the occurrence of burnings which induce changes in organic compounds and promote soil drying. Furthermore, the particle size distribution and the soil pH may be indirectly associated with the occurrence of soil water repellency The occurrence of hydrophobicity requires special attention regarding the soil use and management, because this repellency affects the water movement on the surface and inside the soil profile. Changes in sorptivity, reduction in water infiltration, increase in runoff and occurrence of preferential flow are the main hydrological effects of this phenomenon. Due to their lower infiltration rates there is increased the surface flow and reducing the amount of water available, increasing the erosion and, consequently affecting the growth and development of plants.

  5. Orthogonal cutting forces in juvenile and mature Pinus taeda wood Forças de corte ortogonal na madeira juvenil e adulta de Pinus taeda

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    Raquel Gonçalves

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The distinct characteristics of juvenile and mature woods, which are observed particularly in softwoods, have an influence on processing due to their different mechanical resistance properties in relation to cutting operations. In the past, when most of the wood used industrially came from adult trees of natural forests, little importance was given to a distinction between different zones of the tree stem. At present, however, as the supply of mature trees with large diameters from native forests is constantly decreasing, the use of short-cycle trees has become a common practice, through the adoption of species that grow relatively fast, such as pines and eucalyptus. In both softwoods and hardwoods, juvenile wood cells are generally smaller and thinner than in mature wood, and this reflects on their density and mechanical resistance, which should have an effect on the cutting forces developed during processing. The main object of this research was to evaluate orthogonal cutting forces in juvenile and mature Pinus taeda woods. Cutting force magnitude differences were observed for those two regions of the trunk, with parallel cutting forces being 33.4% higher, on average, at the mature wood region for 90-0 cutting, and 12% higher for 90-90 cutting. This result is consistent with the distinct anatomical structures of the material, since the forces developed during machining depend directly upon its properties.As características distintas dos lenhos juvenil e adulto, existentes principalmente na formação das coníferas, influenciam na usinagem devido às diferentes propriedades de resistência mecânica ao corte. No passado, quando a maior parte da madeira utilizada industrialmente era proveniente de árvores adultas de florestas naturais, pouca importância era dada à diferenciação de zonas no tronco. Atualmente, no entanto, com o decréscimo constante do suprimento de árvores adultas de grandes diâmetros, provenientes de florestas nativas

  6. Medicinal Plants in the Broad-Leaf Mixed Coniferous Forest of Tshothang Chiwog, Bhutan: Floristic Attributes, Vegetation Structure, Ethnobotany, and Socioeconomic Aspects

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    Ngawang Jamba

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan, located in one of the global biodiversity hotspots, is endowed with abundant floral wealth, including a wide array of medicinal plants (MPs. However, over-exploitation of these resources is widespread, and only a few studies have assessed the richness and diversity of Bhutanese forests and in particular about the MP resources. A vegetation survey was conducted in Tshothang Chiwog, south-eastern Bhutan to characterize the floristic structure of the broad-leaf mixed coniferous forests with a special focus on MPs. A questionnaire survey involving 40 farmers was also conducted to assess the ethnobotanical and socioeconomic aspects of MP extraction. A total of 157 plant species (38 trees, 19 shrubs, 85 herbs and ferns, and 15 climbers, representing 74 families and 137 genera were identified from the study area, of which 69 species (14 trees, 10 shrubs, 38 herbs and ferns, and seven climbers, belonging to 41 families and 69 genera were medicinally important. The most species-rich families of medicinal plants were: Asteraceae (eight spp., Apiaceae (four spp., Polygonaceae, Brassicaceae, Zingiberaceae, and Urticaceae (three species each. Herbaceous flora exhibited the highest diversity (Simpson diversity index, D = 0.97 and Shannon-Weiner index, H′ = 5.82, followed by trees and shrubs (D = 0.95 and 0.92 and H′ = 4.86 and 3.97, respectively. All but one herb showed abundance-to-frequency ratio (A/F ≥0.05, signifying a contagious distribution pattern (large aggregated distribution. Girth class distribution of trees followed an inverse J-shaped pattern. Results of the ethnobotanic study documented 55 MPs. MP collection, as reported by the interviewees, generally improved the socioeconomic status of the people of Tshothang Chiwog. Apart from improving the livelihood security of the local people, aspects relating to health care and culture are also important. Respondents were also concerned about the declining MP wealth

  7. Evaluating the Community Land Model (CLM4.5) at a coniferous forest site in northwestern United States using flux and carbon-isotope measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Henrique F.; Raczka, Brett M.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Lin, John C.; Koven, Charles D.; Thornton, Peter E.; Bowling, David R.; Lai, Chun-Ta; Bible, Kenneth J.; Ehleringer, James R.

    2017-09-01

    Droughts in the western United States are expected to intensify with climate change. Thus, an adequate representation of ecosystem response to water stress in land models is critical for predicting carbon dynamics. The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Community Land Model (CLM) version 4.5 against observations at an old-growth coniferous forest site in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States (Wind River AmeriFlux site), characterized by a Mediterranean climate that subjects trees to water stress each summer. CLM was driven by site-observed meteorology and calibrated primarily using parameter values observed at the site or at similar stands in the region. Key model adjustments included parameters controlling specific leaf area and stomatal conductance. Default values of these parameters led to significant underestimation of gross primary production, overestimation of evapotranspiration, and consequently overestimation of photosynthetic 13C discrimination, reflected in reduced 13C : 12C ratios of carbon fluxes and pools. Adjustments in soil hydraulic parameters within CLM were also critical, preventing significant underestimation of soil water content and unrealistic soil moisture stress during summer. After calibration, CLM was able to simulate energy and carbon fluxes, leaf area index, biomass stocks, and carbon isotope ratios of carbon fluxes and pools in reasonable agreement with site observations. Overall, the calibrated CLM was able to simulate the observed response of canopy conductance to atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and soil water content, reasonably capturing the impact of water stress on ecosystem functioning. Both simulations and observations indicate that stomatal response from water stress at Wind River was primarily driven by VPD and not soil moisture. The calibration of the Ball-Berry stomatal conductance slope (mbb) at Wind River aligned with findings from recent CLM experiments at sites characterized by

  8. Evaluating the Community Land Model (CLM4.5 at a coniferous forest site in northwestern United States using flux and carbon-isotope measurements

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    H. F. Duarte

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Droughts in the western United States are expected to intensify with climate change. Thus, an adequate representation of ecosystem response to water stress in land models is critical for predicting carbon dynamics. The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Community Land Model (CLM version 4.5 against observations at an old-growth coniferous forest site in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States (Wind River AmeriFlux site, characterized by a Mediterranean climate that subjects trees to water stress each summer. CLM was driven by site-observed meteorology and calibrated primarily using parameter values observed at the site or at similar stands in the region. Key model adjustments included parameters controlling specific leaf area and stomatal conductance. Default values of these parameters led to significant underestimation of gross primary production, overestimation of evapotranspiration, and consequently overestimation of photosynthetic 13C discrimination, reflected in reduced 13C : 12C ratios of carbon fluxes and pools. Adjustments in soil hydraulic parameters within CLM were also critical, preventing significant underestimation of soil water content and unrealistic soil moisture stress during summer. After calibration, CLM was able to simulate energy and carbon fluxes, leaf area index, biomass stocks, and carbon isotope ratios of carbon fluxes and pools in reasonable agreement with site observations. Overall, the calibrated CLM was able to simulate the observed response of canopy conductance to atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD and soil water content, reasonably capturing the impact of water stress on ecosystem functioning. Both simulations and observations indicate that stomatal response from water stress at Wind River was primarily driven by VPD and not soil moisture. The calibration of the Ball–Berry stomatal conductance slope (mbb at Wind River aligned with findings from recent CLM experiments at

  9. The effect of elevated carbon dioxide on a Sierra-Nevadan dominant species: Pinus ponderosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pushnik, J.C.; Demaree, R.S.; Flory, W.B.; Bauer, S.M. [California State Univ. at Chico, Chico, CA (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Houpis, J.L.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Anderson, P.D. [Forest Service Lab., Rhinelander, WI (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The impact of increasing atmospheric C0{sub 2} has not been fully evaluated on western coniferous forest species. Two year old seedlings of Pinusponderosa were grown in environmentally controlled chambers under increased C0{sub 2} conditions for 6 months. These trees exhibit morphological, physiological, and biochemical alterations when compared to our controls. Analysis of whole plant biomass distribution has shown no significant effect to the root to shoot ratios, however needles subjected to elevated C0{sub 2} exhibited an increased overall specific needle mass and a decreased total needle area. Morphological changes at the needle level included decreased mesophyll to vascular tissue 91 ratio and variations in starch storage in chloroplasts. The elevated CO{sub 2} increased internal CO{sub 2} concentrations and assimilation of carbon. Biochemical assays revealed that ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase specific activities increased on per unit area basis with C0{sub 2} treatment levels. Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activities exhibited an increase of 55% in the 700 uL L{sup {minus}1} treatment. These results indicate that the sink-source relationships of these trees have shifted carbon allocation toward above ground growth, possibly due to transport limitations.

  10. The effect of elevated carbon dioxide on a Sierra-Nevadan dominant species: Pinus ponderosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pushnik, J.C.; Demaree, R.S.; Flory, W.B.; Bauer, S.M.; Anderson, P.D.

    1995-01-01

    The impact of increasing atmospheric C0 2 has not been fully evaluated on western coniferous forest species. Two year old seedlings of Pinusponderosa were grown in environmentally controlled chambers under increased C0 2 conditions for 6 months. These trees exhibit morphological, physiological, and biochemical alterations when compared to our controls. Analysis of whole plant biomass distribution has shown no significant effect to the root to shoot ratios, however needles subjected to elevated C0 2 exhibited an increased overall specific needle mass and a decreased total needle area. Morphological changes at the needle level included decreased mesophyll to vascular tissue 91 ratio and variations in starch storage in chloroplasts. The elevated CO 2 increased internal CO 2 concentrations and assimilation of carbon. Biochemical assays revealed that ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase specific activities increased on per unit area basis with C0 2 treatment levels. Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activities exhibited an increase of 55% in the 700 uL L -1 treatment. These results indicate that the sink-source relationships of these trees have shifted carbon allocation toward above ground growth, possibly due to transport limitations

  11. Seasonal changes in camera-based indices from an open canopy black spruce forest in Alaska, and comparison with indices from a closed canopy evergreen coniferous forest in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Shin; Nakai, Taro; Saitoh, Taku M.; Busey, Robert C.; Kobayashi, Hideki; Suzuki, Rikie; Muraoka, Hiroyuki; Kim, Yongwon

    2013-06-01

    Evaluation of the carbon, water, and energy balances in evergreen coniferous forests requires accurate in situ and satellite data regarding their spatio-temporal dynamics. Daily digital camera images can be used to determine the relationships among phenology, gross primary productivity (GPP), and meteorological parameters, and to ground-truth satellite observations. In this study, we examine the relationship between seasonal variations in camera-based canopy surface indices and eddy-covariance-based GPP derived from field studies in an Alaskan open canopy black spruce forest and in a Japanese closed canopy cedar forest. The ratio of the green digital number to the total digital number, hue, and GPP showed a bell-shaped seasonal profile at both sites. Canopy surface images for the black spruce forest and cedar forest mainly detected seasonal changes in vegetation on the floor of the forest and in the tree canopy, respectively. In contrast, the seasonal cycles of the ratios of the red and blue digital numbers to the total digital numbers differed between the two sites, possibly due to differences in forest structure and leaf color. These results suggest that forest structural characteristics, such as canopy openness and seasonal forest-floor changes, should be considered during continuous observations of phenology in evergreen coniferous forests.

  12. Fire Frequency Effects on Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris P. Miller) Vegetation in South Carolina and Northeast Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeff S. Glitzenstein; Donna R. Streng; Dale D. Wade

    2003-01-01

    Southeastern United States habitats dominated by longleaf pine (Pinus pulutris P. Miller) have declined precipitously in area and extent. Conservation of diverse ground-layer vegetation in these endangered habitats depends on prescribed fire. While the need for prescribed fire is now generally accepted, there is disagreement concerning the most...

  13. Perspective of use of Pinus sylvestris L. as biological indicator of areas with low level radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragan, G.I.; Dragan, N.V.; Levon, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Research indicates data about distinct of Pinus sylvestris as biological indicator. Especially important is discovered distinctiveness of reactions of Pinus sylvestris to low level radioactive pollution. To identify radioactive pollution in habitats using biological indicators it is recommended the following complex of markers of functions of vegetative and reproductive systems of Pinus sylvestris: specific changes in architectonic of tree crowns; increase in number of annual cycles of growth to two or three and duration of active vegetation drastic change in morphogenesis of vegetative shoots in secondary (summer) shoots; formation of intermediate structures (combined buds and shoots) with mosaic development of some metamers with regular or affected structure; stimulation of buds (general increase of points of growth and appearance of additional ways of their formation); specific changes in gistogenesis of needles; hollow tar channels filled with sclerenhyma or parenchyma ect.; interruption of morphogenesis of male reproductive shoots; increase in the number of abnormal pollen grains to 70%; abnormal branching of pollen channels. All affects in vegetative system of Pinus sylvestris take place at the age of up to 12-14 (20) years. (authors)

  14. Object-based semi-automatic approach for forest structure characterization using lidar data in heterogeneous Pinus sylvestris stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Pascual; A. Garcia-Abril; L.G. Garcia-Montero; S. Martin-Fernandez; W.B. Cohen

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a two-stage approach for characterizing the structure of Pinus sylvestris L. stands in forests of central Spain. The first stage was to delimit forest stands using eCognition and a digital canopy height model (DCHM) derived from lidar data. The polygons were then clustered into forest structure types based on the DCHM data...

  15. Needle terpenoid composition of Pinus halepensis (Mill.) Trees infested by the scale insect Marchalina hellenica (Genn.) in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassios Gallis; Carlos Arrabal; Aristotle C. Papageorgiou; Maria C. Garcia-Vallejo

    2012-01-01

    Needle terpenoid composition was determined by using GLC-MS in Pinus halepensis (Mill.) trees that were infested and not infested by the scale insect Marchalina hellenica. The study area was within the Forest National Park of the Cape Sounion, southern Attica region, Greece. A total of 43 compounds, 32 of which were identified...

  16. Natural production of Tuber aestivum in central Spain: Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp. brûlés

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis G. Garcia-Montero; Domingo Moreno; Vicente J. Monleon; Fernando Arredondo-Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: Tuber aestivum is the most widespread edible truffle, with increasing commercial interest. This species can produce carpophores with conifer hosts, in contrast with the inability of Pinus spp. to induce fruiting in other truffle species such as Tuber melanosporum. Therefore the objective is to...

  17. Association genetics of growth and adaptive traits in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) using whole-exome-discovered polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengmeng Lu; Konstantin V. Krutovsky; C. Dana Nelson; Jason B. West; Nathalie A. Reilly; Carol A. Loopstra

    2017-01-01

    In the USA, forest genetics research began over 100 years ago and loblolly pine breeding programs were established in the 1950s. However, the genetics underlying complex traits of loblolly pine remains to be discovered. To address this, adaptive and growth traits were measured and analyzed in a clonally tested loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) population. Over 2.8 million...

  18. Strong effects of a plantation with Pinus patula on Andean Subparamo vegetation: a case study from Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesenbeeck, van B.K.; Mourik, van T.A.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.; Cleef, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of a pine plantation on a native subparamo system in the Andes of Colombia (3 100 In above sea level) was studied. The vegetation of an 8 year-old plantation with Pinus patula was compared to that of the surrounding native subparamo. 59 plots made in the subparamo vegetation contained 121

  19. Modeling the effects of fire and climate change on carbon and nitrogen storage in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. A. H. Smithwick; M. G. Ryan; D. M. Kashian; W. H. Romme; D. B. Tinker; M. G. Turner

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between disturbance and climate change and resultant effects on ecosystem carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fluxes are poorly understood. Here, we model (using CENTURY version 4.5) how climate change may affect C and N fluxes among mature and regenerating lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm. ex S.Wats.)...

  20. Do climate and outbreak frequency affect levels of foliar phytochemistry in different lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden) is a widely distributed tree in North American forests and is found in a variety of environments, each with different levels of disease activity. We quantified the levels of defense-associated metabolites (including soluble phenolics, lignin, and ter...