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Sample records for conidia ingestion induces

  1. Time-resolved study of absorbing film assisted laser induced forward transfer of Trichoderma longibrachiatum conidia

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    Hopp, B [Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Szeged, Research Group on Laser Physics, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary); Smausz, T [Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Szeged, Research Group on Laser Physics, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary); Barna, N [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary); Vass, Cs [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary); Antal, Zs [Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Szeged, Microbiological Research Group, PO Box 533, H-6701 Szeged (Hungary); Kredics, L [Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Szeged, Microbiological Research Group, PO Box 533, H-6701 Szeged (Hungary); Chrisey, D [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2005-03-21

    We have characterized the absorbing film assisted transfer of Trichoderma longibrachiatum conidia using a synchronized laser for illumination. The transfer laser used was a KrF excimer laser ({lambda} = 248 nm, FWHM = 30 ns) and the ejected material was illuminated parallel to the quartz plate by a nitrogen laser pumped Coumarine 153 dye laser beam ({lambda} = 453 nm, FWHM 1 ns) electronically delayed relative to the transfer UV pulse. Our time-resolved investigations determined that the ejection velocity front of the conidia plume from the donor surface during the transfer procedure was 1150 m s{sup -1} at 355 mJ cm{sup -2} applied laser fluence. On the basis of the measured data, the acceleration of the emitted conidia at the plume front was approximately 10{sup 9} x g. The conidia survived the absorbing film assisted forward transfer and associated mechanical shear without significant damages suggesting that the technique might be applicable to other more fragile types of biological objects and applications.

  2. Time-resolved study of absorbing film assisted laser induced forward transfer of Trichoderma longibrachiatum conidia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopp, B; Smausz, T; Barna, N; Vass, Cs; Antal, Zs; Kredics, L; Chrisey, D

    2005-01-01

    We have characterized the absorbing film assisted transfer of Trichoderma longibrachiatum conidia using a synchronized laser for illumination. The transfer laser used was a KrF excimer laser (λ = 248 nm, FWHM = 30 ns) and the ejected material was illuminated parallel to the quartz plate by a nitrogen laser pumped Coumarine 153 dye laser beam (λ = 453 nm, FWHM 1 ns) electronically delayed relative to the transfer UV pulse. Our time-resolved investigations determined that the ejection velocity front of the conidia plume from the donor surface during the transfer procedure was 1150 m s -1 at 355 mJ cm -2 applied laser fluence. On the basis of the measured data, the acceleration of the emitted conidia at the plume front was approximately 10 9 x g. The conidia survived the absorbing film assisted forward transfer and associated mechanical shear without significant damages suggesting that the technique might be applicable to other more fragile types of biological objects and applications

  3. [Methaemoglobinaemia induced by ingestion of alkyl nitrite, "poppers"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragsfeldt, Celina Thelberg; Nissen, Christoffer B; Brandt, Frans

    2016-08-22

    We present a case report of an 18-year-old male who was referred to the emergency department with evidence of methaemoglobinaemia. He presented with classic symptoms with peripheral cyanosis and hypoxia. Arterial blood gas showed a methaemoglobin level of 36%. This was caused by ingestion of alkyl nitrate, a widespread party drug called "poppers". When inhaled it causes euphoria, reduced pain and relaxation of the anal sphincter, but oral use may induce life-threatening methaemoglobinaemia. The treatment of choice is the antidote methylene blue. After treatment the patient regained full recovery and was discharged on the following day. We discuss classic symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of intoxication with methylene blue.

  4. Ultrastructural apoptotic lesions induced in rat thymocytes after borax ingestion.

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    Sylvain, I C; Berry, J P; Galle, P

    1998-01-01

    Apoptosis has gained increasing attention in recent years. Several chemical compounds induce apoptotic lesions in the thymus. Male Wistar rats received 2000 ppm of borax (Na2B4O7.10H2O) in their food for 16 days. The rats were sacrificed 2, 5, 9, 12, 19, 21, 26 and 28 days after the beginning of treatment. Thymus samples of all rats were taken. A Philips EM 300 electron microscopy was used to study the ultrastructural morphology. Serious nuclear and cytoplasmic lesions were observed. Moreover, numerous macrophages containing apoptotic cells were present in the thymus. The alterations were observed from the 2nd to the 28th day. The extent of damage was much more important in the rats sacrificed 21, 26 and 28 days after borax ingestion.

  5. Germination of Aspergillus niger conidia

    OpenAIRE

    Hayer, Kimran

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is a black-spored filamentous fungus that forms asexual spores called conidospores (‘conidia’). Germination of conidia, leading to the formation of hyphae, is initiated by conidial swelling and mobilisation of endogenous carbon and energy stores, followed by polarisation and emergence of a hyphal germ tube. These morphological and biochemical changes which define the model of germination have been studied with the aim of understanding how conidia sense and utilise different...

  6. Studies of osmotic diarrhea induced in normal subjects by ingestion of polyethylene glycol and lactulose.

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, H F; Santa Ana, C A; Schiller, L R; Fordtran, J S

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to gain insight into the pathophysiology of pure osmotic diarrhea and the osmotic diarrhea caused by carbohydrate malabsorption. Diarrhea was induced in normal volunteers by ingestion of polyethylene glycol (PEG), which is nonabsorbable, not metabolized by colonic bacteria, and carries no electrical charge. In PEG-induced diarrhea, (a) stool weight was directly correlated with the total mass of PEG ingested; (b) PEG contributed 40-60% of the osmolality of the ...

  7. Studies of osmotic diarrhea induced in normal subjects by ingestion of polyethylene glycol and lactulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, H F; Santa Ana, C A; Schiller, L R; Fordtran, J S

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of these studies was to gain insight into the pathophysiology of pure osmotic diarrhea and the osmotic diarrhea caused by carbohydrate malabsorption. Diarrhea was induced in normal volunteers by ingestion of polyethylene glycol (PEG), which is nonabsorbable, not metabolized by colonic bacteria, and carries no electrical charge. In PEG-induced diarrhea, (a) stool weight was directly correlated with the total mass of PEG ingested; (b) PEG contributed 40-60% of the osmolality of the fecal fluid, the remainder being contributed by other solutes either of dietary, endogenous, or bacterial origin; and (c) fecal sodium, potassium, and chloride were avidly conserved by the intestine, in spite of stool water losses exceeding 1,200 g/d. Diarrhea was also induced in normal subjects by ingestion of lactulose, a disaccharide that is not absorbed by the small intestine but is metabolized by colonic bacteria. In lactulose-induced diarrhea, (a) a maximum of approximate 80 g/d of lactulose was metabolized by colonic bacteria to noncarbohydrate moieties such as organic acids; (b) the organic acids were partially absorbed in the colon; (c) unabsorbed organic acids obligated the accumulation of inorganic cations (Na greater than Ca greater than K greater than Mg) in the diarrheal fluid; (d) diarrhea associated with low doses of lactulose was mainly due to unabsorbed organic acids and associated cations, whereas with larger doses of lactulose unmetabolized carbohydrates also played a major role; and (e) the net effect of bacterial metabolism of lactulose and partial absorption of organic acids on stool water output was done dependent. With low or moderate doses of lactulose, stool water losses were reduced by as much as 600 g/d (compared with equimolar osmotic loads of PEG); with large dose, the increment in osmotically active solutes within the lumen exceeded the increment of the ingested osmotic load, and the severity of diarrhea was augmented.

  8. The effect of voluntarily ingested buprenorphine on rats subjected to surgically induced global cerebral ischaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Otto Henrik; Abelson, Klas; Koch, Janne

    2010-01-01

    in buprenorphine-treated and untreated animals. A part from a slightly higher hyperthermia immediately after surgery and typical opiate-associated behaviour, the buprenorphine treatment had no apparent adverse effects on the experimental model. In contrast, the analgesic treatment improved the model by minimizing......The effect of perioperatively administered buprenorphine analgesia on rats subjected to surgically induced global ischaemia was assessed. Rats supplied with buprenorphine, mixed in nut paste for voluntary ingestion, displayed significant reductions in postoperative excretions of faecal...

  9. Growth under visible light increases conidia and mucilage production and tolerance to UV-B radiation in the plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum acutatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Henrique D; Massola, Nelson S; Flint, Stephan D; Silva, Geraldo J; Bachmann, Luciano; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Braga, Gilberto U L

    2015-01-01

    Light conditions can influence fungal development. Some spectral wavebands can induce conidial production, whereas others can kill the conidia, reducing the population size and limiting dispersal. The plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum acutatum causes anthracnose in several crops. During the asexual stage on the host plant, Colletototrichum produces acervuli with abundant mucilage-embedded conidia. These conidia are responsible for fungal dispersal and host infection. This study examined the effect of visible light during C. acutatum growth on the production of conidia and mucilage and also on the UV tolerance of these conidia. Conidial tolerance to an environmentally realistic UV irradiance was determined both in conidia surrounded by mucilage on sporulating colonies and in conidial suspension. Exposures to visible light during fungal growth increased production of conidia and mucilage as well as conidial tolerance to UV. Colonies exposed to light produced 1.7 times more conidia than colonies grown in continuous darkness. The UV tolerances of conidia produced under light were at least two times higher than conidia produced in the dark. Conidia embedded in the mucilage on sporulating colonies were more tolerant of UV than conidia in suspension that were washed free of mucilage. Conidial tolerance to UV radiation varied among five selected isolates. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  10. Alterations in the Helicoverpa armigera midgut digestive physiology after ingestion of pigeon pea inducible leucine aminopeptidase.

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    Purushottam R Lomate

    Full Text Available Jasmonate inducible plant leucine aminopeptidase (LAP is proposed to serve as direct defense in the insect midgut. However, exact functions of inducible plant LAPs in the insect midgut remain to be estimated. In the present investigation, we report the direct defensive role of pigeon pea inducible LAP in the midgut of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and responses of midgut soluble aminopeptidases and serine proteinases upon LAP ingestion. Larval growth and survival was significantly reduced on the diets supplemented with pigeon pea LAP. Aminopeptidase activities in larvae remain unaltered in presence or absence of inducible LAP in the diet. On the contrary, serine proteinase activities were significantly decreased in the larvae reared on pigeon pea LAP containing diet as compared to larvae fed on diet without LAP. Our data suggest that pigeon pea inducible LAP is responsible for the degradation of midgut serine proteinases upon ingestion. Reduction in the aminopeptidase activity with LpNA in the H. armigera larvae was compensated with an induction of aminopeptidase activity with ApNA. Our findings could be helpful to further dissect the roles of plant inducible LAPs in the direct plant defense against herbivory.

  11. The effect of hemoperfusion on patients with toxic encephalopathy induced by silkworm chrysalis ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haixia; Wang, Xu; Lv, Jiaqi; Sun, Jing; Xing, Jihong; Liu, Xiaoliang

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to determine therapeutic effect of hemoperfusion on patients with acute toxic encephalopathy induced by silkworm chrysalis ingestion. Three patients who developed toxic encephalopathy after chrysalis ingestion were analysed. Two patients lost their consciousness, while two patients had typical extrapyramidal tremor symptoms. Further neurological examination revealed various degrees of muscle strength impairment in these patients. All of them received treatments of omeprazole (40 mg/day), furosemide (one dose of 20 mg), vitamin C (2.0 g/day), calcium gluconate (2.0 g/day) and rehydration with glucose and sodium chloride (1500 ml/day). In addition, they received hemoperfusion treatment for 1.5 h. All patients recovered well after hemoperfusion. Two patients with loss of consciousness significantly recovered at 45 min and 65 min after hemoperfusion, respectively. All tremor symptoms were completely resolved in these patients at 30 min, 50 min, and 70 min following treatment, respectively. After the hemoperfusion treatment, encephalopathy symptoms of two patients had completely disappeared. All patients were followed up for one month and did not report any abnormalities. Our study indicates that hemoperfusion could be a useful and efficient treatment strategy for patients with acute encephalopathy after silkworm chrysalis ingestion. Larger clinical trials with longer follow-up are warranted to confirm the clinical benefit of hemoperfusion. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Inhibition of ghrelin O-acyltransferase attenuates food deprivation-induced increases in ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubner, Brett J W; Garretson, John T; Hwang, Yousang; Cole, Philip A; Bartness, Timothy J

    2013-04-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone produced by the stomach in direct proportion to the time since the last meal and has therefore been called a 'hunger signal'. The octanoylation of ghrelin is critical for its orexigenic functions and is dependent upon ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) catalyzation. The GOAT inhibitor, GO-CoA-Tat, decreases the circulating concentrations of octanoylated ghrelin and attenuates weight gain on a high fat diet in mice. Unlike rats and mice, Siberian hamsters and humans do not increase food intake after food deprivation, but increase food hoarding after food deprivation. In Siberian hamsters, exogenous ghrelin increases ingestive behaviors similarly to 48-56 h food deprivation. Therefore, we tested the necessity of increased ghrelin in food-deprived Siberian hamsters to stimulate ingestive behaviors. To do so we used our simulated natural housing system that allows hamsters to forage for and hoard food. Animals were given an injection of GO-CoA-Tat (i.p., 11 μmol/kg) every 6h because that is the duration of its effective inhibition of octanoylated ghrelin concentrations during a 48 h food deprivation. We found that GO-CoA-Tat attenuated food foraging (0-1h), food intake (0-1 and 2-4h), and food hoarding (0-1h and 2 and 3 days) post-refeeding compared with saline treated animals. This suggests that increased octanoylated ghrelin concentrations play a role in the food deprivation-induced increases in ingestive behavior. Therefore, ghrelin is a critical aspect of the multi-faceted mechanisms that stimulate ingestive behaviors, and might be a critical point for a successful clinical intervention scheme in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Morphological Variations in Conidia of Arthrobotrys oligospora on Different Media

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, R. K.; Kumar, Niranjan; Singh, K. P.

    2005-01-01

    Most commonly occurring predacious fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora showed great variation in size and shape of conidia on some media. The formation of larger conidia was recorded on beef extract and nutrient agar media. The length of conidia in Richard's YPSS, Sabouraud's, PDA and corn meal agar media was of medium size while smaller conidia were produced on Czapek's, Jensen's, Martin's medium. Maximum width of conidia was recorded on YPSS medium followed by Sabouraud's medium. The average siz...

  14. Effect of chronic alcohol ingestion on the progression of periodontitis induced in Fisher-344 rats

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    Éder Ricardo Biasoli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Understand the effect of chronic alcohol on the progression of periodontitis induced in Fischer-344 rats.Methods: For the study, 22 Fischer-344 rats, two months old were used, divided into groups: alcohol (n=8, ligature (n=7 and control (n=7. On the first day, the animals in the alcohol group were exposed to ingestion of a water solution containing 20% alcohol (size/size, up to day 90. After thirty days from the beginning of the experiment, the animals in the alcohol group and the ligature group were submitted to the placement of a silk thread around the right maxillary second molar. Nothing was performed on the left side, serving as control. All the groups were submitted to euthanasia 60 days after ligature placement. To assess the destruction of periodontitis, a radiographic exam was used to measure the destruction of bone height. Results: The results of the study showed that on the side in which periodontitis was induced, the group that ingested alcohol suffered an increase in destruction, with statistical differences when compared with the ligature and control groups and increased bone destruction in the ligature group when compared to control. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, it was concluded that chronic alcohol consumption by Fischer-344 rats led to greater progression of induced periodontitis.

  15. Ingestion of colostrum from specific cows induces Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP in some calves

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    Carlin Annette

    2011-02-01

    sampling point between 9 hours and 8 days postcolostral. Leucocyte counts of the experimental calves were statistically significantly lower than those of control calves at 2 hours post ingestion of colostrum and 3-7 days postcolostral. Conclusions BNP can be induced in some calves by ingestion of colostrum from cows that have given birth to BNP calves.

  16. Prenatal caffeine ingestion induces transgenerational neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in second generation rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Hanwen [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Deng, Zixin; Liu, Lian; Shen, Lang; Kou, Hao; He, Zheng [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ping, Jie; Xu, Dan [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ma, Lu [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Public Health School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chen, Liaobin, E-mail: lbchen@whu.edu.cn [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-02-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that prenatal caffeine ingestion induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome with alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic phenotypes in adult first generation (F1) of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rats, and the underlying mechanism is originated from a hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in utero. This study aims to investigate the transgenerational effects of this programming alteration in adult second generation (F2). Pregnant Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120 mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. Four groups in F2 were set according to the cross-mating between control and caffeine-induced IUGR rats. F2 were subjected to a fortnight ice water swimming stimulus on postnatal month 4, and blood samples were collected before and after stress. Results showed that the majority of the activities of HPA axis and phenotypes of glucose and lipid metabolism were altered in F2. Particularly, comparing with the control group, caffeine groups had an enhanced corticosterone levels after chronic stress. Compared with before stress, the serum glucose levels were increased in some groups whereas the triglyceride levels were decreased. Furthermore, total cholesterol gain rates were enhanced but the high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol gain rates were decreased in most caffeine groups after stress. These transgenerational effects were characterized partially with gender and parental differences. Taken together, these results indicate that the reproductive and developmental toxicities and the neuroendocrine metabolic programming mechanism by prenatal caffeine ingestion have transgenerational effects in rats, which may help to explain the susceptibility to metabolic syndrome and associated diseases in F2. - Highlights: • Caffeine-induced neuroendocrine metabolic programming of HPA has hereditary effect. • Caffeine-induced

  17. Prenatal caffeine ingestion induces transgenerational neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in second generation rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Hanwen; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Lian; Shen, Lang; Kou, Hao; He, Zheng; Ping, Jie; Xu, Dan; Ma, Lu; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that prenatal caffeine ingestion induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome with alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic phenotypes in adult first generation (F1) of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rats, and the underlying mechanism is originated from a hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in utero. This study aims to investigate the transgenerational effects of this programming alteration in adult second generation (F2). Pregnant Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120 mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. Four groups in F2 were set according to the cross-mating between control and caffeine-induced IUGR rats. F2 were subjected to a fortnight ice water swimming stimulus on postnatal month 4, and blood samples were collected before and after stress. Results showed that the majority of the activities of HPA axis and phenotypes of glucose and lipid metabolism were altered in F2. Particularly, comparing with the control group, caffeine groups had an enhanced corticosterone levels after chronic stress. Compared with before stress, the serum glucose levels were increased in some groups whereas the triglyceride levels were decreased. Furthermore, total cholesterol gain rates were enhanced but the high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol gain rates were decreased in most caffeine groups after stress. These transgenerational effects were characterized partially with gender and parental differences. Taken together, these results indicate that the reproductive and developmental toxicities and the neuroendocrine metabolic programming mechanism by prenatal caffeine ingestion have transgenerational effects in rats, which may help to explain the susceptibility to metabolic syndrome and associated diseases in F2. - Highlights: • Caffeine-induced neuroendocrine metabolic programming of HPA has hereditary effect. • Caffeine-induced

  18. Aspergillus fumigatus viability drives allergic responses to inhaled conidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Ajay P; Croston, Tara L; Lemons, Angela R; Goldsmith, W T; Marshall, Nikki B; Kashon, Michael L; Germolec, Dori R; Beezhold, Donald H; Green, Brett J

    2018-04-13

    Aspergillus fumigatus induced allergic airway disease has been shown to involve conidial germination in vivo but the immunological mechanisms remain uncharacterized. A subchronic murine exposure model was used to examine the immunological mediators that are regulated in response to either culturable or non-culturable A. fumigatus conidia. Female B6C3F1/N mice were repeatedly dosed via inhalation with 1 x 105 viable or heat inactivated conidia (HIC), twice a week for 13 weeks (26 exposures). Control mice inhaled HEPA-filtered air. The influence of A. fumigatus conidial germination on the pulmonary immunopathological outcomes was evaluated by flow cytometry analysis of cellular infiltration in the airways, assessment of lung mRNA expression, and quantitative proteomics and histopathology of whole lung tissue. Repeated inhalation of viable conidia, but not HIC, resulted in allergic inflammation marked by vascular remodeling, extensive eosinophilia, and accumulation of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs) in the murine airways. More specifically, mice that inhaled viable conidia resulted in a mixed TH1 and TH2 (IL-13) cytokine response. Recruitment of eosinophils corresponded with increased Ccl11 transcripts. Furthermore, genes associated with M2 or alternatively activated macrophage polarization (e.g. Arg1, Chil3 and Retnla) were significantly upregulated in viable A. fumigatus exposed mice. In mice inhaling HIC, CD4+ T cells expressing IFN-γ (TH1) dominated the lymphocytic infiltration. Quantitative proteomics of the lung revealed metabolic reprogramming accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress stimulated by oxidative stress from repetitive microbial insult. Our studies demonstrate that A. fumigatus conidial viability in vivo is critical to the immunopathological presentation of chronic fungal allergic disease. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Salivary peptide tyrosine-tyrosine 3-36 modulates ingestive behavior without inducing taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Maria D; Sergeyev, Valeriy G; Acosta, Andres; Spegele, Michael; La Sala, Michael; Waler, Nickolas J; Chiriboga-Hurtado, Juan; Currlin, Seth W; Herzog, Herbert; Dotson, Cedrick D; Gorbatyuk, Oleg S; Zolotukhin, Sergei

    2013-11-20

    Hormone peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) is secreted into circulation from the gut L-endocrine cells in response to food intake, thus inducing satiation during interaction with its preferred receptor, Y2R. Clinical applications of systemically administered PYY for the purpose of reducing body weight were compromised as a result of the common side effect of visceral sickness. We describe here a novel approach of elevating PYY in saliva in mice, which, although reliably inducing strong anorexic responses, does not cause aversive reactions. The augmentation of salivary PYY activated forebrain areas known to mediate feeding, hunger, and satiation while minimally affecting brainstem chemoreceptor zones triggering nausea. By comparing neuronal pathways activated by systemic versus salivary PYY, we identified a metabolic circuit associated with Y2R-positive cells in the oral cavity and extending through brainstem nuclei into hypothalamic satiety centers. The discovery of this alternative circuit that regulates ingestive behavior without inducing taste aversion may open the possibility of a therapeutic application of PYY for the treatment of obesity via direct oral application.

  20. Morphological Variations in Conidia of Arthrobotrys oligospora on Different Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R K; Kumar, Niranjan; Singh, K P

    2005-06-01

    Most commonly occurring predacious fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora showed great variation in size and shape of conidia on some media. The formation of larger conidia was recorded on beef extract and nutrient agar media. The length of conidia in Richard's YPSS, Sabouraud's, PDA and corn meal agar media was of medium size while smaller conidia were produced on Czapek's, Jensen's, Martin's medium. Maximum width of conidia was recorded on YPSS medium followed by Sabouraud's medium. The average size of spores on nematode infested corn meal agar medium was slightly increased than those on corn meal agar medium.

  1. γ-Oryzanol recovers mouse hypoadiponectinemia induced by animal fat ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaka, Reiko; Yamsaki, Tomoteru; Uchida, Asako; Ohara, Kazuyuki; Ushio, Hideki

    2011-06-15

    Adiponectin is an insulin-sensitizing adipocyte-derived adipokine. The decrease in plasma adiponectin level (hypoadiponectinemia) is involved in the development of insulin resistance and the resulting type 2 diabetes. Our previous studies have demonstrated that γ-oryzanol (ORZ) from rice bran suppressed NF-κB activation and increased adiponectin secretion from adipocyte. In this study, we have evaluated effects of oral administration of animal fat (beef tallow) and palmitate on mouse serum adiponectin level. Oral administrations of beef tallow and palmitate significantly suppressed serum adiponectin levels into around half of the initial level from 48 to 96 h after administration compared with the case of corn oil (P<0.05). Coadministration of ORZ successfully remedied mouse hypoadiponectinemia induced by ingestion of beef tallow and the relative adiponectin levels attained to 1.66±0.23 at 96 h after administration (mean value±s.e., P<0.05). Diverse physiological functions of ORZ in crop bran might be promising us to prevent chronic inflammations in the pathogeneses of the metabolic or insulin resistance syndromes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Sodium acetate induces a metabolic alkalosis but not the increase in fatty acid oxidation observed following bicarbonate ingestion in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gordon I; Jeukendrup, Asker E; Ball, Derek

    2007-07-01

    We conducted this study to quantify the oxidation of exogenous acetate and to determine the effect of increased acetate availability upon fat and carbohydrate utilization in humans at rest. Eight healthy volunteers (6 males and 2 females) completed 2 separate trials, 7 d apart in a single-blind, randomized, crossover design. On each occasion, respiratory gas and arterialized venous blood samples were taken before and during 180 min following consumption of a drink containing either sodium acetate (NaAc) or NaHCO3 at a dose of 2 mmol/kg body mass. Labeled [1,2 -13C] NaAc was added to the NaAc drink to quantify acetate oxidation. Both sodium salts induced a mild metabolic alkalosis and increased energy expenditure (P < 0.05) to a similar magnitude. NaHCO3 ingestion increased fat utilization from 587 +/- 83 kJ/180 min to 693 +/- 101 kJ/180 min (P = 0.01) with no change in carbohydrate utilization. Following ingestion of NaAc, the amount of fat and carbohydrate utilized did not differ from the preingestion values. However, oxidation of the exogenous acetate almost entirely (90%) replaced the additional fat that had been oxidized during the bicarbonate trial. We determined that 80.1 +/- 2.3% of an exogenous source of acetate is oxidized in humans at rest. Whereas NaHCO3 ingestion increased fat oxidation, a similar response did not occur following NaAc ingestion despite the fact both sodium salts induced a similar increase in energy expenditure and shift in acid-base balance.

  3. Voluntary Ingestion of Natural Cocoa Extenuated Hepatic Damage in Rats with Experimentally Induced Chronic Alcoholic Toxicity

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    Godwin Sokpor

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic ethanol ingestion causes hepatic damage imputable to an increasedoxidative stress engendered by alcoholic toxicity. Polyphenols in cocoa have antioxidant properties, and natural cocoa powder (NCP contains the highest levels of total antioxidant capacity when compared to all other kinds of edible cocoa products. This study tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with NCP mitigates hepatic injury resulting from chronic ethanol consumption. Three groups of eight randomized Sprague-Dawley rats were fed standardrat food and treated daily for 12 weeks as follows: (i the Ethanol-water group was given unrestricted access to 40% (v/v ethanol for 12 hours (at night followed by water for the remaining 12 hours (daytime, (ii the Ethanol-cocoa group had similarly unrestricted access to 40% ethanol for 12 hours followed by 2% (w/v NCP for 12 hours, and (iii the control group was not given alcohol and had unrestricted access to only water which was synchronously replenished every 12 hours as it was for the ethanol treated animals.Results: Qualitative structural liver damage evidenced by hepatocyte cytoplasmic fatty accumulation, nuclear alterations, and disruption of general liver micro-architecture, was severe in the ethanol-water group when compared with the ethanol-cocoa group of rats. Design-based stereologic assessment yielded a significantly greater volume (Tukey’s HSD, p = 0.0005 ofundamaged hepatocytes (9.61 ml, SD 2.18 ml in the ethanol-cocoa group as opposed to theethanol-water group of rats (2.34 ml, SD 1.21 ml. Control rats had 10.34 ml (SD 1.47 ml of undamaged hepatocytes, and that was not significantly greater (Tukey’s HSD, p=0.659 than the value for the ethanol-cocoa group of rats. Relative to controls, therefore, histomorphometryFunctional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(5:166- 187 showed 93% hepatocyte preservation from alcoholic injury in rats that voluntarily imbibed NCP suspension compared with 23% in

  4. Human Neutrophils Use Different Mechanisms To Kill Aspergillus fumigatus Conidia and Hyphae: Evidence from Phagocyte Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazendam, Roel P; van Hamme, John L; Tool, Anton T J; Hoogenboezem, Mark; van den Berg, J Merlijn; Prins, Jan M; Vitkov, Ljubomir; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; van den Berg, Timo K; Roos, Dirk; Kuijpers, Taco W

    2016-02-01

    Neutrophils are known to play a pivotal role in the host defense against Aspergillus infections. This is illustrated by the prevalence of Aspergillus infections in patients with neutropenia or phagocyte functional defects, such as chronic granulomatous disease. However, the mechanisms by which human neutrophils recognize and kill Aspergillus are poorly understood. In this work, we have studied in detail which neutrophil functions, including neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, are involved in the killing of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia and hyphae, using neutrophils from patients with well-defined genetic immunodeficiencies. Recognition of conidia involves integrin CD11b/CD18 (and not dectin-1), which triggers a PI3K-dependent nonoxidative intracellular mechanism of killing. When the conidia escape from early killing and germinate, the extracellular destruction of the Aspergillus hyphae needs opsonization by Abs and involves predominantly recognition via Fcγ receptors, signaling via Syk, PI3K, and protein kinase C to trigger the production of toxic reactive oxygen metabolites by the NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase. A. fumigatus induces NET formation; however, NETs did not contribute to A. fumigatus killing. Thus, our findings reveal distinct killing mechanisms of Aspergillus conidia and hyphae by human neutrophils, leading to a comprehensive insight in the innate antifungal response. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  5. Inactivation of Neurospora crassa conidia by singlet molecular oxygen generated by a photosensitized reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, M.; Egashira, T.; Takahama, U.

    1979-01-01

    Photodynamic damage of Neurospora crassa conidia was studied in the presence of the photosensitizing dye, toluidine blue O. Conidia which germinated to form colonies decreased in number as irradiation time became longer. The photoinactivation of conidia was suppressed by azide, bovine serum albumin, and histidine, and was stimulated in deuterium oxide. Wild-type conidia were less sensitive to the irradiation that albino conidia. In the wild type, carotenoid-enriched conidia were more resistant against the lethal damage than the conidia which contained small amounts of carotenoids. These results suggest that singlet molecular oxygen causes photodynamic lethal damage to N. crassa conidia and that singlet molecular oxygen is quenched by endogenous carotenoids

  6. Ingested plastic transfers hazardous chemicals to fish and induces hepatic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Chelsea M.; Hoh, Eunha; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Teh, Swee J.

    2013-01-01

    Plastic debris litters aquatic habitats globally, the majority of which is microscopic (plastic and accumulated pollutants are largely unknown. Here, we show that fish, exposed to a mixture of polyethylene with chemical pollutants sorbed from the marine environment, bioaccumulate these chemical pollutants and suffer liver toxicity and pathology. Fish fed virgin polyethylene fragments also show signs of stress, although less severe than fish fed marine polyethylene fragments. We provide baseline information regarding the bioaccumulation of chemicals and associated health effects from plastic ingestion in fish and demonstrate that future assessments should consider the complex mixture of the plastic material and their associated chemical pollutants. PMID:24263561

  7. effect of dry conidia formulations of metarhizium anisopliae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    In preliminary studies,. S. zeamais adults sprayed with M. anisopliae ... Initial cultures were stored at 4°C and sub- culturing was made for ... Significant differences between treatment means were compared at .... conidia attachment. Journal of ...

  8. Safety and efficacy of intravenous administration for tranexamic acid-induced emesis in dogs with accidental ingestion of foreign substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orito, Kensuke; Kawarai-Shimamura, Asako; Ogawa, Atsushi; Nakamura, Atsushi

    2017-12-22

    A prospective observational study was performed in canine clinical medicine to evaluate the emetic action and adverse effects of tranexamic acid. Veterinarians treated 137 dogs with a single dose of tranexamic acid (50 mg/kg, IV) after accidental ingestion of foreign substances. If needed, a second (median, 50 mg/kg; range, 20-50 mg/kg, IV) or third dose (median, 50 mg/kg; range, 25-50 mg/kg, IV) was administered. Tranexamic acid induced emesis in 116 of 137 (84.7%) dogs. Median time to onset of emesis was 116.5 sec (range, 26-370 sec), median duration of emesis was 151.5 sec (range, 30-780 sec), and median number of emesis episodes was 2 (range, 1-8). Second and third administrations of tranexamic acid induced emesis in 64.7 and 66.7% of dogs, respectively. In total, IV administration of tranexamic acid successfully induced emesis in 129 of 137 (94.2%) dogs. Adverse effects included a tonic-clonic convulsion and hemostatic disorder in two different dogs, both of which recovered after receiving medical care. Tranexamic acid induced emesis in most dogs following a single-dose. When a single dose was not sufficient, an additional dosage effectively induced emesis. Overall, adverse effects were considered low and self-limiting.

  9. Response of Fusarium semitectum conidia to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebaijuri, M.; Bahari, I.; Omar, M.; Bidin, Z.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports on studies carried out to investigate response of conidia from Fusarium semitectum irradiated with gamma-rays in air-, nitrogen- and oxygen-saturated 1/15 M phosphate buffer, and potentially lethal damage (PLD) repair of the conidia when incubated after irradiation up to 96 h at 30degC in the same buffer. Survival curves for conidia irradiated between 0 to 3. 0 kGy in air- and nitrogen-saturated buffer exhibited distinct patterns of initial concaves at the lower dose range (less than 1.0 kGy) and followed by linear portions at the higher dose range. Conidia irradiated in oxygen-saturated buffer exhibited a linear survival curve. The D 10 for conidia, i.e., the dose required to reduce the initial population by 1 log cycle determined at the linear portions of survival curves increased in the order of oxygen-, air- and nitrogen-saturated buffer. Unlike mammalian and some bacterial cells, F. semitectum conidia apparently lacked PLD repair mechanism. (author)

  10. Chronic ingestion of a low dose of caffeine induces tolerance to the performance benefits of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Ross; Cordery, Philip; Funnell, Mark; Mears, Stephen; James, Lewis; Watson, Phillip

    2017-10-01

    This study examined effects of 4 weeks of caffeine supplementation on endurance performance. Eighteen low-habitual caffeine consumers (caffeine (1.5-3.0 mg · kg -1 day -1 ; titrated) or placebo for 28 days. Groups were matched for age, body mass, V̇O 2peak and W max (P > 0.05). Before supplementation, all participants completed one V̇O 2peak test, one practice trial and 2 experimental trials (acute 3 mg · kg -1 caffeine [precaf] and placebo [testpla]). During the supplementation period a second V̇O 2peak test was completed on day 21 before a final, acute 3 mg · kg -1 caffeine trial (postcaf) on day 29. Trials consisted of 60 min cycle exercise at 60% V̇O 2peak followed by a 30 min performance task. All participants produced more external work during the precaf trial than testpla, with increases in the caffeine (383.3 ± 75 kJ vs. 344.9 ± 80.3 kJ; Cohen's d effect size [ES] = 0.49; P = 0.001) and placebo (354.5 ± 55.2 kJ vs. 333.1 ± 56.4 kJ; ES = 0.38; P = 0.004) supplementation group, respectively. This performance benefit was no longer apparent after 4 weeks of caffeine supplementation (precaf: 383.3 ± 75.0 kJ vs. postcaf: 358.0 ± 89.8 kJ; ES = 0.31; P = 0.025), but was retained in the placebo group (precaf: 354.5 ± 55.2 kJ vs. postcaf: 351.8 ± 49.4 kJ; ES = 0.05; P > 0.05). Circulating caffeine, hormonal concentrations and substrate oxidation did not differ between groups (all P > 0.05). Chronic ingestion of a low dose of caffeine develops tolerance in low-caffeine consumers. Therefore, individuals with low-habitual intakes should refrain from chronic caffeine supplementation to maximise performance benefits from acute caffeine ingestion.

  11. Oral glucose ingestion attenuates exercise-induced activation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Birk, Jesper Bratz; Klein, Ditte Kjærsgaard

    2006-01-01

    5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been suggested to be a 'metabolic master switch' regulating various aspects of muscle glucose and fat metabolism. In isolated rat skeletal muscle, glucose suppresses the activity of AMPK and in human muscle glycogen loading decreases exercise-induced AMPK...... activation. We hypothesized that oral glucose ingestion during exercise would attenuate muscle AMPK activation. Nine male subjects performed two bouts of one-legged knee-extensor exercise at 60% of maximal workload. The subjects were randomly assigned to either consume a glucose containing drink or a placebo...... drink during the two trials. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before and after 2 h of exercise. Plasma glucose was higher (6.0 +/- 0.2 vs. 4.9 +/- 0.1 mmol L-1, P

  12. Caustic Ingestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rafeey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Prevention has a main role in reducing the occurrence of corrosive ingestion especially in children, yet this goal is far from being reached in developing countries, where such injuries are largely unreported and their true prevalence simply cannot be extrapolated from random articles or personal experience. Because of the accidental nature of the ingestions, the case fatality rate for pediatric patients is significantly less than that of adolescents and adults.  Currently, esophagoscopy is recommended for all patients with a history of caustic substance ingestion because clinical criteria have not proved to be reliable predictors of esophageal injury. The presence or absence of three serious signs and symptoms-vomiting, drooling, and stridor—as well as the presence and location of oropharyngeal burns could be  compared with the findings on subsequent esophagoscopy. Medical or endoscopic prevention of stricture is debatable, yet esophageal stents, absorbable or not, show promising data. The purpose of this lecture is to outline the current epidemiology, mechanism of injury, clinical manifestations, management and long-term complications of caustic ingestions in pediatric patients.   Key Words: Caustic, Children, Ingestions.

  13. Carrot juice ingestion attenuates high fructose-induced circulatory pro-inflammatory mediators in weanling Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Malleswarapu; Bharathi, Munugala; Raja Gopal Reddy, Mooli; Pappu, Pranati; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Vajreswari, Ayyalasomayajula; Jeyakumar, Shanmugam M

    2017-03-01

    Adipose tissue, an endocrine organ, plays a vital role not only in energy homeostasis, but also in the development and/or progression of various metabolic diseases, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), via several factors and mechanisms, including inflammation. This study tested, whether carrot juice administration affected the adipose tissue development and its inflammatory status in a high fructose diet-induced rat model. For this purpose, male weanling Wistar rats were divided into four groups and fed either control or high fructose diet of AIN-93G composition with or without carrot juice ingestion for an 8 week period. Administration of carrot juice did not affect the adiposity and cell size of visceral fat depot; retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (RPWAT), which was corroborated with unaltered expression of genes involved in adipogenic and lipogenic pathways. However, it significantly reduced the high fructose diet-induced elevation of plasma free fatty acid (FFA) (P ≤ 0.05), macrophage chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) (P ≤ 0.01) and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) (P ≤ 0.05) levels. Carrot juice administration attenuated the high fructose diet-induced elevation of levels of circulatory FFA and pro-inflammatory mediators; MCP1 and hsCRP without affecting the adiposity and cell size of visceral fat depot; RPWAT. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Identification of Aspergillus fumigatus Surface Components That Mediate Interaction of Conidia and Hyphae With Human Platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambach, Günter; Blum, Gerhard; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Fontaine, Thierry; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Hagleitner, Magdalena; Jeckström, Hanna; Weigel, Günter; Würtinger, Philipp; Pfaller, Kristian; Krappmann, Sven; Löffler, Jürgen; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Speth, Cornelia

    2015-10-01

    Platelets were recently identified as a part of innate immunity. They are activated by contact with Aspergillus fumigatus; putative consequences include antifungal defense but also thrombosis, excessive inflammation, and thrombocytopenia. We aimed to identify those fungal surface structures that mediate interaction with platelets. Human platelets were incubated with Aspergillus conidia and hyphae, isolated wall components, or fungal surface mutants. Interaction was visualized microscopically; activation was quantified by flow cytometry of specific markers. The capacity of A. fumigatus conidia to activate platelets is at least partly due to melanin, because this effect can be mimicked with "melanin ghosts"; a mutant lacking melanin showed reduced platelet stimulating potency. In contrast, conidial hydrophobin masks relevant structures, because an A. fumigatus mutant lacking the hydrophobin protein induced stronger platelet activation than wild-type conidia. A. fumigatus hyphae also contain surface structures that interact with platelets. Wall proteins, galactomannan, chitin, and β-glucan are not the relevant hyphal components; instead, the recently identified fungal polysaccharide galactosaminogalactan potently triggered platelet activation. Conidial melanin and hydrophobin as well as hyphal galactosaminogalactan represent important pathogenicity factors that modulate platelet activity and thus might influence immune responses, inflammation, and thrombosis in infected patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Development of Carrot Medium Suitable for Conidia Production of Venturia nashicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eu Ddeum Choi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The causal fungus of pear scab, Venturia nashicola, grows slowly and rarely produces conidia on artificial media in the laboratory, but it produced conidia on the Cheongah medium containing Cheongah powder. V. nashicola grew too slow to produce conidia until 15 days after cultivation but produced conidia with 4 × 10⁴ conidia/plate 30 days after cultivation on the Cheongah medium containing 1% Cheongah powder. V. nashicola showed a peak production of conidia with 4.5 × 10⁵ conidia/plate 60 days after cultivation on the carrot medium containing 2% carrot powder, one of the constituents of Cheongah powder. The carrot medium is considered to be the best medium to obtain conidia of V. nashicola in the laboratory until now. This is the first report on the development of a suitable medium for conidia production of V. nashicola, as far as we know.

  16. Consecutive monitoring of lifelong production of conidia by individual conidiophores of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei on barley leaves by digital microscopic techniques with electrostatic micromanipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriura, Nobuyuki; Matsuda, Yoshinori; Oichi, Wataru; Nakashima, Shinya; Hirai, Tatsuo; Sameshima, Takeshi; Nonomura, Teruo; Kakutani, Koji; Kusakari, Shin-Ichi; Higashi, Katsuhide; Toyoda, Hideyoshi

    2006-01-01

    Conidial formation and secession by living conidiophores of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei on barley leaves were consecutively monitored using a high-fidelity digital microscopic technique combined with electrostatic micromanipulation to trap the released conidia. Conidial chains formed on conidiophores through a series of septum-mediated division and growth of generative cells. Apical conidial cells on the conidiophores were abstricted after the conidial chains developed ten conidial cells. The conidia were electrically conductive, and a positive charge was induced in the cells by a negatively polarized insulator probe (ebonite). The electrostatic force between the conidia and the insulator was used to attract the abstricted conidia from the conidiophores on leaves. This conidium movement from the targeted conidiophore to the rod was directly viewed under the digital microscope, and the length of the interval between conidial septation and secession, the total number of the conidia produced by a single conidiophore, and the modes of conidiogenesis were clarified. During the stage of conidial secession, the generative cells pushed new conidial cells upwards by repeated division and growth. The successive release of two apical conidia was synchronized with the successive septation and growth of a generative cell. The release ceased after 4-5 conidia were released without division and growth of the generative cell. Thus, the life of an individual conidiophore (from the erection of the conidiophore to the release of the final conidium) was shown to be 107 h and to produce an average of 33 conidia. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the direct estimation of life-long conidial production by a powdery mildew on host leaves.

  17. Optimizing growth and conidia production of Cercospora medicaginis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naceur DJEBALI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Cercospora medicaginis is pathogenic to annual and perennial Medicago species. It grows slowly and produces only few conidia. To test the pathogenicity or virulence of C. medicaginis and to breed resistant lines of Medicago truncatula we optimized in vitro the growth and the conidium production of four isolates of C. medicaginis derived from M. truncatula and M. polymorpha. Of the eight media tested, that with wheat bran juice (WBJ yielded optimal growth and conidium production with most strains. The optimum growth temperature on WBJ medium was 25–30°C. Growth and conidia production were better in conditions of alternating light and darkness than with constant darkness. The best growth in the liquid WBJ medium occurred at pH 6–7, but the greatest number of conidia in that medium was obtained at pH 8–9.

  18. A hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programmed alteration in offspring rats of IUGR induced by prenatal caffeine ingestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, D. [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wu, Y.; Liu, F.; Liu, Y.S.; Shen, L.; Lei, Y.Y.; Liu, J. [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ping, J. [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Qin, J. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhang, C. [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chen, L.B. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, J. [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Wang, H., E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2012-11-01

    Caffeine is a definite factor of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Previously, we have confirmed that prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits the development of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, and alters the glucose and lipid metabolism in IUGR fetal rats. In this study, we aimed to verify a programmed alteration of neuroendocrine metabolism in prenatal caffeine ingested-offspring rats. The results showed that prenatal caffeine (120 mg/kg.day) ingestion caused low body weight and high IUGR rate of pups; the concentrations of blood adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone in caffeine group were significantly increased in the early postnatal period followed by falling in late stage; the level of blood glucose was unchanged, while blood total cholesterol (TCH) and triglyceride (TG) were markedly enhanced in adult. After chronic stress, the concentrations and the gain rates of blood ACTH and corticosterone were obviously increased, meanwhile, the blood glucose increased while the TCH and TG decreased in caffeine group. Further, the hippocampal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) expression in caffeine group was initially decreased and subsequently increased after birth. After chronic stress, the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1, glucocorticoid receptor (GR), MR as well as the MR/GR ratio were all significantly decreased. These results suggested that prenatal caffeine ingestion induced the dysfunction of HPA axis and associated neuroendocrine metabolic programmed alteration in IUGR offspring rats, which might be related with the functional injury of hippocampus. These observations provide a valuable experimental basis for explaining the susceptibility of IUGR offspring to metabolic syndrome and associated diseases. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal caffeine ingestion induced HPA axis dysfunction in IUGR offspring rats. ► Caffeine induced a neuroendocrine metabolic programmed alteration in offspring rats. ► Caffeine induced a functional injury

  19. A hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programmed alteration in offspring rats of IUGR induced by prenatal caffeine ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, D.; Wu, Y.; Liu, F.; Liu, Y.S.; Shen, L.; Lei, Y.Y.; Liu, J.; Ping, J.; Qin, J.; Zhang, C.; Chen, L.B.; Magdalou, J.; Wang, H.

    2012-01-01

    Caffeine is a definite factor of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Previously, we have confirmed that prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits the development of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, and alters the glucose and lipid metabolism in IUGR fetal rats. In this study, we aimed to verify a programmed alteration of neuroendocrine metabolism in prenatal caffeine ingested-offspring rats. The results showed that prenatal caffeine (120 mg/kg.day) ingestion caused low body weight and high IUGR rate of pups; the concentrations of blood adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone in caffeine group were significantly increased in the early postnatal period followed by falling in late stage; the level of blood glucose was unchanged, while blood total cholesterol (TCH) and triglyceride (TG) were markedly enhanced in adult. After chronic stress, the concentrations and the gain rates of blood ACTH and corticosterone were obviously increased, meanwhile, the blood glucose increased while the TCH and TG decreased in caffeine group. Further, the hippocampal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) expression in caffeine group was initially decreased and subsequently increased after birth. After chronic stress, the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1, glucocorticoid receptor (GR), MR as well as the MR/GR ratio were all significantly decreased. These results suggested that prenatal caffeine ingestion induced the dysfunction of HPA axis and associated neuroendocrine metabolic programmed alteration in IUGR offspring rats, which might be related with the functional injury of hippocampus. These observations provide a valuable experimental basis for explaining the susceptibility of IUGR offspring to metabolic syndrome and associated diseases. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal caffeine ingestion induced HPA axis dysfunction in IUGR offspring rats. ► Caffeine induced a neuroendocrine metabolic programmed alteration in offspring rats. ► Caffeine induced a functional injury

  20. Congenital skeletal malformations induced by maternal ingestion of Conium maculatum (poison hemlock) in newborn pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter, K E; Keeler, R F; Buck, W B

    1985-10-01

    Skeletal malformations were induced in newborn pigs from gilts fed Conium maculatum seed or plant during gestation days 43 through 53 and 51 through 61. The teratogenic effects in groups dosed during gestation days 43 through 53 were more severe than those in groups dosed during the later period, with many newborn pigs showing arthrogryposis and twisted and malaligned bones in the limbs and with 1 pig showing scoliosis and deformity of the thoracic cage. The pigs born to gilts given C maculatum during gestation days 51 through 61 had excessive flexure primarily in the carpal joints, without scoliosis or bone malalignment in the limbs. The teratogenicity of poison hemlock depends on the alkaloid concentration and content. Based on the data presented, we speculate that gamma-coniceine is the teratogenic alkaloid in the poison hemlock fed to the gilts.

  1. Improvement of Diet-induced Obesity by Ingestion of Mushroom Chitosan Prepared from Flammulina velutipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Noriko; Yoshimoto, Hiroaki; Kurihara, Shoichi; Hamaya, Tadao; Eguchi, Fumio

    2018-02-01

    The anti-obesity effects of mushroom chitosan prepared from Flammulina velutipes were investigated using an animal model with diet-induced obesity. In this study, 5-week-old imprinting control region (ICR) mice were divided into six groups of 10 mice each and fed different diets based on the MF powdered diet (standard diet) for 6 weeks: standard diet control group, high-fat diet control group (induced dietary obesity) consisting of the standard diet and 20% lard, and mushroom chitosan groups consisting of the high-fat diet with mushroom chitosan added at 100, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg body weight. On the final day of the experiment, mean body weight was 39.1 g in the high-fat control group and 36.3 g in the 2,000 mg/kg mushroom chitosan group, compared to 35.8 g in the standard diet control group. In the mushroom chitosan groups, a dose-dependent suppression of weight gain and marked improvements in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol were found. The mushroom chitosan groups showed fewer and smaller fat deposits in liver cells than the high-fat diet control group, and liver weight was significantly reduced. Glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvic transaminase (GPT), which are indices of the hepatic function, all showed dose-dependent improvement with mushroom chitosan administration. These results suggested that mushroom chitosan acts to suppress enlargement of the liver from fat deposition resulting from a high-fat diet and to restore hepatic function. The lipid content of feces showed a marked increase correlated with the mushroom chitosan dose. These findings suggest the potential use of mushroom chitosan as a functional food ingredient that contributes to the prevention or improvement of dietary obesity by inhibiting digestion and absorption of fats in the digestive tract and simultaneously promotes lipolysis in adipocytes.

  2. Chronological aging in conidia of pathogenic Aspergillus: Comparison between species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Manuela; Pereira, Clara; Bessa, Cláudia; Araujo, Ricardo; Saraiva, Lucília

    2015-11-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus and Aspergillus niger are common airborne fungi, and the most frequent causative agents of human fungal infections. However, the resistance and lifetime persistence of these fungi in the atmosphere, and the mechanism of aging of Aspergillus conidia are unknown.With this work, we intended to study the processes underlying conidial aging of these four relevant and pathogenic Aspergillus species. Chronological aging was therefore evaluated in A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus and A. niger conidia exposed to environmental and human body temperatures. The results showed that the aging process in Aspergillus conidia involves apoptosis,with metacaspase activation, DNA fragmentation, and reactive oxygen species production, associated with secondary necrosis. Distinct results were observed for the selected pathogenic species. At environmental conditions, A. niger was the species with the highest resistance to aging, indicating a higher adaption to environmental conditions, whereas A. flavus followed by A. terreus were the most sensitive species. At higher temperatures (37 °C), A. fumigatus presented the longest lifespan, in accordance with its good adaptation to the human body temperature. Altogether,with this work new insights regarding conidia aging are provided, which may be useful when designing treatments for aspergillosis.

  3. Chronic ingestion of advanced glycation end products induces degenerative spinal changes and hypertrophy in aging pre-diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illien-Jünger, Svenja; Lu, Young; Qureshi, Sheeraz A; Hecht, Andrew C; Cai, Weijing; Vlassara, Helen; Striker, Gary E; Iatridis, James C

    2015-01-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and pathological spinal changes are major causes of back pain, which is the top cause of global disability. Obese and diabetic individuals are at increased risk for back pain and musculoskeletal complications. Modern diets contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), cyto-toxic components which are known contributors to obesity, diabetes and accelerated aging pathologies. There is little information about potential effects of AGE rich diet on spinal pathology, which may be a contributing cause for back pain which is common in obese and diabetic individuals. This study investigated the role of specific AGE precursors (e.g. methylglyoxal-derivatives (MG)) on IVD and vertebral pathologies in aging C57BL6 mice that were fed isocaloric diets with standard (dMG+) or reduced amounts of MG derivatives (dMG-; containing 60-70% less dMG). dMG+ mice exhibited a pre-diabetic phenotype, as they were insulin resistant but not hyperglycemic. Vertebrae of dMG+ mice displayed increased cortical-thickness and cortical-area, greater MG-AGE accumulation and ectopic calcification in vertebral endplates. IVD morphology of dMG+ mice exhibited ectopic calcification, hypertrophic differentiation and glycosaminoglycan loss relative to dMG- mice. Overall, chronic exposure to dietary AGEs promoted age-accelerated IVD degeneration and vertebral alterations involving ectopic calcification which occurred in parallel with insulin resistance, and which were prevented with dMG- diet. This study described a new mouse model for diet-induced spinal degeneration, and results were in support of the hypothesis that chronic AGE ingestion could be a factor contributing to a pre-diabetic state, ectopic calcifications in spinal tissues, and musculoskeletal complications that are more generally known to occur with chronic diabetic conditions.

  4. Chronic ingestion of advanced glycation end products induces degenerative spinal changes and hypertrophy in aging pre-diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja Illien-Jünger

    Full Text Available Intervertebral disc (IVD degeneration and pathological spinal changes are major causes of back pain, which is the top cause of global disability. Obese and diabetic individuals are at increased risk for back pain and musculoskeletal complications. Modern diets contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs, cyto-toxic components which are known contributors to obesity, diabetes and accelerated aging pathologies. There is little information about potential effects of AGE rich diet on spinal pathology, which may be a contributing cause for back pain which is common in obese and diabetic individuals. This study investigated the role of specific AGE precursors (e.g. methylglyoxal-derivatives (MG on IVD and vertebral pathologies in aging C57BL6 mice that were fed isocaloric diets with standard (dMG+ or reduced amounts of MG derivatives (dMG-; containing 60-70% less dMG. dMG+ mice exhibited a pre-diabetic phenotype, as they were insulin resistant but not hyperglycemic. Vertebrae of dMG+ mice displayed increased cortical-thickness and cortical-area, greater MG-AGE accumulation and ectopic calcification in vertebral endplates. IVD morphology of dMG+ mice exhibited ectopic calcification, hypertrophic differentiation and glycosaminoglycan loss relative to dMG- mice. Overall, chronic exposure to dietary AGEs promoted age-accelerated IVD degeneration and vertebral alterations involving ectopic calcification which occurred in parallel with insulin resistance, and which were prevented with dMG- diet. This study described a new mouse model for diet-induced spinal degeneration, and results were in support of the hypothesis that chronic AGE ingestion could be a factor contributing to a pre-diabetic state, ectopic calcifications in spinal tissues, and musculoskeletal complications that are more generally known to occur with chronic diabetic conditions.

  5. Taka-amylase A in the conidia of Aspergillus oryzae RIB40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cong Ha; Tsurumizu, Ryoji; Sato, Tsutomu; Takeuchi, Michio

    2005-11-01

    A study of Taka-amylase A of conidia from Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 was done. During the research, proteins from conidia and germinated conidia were analyzed using SDS-PAGE, 2-D gel electrophoresis, Western blot analysis, MALDI-TOF Mass spectrometry, and native-PAGE combined with activity staining of TAA. The results showed that TAA exists not only in germinated conidia but also in conidia. Some bands representing degraded products of TAA were detected. Conidia, which formed on starch (SCYA), glucose (DCYA), and glycerol (GCYA) plates, contained mature TAA. Only one active band of TAA was detected after native-PAGE activity staining. In addition, TAA activity was detected in cell extracts of conidia using 0.5 M acetate buffer, pH 5.2, as extraction buffer, but was not detected in whole conidia or cell debris. The results indicate that TAA exists in conidia in active form even when starch, glucose, or glycerol is used as carbon source. TAA might belong to a set of basal proteins inside conidia, which helps in imbibition and germination of conidia.

  6. Protective function of an ultraviolet-absorbing compound associated with conidia of Glomerella cingulata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brook, P.J. (Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Auckland (New Zealand). Plant Diseases Div.)

    1981-01-01

    Conidia of Glomerella cingulata (Stoneman) Spaulding et Schrenk from agar culture were exposed, dry, to middle-wavelength u.v. radiation. Conidia taken from cultures grown in light that included middle-wavelength u.v. survived irradiation for longer than conidia grown in darkness. A compound with maximum absorbance near lamda 310nm was associated with the conidia in light; but was absent from the conidia grown in darkness. Addition of the purified ''compound 310'' to dark-grown conidia prolonged their survival under irradiation. It is postulated that in nature this compound aids the survival of G. cingulata conidia, which are produced on the surface of infected apple fruits in orchards, exposed to direct insolation.

  7. Protective function of an ultraviolet-absorbing compound associated with conidia of Glomerella cingulata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brook, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Conidia of Glomerella cingulata (Stoneman) Spaulding et Schrenk from agar culture were exposed, dry, to middle-wavelength u.v. radiation. Conidia taken from cultures grown in light that included middle-wavelength u.v. survived irradiation for longer than conidia grown in darkness. A compound with maximum absorbance near lamda 310nm was associated with the conidia in light; but was absent from the conidia grown in darkness. Addition of the purified ''compound 310'' to dark-grown conidia prolonged their survival under irradiation. It is postulated that in nature this compound aids the survival of G. cingulata conidia, which are produced on the surface of infected apple fruits in orchards, exposed to direct isolation. (auth)

  8. Melanin dependent survival of Apergillus fumigatus conidia in lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Shayista; Thywissen, Andreas; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Saluz, Hans Peter; Brakhage, Axel A

    2014-07-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most important air-borne pathogenic fungus of humans. Upon inhalation of conidia, the fungus makes close contact with lung epithelial cells, which only possess low phagocytic activity. These cells are in particular interesting to address the question whether there is some form of persistence of conidia of A. fumigatus in the human host. Therefore, by also using uracil-auxotrophic mutant strains, we were able to investigate the interaction of A549 lung epithelial cells and A. fumigatus conidia in detail for long periods. Interestingly, unlike professional phagocytes, our study showed that the presence of conidial dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin enhanced the uptake of A. fumigatus conidia by epithelial cells when compared with non-pigmented pksP mutant conidia. Furthermore, conidia of A. fumigatus were able to survive within epithelial cells. This was due to the presence of DHN melanin in the cell wall of conidia, because melanised wild-type conidia showed a higher survival rate inside epithelial cells and led to inhibition of acidification of phagolysosomes. Both effects were not observed for white (non-melanised) conidia of the pksP mutant strain. Moreover, in contrast to pksP mutant conidia, melanised wild-type conidia were able to inhibit the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in A549 lung epithelial cells even for longer periods. The anti-apoptotic effect was not restricted to conidia, because both conidia-derived melanin ghosts (cell-free DHN melanin) and a different type of melanin, dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) melanin, acted anti-apoptotically. Taken together, these data indicate the possibility of melanin-dependent persistence of conidia in lung epithelial cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. A hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programmed alteration in offspring rats of IUGR induced by prenatal caffeine ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D; Wu, Y; Liu, F; Liu, Y S; Shen, L; Lei, Y Y; Liu, J; Ping, J; Qin, J; Zhang, C; Chen, L B; Magdalou, J; Wang, H

    2012-11-01

    Caffeine is a definite factor of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Previously, we have confirmed that prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits the development of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and alters the glucose and lipid metabolism in IUGR fetal rats. In this study, we aimed to verify a programmed alteration of neuroendocrine metabolism in prenatal caffeine ingested-offspring rats. The results showed that prenatal caffeine (120 mg/kg.day) ingestion caused low body weight and high IUGR rate of pups; the concentrations of blood adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone in caffeine group were significantly increased in the early postnatal period followed by falling in late stage; the level of blood glucose was unchanged, while blood total cholesterol (TCH) and triglyceride (TG) were markedly enhanced in adult. After chronic stress, the concentrations and the gain rates of blood ACTH and corticosterone were obviously increased, meanwhile, the blood glucose increased while the TCH and TG decreased in caffeine group. Further, the hippocampal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) expression in caffeine group was initially decreased and subsequently increased after birth. After chronic stress, the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1, glucocorticoid receptor (GR), MR as well as the MR/GR ratio were all significantly decreased. These results suggested that prenatal caffeine ingestion induced the dysfunction of HPA axis and associated neuroendocrine metabolic programmed alteration in IUGR offspring rats, which might be related with the functional injury of hippocampus. These observations provide a valuable experimental basis for explaining the susceptibility of IUGR offspring to metabolic syndrome and associated diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Coumestrol and its metabolite in mares' plasma after ingestion of phytoestrogen-rich plants: potent endocrine disruptors inducing infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Dias, G; Botelho, M; Zagrajczuk, A; Rebordão, M R; Galvão, A M; Bravo, P Pinto; Piotrowska-Tomala, K; Szóstek, A Z; Wiczkowski, W; Piskula, M; Fradinho, M J; Skarzynski, D J

    2013-10-01

    Phytoestrogens exist in plants that are present in forages fed to horses. They may compete with 17-β estradiol and influence the estrous cycle. Therefore, the objective was to determine whether coumestrol from clover-mixed pastures is present in mare's plasma after their ingestion (experiment I), and when this phytoestrogen was present in mare's plasma after ingestion (experiment II). The effect of a long-term ingestion of phytoestrogens on estrous cycle disruption was assessed (experiment III; clinical case). Experiment I was carried out in nonpregnant anestrous and cyclic Lusitano mares (n = 14) kept on clover and grass-mixed pastures, and supplemented with concentrate and hay or cereal straw. Blood and feedstuff were obtained from November to March. In experiment II, stabled cyclic Lusitano mares (n = 6) were fed for 14 days with increasing amounts of alfalfa pellets (250 g to 1 kg/day). Sequential blood samples were obtained for 8 hours after feed intake on Day 0 (control) and on Days 13 and 14 (1 kg/day alfalfa pellets). Experiment III mares were fed with a mixture of alfalfa and clover haylage for 5 months (group 1; n = 4) or for 9 months (group 2; n = 12). Estrous cycle was determined on the basis of plasma estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and ultrasound (experiment III). Concentrations of phytoestrogen coumestrol and its metabolite methoxycoumestrol were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Phytoestrogens decreased in pasture from November until March (P haylage) than in group 1, after haylage withdrawal (P < 0.001). These data show that in the mare, coumestrol and its metabolite increase in blood after ingestion of estrogenic plants and can influence reproduction in mares as potent endocrine disruptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabolic activity in dormant conidia of Aspergillus niger and developmental changes during conidial outgrowth

    OpenAIRE

    Novodvorska, Michaela; Stratford, Malcolm; Blythe, Martin J.; Wilson, Raymond; Beniston, Richard G.; Archer, David B.

    2016-01-01

    The early stages of development of Aspergillus niger conidia during outgrowth were explored by combining genome-wide gene expression analysis (RNAseq), proteomics, Warburg manometry and uptake studies. Resting conidia suspended in water were demonstrated for the first time to be metabolically active as low levels of oxygen uptake and the generation of carbon dioxide were detected, suggesting that low-level respiratory metabolism occurs in conidia for maintenance. Upon triggering of spore germ...

  12. Proteomic analysis of early phase of conidia germination in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young Taek; Ahn, Chun-Seob; Kim, Jeong Geun; Ro, Hyeon-Su; Lee, Chang-Won; Kim, Jae Won

    2010-03-01

    In order to investigate proteins involved in early phase of conidia germination, proteomic analysis was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) in conjunction with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS). The expression levels of 241 proteins varied quantitatively with statistical significance (Pproteomic analysis of early phase of conidia germination and will contribute to a better understanding of the molecular events involved in conidia germination process. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Swainsonine-induced lysosomal storage disease in goats caused by the ingestion of Sida rodrigoi Monteiro in North-western Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheloud, Juan Francisco; Marin, Raúl; Colque-Caro, Luis Adrián; Martínez, Olga Gladys; Gardner, Dale; Gimeno, Eduardo Juan

    2017-03-15

    There are numerous poisonous plants that can induce intralysosomal accumulation of glycoproteins and neurologic syndromes. Here we describe for the first time, a disease caused by ingesting Sida rodrigoi Monteiro in goats in North-western Argentina. The animals showed weight loss, indifference to the environment, unsteady gait and ataxia. Histopathologic studies showed vacuolization in cells of various organs, mainly in the CNS. The material deposited in the cells was positive for LCA (Lens culinaris agglutinin), WGA (Triticum vulgaris agglutinin), sWGA (succinyl-Triticum vulgaris agglutinin) and Con-A (Concanavalia ensiformis agglutinin) lectins. Finally, toxic levels of swansonine were identified in the plant. The present investigation allowed to recognize S. rodrigoi Monteiro poisoning as a plant induced α-mannosidosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Infectivity of the conidia of the rice blast fungus treated with the different fungicidal solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashioka, Y; Ikegami, H

    1959-01-01

    Infectivity of the conidia of Piricularia oryzae (rice blast fungus) which had been treated with different fungicides was examined. Germination of conidia treated with phenylmercuric acetate was severely repressed. Copper sulfate had a mild inhibitory effect. Organosulfur compounds also had a slight inhibitory effect.

  15. Microencapsuling aerial conidia of Trichoderma harzianum through spray drying at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichoderma conidia are mostly produced by solid fermentation systems. Inoculum is produced by liquid culturing, and then transferred to solid substrate for aerial conidial production. Aerial conidia of T. harzianum are hydrophilic in nature, and it is difficult to separate them from the solid subst...

  16. Modification of a Pollen Trap Design To Capture Airborne Conidia of Entomophaga maimaiga and Detection of Conidia by Quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Tonya D; Hajek, Ann E; Liebhold, Andrew M; Thistle, Harold

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this study was to develop effective and practical field sampling methods for quantification of aerial deposition of airborne conidia of Entomophaga maimaiga over space and time. This important fungal pathogen is a major cause of larval death in invasive gypsy moth ( Lymantria dispar ) populations in the United States. Airborne conidia of this pathogen are relatively large (similar in size to pollen), with unusual characteristics, and require specialized methods for collection and quantification. Initially, dry sampling (settling of spores from the air onto a dry surface) was used to confirm the detectability of E. maimaiga at field sites with L. dispar deaths caused by E. maimaiga , using quantitative PCR (qPCR) methods. We then measured the signal degradation of conidial DNA on dry surfaces under field conditions, ultimately rejecting dry sampling as a reliable method due to rapid DNA degradation. We modified a chamber-style trap commonly used in palynology to capture settling spores in buffer. We tested this wet-trapping method in a large-scale (137-km) spore-trapping survey across gypsy moth outbreak regions in Pennsylvania undergoing epizootics, in the summer of 2016. Using 4-day collection periods during the period of late instar and pupal development, we detected variable amounts of target DNA settling from the air. The amounts declined over the season and with distance from the nearest defoliated area, indicating airborne spore dispersal from outbreak areas. IMPORTANCE We report on a method for trapping and quantifying airborne spores of Entomophaga maimaiga , an important fungal pathogen affecting gypsy moth ( Lymantria dispar ) populations. This method can be used to track dispersal of E. maimaiga from epizootic areas and ultimately to provide critical understanding of the spatial dynamics of gypsy moth-pathogen interactions. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. Comparison of diarrhea induced by ingestion of fructooligosaccharide Idolax and disaccharide lactulose: role of osmolarity versus fermentation of malabsorbed carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, M R; Jørgensen, J; Mortensen, P B

    1998-12-01

    Whether carbohydrate malabsorption causes diarrhea probably depends on the balance between the osmotic force of the carbohydrate and the compensatory capacity of the colon to dispose of the carbohydrate by bacterial fermentation. The present study evaluated the specific role of the osmolarity by comparing the severity of diarrhea after ingestion of two nonabsorbable carbohydrates, the fructooligosaccharide Idolax and the disaccharide lactulose. Both carbohydrates are readily fermented by the colonic flora but differ in osmolarity, the osmotic force being twice as high for lactulose as for Idolax. Twelve subjects were given increasing doses (0, 20, 40, 80, 160 g/d) of Idolax and lactulose in a crossover design. Every dose level was administered for three days with intervals of one week. Stools were collected on the third day to determine 24-hr volume, concentrations of short-chain fatty acids, L- and D-lactate, residues of Idolax or lactulose, sodium, potassium, pH, osmolarity, and in vitro productions of organic acids. Measured by short-chain fatty acid and lactate formation in a fecal incubation system, the fermentation of Idolax and lactulose was identical and very rapid compared with a range of reference carbohydrates. A laxative effect of both Idolax and lactulose was demonstrated. The increment in fecal volume as a function of the dose administered was twice as high for lactulose (slope of the regression line = 7.3, r = 0.64, Pdiarrhea is proportional to the osmotic force of the malabsorbed saccharide, even though all or the majority of the saccharide is degraded by colonic bacteria. The capacity to modify the diarrhea varies considerably from person to person and is associated with colonic saccharide disposal, whereas the variation in response to isosmolar amounts of different saccharides is small within the same individual.

  18. Neuroendocrine regulation of appetitive ingestive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin eKeen-Rhinehart

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Food availability in nature is often irregular, and famine is commonplace. Increased motivation to engage in ingestive behaviors increases the chance of survival, providing additional potential opportunities for reproduction. Because of the advantages conferred by entraining ingestive behavior to environmental conditions, neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating the motivation to acquire and ingest food have evolved to be responsive to exogenous (i.e. food stored for future consumption and endogenous (i.e. body fat stores fuel availability. Motivated behaviors like eating occur in two phases. The appetitive phase brings animals into contact with food (e.g. foraging, food hoarding, and the more reflexive consummatory phase results in ingestion (e.g., chewing, swallowing. Quantifiable appetitive behaviors are part of many the natural ingestive behavioral repertoire of species such as hamsters and humans. This review summarizes current knowledge about neuroendocrine regulators of ingestive behavior, with an emphasis appetitive behavior. We will discuss hormonal regulators of appetitive ingestive behaviors, including the orexigenic hormone ghrelin, which potently stimulates foraging and food hoarding in Siberian hamsters. This section includes a discussion of the hormone leptin, its relation to endogenous fat stores, and its role in food deprivation-induced increases in appetitive ingestive behaviors. Next, we discuss how hormonal regulators interact with neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of ingestive behaviors, such as NPY, AgRP and alpha-MSH, to regulate ingestive behavior. Finally, we discuss the potential impact that perinatal nutrient availability can have on the neuroendocrine regulation of ingestive behavior. Understanding the hormonal mechanisms that connect metabolic fuel availability to central appetite regulatory circuits should provide a better understanding of the neuroendocrine regulation of the motivation to engage in ingestive

  19. Neuroendocrine regulation of appetitive ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen-Rhinehart, Erin; Ondek, Katelynn; Schneider, Jill E

    2013-11-15

    Food availability in nature is often irregular, and famine is commonplace. Increased motivation to engage in ingestive behaviors increases the chance of survival, providing additional potential opportunities for reproduction. Because of the advantages conferred by entraining ingestive behavior to environmental conditions, neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating the motivation to acquire and ingest food have evolved to be responsive to exogenous (i.e., food stored for future consumption) and endogenous (i.e., body fat stores) fuel availability. Motivated behaviors like eating occur in two phases. The appetitive phase brings animals into contact with food (e.g., foraging, food hoarding), and the more reflexive consummatory phase results in ingestion (e.g., chewing, swallowing). Quantifiable appetitive behaviors are part of the natural ingestive behavioral repertoire of species such as hamsters and humans. This review summarizes current knowledge about neuroendocrine regulators of ingestive behavior, with an emphasis appetitive behavior. We will discuss hormonal regulators of appetitive ingestive behaviors, including the orexigenic hormone ghrelin, which potently stimulates foraging and food hoarding in Siberian hamsters. This section includes a discussion of the hormone leptin, its relation to endogenous fat stores, and its role in food deprivation-induced increases in appetitive ingestive behaviors. Next, we discuss how hormonal regulators interact with neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of ingestive behaviors, such as neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AgRP) and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), to regulate ingestive behavior. Finally, we discuss the potential impact that perinatal nutrient availability can have on the neuroendocrine regulation of ingestive behavior. Understanding the hormonal mechanisms that connect metabolic fuel availability to central appetite regulatory circuits should provide a better understanding of the

  20. Germination of fungal conidia after exposure to low concentration ozone atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The germinability of conidia of Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium expansum, or Penicillium italicum was determined periodically during exposure for approximately 100 days to a humid atmosphere of air alone or air containing 150 ppb ozone ...

  1. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) Ameliorates Chronic Alcohol Ingestion-Induced Myocardial Insulin Resistance and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shi-Yan; Gilbert, Sara A.B.; Li, Qun; Ren, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Chronic alcohol intake leads to insulin resistance and alcoholic cardiomyopathy, which appears to be a result of the complex interaction between genes and environment. This study was designed to examine the impact of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) transgenic overexpression on alcohol-induced insulin resistance and myocardial injury. ALDH2 transgenic mice were produced using chicken β-actin promoter. Wild-type FVB and ALDH2 mice were fed a 4% alcohol or control diet for 12 wks. Cell shorteni...

  2. Effects of prolonged ingestion of epigallocatechin gallate on diabetes type 1-induced vascular modifications in the erectile tissue of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombo, C; Morgado, C; Tavares, I; Neves, D

    2016-07-01

    Diabetes Mellitus type 1 is a metabolic disease that predisposes to erectile dysfunction, partly owing to structural and molecular changes in the corpus cavernosum (CC) vessels. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of early treatment with the antioxidant epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in cavernous diabetes-induced vascular modifications. Diabetes was induced in two groups of young Wistar rats; one group was treated with EGCG for 10 weeks. A reduction in smooth muscle content was observed in the CC of diabetic rats, which was significantly attenuated with EGCG consumption. No differences were observed among groups, neither in the expression of VEGF assayed by western blotting nor in the immunofluorescent labeling of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2). VEGFR2 was restricted to the endothelium, whereas VEGF and VEGFR1 co-localized in the smooth muscle layer. With regard to the Angiopoietin/Tie-2 system, no quantitative differences in Angiopoietin 1 were observed among the experimental groups. Ang1 localization was restricted to the smooth muscle layer, and receptor Tie2 and Angiopoietin 2 were both expressed in the endothelium. In brief, our results suggest that EGCG consumption prevented diabetes-induced loss of cavernous smooth muscle but does not affect vascular growth factor expression in young rats.

  3. Sensitivity of Beauveria bassiana conidia to abiotic factors after successive in vitro subcultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Zorzetti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of in vitro successive subcultures of Beauveria bassiana isolates in different nutritional conditions on conidia heat and UV radiation tolerance and on sensitivity to azoxystrobin fungicide. The fungus was initially inoculated in Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae adults and after its development, the conidia were cultivated in PDA (potato dextrose agar and MPE (medium to produce Beauveria spp. conidia originating the first subculture 1st (A conidia, which were successively multiplied in their media until the 20th cultivation. Conidia taken from the 20th subculture were again inoculated in the insect and after sporulation they were once more multiplied in the media, producing the 1st (B conidia. For the tests, 1st (A, 10th, 20th and 1st (B conidia from the CG 152 and Unioeste 40 isolates were used. Successive subcultures and the medium nutritional conditions interfered on the fungus physiology, and the isolates showed different behaviors. The subcultures on PDA showed higher thermotolerance to Unioeste 40 in all subcultures and to CG 152 just after inoculation in the host. B. bassiana was susceptible to UV radiation, and this characteristic was influenced by the subcultures in different media. Both isolates were more tolerant to UV radiation when subcultivated on MPE, while just for the 40 Unioeste this tolerance increased after host inoculation. The B. bassiana sensitivity to azoxystrobin fungicide was affected after successive subcultures in both medium. Conidia originated in MPE were more resistant to fungicide and the host inoculation increased this tolerance. These results show that it is possible to enhance the fungi efficiency to control pests, through the selection of a virulent isolate, and handling their nutritional conditions during cultivation and host inoculation.

  4. Liquid culture production of microsclerotia and submerged conidia by Trichoderma harzianum active against damping-off disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobori, Nilce N; Mascarin, Gabriel M; Jackson, Mark A; Schisler, David A

    2015-04-01

    Media and culturing protocols were identified that supported the formation of submerged conidia and microsclerotia (MS) by Trichoderma harzianum Rifai strain T-22 using liquid culture fermentation. Liquid media with a higher carbon concentration (36 g L(-1)) promoted MS formation at all C:N ratios tested. Hyphae aggregated to form MS after 2 d growth and after 7 d MS were fully melanized. This is the first report of MS formation by T. harzianum or any species of Trichoderma. Furthermore, submerged conidia formation was induced by liquid culture media, but yields, desiccation tolerance, and storage stability varied with C:N ratio and carbon rate. Air-dried MS granules (culture production, stabilization process, and bioefficacy of the hitherto unreported MS of T. harzianum as a potential biofungicide for use in integrated management programs against soilborne diseases. Copyright © 2014 The British Mycological Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Congenital skeletal malformations and cleft palate induced in goats by ingestion of Lupinus, Conium and Nicotiana species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter, K E; Keeler, R F; Bunch, T D; Callan, R J

    1990-01-01

    Three piperidine alkaloid containing plants, Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock), Nicotiana glauca (tree tobacco) and Lupinus formosus (lunara lupine), induced multiple congenital contractures (MCC) and palatoschisis in goat kids when their dams were gavaged with the plant during gestation days 30-60. The skeletal abnormalities included fixed extension or flexure of the carpal, tarsal, and fetlock joints, scoliosis, lordosis, torticollis and rib cage abnormalities. Clinical signs of toxicity included those reported in sheep, cattle and pigs--ataxia, incoordination, muscular weakness, prostration and death. One quinolizidine alkaloid containing plant, Lupinus caudatus (tailcup lupine), on the other hand, which is also known to cause MCC in cows, caused only slight signs of toxicity in pregnant goats and no teratogenic effects in their offspring.

  6. Contributions towards a monograph of Phoma (Coelomycetes) — I. 2. Section Phoma: Additional taxa with very small conidia and taxa with conidia up to 7 µm long

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruyter, de J.; Noordeloos, M.E.; Boerema, G.H.

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-seven taxa in section Phoma with conidia not exceeding 7 µm in length are keyed out and described on account of their characteristics in vitro. Four new species are introduced: Phoma aurea de Gruyter, Noordel. & Boerema, Phoma crystallifer de Gruyter, Noordel. & Boerema, Phoma flavescens de

  7. Proteomics of Aspergillus fumigatus Conidia-containing Phagolysosomes Identifies Processes Governing Immune Evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hella; Vlaic, Sebastian; Krüger, Thomas; Schmidt, Franziska; Balkenhol, Johannes; Dandekar, Thomas; Guthke, Reinhard; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Brakhage, Axel A

    2018-06-01

    Invasive infections by the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus start with the outgrowth of asexual, airborne spores (conidia) into the lung tissue of immunocompromised patients. The resident alveolar macrophages phagocytose conidia, which end up in phagolysosomes. However, A. fumigatus conidia resist phagocytic degradation to a certain degree. This is mainly attributable to the pigment 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin located in the cell wall of conidia, which manipulates the phagolysosomal maturation and prevents their intracellular killing. To get insight in the underlying molecular mechanisms, we comparatively analyzed proteins of mouse macrophage phagolysosomes containing melanized wild-type (wt) or nonmelanized pksP mutant conidia. For this purpose, a protocol to isolate conidia-containing phagolysosomes was established and a reference protein map of phagolysosomes was generated. We identified 637 host and 22 A. fumigatus proteins that were differentially abundant in the phagolysosome. 472 of the host proteins were overrepresented in the pksP mutant and 165 in the wt conidia-containing phagolysosome. Eight of the fungal proteins were produced only in pksP mutant and 14 proteins in wt conidia-containing phagolysosomes. Bioinformatical analysis compiled a regulatory module, which indicates host processes affected by the fungus. These processes include vATPase-driven phagolysosomal acidification, Rab5 and Vamp8-dependent endocytic trafficking, signaling pathways, as well as recruitment of the Lamp1 phagolysosomal maturation marker and the lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin Z. Western blotting and immunofluorescence analyses confirmed the proteome data and moreover showed differential abundance of the major metabolic regulator mTOR. Taken together, with the help of a protocol optimized to isolate A. fumigatus conidia-containing phagolysosomes and a potent bioinformatics algorithm, we were able to confirm A. fumigatus conidia

  8. Ingestion of caustic substances and its complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Celso Martins Mamede

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Caustic substances cause tissue destruction through liquefaction or coagulation reactions and the intensity of destruction depends on the type, concentration, time of contact and amount of the substance ingested. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the complications in patients who ingested caustic substances and correlate them with the amount of caustic soda ingested. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: University hospital, a referral center. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 239 patients who ingested caustic soda. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: The amount of granulated caustic substance ingested was measured as tablespoonfuls and the following complications were analyzed: esophagitis, esophageal stenosis and progression to cancer, fistulas, perforations, stomach lesions, brain abscesses, and death. Stenosis was classified as mild, moderate or severe according to the radiological findings. RESULTS: We observed an 89.3% incidence of esophagitis; 72.6% of the cases involved progression to stenosis and 1% died during the acute phase. Stenosis was mild in 17.6% of cases, moderate in 59.3% and severe in 23%. The incidence of stenosis was 80.8% in women and 62.5% in men. The incidence of stenosis was 46.9% in the group that ingested "fragments" and 93.6% in the group that ingested one or more tablespoonfuls of caustic substances. Among subjects who ingested one or more tablespoonfuls, 32.2% developed lesions of the stomach-duodenum, whereas the ingestion of "fragments" was not sufficient to induce these lesions. There was no correlation between the intensity of lesions of the esophagus and of the stomach. Progression to cancer of the esophagus occurred in 1.8% of cases, death during the chronic phase in 1.4%, perforations in 4.6%, fistulas in 0.9%, and brain abscesses in 1.4%. CONCLUSIONS: The complications were related to the amount of caustic soda ingested. Small amounts caused esophagitis or stenosis and large amounts increased the risk of fistulas, perforations and

  9. Production of Conidia by the Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae Using Solid-State Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loera-Corral, Octavio; Porcayo-Loza, Javier; Montesinos-Matias, Roberto; Favela-Torres, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the production of conidia by Metarhizium anisopliae using solid-state fermentation. Before production of conidia, procedures for strains conservation, reactivation, and propagation are essential in order to provide genetic stability of the strains. The strain is conserved in freeze-dried vials and then reactivated through insect inoculation. Rice is used as a substrate for the conidia production in two different bioreactors: plastic bags and tubular bioreactor. The CO2 production in the tubular bioreactors is measured with a respirometer; this system allows calculating indirect growth parameters as lag time (tlag) (25-35 h), maximum rate of CO2 production (rCO2 max) (0.5-0.7 mg/gdm h), specific rate of CO2 production (μ) (0.10-0.15 1/h), and final CO2 production (CO2) (100-120 mg/gdm). Conidial yield per gram of dry substrate (gdm) should be above 1 × 10(9) conidia/gdm after 10 days of incubation. Germination and viability of conidia obtained after 10 days of incubation should be above 80 % and 75 %, respectively. Bioassays using of Tenebrio molitor as a host insect should yield a final mortality above 80 %.

  10. Metabolic activity in dormant conidia of Aspergillus niger and developmental changes during conidial outgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novodvorska, Michaela; Stratford, Malcolm; Blythe, Martin J; Wilson, Raymond; Beniston, Richard G; Archer, David B

    2016-09-01

    The early stages of development of Aspergillus niger conidia during outgrowth were explored by combining genome-wide gene expression analysis (RNAseq), proteomics, Warburg manometry and uptake studies. Resting conidia suspended in water were demonstrated for the first time to be metabolically active as low levels of oxygen uptake and the generation of carbon dioxide were detected, suggesting that low-level respiratory metabolism occurs in conidia for maintenance. Upon triggering of spore germination, generation of CO2 increased dramatically. For a short period, which coincided with mobilisation of the intracellular polyol, trehalose, there was no increase in uptake of O2 indicating that trehalose was metabolised by fermentation. Data from genome-wide mRNA profiling showed the presence of transcripts associated with fermentative and respiratory metabolism in resting conidia. Following triggering of conidial outgrowth, there was a clear switch to respiration after 25min, confirmed by cyanide inhibition. No effect of SHAM, salicylhydroxamic acid, on respiration suggests electron flow via cytochrome c oxidase. Glucose entry into spores was not detectable before 1h after triggering germination. The impact of sorbic acid on germination was examined and we showed that it inhibits glucose uptake. O2 uptake was also inhibited, delaying the onset of respiration and extending the period of fermentation. In conclusion, we show that conidia suspended in water are not completely dormant and that conidial outgrowth involves fermentative metabolism that precedes respiration. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. A long natural-antisense RNA is accumulated in the conidia of Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Masaru; Okuda, Satoshi; Ishi, Kazutomo; Madokoro, Kana; Takeuchi, Michio; Yamagata, Youhei

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of expressed sequence tag libraries from various culture conditions revealed the existence of conidia-specific transcripts assembled to putative conidiation-specific reductase gene (csrA) in Aspergillus oryzae. However, the all transcripts were transcribed with opposite direction to the gene csrA. The sequence analysis of the transcript revealed that the RNA overlapped mRNA of csrA with 3'-end, and did not code protein longer than 60 amino acid residues. We designated the transcript Conidia Specific Long Natural-antisense RNA (CSLNR). The real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that the CSLNR is conidia-specific transcript, which cannot be transcribed in the absence of brlA, and the amount of CSLNR was much more than that of the transcript from csrA in conidia. Furthermore, the csrA deletion, also lacking coding region of CSLNR in A. oryzae reduced the number of conidia. Overexpression of CsrA demonstrated the inhibition of growth and conidiation, while CSLNR did not affect conidiation.

  12. Ingestion of soy-whey blended protein augments sports performance and ameliorates exercise-induced fatigue in a rat exercise model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guangxu; Yi, Suqing; Zhang, Hongru; Wang, Jing

    2017-02-22

    This study sought to determine the effects of soy-whey blended protein supplementation on sports performance and related biochemical parameters after long-term training. After a week of adaptation, eighteen 6-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups: the standard chow diet plus whey protein (Whey) group, the standard chow diet plus soy-whey blended protein (BP) group and the standard chow diet only (control) group. Each group included 6 rats for the seven-week experiment. Before the experiment, the baseline values of body weight, grasping force and time to exhaustion due to the loaded-swimming test were recorded for each group. During the experimental period, all rats performed the loaded-swimming test until exhaustion five days each week. The results showed that the mean maximum grasping force of the BP group significantly increased between the 5 th and the 7 th week (p protein for 7 weeks significantly increased the mean time to exhaustion due to swimming by 1.5-fold and 1.2-fold compared with the control and Whey groups, respectively. The plasma levels of leucine, isoleucine and valine were significantly higher at 60 min after the blended protein intervention compared with the Whey and control interventions (p protein enhanced the activities of lactate dehydrogenase and superoxide dismutase and decreased the levels of malondialdehyde in serum. These results collectively suggest that soy-whey blended protein ingestion with resistance exercise can improve sports performance and ameliorate exercise-induced fatigue in rats.

  13. Long-term ingestion of high flavanol cocoa provides photoprotection against UV-induced erythema and improves skin condition in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Ulrike; Neukam, Karin; Tronnier, Hagen; Sies, Helmut; Stahl, Wilhelm

    2006-06-01

    Dietary antioxidants contribute to endogenous photoprotection and are important for the maintenance of skin health. In the present study, 2 groups of women consumed either a high flavanol (326 mg/d) or low flavanol (27 mg/d) cocoa powder dissolved in 100 mL water for 12 wk. Epicatechin (61 mg/d) and catechin (20 mg/d) were the major flavanol monomers in the high flavanol drink, whereas the low flavanol drink contained 6.6 mg epicatechin and 1.6 mg catechin as the daily dose. Photoprotection and indicators of skin condition were assayed before and during the intervention. Following exposure of selected skin areas to 1.25 x minimal erythemal dose (MED) of radiation from a solar simulator, UV-induced erythema was significantly decreased in the high flavanol group, by 15 and 25%, after 6 and 12 wk of treatment, respectively, whereas no change occurred in the low flavanol group. The ingestion of high flavanol cocoa led to increases in blood flow of cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues, and to increases in skin density and skin hydration. Skin thickness was elevated from 1.11 +/- 0.11 mm at wk 0 to 1.24 +/- 0.13 mm at wk 12; transepidermal water loss was diminished from 8.7 +/- 3.7 to 6.3 +/- 2.2 g/(h x m2) within the same time frame. Neither of these variables was affected in the low flavanol cocoa group. Evaluation of the skin surface showed a significant decrease of skin roughness and scaling in the high flavanol cocoa group compared with those at wk 12. Dietary flavanols from cocoa contribute to endogenous photoprotection, improve dermal blood circulation, and affect cosmetically relevant skin surface and hydration variables.

  14. Distribution of serotonin 5-HT1A-binding sites in the brainstem and the hypothalamus, and their roles in 5-HT-induced sleep and ingestive behaviors in rock pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Tiago Souza; Krüger, Jéssica; Melleu, Fernando Falkenburger; Herold, Christina; Zilles, Karl; Poli, Anicleto; Güntürkün, Onur; Marino-Neto, José

    2015-12-15

    Serotonin 1A receptors (5-HT1ARs), which are widely distributed in the mammalian brain, participate in cognitive and emotional functions. In birds, 5-HT1ARs are expressed in prosencephalic areas involved in visual and cognitive functions. Diverse evidence supports 5-HT1AR-mediated 5-HT-induced ingestive and sleep behaviors in birds. Here, we describe the distribution of 5-HT1ARs in the hypothalamus and brainstem of birds, analyze their potential roles in sleep and ingestive behaviors, and attempt to determine the involvement of auto-/hetero-5-HT1ARs in these behaviors. In 6 pigeons, the anatomical distribution of [(3)H]8-OH-DPAT binding in the rostral brainstem and hypothalamus was examined. Ingestive/sleep behaviors were recorded (1h) in 16 pigeons pretreated with MM77 (a heterosynaptic 5-HT1AR antagonist; 23 or 69 nmol) for 20 min, followed by intracerebroventricular ICV injection of 5-HT (N:8; 150 nmol), 8-OH-DPAT (DPAT, a 5-HT1A,7R agonist, 30 nmol N:8) or vehicle. 5-HT- and DPAT-induced sleep and ingestive behaviors, brainstem 5-HT neuronal density and brain 5-HT content were examined in 12 pigeons, pretreated by ICV with the 5-HT neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) or vehicle (N:6/group). The distribution of brainstem and diencephalic c-Fos immunoreactivity after ICV injection of 5-HT, DPAT or vehicle (N:5/group) into birds provided with or denied access to water is also described. 5-HT1ARs are concentrated in the brainstem 5-HTergic areas and throughout the periventricular hypothalamus, preoptic nuclei and circumventricular organs. 5-HT and DPAT produced a complex c-Fos expression pattern in the 5-HT1AR-enriched preoptic hypothalamus and the circumventricular organs, which are related to drinking and sleep regulation, but modestly affected c-Fos expression in 5-HTergic neurons. The 5-HT-induced ingestivebehaviors and the 5-HT- and DPAT-induced sleep behaviors were reduced by MM77 pretreatment. 5,7-DHT increased sleep per se, decreased tryptophan

  15. Contributions towards a monograph of Phoma (Coelomycetes) — I. 2. Section Phoma: Additional taxa with very small conidia and taxa with conidia up to 7 µm long

    OpenAIRE

    Gruyter, de, J.; Noordeloos, M.E.; Boerema, G.H.

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-seven taxa in section Phoma with conidia not exceeding 7 µm in length are keyed out and described on account of their characteristics in vitro. Four new species are introduced: Phoma aurea de Gruyter, Noordel. & Boerema, Phoma crystallifer de Gruyter, Noordel. & Boerema, Phoma flavescens de Gruyter, Noordel. & Boerema and Phoma subherbarum de Gruyter, Noordel. & Boerema. As new names are proposed Phoma chenopodiicola de Gruyter, Noordel. & Boerema, Phoma pereupyrena de Gruyter, Noordel...

  16. A bioencapsulation and drying method increases shelf life and efficacy of Metarhizium brunneum conidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyklenk, Michael; Vemmer, Marina; Hanitzsch, Miriam; Patel, Anant

    2017-08-01

    This study reports the development of encapsulated and dried entomopathogenic fungus Metarhiuzm brunneum with reduced conidia content, increased conidiation, a high drying survival and enhanced shelf life. Dried beads prepared with the fillers corn starch, potato starch, carboxymethylcellulose or autoclaved baker's yeast, showed enhanced survival with increasing filler content. The maximum survival of 82% was found for beads with 20% corn starch at shelf life compared to non-formulated conidia. This "microfermenter" will pave the way for encapsulated fungi to be used as cost-effective biocontrol agents.

  17. A novel computerised image analysis method for the measurement of production of conidia from the aphid pathogenic fungus Erynia neoaphidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Tony J; Pell, Judith K; Gray, Simon N

    2003-03-14

    A semi-automated method has been developed for the quantification and measurement of conidia discharged by the aphid pathogen Erynia neoaphidis. This was used to compare conidiation by E. neoaphidis-mycosed pea aphid cadavers, mycelial plugs cut from agar plates, mycelial pellets from shake flasks and by mycelial pellets from different phases of liquid batch fermenter culture. Aphid cadavers discharged significantly more and significantly smaller conidia than plugs or pellets. The volume of conidia discharged was stable over the period of discharge (80 h), but more detailed analysis of the size frequency distribution showed that more very small and very large conidia were discharged after 5 h incubation than after 75 h incubation. Biomass harvested at the end of the exponential growth phase in batch fermenter culture produced significantly more conidia than biomass from any other growth phase. The implications of these findings for the development of production and formulation processes for E. neoaphidis as a biological control agent are discussed.

  18. Density, Viability Conidia And Symptoms of Metarhizium anisopliae infection on Oryctes rhinoceros larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriyanti, D. R.; Putri, R. I. P.; Widiyaningrum, P.; Herlina, L.

    2017-04-01

    M. anisopliae is parasitic fungus on insect pests; it is used as a biocontrol agent. M. anisopliae can be propagated on maize or rice substrate. M. anisopliae is currently sold in the form of kaolin powder formulations. Before it is used to check the density, viability and pathogenicity of M. anisopliae. However the problem is the kaolin powder very soft, so it difficult to distinguish between kaolin and conidia. This article gives information on how to calculate conidia density, viability and symptoms of M. anisopliae infection on Oryctes rhinoceros larvae. The study was conducted in the laboratory to determine the density and viability. The pathogenicity testing was done using pots. The Pot is containing soil substrate mixed with M. Anispoliae and ten tails O. Rhinoceros larvae per pot. The results showed that the density of M. anisopliae conidia was 1.81 x 108 conidia mL-1 and the viability was 94% within 24 hours. The larval mortality began to emerge in the 1st week, and all larvae died at the sixth week. The symptom of M. anisopliae infection on Oryctes rhinoceros larvae, there was a black spot on the larval integument. The larvae movements become slow and poor appetite; it will die within 3-7 days. The larvae die hard, and the white hyphae grow on the body surface that turns green.

  19. Influence of temperature and humidity on the viability of Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum Conidia

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.J. Moore; M.E. Ostry

    2015-01-01

    Butternut canker, caused by the fungus Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum, primarily kills butternut (Juglans cinerea). Rain splash and local air currents are the primary means of conidia dispersal but that does not explain its long-distance spread and infection of isolated trees. Dispersal by insect or animal vectors...

  20. A proteomic and ultrastructural characterization of Aspergillus fumigatus' conidia adaptation at different culture ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjo, Sandra I; Figueiredo, Francisco; Fernandes, Rui; Manadas, Bruno; Oliveira, Manuela

    2017-05-24

    The airborne fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most common agents of human fungal infections with a remarkable impact on public health. However, A. fumigatus conidia atmospheric resistance and longevity mechanisms are still unknown. Therefore, in this work, the processes underlying conidial adaptation were studied by a time course evaluation of the proteomics and ultrastructural changes of A. fumigatus' conidia at three time-points selected according to relevant changes previously established in conidial survival rates. The proteomics characterization revealed that conidia change from a highly active metabolic to a dormant state, culminating in cell autolysis as revealed by the increased levels of hydrolytic enzymes. Structural characterization corroborates the proteomics data, with noticeable changes observed in mitochondria, nucleus and plasma membrane ultrastructure, accompanied by the formation of autophagic vacuoles. These changes are consistent with both apoptotic and autophagic processes, and indicate that the changes in protein levels may anticipate those in cell morphology. The findings presented in this work not only clarify the processes underlying conidial adaptation to nutrient limiting conditions but can also be exploited for improving infection control strategies and in the development of new therapeutical drugs. Additionally, the present study was deposited in a public database and thus, it may also be a valuable dataset to be used by the scientific community as a tool to understand and identified other potential targets associated with conidia resistance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Metacridamides A and B, bioactive macrocycles from conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metarhizium acridum, an entomopathogenic fungus, has been commercialized and used successfully for biocontrol of grasshopper pests in Africa and Australia. Its conidia produce two novel 17-membered macrocycles, metacridamides A (1) and B (2), which consist of a Phe unit condensed with a nonaketide....

  2. Paraffin ingestion - the problem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of paraffin ingestion is higher in the summer months. This is because ... where the average cost per patient was R348 per day. The total cost to ... petroleum companies and/or entrepreneurs and distributed ... paraffin, coal and gas. As South Africa ... and more people become involved, making control difficult.

  3. Citric acid production using immobilized conidia of Aspergillus niger TMB 2022

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsay, S.S.; To, K.Y.

    1987-02-20

    Conidia of Aspergillus niger TMB 2022 were immobilized in calcium alginate for the production of citric acid. A 1-ml condidia suspension containing ca. 2.32 x 10/sup 8/ conidia were entrapped into sodium alginate solution in order to prepare 3% Ca-alginate (w/v) gel bead. Immobilized conidia were inoculated into productive medium containing 14% sucrose, 0.25% (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, 0.25% KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/, and 0.025% MgSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O with addition of 0.06 mg/l CuSO/sub 4/.5H/sub 2/O, 0.25 mg/l ZnCl/sub 2/, 1.3 mg/l FeCl/sub 3/.6H/sub 2/O, pH 3.8, and incubated at 35 degrees C for 13 days by surface culture to produce 61.53 g/l anhydrous citric acid. Under the same conditions with a batchwise culture, it was found that immobilized conidia could maintain a longer period for citric acid production (31 days): over 70 g/l anhydrous citric acid from runs No. 2-4, with the maximum yield for anhydrous citric acid reaching 77.02 g/l for run No. 2. In contrast, free conidia maintained a shorter acid-producing phase, circa 17 days; the maximum yield for anhydrous citric acid was 71.07 g/l for run No. 2 but dropped quickly as the run number increased. 14 references.

  4. Induced variation in potato dry rot fusarium roseum by ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.U.

    1979-01-01

    Variations were readily induced in Fusarium roseum isolated from decayed potato tubers by subjecting its conidia to ultraviolet irradiation. The dosage that resulted in complete absence of developing colonies in five minutes of irradiation did not cause the mortality of conidia for the initial one minute. Eighty eight precent of conidia were killed in three minutes. Approximately 90% of the conidia showed resistance to lethality for the initial two minutes whereas 10% began to show resistance after three minutes of the irradiation. The maximum 42% of color variation was obtained among the surviving conidia. Varients in both decreased and increased pathogenicity were induced in 8% among the color variants. Variations occurred in such other characteristics as growth rate, rigidity of mycelium, and conidia formation. (author)

  5. Chronic Alcohol Ingestion Worsens Survival and Alters Gut Epithelial Apoptosis and Cd8+ T Cell Function after Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pneumonia-Induced Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingensmith, Nathan J; Fay, Katherine T; Lyons, John D; Chen, Ching-Wen; Otani, Shunsuke; Liang, Zhe; Chihade, Deena B; Burd, Eileen M; Ford, Mandy L; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2018-04-16

    Mortality is higher in septic patients with a history of alcohol use disorder than in septic patients without a history of chronic alcohol usage. We have previously described a model of chronic alcohol ingestion followed by sepsis from cecal ligation and puncture in which alcohol-fed septic mice have higher mortality than water-fed septic mice, associated with altered gut integrity and increased production of TNF and IFNγ by splenic CD4 T cells without alterations in CD8 T cell function. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this represents a common host response to the combination of alcohol and sepsis by creating a new model in which mice with chronic alcohol ingestion were subjected to a different model of sepsis. C57Bl/6 mice were randomized to receive either alcohol or water for 12 weeks and then subjected to Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Mice were sacrificed either 24 hours after the onset of sepsis or followed for survival. Alcohol-fed septic mice had significantly higher 7-day mortality than water-fed septic mice (96% vs 58%). This was associated with a 5-fold increase in intestinal apoptosis in alcohol-fed septic animals, accompanied by an increase in the pro-apoptotic protein Bax. Serum IL-6 levels were higher and IL-2 levels were lower in alcohol-fed septic mice. In contrast, CD8 T cell frequency was lower in alcohol-fed mice than water-fed septic mice, associated with increased production of IFNγ and TNF in stimulated splenocytes. No significant differences were noted in CD4 T cells, lung injury or bacteremia. Mice with chronic alcohol ingestion thus have increased mortality regardless of their septic insult, associated with changes in both the gut and the immune system.

  6. Aterogênese em artéria ilíaca comum de suínos submetidos à homocisteinemia induzida pela ingestão de metionina Atherogenesis in swine iliac artery with homocystinemia induced by methionine ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Gil França

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da homocisteinemia induzida na artéria ilíaca de suínos. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Realizou-se estudo experimental comparativo em dois grupos homogêneos de sete suínos da raça Macau, com peso entre 20 e 30 kg durante 30 dias. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos, sendo um deles alimentado com metionina adicionada à dieta por um período de 4 semanas. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue para a dosagem de colesterol, triglicerídeos, HDL e homocisteína. Os animais foram submetidos à arteriografia para avaliação da perviedade das artérias ilíacas e, posteriormente, sacrificados. As artérias ilíacas foram enviadas para análise histológica. RESULTADOS: Os animais sobreviveram ao experimento, e não houve alterações significativas nos níveis de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e HDL nos dois grupos. O exame microscópico do grupo-controle não apresentou alterações patológicas e foi semelhante em todas as preparações examinadas. No grupo da dieta com metionina, as placas eram formadas por macrófagos espumosos, mas não foram observadas células musculares lisas, cristais de colesterol ou células inflamatórias. A túnica média apresentava-se com lâmina elástica interna íntegra. No grupo-controle, não houve alteração nos níveis de homocisteína durante o experimento. No grupo-metionina, houve aumento dos níveis séricos da homocisteína, com valor médio de 59,80 µmol/l após 30 dias de dieta rica em metionina. CONCLUSÃO: A homocisteinemia induzida pela metionina causa aterogênese nas artérias ilíacas de suínos.OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of induced homocystinemia in the swine iliac artery. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A comparative experimental study with two homogeneous groups of seven pigs from the Macao specimen, weighed between 20 and 30 kg, which were assessed during 30 days. The pigs were divided into two groups. One of them was fed with a methionine-rich diet for a 4-week period

  7. The polyene antimycotics nystatin and filipin disrupt the plasma membrane, whereas natamycin inhibits endocytosis in germinating conidia of Penicillium discolor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van M.R.; Golovina, E.A.; Dijksterhuis, J.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the differences in membrane permeability and the effect on endocytosis of the polyene antimycotics nystatin, filipin and natamycin on germinating fungal conidia. Methods and Results: The model system was Penicillium discolor, a food spoilage fungus. Filipin resulted in

  8. Preincubation of Penicillium commune conidia under modified atmosphere conditions: Influence on growth potential as determined by an impedimetric method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haasum, Iben; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1996-01-01

    The combined effect of preincubation time, relative humidity (r.h.), headspace carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) on subsequent growth potential of conidia from Penicillium commune was studied using Response Surface Modelling (RSM). Native conidia were preincubated under modified atmosphere...... conditions in sealed vials for 14, 35 and 56 d. Lag time and growth rates were determined using impedance microbiology on a Bactometer. Conidia survived and some swelling was observed during all experimental preincubation conditions. Regression analysis of the subsequent growth responses showed that relative...... humidity in the vials was the most significant factor affecting lag time of the conidia after preincubation for 14 and 35 d. Storage for 35 d extended lag times by 15 h when the level of r.h. was increased from 41% to 80%. After prolonged storage (56 d) r.h and CO2 levels elicited a significant effect...

  9. Ingestion modelling in COSYMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margeanu, Sorin; Angelescu, Tatiana

    2003-01-01

    One of the aims in the design of the COSYMA ingestion model was the ability to cope in a flexible manner with the various food chain related data and results at different stages of an accident consequence assessment. Since dynamic foodchain transport models themselves are normally rather complex and require significant computation times, they are usually not included in ACA codes, but are used to calculate and tabulate the needed information in the form of data libraries. Such data files contain specific activity concentrations in the foodstuff and their time integral normalised to unit deposit or unit air concentration for a series of times after the accident.They allow for calculations taking into account food restrictions. In an ACA run, the actual specific concentrations in the foodstuffs are obtained by multiplying the normalized concentrations taken from the data library by the ground or air concentrations in each grid point predicted with an atmospheric transport and deposition model. The paper presents the structure of the ingestion model: structure, methods and the libraries used for a nuclear accident consequences assessment. (authors)

  10. Effects of combined β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) and whey protein ingestion on symptoms of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirato, Minayuki; Tsuchiya, Yosuke; Sato, Teruyuki; Hamano, Saki; Gushiken, Takeshi; Kimura, Naoto; Ochi, Eisuke

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of combined β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) and whey protein ingestion on muscle strength and damage following a single bout of eccentric exercise. Eighteen untrained male subjects were assigned to HMB and Whey protein (HMB + Whey; 3 g/day HMB and 36.6 g/day whey protein, n = 6), HMB (3 g/day, n = 6), or whey protein (36.6 g/day, n = 6) groups. Ingestion commenced 7 days before non-dominant elbow flexor eccentric exercise (30 deg/sec, 6 reps × 7 sets) and continued until 4 days post-exercise. The maximal isometric strength, muscle soreness, plasma creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were assessed pre-exercise, and at 1, 2, 3, and 5 days after exercise. The change scores of maximal isometric strength significantly decreased at day 1, 2, and 5 in the whey protein group compared to pre value and that in HMB + Whey protein and HMB groups decreased at day 1 and 5. The muscle soreness significantly increased in the whey and HMB + Whey protein groups at day 3 compared to pre value (p HMB and whey protein does not have a role to inhibit muscle strength loss and soreness, and decrease in muscle damage markers after eccentric exercise in comparison with HMB and whey protein alone.

  11. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha; Valento, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used asa home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to causea variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagicencephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers ofbaking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects. [West J Emerg Med. 2016;17(5)619...

  12. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha; Valento, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  13. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Hughes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  14. Preexercise metabolic alkalosis induced via bicarbonate ingestion accelerates Vo2 kinetics at the onset of a high-power-output exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Jerzy A; Szkutnik, Zbigniew; Duda, Krzysztof; Majerczak, Joanna; Korzeniewski, Bernard

    2005-03-01

    The present study investigated the effect of preexercise metabolic alkalosis on the primary component of oxygen uptake (Vo(2)) kinetics, characterized by tau(1). Seven healthy physically active nonsmoking men, aged 22.4 +/- 1.8 (mean +/- SD) yr, maximum Vo(2) (Vo(2 max)) 50.4 +/- 4 ml.min(-1).kg(-1), performed two bouts of cycling, corresponding to 40 and 87% of Vo(2 max), lasting 6 min each, separated by a 20-min pause, once as a control study and a few days later at approximately 90 min after ingestion of 3 mmol/kg body wt of NaHCO(3). Blood samples for measurements of bicarbonate concentration and hydrogen ion concentration were taken from antecubital vein via catheter. Pulmonary Vo(2) was measured continuously breath by breath. The values of tau(1) were calculated by using six various approaches published in the literature. Preexercise level of bicarbonate concentration after ingestion of NaHCO(3) was significantly elevated (P < 0.01) compared with the control study (28.96 +/- 2.11 vs. 24.84 +/- 1.18 mmol/l; P < 0.01), and [H(+)] was significantly (P < 0.01) reduced (42.79 +/- 3.38 nmol/l vs. 46.44 +/- 3.51 nmol/l). This shift (P < 0.01) was also present during both bouts of exercise. During cycling at 40% of Vo(2 max), no significant effect of the preexercise alkalosis on the magnitude of tau(1) was found. However, during cycling at 87% of Vo(2 max), the tau(1) calculated by all six approaches was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, compared with the control study. The tau(1) calculated as in Borrani et al. (Borrani F, Candau R, Millet GY, Perrey S, Fuchsloscher J, and Rouillon JD. J Appl Physiol 90: 2212-2220, 2001) was reduced on average by 7.9 +/- 2.6 s, which was significantly different from zero with both the Student's t-test (P = 0.011) and the Wilcoxon's signed-ranks test (P = 0.014).

  15. Germination of Aspergillus niger conidia is triggered by nitrogen compounds related to L-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, Kimran; Stratford, Malcolm; Archer, David B

    2014-10-01

    Conidial germination is fundamentally important to the growth and dissemination of most fungi. It has been previously shown (K. Hayer, M. Stratford, and D. B. Archer, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79:6924-6931, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02061-13), using sugar analogs, that germination is a 2-stage process involving triggering of germination and then nutrient uptake for hyphal outgrowth. In the present study, we tested this 2-stage germination process using a series of nitrogen-containing compounds for the ability to trigger the breaking of dormancy of Aspergillus niger conidia and then to support the formation of hyphae by acting as nitrogen sources. Triggering and germination were also compared between A. niger and Aspergillus nidulans using 2-deoxy-D-glucose (trigger), D-galactose (nontrigger in A. niger but trigger in A. nidulans), and an N source (required in A. niger but not in A. nidulans). Although most of the nitrogen compounds studied served as nitrogen sources for growth, only some nitrogen compounds could trigger germination of A. niger conidia, and all were related to L-amino acids. Using L-amino acid analogs without either the amine or the carboxylic acid group revealed that both the amine and carboxylic acid groups were essential for an L-amino acid to serve as a trigger molecule. Generally, conidia were able to sense and recognize nitrogen compounds that fitted into a specific size range. There was no evidence of uptake of either triggering or nontriggering compounds over the first 90 min of A. niger conidial germination, suggesting that the germination trigger sensors are not located within the spore. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Conidiation of Neurospora crassa induced by treatment with natrium fluoride in submerged culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timberlake, W E; Turian, G

    1975-01-01

    A transient treatment of pregerminated conidia of Neurospora crassa with NaF induced young, submerged cultures to prematurely differentiate conidia. The inductive treatment decreased the rate of respiration (with lower RQ), reduced the relative concentration of nucleoside triphosphates, and inhibited leucine incorporation into protein and adenosine incorporation into RNA.

  17. Inhibition of Pseudogymnoascus destructans growth from conidia and mycelial extension by bacterially produced volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelison, Christopher T; Gabriel, Kyle T; Barlament, Courtney; Crow, Sidney A

    2014-02-01

    The recently identified causative agent of white-nose syndrome (WNS), Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has been implicated in the mortality of an estimated 5.5 million North American bats since its initial documentation in 2006 (Frick et al. in Science 329:679-682, 2010). In an effort to identify potential biological and chemical control options for WNS, 6 previously described bacterially produced volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were screened for anti-P. destructans activity. The compounds include decanal; 2-ethyl-1-hexanol; nonanal; benzothiazole; benzaldehyde; andN,N-dimethyloctylamine. P. destructans conidia and mycelial plugs were exposed to the VOCs in a closed air space at 15 and 4 °C and then evaluated for growth inhibition. All VOCs inhibited growth from conidia as well as inhibiting radial mycelial extension, with the greatest effect at 4 °C. Studies of the ecology of fungistatic soils and the natural abundance of the fungistatic VOCs present in these environments suggest a synergistic activity of select VOCs may occur. The evaluation of formulations of two or three VOCs at equivalent concentrations was supportive of synergistic activity in several cases. The identification of bacterially produced VOCs with anti-P. destructans activity indicates disease-suppressive and fungistatic soils as a potentially significant reservoir of biological and chemical control options for WNS and provides wildlife management personnel with tools to combat this devastating disease.

  18. Sterile Males of Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) as Disseminators of Beauveria Bassiana Conidia for IPM Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Salvador; Campos, Sergio; Montoya, Pablo [Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA-IICA, Camino a los Cacahotales S/N, Metapa de Dominguez, Chiapas 30860 (Mexico); Villasenor, Antonio; Valle, Alvaro; Enkerlin, Walther [Codireccion Mexico, Programa Regional Moscamed Mexico- Guatemala-Estados Unidos (Guatemala); Toledo, Jorge; Liedo, Pablo [Departamento Agricultura Sociedad y Ambiente, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur. Carretera Antiguo Aeropuerto, Tapachula, Chiapas 30700 (Mexico)

    2014-01-15

    Full text: Sterile Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), males were evaluated as vectors to spread Beauveria bassiana (Bals) conidia to wild C. capitata populations under field conditions. The inoculated sterile males were released by air, using the chilled adult technique over 7000 ha of coffee growing in Chimaltenango, Guatemala, Central America. The impact of releases was determined using dry traps baited with a food attractant. The effects of these releases on Apis mellifera, Linnaeus (honey bee), Hypothenemus hampei, Ferrari (coffee berry borer) and the parasitic mite Varroa destructor (Oudeman) were also evaluated. Inoculated sterile males were able to transmit fungal spores to 44% of the wild C. capitata flies captured in traps, which likely were infected through intra- and intersexual interactions during leks, mating or mating attempts. There was no transmission of the fungal spores to non- target insect species such as coffee berry borer, honey bees or varroa. We conclude that sterile males of Mediterranean fruit fly inoculated with B. bassiana can act as effective vectors of conidia to wild populations, constituting a safe, environmentally friendly and selective alternative for suppressing the medfly under a Sterile Insect Technique-based IPM approach. (author)

  19. Effect of zinc compounds on Fusarium verticillioides growth, hyphae alterations, conidia, and fumonisin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Geovana D; Vitorino, Vinícius; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J; Scussel, Vildes M

    2013-10-01

    Several strategies are used to eliminate toxigenic fungi that produce fumonisins in grains. Fusarium verticillioides can be controlled by the application of synthetic fungicides in the field or during storage. However, there may also be residuals, which may remain in the foods. Inorganic compounds such as zinc are cheap, stable and could present strong antifungal activity. Some Zn compounds can be utilized as dietary supplements and are authorized for the fortification of foods. Knowing the advantages and that low concentrations of Zn can have antimicrobial activity, our objective was to evaluate the effects of Zn compounds on the growth of F. verticillioides and the production of fumonisin and conidia. In addition, we aimed to verify that Zn compounds cause morphological alterations of the hyphae, mortality and production of reactive oxygen species. Zn compounds efficiently reduced fungal growth and fumonisin production. Treatment using zinc perchlorate gave the best results. All treatments inhibited conidia production and caused morphological alterations of the hyphae. It was possible to observe cell death and production of reactive oxygen species. Zn compounds have advantages compared to other antifungal compounds. In particular, they are non-toxic for the organism in appropriate amounts. They could be studied further as potential fungicides in agriculture. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. A Non-canonical Melanin Biosynthesis Pathway Protects Aspergillus terreus Conidia from Environmental Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geib, Elena; Gressler, Markus; Viediernikova, Iuliia; Hillmann, Falk; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Nietzsche, Sandor; Hertweck, Christian; Brock, Matthias

    2016-05-19

    Melanins are ubiquitous pigments found in all kingdoms of life. Most organisms use them for protection from environmental stress, although some fungi employ melanins as virulence determinants. The human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus and related Ascomycetes produce dihydroxynaphthalene- (DHN) melanin in their spores, the conidia, and use it to inhibit phagolysosome acidification. However, biosynthetic origin of melanin in a related fungus, Aspergillus terreus, has remained a mystery because A. terreus lacks genes for synthesis of DHN-melanin. Here we identify genes coding for an unusual NRPS-like enzyme (MelA) and a tyrosinase (TyrP) that A. terreus expressed under conidiation conditions. We demonstrate that MelA produces aspulvinone E, which is activated for polymerization by TyrP. Functional studies reveal that this new pigment, Asp-melanin, confers resistance against UV light and hampers phagocytosis by soil amoeba. Unexpectedly, Asp-melanin does not inhibit acidification of phagolysosomes, thus likely contributing specifically to survival of A. terreus conidia in acidic environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ameliorating role of chromium ingestion on biochemical, histological and trigluconate disorders induced by diabetes and / or gamma irradiation in pregnant albino rats and their fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAMADAN, F.L.; REZK, R.G.

    2006-01-01

    Chromium is an essential trace element in human nutrition for the regulation of insulin action thereby influencing carbohydrate and lipid metabolism The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of chromium intake on radiation-induced damage in diabetic mothers. Diabetes was induced in female rats by intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg alloxan dissolved in saline. Pregnant diabetic mothers were received chromium (20 mg/kg) from the 1st up to the 19 th day of gestation. Meanwhile, pregnant diabetic rats were exposed to 0.3 Gy gamma radiation on the 6th and the 12 th day of gestation. Chromium treatment of diabetic mothers ameliorated radiation-induced damage, which was obvious by diminishing the increase of glucose, malonaldehyde (MDA), total cholesterol levels and by ameliorating the decrease of glutathione level in blood serum. In addition,chromium treatment ameliorated the radiation-induced changes in cholesterol levels of the fetuses. Moreover, chromium treatment led to the regeneration of the normal architecture of maternal hepatic cells and blood vessels. It could be concluded that chromium supplementation to diabetic mothers ameliorated the radiation-induced biochemical, histopathological and teratological disorders. Furthermore, the results obtained showed that chromium administration caused a significant protection to diabetic pregnant females against radiation-induced spontaneous abortion and embryo malformations

  2. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  3. Endurance exercise after orange ingestion anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endurance exercise after orange ingestion cause anaphylaxis which is food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA which is a form of exercise-induced anaphylaxis. In this article, an individual develops symptoms such as flushing, itching, urticaria, angioedema, and wheezing after eating a food allergen and proceeds to exercise. Neither the food alone nor exercise alone is sufficient to induce a reaction. This case report describes a 36-year-old asthmatic male athlete who experienced nausea, vomiting, flushing, urticaria, and facial swelling while exercising in a gymnasium after eating oranges. Neither oranges alone nor exercise alone induced the reaction. Total avoidance of suspected food allergens would be ideal. Persons with FDEIA should keep at hand an emergency kit with antihistamines, injectable rapid action corticoids, and adrenaline.

  4. The Report of Suicide by Ingestion of Lidocaine Topical Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lidocaine is a local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic agent. There are reports on accidental and intentional cases of poisoning following injection of lidocaine while rare are the fatal cases realized after oral ingestion of lidocaine. Suicidal poisoning with lidocaine pharmaceutical formulations is rare since no pharmaceutical dosage forms for oral use are available except gels and sprays used as local anesthetics in dentistry. Cases: Three cases of suicidal poisoning by ingestion of the content of lidocaine topical spray are reported in the present study. The cases developed episodes of seizure requiring diazepam and other therapeutic modalities upon admission. Eventually, one of the cases expired. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first reported case of suicidal poisoning after ingestion of this formulation which highlights the fact that lidocaine topical spray formulation may be used for committing suicide. Ingestion of lidocaine present in topical spray can induce varying levels of toxicity that can even be fatal.

  5. Phytopharmacological studies on the rice diseases. III. Fungitoxicity of the different dust fungicides evaluated by protoplasm coagulation in conidia of Cochliobolus miyabeanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashioka, Y; Ikegami, H

    1956-01-01

    The modes of reaction of fungal conidia to fungicides (mercury and copper compounds) varied with the concentration of fungicide. At lower fugicide concentrations, restriction of elongation of germ-tubes was noted. At high concentrations, there was no germination accompanied by vacuolation. At the highest concentrations, conidia protoplasm was coagulated.

  6. Comparative study of airborne Alternaria conidia levels in two cities in Castilla-La Mancha (central Spain), and correlations with weather-related variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabariego, Silvia; Bouso, Veronica; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Alternaria conidia are among the airborne biological particles known to trigger allergic respiratory diseases. The presented paper reports on a study of seasonal variations in airborne Alternaria conidia concentrations in 2 cities in the central Spanish region of Castilla-La Mancha, Albacete and Toledo. The influence of weather-related variables on airborne conidia levels and distribution was also analysed. Sampling was carried out from 2008-2010 using a Hirst sampler, following the methodology established by the Spanish Aerobiology Network. Annual airborne Alternaria conidia counts were higher in Toledo (annual mean 3,936 conidia) than in Albacete (annual mean 2,268 conidia). Conidia were detected in the air throughout the year, but levels peaked between May-September. Considerable year-on-year variations were recorded both in total annual counts and in seasonal distribution. A significant positive correlation was generally found between mean daily Alternaria counts and both temperature and hours of sunlight, while a significant negative correlation was recorded for relative humidity, daily and cumulative rainfall, and wind speed. Regression models indicated that between 31%-52% of the variation in airborne Alternaria conidia concentrations could be explained by weather-related variables.

  7. Gene co-expression analysis identifies gene clusters associated with isotropic and polarized growth in Aspergillus fumigatus conidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltussen, Tim J H; Coolen, Jordy P M; Zoll, Jan; Verweij, Paul E; Melchers, Willem J G

    2018-04-26

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprophytic fungus that extensively produces conidia. These microscopic asexually reproductive structures are small enough to reach the lungs. Germination of conidia followed by hyphal growth inside human lungs is a key step in the establishment of infection in immunocompromised patients. RNA-Seq was used to analyze the transcriptome of dormant and germinating A. fumigatus conidia. Construction of a gene co-expression network revealed four gene clusters (modules) correlated with a growth phase (dormant, isotropic growth, polarized growth). Transcripts levels of genes encoding for secondary metabolites were high in dormant conidia. During isotropic growth, transcript levels of genes involved in cell wall modifications increased. Two modules encoding for growth and cell cycle/DNA processing were associated with polarized growth. In addition, the co-expression network was used to identify highly connected intermodular hub genes. These genes may have a pivotal role in the respective module and could therefore be compelling therapeutic targets. Generally, cell wall remodeling is an important process during isotropic and polarized growth, characterized by an increase of transcripts coding for hyphal growth and cell cycle/DNA processing when polarized growth is initiated. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Proteome profiling and functional classification of intracellular proteins from conidia of the human-pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutschbein, Janka; Albrecht, Daniela; Pötsch, Maria; Guthke, Reinhard; Aimanianda, Vishukumar; Clavaud, Cécile; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Brakhage, Axel A; Kniemeyer, Olaf

    2010-07-02

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a ubiquitously distributed filamentous fungus that has emerged as one of the most serious life-threatening pathogens in immunocompromised patients. The mechanisms for its pathogenicity are poorly understood. Here, we analyzed the proteome of dormant A. fumigatus conidia as the fungal entity having the initial contact with the host. Applying two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE), we established a 2-D reference map of conidial proteins. By MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, we identified a total number of 449 different proteins. We show that 57 proteins of our map are over-represented in resting conidia compared to mycelium. Enzymes involved in reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) detoxification, pigment biosynthesis, and conidial rodlet layer formation were highly abundant in A. fumigatus spores and most probably account for their enormous stress resistance. Interestingly, pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase were detectable in dormant conidia, suggesting that alcoholic fermentation plays a role during dormancy or early germination. Moreover, we show that enzymes for rapid reactivation of protein biosynthesis and metabolic processes are preserved in resting conidia, which therefore feature the potential to immediately respond to an environmental stimulus by germination. The generated data lay the foundations for further proteomic analyses and a better understanding of fungal pathogenesis.

  9. Germination of Penicillium paneum Conidia Is Regulated by 1-Octen-3-ol, a Volatile Self-Inhibitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitarra, G.S.; Abee, T.; Rombouts, F.M.; Posthumus, M.A.; Dijksterhuis, J.

    2004-01-01

    Penicillium paneum is an important contaminant of cereal grains which is able to grow at low temperature, low pH, high levels of carbon dioxide, and under acid conditions. P. paneum produces mycotoxins, which may be harmful to animals and humans. We found that conidia in dense suspensions showed

  10. Germination of penicillium paneum Conidia is regulated by 1-octen-3-ol, a volatile self-inhibitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitarra, Gilma S; Abee, Tjakko; Rombouts, Frank M; Posthumus, Maarten A; Dijksterhuis, Jan

    Penicillium paneum is an important contaminant of cereal grains which is able to grow at low temperature, low pH, high levels of carbon dioxide, and under acid conditions. P. paneum produces mycotoxins, which may be harmful to animals and humans. We found that conidia in dense suspensions showed

  11. Gastrobronchial fistula after toothbrush ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, Jan Christoph; von Buch, Christoph; Waag, Karl-Ludwig; Reinshagen, Konrad

    2006-10-01

    Gastrobronchial fistulous communications are uncommon complications of disease processes with only 36 previously reported cases. Described as complication of a number of conditions, such as previous gastroesophageal surgery, subphrenic abscess, and gastric ulcers (Jha P, Deiraniya A, Keeling-Robert C, et al. Gastrobronchial fistula--a recent series. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Sur 2003;2:6-8), we report a case of fistulization caused by ingestion of a foreign body. A patient with mental retardation, admitted for the treatment of osteomyelitis, presented during hospitalization symptoms of high fever, vomiting, and respiratory distress. Endoscopy showed the presence of a gastrobronchial fistula, which developed after ingestion of a toothbrush. The toothbrush was extracted endoscopically, and the fistula was subsequently closed by surgery. The patient recovered completely. We report the first case of a gastrobronchial fistula as a complication of foreign body ingestion.

  12. Hadoop Tutorial - Efficient data ingestion

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Baranowski, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The Hadoop ecosystem is the leading opensource platform for distributed storage and processing of "big data". The Hadoop platform is available at CERN as a central service provided by the IT department. Real-time data ingestion to Hadoop ecosystem due to the system specificity is non-trivial process and requires some efforts (which is often underestimated) in order to make it efficient (low latency, optimize data placement, footprint on the cluster). In this tutorial attendees will learn about: The important aspects of storing the data in Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS).  Data ingestion techniques and engines that are capable of shipping data to Hadoop in an efficient way. Setting up a full data ingestion flow into a Hadoop Distributed Files System from various sources (streaming, log files, databases) using the best practices and components available around the ecosystem (including Sqoop, Kite, Flume, Kafka...

  13. Concomitant ingestion of lactic acid bacteria and black tea synergistically enhances flavonoid bioavailability and attenuates d-galactose-induced oxidative stress in mice via modulating glutathione antioxidant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Danyue; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-12-01

    Black tea (BT) has been positively linked to improved redox status, while its efficacy is limited due to the low bioavailability of BT flavonoids. In addition to the direct antioxidant activity, flavonoids regulate redox balance via inducing endogenous antioxidants, particularly glutathione (GSH) and GSH-dependent antioxidant enzymes. This work first examined the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and BT alone or in combination on flavonoid bioavailability and metabolism; next, the effect of LAB-fermented BT diet in attenuating oxidative stress in mice and the underlying mechanisms were studied. Phenolic profiles of plasma, urine and feces from healthy mice consuming plain yogurt, BT milk (BTM) or BT yogurt (BTY) were acquired using LC-MS/MS. Plasma antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation level, content of nonprotein thiols and expression of GSH-related antioxidant enzymes and Nrf2 were examined in d-galactose-treated mice. Total flavonoid content in plasma following a single dose of BTY attained 0.657 μmol/l, increased by 50% compared with the BTM group. Increased excretion of phenolic metabolite and hippuric acid in urine and feces indicated enhanced metabolism of flavonoids in BTY-fed mice. In the second study, 8-week concomitant LAB-BT treatment of oxidatively stressed mice effectively restored plasma antioxidant capacity and GSH levels, and mitigated lipid peroxidation, which were associated with significant induction of GSH-dependent antioxidant enzymes and nuclear accumulation of Nrf2. Our results demonstrated the effect of LAB fermentation in enhancing BT flavonoid bioavailability in vivo. The synergistic antioxidant efficacy of LAB-BT diet implied its therapeutic potential in enhancing antioxidant defenses and protecting organisms from oxidative damage. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Foreign Body Ingestion in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyuk Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body (FB ingestion in children is common and most children are observed to be between 6 months and 3 years of age. Although most FBs in the gastrointestinal tract pass spontaneously without complications, endoscopic or surgical removal may be required in a few children. Thus, FB ingestion presents a significant clinical difficulty in pediatric gastroenterological practice. Parameters that need to be considered regarding the timing of endoscopic removal of ingested FBs in children are the children’s age or body weight, the clinical presentation, time lapse since ingestion, time of last meal, type as well as size and shape of the FB, and its current location in the gastrointestinal tract. Esophageal button batteries require emergency removal regardless of the presence of symptoms because they can cause serious complications. Coins, magnets, or sharp FBs in the esophagus should be removed within 2 hours in symptomatic and within 24 hours in asymptomatic children. Among those presenting with a single or multiple magnets and a metallic FB that have advanced beyond the stomach, symptomatic children need a consultation with a pediatric surgeon for surgery, and asymptomatic children may be followed with serial X-rays to assess progression. Sharp or pointed, and long or large and wide FBs located in the esophagus or stomach require endoscopic removal.

  15. Retrospective study of mistletoe ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, H A; Willias, D B; Gorman, S E; Sanftleban, J

    1996-01-01

    There are limited data concerning accidental exposure to Phoradendron flavescens (Phoradendron serotinum, American Mistletoe). The only published reports include a review of 14 cases which revealed no symptoms and a single fatality from an intentional ingestion of an unknown amount of an elixir brewed from the berries. The risk of serious toxicity from accidental exposure to this plant appears to be minimal, yet it continues to be regarded as a dangerous plant. We reviewed charts for four years (1990-1993) from three poison centers where Phoradendron flavescens is indigenous. Ninety-two human cases were located. Age ranged from four months to 42 years, with a mean of six years (SD 8.8) and median of two years. There were 14 symptomatic cases of which 11 were determined to be related to mistletoe exposure. There were six gastrointestinal upset, two mild drowsiness, one eye irritation, one ataxia (21 months), one seizure (13 months). Treatments included gastrointestinal decontamination in 54 patients (59%), ocular irrigation in one and IV benzodiazepine in one. Decontamination did not appear to affect outcome. Amount ingested ranged from one berry or leaf to more than 20 berries or five leaves. In cases with a known amount ingested, eight of ten cases with > or = 5 berries remained symptom free. In the 11 cases with leaf-only ingestion (range 1-5 leaves), three patients had gastrointestinal upset. The one case with five leaves ingested remained asymptomatic. The infant with seizures was an unwitnessed exposure, found with both berries and leaves in the crib. No arrhythmias or cardiovascular changes were reported in any case. All symptomatic cases had onset of symptoms in Cardiovascular effects were not seen.

  16. Severe hypokalaemic paralysis and rhabdomyolysis due to ingestion of liquorice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. van den Bosch (Annemien); J.M. van der Klooster; D.M. Zuidgeest; R.J.T. Ouwendijk (Rob); A. Dees

    2005-01-01

    textabstractChronic ingestion of liquorice induces a syndrome with findings similar to those in primary hyperaldosteronism. We describe a patient who, with a plasma K+ of 1.8 mmol/l, showed a paralysis and severe rhabdomyolysis after the habitual consumption of natural liquorice.

  17. Cancer risks from ingestion of radiostrontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raabe, O. G.

    2004-07-01

    Studies have been conducted of the lifetime effects in 403 beagles of the skeletal uptake in seven logarithmically increasing dosage groups of ingested Sr-90. The Sr-90 was fed during skeletal developmental from mid-gestation to adulthood at age 540 days resulting in lifetime protracted beta radiation exposure of the skeleton and some adjacent tissues. Statistical analysis of all types of cancer deaths in the 403 exposed beagles and in 162 unexposed controls indicated that deaths caused by five types of cancer were significantly elevated by high level exposure to Sr-90; these were (1) myeloid leukemia, (2) bone sarcoma, (3) squamous cell carcinoma of periodontal origin, (4) nasal carcinoma, and (5) oral carcinoma. Dose response analysis of these radiation-induced cancer deaths showed non-linear relationships with marked thresholds. A mean lifetime skeletal absorbed dose of 22.5 +/-5.7 Gy SD (22.5 +/-5.7 Sv SD) was associated with the lowest dosage group in which any radiation induced cancer deaths were observed. Three-dimensional models of the observed dose-rate/time/response relationships were fir with maximum likelihood regression methods to describe the risks of death associated with the different types of radiation-induced cancer. The models show that a life-time virtual threshold for cancer risk occurs because the time required to induce cancer is longer at lower radiation dose rates and may exceed the natural life span. Scaling these results to predict human cancer risks from ingestion of Sr-90 shows negligible risks for people whose lifetime cumulative skeletal dose is less than 10 Sv. (Author)

  18. Glucose ingestion during endurance training in men attenuates expression of myokine receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Petersen, Anne Marie Winther

    2009-01-01

    -leg) while ingesting a glucose solution (Glc) and ingested a placebo (Plc) while training the other leg (Plc-leg). Endurance training increased peak power by 14% and reduced the exercise-induced gene expression of IL-6 and IL-6Ralpha in skeletal muscle and IL-6 plasma concentration. The IL-6Ralpha density...

  19. Temperature and light intensity interaction on Cercospora coffeicola sporulation and conidia germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Goulart da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Difficulty in obtaining abundant sporulation in culture of many species of Cercospora may be the limiting factor for studies of biology, systematics, and inoculation of the genus. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the nutritional and environmental requirements that influence mycelial growth, sporulation and germination. As it is difficult to obtain conidia of Cercospora coffeicola in vitro, different temperatures (17, 22, 27, and 32 °C and light intensities (80, 160, 240, and 320 μmol m-2 s-1 were evaluated to optimize pathogen sporulation and assess favorable conditions for spore germination, aiming for a strategy of disease control. The dark treatment (0 μmol m-2 s-1 was added for sporulation. A significant interaction was found between temperature and light intensity for both variables. The highest sporulation rate of C. coffeicola occurred at a light intensity of 240 μmol m-2 s-1 and air temperature of 22 °C, reaching 5.9x106 con mL-1. Germination was higher at temperature 17 °C and light intensity of 320 μmol m-2 s-1, reaching 52%. Interaction between light intensity and temperature proved to influence the processes of sporulation and germination of C. coffeicola.

  20. Distinct innate immune phagocyte responses to Aspergillus fumigatus conidia and hyphae in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Benjamin P; Deng, Qing; Rood, Mary; Eickhoff, Jens C; Keller, Nancy P; Huttenlocher, Anna

    2014-10-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common filamentous fungal pathogen of immunocompromised hosts, resulting in invasive aspergillosis (IA) and high mortality rates. Innate immunity is known to be the predominant host defense against A. fumigatus; however, innate phagocyte responses to A. fumigatus in an intact host and their contributions to host survival remain unclear. Here, we describe a larval zebrafish A. fumigatus infection model amenable to real-time imaging of host-fungal interactions in live animals. Following infection with A. fumigatus, innate phagocyte populations exhibit clear preferences for different fungal morphologies: macrophages rapidly phagocytose conidia and form aggregates around hyphae, while the neutrophil response is dependent upon the presence of hyphae. Depletion of macrophages rendered host larvae susceptible to invasive disease. Moreover, a zebrafish model of human leukocyte adhesion deficiency with impaired neutrophil function also resulted in invasive disease and impaired host survival. In contrast, macrophage-deficient but not neutrophil-deficient larvae exhibited attenuated disease following challenge with a less virulent (ΔlaeA) strain of A. fumigatus, which has defects in secondary metabolite production. Taking these results together, we have established a new vertebrate model for studying innate immune responses to A. fumigatus that reveals distinct roles for neutrophils and macrophages in mediating host defense against IA. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. A novel approach of utilization of the fungal conidia biomass to remove heavy metals from the aqueous solution through immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chun-Xiang; Xu, Jian; Deng, Nian-Fang; Dong, Xue-Wei; Tang, Hao; Liang, Yu; Fan, Xian-Wei; Li, You-Zhi

    2016-11-01

    The biomass of filamentous fungi is an important cost-effective biomass for heavy metal biosorption. However, use of free fungal cells can cause difficulties in the separation of biomass from the effluent. In this study, we immobilized the living conidia of the heavy metal-resistant Penicillium janthinillum strain GXCR by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-sodium alginate (SA) beads to remove heavy metals from an aqueous solution containing a low concentration (70 mg/L) of Cu, Pb, and Cd. The PVA-SA-conidia beads showed perfect characters of appropriate mechanical strength suitable for metal removal from the dynamic wastewater environment, an ideal settleability, easy separation from the solution, and a high metal biosorption and removal rate even after four cycles of successive sorption-desorption of the beads, overcoming disadvantages when fungal biomasses alone are used for heavy metal removal from wastewater. We also discuss the major biosorption-affecting factors, biosorption models, and biosorption mechanisms.

  2. Ingestion of swimming pool water by recreational

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Swimming pool water ingestion data. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Dufour, A., L. Wymer, M. Magnuson, T. Behymer, and R. Cantu. Ingestion...

  3. Phytopharmacological studies on the rice diseases. IV. Protoplasmic alteration of conidia of Cochliobolus miyabeanus in the organomercurial solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashioka, Y; Takamura, Y

    1956-01-01

    Conidia germinated readily in solutions lower than 5 x 10/sup -7/ Hg(Cu) g/litre, while coagulation of protoplasm occurred at higher concentrations irrespective of the kinds of fungicides employed. There were considerable differences in the percentage of protoplasm coagulation between the various types and concentrations of fungicides. This suggests that fungicidal action on spore germination maybe due to a rather simple and unusual process such as inactivation of the SH system.

  4. The pbrB gene encodes a laccase required for DHN-melanin synthesis in conidia of Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapmak, Ariya; Boyce, Kylie J; Andrianopoulos, Alex; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch

    2015-01-01

    Talaromyces marneffei (Basionym: Penicillium marneffei) is a significant opportunistic fungal pathogen in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Southeast Asia. T. marneffei cells have been shown to become melanized in vivo. Melanins are pigment biopolymers which act as a non-specific protectant against various stressors and which play an important role during virulence in fungi. The synthesis of the two most commonly found melanins in fungi, the eumelanin DOPA-melanin and the allomelanin DHN-melanin, requires the action of laccase enzymes. The T. marneffei genome encodes a number of laccases and this study describes the characterization of one of these, pbrB, during growth and development. A strain carrying a PbrB-GFP fusion shows that pbrB is expressed at high levels during asexual development (conidiation) but not in cells growing vegetatively. The pbrB gene is required for the synthesis of DHN-melanin in conidia and when deleted results in brown pigmented conidia, in contrast to the green conidia of the wild type.

  5. Surface structure characterization of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia mutated in the melanin synthesis pathway and their human cellular immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayry, Jagadeesh; Beaussart, Audrey; Dufrêne, Yves F; Sharma, Meenu; Bansal, Kushagra; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Aimanianda, Vishukumar; Brakhage, Axel A; Kaveri, Srini V; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Beauvais, Anne

    2014-08-01

    In Aspergillus fumigatus, the conidial surface contains dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanin. Six-clustered gene products have been identified that mediate sequential catalysis of DHN-melanin biosynthesis. Melanin thus produced is known to be a virulence factor, protecting the fungus from the host defense mechanisms. In the present study, individual deletion of the genes involved in the initial three steps of melanin biosynthesis resulted in an altered conidial surface with masked surface rodlet layer, leaky cell wall allowing the deposition of proteins on the cell surface and exposing the otherwise-masked cell wall polysaccharides at the surface. Melanin as such was immunologically inert; however, deletion mutant conidia with modified surfaces could activate human dendritic cells and the subsequent cytokine production in contrast to the wild-type conidia. Cell surface defects were rectified in the conidia mutated in downstream melanin biosynthetic pathway, and maximum immune inertness was observed upon synthesis of vermelone onward. These observations suggest that although melanin as such is an immunologically inert material, it confers virulence by facilitating proper formation of the A. fumigatus conidial surface. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Intestinal perforation caused by multiple magnet ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergul Corduk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple magnet ingestion is rare, but can cause serious gastrointestinal complications. We report a case of 7-year-old girl with multiple intestinal perforations caused by multiple magnet ingestion. The aim of this report is to draw attention to magnetic toys, results of magnet ingestion and the importance of timing of operation.

  7. Acute Intoxication following Dimethyltryptamine Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Kristan V.; Wiegand, Timothy J.; Gorodetsky, Rachel M.

    2018-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic tea that is most commonly comprised of the vine Banisteriopsis caapi alone or in combination with other plants such as Psychotria viridis. This concoction results in an orally active form of dimethyltryptamine (DMT), a hallucinogenic amine. Despite use in South America as a medicinal agent and component in religious ceremonies, interest in its recreational use and spiritual effects has led to increased use in the United States. We describe a unique case following ingestion of ayahuasca tea in a patient with history of schizophrenia resulting in personal injury and property damage. A review of ayahuasca toxicity and evaluation of serious adverse effects is also presented. PMID:29682363

  8. Acute Intoxication following Dimethyltryptamine Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H. Bilhimer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic tea that is most commonly comprised of the vine Banisteriopsis caapi alone or in combination with other plants such as Psychotria viridis. This concoction results in an orally active form of dimethyltryptamine (DMT, a hallucinogenic amine. Despite use in South America as a medicinal agent and component in religious ceremonies, interest in its recreational use and spiritual effects has led to increased use in the United States. We describe a unique case following ingestion of ayahuasca tea in a patient with history of schizophrenia resulting in personal injury and property damage. A review of ayahuasca toxicity and evaluation of serious adverse effects is also presented.

  9. Photodynamic inactivation of conidia of the fungus Colletotrichum abscissum on Citrus sinensis plants with methylene blue under solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Júlia C; Brancini, Guilherme T P; Rodrigues, Gabriela B; Silva-Junior, Geraldo José; Bachmann, Luciano; Wainwright, Mark; Braga, Gilberto Ú L

    2017-11-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic treatment (APDT) is a promising light based approach to control diseases caused by plant-pathogenic fungi. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of APDT with the phenothiazinium photosensitizer methylene blue (MB) under solar radiation on the germination and viability of conidia of the pathogenic fungus Colletotricum abscissum (former Colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato). Experiments were performed both on petals and leaves of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) in different seasons and weather conditions. Conidial suspensions were deposited on the leaves and petals surface, treated with the PS (25 or 50μM) and exposed to solar radiation for only 30min. The effects of APDT on conidia were evaluated by counting the colony forming units recovered from leaves and petals and by direct evaluating conidial germination on the surface of these plant organs after the treatment. To better understand the mechanistic of conidial photodynamic inactivation, the effect of APDT on the permeability of the conidial plasma membrane was assessed using the fluorescent probe propidium iodide (PI) together with flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. APDT with MB and solar exposure killed C. abscissum conidia and prevented their germination on both leaves and petals of citrus. Reduction of conidial viability was up to three orders of magnitude and a complete photodynamic inactivation was achieved in some of the treatments. APDT damaged the conidial plasma membrane and increased its permeability to PI. No damage to sweet orange flowers or leaves was observed after APDT. The demonstration of the efficacy of APDT on the plant host represents a further step towards the use of the method for control phytopathogens in the field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hypocrea rufa/Trichoderma viride: a reassessment, and description of five closely related species with and without warted conidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaklitsch, Walter M; Samuels, Gary J; Dodd, Sarah L; Lu, Bing-Sheng; Druzhinina, Irina S

    2006-01-01

    The type species of the genus Hypocrea (Hypocreaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota, Fungi), H. rufa, is re-defined and epitypified using a combination of phenotype (morphology of teleomorphs and anamorphs, and characteristics in culture) and phylogenetic analyses of the translation-elongation factor 1alpha gene. Its anamorph, T. viride, the type species of Trichoderma, is re-described and epitypified. Eidamia viridescens is combined as Trichoderma viridescens and is recognised as one of the most morphologically and phylogenetically similar relatives of T. viride. Its teleomorph is newly described as Hypocrea viridescens. Contrary to frequent citations of H. rufa and T. viride in the literature, this species is relatively rare. Although both T. viride and T. viridescens have a wide geographic distribution, their greatest genetic diversity appears to be in Europe and North America. Hypocrea vinosa is characterised and its anamorph, T. vinosum sp. nov., is described. Conidia of T. vinosum are subglobose and warted. The new species T. gamsii is proposed. It shares eidamia-like morphology of conidiophores with T. viridescens, but it has smooth, ellipsoidal conidia that have the longest L/W ratio that we have seen in Trichoderma. Trichoderma scalesiae, an endophyte of trunks of Scalesia pedunculata in the Galapagos Islands, is described as new. It only produces conidia on a low-nutrient agar to which filter paper has been added. Additional phylogenetically distinct clades are recognised and provisionally delimited from the species here described. Trichoderma neokoningii, a T. koningii-like species, is described from a collection made in Peru on a fruit of Theobroma cacao infected with Moniliophthora roreri.

  11. Screening of Metarhizium and Beauveria spp. conidia with exposure to simulated sunlight and a range of temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley-Davies, J.; Moore, D.; Prior, C.

    1996-01-01

    Conidia of 14 isolates of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium flavoviride and M. anisopliae were formulated by suspending in paraffinic oil or as dry powder. Non-indicating silica gel was added to both formulations which were stored at 13 °C for at least 2 wk before exposure to a range of temperatures: −10°, 10°, 20°, 30°, 40° and 50° to determine the effects of temperature of storage on viability. At 50° the isolate studied in most detail (M. flavoviride, IMI 330189) initially showed a gradual decline in viability with 73% germination for oil samples after 60 d from an initial level of 93%, whereas the dry samples typically showed higher germination rates (initially 96% germination, dropping to 80% after 60 d). Subsequently there was a rapid decline and both oil formulated and dry conidia had lost almost all viability by 90 d. Samples of IMI 330189 stored dry or in oil, at 40° and below showed > 79% germination after 90 d. M. flavoviride 191–660 exhibited the highest temperature tolerance with >40% germination of the dry stored conidia after 90 d at 50°. Some isolates of both B. bassiana and Metarhizium spp. showed markedly lower tolerance of high temperatures. Samples stored dry usually showed greater percentage germination than samples in oil for all isolates, at all temperatures. The isolates were also exposed to 4, 8, 16 and 24 h uv light from a sunlight simulator at 40°. Conidial viability decreased markedly in all isolates with increasing uv exposure. Germination ranged between 10 and 50% after 24 h exposure to uv, 191–660 retaining highest viability. (author)

  12. Liquid nitrogen ingestion followed by gastric perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrizbeitia, Luis D; Calello, Diane P; Dhir, Nisha; O'Reilly, Colin; Marcus, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Ingestion of liquid nitrogen is rare but carries catastrophic complications related to barotrauma to the gastrointestinal tract. We describe a case of ingestion of liquid nitrogen followed by gastric perforation and respiratory insufficiency and discuss the mechanism of injury and management of this condition. Liquid nitrogen is widely available and is frequently used in classroom settings, in gastronomy, and for recreational purposes. Given the potentially lethal complications of ingestion, regulation of its use, acquisition, and storage may be appropriate.

  13. Neuroendocrine regulation of appetitive ingestive behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Keen-Rhinehart, Erin; Ondek, Katelynn; Schneider, Jill E.

    2013-01-01

    Food availability in nature is often irregular, and famine is commonplace. Increased motivation to engage in ingestive behaviors increases the chance of survival, providing additional potential opportunities for reproduction. Because of the advantages conferred by entraining ingestive behavior to environmental conditions, neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating the motivation to acquire and ingest food have evolved to be responsive to exogenous (i.e., food stored for future consumption) and endo...

  14. Foreign-body ingestion: characteristics and outcomes in a lower socioeconomic population with predominantly intentional ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Renee; Sahota, Amandeep; Bemarki, Ali; Salama, Paul; Simpson, Nicole; Laine, Loren

    2009-03-01

    Previous reports of foreign-body ingestions focused primarily on accidental ingestions. To describe the characteristics and management of foreign-body ingestions, with predominantly intentional ingestion, in a lower socioeconomic status population. A retrospective case series. An urban county hospital. Patients >/=17 years old, with foreign-body ingestions between 2000 and 2006. Characteristics of ingestion cases, endoscopic extraction, need for surgery, and complications. Among 262 cases, 92% were intentional, 85% involved psychiatric patients, and 84% occurred in patients with prior ingestions. The time from ingestion to presentation was >48 hours in 168 cases (64%). The overall success rate for endoscopic extraction was 90% (165/183 cases). Surgery was performed in 30 cases (11%) and was more common for objects beyond the pylorus versus objects above the pylorus (16/43 [37%] vs 10/151 [7%], respectively) and in cases with a greater delay from ingestion to presentation (25/168 [15%] if >48 hours vs 4/77 [5%] if 48 hours vs 14/165 [8%] if ingestions in an urban county hospital occurred primarily in psychiatric patients who had repeated episodes of intentional ingestions. Endoscopic extraction was unsuccessful in 10% of cases. Long delays from ingestion to presentation and intervention may account for relatively high rates of surgery and perforation. Strategies to prevent ingestions and delays in endoscopic management are needed in this population.

  15. Esophageal button battery ingestion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şencan, Arzu; Genişol, İncinur; Hoşgör, Münevver

    2017-07-01

    Button battery lodged in the esophagus carries a high risk of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to present cases of patients with esophageal button battery ingestion treated at our clinic and to emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and treatment. Records of patients admitted to our hospital for foreign body ingestion between January 2010 and May 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Cases with button battery lodged in the esophagus were included in the study. Patient data regarding age, sex, length of time after ingestion until admission, presenting clinical symptoms, type and localization of the battery, management, and prognosis were analyzed. Among 1891 foreign body ingestions, 71 were localized in the esophagus, and 8 of those (11.2%) were cases of button battery ingestion. Mean age was 1.7 years. Admission was within 6 hours of ingestion in 5 cases, after 24 hours had elapsed in 2, and 1 month after ingestion in 1 case. All patients but 1 knew the history of ingestion. Prompt endoscopic removal was performed for all patients. Three patients developed esophageal stricture, which responded to dilatation. Early recognition and timely endoscopic removal is mandatory in esophageal button battery ingestion. It should be suspected in the differential diagnosis of patients with persistent respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms.

  16. 210Pb ingestion in Akita City, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisamatsu, Shunichi; Takizawa, Yukio; Komura, Kazuhisa; Tada, Tetsuo.

    1992-01-01

    Ingestion of 210 Pb in Akita City, northern Japan was studied with food category samples and total diet samples by means of a low energy photon spectrometry. Results for food category samples revealed that the contribution of marine products to total 210 Pb ingestion was the largest. Mean 210 Pb ingestion of the two total diet samples was found to be 0.19 Bq d -1 , and approximately 1/3 of a previous reported value which was cited in an UNSCEAR report as an example of high 210 Pb ingestion by marine foods consumption. (author)

  17. Effects of kale ingestion on pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Izumi; Uotsu, Nobuo; Yamaguchi, Kohji; Takayanagi, Risa; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2011-12-01

    Kale is a cruciferous vegetable (Brassicaceae) that contains a large amount of health-promoting phytochemicals. The chronic ingestion of cabbage of the same family is known to accelerate conjugating acetaminophen (AA) and decrease the plasma AA level. Therefore, we examined to clarify the effects of kale on the pharmacokinetics of AA, its glucuronide (AA-G) and sulfate (AA-S). AA was orally administered to rats pre-treated with kale or cabbage (2000 mg/kg/day) for one week. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein, and the concentrations of AA, AA-G and AA-S were determined. In results, kale ingestion induced an increase in the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and a decrease in the clearance of AA, whereas cabbage had almost no influence. In addition, there were significant differences in the AUC of AA-G between the control and kale groups. mRNA expression levels of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, the enzymes involved in glucuronidation, in the kale group were significantly higher than those in the control group. In conclusion, kale ingestion increased the plasma concentrations of both AA and AA-G. The results suggest that kale ingestion accelerates the glucuronidation of AA, but an increase of plasma AA levels has a different cause than the cause of glucuronidation.

  18. Acute toxicity of ingested fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Gary Milton

    2011-01-01

    This chapter discusses the characteristics and treatment of acute fluoride toxicity as well as the most common sources of overexposure, the doses that cause acute toxicity, and factors that can influence the clinical outcome. Cases of serious systemic toxicity and fatalities due to acute exposures are now rare, but overexposures causing toxic signs and symptoms are not. The clinical course of systemic toxicity from ingested fluoride begins with gastric signs and symptoms, and can develop with alarming rapidity. Treatment involves minimizing absorption by administering a solution containing calcium, monitoring and managing plasma calcium and potassium concentrations, acid-base status, and supporting vital functions. Approximately 30,000 calls to US poison control centers concerning acute exposures in children are made each year, most of which involve temporary gastrointestinal effects, but others require medical treatment. The most common sources of acute overexposures today are dental products - particularly dentifrices because of their relatively high fluoride concentrations, pleasant flavors, and their presence in non-secure locations in most homes. For example, ingestion of only 1.8 ounces of a standard fluoridated dentifrice (900-1,100 mg/kg) by a 10-kg child delivers enough fluoride to reach the 'probably toxic dose' (5 mg/kg body weight). Factors that may influence the clinical course of an overexposure include the chemical compound (e.g. NaF, MFP, etc.), the age and acid-base status of the individual, and the elapsed time between exposure and the initiation of treatment. While fluoride has well-established beneficial dental effects and cases of serious toxicity are now rare, the potential for toxicity requires that fluoride-containing materials be handled and stored with the respect they deserve. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Gastrointestinal bleeding following NSAID ingestion in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both presented with a history of fever and passage of bloody stools. There was a positive history of NSAID ingestion in both patients that was prescribed in the referring hospitals. ..... Bostwick HE, Halata MS, Feerick J, Newman LJ, Medow MS. Gastrointestinal bleeding in children following ingestion of low-dose. Ibuprofen.

  20. Susceptibility testing of terbinafine alone and in combination with amphotericin B, itraconazole, or voriconazole against conidia and hyphae of dematiaceous molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancalana, Fernanda Simas Corrêa; Lyra, Luzia; Moretti, Maria Luiza; Schreiber, Angélica Zaninelli

    2011-12-01

    Studies have demonstrated excellent in vivo efficacy of terbinafine combined with other antifungal agents against dematiaceous molds; however, there is a lack of in vitro studies. Most studies evaluated conidia inocula, but susceptibility testing of hyphae could mimic the fungal status in infected tissues and might reflect the therapeutic potential of the agent. We investigated the in vitro susceptibility of terbinafine alone and in combination with amphotericin B, itraconazole, or voriconazole against conidia by microdilution and dynamic measurement of hyphae growth of dematiaceous molds. The MIC values for hyphae were, until 3 dilutions, below the MIC obtained for conidia. The results indicated 100% synergistic interactions between terbinafine and azoles or amphotericin B in all tests, but lower MICs for hyphae. In conclusion, our findings allow us to say that the hyphal form of tested dematiaceous molds showed high susceptibility to all antifungal agents evaluated, alone and in combination with terbinafine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Gasoline ingestion: a rare cause of pancytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ifad; Narasimhan, Kanakasabai; Aziz, Shahid; Owens, William

    2009-11-01

    The majority of reported cases of gasoline intoxication involves inhalation or percutaneous absorption. Data are scarce on complications and outcomes after gasoline poisoning by oral ingestion. The major cause of mortality and morbidity associated with the ingestion of gasoline is related to pulmonary aspiration. Despite the high frequency of the ingestions, there is little documentation of nonpulmonary toxic effects of gasoline. After ingestion, the principal toxicity is aspiration pneumonia, but any documented extra pulmonary manifestations of this condition may be important in the overall management of these patients. We are reporting a rare case of pancytopenia along with aspiration pneumonia and multisystem organ failure in a 58-year-old male after prolonged intentional ingestion of gasoline. To our knowledge, this is the only reported case of gasoline toxicity causing pancytopenia.

  2. Effects of Whey Protein Hydrolysate Ingestion on Postprandial Aminoacidemia Compared with a Free Amino Acid Mixture in Young Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyosuke Nakayama

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To stimulate muscle protein synthesis, it is important to increase the plasma levels of essential amino acids (EAA, especially leucine, by ingesting proteins. Protein hydrolysate ingestion can induce postprandial hyperaminoacidemia; however, it is unclear whether protein hydrolysate is associated with higher levels of aminoacidemia compared with a free amino acid mixture when both are ingested orally. We assessed the effects of whey protein hydrolysate (WPH ingestion on postprandial aminoacidemia, especially plasma leucine levels, compared to ingestion of a free amino acid mixture. This study was an open-label, randomized, 4 × 4 Latin square design. After 12–15 h of fasting, 11 healthy young men ingested the WPH (3.3, 5.0, or 7.5 g of protein or the EAA mixture (2.5 g. Blood samples were collected before ingestion and at time points from 10 to 120 min after ingestion, and amino acids, insulin, glucose and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 concentrations in plasma were measured. Even though the EAA mixture and 5.0 g of the WPH contained similar amounts of EAA and leucine, the WPH was associated with significantly higher plasma EAA and leucine levels. These results suggest that the WPH can induce a higher level of aminoacidemia compared with a free amino acid mixture when both are ingested orally.

  3. Acute renal failure after ingestion of guaifenesin and dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Evan; Sandefur, Benjamin J

    2014-07-01

    Guaifenesin is a common nonprescription medication that has been implicated in drug-induced nephrolithiasis. Dextromethorphan, a nonprescription antitussive found in some guaifenesin-containing preparations, is increasingly recognized as a substance of abuse by many youth and young adults. Renally excreted medications known to have poor solubility in urine have the potential to precipitate when ingested in large quantity, leading to acute obstruction of the ureters and renal failure. We describe the case of a 22-year-old male who developed severe bilateral flank pain, hematuria, and oliguria after an isolated recreational ingestion of guaifenesin and dextromethorphan. The patient was found to have bilateral ureteral obstruction and acute renal failure, suspected to be secondary to precipitation of medication metabolites in the urine. This case highlights the potential for acute renal failure secondary to guaifenesin and dextromethorphan abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Ingest Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koontz, A. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Sivaraman, C. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for ingests maintained by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new ingests for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing ingests, (3) future ingests that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to an ingest, and (5) top requested ingests from the ARM Data Archive. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  5. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Ingest Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koontz, A. [ARM Climate Reesearch Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Sivaraman, C. [ARM Climate Reesearch Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for ingests maintained by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new ingests for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing ingests, (3) future ingests that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to an ingest, and (5) top requested ingests from the ARM Data Archive. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  6. Vascular ring complicates accidental button battery ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Ronald W; Schwartz, Matthew C; Stephany, Joshua; Donnelly, Lane F; Franciosi, James P; Epelman, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Button battery ingestion can lead to dangerous complications, including vasculoesophageal fistula formation. The presence of a vascular ring may complicate battery ingestion if the battery lodges at the level of the ring and its important vascular structures. We report a 4-year-old boy with trisomy 21 who was diagnosed with a vascular ring at the time of button battery ingestion and died 9 days after presentation due to massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding from esophageal erosion and vasculoesophageal fistula formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Yield and cold storage of Trichoderma conidia is influenced by substrate pH and storage temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyaert, Johanna M; Chomic, Anastasia; Nieto-Jacobo, Maria; Mendoza-Mendoza, Artemio; Hay, Amanda J; Braithwaite, Mark; Stewart, Alison

    2017-05-01

    In this study we examined the influence of the ambient pH during morphogenesis on conidial yield of Trichoderma sp. "atroviride B" LU132 and T. hamatum LU593 and storage at low temperatures. The ambient pH of the growth media had a dramatic influence on the level of Trichoderma conidiation and this was dependent on the strain and growth media. On malt-extract agar, LU593 yield decreased with increasing pH (3-6), whereas yield increased with increasing pH for LU132. During solid substrate production the reverse was true for LU132 whereby yield decreased with increasing pH. The germination potential of the conidia decreased significantly over time in cold storage and the rate of decline was a factor of the strain, pH during morphogenesis, growth media, and storage temperature. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Compared with Raw Bovine Meat, Boiling but Not Grilling, Barbecuing, or Roasting Decreases Protein Digestibility without Any Major Consequences for Intestinal Mucosa in Rats, although the Daily Ingestion of Bovine Meat Induces Histologic Modifications in the Colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberli, Marion; Lan, Annaïg; Khodorova, Nadezda; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Walker, Francine; Piedcoq, Julien; Davila, Anne-Marie; Blachier, François; Tomé, Daniel; Fromentin, Gilles; Gaudichon, Claire

    2016-08-01

    Cooking may impair meat protein digestibility. When undigested proteins are fermented by the colon microbiota, they can generate compounds that potentially are harmful to the mucosa. This study addressed the effects of typical cooking processes and the amount of bovine meat intake on the quantity of undigested proteins entering the colon, as well as their effects on the intestinal mucosa. Male Wistar rats (n = 88) aged 8 wk were fed 11 different diets containing protein as 20% of energy. In 10 diets, bovine meat proteins represented 5% [low-meat diet (LMD)] or 15% [high-meat diet (HMD)] of energy, with the rest as total milk proteins. Meat was raw or cooked according to 4 processes (boiled, barbecued, grilled, or roasted). A meat-free diet contained only milk proteins. After 3 wk, rats ingested a (15)N-labeled meat meal and were killed 6 h later after receiving a (13)C-valine injection. Meat protein digestibility was determined from (15)N enrichments in intestinal contents. Cecal short- and branched-chain fatty acids and hydrogen sulfide were measured. Intestinal tissues were used for the assessment of protein synthesis rates, inflammation, and histopathology. Meat protein digestibility was lower in rats fed boiled meat (94.5% ± 0.281%) than in the other 4 groups (97.5% ± 0.0581%, P HMD) and on myeloperoxidase activity in the proximal colon (HMD > LMD), but not on other outcomes. The ingestion of bovine meat, whatever the cooking process and the intake amount, resulted in discrete histologic modifications of the colon (epithelium abrasion, excessive mucus secretion, and inflammation). Boiling bovine meat at a high temperature (100°C) for a long time (3 h) moderately lowered protein digestibility compared with raw meat and other cooking processes, but did not affect cecal bacterial metabolites related to protein fermentation. The daily ingestion of raw or cooked bovine meat had no marked effect on intestinal tissues, despite some slight histologic modifications

  9. Evaluation of Strains of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana against Spodoptera litura on the Basis of Their Virulence, Germination Rate, Conidia Production, Radial Growth and Enzyme Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petlamul, Wanida; Prasertsan, Poonsuk

    2012-06-01

    Ten strains of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were evaluated to find the most effective strain for optimization studies. The first criterion tested for strain selection was the mortality (> 50%) of Spodoptera litura larvae after inoculation of the fungus for 4 days. Results on several bioassays revealed that B. bassiana BNBCRC showed the most virulence on mortality S. litura larvae (80% mortality). B. bassiana BNBCRC also showed the highest germination rate (72.22%). However, its conidia yield (7.2 × 10(8) conidia/mL) was lower than those of B. bassiana B 14841 (8.3 × 10(8) conidia/mL) and M. anisopliae M6 (8.2 × 10(8) conidia/mL). The highest accumulative radial growth was obtained from the strain B14841 (37.10 mm/day) while the strain BNBCRC showed moderate radial growth (24.40 mm/day). M. anisopliae M6 possessed the highest protease activity (145.00 mU/mL) while M. anisopliae M8 possessed the highest chitinase activity (20.00 mU/mL) during 96~144 hr cultivation. Amongst these criteria, selection based on virulence and germination rate lead to the selection of B. bassiana BNBCRC. B. bassiana B14841 would be selected if based on growth rate while M. anisopliae M6 and M8 possessed the highest enzyme activities.

  10. Repellent activity of desiccant dusts and conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana when tested against poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) in laboratory experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2016-01-01

    on both dose and relative humidity (RH). However, one desiccant dust was significantly less repellent compared to other dusts with similar levels of efficacy. Further, dry conidia of the fungus Beauveria bassiana were also shown to be repellent to poultry red mites, both when applied on its own and when...

  11. Impact of two treatments of a formulation of Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) conidia on Varroa mites (Acari: Varroidae) and on honeybee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colony health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikle, William G; Mercadier, Guy; Holst, Niels; Girod, Vincent

    2008-12-01

    Bee colonies in southern France were treated with conidia (asexual spores) from two strains of Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic fungus. One strain was commercial (GHA) and the other had been isolated from Varroa mites in the region (Bb05002). Objectives were to evaluate treatment effect on colony weight, adult bee mass, capped brood, and on Varroa fall onto sticky boards. Treatments included conidia formulated with either carnauba or candelilla wax powder, candelilla wax powder alone, or control; in two treatment groups formulation was applied a second time after one week. Treatment did not affect colony health. Colonies treated twice with Bb05002 conidia and carnauba wax powder had significantly higher mite fall compared to colonies treated with blank candelilla wax powder. The proportion of fallen mites that were infected in both conidia treatments was higher than controls for 18 days after the second treatment. The number of fungal propagules on the bees themselves remained elevated for about 14 days after the second treatment. These results were compared to published results from previous experiments with regard to infection duration.

  12. Acute toxicity from baking soda ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S H; Stone, C K

    1994-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is an extremely well-known agent that historically has been used for a variety of medical conditions. Despite the widespread use of oral bicarbonate, little documented toxicity has occurred, and the emergency medicine literature contains no reports of toxicity caused by the ingestion of baking soda. Risks of acute and chronic oral bicarbonate ingestion include metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypertension, gastric rupture, hyporeninemia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, intravascular volume depletion, and urinary alkalinization. Abrupt cessation of chronic excessive bicarbonate ingestion may result in hyperkalemia, hypoaldosteronism, volume contraction, and disruption of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. The case of a patient with three hospital admissions in 4 months, all the result of excessive oral intake of bicarbonate for symptomatic relief of dyspepsia is reported. Evaluation and treatment of patients with acute bicarbonate ingestion is discussed.

  13. Prevention of ingestion injuries in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aspiration include attention-deficit hyperactivity syndrome,[9] low levels of parental ... the environment combined with inadequate caregiver supervision put children ... Increased primary prevention of ingestion through community awareness ...

  14. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebnem Eren Cevik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II lesions on the esophagus and cardia, which were considered secondary to the caustic substance. The mainstay in the treatment of potassium permanganate is supportive and the immediate priority is to secure the airway. Emergency endoscopy is an important tool used to evaluate the location and severity of injury to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after caustic ingestion. Patients with signs and symptoms of intentional ingestion should undergo endoscopy within 12 to 24 h to define the extent of the disease.

  15. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II lesions on the esophagus and cardia, which were considered secondary to the caustic substance. The mainstay in the treatment of potassium permanganate is supportive and the immediate priority is to secure the airway. Emergency endoscopy is an important tool used to evaluate the location and severity of injury to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after caustic ingestion. Patients with signs and symptoms of intentional ingestion should undergo endoscopy within 12 to 24 h to define the extent of the disease.

  16. A ingestão de prébioticos previne a malabsorção de ferro e anemia induzidas pela gastrectomia?: Estudo experimental em ratos Ingestion of prebiotics prevents gastrectomy-induced iron malabsorption and anemia ?: Experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisvânia Freitas dos Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Ratos gastrectomizados desenvolvem anemia, e a ingestão de galactooligossacarídeo (GOS e a polidextrose (PDX aumenta a absorção de ferro e promove a recuperação da anemia em ratos com deficiência de ferro. OBJETIVO: Avaliar se GOS e PDX estimulam a absorção de ferro em ratos gastrectomizados e normais. MÉTODOS: Os ratos foram laparotomizadas (controle falso-operado e parcialmente gastrectomizados (Billroth II em grupos de 20 animais. Os animais de ambos os tratamentos foram posteriormente submetidos à dieta controle (AIN-93M ou a mesma dieta suplementada com GOS e PDX (25 g/kg de dieta cada durante oito semanas e divididos em quatro subgrupos: sham-operados e gastrectomizados sem GOS e PDX, sham-operados e gastrectomizados com GOS e PDX. Dois animais morreram durante o experimento. Todos os ratos gastrectomizados receberam uma injeção intramuscular de vitamina B-12 a cada duas semanas. Hematócrito (HCT e concentração de hemoglobina (HGB foram dosados no início e nos dias 30 e 56 dias após o início da alimentação. No último dia do estudo, o sangue total foi coletado para determinação da concentração de ferro sérico. RESULTADOS: Na dieta com GOS e PDX a excreção de ferro nas fezes foi significativamente menor do que no grupo sem prebióticos. Absorção aparente de ferro e ferro sérico foram maiores nos grupos alimentados com GOS e PDX (ambos grupos: sham operados e gastrectomizados do que nos grupos não alimentados com GOS e PDX. O HCT e HGB foram significativamente menores nos ratos gastrectomizados que no grupo controle, entretanto, a suplementação com GOS e PDX melhorou os níveis de HGB neste grupo. CONCLUSÃO: A associação de GOS e PDX aumenta a absorção de ferro em ratos shamoperados e gastrectomizados e ainda previne a anemia pós-gastrectomia.BACKGROUND: The ingestion of two prebiotics, galactooligosaccharide (GOS and polydextrose (PDX, leads to an increase in iron absorption and promotes

  17. Pediatric zolpidem ingestion demonstrating zero-order kinetics treated with flumazenil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Stephen L; Negus, Elezer; Carstairs, Shaun D

    2013-11-01

    Zolpidem is a widely prescribed anti-insomnia agent. Although most pediatric zolpidem ingestions are benign, large ingestions can cause significant central nervous system (CNS) depression. Flumazenil has been reported to reverse the CNS effects of zolpidem. We describe a case of a large pediatric zolpidem ingestion resulting in profound CNS depression that responded to flumazenil administration. Serial zolpidem serum levels confirmed the ingestion. A 10-year-old boy with trisomy 21 presented to the emergency department 1 hour after he was found sedate with several zolpidem 5-mg tablets in his mouth. Seventeen tables (85 mg) were unaccounted for from a prescription bottle. He became unarousable approximately 2 hours after his ingestion. Flumazenil 0.2 mg intravenously was given with rapid return to his baseline mental status. He became resedate 1 hour later but was arousable. Sixteen hours after his presentation, he was asymptomatic. Serial zolpidem serum levels were obtained, showed an initial level of 310 ng/mL, and demonstrated zero-order kinetics. Zolpidem is an imidazopyridine, which binds to the benzodiazepine receptor. It is rapidly absorbed and has a short-half life. Unintentional pediatric ingestions of zolpidem are typically well tolerated. However, this case demonstrates that large ingestions may cause significant and prolonged CNS depression. Flumazenil, a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, has been described to reverse the effects of zolpidem in adult ingestions. There are few published reports describing flumazenil use in pediatric ingestion patients. This case suggests that flumazenil may be an effective treatment for zolpidem-induced CNS depression in the pediatric patient.

  18. Refractory hypotension due to Rogaine® (minoxidil) ingestion managed with midodrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrard, Alexander; Wood, Adam; Sollee, Dawn; Aaronson, Patrick

    2011-12-01

    Minoxidil (Rogaine®) is a direct vasodilator that can cause significant toxicity when ingested. We report a case of ingestion of topical minoxidil [Rogaine® (Johnson & Johnson Healthcare Products, Division of McNeil-PPC, Inc)] resulting in refractory hypotension that was successfully managed with the oral α (1) agonist midodrine. A 48-year-old male who ingested an eight ounce bottle of Rogaine® presented to the emergency department. The patient presented with a blood pressure of 57/45 mmHg and a pulse of 84 beats per minute. The patient received IV fluids and multiple vasopressors to maintain an adequate mean arterial pressure. Midodrine, an oral α (1) vasopressor, was added 10 hours post ingestion and was able to maintain an adequate mean arterial pressure. Over the next two days, midodrine was titrated down as his blood pressure returned to baseline. Midodrine may serve as an additional option to treat toxicant induced hypotension.

  19. Fallout 3H ingestion in Akita, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisamatsu, S.; Takizawa, Y.; Abe, T.; Katsumata, T.

    1987-01-01

    To study fallout 3 H ingestion in Japan, 16 separate food group samples were collected from Akita during 1985. The 3 H concentration in free water and that in a tissue-bound form were determined separately. The average 3 H concentration in the tissue-bound form was 2.2 Bq L-1, 1.7 times higher than in the free water of the food. The ingestions of 3 H in the tissue-bound form and as free water in the diet were 0.60 Bq d-1 and 1.0 Bq d-1, respectively. Cereals represented the food group that contributed the most to the ingestion of tissue-bound 3 H. Total 3 H ingestion was estimated to be 4.1 Bq d-1. The contribution of the tissue-bound form to the total ingestion was 15%, considerably lower than reported for Italian diets. The ratio of 3 H ingestion in the tissue-bound form to the free water form in the diet was similar to the ratio reported for New York City

  20. Ingested foreign bodies in the paediatric patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, G C

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Paediatric foreign body (FB) ingestion is a common problem and while most can be managed conservatively, a sub-population require intervention. AIMS: To establish clear guidelines for management of paediatric FB ingestion. METHODS: A retrospective chart review analysing all paediatric admissions with FB ingestion over a 10-year period from 1990 to 1999. RESULTS: Of 339 patients presenting to the accident and emergency department with FB ingestion, 59 required admission. Ingestion was accidental in 93.0% of patients. The reasons for admission were as follows: large FBs; dangerous FBs; and living far from the hospital. Nineteen patients (32.2%) were discharged without intervention. Thirty-seven (62.7%) required endoscopic retrieval. In two, the FB was not identified at endoscopy. Only three (5%) required surgery. CONCLUSION: Conservative management of FB ingestion in the paediatric population is possible in the majority of cases. However, a minority require intervention. While guidelines for intervention are ill-defined, definitive indications include symptomatic patients, or dangerous objects.

  1. Acute Caffeine Ingestion on Performance in Young Judo Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astley, Camilla; Souza, Diego; Polito, Marcos

    2017-08-01

    To compare the acute effect of caffeine ingestion on performance in young judo athletes. In a randomized double-blind design, eighteen judo athletes (16.1 ± 1.4 yrs.) were evaluated on three nonconsecutive days. On the first day, the special judo fitness test (SJFT) was used as a control session. On the second day, the sample was randomly divided into two equal groups. One group received 4 mg.kg -1 of caffeine (capsule) and the other group received a placebo. After resting for 60 min, the sample performed the SJFT. On the final day of testing, the same procedure was performed but the substance ingested was exchanged between the groups. Heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded throughout the applications of the SJFTs. Caffeine ingestion did not induce changes in HR, but reduced the RPE compared with the placebo session (7.0 ± 1.1 vs 8.2 ± 2.0; p performance on SJFT in young judo athletes and reduced the RPE.

  2. Partitioning of ochratoxin A in mycelium and conidia of Aspergillus carbonarius and the impact on toxin contamination of grapes and wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atoui, A.; Mathieu, F.; Lebrihi, A.; Mitchell, D.; Magan, N.

    2007-01-01

    Aspergillus carbonarius is an important ochratoxin A (OTA)-producing fungus which is responsible for toxin contamination of grapes and wine. The objectives of this study were to examine the partitioning of OTA in mycelium and conidia of a range of A. carbonarius strains on artificial grape juice and defined media, to determine the excretion patterns of OTA from these spores, and the effect of organic acids used in wine production on OTA excretion from conidia. The results showed that 60-70% of the OTA was accumulated in the conidia of a number of different isolates of A. carbonarius. Calculations showed that on different defined media, an amount of 0011- to 01-pg OTA was present per conidium. The OTA in spores was found to be rapidly excreted into the medium during the initial few hours after conidial germination leading to an increase of OTA in must during maceration for wine production. The presence of tartaric acid inhibited OTA production, but malic acid enhanced this production during mycelial growth. These acids were also shown to affect the time course of germination and the rate of OTA excretion from conidia during germination. Conclusions: This study is the first to examine and show the partitioning of OTA into spores of strains of A. carbonarius and that rapid excretion of OTA from spores could be a reason for OTA accumulation in musts during wine production.Significance and Impact of the Study: Conidia of A. carbonarius could be a major source of OTA contamination of grapes used in wine production. This information could help in the development of effective prevention strategies to minimize wine contamination with this important mycotoxin. (author)

  3. Estimates of soil ingestion by wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Connor, E.E.; Gerould, S.

    1994-01-01

    Many wildlife species ingest soil while feeding, but ingestion rates are known for only a few species. Knowing ingestion rates may be important for studies of environmental contaminants. Wildlife may ingest soil deliberately, or incidentally, when they ingest soil-laden forage or animals that contain soil. We fed white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) diets containing 0-15% soil to relate the dietary soil content to the acid-insoluble ash content of scat collected from the mice. The relation was described by an equation that required estimates of the percent acid-insoluble ash content of the diet, digestibility of the diet, and mineral content of soil. We collected scat from 28 wildlife species by capturing animals, searching appropriate habitats for scat, or removing material from the intestines of animals collected for other purposes. We measured the acid-insoluble ash content of the scat and estimated the soil content of the diets by using the soil-ingestion equation. Soil ingestion estimates should be considered only approximate because they depend on estimated rather than measured digestibility values and because animals collected from local populations at one time of the year may not represent the species as a whole. Sandpipers (Calidris spp.), which probe or peck for invertebrates in mud or shallow water, consumed sediments at a rate of 7-30% of their diets. Nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, soil = 17% of diet), American woodcock (Scolopax minor, 10%), and raccoon (Procyon lotor, 9%) had high rates of soil ingestion, presumably because they ate soil organisms. Bison (Bison bison, 7%), black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus, 8%), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis, 8%) consumed soil at the highest rates among the herbivores studied, and various browsers studied consumed little soil. Box turtle (Terrapene carolina, 4%), opossum (Didelphis virginiana, 5%), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, 3%), and wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo, 9%) consumed soil

  4. [Adaptation of food ingestion to energy expenditure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis-Sylvestre, J

    1987-01-01

    Body energy balance is regulated in adults. The accuracy of the phenomenon is particularly evident in laboratory animals under steady conditions. Moreover, it has been repeatedly demonstrated that this balance is maintained in spite of fluctuations in food intake or energy expenditure. When animals such as rats, dogs or rabbits are presented with a diluted or concentrated version of familiar food, they compensate rapidly by increasing or decreasing their ponderal intake. This is achieved first by a change in meal frequency, then meal size adapts to the new caloric content and meal frequency returns to the original pattern. This adaptation is based on the learning of post-ingestive cues. Hypo or hyperphagia leads to reduced or increased energy expenditure, as the case may be; the basal metabolic rate is modulated by thyroid hormones and diet-induced thermogenesis by the sympathetic system. These variations are partly regulatory. In a cold environment, the increase in energy expenditure caused by increased thermogenesis is rapidly compensated by increased caloric intake. Physical activity activates the sympathetic system responsible for numerous hormonal changes, the most important of which is insulin hyposecretion. In animals or humans, moderate aerobic exercise induces a small weight loss; afterwards, weight gain is normalized and increased caloric intake compensates for energy expenditures such as exercise, increased basal metabolic rate and diet-induced thermogenesis. Extreme changes in body weight and fat are produced by gestation and lactation; they are satisfactorily explained by concomitant hormonal changes. Especially during lactation, food intake is regulated so that it allows body weight to return to pregestation level. Studies on the mechanisms implicated in the regulation of body energy balance are still in progress. Friedman and Ramirez (1985) suggest that the way fatty acids are utilized is important. Kasser et al. (1985) show a striking difference in

  5. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion and boxing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Jason C; Hirscher, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Boxing is a sport that consists of multiple high-intensity bouts separated by minimal recovery time and may benefit from a pre-exercise alkalotic state. The purpose of this study was to observe the ergogenic potential of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on boxing performance. Ten amateur boxers volunteered to participate in 2 competitive sparring bouts. The boxers were prematched for weight and boxing ability and consumed either 0.3 g.kg(-1) body weight (BW) of NaHCO3 (BICARB) or 0.045 g.kg(-1) BW of NaCl placebo (PLAC) mixed in diluted low calorie-flavored cordial. The sparring bouts consisted of four 3-minute rounds, each separated by 1-minute seated recovery. Blood acid-base (pH, bicarbonate [HCO3(-)], base excess [BE]), and performance (rates of perceived exertion [RPE], heart rate [HR] [HR(ave) and HR(max)], total punches landed successfully) profiles were analyzed before (where applicable) and after sparring. The results indicated a significant interaction effect for HCO3(-) (p < or = 0.001) and BE (p < 0.001), but not for pH (p = 0.48). Post hoc analysis revealed higher presparring HCO3(-) and BE for the BICARB condition, but no differences between the BICARB and PLAC conditions postsparring. There was a significant increase in punches landed during the BICARB condition (p < 0.001); however, no significant interaction effects for HRave (p = 0.15), HRmax (p = 0.32), or RPE (p = 0.38). The metabolic alkalosis induced by the NaHCO3 loading elevated before and after sparring blood buffering capacity. In practical application, the findings suggest that a standard NaHCO3 loading dose (0.3 g.kg(-1)) improves punch efficacy during 4 rounds of sparring performance.

  6. Toxicological significance of soil ingestion by wild and domestic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Fries, George F.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    2003-01-01

    Most wild and domestic animals ingest some soil or sediment, and some species may routinely, or under special circumstances, ingest considerable amounts. Ingested soil supplies nutrients, exposes animals to parasites and pathogens, and may play a role in developing immune systems.1 Soil ingestion is also sometimes the principal route of exposure to various environmental contaminants.2-7 Ingestion of soil and earthy material is defined as geophagy and may be either intentional or unintentional, occurring as an animal eats or grooms.

  7. Disc battery ingestion; a single event with different outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sindi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body (FB ingestion is a common problem especially in children below the age of 5 years. This is fueled by their curiosity to explore their surroundings. The ingested foreign body finds its way out of the gastrointestinal tract without any serious consequences most of the time. On the other hand, disc battery ingestion has been reported to cause serious harm when ingested including death. We report two patients who had ingested disc batteries and their respective outcomes.

  8. Metabolism of ingested uranium and radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, M.D.; Durbin, P.W.; Howard, B.; Lipsztein, J.; Rundo, J.; Still, E.T.; Willis, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Metabolic models for U and Ra are described to estimate the risks to human health from ingesting these elements in drinking water. Chemical toxicity, which is relevant to U in its natural, depleted or slightly enriched state, is addressed, as are the radiotoxicity and the radiobiological effects of the important alpha-emitting isotopes of Ra, including 224 Ra, 226 Ra, and 228 Ra. This paper estimates the kinetics of skeletal U deposition, so that risk coefficients for bone cancer induction can be applied. Skeletal cancer is regarded as the major potential radiobiological effect of ingested alpha-emitting radioisotopes of Ra and the presumed radiobiological effect of U, if any. Best estimates of normal U metabolism are used, because even in extreme cases the amounts of U or Ra ingested in potable water are not great enough to chemically or radiobiologically modify their metabolic behavior

  9. Metabolism of ingested uranium and radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrenn, M.D.; Durbin, P.W.; Howard, B.; Lipsztein, J.; Rundo, J.; Still, E.T.; Willis, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Metabolic models for U and Ra are described to estimate the risks to human health from ingesting these elements in drinking water. Chemical toxicity, which is relevant to U in its natural, depleted or slightly enriched state, is addressed, as are the radiotoxicity and the radiobiological effects of the important alpha-emitting isotopes of Ra, including /sup 224/Ra, /sup 226/Ra, and /sup 228/Ra. This paper estimates the kinetics of skeletal U deposition, so that risk coefficients for bone cancer induction can be applied. Skeletal cancer is regarded as the major potential radiobiological effect of ingested alpha-emitting radioisotopes of Ra and the presumed radiobiological effect of U, if any. Best estimates of normal U metabolism are used, because even in extreme cases the amounts of U or Ra ingested in potable water are not great enough to chemically or radiobiologically modify their metabolic behavior.

  10. Recovery of brodifacoum in vomitus following induction of emesis in dogs that had ingested rodenticide bait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, K H; Willson, E K; Collett, M G; Booth, L H

    2018-01-01

    To assess the benefit of inducing emesis in dogs that have ingested rodenticide bait containing brodifacoum (BDF), by determining the amount of BDF in bait recovered from the vomitus relative to the estimated amount consumed. Between 2014 and 2015 samples of vomitus from seven dogs that ingested rodenticide baits containing BDF were submitted by veterinarians in New Zealand. All seven dogs had been given apomorphine by the veterinarian and vomited within 1 hour of ingesting the bait. Some or all of the bait particles were retrieved from each sample and were analysed for concentrations of BDF using HPLC. Based on estimations of the mass of bait consumed, the concentration of BDF stated on the product label, and the estimated mass of bait in the vomitus of each dog, the amount of BDF in the vomited bait was calculated as a percentage of the amount ingested. For five dogs an estimation of the mass of bait ingested was provided by the submitting veterinarian. For these dogs the estimated percentage of BDF in the bait retrieved from the vomitus was between 10-77%. All dogs were well after discharge but only one dog returned for further testing. This dog had a normal prothrombin time 3 days after ingestion. The induction of emesis within 1 hour of ingestion can be a useful tool in reducing the exposure of dogs to a toxic dose of BDF. The BDF was not fully absorbed within 1 hour of ingestion suggesting that the early induction of emesis can remove bait containing BDF before it can be fully absorbed.

  11. Global analysis of anthropogenic debris ingestion by sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Qamar; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy

    2014-02-01

    Ingestion of marine debris can have lethal and sublethal effects on sea turtles and other wildlife. Although researchers have reported on ingestion of anthropogenic debris by marine turtles and implied incidences of debris ingestion have increased over time, there has not been a global synthesis of the phenomenon since 1985. Thus, we analyzed 37 studies published from 1985 to 2012 that report on data collected from before 1900 through 2011. Specifically, we investigated whether ingestion prevalence has changed over time, what types of debris are most commonly ingested, the geographic distribution of debris ingestion by marine turtles relative to global debris distribution, and which species and life-history stages are most likely to ingest debris. The probability of green (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) ingesting debris increased significantly over time, and plastic was the most commonly ingested debris. Turtles in nearly all regions studied ingest debris, but the probability of ingestion was not related to modeled debris densities. Furthermore, smaller, oceanic-stage turtles were more likely to ingest debris than coastal foragers, whereas carnivorous species were less likely to ingest debris than herbivores or gelatinovores. Our results indicate oceanic leatherback turtles and green turtles are at the greatest risk of both lethal and sublethal effects from ingested marine debris. To reduce this risk, anthropogenic debris must be managed at a global level. © 2013 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Cardiovascular and Metabolic Responses to the Ingestion of Caffeinated Herbal Tea: Drink It Hot or Cold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maufrais, Claire; Sarafian, Delphine; Dulloo, Abdul; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Aim: Tea is usually consumed at two temperatures (as hot tea or as iced tea). However, the importance of drink temperature on the cardiovascular system and on metabolism has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare the cardiovascular, metabolic and cutaneous responses to the ingestion of caffeinated herbal tea (Yerba Mate) at cold or hot temperature in healthy young subjects. We hypothesized that ingestion of cold tea induces a higher increase in energy expenditure than hot tea without eliciting any negative effects on the cardiovascular system. Methods: Cardiovascular, metabolic and cutaneous responses were analyzed in 23 healthy subjects (12 men and 11 women) sitting comfortably during a 30-min baseline and 90 min following the ingestion of 500 mL of an unsweetened Yerba Mate tea ingested over 5 min either at cold (~3°C) or hot (~55°C) temperature, according to a randomized cross-over design. Results: Averaged over the 90 min post-drink ingestion and compared to hot tea, cold tea induced (1) a decrease in heart rate (cold tea: -5 ± 1 beats.min -1 ; hot tea: -1 ± 1 beats.min -1 , p hot tea: +3.7%, p hot tea while decreasing cardiac load as suggested by the decrease in the double product. Further experiments are needed to evaluate the clinical impact of unsweetened caffeinated herbal tea at a cold temperature for weight control.

  13. Differential DNA methylation may contribute to temporal and spatial regulation of gene expression and the development of mycelia and conidia in entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wanzhen; Wang, Yulong; Zhu, Jianyu; Wang, Zhangxun; Tang, Guiliang; Huang, Bo

    2017-03-01

    Conidia and mycelia are two important developmental stages in the asexual life cycle of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium. Despite the crucial role that DNA methylation plays in many biological processes, its role in regulation of gene expression and development in fungi is not yet fully understood. We performed genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation patterns of an M. robertsii strain with single base pair resolution. Specifically, we examined for changes in methylation patterns between the conidia and mycelia stages. The results showed that approximately 0.38 % of cytosines are methylated in conidia, which is lower than the DNA methylation level (0.42 %) in mycelia. We found that DNA methylation undergoes genome-wide reprogramming during fungal development in M. robertsii. 132 differentially methylated regions (DMRs), which were mostly distributed in gene regions, were identified. KEGG analysis revealed that the DMR-associated genes belong to metabolic pathways. Intriguingly, in contrast to most other eukaryotes, promoter activities in M. robertsii seemed differentially modulated by DNA methylation levels. We found that transcription tended to be enhanced in genes with moderate promoter methylation, while gene expression was decreased in genes with high or low promoter methylation. Copyright © 2017 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Repellent activity of desiccant dusts and conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana when tested against poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) in laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2016-11-01

    Desiccant dusts and entomopathogenic fungi have previously been found to hold potential against the poultry red mite, which is an important pest in egg production and notoriously difficult to control. Both control agents may cause repellence in other arthropods and potentially also influence control levels adversely when used against the poultry red mite. Five desiccant dust products with good efficacy against the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae caused avoidance behavior in mites when tested in bioassays. The repellent activity was correlated with efficacy, which was found to depend on both dose and relative humidity (RH). However, one desiccant dust was significantly less repellent compared to other dusts with similar levels of efficacy. Further, dry conidia of the fungus Beauveria bassiana were also shown to be repellent to poultry red mites, both when applied on its own and when admixed with a low dose of the desiccant dust Diamol. The pick-up of desiccant dust particles and fungus conidia from treated surfaces by mites did not differ depending on RH, whereas the overall efficacy of the two control agents were significantly higher at 75 than at 85 % RH. In addition, the combined effect of the two substances was synergistic when tested in a bioassay where mites could choose whether to cross a treated surface. This is the first time a member of Acari has been shown to be repelled by desiccant dusts and by conidia of an entomopathogenic fungus.

  15. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F. S.; de Castro, Francisco Gomes; Miller, Wagner Peitl; de Lima, Raphael Rodrigues; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. PMID:27818542

  16. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F.S.; Castro, Francisco Gomes de; Miller, Wagner Peitl; Lima, Raphael Rodrigues de; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. (author)

  17. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F S; de Castro, Francisco Gomes; Miller, Wagner Peitl; de Lima, Raphael Rodrigues; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle

    2016-01-01

    To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation.

  18. Measuring water ingestion from spray exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Martha; Roddick, Felicity; Nguyen, Thang; O'Toole, Joanne; Leder, Karin

    2016-08-01

    Characterisation of exposure levels is an essential requirement of health risk assessment; however for water exposures other than drinking, few quantitative exposure data exist. Thus, regulatory agencies must use estimates to formulate policy on treatment requirements for non-potable recycled water. We adapted the use of the swimming pool chemical cyanuric acid as a tracer of recreational water ingestion to permit detection of small water volumes inadvertently ingested from spray exposures. By using solutions of 700-1000 mg/L cyanuric acid in an experimental spray exposure scenario, we were able to quantify inadvertent water ingestion in almost 70% of participants undertaking a 10 min car wash activity using a high pressure spray device. Skin absorption was demonstrated to be negligible under the experimental conditions, and the measured ingestion volumes ranged from 0.06 to 3.79 mL. This method could be applied to a range of non-potable water use activities to generate exposure data for risk assessment processes. The availability of such empirical measurements will provide greater assurance to regulatory agencies and industry that potential health risks from exposure to non-potable water supplies are well understood and adequately managed to protect public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F.S.; Castro, Francisco Gomes de; Miller, Wagner Peitl; Lima, Raphael Rodrigues de; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle, E-mail: gabrielnicolodi@gmail.com [Hospital Sao Vicente - Funef, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. (author)

  20. Data ingestion and assimilation in ionospheric models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burešová, Dalia; Nava, B.; Galkin, I.; Angling, M.; Stankov, S. M.; Coisson, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 52, 3/4 (2009), s. 235-253 ISSN 1593-5213 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1356; GA MŠk OC 091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : ionosphere * models * data assimilation * data ingestion Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.548, year: 2009

  1. Appetite influences the responses to meal ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribic, T; Nieto, A; Hernandez, L; Malagelada, C; Accarino, A; Azpiroz, F

    2017-08-01

    We have previously shown that the postprandial experience includes cognitive sensations, such as satiety and fullness, with a hedonic dimension involving digestive well-being and mood. Preload conditioning has been shown to modulate appetite and food consumption under certain conditions, but its effects on the responses to meal ingestion are not clear. We hypothesized that appetite modulation by preload conditioning has differential effects on the cognitive and the emotive responses to meal ingestion. The effects of preload conditioning (ingestion of a low- vs a high-calorie breakfast) on appetite and on the cognitive and emotive responses to a comfort probe meal ingested 2 hours later (ham and cheese sandwich with orange juice; 300 mL, 425 Kcal) was tested in healthy subjects (n=12) in a cross-over design. Sensations were measured at regular intervals 15 minutes before and 60 minutes after the probe meal. As compared to the low-calorie breakfast, the high-calorie breakfast reduced basal hunger sensation and influenced the responses to the subsequent probe meal: it increased satiety (4.3±0.2 score vs 2.7±0.2 score; PAppetite modulation by preload conditioning has differential effects on the cognitive and emotive responses to a meal. Preload conditioning of the postprandial experience may be applicable to dietary planning and prevention of postprandial symptoms. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. 14 CFR 33.76 - Bird ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... single bird, the single largest medium bird which can enter the inlet, and the large flocking bird must...) (d) Large flocking bird. An engine test will be performed as follows: (1) Large flocking bird engine.... (4) Ingestion of a large flocking bird under the conditions prescribed in this paragraph must not...

  3. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Cleve Nicolodi

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases, increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases, identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases, and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case. Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation.

  4. Prediction of complications following caustic ingestion in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, H B

    1995-01-01

    The records of 86 adults admitted to hospital following caustic ingestion were reviewed. Eighteen patients (21%) developed complications; of these, six were fatal. Patients without symptoms or signs did not develop complications. Complications occurred only following lye ingestion, or intentional...

  5. Survival of Penicillium spp. conidia during deep-frying and baking steps of frozen chicken nuggets processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigmann, Évelin Francine; Moreira, Rafael Chelala; Alvarenga, Verônica Ortiz; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Copetti, Marina Venturini

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed at determining whether Penicillium spp. strains could survive through the heat treatment applied during the processing of frozen chicken nuggets. Firstly, it was found that the conidia of Penicillium were not able to survive the heat shock in phosphate buffer at pH 7.2 in thermal death tubes (TDT) at 80 °C/30 min. Subsequently, each Penicillium strain was inoculated in frozen chicken nuggets, which were subjected to the following treatments: i) only deep frying (frying oil at 195-200 °C), ii) only baking (120-130 °C until the internal temperature reached 70 °C) and iii) deep frying followed by baking (frying oil temperature of 195-200 °C and baking temperature of 120-130 °C, until the internal temperature reached 70 °C). The results indicated that Penicillium polonicum NGT 23/12, Penicillium commune NGT 16/12, Penicillium solitum NGT 30/12 and Penicillium crustosum NGT 51/12 were able to survive after the combined treatment (deep frying followed by baking) when inoculated in chicken nuggets. P. polonicum NGT 23/12 was the most resistant strain to the combined treatment (deep frying and baking), as its population was reduced by 3 log cycles CFU/g, when the internal temperature reached 78 °C after 10 min and 30 s of baking. The present data show that if Penicillium spp. is present in high numbers in raw materials, such as breading flours, it will survive the thermal processing applied during chicken nuggets production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute kidney injury due to star fruit ingestion: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehruba Alam Ananna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Star fruit (Avarrhoa carambola is a fruit from oxalidace family. lt is found in many countries of the world including Bangladesh. But its ingestion or drinking star fruit juice may lead to intoxication especially in patients with chronic kidney disease and manifestations might be neurological or nephrological. lt may also cause acute kidney injury in patients with previously normal renal function. Here we are presenting a case who presented with acute kidney injury after star fruit ingestion with previously unknown renal function impairment. The etiology was confirmed by histopathological exami­nation after doing renal biopsy. This renal function impairment is mainly due to oxalate crystal induce nephropathy which is richly abundant in star fruit. His renal function was improved ·with conservative management. Physicians should be alert to consider the ingestion of star fruit as a cause of acute kidney injury in a patient even in the absence of previous renal function impairment.

  7. Intestinal perforation caused by multiple magnet ingestion | Corduk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple magnet ingestion is rare, but can cause serious gastrointestinal complications. We report a case of 7-year-old girl with multiple intestinal perforations caused by multiple magnet ingestion. The aim of this report is to draw attention to magnetic toys, results of magnet ingestion and the importance of timing of operation.

  8. Gastric Perforation by Ingested Rabbit Bone Fragment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Gambaracci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of accidentally ingested foreign bodies is excreted from the gastrointestinal (GI tract without any complications. Sometimes sharp foreign bodies – like chicken and fish bones – can lead to intestinal perforation and may present insidiously with a wide range of symptoms and, consequently, different diagnoses. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman presenting with fever and a 1-month history of vague abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT showed the presence of a hyperdense linear image close to the gastric antrum surrounded by a fluid collection and free peritoneal air. At laparotomy, a 4-cm rabbit bone fragment covered in inflamed tissue was detected next to a gastric wall perforation. Rabbit bone fragment ingestion, even if rarely reported, should not be underestimated as a possible cause of GI tract perforation.

  9. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney A. Cunningham MD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol.

  10. Evaluation of skin and ingestion exposure pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaberg, Rosanne; Logsdon, Joe E.

    1989-06-01

    After a nuclear accident when there has been a release of radionuclides into the atmosphere with consequential deposition on the ground, decisions are necessary on whether protective action guides should be implemented. In order to do this, several pathways for radiation exposure must be evaluated to determine the projected dose to individuals. The objective of this study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratories for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, is to provide background information on exposure pathways for use in the development of Protective Action Guides. The relative importance of three exposure pathways that are usually considered to be unimportant compared to other pathways expected to control relocation decisions following a nuclear power plant accident is evaluated. The three pathways are the skin dose from contact with radionuclides transferred from the ground, the skin dose from radionuclides on the ground surface, and ingestion of radionuclides transferred directly to the mouth from the hands or other contaminated surfaces. Ingestion of contaminated food is not included in this evaluation, except for situations where the food is contaminated as a result of actions by the person who consumes the food (e.g., transfer of contamination from hands to food). Estimates of skin and ingestion doses are based on a source term with a radionuclide mix predicted for an SST2-type nuclear accident in an area where the first year reference whole-body dose equivalent from whole body external exposure to gamma radiation plus the committed effective dose equivalent from inhalation of resuspended radionuclides is 1 rem. Appendixes have been included to allow the reader to examine dose factor calculations, source-term data, and quantification of contact and ingestion parameters in more detail

  11. Evaluation of skin and ingestion exposure pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaberg, Rosanne [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Logsdon, Joe E [United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Radiation Programs, Washington, DC (United States)

    1989-06-01

    After a nuclear accident when there has been a release of radionuclides into the atmosphere with consequential deposition on the ground, decisions are necessary on whether protective action guides should be implemented. In order to do this, several pathways for radiation exposure must be evaluated to determine the projected dose to individuals. The objective of this study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratories for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, is to provide background information on exposure pathways for use in the development of Protective Action Guides. The relative importance of three exposure pathways that are usually considered to be unimportant compared to other pathways expected to control relocation decisions following a nuclear power plant accident is evaluated. The three pathways are the skin dose from contact with radionuclides transferred from the ground, the skin dose from radionuclides on the ground surface, and ingestion of radionuclides transferred directly to the mouth from the hands or other contaminated surfaces. Ingestion of contaminated food is not included in this evaluation, except for situations where the food is contaminated as a result of actions by the person who consumes the food (e.g., transfer of contamination from hands to food). Estimates of skin and ingestion doses are based on a source term with a radionuclide mix predicted for an SST2-type nuclear accident in an area where the first year reference whole-body dose equivalent from whole body external exposure to gamma radiation plus the committed effective dose equivalent from inhalation of resuspended radionuclides is 1 rem. Appendixes have been included to allow the reader to examine dose factor calculations, source-term data, and quantification of contact and ingestion parameters in more detail.

  12. Severe Neurotoxicity Following Ingestion of Tetraethyl Lead

    OpenAIRE

    Wills, Brandon K.; Christensen, Jason; Mazzoncini, Joe; Miller, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Organic lead compounds are potent neurotoxins which can result in death even from small exposures. Traditionally, these compounds are found in fuel stabilizers, anti-knock agents, and leaded gasoline. Cases of acute organic lead intoxication have not been reported for several decades. We report a case of a 13-year-old Iraqi male who unintentionally ingested a fuel stabilizer containing 80–90% tetraethyl lead, managed at our combat support hospital. The patient developed severe neurologic symp...

  13. An Unusual Neck Mass: Ingested Chicken Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Demirhan, Erhan; İber, Metin; Yağız, Özlem; Kandoğan, Tolga; Çukurova, İbrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Foreign bodies in the upper aerodigestive tract are frequently seen in otolaryngological practice, but migration of an ingested foreign body to the neck is a very rare condition. Case Report: We present a 66-year-old woman admitted to our outpatient department with a painful neck mass. She had a history of emergency department admission 4 months prior with odynophagia after eating chicken meal. A physical examination revealed a painful and hyperemic mass on the left neck. Ant...

  14. Influence of ultraviolet light on arising of induced mutants in Cercospora beticola sacc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brillova, D [Institute of Experimental Phytopathology and Entomology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Ivanka pri Dunaji (Czechoslovakia)

    1976-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation of wavelengths of 254 and 350 nm respectively, applied for 30 to 480 seconds to the conidia of Cercospora beticola, induced a large number of mutants. According to their appearance, the occurring mutants can be considered as visible with effect on morphology and colour. A considerable part of the mutants lost its ability to form reproductive organs in in vitro conditions, as well as on the host plant; they became avirulent. Moreover, mutants occurred with decreased virulence, with a weak forming of conidia and prolonged incubation period. In few cases, also reverse mutations were induced characterized by increased virulence.

  15. Quantification of Soil Ingested by Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bothe, M.; Boden, W. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Inc., Dresden (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Direct ingestion of soil is a possible essential exposition path for radionuclides and toxic substances, in particular for playing children. To quantify the soil ingested by children 22 test persons in 4 age groups (< 1 year, 1 to 2 years, 2 to 7 years, 7 to 12 years) were investigated for 12 days. We used some chemical elements as tracers. For the investigation purpose tracer elements should comply following conditions as best as possible: high concentration in soil, low intake by food, low gastrointestinal resorption. So we selected the elements Al, Si, Sc, Ti, Ga, Y, Zr, Nb, La, Ce and Nd. To determine the amount of ingested soil we sampled diet and stool of all 22 children for 12 days in summer 2002. We also sampled soil of the main playgrounds and house dust of thildren homes. The behaviour of the children was recorded by the parents or childminders, particularly diet, defecation and outdoor playing. The mean values for all test persons are for the grain size fraction < 500 {mu}m 53 mg/d or 19 mg/h playing time and for the grain size fraction < 63 {mu}m 31 mg/d or 12 mg/ h playing time.The combined standard uncertainty is about 50 % for the data in mg/d and about 60 % for the data in mg/h playing time.The results are presented in tables and curves. (N.C.)

  16. Quantification of Soil Ingested by Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bothe, M.; Boden, W.

    2006-01-01

    Direct ingestion of soil is a possible essential exposition path for radionuclides and toxic substances, in particular for playing children. To quantify the soil ingested by children 22 test persons in 4 age groups (< 1 year, 1 to 2 years, 2 to 7 years, 7 to 12 years) were investigated for 12 days. We used some chemical elements as tracers. For the investigation purpose tracer elements should comply following conditions as best as possible: high concentration in soil, low intake by food, low gastrointestinal resorption. So we selected the elements Al, Si, Sc, Ti, Ga, Y, Zr, Nb, La, Ce and Nd. To determine the amount of ingested soil we sampled diet and stool of all 22 children for 12 days in summer 2002. We also sampled soil of the main playgrounds and house dust of the children homes. The behaviour of the children was recorded by the parents or childminders, particularly diet, defecation and outdoor playing. The mean values for all test persons are for the grain size fraction < 500 μm 53 mg/d or 19 mg/h playing time and for the grain size fraction < 63 μm 31 mg/d or 12 mg/ h playing time.The combined standard uncertainty is about 50 % for the data in mg/d and about 60 % for the data in mg/h playing time.The results are presented in tables and curves. (N.C.)

  17. Trichloroacetic Acid Ingestion: Self-Harm Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Black

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Trichloroacetic acid (TCAA, or trichloroethanoic acid, is a chemical analogue of acetic acid where three methyl group hydrogen atoms are replaced by chlorine. TCAAs are also abbreviated and referred to as TCAs, causing confusion with the psychiatric antidepressant drug class, especially among patients. TCAAs exist in dermatological treatments such as chemical peels or wart chemoablation medication. TCAA ingestion or overdose can cause gastric irritation symptoms including vomiting, diarrhea, or lassitude. This symptomatology is less severe than TCA overdose, where symptoms may include elevated body temperature, blurred vision, dilated pupils, sleepiness, confusion, seizures, rapid heart rate, and cardiac arrest. Owing to the vast difference in symptoms, the need for clinical intervention differs greatly. While overdose of either in a self-harm attempt can warrant psychiatric hospital admission, the risk of death in TCAA ingestion is far less. Case Report. A patient ingested TCAA in the form of a commercially available dermatological chemical peel as a self-harm attempt, thinking that it was a more injurious TCA. Conclusion. Awareness among physicians, particularly psychiatrists, regarding this relatively obscure chemical compound (TCAA and its use by suicidal patients mistakenly believing it to be a substance that can be significantly more lethal (TCA, is imperative.

  18. Severe neurotoxicity following ingestion of tetraethyl lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Brandon K; Christensen, Jason; Mazzoncini, Joe; Miller, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Organic lead compounds are potent neurotoxins which can result in death even from small exposures. Traditionally, these compounds are found in fuel stabilizers, anti-knock agents, and leaded gasoline. Cases of acute organic lead intoxication have not been reported for several decades. We report a case of a 13-year-old Iraqi male who unintentionally ingested a fuel stabilizer containing 80-90% tetraethyl lead, managed at our combat support hospital. The patient developed severe neurologic symptoms including agitation, hallucinations, weakness, and tremor. These symptoms were refractory to escalating doses of benzodiazepines and ultimately required endotracheal intubation and a propofol infusion. Adjunctive therapies included chelation, baclofen, and nutrition provided through a gastrostomy tube. The patient slowly recovered and was discharged in a wheelchair 20 days after ingestion, still requiring tube feeding. Follow-up at 62 days post-ingestion revealed near-resolution of symptoms with residual slurred speech and slight limp. This case highlights the profound neurotoxic manifestations of acute organic lead compounds.

  19. Soil ingestion: a concern for acute toxicity in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Calabrese, E J; Stanek, E J; James, R C; Roberts, S M

    1997-01-01

    Several soil ingestion studies have indicated that some children ingest substantial amounts of soil on given days. Although the EPA has assumed that 95% of children ingest 200 mg soil/day or less for exposure assessment purposes, some children have been observed to ingest up to 25-60 g soil during a single day. In light of the potential for children to ingest such large amounts of soil, an assessment was made of the possibility for soil pica episodes to result in acute intoxication from conta...

  20. Radionuclides in food and the radiation exposure due to ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    As a consequence of the reactor accidents in Fukushima Daiichi high amounts of radioactive iodine and cesium isotopes were released into the terrestrial and marine Japanese environment. The largest release occurred on March 15, 2011 as a consequence of the containment failure of unit 2. Due to the meteorological conditions large area fallout occurred in the district of Fukushima. Other prefectures in the north of Japan were also contaminated. As a consequence of the high surface contamination the dose limits for drinking water, milk and milky products and food were increased to 200 Bq/kg.It turned out that the contamination of rice was marginal, the contamination of predatory fish higher than that of non-predatory fish. A systematic investigation of food samples could allow a better estimation of ingestion induced exposure.

  1. Induction and reversion process of molecular and cytological alterations after highly irradiated food ingestion in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo M, M.I.; Fernandez C, M.

    1984-01-01

    The molecular and cytological alterations induced in a mammal (Mus musculus) fed ad libitum with a balanced pellet diet irradiated with 50 KGy gamma radiation from weaning, for different periods, are analyzed. The transient chromosomal changes that recall tumor-like phenomena could be the expression of the damage and repair processes induced by changed molecules present in irradiated food. The reversible alterations of DNA structure and cytoplasmatic soluble proteins observed in mice fed with irradiated pellet diet could be interpreted as a result of the enhancement of the repair processes which could also explain the significant increase of the radioresistance of DNA found at 200 days after irradiated food ingestion. Finally, our results would suggest an induction of a pseudo-neoplasia due to a prolongated and exclusive ingestion of food irradiated with sterilizing gamma dose. Moreover, the maintenance of the irradiated diet induce the reversion of the observed phenomena by an eventual activation of the repair mechanisms. (Author)

  2. Adherencia de las conidias de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis a proteínas de matriz extracelular y líneas celulares de mamífero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Elena Cano

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Durante la colonización exitosa y la producción de enfermedad
    por un patógeno es crítica su habilidad para adherirse a las superficies del hospedero ya que la invasión de los tejidos es estimulada por la unión a proteínas séricas o de matriz extracelular (MEC; éstas podrían funcionar como un puente entre el microorganismo y los receptores celulares o como un ligando opsónico (1. Poco se conoce sobre los mecanismos de patogenicidad empleados por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis durante los estados iniciales de la infección; hallazgos experimentales han mostrado que las propágulas infectantes del hongo (conidias una vez inhaladas, alcanzan los alvéolos pulmonares, se transforman en levaduras para finalmente diseminarse a órganos distantes (2. Aunque no existen datos concluyentes, la interacción inicial de las conidias con los tejidos del hospedero probablemente involucra algún proceso de reconocimiento específico de componentes de la MEC, así como de células epiteliales y/o endoteliales del pulmón (3. El
    presente trabajo pretende identificar las proteínas de matriz extracelular que representan un blanco potencial para la unión de conidias de P. brasiliensis, así como definir la naturaleza de los procesos de interacción con proteínas de MEC y líneas celulares de mamíferos.

  3. Comparison of the fates of ingested leucine and ingested 2-ketoisocaproate in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imura, K.; Walser, M. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1990-05-01

    We previously reported that the ratio, R, of 14C to 3H in the leucine of whole body protein, measured 6 h after ingestion of (3H)leucine and (1-14C)2-ketoisocaproate is equal to ratio of the dose of leucine to the dose of 2-ketoisocaproate (KIC) (on a leucine-free diet) required to achieve the same rate of growth. To determine whether R is dependent on the interval between injection and sampling, R was measured at intervals in purified whole body protein after oral injection of these isotopes in groups of rats; it was constant from 1 h onward for 1 wk, averaging 0.64 +/- 0.01 (means +/- SEM). Thus, the extent of incorporation into the leucine of whole body protein of ingested KIC remains close to 64% of the incorporation of ingested leucine administered as such simultaneously, from 1 h onward for at least 1 wk.

  4. Radionuclides in food and the radiation exposure due to ingestion; Radionuklide in Lebensmitteln und die Strahlenexposition durch Ingestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, Rolf

    2015-06-01

    As a consequence of the reactor accidents in Fukushima Daiichi high amounts of radioactive iodine and cesium isotopes were released into the terrestrial and marine Japanese environment. The largest release occurred on March 15, 2011 as a consequence of the containment failure of unit 2. Due to the meteorological conditions large area fallout occurred in the district of Fukushima. Other prefectures in the north of Japan were also contaminated. As a consequence of the high surface contamination the dose limits for drinking water, milk and milky products and food were increased to 200 Bq/kg.It turned out that the contamination of rice was marginal, the contamination of predatory fish higher than that of non-predatory fish. A systematic investigation of food samples could allow a better estimation of ingestion induced exposure.

  5. Hemorrhagic shock secondary to button battery ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Andreia Takesaki

    Full Text Available CONTEXT:Button battery ingestion is a frequent pediatric complaint. The serious complications resulting from accidental ingestion have increased significantly over the last two decades due to easy access to gadgets and electronic toys. Over recent years, the increasing use of lithium batteries of diameter 20 mm has brought new challenges, because these are more detrimental to the mucosa, compared with other types, with high morbidity and mortality. The clinical complaints, which are often nonspecific, may lead to delayed diagnosis, thereby increasing the risk of severe complications.CASE REPORT:A five-year-old boy who had been complaining of abdominal pain for ten days, was brought to the emergency service with a clinical condition of hematemesis that started two hours earlier. On admission, he presented pallor, tachycardia and hypotension. A plain abdominal x-ray produced an image suggestive of a button battery. Digestive endoscopy showed a deep ulcerated lesion in the esophagus without active bleeding. After this procedure, the patient presented profuse hematemesis and severe hypotension, followed by cardiorespiratory arrest, which was reversed. He then underwent emergency exploratory laparotomy and presented a new episode of cardiorespiratory arrest, which he did not survive. The battery was removed through rectal exploration.CONCLUSION:This case describes a fatal evolution of button battery ingestion with late diagnosis and severe associated injury of the digestive mucosa. A high level of clinical suspicion is essential for preventing this evolution. Preventive strategies are required, as well as health education, with warnings to parents, caregivers and healthcare professionals.

  6. Acute chloroform ingestion successfully treated with intravenously administered N-acetylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Aglio, Damon M; Sutter, Mark E; Schwartz, Michael D; Koch, David D; Algren, D A; Morgan, Brent W

    2010-06-01

    Chloroform, a halogenated hydrocarbon, causes central nervous system depression, cardiac arrhythmias, and hepatotoxicity. We describe a case of chloroform ingestion with a confirmatory serum level and resultant hepatotoxicity successfully treated with intravenously administered N-acetylcysteine (NAC). A 19-year-old man attempting suicide ingested approximately 75 mL of chloroform. He was unresponsive and intubated upon arrival. Intravenously administered NAC was started after initial stabilization was complete. His vital signs were normal. Admission laboratory values revealed normal serum electrolytes, AST, ALT, PT, BUN, creatinine, and bilirubin. Serum ethanol level was 15 mg/dL, and aspirin and acetaminophen were undetectable. The patient was extubated but developed liver function abnormalities with a peak AST of 224 IU/L, ALT of 583 IU/L, and bilirubin level reaching 16.3 mg/dL. NAC was continued through hospital day 6. Serum chloroform level obtained on admission was 91 μg/mL. The patient was discharged to psychiatry without known sequelae and normal liver function tests. The average serum chloroform level in fatal cases of inhalational chloroform poisoning was 64 μg/mL, significantly lower than our patient. The toxicity is believed to be similar in both inhalation and ingestion routes of exposure, with mortality predominantly resulting from anoxia secondary to central nervous system depression. Hepatocellular toxicity is thought to result from free radical-induced oxidative damage. Previous reports describe survival after treatment with orally administered NAC, we report the first use of intravenously administered NAC for chloroform ingestion. Acute oral ingestion of chloroform is extremely rare. Our case illustrates that with appropriate supportive care, patients can recover from chloroform ingestion, and intravenously administered NAC may be of benefit in such cases.

  7. Automatic ingestion monitor: a novel wearable device for monitoring of ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Juan M; Farooq, Muhammad; Sazonov, Edward

    2014-06-01

    Objective monitoring of food intake and ingestive behavior in a free-living environment remains an open problem that has significant implications in study and treatment of obesity and eating disorders. In this paper, a novel wearable sensor system (automatic ingestion monitor, AIM) is presented for objective monitoring of ingestive behavior in free living. The proposed device integrates three sensor modalities that wirelessly interface to a smartphone: a jaw motion sensor, a hand gesture sensor, and an accelerometer. A novel sensor fusion and pattern recognition method was developed for subject-independent food intake recognition. The device and the methodology were validated with data collected from 12 subjects wearing AIM during the course of 24 h in which both the daily activities and the food intake of the subjects were not restricted in any way. Results showed that the system was able to detect food intake with an average accuracy of 89.8%, which suggests that AIM can potentially be used as an instrument to monitor ingestive behavior in free-living individuals.

  8. A spindle pole antigen gene MoSPA2 is important for polar cell growth of vegetative hyphae and conidia, but is dispensable for pathogenicity in Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Xiao-Lin; Huang, Jin-Guang; Cheng, Zhi-Hua; Zhao, Wen-Sheng; Zhang, Yan; Peng, You-Liang

    2014-11-01

    Spa2 is an important component of the multiprotein complex polarisome, which is involved in the establishment, maintenance, termination of polarized cell growth and is important for defining tip growth of filamentous fungi. In this study, we isolated an insertional mutant of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae that formed smaller colony and conidia compared with the wild type. In the mutant, a spindle pole antigen gene MoSPA2 was disrupted by the integration of an exogenous plasmid. Targeted gene deletion and complementation assays demonstrated the gene disruption was responsible for the defects of the insertional mutant. Interestingly, the MoSpa2-GFP fusion protein was found to accumulate as a spot at hyphal tips, septa of hyphae and conidial tip cells where germ tubes are usually produced, but not in appressoria, infection hyphae or at the septa of conidia. Furthermore, the deletion mutants of MoSPA2 exhibited slower hyphal tip growth, more hyphal branches, and smaller size of conidial tip cells. However, MoSPA2 is not required for plant infection. These results indicate that MoSPA2 is required for vegetative hyphal growth and maintaining conidium morphology and that spotted accumulation of MoSpa2 is important for its functions during cell polar growth.

  9. Inactivation of normal and mutant Neurospora crassa conidia by visible light and near-UV: role of 1O2, carotenoid composition and sensitizer location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.A.; Sargent, M.L.; Tuveson, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Inactivation of Neurospora crassa conidia from wild-type and mutant strains by visible and near-ultraviolet light was investigated in the presence and absence of photosensitizing dyes. Inactivation by near-UV was virtually unchanged by the presence of deuterium oxide or azide suggesting that, contrary to the situation with visible light and photosensitizing dyes, 1 O 2 is not involved in any substantial way in the formation of lethal lesions. Carotenoid deficient strains were similar to wild-type strains in sensitivity to near-UV inactivation which is consistent with 1 O 2 not being involved. Photodynamic inactivation of conidia by visible light occurred in the presence of methylene blue (MB), toluidine blue O (TB), or acridine orange (AO). Carotenoid deficient strains were more sensitive to such inactivation only when MB and TB were used. This suggests that MB and TB mediated damage involves the cell membrane where carotenoids are available for quenching, whereas AO mediated damage occurs in the nucleus sequestered from the protective influence of carotenoids. A newly isolated, lemon-yellow mutant exhibited sensitivities to photodynamic inactivation similar to other pure-white mutants. The sensitivity of this pigmented mutant is apparently related to insufficient unsaturation of the two coloured carotenoids produced by the mutant. (author)

  10. Development of an Ingestion Pathway Model for AXAIRQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpkins, A.A.

    1999-01-13

    AXAIRQ is a dose mode code used for prospective accident assessment at the Savannah River Site and is primarily used to show regulatory compliance. For completeness of pathway analysis, an ingestion model, AXINGST, has been developed for use with, and incorporation in, AXAIRQ. Currently available ingestion models were referenced as a basis for AXINGST. AXINGST calculates a conservative ingestion dose following an atmospheric release of radionuclides and includes site specific variables where applicable.

  11. Too attractive: the growing problem of magnet ingestions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie C; Otjen, Jeffrey P; Drugas, George T

    2013-11-01

    Small, powerful magnets are increasingly available in toys and other products and pose a health risk. Small spherical neodymium magnets marketed since 2008 are of particular concern. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, characteristics, and management of single and multiple-magnet ingestions over time. Magnet ingestion cases at a tertiary children's hospital were identified using radiology reports from June 2002 to December 2012. Cases were verified by chart and imaging review. Relative risk regressions were used to determine changes in the incidence of ingestions and interventions over time. Of 56 cases of magnet ingestion, 98% occurred in 2006 or later, and 57% involved multiple magnets. Median age was 8 years (range, 0-18 years). Overall, 21% of single and 88% of multiple ingestions had 2 or more imaging series obtained, whereas no single and 56.3% of multiple ingestions required intervention (25.0% endoscopy, 18.8% surgery, 12.5% both). Magnet ingestions increased in 2010 to 2012 compared with 2007 to 2009 (relative risk, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.0). Small, spherical magnets likely from magnet sets comprised 27% of ingestions, all ingested 2010 or later: 86% involved multiple magnets, 50% of which required intervention. Excluding these cases, ingestions of other magnets did not increase in 2010 to 2012 compared with 2007 to 2009 (relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.4). The incidence of pediatric magnet ingestions and subsequent interventions has increased over time. Multiple-magnet ingestions result in high utilization of radiological imaging and surgical interventions. Recent increases parallel the increased availability of small, spherical magnet sets. Young and at-risk children should not have access to these and other small magnets. Improved regulation and magnet safety standards are needed.

  12. A review of soil and dust ingestion studies for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Jacqueline; Phillips, Linda

    2014-11-01

    Soil and dust ingestion by children may be important pathways of exposure to environmental contaminants. Contaminated soil and dust may end up on children's hands and objects, because they play close to the ground. These contaminants can be ingested by children, because they have a tendency to place objects, including their fingers, in their mouths. Assessing exposure through this pathway requires information about the amount of soil and dust ingested by children. Estimates of soil and dust ingestion and information on the prevalence of the behavior have been published in the literature, but research in this area is generally limited. Three methodologies have been used to quantify soil and dust ingestion rates. In this paper, these are referred to as the tracer element method, the biokinetic model comparison method, and the activity pattern method. This paper discusses the information available on the prevalence of soil and dust ingestion behavior, summarizes the three methodologies for quantifying soil and dust ingestion, and discusses their limitations. Soil ingestion data derived from studies that use these methodologies are also summarized. Although they are based on different estimation approaches, the central tendency estimates of soil and dust ingestion derived from the three methodologies are generally comparable.

  13. Button battery ingestion in children: An emerging hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Button battery ingestion is an emerging hazard. In this retrospective study, we report six cases of lithium button battery ingestion in pediatric age group (mean age 2.8 years. Three button batteries were removed from stomach and three from esophagus. Esophageal site was associated with significant local injury, and one button battery was impacted in the esophagus, requiring rigid esophagoscopy for removal. Small battery size, used batteries, and early removal (<12 h after ingestion were associated with lesser mucosal injury. No long-term complications were noted. Our study emphasizes that early diagnosis and urgent removal of ingested button battery are the only measures which prevent complications.

  14. Suicidal ingestion of potassium permanganate crystals: a rare encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Ravikanti; Veerendranath, Hari Prasad Kanakapura; Wali, Siddraj; Mohan, Murali N T; Kumar, Praveen A C; Trimurty, Gaganam

    2014-01-01

    Potassium permanganate poisoning is not common. Although Symptoms of potassium permanganate ingestion are gastrointestinal and Complications due to ingestion of potassium permanganate include cardiovascular depression, hepatic and renal damage, upper airway obstruction, bleeding tendency and methemoglobinemia. Gastric damage due to potassium permanganate has rarely been reported previously. We are reporting a 34-year old female patient who presented to our Emergency Department after suicidal ingestion of potassium permanganate crystals. After treatment, the patient was discharged home on the 8(th) day after admission. So we conclude that Emergency endoscopy has a significant role in diagnosis and management of potassium permanganate ingestion.

  15. Existing ingestion guidance: Problems and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mooney, Robert R; Ziegler, Gordon L; Peterson, Donald S [Environmental Radiation Section, Division of Radiation Protection, WA (United States)

    1989-09-01

    Washington State has been developing plans and procedures for responding to nuclear accidents since the early 1970s. A key part of this process has been formulating a method for calculating ingestion pathway concentration guides (CGs). Such a method must be both technically sound and easy to use. This process has been slow and frustrating. However, much technical headway has been made in recent years, and hopefully the experience of the State of Washington will provide useful insight to problems with the existing guidance. Several recommendations are offered on ways to deal with these problems. In January 1986, the state held an ingestion pathway exercise which required the determination of allowed concentrations of isotopes for various foods, based upon reactor source term and field data. Objectives of the exercise were not met because of the complexity of the necessary calculations. A major problem was that the allowed concentrations had to be computed for each isotope and each food group, given assumptions on the average diet. To solve problems identified during that exercise, Washington developed, by March 1986, partitioned CGs. These CGs apportioned doses from each food group for an assumed mix of radionuclides expected to result from a reactor accident. This effort was therefore in place just in time for actual use during the Chernobyl fallout episode in May 1986. This technique was refined and described in a later report and presented at the 1987 annual meeting of the Health Physics Society. Realizing the technical weaknesses which still existed and a need to simplify the numbers for decision makers, Washington State has been developing computer methods to quickly calculate, from an accident specific relative mix of isotopes, CGs which allow a single radionuclide concentration for all food groups. This latest approach allows constant CGs for different periods of time following the accident, instead of peak CGs, which are good only for a short time after the

  16. Existing ingestion guidance: Problems and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooney, Robert R.; Ziegler, Gordon L.; Peterson, Donald S.

    1989-01-01

    Washington State has been developing plans and procedures for responding to nuclear accidents since the early 1970s. A key part of this process has been formulating a method for calculating ingestion pathway concentration guides (CGs). Such a method must be both technically sound and easy to use. This process has been slow and frustrating. However, much technical headway has been made in recent years, and hopefully the experience of the State of Washington will provide useful insight to problems with the existing guidance. Several recommendations are offered on ways to deal with these problems. In January 1986, the state held an ingestion pathway exercise which required the determination of allowed concentrations of isotopes for various foods, based upon reactor source term and field data. Objectives of the exercise were not met because of the complexity of the necessary calculations. A major problem was that the allowed concentrations had to be computed for each isotope and each food group, given assumptions on the average diet. To solve problems identified during that exercise, Washington developed, by March 1986, partitioned CGs. These CGs apportioned doses from each food group for an assumed mix of radionuclides expected to result from a reactor accident. This effort was therefore in place just in time for actual use during the Chernobyl fallout episode in May 1986. This technique was refined and described in a later report and presented at the 1987 annual meeting of the Health Physics Society. Realizing the technical weaknesses which still existed and a need to simplify the numbers for decision makers, Washington State has been developing computer methods to quickly calculate, from an accident specific relative mix of isotopes, CGs which allow a single radionuclide concentration for all food groups. This latest approach allows constant CGs for different periods of time following the accident, instead of peak CGs, which are good only for a short time after the

  17. Data, Meet Compute: NASA's Cumulus Ingest Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) houses nearly 30PBs of critical Earth Science data and with upcoming missions is expected to balloon to between 200PBs-300PBs over the next seven years. In addition to the massive increase in data collected, researchers and application developers want more and faster access - enabling complex visualizations, long time-series analysis, and cross dataset research without needing to copy and manage massive amounts of data locally. NASA has looked to the cloud to address these needs, building its Cumulus system to manage the ingest of diverse data in a wide variety of formats into the cloud. In this talk, we look at what Cumulus is from a high level and then take a deep dive into how it manages complexity and versioning associated with multiple AWS Lambda and ECS microservices communicating through AWS Step Functions across several disparate installations

  18. [Fatal iatrogenically-induced hyperglycemia following accidental glibenclamide ingestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, R

    1990-01-01

    A 2 9/12 years old girl had swallowed 8 to 9 tablets Euglucon N. By concatenation of unfortunatable facts the infant died of hyperglycaemia. The findings from this case should contribute to differentiate also in medical textbooks therapeutic recommendations.

  19. Ingestion and transfer of microplastics in the planktonic food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setälä, Outi; Fleming-Lehtinen, Vivi; Lehtiniemi, Maiju

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were carried out with different Baltic Sea zooplankton taxa to scan their potential to ingest plastics. Mysid shrimps, copepods, cladocerans, rotifers, polychaete larvae and ciliates were exposed to 10 μm fluorescent polystyrene microspheres. These experiments showed ingestion of microspheres in all taxa studied. The highest percentage of individuals with ingested spheres was found in pelagic polychaete larvae, Marenzelleria spp. Experiments with the copepod Eurytemora affinis and the mysid shrimp Neomysis integer showed egestion of microspheres within 12 h. Food web transfer experiments were done by offering zooplankton labelled with ingested microspheres to mysid shrimps. Microscopy observations of mysid intestine showed the presence of zooplankton prey and microspheres after 3 h incubation. This study shows for the first time the potential of plastic microparticle transfer via planktonic organisms from one trophic level (mesozooplankton) to a higher level (macrozooplankton). The impacts of plastic transfer and possible accumulation in the food web need further investigations. -- Highlights: • Experiments show the potential of ingestion of plastics by various zooplankton taxa. • This ingestion of plastics can be indirect via other zooplankton organisms. • There may be several alternate routes for microplastic transfer in the food webs. -- Experiments with zooplankton and microspheres showed ingestion of spheres by zpl and the transfer of ingested microspheres to higher trophic level organisms via labelled zooplankton

  20. Sharp foreign body ingestion by a young girl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riyadh Mohamad Hasan

    2017-06-09

    Jun 9, 2017 ... Sharp foreign body ingestion by a young girl. Riyadh Mohamad Hasan. University of Baghdad ... ray imaging and retrieved with the aid of C-arm fluoroscope at a laparotomy. Her postoperative period ... In our patient the foreign bodies were long sharp ones (sewing needles). Foreign body ingestion can be ...

  1. The anesthetic management of button battery ingestion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Richard J; Hoagland, Monica; Mayes, Lena; Twite, Mark

    2018-03-01

    Injuries related to button battery ingestion are common in children. This review provides an outline of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, management, and anesthetic implications in children who have ingested a button battery. A literature search was conducted in the United States National Library of Medicine PubMed database using the terms "button battery ingestion" and "children' and "removal" and "surgery" and "anesthesia". Ninety-six articles published in English were found from 1983-2017, and 62 of these articles were incorporated into this review. Additionally, the Internet was searched with the terms "button battery ingestion and children" to identify further entities, organizations, and resources affiliated with button battery ingestion in children. These additional sources were studied and included in this review. Button batteries are ubiquitous in homes and electronic devices. Since 2006, larger-diameter and higher-voltage batteries have become available. These are more likely to become impacted in the esophagus after ingestion and lead to an increase in severe morbidity and mortality due to caustic tissue injury. Children at the highest risk for complications are those under six years of age who have ingested batteries > 20 mm in diameter and sustain prolonged esophageal impaction at the level of the aortic arch with the negative pole oriented anteriorly. Anesthesiologists need to know about the epidemiology, pathophysiology, complications, and anesthetic management of children who have ingested button batteries.

  2. Suicidal Ingestion of Potassium Permanganate Crystals: A Rare Encounter

    OpenAIRE

    Karthik, Ravikanti; Veerendranath, Hari Prasad Kanakapura; Wali, Siddraj; Mohan, Murali N T; Kumar, Praveen A. C.; Trimurty, Gaganam

    2014-01-01

    Potassium permanganate poisoning is not common. Although Symptoms of potassium permanganate ingestion are gastrointestinal and Complications due to ingestion of potassium permanganate include cardiovascular depression, hepatic and renal damage, upper airway obstruction, bleeding tendency and methemoglobinemia. Gastric damage due to potassium permanganate has rarely been reported previously. We are reporting a 34-year old female patient who presented to our Emergency Department after suicidal ...

  3. Ingestion of six cylindrical and four button batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon U; Rasmussen, Morten; Hoegberg, Lotte C G

    2010-01-01

    We report a suicidal ingestion of six cylindrical and four button batteries, in combination with overdosed prescription medicine and smoking of cannabis.......We report a suicidal ingestion of six cylindrical and four button batteries, in combination with overdosed prescription medicine and smoking of cannabis....

  4. Pediatric magnet ingestions: the dark side of the force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie C; Otjen, Jeffrey P; Drugas, George T

    2014-05-01

    Pediatric magnet ingestions are increasing. Commercial availability of rare-earth magnets poses a serious health risk. This study defines incidence, characteristics, and management of ingestions over time. Cases were identified by searching radiology reports from June 2002 to December 2012 at a children's hospital and verified by chart and imaging review. Relative risk (RR) regressions determined changes in incidence and interventions over time. In all, 98% of ingestions occurred since 2006; 57% involved multiple magnets. Median age was 8 years (range 0 to 18); 0% of single and 56% of multiple ingestions required intervention. Compared with 2007 to 2009, ingestions increased from 2010 to 2012 (RR = 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 3.0). Intervention proportion was unchanged (RR = .94, 95% confidence interval .4 to 2.2). Small spherical magnets comprised 26.8% of ingestions since 2010; 86% involved multiple magnets and 47% required intervention. Pediatric magnet ingestions and interventions have increased. Multiple ingestions prompt more imaging and surgical interventions. Magnet safety standards are needed to decrease risk to children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Esophageal perforation following foreign body ingestion in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esophageal perforation following foreign body ingestion in children: report of three cases. O Abdelhadi, AE Ali, O Taha, A Abdalla, F Nugud. Abstract. We report three cases of foreign body esophagus, in two of them the foreign body was a coin, and the third child ingested a disc battery. In all three cases the foreign body ...

  6. Influence of Sensor Ingestion Timing on Consistency of Temperature Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    volunteers orally ingested an ITS (VitalSense Jonah Ingestible Capsule ; Minimitter Inc.). From 1300 to 1700 h, volunteers per- formed structured...emptying and gastrointes- tinal transit. Clin Investig. 1992;70(6):487–91. 24. Rao SS, Welcher K, Zimmerman B, Stumbo P. Is coffee a colonic stimulant? Eur J

  7. Ingestible capsule for remote controlled release of a substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The application relates to an ingestible capsule (102) for delivery of a substance e.g. a pharmaceutical drug, to a human or animal. The ingestible capsule comprises a capsule wall structure (202) forming a substantially sealed reservoir or lumen holding the substance (204). An electrical resonance...

  8. Imaging pediatric magnet ingestion with surgical-pathological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otjen, Jeffrey P.; Iyer, Ramesh S.; Rohrmann, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Foreign body ingestion is a common problem in the pediatric population and a frequent cause for emergency room visits. Magnets are common household objects that when ingested can bring about severe, possibly fatal gastrointestinal complications. Radiography is an integral component of the management of these children. Pediatric and emergency radiologists alike must be aware of imaging manifestations of magnet ingestion, as their identification drives decision-making for consulting surgeons and gastroenterologists. Radiology can thus substantially augment the clinical history and physical exam, facilitating appropriate management. This manuscript sequentially presents cases of magnet ingestion featuring imaging findings coupled with surgical and pathological correlation. Each case is presented to highlight ways in which the radiologist can make impactful contributions to diagnosis and management. Clinical overview with pitfalls of magnet ingestion imaging and an imaging decision tree will also be presented. (orig.)

  9. Imaging pediatric magnet ingestion with surgical-pathological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otjen, Jeffrey P; Rohrmann, Charles A; Iyer, Ramesh S

    2013-07-01

    Foreign body ingestion is a common problem in the pediatric population and a frequent cause for emergency room visits. Magnets are common household objects that when ingested can bring about severe, possibly fatal gastrointestinal complications. Radiography is an integral component of the management of these children. Pediatric and emergency radiologists alike must be aware of imaging manifestations of magnet ingestion, as their identification drives decision-making for consulting surgeons and gastroenterologists. Radiology can thus substantially augment the clinical history and physical exam, facilitating appropriate management. This manuscript sequentially presents cases of magnet ingestion featuring imaging findings coupled with surgical and pathological correlation. Each case is presented to highlight ways in which the radiologist can make impactful contributions to diagnosis and management. Clinical overview with pitfalls of magnet ingestion imaging and an imaging decision tree will also be presented.

  10. Aging of microplastics promotes their ingestion by marine zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroom, Renske J E; Koelmans, Albert A; Besseling, Ellen; Halsband, Claudia

    2017-12-01

    Microplastics (microplastics to test their impacts, while aging processes such as weathering and biofouling alter the characteristics of plastic particles in the marine environment. We investigated zooplankton ingestion of polystyrene beads (15 and 30 μm) and fragments (≤30 μm), and tested the hypothesis that microplastics previously exposed to marine conditions (aged) are ingested at higher rates than pristine microplastics. Polystyrene beads were aged by soaking in natural local seawater for three weeks. Three zooplankton taxa ingested microplastics, excluding the copepod Pseudocalanus spp., but the proportions of individuals ingesting plastic and the number of particles ingested were taxon and life stage specific and dependent on plastic size. All stages of Calanus finmarchicus ingested polystyrene fragments. Aged microbeads were preferred over pristine ones by females of Acartia longiremis as well as juvenile copepodites CV and adults of Calanus finmarchicus. The preference for aged microplastics may be attributed to the formation of a biofilm. Such a coating, made up of natural microbes, may contain similar prey as the copepods feed on in the water column and secrete chemical exudates that aid chemodetection and thus increase the attractiveness of the particles as food items. Much of the ingested plastic was, however, egested within a short time period (2-4 h) and the survival of adult Calanus females was not affected in an 11-day exposure. Negative effects of microplastics ingestion were thus limited. Our findings emphasize, however, that aging plays an important role in the transformation of microplastics at sea and ingestion by grazers, and should thus be considered in future microplastics ingestion studies and estimates of microplastics transfer into the marine food web. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of acute beer ingestion on the liver: studies in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanuri, Giridhar; Wagnerberger, Sabine; Landmann, Marianne; Prigl, Eva; Hellerbrand, Claus; Bischoff, Stephan C; Bergheim, Ina

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether the effects of acute consumption of stout or pilsner beer on the liver differ from those of plain ethanol in a mouse model. Seven-week-old female C57BL/6J mice received either ethanol, stout or pilsner beer (ethanol content: 6 g/kg body weight) or isocaloric maltodextrin solution. Plasma alanine transaminase, markers of steatosis, lipogenesis, activation of the toll-like receptor-4 signaling cascade as well as lipid peroxidation and fibrogenesis in the liver were measured 12 h after acute ethanol or beer intake. Acute alcohol ingestion caused a marked ~11-fold increase in hepatic triglyceride accumulation in comparison to controls, whereas in mice exposed to stout and pilsner beer, hepatic triglyceride levels were increased only by ~6.5- and ~4-fold, respectively. mRNA expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c and fatty acid synthase in the liver did not differ between alcohol and beer groups. In contrast, expression of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, inducible nitric oxide synthases, but also the concentrations of 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts, nuclear factor κB and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were induced in livers of ethanol treated mice but not in those exposed to the two beers. Taken together, our results suggest that acute ingestion of beer and herein especially of pilsner beer is less harmful to the liver than the ingestion of plain ethanol.

  12. Safety evaluation on irradiated food ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports double-blind observations of volunteers who took 35 kinds of irradiated foods as their main diet for 90 days. The subjects consisted of 70 medical students and 8 staff members in the Shanghai Medical University. They were randomly divided into two groups. One group was supplied with irradiated foods, the other acted as controls eating the same food but non-irradiated. The 35 kinds of irradiated foods were grain, meat products, vegetables, fruits, dried fruits etc. The absorbed dose of irradiation from the processed foods varied from 0.1 to 8.0 kGy. The irradiated foods made up 60.3% of the total food intake by weight. Observations during 90 days indicated that the subjects were all pleased with their diets and no adverse effects on their health were seen. Clinical and laboratory examinations included routine blood and urine tests, blood biochemical examinations, hepatic and renal function tests, endocrinological assays, cellular immunity tests, and mutagenetic studies (such as the incidence of polyploid cells, chromosomal structural aberration, rates of sister chromatid-exchanges, micronuclei test, urine Ames' test). These studies showed that the ingestion of these foods are safe for humans

  13. Radiographic identification of ingested disc batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maves, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    Recently, the hazards by posed the accidental ingestion and impaction of small disc batteries have been widely publicized in the medical and lay press. These foreign bodies, when lodged in the esophagus, leak a caustic solution of 26 to 45% sodium or potassium hydroxide which can cause a burn injury to the esophagus in a very short period of time. Because of the considerable clinical morbidity and mortality from this foreign body, it becomes imperative for the radiologist to quickly and accurately identify disc batteries on plain radiographs. This communication offers a series of radiologic signs important in the identification of disc batteries demonstrate a double density shadow due to the bilaminar structure of the battery. On lateral view, the edges of most disc batteries are round and again present a step-off at the junction of the cathode and anode. These findings are differentiated from the more common esophageal foreign body of a coin which does not have a double density on frontal projection, has a much sharper edge and no visible stepoff. (orig.)

  14. Sudden bilateral sensorineural hearing loss as an unusual consequence of accidental ingestion of potassium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciorba, A; Bovo, R; Castiglione, A; Pirodda, A; Martini, A

    2010-01-01

    To discuss the possible etiopathogenetic mechanism of inner ear damage induced by the ingestion of potassium hydroxide (KOH). We report the case of a 37-year-old patient with sudden bilateral sensorineural hearing loss after accidental ingestion of a KOH solution. The first ear, nose and throat examination disclosed only mild edema of the upper airways. He was treated in the intensive care unit and prescribed high-dose steroids, proton pump inhibitors and sucralfate for 2 weeks. Unfortunately, there was no recovery of the hearing loss, and no audiogram changes were noticed after 12 months of follow-up. After exploring the possible etiopathogenetic mechanism involved, the authors believe that in this case, a transient severe hemodynamic imbalance can actually be considered to be the most reliable explanation for the inner ear damage and subsequent onset of permanent bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Chronic Alcohol Ingestion Changes the Landscape of the Alveolar Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Downs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Similar to effects of alcohol on the heart, liver, and brain, the effects of ethanol (EtOH on lung injury are preventable. Unlike other vital organ systems, however, the lethal effects of alcohol on the lung are underappreciated, perhaps because there are no signs of overt pulmonary disorder until a secondary insult, such as a bacterial infection or injury, occurs in the lung. This paper provides overview of the complex changes in the alveolar environment known to occur following both chronic and acute alcohol exposures. Contemporary animal and cell culture models for alcohol-induced lung dysfunction are discussed, with emphasis on the effect of alcohol on transepithelial transport processes, namely, epithelial sodium channel activity (ENaC. The cascading effect of tissue and phagocytic Nadph oxidase (Nox may be triggered by ethanol exposure, and as such, alcohol ingestion and exposure lead to a prooxidative environment; thus impacting alveolar macrophage (AM function and oxidative stress. A better understanding of how alcohol changes the landscape of the alveolar epithelium can lead to improvements in treating acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS for which hospitalized alcoholics are at an increased risk.

  16. Ingestion of microplastics by commercial fish off the Portuguese coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Diogo; Sobral, Paula; Ferreira, Joana Lia; Pereira, Tânia

    2015-12-15

    The digestive tract contents of 263 individuals from 26 species of commercial fish were examined for microplastics. These were found in 17 species, corresponding to 19.8% of the fish of which 32.7% had ingested more than one microplastic. Of all the fish that ingested microplastics, 63.5% was benthic and 36.5% pelagic species. A total of 73 microplastics were recorded, 48 (65.8%) being fibres and 25 (34.2%) being fragments. Polymers were polypropylene, polyethylene, alkyd resin, rayon, polyester, nylon and acrylic. The mean of ingested microplastics was 0.27 ± 0.63 per fish, (n=263). Pelagic fish ingested more particles and benthic fish ingested more fibres, but no significant differences were found. Fish with the highest number of microplastics were from the mouth of the Tagus river. Scomber japonicus registered the highest mean of ingested microplastics, suggesting its potential as indicator species to monitor and investigate trends in ingested litter, in the MSFD marine regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Surgical management and morbidity of pediatric magnet ingestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Alicia M; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Thorne, Vivian; Bousvaros, Athos; Noel, R Adam; Beierle, Elizabeth A

    2015-11-01

    Foreign body ingestion remains a common reason for emergency room visits and operative interventions in the pediatric population. Rare earth magnet ingestion represents a low percentage of all foreign bodies swallowed by children; however, magnets swallowed in multiplicity can result in severe injuries. Pediatric surgeons with membership in the Surgical Section of the American Academy of Pediatrics were surveyed to determine the magnitude and consequences of magnet ingestions in the pediatric population. About 100 (16%) participant responses reported on 99 magnet ingestions. The median age at ingestion was 3.7 y, and the majority of ingestions (71%) occurred after year 2010. Thirty-two children underwent endoscopy with successful removal in 70% of cases, and multiple magnets were found in 65% of these patients. Seventy-three children required either laparotomy (51) or laparoscopy (22) for magnet removal, and 90% of these children were discovered to have ingested more than one magnet. In addition, 17% of the children were found to have at least one perforation or fistula, and 34% of the children had multiple perforations or fistulae. Nine children required long-term care for their injuries including repeat endoscopies. One child died after hemorrhage from an esophago-aortic fistula. These results demonstrated the increasing need for magnet regulations and public awareness to prevent potentially serious complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Serious complications after button battery ingestion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krom, Hilde; Visser, Margot; Hulst, Jessie M; Wolters, Victorien M; Van den Neucker, Anita M; de Meij, Tim; van der Doef, Hubert P J; Norbruis, Obbe F; Benninga, Marc A; Smit, Margot J M; Kindermann, Angelika

    2018-05-02

    Serious and fatal complications after button battery ingestion are increasing worldwide. The aim of this study is to describe serious complications after battery ingestion in children in the Netherlands.All pediatric gastroenterologists in the Netherlands performing upper endoscopies were asked to report all serious complications after battery ingestion in children (0-18 years) between 2008 and 2016 retrospectively.Sixteen serious complications were reported: death after massive bleeding through esophageal-aortal fistula (n = 1), esophageal-tracheal fistula (n = 5), stenosis after (suspected) perforation and mediastinitis (n = 5), (suspected) perforation and mediastinitis (n = 3), vocal cord paralysis (n = 1), and required reintubation for dyspnea and stridor (n = 1). The median time interval between ingestion and presentation was 5 (IQR 2-258) h. All children were ≤ 5 (median 1.4; IQR 0.9-2.1) years. Vomiting (31.3%), swallowing/feeding problems (31.3%), and fever (31.3%) were the most common presenting symptoms; however, 18.8% of the patients were asymptomatic (n = 1 missing). All batteries were button batteries (75% ≥ 20 mm; 18.8% batteries were removed by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (50%) and rigid endoscopy (37.5%) or surgically (12.5%). Sixteen serious complications occurred after small and large button batteries ingestion between 2008 and 2016 in both symptomatic and asymptomatic children in the Netherlands. Therefore, immediate intervention after (suspected) button battery ingestion is required. What is Known: • Button battery ingestion may result in serious and fatal complications. • Serious and fatal complications after button battery ingestion are increasing worldwide. What is New: • Sixteen serious complications after button battery ingestion occurred during 2008-2016 in children in the Netherlands. • Serious complications were also caused by small batteries (< 20 mm) in the Netherlands and also occurred

  19. Gastric Perforation and Phlegmon Formation by Foreign Body Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Alejandro Avila Alvarez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of foreign body ingestion in a suicide attempt resulting in gastric perforation and phlegmon formation during a subsequent 6 month period that eventually required surgical intervention. The patient had a prolonged course because she did not report a history of foreign body ingestion and the initial evaluating physicians had no suspicion about possible foreign body ingestion and may have missed important findings on physical examination. Gastric perforation by a foreign object  may have a slow course rather than presenting acute abdomen. The realization of a proper physical examination in the emergency department is key to an accurate diagnosis.

  20. The ingestion of plutonium and americium by range cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blincoe, C.; Bohman, V.R.; Smith, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    The intake of plutonium and americium in the diet of cattle grazing on plutonium contaminated desert range was determined. Daily feed intake of the grazing animals was also determined so that the amount of nuclides ingested daily could be ascertained. Soil ingested by range cattle constituted the principal and possibly only source of ingested plutonium and americium and resulted in a daily intake of 3600-6600 pCi 238 Pu, 85,000-400,000 pCi 239 Pu, and 11,000-31,000 pCi 241 Am daily. Determining transuranic intake by direct measurement and from the composition and contamination of the diet gave identical results. (author)

  1. Oxycodone Ingestion Patterns in Acute Fracture Pain With Digital Pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Peter R; Carreiro, Stephanie; Innes, Brendan J; Chapman, Brittany; Schreiber, Kristin L; Edwards, Robert R; Carrico, Adam W; Boyer, Edward W

    2017-12-01

    Opioid analgesics are commonly prescribed on an as-needed (PRN) basis for acute painful conditions. Uncertainty of how patients actually take PRN opioids, coupled with a desire to completely cover pain, leads to variable and overly generous opioid prescribing practices, resulting in a surplus of opioids. This opioid surplus becomes a source for diversion and nonmedical opioid use. Understanding patterns of actual opioid ingestion after acute painful conditions can help clinicians counsel patients on safe opioid use, and allow timely recognition and intervention when escalating opioid self-dosing occurs, to prevent tolerance and addiction. We used a novel oxycodone digital pill system (ingestible biosensor within a standard gelatin capsule combined with 5-mg oxycodone) that when ingested, is activated by the chloride ion gradient in the stomach thereby emitting a radiofrequency signal captured by a wearable reader. The reader relays ingestion data to a cloud-based server that displays ingestion events to the study team. We deployed the oxycodone digital pill among opioid-naive individuals discharged from the emergency department with acute fracture pain. Participants were trained on digital pill operation and discharged with twenty-one 5-mg oxycodone digital pills. They were instructed to take digital pills PRN for pain on discharge. We conducted a brief interview 7 days after study enrollment, at which point participants returned the digital pill system. We identified oxycodone ingestion events in real time by data from the digital pill system and performed pill counts at the return visit to validate digital pill reporting of medication ingestion. In this study, 26 individuals were approached; 16 enrolled with 15 completing the study. Participants ingested a median of 6 (3-9.5) oxycodone digital pills over the course of 7 days, with 82% of the oxycodone dose ingested in the first 3 days. In individuals who required operative repair, 86% (N = 6) continued to ingest

  2. The relative importance of ingestion for multiple pathway dose assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicker, W.; Grogan, H.; Bergstroem, U.; Hoffman, O.

    1991-01-01

    The general purpose of this report is to examine the relative importance of ingestion pathways, and particularly food chain transport in overall dose assessment. The importance of ingestion pathways is examined for various release scenarios and radionuclides because the findings are expected to differ with circumstances. The degree to which contaminated food products contribute to the total dose will affect the importance of accuracy and uncertainty of food chain model predictions, which is the main thrust of the Biospheric Model Validation Study (BIOMOVS). This analysis requires that all modes of radiation exposure be examined, including inhalation, external exposure, and the various ingestion pathways. (2 figs., 2 tabs.)

  3. Increased DNA methylation of scavenger receptor class B type I contributes to inhibitory effects of prenatal caffeine ingestion on cholesterol uptake and steroidogenesis in fetal adrenals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Dong-Mei; He, Zheng; Ma, Liang-Peng; Wang, Lin-Long [Department of Pharmacology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ping, Jie, E-mail: pingjie@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui [Department of Pharmacology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2015-06-01

    Steroid hormones synthesized from cholesterol in the fetal adrenal are crucial for fetal development. We have observed the inhibited fetal adrenal corticosterone synthesis and increased intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rate in rats under prenatal caffeine ingestion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of prenatal caffeine ingestion on cholesterol supply in fetal adrenal steroidogenesis in rats and explore the underlying epigenetic mechanisms. Pregnant Wistar rats were treated with 60 mg/kg·d caffeine from gestational day (GD) 7 to GD17. Histological changes of fetal adrenals and increased IUGR rates were observed in the caffeine group. There were significantly decreased steroid hormone contents and cholesterol supply in caffeine-treated fetal adrenals. Data from the gene expression array suggested that prenatal caffeine ingestion caused increased expression of genes related to DNA methylation and decreased expression of genes related to cholesterol uptake. The following conjoint analysis of DNA methylation array with these differentially expressed genes suggested that scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) may play an important role in caffeine-induced cholesterol supply deficiency. Moreover, real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical detection certified the inhibitory effects of caffeine on both mRNA expression and protein expression of SR-BI in the fetal adrenal. And the increased DNA methylation frequency in the proximal promoter of SR-BI was confirmed by bisulfite-sequencing PCR. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine ingestion can induce DNA hypermethylation of the SR-BI promoter in the rat fetal adrenal. These effects may lead to decreased SR-BI expression and cholesterol uptake, which inhibits steroidogenesis in the fetal adrenal. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits steroid hormone production in the fetal adrenal. • Prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits cholesterol uptake in the fetal adrenal. • Prenatal caffeine

  4. Increased DNA methylation of scavenger receptor class B type I contributes to inhibitory effects of prenatal caffeine ingestion on cholesterol uptake and steroidogenesis in fetal adrenals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Dong-Mei; He, Zheng; Ma, Liang-Peng; Wang, Lin-Long; Ping, Jie; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Steroid hormones synthesized from cholesterol in the fetal adrenal are crucial for fetal development. We have observed the inhibited fetal adrenal corticosterone synthesis and increased intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rate in rats under prenatal caffeine ingestion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of prenatal caffeine ingestion on cholesterol supply in fetal adrenal steroidogenesis in rats and explore the underlying epigenetic mechanisms. Pregnant Wistar rats were treated with 60 mg/kg·d caffeine from gestational day (GD) 7 to GD17. Histological changes of fetal adrenals and increased IUGR rates were observed in the caffeine group. There were significantly decreased steroid hormone contents and cholesterol supply in caffeine-treated fetal adrenals. Data from the gene expression array suggested that prenatal caffeine ingestion caused increased expression of genes related to DNA methylation and decreased expression of genes related to cholesterol uptake. The following conjoint analysis of DNA methylation array with these differentially expressed genes suggested that scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) may play an important role in caffeine-induced cholesterol supply deficiency. Moreover, real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical detection certified the inhibitory effects of caffeine on both mRNA expression and protein expression of SR-BI in the fetal adrenal. And the increased DNA methylation frequency in the proximal promoter of SR-BI was confirmed by bisulfite-sequencing PCR. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine ingestion can induce DNA hypermethylation of the SR-BI promoter in the rat fetal adrenal. These effects may lead to decreased SR-BI expression and cholesterol uptake, which inhibits steroidogenesis in the fetal adrenal. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits steroid hormone production in the fetal adrenal. • Prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits cholesterol uptake in the fetal adrenal. • Prenatal caffeine

  5. The ingestion pathway comments and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonnell, Lawrence J.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: The Ingestion Pathway and its recent emphasis on planning for nuclear power plant emergencies has created activity at all levels of government. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) guidelines have been developed and there has been an urgency placed on implementing these guides and planning standards at all levels of government. This global approach has led to confusion and in some cases rapid development of public brochures at the state level. These brochures are meant to educate the public in the need for protective action in the ingestion pathway. Some forethought on the planning process and the integration of the protective action guidelines seems in order. Some issues that should be addressed are listed below: Suggested consideration of issues to facilitate the planning process: - Review existing technical specifications of nuclear power plants requiring environmental monitoring. This should provide at least the baseline sampling of food products for site specific plants; - Review state monitoring/analysis of sampling programs and NRC contracts to states for radiological monitoring of nuclear power facilities; - Encourage each state to involve food producers at an early date in the planning development. Such producer associations as the Daily Associations, Marketing Boards, and Cooperatives are valuable resources in implementing plans because they represent the affected economic impacted parties; - Involve and educate the agricultural extension agencies in the planning process so they can inform the public through their usual points of contact; - Set up principle agency responsibilities in existing state specific framework. For example, the farm or food producers normally are familiar with their extension agents. Use this relationship to help the affected producers understand the protective actions that will be implemented in case of severe nuclear power plant accidents; - Recognize that the disaster services agencies are lead agencies for

  6. Effects of chronic cesium-137 ingestion on physiological system in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voisin, Philippe; Grignard, Elise; Souidi, Maamar; Gueguen, Yann; Lestaevel, Philippe; Grandcolas, Line; Grison, Stephane; Dublineau, Isabelle; Gourmelon, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Several diseases have been reported in populations living in contaminated territories in the vicinity of Chernobyl, such as behavior disorders, anxiety symptoms, cardiovascular diseases, perturbations of endocrine and reproductive status, immunity disturbances. Therefore, the post-Chernobyl contamination by 137 Cs is of particular concern for public health. The objective of this study was to determine in a rat model the effects of 137 Cs contamination by ingestion of 6500 Bq/L on several physiological systems, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, steroidogenesis, intestinal functions, metabolism of cholesterol and of vitamin D. The animals were chronically and sub-chronically contaminated via drinking water (∼150 Bq per day) at a post-accidental dose level. Our experiments demonstrated that chronic ingestion of 137 Cs induced some disturbances of these systems. A decrease in blood pressure was observed in contaminated animals. At the same time, changes in cardiac function were evidenced via increased plasma levels of CK and CK-MB and variations in gene expression of proteins involved in vascular tonus (Gueguen et al. Toxicol Lett 2007), and of K + channels in cardiac left ventricle. Vitamin D metabolism was also modified by 137 Cs with a diminution of plasma level of Vitamin D (1,25(OH)D3), and changes in mRNA levels of cytochrome P450 CYP27B1 and CYP2R1 in brain and liver (Tissandie et al. Toxicology 2006). Concerning cholesterol metabolism, no changes in plasma lipid levels were noted, although increased gene expression of liver X receptor α (LXRα), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) (Souidi et al. Int J Toxicol 2006). In addition, steroidogenesis seemed to be modified, since decreased plasma level of 17β-estradiol and increased corticosterone plasma level were observed following chronic 137 Cs ingestion. These changes were associated with modification of mRNA levels of nuclear receptors in testis and of

  7. Chronic effects of cesium-137 ingestion on physiological systems in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voisin, Philippe; Grignard, Elise; Souidi, Maamar; Gueguen, Yann; Lestaevel, Philippe; Grandcolas, Line; Grison, Stephane; Dublineau, Isabelle; Gourmelon, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The post-Chernobyl contamination by cesium-137 is of particular concern for public health. Several diseases have been reported in populations living in contaminated territories, such as behavior disorders, anxiety symptoms, cardiovascular diseases, perturbations of endocrine and reproductive status, immunity disturbances. The objective of this study was to determine in a rat model the effects of 137 Cs contamination by ingestion of post-accidental dose (6500 Bq/L) on several physiological systems, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, steroidogenesis, intestinal functions, and metabolism of cholesterol and of vitamin D. The animals were chronically and sub chronically contaminated via drinking water (∼150Bq per day). These experiments demonstrated that chronic ingestion of 137 Cs induced modifications of these physiological systems. A decrease in blood pressure was observed in contaminated animals. At the same time, changes in cardiac function were evidenced via increased plasma levels of CK and CK-MB and variations in gene expression of proteins involved in vascular tonus and of K + channels in cardiac left ventricle. Vitamin D metabolism was also modified by 137 Cs with a diminution of plasma level of Vitamin D (1,25(OH)D3), and changes in mRNA levels of cytochrome P450 CYP27B1 and CYP2R1 in brain and liver. Concerning cholesterol metabolism, no changes in plasma lipid levels were noted, although increased gene expression of liver X receptor α (LXRα), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB). In addition, steroidogenesis seemed to be modified, since decreased plasma level of 17β-estradiol and increased corticosterone plasma level were observed following chronic 137 Cs ingestion. These changes were associated with modification of mRNA levels of nuclear receptors in testis and of cytochrome P450 CYP11a1 in adrenal. Evaluation of intestine function demonstrated few effects of 137 Cs after chronic ingestion, except

  8. Contribution of inhalation by food animals to man's ingestion dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, R.

    1985-01-01

    Animals' inhalation (AI) pathway was evaluated for 57 radionuclides using infant dose predictions from the food-chain model LIMCAL. With ingestion transfer coefficients fMi to define transfer from the respiratory tract to milk, the AI pathway appeared to be insignificant compared to animals' plant ingestion, as implicitly assumed in most environmental assessment models for nuclear installations. Using ICRP Publication 30 respiratory clearance models for man to adjust ingestion transfer coefficients, animals' inhalation appeared to be important, particularly for some actinide radionuclides. The AI pathway also appeared to be significant relative to man's inhalation, especially for infants. The importance of the AI pathway varied greatly between radionuclides, and results strongly suggest that it cannot be ignored in environmental assessments. Until better data become available to implement this pathway fully, adjusted ingestion transfer coefficient values can be used for transfer from animals' respiratory tract to milk and other food products

  9. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  10. Linking plastic ingestion research with marine wildlife conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery-Gomm, Stephanie; Borrelle, Stephanie B; Provencher, Jennifer F

    2018-05-16

    Plastic is an increasingly pervasive marine pollutant. Concomitantly, the number of studies documenting plastic ingestion in wildlife is accelerating. Many of these studies aim to provide a baseline against which future levels of plastic ingestion can be compared, and are motivated by an underlying interest in the conservation of their study species and ecosystems. Although this research has helped to raise the profile of plastic as a pollutant of emerging concern, there is a disconnect between research examining plastic pollution and wildlife conservation. We present ideas to further discussion about how plastic ingestion research could benefit wildlife conservation by prioritising studies that elucidates the significance of plastic pollution as a population-level threat, identifies vulnerable populations, and evaluates strategies for mitigating impacts. The benefit of plastic ingestion research to marine wildlife can be improved by establishing a clearer understanding of how discoveries will be integrated into conservation and policy actions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Ocular Dynamics of Bolus Ingestion of Eleis guineensis Sap (Palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elaeis guineensis), and is widely consumed among the various ethnic nationalities in Nigeria. The effect of bolus ingestion of 600ml, palm wine was undertaken so as to determine its ocular dynamics in healthy volunteers. Results showed that ...

  12. Predictors of Recurrent Ingestion of Gastrointestinal Foreign Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian C Grimes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal foreign bodies are commonly encountered; however, little knowledge exists as to the causes of foreign body ingestions and why they occur repeatedly in some patients.

  13. Rare-earth magnet ingestion: a childhood danger reaches adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Beesan Shalabi; Sturm, Jesse J; Costello, Brian E

    2013-10-01

    Ingestion of multiple magnets may cause serious gastrointestinal morbidity, such as pressure necrosis, perforation, fistula formation, or intestinal obstruction due to forceful attraction across bowel wall. Although the consequences of multiple magnet ingestion are well documented in young children, the current popularity of small, powerful rare-earth magnets marketed as "desk toys" has heightened this safety concern in all pediatric age groups. A recent US Consumer Product Safety Commission product-wide warning additionally reports the adolescent practice of using toy high-powered, ball-bearing magnets to simulate tongue and lip piercings, a behavior that may increase risk of inadvertent ingestion. We describe 2 cases of older children (male; aged 10 and 13 years, respectively) with unintentional ingestion of multiple rare-earth magnets. Health care providers should be alerted to the potential for misuse of these high-powered, ball-bearing magnets among older children and adolescents.

  14. Post-exercise ingestion of a carbohydrate and casein hydrolysate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    an isocaloric carbohydrate and protein supplement and ingested the assigned ..... week, and day showed that the 4-way interaction with “condition” ..... on markers of muscle recovery following soccer training: a randomized cross-over study.

  15. Ingested metallic foreign body lodged in the appendix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Sarkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-year-old child ingested a metallic screw 3 months prior to admission. At laparotomy, the foreign body was found to be lodged inside the vermiform appendix, and was removed by appendicectomy.

  16. Influence of Sensor Ingestion Timing on Consistency of Temperature Measures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodman, Daniel A; Kenefick, Robert W; Cadarette, Bruce S; Cheuvront, Samuel N

    2009-01-01

    ... (ITS) to measure core body temperature have been demonstrated. However, the effect of elapsed time between ITS ingestion and Tint measurement has not been thoroughly studied. Methods: Eight volunteers...

  17. Building scalable digital library ingestion pipelines using microservices

    OpenAIRE

    Cancellieri, Matteo; Pontika, Nancy; Pearce, Samuel; Anastasiou, Lucas; Knoth, Petr

    2017-01-01

    CORE, a harvesting service offering access to millions of open access research papers from around the world, has shifted its harvesting process from following a monolithic approach to the adoption of a microservices infrastructure. In this paper, we explain how we rearranged and re-scheduled our old ingestion pipeline, present CORE's move to managing microservices and outline the tools we use in a new and optimised ingestion system. In addition, we discuss the ineffciencies of our old harvest...

  18. Food control concept: Food safety/ingestion issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, B.

    1995-01-01

    This talk outlines the issues in food safety/ingestion in the case of radiation accidents at nuclear power plants and how emergency preparedness plans can/should be tailored. The major topics are as follows: In Washington: food safety/ingestion issues exist at transition between response and regulatory worlds; agricultural concerns; customer concerns; Three Mile Island: detailed maps; development of response procedures; development of tools; legal issues

  19. Clinical evaluation of disc battery ingestion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshemirani, AliReza; Khaleghnejad-Tabari, Ahmad; Kouranloo, Jaefar; Sadeghian, Naser; Rouzrokh, Mohsen; Roshanzamir, Fatolah; Razavi, Sajad; Sayary, Ali Akbar; Imanzadeh, Farid

    2012-04-01

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics, management, and outcomes of disc battery ingestion in children. METHODS We reviewed the medical records of children admitted to Mofid Children's Hospital due to disc battery ingestion from January 2006 to January 2010. Clear history, clinical symptoms and results of imaging studies revealed diagnosis of disc battery ingestion in suspected patients. The clinical data reviewed included age, gender, clinical manifestation, radiologic findings, location of disc battery, duration of ingestion, endoscopic results and surgical treatment. RESULTS We found 22 cases (11 males and 11 females) of disc battery ingestion with a mean age of 4.3 years (range: 9 months to 12 years). Common symptoms were vomiting, cough, dysphagia, and dyspnea. The mean duration of ingestion was 2.7 days (4 hours to 1.5 months). A total of 19 patients had histories of disc battery ingestion, but three cases referred with the above symptoms, and the batteries were accidentally found by x-ray. Only three cases had batteries impacted in the esophagus. Twelve batteries were removed endoscopically, 6 batteries spontaneously passed through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract within 5 to 7 days, and 4 patients underwent surgery due to complications: 3 due to tracheo-esophageal fistula (TEF) and 1 due to intestinal perforation. There was no mortality in our study. CONCLUSION Most cases of disc battery ingestion run uneventful courses, but some may be complicated. If the battery lodges in the esophagus, emergency endoscopic management is necessary. However, once in the stomach, it will usually pass through the GI tract.

  20. Acute abdomen caused by ingested chicken wishbone: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hoxha, Faton T; Hashani, Shemsedin I; Komoni, Driton S; Gashi-Luci, Lumturije H; Kurshumliu, Fisnik I; Hashimi, Medita SH; Krasniqi, Avdyl S

    2009-01-01

    Introduction An ingested foreign body often passes the gastrointestinal tract without any complications. Foreign bodies, such as dentures, fish bones, chicken bones, and toothpicks, have been known to cause perforation of the GI tract. Case presentation We are presenting a case of a fifty-year-old male with acute abdomen; diffuse fibro purulent peritonitis, i.e. ileum perforation, caused by accidentally ingesting a chicken wishbone. He was treated surgically with ileum resection, and temporar...

  1. Heartburn and regurgitation in pregnancy: the effect of fat ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Alba, Valesca; Fornari, Fernando; Krahe, Cláudio; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia Maria; Silva de Barros, Sérgio Gabriel

    2010-06-01

    Reflux symptoms are common in pregnancy, but their association with fat ingestion is unclear. To investigate an association of dietary fats with heartburn and regurgitation in pregnancy. This is a prospective study in which 89 pregnant women (gestational age 34 +/- 4 weeks) attending a low-risk prenatal outpatient clinic were asked to provide information on the frequency they experienced heartburn and regurgitation. Fat ingestion was estimated by means of a 24-h diet record. Symptomatic patients were compared with those with no reflux symptoms (n = 20). Heartburn once a week or more often occurred in 56 of the 89 patients (63%). The ingested amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids was higher in patients with heartburn (11.2 +/- 6.4 vs. 7.7 +/- 3.5 mg; P = 0.022) than in controls after adjusting for age, gain weight during pregnancy, ingestion of caffeine and vitamin C, and total energetic intake. The ingestion of monounsaturated fatty acids was higher in patients with heartburn, but with a borderline statistical significance (16.1 +/- 11 vs. 11.8 +/- 6.5 mg; P = 0.061). No association was observed between the consumption of fats and regurgitation. This study suggests that heartburn in the third trimester of pregnancy is associated with the ingestion of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  2. Ingested razor blades within the appendix: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Cui

    Full Text Available Introduction: Foreign body ingestion is a common clinical presentation with less than 1% of the cases requiring surgical intervention. In this report, we present a rare case of razor blades lodged in the appendix as a result of intentional ingestion. Presentation of case: A 25 year old male prisoner presented to our hospital with persistent right iliac fossa pain after razor blade ingestion. After 5 days of conservative management, there was no sign of transition on serial X-Rays. Laparoscopy with intraoperative image intensification confirmed the presence of the razor blades in the appendix and appendicectomy was subsequently performed without complications. Discussion: Most ingested objected with diameter less than 2.5 cm and length less than 6 cm can pass through the gastrointestinal tract spontaneously in less than one week. The entry of foreign objects into the appendix is thought to be due to relative low motility of the caecum, the dependent position of the appendix and the size of the appendiceal orifice. Radiographic localisation to the appendiceal lumen was complicated by metallic artefact, but was consistent with failure to transit. Appendicectomy was felt to be the safest mode of retrieval. Conclusion: Ingested foreign body lodged in the appendix is a rare event. Once the exact location is confirmed, a simple laparoscopic appendicectomy can be performed to facilitate the removal. Keywords: Appendicitis, Laparoscopy, Appendicectomy, Foreign body ingestion, Razor blades, Case report

  3. Energy intake and obesity: ingestive frequency outweighs portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Richard

    2014-07-01

    Energy intake is a function of the quantity of energy consumed per ingestive event and the number of these events. The marked increase of energy intake and body weight over the past 35 years indicates that there has been poor precision in the reciprocity of these two facets of intake. With recent study of the associations between gut "satiation" peptides and energy intake, there has been an emphasis on the contribution of portion size to positive energy balance. However, this orientation may not appropriately weight the contribution of ingestive frequency. Gut peptides are not purely satiation factors and metabolic and environmental cues may more strongly guide the onset and number of ingestive events. Evidence is presented that while both portion size and ingestive frequency have increased in the population, the latter may be more problematic for weight gain. The magnitude and time course of increments in ingestive frequency map better onto energy intake and BMI trends than changes of portion size. This may occur, in part, because dietary compensation and thermogenic effects are weaker for increases in ingestive frequency than portion size. Though not to the exclusion of consideration of portion size effects, improved weight management may be achieved with greater attention to the drivers of eating and drinking frequency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Influence of Pre-Exercise Glucose versus Fructose Ingestion on Subsequent Postprandial Lipemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Jen Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of low glycemic index (LGI carbohydrate (CHO before exercise induced less insulin response and higher fat oxidation than that of high GI (HGI CHO during subsequent exercise. However, the effect on the subsequent postprandial lipid profile is still unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate ingestion of CHO drinks with different GI using fructose and glucose before endurance exercise on the subsequent postprandial lipid profile. Eight healthy active males completed two experimental trials in randomized double-blind cross-over design. All participants ingested 500 mL CHO (75 g solution either fructose (F or glucose (G before running on the treadmill at 60% VO2max for 1 h. Participants were asked to take an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT immediately after the exercise. Blood samples were obtained for plasma and serum analysis. The F trial was significantly lower than the G trial in TG total area under the curve (AUC; 9.97 ± 3.64 vs. 10.91 ± 3.56 mmol × 6 h/L; p = 0.033 and incremental AUC (6.57 ± 2.46 vs. 7.14 ± 2.64 mmol/L × 6 h, p = 0.004. The current data suggested that a pre-exercise fructose drink showed a lower postprandial lipemia than a glucose drink after the subsequent high-fat meal.

  5. Changes in aminoacidergic and monoaminergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus and amygdala of rats after ayahuasca ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro-Neto, Eduardo Ferreira; da Cunha, Rafael Henrique; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier; Yonamine, Mauricio; Gouveia, Telma Luciana Furtado; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Amado, Débora; Naffah-Mazzacoratti, Maria da Graça

    2013-11-26

    To evaluate changes in neurotransmission induced by a psychoactive beverage ayahuasca in the hippocampus and amygdala of naive rats. The level of monoamines, their main metabolites and amino acid neurotransmitters concentrations were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Four groups of rats were employed: saline-treated and rats receiving 250, 500 and 800 mg/kg of ayahuasca infusion (gavage). Animals were killed 40 min after drug ingestion and the structures stored at -80 °C until HPLC assay. The data from all groups were compared using Analysis of variance and Scheffé as post test and P ayahuasca. Animals that ingested 800 mg/kg of ayahuasca also showed a reduction of GLY level (0.11 ± 0.01 vs 0.29 ± 0.07, P ayahuasca doses: 250 mg/kg (1.29 ± 0.19 vs 0.84 ± 0.21, P ayahuasca administration in doses: 250 mg/kg (noradrenaline: 0.16 ± 0.02 vs 0.36 ± 0.06, P ayahuasca ingestion.

  6. Postprandial gallbladder emptying is related to intestinal motility at the time of meal ingestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oster-Jørgensen, E; Qvist, N; Pedersen, S A

    1992-01-01

    The characteristics of meal-induced gallbladder emptying in healthy individuals are subject to wide variation. We hypothesized that some of the observed variation might relate to ingestion of the meal during different phases of the migrating motor complex (MMC). Recording of gastrointestinal...... pressure was combined with scintigraphic recording of bile kinetics during infusion of 99mTc-HIDA. The material consisted of 12 healthy men. Group 1 (n = 6) had a fat-rich meal in phase I, and group 2 (n = 6) had the meal in a phase II. With the end of the meal ingestion as zero, the following results...... emerged. The subjects in group 1 had a median (range) lag period before beginning of gallbladder emptying of 13.5 (9.0-22.5) min. In group 2 gallbladder emptying began during the meal ingestion in four subjects, and the median lag period was 0 min (minimum, -9.0; maximum, 13.5 (p = 0.02)). The median...

  7. Expectancy of ergogenicity from sodium bicarbonate ingestion increases high-intensity cycling capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Matthew F; Shabir, Akbar

    2016-04-01

    This study examined whether expectancy of ergogenicity of a commonly used nutritional supplement (sodium bicarbonate; NaHCO3) influenced subsequent high-intensity cycling capacity. Eight recreationally active males (age, 21 ± 1 years; body mass, 75 ± 8 kg; height, 178 ± 4 cm; WPEAK = 205 ± 22 W) performed a graded incremental test to assess peak power output (WPEAK), one familiarisation trial and two experimental trials. Experimental trials consisted of cycling at 100% WPEAK to volitional exhaustion (TLIM) 60 min after ingesting either a placebo (PLA: 0.1 g·kg(-1) sodium chloride (NaCl), 4 mL·kg(-1) tap water, and 1 mL·kg(-1) squash) or a sham placebo (SHAM: 0.1 g·kg(-1) NaCl, 4 mL·kg(-1) carbonated water, and 1 mL·kg(-1) squash). SHAM aimed to replicate the previously reported symptoms of gut fullness (GF) and abdominal discomfort (AD) associated with NaHCO3 ingestion. Treatments were administered double blind and accompanied by written scripts designed to remain neutral (PLA) or induce expectancy of ergogenicity (SHAM). After SHAM mean TLIM increased by 9.5% compared to PLA (461 ± 148 s versus 421 ± 150 s; P = 0.048, d = 0.3). Ratings of GF and AD were mild but ~1 unit higher post-ingestion for SHAM. After 3 min TLIM overall ratings of perceived exertion were 1.4 ± 1.3 units lower for SHAM compared to PLA (P = 0.020, d = 0.6). There were no differences between treatments for blood lactate, blood glucose, or heart rate. In summary, ergogenicity after NaHCO3 ingestion may be influenced by expectancy, which mediates perception of effort during subsequent exercise. The observed ergogenicity with SHAM did not affect our measures of cardiorespiratory physiology or metabolic flux.

  8. Ketone Diester Ingestion Impairs Time-Trial Performance in Professional Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill J. Leckey

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of pre- “race” ingestion of a 1,3-butanediol acetoacetate diester on blood ketone concentration, substrate metabolism and performance of a cycling time trial (TT in professional cyclists. In a randomized cross-over design, 10 elite male cyclists completed a ~31 km laboratory-based TT on a cycling ergometer programmed to simulate the 2017 World Road Cycling Championships course. Cyclists consumed a standardized meal [2 g/kg body mass (BM carbohydrate (CHO] the evening prior to a trial day and a CHO breakfast (2 g/kg BM CHO with 200 mg caffeine on the morning of a trial day. Cyclists were randomized to consume either the ketone diester (2 × 250 mg/kg or a placebo drink, followed immediately by 200 mL diet cola, given ~ 30 min before and immediately prior to commencing a 20 min incremental warm-up. Blood samples were collected prior to and during the warm-up, pre- and post- TT and at regular intervals after the TT. Urine samples were collected pre- and post- warm-up, immediately post TT and 60 min post TT. Pre-exercise ingestion of the diester resulted in a 2 ± 1% impairment in TT performance that was associated with gut discomfort and higher perception of effort. Serum β-hydroxybutyrate, serum acetoacetate, and urine ketone concentrations increased from rest following ketone ingestion and were higher than placebo throughout the trial. Ketone ingestion induces hyperketonemia in elite professional cyclists when in a carbohydrate fed state, and impairs performance of a cycling TT lasting ~50 min.

  9. Effects of caffeine ingestion on endurance performance in mentally fatigued individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Rafael; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos David; Gualano, Bruno; Lima-Silva, Adriano E; Bertuzzi, Romulo

    2016-12-01

    To examine the effects of caffeine ingestion on physiological and perceptual responses in mentally fatigued individuals. Eight male physically active subjects completed four cycling constant-workload tests in four experimental conditions at 80 % of maximal power output: control (C), mental fatigue (MF), mental fatigue plus caffeine ingestion (5 mg/kg) (MF-CAF), and mental fatigue plus placebo (MF-PLA). The mental fatigue was induced by a continuous performance task A-X version (AX-CPT). Before and after the AX-CPT, the profile of mood state (POMS) and blood samples for lactate measurement were collected. Oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and electromyography (EMG) activity were measured during the cycling test. The time to exhaustion in C, MF, MF-PLA, and MF-CAF were 251 ± 30, 222 ± 23, 248 ± 28, and 285 ± 42 s, respectively. Delta values (corrected by C condition) were higher in MF-CAF than MF (P = 0.031). MF-CAF reported higher Vigor scores when compared with C (P = 0.046) and MF (P = 0.020). RPE at the first minute was significantly higher in MF-PLA than in C (P = 0.050); at the second minute, RPE was higher in MF-PLA than in C (P = 0.049) and MF-CAF (P = 0.048). EMG activity was not different between the conditions. Caffeine ingestion increased approximately 14 % endurance performance after the induction of mental fatigue. This effect was accompanied by a tendency to improvement in mood state (i.e., vigor). Therefore, caffeine ingestion can promote a beneficial effect on endurance performance in mentally fatigued individuals.

  10. Effect of caffeine ingestion on anaerobic capacity quantified by different methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcoverde, Lucyana; Silveira, Rodrigo; Tomazini, Fabiano; Sansonio, André; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Andrade-Souza, Victor Amorim

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether caffeine ingestion before submaximal exercise bouts would affect supramaximal oxygen demand and maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD), and if caffeine-induced improvement on the anaerobic capacity (AC) could be detected by different methods. Nine men took part in several submaximal and supramaximal exercise bouts one hour after ingesting caffeine (5 mg·kg-1) or placebo. The AC was estimated by MAOD, alternative MAOD, critical power, and gross efficiency methods. Caffeine had no effect on exercise endurance during the supramaximal bout (caffeine: 131.3 ± 21.9 and placebo: 130.8 ± 20.8 s, P = 0.80). Caffeine ingestion before submaximal trials did not affect supramaximal oxygen demand and MAOD compared to placebo (7.88 ± 1.56 L and 65.80 ± 16.06 kJ vs. 7.89 ± 1.30 L and 62.85 ± 13.67 kJ, P = 0.99). Additionally, MAOD was similar between caffeine and placebo when supramaximal oxygen demand was estimated without caffeine effects during submaximal bouts (67.02 ± 16.36 and 62.85 ± 13.67 kJ, P = 0.41) or when estimated by alternative MAOD (56.61 ± 8.49 and 56.87 ± 9.76 kJ, P = 0.91). The AC estimated by gross efficiency was also similar between caffeine and placebo (21.80 ± 3.09 and 20.94 ± 2.67 kJ, P = 0.15), but was lower in caffeine when estimated by critical power method (16.2 ± 2.6 vs. 19.3 ± 3.5 kJ, P = 0.03). In conclusion, caffeine ingestion before submaximal bouts did not affect supramaximal oxygen demand and consequently MAOD. Otherwise, caffeine seems to have no clear positive effect on AC. PMID:28617848

  11. Global Analysis of Anthropogenic Debris Ingestion by Sea Turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Qamar; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Ingestion of marine debris can have lethal and sublethal effects on sea turtles and other wildlife. Although researchers have reported on ingestion of anthropogenic debris by marine turtles and implied incidences of debris ingestion have increased over time, there has not been a global synthesis of the phenomenon since 1985. Thus, we analyzed 37 studies published from 1985 to 2012 that report on data collected from before 1900 through 2011. Specifically, we investigated whether ingestion prevalence has changed over time, what types of debris are most commonly ingested, the geographic distribution of debris ingestion by marine turtles relative to global debris distribution, and which species and life-history stages are most likely to ingest debris. The probability of green (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) ingesting debris increased significantly over time, and plastic was the most commonly ingested debris. Turtles in nearly all regions studied ingest debris, but the probability of ingestion was not related to modeled debris densities. Furthermore, smaller, oceanic-stage turtles were more likely to ingest debris than coastal foragers, whereas carnivorous species were less likely to ingest debris than herbivores or gelatinovores. Our results indicate oceanic leatherback turtles and green turtles are at the greatest risk of both lethal and sublethal effects from ingested marine debris. To reduce this risk, anthropogenic debris must be managed at a global level. Análisis Global de la Ingesta de Residuos Antropogénicos por Tortugas Marinas La ingesta de residuos marinos puede tener efectos letales y subletales sobre las tortugas marinas y otros animales. Aunque hay investigadores que han reportado la ingesta de residuos antropogénicos por tortugas marinas y la incidencia de la ingesta de residuos ha incrementado con el tiempo, no ha habido una síntesis global del fenómeno desde 1985. Por esto analizamos 37 estudios publicados, desde

  12. Immune response in mice to ingested soya protein: antibody production, oral tolerance and maternal transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Risager; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2004-01-01

    antibody response in the offspring, bat in this case in the absence of oral tolerance. This indicates that, under certain conditions, factors involved in spontaneous antibody production can be transmitted from mother to offspring. Understanding the immune response to soya protein ingested under healthy...... by ELISA, and to the presence of oral tolerance detected as a suppressed antibody and cell-proliferation response upon immunisation with soya protein. F0 mice generated soya-specific antibodies, while oral tolerance to the same soya proteins was also clearly induced. When F0 dams were transferred to soya...

  13. Microplastic ingestion in fish larvae in the western English Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, Madeleine; Cole, Matthew; Thompson, Richard C; Lindeque, Penelope K

    2017-07-01

    Microplastics have been documented in marine environments worldwide, where they pose a potential risk to biota. Environmental interactions between microplastics and lower trophic organisms are poorly understood. Coastal shelf seas are rich in productivity but also experience high levels of microplastic pollution. In these habitats, fish have an important ecological and economic role. In their early life stages, planktonic fish larvae are vulnerable to pollution, environmental stress and predation. Here we assess the occurrence of microplastic ingestion in wild fish larvae. Fish larvae and water samples were taken across three sites (10, 19 and 35 km from shore) in the western English Channel from April to June 2016. We identified 2.9% of fish larvae (n = 347) had ingested microplastics, of which 66% were blue fibres; ingested microfibers closely resembled those identified within water samples. With distance from the coast, larval fish density increased significantly (P < 0.05), while waterborne microplastic concentrations (P < 0.01) and incidence of ingestion decreased. This study provides baseline ecological data illustrating the correlation between waterborne microplastics and the incidence of ingestion in fish larvae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Polyuria, acidosis, and coma following massive ibuprofen ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Michael; Khurana, Amandeep; Ruha, Anne-Michelle

    2010-09-01

    Ibuprofen was the first over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug available in the United States. Despite being a common agent of ingestion, significant toxicity in overdose is rare. We report a case of a massive ibuprofen ingestion who developed polyuria, acidosis, and coma but survived, despite having a serum ibuprofen concentration greater than previous fatal cases. A 19-year-old man ingested 90 g (1,200 mg/kg) ibuprofen. He was initially awake and alert, but his level of consciousness deteriorated over several hours. Seven hours following the ingestion, he was intubated and mechanically ventilated secondary to loss of airway reflexes. He developed a lactic acidosis and polyuria, which lasted for nearly 24 h. His serum creatinine peaked at 1.12 mg/dL. An ibuprofen level drawn 7 h postingestion was 739.2 mg/L (therapeutic 5-49 mg/L). We describe a case of a massive ibuprofen overdose characterized by metabolic acidosis, coma, and a state of high urine output who survived with aggressive supportive care. This case is unique in several ways. First, ibuprofen levels this high have only rarely been described. Second, polyuria is very poorly described following ibuprofen ingestions.

  15. Magnet foreign body ingestion: rare occurrence but big consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Richard; Rosenfeld, Eric H; Yu, Yangyang R; St Peter, Shawn D; Shah, Sohail R

    2017-08-24

    To review the outcomes of magnet ingestions from two children's hospitals and develop a clinical management pathway. Children magnet were reviewed from 1/2011 to 6/2016 from two tertiary center children's hospitals. Demographics, symptoms, management and outcomes were analyzed. From 2011 to 2016, there were 89 magnet ingestions (50 from hospital 1 and 39 from hospital 2); 50 (56%) were males. Median age was 7.9 (4.0-12.0) years; 60 (67%) presented with multiple magnets or a magnet and a second metallic co-ingestion. Suspected locations found on imaging were: stomach (53%), small bowel (38%), colon (23%) and esophagus (3%). Only 35 patients (39%) presented with symptoms and the most common symptom was abdominal pain (33%). 42 (47%) patients underwent an intervention, in which 20 (23%) had an abdominal operation. For those undergoing abdominal surgery, an exact logistic regression model identified multiple magnets or a magnet and a second metallic object co-ingestion (OR 12.9; 95% CI, 2.4 - Infinity) and abdominal pain (OR 13.0; 95% CI, 3.2-67.8) as independent risk factors. Magnets have a high risk of requiring surgical intervention for removal. Therefore, we developed a management algorithm for magnet ingestion. Level III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Magnet ingestions in children: a French multicenter study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talvard, M; Mouttalib, S; Flaum, V; Viala, J; Galinier, P; Olives, J-P; Mas, E

    2015-01-01

    Digestive complications related to the ingestion of magnetic foreign bodies in children are increasing, especially in Asia and North America. In France, several case reports have been reported since 2008. We conducted a retrospective multicentric study to evaluate the frequency of ingestion of magnet foreign bodies and to describe the complicated cases that have occurred in France over the last 5 years. We report 40 cases of which 60% were multiple magnet ingestions. Eighty-eight percent of the children of the group who had swallowed multiple magnets needed interventional management by endoscopy (33%) or surgery (58%). Only two children (12.5%) of the group who swallowed one magnet required removal. This problem is not uncommon in France (2% of the 1132 foreign bodies investigated in the Toulouse center over 5 years), which justifies clear information for healthcare professionals and caregivers in order to avoid potential intestinal complications. We suggest interventional management or very close monitoring in the cases of multiple magnet ingestion. Meanwhile, in the majority of confirmed cases of simple magnet ingestions, we propose home monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Prediction of complications following unintentional caustic ingestion in children. Is endoscopy always necessary?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, H B

    1995-01-01

    The records of 115 children hospitalized following caustic ingestion over an 18.5-year period from 1976 to 1994 were reviewed. The relationship between types of product ingested, signs and symptoms, degree of esophageal injury and complications was analyzed. All complications were the result...... of strong alkali ingestion (sensitivity = 1.0). Among the 102 incident patients, 36.8% of lye ingestions resulted in complications, whereas only 2.7% (one) of automatic dishwasher detergent (ADD) ingestions caused any complications (p

  18. Visual expression analysis of the responses of the alternative oxidase gene (aox1) to heat shock, oxidative, and osmotic stresses in conidia of citric acid-producing Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Yuki; Hattori, Takasumi; Kirimura, Kohtaro

    2012-03-01

    The citric acid-producing filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger WU-2223L shows cyanide-insensitive respiration catalyzed by alternative oxidase in addition to the cytochrome pathway. Sequence analysis of the 5' flanking region of the alternative oxidase gene (aox1) revealed a potential heat shock element (HSE) and a stress response element (STRE). We have previously confirmed aox1 expression in conidia. In this study, to confirm whether the upstream region of aox1 responds to various stresses, we used a visual expression analysis system for single-cell conidia of the A. niger strain AOXEGFP-1. This strain harbored a fusion gene comprising aox1 and egfp, which encodes the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The fluorescence intensity of EGFP increased in conidia of A. niger AOXEGFP-1 that were subjected to heat shock at 35-45 °C, oxidative stress by exposure to 5mM paraquat or 1 mM t-butylhydroperoxide, or osmotic stresses by exposure to 0.5 M KCl or 1.0 M mannitol. These results indicate that the putative HSE and STRE in the upstream region of aox1 directly or indirectly respond to heat shock, oxidative, and osmotic stresses. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Severe hypoglycaemia associated with ingesting counterfeit medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Santosh K; Sangla, Kunwarjit S; Suthaharan, Emershia N; Tan, Yong M

    2010-06-21

    Cross-border importation of traditional and prescription medications is common, and many of these drugs are not approved by the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration. Furthermore, counterfeit versions of prescription medications are also available (eg, weight-loss medications, anabolic steroids, and medications to enhance sexual performance). We describe a 54-year-old man with the first Australian case of severe hypoglycaemia induced by imported, laboratory-confirmed counterfeit Cialis. This serves to remind medical practitioners that counterfeit medication may be the cause of severe hypoglycaemia (or other unexplained illness).

  20. An ingested foreign body: two sides of the same coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadharajan, Kiran; Magill, Jennifer; Patel, Kalpesh

    2014-04-09

    A 2-year-old child presented to the emergency department with an acute onset of dysphagia and stertor. A plain anteroposterior chest X-ray revealed a single circular opacity in the middle third of the oesophagus consistent with an ingested coin. The child was taken to the theatre for rigid pharyngo-oesophagoscopy and removal of the coin. After the first coin was removed subsequent endoscopic examination revealed a second coin at the same location. This extremely rare case of two ingested coins becoming impacted with perfect radiological alignment emphasises the importance of thorough examination on endoscopy and the potential limitations of an X-ray in initial assessment of an ingested foreign body.

  1. An Ingested Orthodontic Wire Fragment: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puryer, James; McNamara, Catherine; Sandy, Jonathan; Ireland, Tony

    2016-08-01

    Accidental ingestion or inhalation of foreign bodies has been widely documented, including incidents which occur whilst undertaking dental treatment. Most ingested objects pass through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) spontaneously, but approximately 10%-20% need to be removed endoscopically and 1% require surgery. This case reports a complication arising from the accidental loss of an archwire fragment during maxillary archwire placement. It describes the immediate and subsequent management, including the use of radiographs to track the passage of the fragment through the gastro-intestinal tract. This case stresses the vigilance that dentists must take to prevent inhalation or ingestion of foreign bodies and the consequences of time-delays when management decisions are needed.

  2. Ingesting a small amount of beer reduces arterial stiffness in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiwaki, Masato; Kora, Naoki; Matsumoto, Naoyuki

    2017-08-01

    Epidemiological studies reveal a J-shaped association between alcohol consumption and arterial stiffness, with arterial stiffening lower among mild-to-moderate drinkers than heavy drinkers or nondrinkers. This study aimed to examine the effects of ingesting a small amount of beer, corresponding to the amount consumed per day by a mild drinker, on arterial stiffness. Eleven men (20-22 years) participated, in random order and on different days, in four separate trials. The participants each drank 200 or 350 mL of alcohol-free beer (AFB200 and AFB350) or beer (B200 and B350), and were monitored for 90 min postingestion. There were no significant changes in arterial stiffness among trials that ingested AF200 or AF350. However, among trials ingesting B200 and B350, breath alcohol concentrations increased significantly, while indexes of arterial stiffness decreased significantly for approximately 60 min: carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (B200: -0.6 ± 0.2 m/sec; B350: -0.6 ± 0.2 m/sec); brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (B200: -53 ± 18 cm/sec; B350: -57 ± 19 cm/sec); and cardio-ankle vascular index (B200: -0.4 ± 0.1 unit; B350: -0.3 ± 0.1 unit). Furthermore, AFB showed no effect on arterial stiffness, regardless of whether or not it contained sugar, and no significant difference in antioxidant capacity was found between AFB and B. This is the first study to demonstrate that acute ingestion of relatively small amounts of beer reduces arterial stiffness (for approximately 60 min). Our data also suggest that the reduction in arterial stiffness induced by ingestion of beer is largely attributable to the effects of alcohol. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  3. Influence of a chronic 90Sr contamination by ingestion on the hematopoietic, immune and bone systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synhaeve, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Strontium 90 ( 90 Sr) is a radionuclide of anthropogenic origin released in large quantities in the environment as a result of nuclear atmospheric tests or accidents at nuclear facilities. 90 Sr persists on a long-term basis in the environment, leading to chronic contamination by ingestion of populations living on contaminated territories. The induction of bone tumours associated with the fixation of 90 Sr has been widely described. However, the occurrence of non-cancer effects is much less known. We used a mouse model with chronic contamination by ingestion of water containing 20 kBq/l of 90 Sr. A bio-kinetic study confirmed the accumulation of 90 Sr in the bones, with an increased rate of accumulation during bone growth. This accumulation was higher in the bones of females than in males. The whole-body absorbed doses ranged from 0.33 ± 0.06 mGy (birth) to 10.6 ± 0.1 mGy (20 weeks). The absorbed dose for the skeleton was up to 55 mGy. Ingestion of 90 Sr induced a change in the expression of genes inducing an imbalance in favour of bone resorption, but without effect on bone morphology. No significant effect was observed for the hematopoietic system. On the other hand, minor modifications were observed for the immune system. To evaluate the functionality of the immune system, a vaccination test with TT and KLH antigens was used. Results showed in contaminated animals a significant decrease in the production of specific immunoglobulins, changes in the Th1/Th2 balance in the spleen and a disrupted B lymphocyte differentiation. These results improve the understanding of some of the noncancerous consequences of chronic exposure at low dose of radionuclides with a long half-life, which can be accidentally released. (author)

  4. Influence of a chronic 90Sr contamination by ingestion on the hematopoietic, immune and bone systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synhaeve, N.

    2011-12-01

    Strontium 90 ( 90 Sr) is a radionuclide of anthropogenic origin released in large quantities in the environment as a result of nuclear atmospheric tests or accidents at nuclear facilities. 90 Sr persists on a long-term basis in the environment, leading to chronic contamination by ingestion of populations living on contaminated territories. The induction of bone tumours associated with the fixation of 90 Sr has been widely described. However, the occurrence of non-cancer effects is much less known. We used a mouse model with chronic contamination by ingestion of water containing 20 kBq/l of 90 Sr. A biokinetic study confirmed the accumulation of 90 Sr in the bones, with an increased rate of accumulation during bone growth. This accumulation was higher in the bones of females than in males. The whole-body absorbed doses ranged from 0.33 ± 0.06 mGy (birth) to 10.6 ± 0.1 mGy (20 weeks). The absorbed dose for the skeleton was up to 55 mGy. Ingestion of 90 Sr induced a change in the expression of genes inducing an imbalance in favour of bone resorption, but without effect on bone morphology. No significant effect was observed for the hematopoietic system. On the other hand, minor modifications were observed for the immune system. To evaluate the functionality of the immune system, a vaccination test with TT and KLH antigens was used. Results showed in contaminated animals a significant decrease in the production of specific immunoglobulins, changes in the Th1/Th2 balance in the spleen and a disrupted B lymphocyte differentiation. These results improve the understanding of some of the non-cancerous consequences of chronic exposure at low dose of radionuclides with a long half-life, which can be accidentally released. (author)

  5. Ingestion of onion soup high in quercetin inhibits platelet aggregation and essential components of the collagen-stimulated platelet activation pathway in man: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Gary P; Wolffram, Siegfried; de Vos, Ric; Bovy, Arnaud; Gibbins, Jonathan M; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2006-09-01

    Epidemiological data suggest that those who consume a diet rich in quercetin-containing foods may have a reduced risk of CVD. Furthermore, in vitro and ex vivo studies have observed the inhibition of collagen-induced platelet activation by quercetin. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible inhibitory effects of quercetin ingestion from a dietary source on collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation and signalling. A double-blind randomised cross-over pilot study was undertaken. Subjects ingested a soup containing either a high or a low amount of quercetin. Plasma quercetin concentrations and platelet aggregation and signalling were assessed after soup ingestion. The high-quercetin soup contained 69 mg total quercetin compared with the low-quercetin soup containing 5 mg total quercetin. Plasma quercetin concentrations were significantly higher after high-quercetin soup ingestion than after low-quercetin soup ingestion and peaked at 2.59 (sem 0.42) mumol/l. Collagen-stimulated (0.5 mug/ml) platelet aggregation was inhibited after ingestion of the high-quercetin soup in a time-dependent manner. Collagen-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of a key component of the collagen-signalling pathway via glycoprotein VI, Syk, was significantly inhibited by ingestion of the high-quercetin soup. The inhibition of Syk tyrosine phosphorylation was correlated with the area under the curve for the high-quercetin plasma profile. In conclusion, the ingestion of quercetin from a dietary source of onion soup could inhibit some aspects of collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation and signalling ex vivo. This further substantiates the epidemiological data suggesting that those who preferentially consume high amounts of quercetin-containing foods have a reduced risk of thrombosis and potential CVD risk.

  6. Microplastics ingestion by a common tropical freshwater fishing resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Cavalcanti, Jacqueline Santos; Silva, José Diego B; França, Elton José de; Araújo, Maria Christina Barbosa de; Gusmão, Felipe

    2017-02-01

    Microplastics pollution is widespread in marine ecosystems and a major threat to biodiversity. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the impacts of microplastics in freshwater environments and biota is still very limited. The interaction of microplastics with freshwater organisms and the risks associated with the human consumption of organisms that ingested microplastics remain major knowledge gaps. In this study, we assessed the ingestion of microplastics by Hoplosternum littorale, a common freshwater fish heavily consumed by humans in semi-arid regions of South America. We assessed the abundance and diversity of both plastic debris and other food items found in the gut of fishes caught by local fishermen. We observed that 83% of the fish had plastic debris inside the gut, the highest frequency reported for a fish species so far. Most of the plastic debris (88.6%) recovered from the guts of fish were microplastics (microplastics at the urbanized sections of the river, and that the ingestion of microplastics was negatively correlated with the diversity of other food items in the gut of individual fish. Nevertheless, microplastics ingestion appears to have a limited impact on H. littorale, and the consequences of human consumption of this fish were not assessed. Our results suggest freshwater biota are vulnerable to microplastics pollution and that urbanization is a major factor contributing to the pollution of freshwater environments with microplastics. We suggest the gut content of fish could be used as a tool for the qualitative assessment of microplastics pollution in freshwater ecosystems. Further research is needed to determine the processes responsible for the high incidence of microplastics ingestion by H. littorale, and to evaluate the risk posed to humans by the consumption of freshwater fish that ingested microplastics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. When do we eat? Ingestive behavior, survival, and reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jill E; Wise, Justina D; Benton, Noah A; Brozek, Jeremy M; Keen-Rhinehart, Erin

    2013-09-01

    The neuroendocrinology of ingestive behavior is a topic central to human health, particularly in light of the prevalence of obesity, eating disorders, and diabetes. The study of food intake in laboratory rats and mice has yielded some useful hypotheses, but there are still many gaps in our knowledge. Ingestive behavior is more complex than the consummatory act of eating, and decisions about when and how much to eat usually take place in the context of potential mating partners, competitors, predators, and environmental fluctuations that are not present in the laboratory. We emphasize appetitive behaviors, actions that bring animals in contact with a goal object, precede consummatory behaviors, and provide a window into motivation. Appetitive ingestive behaviors are under the control of neural circuits and neuropeptide systems that control appetitive sex behaviors and differ from those that control consummatory ingestive behaviors. Decreases in the availability of oxidizable metabolic fuels enhance the stimulatory effects of peripheral hormones on appetitive ingestive behavior and the inhibitory effects on appetitive sex behavior, putting a new twist on the notion of leptin, insulin, and ghrelin "resistance." The ratio of hormone concentrations to the availability of oxidizable metabolic fuels may generate a critical signal that schedules conflicting behaviors, e.g., mate searching vs. foraging, food hoarding vs. courtship, and fat accumulation vs. parental care. In species representing every vertebrate taxa and even in some invertebrates, many putative "satiety" or "hunger" hormones function to schedule ingestive behavior in order to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy availability fluctuates. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Ingestion of Different Amounts of Carbohydrate after Endurance Exercise on Circulating Cytokines and Markers of Neutrophil Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumpei Tanisawa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to examine the effects of ingestion of different amounts of carbohydrate (CHO after endurance exercise on neutrophil count, circulating cytokine levels, and the markers of neutrophil activation and muscle damage. Nine participants completed three separate experimental trials consisting of 1 h of cycling exercise at 70% V · O2 max, followed by ingestion of 1.2 g CHO·kg body mass−1·h−1 (HCHO trial, 0.2 g CHO·kg body mass−1·h−1 (LCHO trial, or placebo (PLA trial during the 2 h recovery phase in random order. Circulating glucose, insulin, and cytokine levels, blood cell counts, and the markers of neutrophil activation and muscle damage were measured. The concentrations of plasma glucose and serum insulin at 1 h after exercise were higher in the HCHO trial than in the LCHO and PLA trials. Although there were significant main effects of time on several variables, including neutrophil count, cytokine levels, and the markers of neutrophil activation and muscle damage, significant time × trial interactions were not observed for any variables. These results suggest that CHO ingestion after endurance exercise does not enhance exercise-induced increase in circulating neutrophil and cytokine levels and markers of neutrophil activation and muscle damage, regardless of the amount of CHO ingested.

  9. Post-Exercise Muscle Protein Synthesis in Rats after Ingestion of Acidified Bovine Milk Compared with Skim Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Kyosuke; Kanda, Atsushi; Tagawa, Ryoichi; Sanbongi, Chiaki; Ikegami, Shuji; Itoh, Hiroyuki

    2017-09-27

    Bovine milk proteins have a low absorption rate due to gastric acid-induced coagulation. Acidified milk remains liquid under acidic conditions; therefore, the absorption rate of its protein may differ from that of untreated milk. To investigate how this would affect muscle protein synthesis (MPS), we compared MPS after ingestion of acidified versus skim milk in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats swam for 2 h and were immediately administered acidified or skim milk, then euthanized at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min afterwards. Triceps muscle samples were excised for assessing fractional synthetic rate (FSR), plasma components, intramuscular free amino acids and mTOR signaling. The FSR in the acidified milk group was significantly higher than in the skim milk group throughout the post-ingestive period. Plasma essential amino acids, leucine, and insulin levels were significantly increased in the acidified milk group at 30 min after administration compared to the skim milk group. In addition, acidified milk ingestion was associated with greater phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1), and sustained phosphorylation of 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). These results indicate that compared with untreated milk, acidified milk ingestion is associated with greater stimulation of post-exercise MPS.

  10. Post-Exercise Muscle Protein Synthesis in Rats after Ingestion of Acidified Bovine Milk Compared with Skim Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyosuke Nakayama

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bovine milk proteins have a low absorption rate due to gastric acid-induced coagulation. Acidified milk remains liquid under acidic conditions; therefore, the absorption rate of its protein may differ from that of untreated milk. To investigate how this would affect muscle protein synthesis (MPS, we compared MPS after ingestion of acidified versus skim milk in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats swam for 2 h and were immediately administered acidified or skim milk, then euthanized at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min afterwards. Triceps muscle samples were excised for assessing fractional synthetic rate (FSR, plasma components, intramuscular free amino acids and mTOR signaling. The FSR in the acidified milk group was significantly higher than in the skim milk group throughout the post-ingestive period. Plasma essential amino acids, leucine, and insulin levels were significantly increased in the acidified milk group at 30 min after administration compared to the skim milk group. In addition, acidified milk ingestion was associated with greater phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1, and sustained phosphorylation of 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1. These results indicate that compared with untreated milk, acidified milk ingestion is associated with greater stimulation of post-exercise MPS.

  11. Ballpoint pen ingestion in a 2-year-old child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameau, Anaïs; Anand, Sumeet M; Nguyen, Lily H

    2011-07-01

    A 2-year-old girl ingested a ballpoint pen, which was found on chest x-ray to have lodged in the lower esophagus and stomach. The pen, which measured nearly 15 cm in length, was removed via rigid esophagoscopy without complication. To the best of our knowledge, this is the longest nonflexible foreign body ingested by a young child ever reported in the English-language literature. We describe the presentation of this case and the current guidelines for safety as enumerated in the Small Parts Regulations established by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission.

  12. Glucose ingestion during endurance training does not alter adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Fischer, Christian P; Plomgaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    , 2) lower citrate synthase (CS) and beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (beta-HAD) activity and glycogen content in skeletal muscle, and 3) attenuated endurance performance enhancement in the trained state. To investigate this we studied nine male subjects who performed 10 wk of one-legged knee...... extensor training. They trained one leg while ingesting a 6% glucose solution (Glc) and ingested a sweetened placebo while training the other leg (Plc). The subjects trained their respective legs 2 h at a time on alternate days 5 days a week. Endurance training increased peak power (P(max)) and time...

  13. A case of acute hepatitis following mad honey ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Sari Dogan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute hepatitis is characterized by liver inflammation and liver cell necrosis. The most frequently observed underlying cause thereof is viruses, but various other causes, such as alcohol, medication, or toxins may also lead thereto.In this paper, a case of acute hepatitis presenting with bradycardia, hypotension, and a prominent increase in liver enzymes following mad honey ingestion is discussed. Since there are only few cases of acute hepatitis following mad honey ingestion in the literature, we want to present this subject matter. Keywords: Mad honey poisoning, Mad honey intoxication, Bradycardia, Hypotension, Acute hepatitis

  14. Dose construction for vegetable ingestion exposure in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lui, W.S.; Walton, A.; Yeung, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    The author presents the mathematical model TERRA used for the construction of ingestion doses resulting from the consumption of contaminated vegetables during a nuclear accident in Hong Kong. Using the ground surface deposited radionuclide densities as input, TERRA calculates the concentrations of 54 radionuclides on the surfaces and within the tissue of vegetables as a function of time and the radiation doses delivered to the various vital organs following their consumption by humans. The present model provides a convenient tool to determine the time histories of 54 radionuclides in vegetables and to back track or project the ingestion dose after a major accident such that more appropriate and timely countermeasures can be implemented

  15. An investigation of the ingestion exposure pathways in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeung, Mankit Ray; Lui, Wai Sing

    1995-01-01

    An investigation of the food supply and the dietetic pattern of Hong Kong was conducted and some of the important factors affecting the ingestion exposure pathways following a severe nuclear accident were examined. It was found that the nuclide concentrations in the vegetables are very sensitive to time and substantial saving in effective dose resulted from ingesting contaminated vegetables can be achieved by appropriate imposition of restriction on the consumption of local produce. The consumption of locally grown vegetables in large quantity and the proximity of the Hong Kong vegetable farms to the Guangdong Nuclear Power Station suggests that the vegetable-human pathway is important and warrants special attention

  16. The pmr gene, encoding a Ca2+-ATPase, is required for calcium and manganese homeostasis and normal development of hyphae and conidia in Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Barry J; Abreu, Stephen; Johl, Jessica K; Bowman, Emma Jean

    2012-11-01

    The pmr gene is predicted to encode a Ca(2+)-ATPase in the secretory pathway. We examined two strains of Neurospora crassa that lacked PMR: the Δpmr strain, in which pmr was completely deleted, and pmr(RIP), in which the gene was extensively mutated. Both strains had identical, complex phenotypes. Compared to the wild type, these strains required high concentrations of calcium or manganese for optimal growth and had highly branched, slow-growing hyphae. They conidiated poorly, and the shape and size of the conidia were abnormal. Calcium accumulated in the Δpmr strains to only 20% of the wild-type level. High concentrations of MnCl(2) (1 to 5 mM) in growth medium partially suppressed the morphological defects but did not alter the defect in calcium accumulation. The Δpmr Δnca-2 double mutant (nca-2 encodes a Ca(2+)-ATPase in the plasma membrane) accumulated 8-fold more calcium than the wild type, and the morphology of the hyphae was more similar to that of wild-type hyphae. Previous experiments failed to show a function for nca-1, which encodes a SERCA-type Ca(2+)-ATPase in the endoplasmic reticulum (B. J. Bowman, S. Abreu, E. Margolles-Clark, M. Draskovic, and E. J. Bowman, Eukaryot. Cell 10:654-661, 2011). The pmr(RIP) Δnca-1 double mutant accumulated small amounts of calcium, like the Δpmr strain, but exhibited even more extreme morphological defects. Thus, PMR can apparently replace NCA-1 in the endoplasmic reticulum, but NCA-1 cannot replace PMR. The morphological defects in the Δpmr strain are likely caused, in part, by insufficient concentrations of calcium and manganese in the Golgi compartment; however, PMR is also needed to accumulate normal levels of calcium in the whole cell.

  17. Acute neurotoxicity after yohimbine ingestion by a body builder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampreti, Andrea; Lonati, Davide; Locatelli, Carlo; Rocchi, Loretta; Campailla, Maria Teresa

    2009-09-01

    Yohimbine is an alkaloid obtained from the Corynanthe yohimbe tree and other biological sources. Yohimbine is currently approved in the United States for erectile dysfunction and has undergone resurgence in street use as an aphrodisiac and mild hallucinogen. In recent years yohimbine use has become common in body-building communities for its presumed lipolytic and sympathomimetic effects. We describe a 37-year-old bodybuilder in which severe acute neurotoxic effects occurred in 2 h after yohimbine ingestion. The patient presented with malaise, vomiting, loss of consciousness, and repeated seizures after ingestion of 5 g of yohimbine during a body-building competition in a gymnasium. His Glasgow Coma Score was 3, requiring orotracheal intubation. Two hours after admission, vital signs were blood pressure 259/107 mmHg and heart rate 140 beats/min. Treatment with furosemide, labetalol, clonidine, and urapidil and gastrointestinal decontamination were performed. Twelve hours later the patient was extubated with normal hemodynamic parameters and neurological examination. The yohimbine blood levels at 3, 6, 14, and 22 h after ingestion were 5,240; 2,250; 1,530; and 865 ng/mL, respectively, with a mean half-life of 2 h. Few data are available about yohimbine toxicity and the related blood levels. This is a case of a large ingestion of yohimbine in which severe hemodynamic and neurological manifestations occurred and elevated blood levels of yohimbine were detected.

  18. Glucose ingestion stimulates atherothrombotic inflammation in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, John P.; Rote, Neal S.; Minium, Judi

    2013-01-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have chronic low-grade inflammation that can increase the risk of atherothrombosis. We performed a cross-sectional study to examine the effect of glucose ingestion on markers of atherothrombotic inflammation in mononuclear cells (MNC) of 16 women with PCOS (8 lean, 8 obese) and 16 weight-matched controls. Activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation and the protein content of early growth response-1 (EGR-1), matrix matalloproteinases-2 (MMP2), and tissue factor (TF) were quantified from MNC obtained from blood drawn fasting and 2 h after glucose ingestion. Plasma MMP9 and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured from fasting blood samples. Truncal fat was determined by DEXA. Lean women with PCOS exhibited greater AP-1 activation and MMP2 protein content after glucose ingestion and higher plasma MMP9 and CRP levels than lean controls. Obese women with PCOS exhibited greater EGR-1 and TF protein content after glucose ingestion, and plasma CRP levels were even higher compared with lean subjects regardless of PCOS status. Truncal fat correlated with MMP9 and CRP levels and glucose-stimulated increases in AP-1 activation and EGR-1 and TF protein content. Testosterone correlated with glucose-stimulated AP-1 activation, and androstenedione correlated with MMP9 and CRP levels and glucose-stimulated AP-1 activation. Thus, both PCOS and obesity contribute to an atherothrombotic state in which excess abdominal adiposity and hyperandrogenism may be specific risk factors for developing atherothrombosis. PMID:23249695

  19. Foreign body ingestion in children: case report and literature review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foreign body (FB) ingestion is a common occurrence in children. In most cases these foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract uneventfully. The important considerations for intervention include size, shape, and composition of the FB. Also, the site of lodgement and underlying pathology in the patient with the ...

  20. Foreign body ingestion in a neonate | Ugwu | Port Harcourt Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    She had an emergency tracheostomy and subsequent extraction of the foreign body. She was extubated after four days and was discharged on the eighth day in good clinical condition. Conclusion: Foreign body ingestion in the neonate although very uncommon is possible. Paediatricians should therefore remember that ...

  1. Maternal ethanol ingestion: effect on maternal and neonatal glucose balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witek-Janusek, L.

    1986-01-01

    Liver glycogen availability in the newborn is of major importance for the maintenance of postnatal blood glucose levels. This study examined the effect of maternal ethanol ingestion on maternal and neonatal glucose balance in the rate. Female rats were placed on 1) the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet, 2) an isocaloric liquid pair-diet, or 3) an ad libitum rat chow diet at 3 wk before mating and throughout gestation. Blood and livers were obtained from dams and rat pups on gestational days 21 and 22. The pups were studied up to 6 h in the fasted state and up to 24 h in the fed state. Maternal ethanol ingestion significantly decreased litter size, birth weight, and growth. A significantly higher mortality during the early postnatal period was seen in the prenatal ethanol exposed pups. Ethanol significantly decreased fed maternal liver glycogen stores but not maternal plasma glucose levels. The newborn rats from ethanol ingesting dams also had significantly decreased liver glycogen stores. Despite mobilizing their available glycogen, these prenatal ethanol exposed pups became hypoglycemic by 6 h postnatal. This was more marked in the fasted pups. Ethanol did not affect maternal nor neonatal plasma insulin levels. Thus maternal ethanol ingestion reduces maternal and neonatal liver glycogen stores and leads to postnatal hypoglycemia in the newborn rat

  2. Caustic ingestion injuries-at military hospital rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahsan, O.; Razzaq, K.; Abbas, W.; Zarrin, F.

    2015-01-01

    To study the pattern and endoscopic severity of caustic ingestion injuries presenting at Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Medical and Gastroenterology Department Military Hospital Rawalpindi from August 2012 to April 2013. Material and Methods: Patients were selected from those who presented with caustic ingestion history in Medical OPD, ER and in medical wards. After informed consent the patient underwent upper gastrointestinal (GI) Endoscopy. Endoscopic findings were recorded. Results: Out of 50 patients, 21(42%) were males and 29 (58%) were females. Ingestion was accidental in 19 (38%) and was with intent of suicide or self-harm in 31(62%) patients. Mean age was 33.2 years (SD ± 13.2). All the patients were subjected to upper GI endoscopy and findings were recorded. Endoscopic findings were grade 0 in 4 (8%), Grade 1 in 6 (12%), grade 2a in 7 (14%), grade 2b in 10 (20%), grade 3a in 6 (12%) and grade 3b in 17 (34%) patients. Conclusion: Caustic ingestion injuries were seen more in younger females with predominant cause as suicidal intent. On endoscopic examination severe corrosive injuries were more frequent. (author)

  3. The relationship between sward structure, ingestive behavior and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animals adjusted biting rates to compensate for changes in bite size and thus maintained rates of intake. Bite size and dietary CP were negatively correlated. It was argued that, in the present study, leaf table height, stemminess, leaf density and leaf % were the main determinants of dietary CP and ingestive behaviour.

  4. Plastic ingestion by harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo Rebolledo, E.; Franeker, van J.A.; Jansen, O.E.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Abundance of ingested debris by seals has been mentioned as a potential indicator of marine litter in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). A sample of 107 stomachs, 100 intestines and 125 scats of harbour seals from the Netherlands was analysed for the presence of plastics.

  5. Aging of microplastics promotes their ingestion by marine zooplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroom, Renske J.E.; Koelmans, Bart; Besseling, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Microplastics (<5 mm) are ubiquitous in the marine environment and are ingested by zooplankton with possible negative effects on survival, feeding, and fecundity. The majority of laboratory studies has used new and pristine microplastics to test their impacts, while aging processes such as

  6. Benign hepatic portal venous gas following caustic ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewin, Maite; Tubiana, Jean-Michel; Pocard, Marc; Caplin, Scott; Parc, Rolland; Blain, Antoine

    2002-01-01

    Hepatic portal vein gas has been documented in numerous conditions and is traditionally regarded as a poor prognostic sign. There are, however, several reports of portal vein gas with a benign course. We report the first case of transient hepatic portal vein gas secondary to the ingestion of a caustic substance. The literature of hepatic portal vein gas in benign disease is reviewed. (orig.)

  7. Thermal Esophageal Injury following Ingestion of Boiling Mushroom Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Prevost

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal esophageal and gastric damage from ingestion of hot liquids is poorly studied in pediatrics. Limited case reports exist in the literature. Many cases presented with chest pain, dysphagia, and odynophagia. Variable histologic findings were reported. No definitive management guidelines exist for such injuries. We provide a report of the acute assessment and management of an obvious thermal esophageal injury and contribute to what is known about this presentation. A 16-year-old male presented with odynophagia, dysphagia, and hematemesis following ingestion of “nearly boiling” mushroom water. Ondansetron, pantoprazole, ketorolac, maintenance intravenous fluids, and a clear liquid diet were started. At sixty hours after ingestion, an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD revealed blistering and edema of the soft palate and epiglottis, circumferential erythema of the entire esophagus with an exudate likely to be desquamated mucosa, and linear erythema of the body and fundus of the stomach. An EGD one month after ingestion showed no residual effects from the injury. The pantoprazole was weaned and restrictions to his diet were lifted. To better standardize care in these rare esophageal injuries, the development of a clinical care algorithm may be beneficial to provide clinicians with a guide for management based on outcomes of previously reported cases.

  8. [Intestinal perforation due to multiple magnet ingestion: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevizci, Mehmet Nuri; Karadağ, Cetin Ali; Demir, Mesut; Dokucu, Ali Ihsan

    2012-03-01

    Multiple magnet ingestion during childhood may result in emergency situations. A single magnet may be discharged with intestinal peristalsis, but multiple magnets may stick together and cause significant intestinal complications. Here we present a case with intestinal perforation due to ingestion of multiple magnets and metal pieces. An eight-year-old girl presented with abdominal pain and vomiting. She had abdominal tenderness and defense on the physical examination. Abdominal X-ray showed air and fluid levels. Metallic images were not considered at first as important in the diagnosis. Abdominal ultrasonography was reported as acute appendicitis. During the abdominal exploration, the appendix was normal, but there were dense adherences around the ileum and cecum. After adhesiolysis, intestinal perforations were seen in the cecum and 15 and 45 cm proximal to the cecum. Magnet and metal pieces were present in the perforated segments. Wedge resection and primary repair was performed. There were no postoperative complications, and she was discharged on the postoperative fifth day. Pediatric surgeons should be aware of the complications of multiple magnet ingestion. If the patient has a history of multiple magnet ingestion, follow-up with daily abdominal X-rays should be done, and in cases where magnets seem to cluster together or if acute abdominal signs develop, surgical exploration should be considered.

  9. Foreign body ingestions in a schizophrenic patient | Alao | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here, we report a case of ingestion of a rolled, metal tuna can lid in a male prison inmate previously diagnosed with depression and paranoid schizophrenia. Following evaluation by the surgical team, the foreign body was removed by laparotomy and the patient was discharged back to the prison without complication.

  10. Colloidal silver ingestion with copper and caeruloplasmin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Karolina M; Taylor, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    The copper concentration in serum can be affected by the presence of other trace elements such as silver. Low serum copper may result in decreased caeruloplasmin synthesis. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman, who was admitted to hospital with acute psychosis and who had been ingesting chronically, colloidal silver.

  11. Sharp foreign body ingestion by a young girl | Hasan | Alexandria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 16 year old patient had ingested two sewing needles about 4.5 cm long accidentally that eventually resided in extra intestinal tract position, and being asymptomatic, she ignored the problem for a long period about 2 years. She only consulted the hospital after having symptoms. The needles were located by Xray imaging ...

  12. Effect of Carbohydrate and Caffeine Ingestion on Badminton Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Neil D; Duncan, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of ingesting carbohydrate and caffeine solutions on measures that are central to success in badminton. Twelve male badminton players performed a badminton serve-accuracy test, coincidence-anticipation timing (CAT), and a choice reaction-time sprint test 60 min before exercise. Participants then consumed 7 mL/kg body mass of either water (PLA), 6.4% carbohydrate solution (CHO), a solution containing a caffeine dose of 4 mg/kg, or 6.4% carbohydrate and 4 mg/kg caffeine (C+C). All solutions were flavored with orange-flavored concentrate. During the 33-min fatigue protocol, participants were provided with an additional 3 mL/kg body mass of solution, which was ingested before the end of the protocol. As soon as the 33-min fatigue protocol was completed, all measures were recorded again. Short-serve accuracy was improved after the ingestion of CHO and C+C compared with PLA (P = .001, η(p)(2) = .50). Long-serve accuracy was improved after the ingestion of C+C compared with PLA (P badminton match can maintain serve accuracy, anticipation timing, and sprinting actions around the court.

  13. Miniature ingestible telemeter devices to measure deep-body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, J. M.; Fryer, T. B. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A telemetry device comprised of a pill-size ingestible transmitter developed to obtain deep body temperature measurements of a human is described. The device has particular utility in the medical field where deep body temperatures provide an indication of general health.

  14. Effect of varying concentrations of orally ingested glucose on platelet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physiologic basis of bleeding is a function of normal platelets and coagulation factors. This study is aimed at ascertaining the effect of varying concentrations of orally ingested glucose on platelet count and hemoglobin concentration during menstruation. Forty menstruating students between the ages of 18 and 25 from ...

  15. Caffeine ingestion enhances Wingate performance: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgic, Jozo

    2018-03-01

    The positive effects of caffeine ingestion on aerobic performance are well-established; however, recent findings are suggesting that caffeine ingestion might also enhance components of anaerobic performance. A commonly used test of anaerobic performance and power output is the 30-second Wingate test. Several studies explored the effects of caffeine ingestion on Wingate performance, with equivocal findings. To elucidate this topic, this paper aims to determine the effects of caffeine ingestion on Wingate performance using meta-analytic statistical techniques. Following a search through PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and SportDiscus ® , 16 studies were found meeting the inclusion criteria (pooled number of participants = 246). Random-effects meta-analysis of standardized mean differences (SMD) for peak power output and mean power output was performed. Study quality was assessed using the modified version of the PEDro checklist. Results of the meta-analysis indicated a significant difference (p = .005) between the placebo and caffeine trials on mean power output with SMD values of small magnitude (0.18; 95% confidence interval: 0.05, 0.31; +3%). The meta-analysis performed for peak power output indicated a significant difference (p = .006) between the placebo and caffeine trials (SMD = 0.27; 95% confidence interval: 0.08, 0.47 [moderate magnitude]; +4%). The results from the PEDro checklist indicated that, in general, studies are of good and excellent methodological quality. This meta-analysis adds on to the current body of evidence showing that caffeine ingestion can also enhance components of anaerobic performance. The results presented herein may be helpful for developing more efficient evidence-based recommendations regarding caffeine supplementation.

  16. Food Ingestion Factors of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Yeon Jang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish food ingestion factors needed to assess exposure to contaminants through food ingestion. The study reclassified the raw data of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2001 into 12 subcategories including grain products, meat products, fish and shellfish, and vegetables for international comparability of exposure evaluation. The criteria for food intake calculation were unified according to the characteristics of food groups, and recommended values for food ingestion factors were calculated through moisture correction and recategorization of cooked, processed, and mixed foods for each group. The average intake rate for grain and grain products was 6.25 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was approximately 8% higher than that of the women. The average intake rate of meat and meat products was 1.62 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was 30% higher than that of the women, on average. The average intake rate of fish and shellfish was 1.53 g/kg-d per capita, and the age groups of 1 to 2 and 3 to 6 recorded higher capita intake rates than other age groups, 2.62 g/kg-d and 2.25 g/kg-d, respectively. The average intake rate of vegetables was 6.47 g/kg-d per capita, with the age group of 1 to 2 recording the highest per capita intake rate of 9.79 g/kg-d and that of 13 to 19 recording the lowest mean. The study also offers recommended values for food ingestion factors of other food groups by gender, age, and region. The food ingestion exposure factors will need future updates in consideration of ongoing changes in food consumption behavior.

  17. Arsenic metabolites in humans after ingestion of wakame seaweed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hata A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed contains large amounts of various arsenic compounds such as arsenosugars (AsSugs, but their relative toxicities have not yet been fully evaluated. A risk evaluation of dietary arsenic would be necessary. After developing an arsenic speciation analysis of wakame seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida, we conducted a wakame ingestion experiment using volunteers. Five volunteers ingested 300 g of commercial wakame after refraining from seafood for 5 days. Arsenic metabolites in the urine were monitored over a 5-day period after ingestion. Total arsenic concentration of the wakame seaweed was 34.3 ± 2.1 mg arsenic/kg (dry weight, n = 3. Two AsSugs, 3-[5′-deoxy-5′-(dimethyl-arsinoyl-β-ribofuranosyloxy]-propylene glycol (AsSug328 and 3-[5′-deoxy-5′-(dimethyl-arsinoyl-β- ribofuranosyl-oxy]-2-hydroxypropyl-2,3-dihydroxy-propyl phosphate (AsSug482 were detected, but arsenobetaine, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA, monomethylarsonic acid, and inorganic arsenics (iAs were not detected. The major peak was AsSug328, which comprised 89% of the total arsenic. Approximately 30% of the total arsenic ingested was excreted in the urine during the 5-day observation. Five arsenic compounds were detected in the urine after ingestion, the major one being DMA, which comprised 58.1 ± 5.0% of the total urinary arsenic excreted over the 5 days. DMA was believed to be metabolized not from iAs but from AsSugs, and its biological half-time was approximately 13 h.

  18. Food ingestion factors of the Korean exposure factors handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Yeon; Jo, Soo-Nam; Kim, Sun-Ja; Myung, Hyung-Nam; Kim, Cho-Il

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish food ingestion factors needed to assess exposure to contaminants through food ingestion. The study reclassified the raw data of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2001 into 12 subcategories including grain products, meat products, fish and shellfish, and vegetables for international comparability of exposure evaluation. The criteria for food intake calculation were unified according to the characteristics of food groups, and recommended values for food ingestion factors were calculated through moisture correction and recategorization of cooked, processed, and mixed foods for each group. The average intake rate for grain and grain products was 6.25 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was approximately 8% higher than that of the women. The average intake rate of meat and meat products was 1.62 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was 30% higher than that of the women, on average. The average intake rate of fish and shellfish was 1.53 g/kg-d per capita, and the age groups of 1 to 2 and 3 to 6 recorded higher capita intake rates than other age groups, 2.62 g/kg-d and 2.25 g/kg-d, respectively. The average intake rate of vegetables was 6.47 g/kg-d per capita, with the age group of 1 to 2 recording the highest per capita intake rate of 9.79 g/kg-d and that of 13 to 19 recording the lowest mean. The study also offers recommended values for food ingestion factors of other food groups by gender, age, and region. The food ingestion exposure factors will need future updates in consideration of ongoing changes in food consumption behavior.

  19. Influence of sucrose ingestion on brainstem and hypothalamic intrinsic oscillations in lean and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Lisa A; Coveleskie, Kristen; Connolly, Lynn; Labus, Jennifer S; Ebrat, Bahar; Stains, Jean; Jiang, Zhiguo; Suyenobu, Brandall Y; Raybould, Helen E; Tillisch, Kirsten; Mayer, Emeran A

    2014-05-01

    The study of intrinsic fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent signal of functional magnetic resonance imaging can provide insight into the effect of physiologic states on brain processes. In an effort to better understand the brain-gut communication induced by the absorption and metabolism of nutrients in healthy lean and obese individuals, we investigated whether ingestion of nutritive and non-nutritive sweetened beverages differentially engages the hypothalamus and brainstem vagal pathways in lean and obese women. In a 2-day, double-blind crossover study, 11 lean and 11 obese healthy women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scans after ingestion of 2 beverages of different sucrose content, but identical sweetness. During scans, subjects rested with eyes closed. Blood oxygen level-dependent fluctuations demonstrated significantly greater power in the highest frequency band (slow-3: 0.073-0.198 Hz) after ingestion of high-sucrose compared with low-sucrose beverages in the nucleus tractus solitarius for both groups. Obese women had greater connectivity between the right lateral hypothalamus and a reward-related brain region and weaker connectivity with homeostasis and gustatory-related brain regions than lean women. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we observed sucrose-related changes in oscillatory dynamics of blood oxygen level-dependent fluctuations in brainstem and hypothalamus in lean and obese women. The observed frequency changes are consistent with a rapid vagally mediated mechanism due to nutrient absorption, rather than sweet taste receptor activation. These findings provide support for altered interaction between homeostatic and reward networks in obese individuals. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Self-medication as adaptive plasticity: increased ingestion of plant toxins by parasitized caterpillars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Singer

    Full Text Available Self-medication is a specific therapeutic behavioral change in response to disease or parasitism. The empirical literature on self-medication has so far focused entirely on identifying cases of self-medication in which particular behaviors are linked to therapeutic outcomes. In this study, we frame self-medication in the broader realm of adaptive plasticity, which provides several testable predictions for verifying self-medication and advancing its conceptual significance. First, self-medication behavior should improve the fitness of animals infected by parasites or pathogens. Second, self-medication behavior in the absence of infection should decrease fitness. Third, infection should induce self-medication behavior. The few rigorous studies of self-medication in non-human animals have not used this theoretical framework and thus have not tested fitness costs of self-medication in the absence of disease or parasitism. Here we use manipulative experiments to test these predictions with the foraging behavior of woolly bear caterpillars (Grammia incorrupta; Lepidoptera: Arctiidae in response to their lethal endoparasites (tachinid flies. Our experiments show that the ingestion of plant toxins called pyrrolizidine alkaloids improves the survival of parasitized caterpillars by conferring resistance against tachinid flies. Consistent with theoretical prediction, excessive ingestion of these toxins reduces the survival of unparasitized caterpillars. Parasitized caterpillars are more likely than unparasitized caterpillars to specifically ingest large amounts of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. This case challenges the conventional view that self-medication behavior is restricted to animals with advanced cognitive abilities, such as primates, and empowers the science of self-medication by placing it in the domain of adaptive plasticity theory.

  1. Breath Hydrogen Produced by Ingestion of Commercial Hydrogen Water and Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Shimouchi, Akito; Nose, Kazutoshi; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Kondo, Takaharu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare how and to what extent ingestion of hydrogen water and milk increase breath hydrogen in adults.Methods: Five subjects without specific diseases, ingested distilled or hydrogen water and milk as a reference material that could increase breath hydrogen. Their end-alveolar breath hydrogen was measured.Results: Ingestion of hydrogen water rapidly increased breath hydrogen to the maximal level of approximately 40 ppm 10–15 min after ingestion and thereafter rapidly decrease...

  2. Tissue Hypoperfusion, Hypercoagulopathy, and Kidney and Liver Dysfunction after Ingestion of a Naphazoline-Containing Antiseptic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Ono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Naphazoline is a peripheral α2-adrenergic receptor agonist commonly used as a topical decongestant. In Japan, over-the-counter antiseptics often contain naphazoline to effect local hemostasis. We present the first case involving the development of hypercoagulopathy, with kidney and liver dysfunction, following a naphazoline overdose. A 22-year-old Japanese woman with a history of depression ingested 160 mL of a commercially available antiseptic containing 0.1% naphazoline. Three days later, she was brought to the emergency department because of general fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. Physical examination revealed cool, pale extremities. Laboratory data showed evidence of severe kidney and liver dysfunction (creatinine, 9.2 mg/dL; alanine aminotransferase, 2948 IU/L, hypercoagulation (D-dimers, 58.3 μg/mL, and thrombocytopenia (platelet count, 90,000/μL. After infusion of normal saline, intravenous administration of alprostadil, and hemodiafiltration, her organ function completely recovered. Because both the kidney and liver express α2-adrenergic receptors, their failure was likely associated with naphazoline overdose-induced hypoperfusion. The most plausible causes of hypercoagulation are peripheral low perfusion and subsequent microthrombus formation. This case illustrates that severe organ dysfunction can occur following over-the-counter antiseptic ingestion and serves as a caution for both drug manufacturers and healthcare professionals.

  3. Inhibitory effects of kale ingestion on metabolism by cytochrome P450 enzymes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Izumi; Yamada, Masayoshi; Uotsu, Nobuo; Teramoto, Sachiyuki; Takayanagi, Risa; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Kale (Brassica oleracea L. var acephala DC) is a leafy green vegetable belonging to the cabbage family (Brassicaceae) that contains a large amount of health-promoting phytochemicals. There are any reports about the effects of kale ingestion on the chemoprevention function and mechanism, but the interactions between kale and drugs have not been researched. We investigated the effects of kale intake on cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolism by using cocktail probe drugs, including midazolam (for CYP3A4), caffeine (for CYP1A2), dextromethorphan (for CYP2D6), tolbutamide (for CYP2C9), omeprazole (for CYP2C19), and chlorzoxazone (for CYP2E1). Cocktail drugs were administered into rats treated with kale and cabbage (2000 mg/kg) for a week. The results showed that kale intake induced a significant increase in plasma levels and the AUC of midazolam, caffeine, and dextromethorphan. In addition, the plasma concentration and AUC of omeprazole tended to increase. Additionally, no almost differences in the mRNA expression levels of CYP enzymes in the liver were observed. In conclusion, kale ingestion was considered to have an inhibitory effect on the activities of CYP3A4, 1A2, 2D6, and 2C19 for a reason competitive inhibition than inhibitory changes in the mRNA expressions.

  4. Effects of ingested turmeric oleoresin on glucose and lipid metabolisms in obese diabetic mice: a DNA microarray study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Shinichi; Aoki, Fumiki; Tanaka, Hozumi; Kishida, Hideyuki; Nishiyama, Tozo; Okada, Shinji; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Abe, Keiko; Mae, Tatsumasa

    2006-11-29

    Turmeric, the rhizome of Curcuma longa L., has a wide range of effects on human health. Turmeric oleoresin, an extract of turmeric, is often used for flavoring and coloring. Curcuminoids and turmeric essential oil are both contained in turmeric oleoresin, and both of these fractions have hypoglycemic effects. In the present study, we comprehensively assessed the effect of turmeric oleoresin on hepatic gene expression in obese diabetic KK-Ay mice using DNA microarray analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Female KK-Ay mice aged 6 weeks (n = 6/group) were fed a high-fat diet containing turmeric oleoresin, curcuminoids, and essential oil for 5 weeks. The same diet without any of these fractions was used as a control diet. Ingestion of turmeric oleoresin and essential oil inhibited the development of increased blood glucose and abdominal fat mass, while curcuminoids only inhibited the increase in blood glucose. DNA microarray analysis indicated that turmeric oleoresin ingestion up-regulated the expression of genes related to glycolysis, beta-oxidation, and cholesterol metabolism in the liver of KK-Ay mice, while expression of gluconeogenesis-related genes was down-regulated. Real-time PCR analysis was conducted to assess the contribution of the curcuminoids and essential oil in turmeric oleoresin to the changes in expression of representative genes selected by DNA microarray analysis. This analysis suggested that curcuminoids regulated turmeric oleoresin ingestion-induced expression of glycolysis-related genes and also that curcuminoids and turmeric essential oil acted synergistically to regulate the peroxisomal beta-oxidation-related gene expression induced by turmeric oleoresin ingestion. These changes in gene expression were considered to be the mechanism by which the turmeric oleoresin affected the control of both blood glucose levels and abdominal adipose tissue masses. All of these results suggest that the use of whole turmeric

  5. Ingestion of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Escherichia coli by human peritoneal mesothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, C. E.; Brouwer-Steenbergen, J. J.; Schadee-Eestermans, I. L.; Meijer, S.; Krediet, R. T.; Beelen, R. H.

    1996-01-01

    In the present study we examined whether mesothelial cells can ingest and digest bacteria. The results showed that all strains were ingested. Ingested staphylococci proliferated abundantly, and only a few were digested. Escherichia coli, however, was digested during the first 8 h, whereafter the

  6. Physiologic Conditions Affect Toxicity of Ingested Industrial Fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sauerheber

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings.

  7. Physiologic conditions affect toxicity of ingested industrial fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerheber, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings.

  8. Attempted Suicide by Massive Warfarin Ingestion Conservatively Managed Using Phytonadione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L. March

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment strategies for acute toxicity following massive ingestion of warfarin are not well described in the literature. Warfarin is the primary oral anticoagulation agent used in the treatment of thromboembolic disease, and patients with acute toxicity are at risk for life-threatening hemorrhages. Treatment options include phytonadione (vitamin K1, fresh frozen plasma (FFP, and prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs used alone or in combination. FFP and PCC can be associated with volume complications, undesirable thromboembolic events, and increased costs. We describe the case of a 63-year-old female with acute warfarin toxicity following a massive ingestion of warfarin (420 mg–450 mg in an attempt to commit suicide. Upon arrival to the emergency department, serial INR checks were initiated to help guide dosing strategy and later adjusted based on INR response to treatment using only phytonadione.

  9. Methodology for Estimating Ingestion Dose for Emergency Response at SRS

    CERN Document Server

    Simpkins, A A

    2002-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), emergency response models estimate dose for inhalation and ground shine pathways. A methodology has been developed to incorporate ingestion doses into the emergency response models. The methodology follows a two-phase approach. The first phase estimates site-specific derived response levels (DRLs) which can be compared with predicted ground-level concentrations to determine if intervention is needed to protect the public. This phase uses accepted methods with little deviation from recommended guidance. The second phase uses site-specific data to estimate a 'best estimate' dose to offsite individuals from ingestion of foodstuffs. While this method deviates from recommended guidance, it is technically defensibly and more realistic. As guidance is updated, these methods also will need to be updated.

  10. Plastic microfibre ingestion by deep-sea organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. L.; Gwinnett, C.; Robinson, L. F.; Woodall, L. C.

    2016-09-01

    Plastic waste is a distinctive indicator of the world-wide impact of anthropogenic activities. Both macro- and micro-plastics are found in the ocean, but as yet little is known about their ultimate fate and their impact on marine ecosystems. In this study we present the first evidence that microplastics are already becoming integrated into deep-water organisms. By examining organisms that live on the deep-sea floor we show that plastic microfibres are ingested and internalised by members of at least three major phyla with different feeding mechanisms. These results demonstrate that, despite its remote location, the deep sea and its fragile habitats are already being exposed to human waste to the extent that diverse organisms are ingesting microplastics.

  11. Ingestive behavior of lambs fed diets containing castor seed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicory, Isis Miranda Carvalho; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Ribeiro, Ossival Lolato; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Tosto, Manuela Silva Libanio; Costa-Lopes, Lívia Santos; Souza, Fábio Nicory Costa; de Oliveira Nascimento, Camila

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the substitution of soybean meal for castor seed meal (CSM) in diets for feedlot lambs and the effects of these diets on their ingestive behavior. Fifty male Santa Inês lambs were used. The diets were composed of Tifton 85 hay and a concentrate containing detoxified CSM substituting 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100 % of the soybean meal. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of the CSM levels on the feeding, rumination, idle times, chews and time spent chewing per bolus, total chewing time, number of boli chewed, and number of chews per day. The dry matter (DM) intake decreased linearly (P  0.05) the numbers of feeding, rumination, and idle periods, but had a quadratic effect (P ingestive behavior.

  12. Refractory priapism associated with ingestion of yohimbe extract

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Amy; Barrueto, Fermin

    2009-01-01

    Extracts of the bark of the central African treePausinystalia yohimbe contain yohimbine, an indole alkaloid, which is used to treat erectile dysfunction. The reported side effects of over-the-counter preparations of yohimbine include gastrointestinal upset, anxiety, increased blood pressure, headache, agitation, rash, tachycardia, and frequent urination. In this report, we describe a severe case of intractable priapism associated with the ingestion of yohimbe extract. Management required inse...

  13. Refractory priapism associated with ingestion of yohimbe extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Amy; Barrueto, Fermin

    2009-12-01

    Extracts of the bark of the central African tree Pausinystalia yohimbe contain yohimbine, an indole alkaloid, which is used to treat erectile dysfunction. The reported side effects of over-the-counter preparations of yohimbine include gastrointestinal upset, anxiety, increased blood pressure, headache, agitation, rash, tachycardia, and frequent urination. In this report, we describe a severe case of intractable priapism associated with the ingestion of yohimbe extract. Management required insertion of a proximal cavernosal spongiosum shunt (Quackles shunt) in the operating room.

  14. The muscle protein synthetic response to food ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorissen, Stefan H M; Rémond, Didier; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-11-01

    Preservation of skeletal muscle mass is of great importance for maintaining both metabolic health and functional capacity. Muscle mass maintenance is regulated by the balance between muscle protein breakdown and synthesis rates. Both muscle protein breakdown and synthesis rates have been shown to be highly responsive to physical activity and food intake. Food intake, and protein ingestion in particular, directly stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates. The postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to feeding is regulated on a number of levels, including dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption, splanchnic amino acid retention, postprandial insulin release, skeletal muscle tissue perfusion, amino acid uptake by muscle, and intramyocellular signaling. The postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to feeding is blunted in many conditions characterized by skeletal muscle loss, such as aging and muscle disuse. Therefore, it is important to define food characteristics that modulate postprandial muscle protein synthesis. Previous work has shown that the muscle protein synthetic response to feeding can be modulated by changing the amount of protein ingested, the source of dietary protein, as well as the timing of protein consumption. Most of this work has studied the postprandial response to the ingestion of isolated protein sources. Only few studies have investigated the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to the ingestion of protein dense foods, such as dairy and meat. The current review will focus on the capacity of proteins and protein dense food products to stimulate postprandial muscle protein synthesis and identifies food characteristics that may modulate the anabolic properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pattern of corrosive ingestion in southwestern Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlBinali Ali M; AlShehri, Mohammed A; AlFifi, Suliman H; Abdelmoneim, Ismail; Shomrani, Ali S

    2009-01-01

    Ingested corrosive material is a major pediatric emergency all over the world. The corrosive material can cause damage to the digestive tract, ranging from minor injury to strictures, and sometimes even death. We aimed to review the pattern of corrosive ingestion in children who had been admitted to Aseer Central Hospital in the Southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. This is a retrospective study of all children who had been admitted with a history of corrosive ingestion to Aseer Central Hospital over a period of five years period from 1990 to 1995. The records of 72 patients (38 males and 34 females) were reviewed. The data included age, sex, time lapse till admission, action taken by parents, presenting symptoms, general management given to the child, barium study, endoscopy, and the postcorrosive ingestion outcome of the child. The mean age of the pediatric patients was 28 + - 20 months. Different types of corrosives were encountered. The most common type was 5.25% hypochlorite in 36 patients (50%), kerosene in 12 patients (16.7%), caustic soda in nine patients (12.5%), hydrogen chloride and N-alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (HC and ADB) in eight patients (11.1%), and other material in seven patients (9.7%). Endoscopy was done in 30 patients (31.7%), 14 of whom were abnormal. Barium swallow was performed in 11 patients; five of them showed strictures that required frequent dilatation whereas one needed interposition surgery. Corrosive injury is still a major pediatric emergency among young children. It carries a major risk of complications (mainly stricture) and requires standardized management based on evidence-based medicine. (author)

  16. Unintentional Cannabis Ingestion in Children: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, John R; Smith, Nishelle E; Moulin, Aimee K

    2017-11-01

    To analyze published reports of unintentional cannabis ingestions in children to determine presenting signs and symptoms, route of exposure, treatment, and outcome. PubMed, OpenGrey, and Google Scholar were systematically searched. Articles were selected, reviewed, and graded using Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine guidelines. Of 3316 articles, 44 were included (3582 children age ≤12 years). We found no high quality (Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine level I or II) studies and 10 level III studies documenting lethargy as the most common presenting sign and confirming increasing incidence of unintentional ingestion in states having decriminalized medical and recreational cannabis. We identified 16 level IV case series, and 28 level V case reports with 114 children, mean age 25.2 ± 18.7 months, range 8 months to 12 years, and 50 female children (44%). The most common ingestion (n = 43, 38%) was cannabis resin, followed by cookies and joints (both n = 15, 13%). Other exposures included passive smoke, medical cannabis, candies, beverages, and hemp oil. Lethargy was the most common presenting sign (n = 81, 71%) followed by ataxia (n = 16, 14%). Tachycardia, mydriasis, and hypotonia were also commonly observed. All cases were cared for in the emergency department or admitted, and mean length of stay was 27.1 ± 27.0 hours. Twenty (18%) were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit, and 7 (6%) were intubated. Unintentional cannabis ingestion by children is a serious public health concern and is well-documented in numerous studies and case reports. Clinicians should consider cannabis toxicity in any child with sudden onset of lethargy or ataxia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ingestion Pathway Transfer Factors for Plutonium and Americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-01-01

    Overall transfer factors for major ingestion pathways are derived for plutonium and americium. These transfer factors relate the radionuclide concentration in a given foodstuff to deposition on the soil. Equations describing basic relationships consistent with Regulatory Guide 1.109 are followed. Updated values and coefficients from IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 364 are used when a available. Preference is given to using factors specific to the Savannah River Site

  18. Insulin binding to erythrocytes after acute 16-methyleneprednisolone ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwenger, A; Holle, W; Zick, R; Trautschold, I

    1982-10-01

    The binding of [125I]insulin to erythrocytes, glucose and insulin were determined before and 1, 7 and 35 days after ingestion of 2 X 60-methyleneprednisolone. None of two groups of volunteers (7 males, 4 females showed clear alterations of the insulin binding parameters (Ka and R0), or of the fasting cortisol, glucose and insulin concentrations. These results exclude the possibility that the diabetogenic effect of glucocorticoides is accompanied by an alteration of the insulin receptor characteristics of erythrocytes.

  19. Acute Hepatic Failure in a Dog after Xylitol Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Renee D; Hovda, Lynn R

    2016-06-01

    Xylitol is a five-carbon sugar alcohol produced from natural resources frequently used as a sugar substitute for humans. We report the development and successful treatment of acute hepatic failure and coagulopathy in a dog after xylitol ingestion. A 9-year-old 4.95 kg (10.9 lb) neutered male Chihuahua was evaluated at a veterinary clinic for vomiting after ingesting 224 g (45 g/kg, 20.5 g/lb) of granulated xylitol. Hypoglycemia developed within 1-2 h, elevated liver values, suggesting the development of acute hepatic failure, within 12 h and coagulopathy less than 24 h after ingestion. Treatment included maropitant, intravenous dextrose, phytonadione, metronidazole, and fresh frozen plasma. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and S-adensoyl-L-methionine (SAMe) provided hepatic detoxification and support. The dog survived and liver values returned to normal within 1 month post ingestion. No adverse effects to hepatic function have been identified 2 years after acute xylitol toxicity. This paper is one of the few reports of successful management of a dog with hypoglycemia, hepatic failure, and coagulopathy caused by xylitol toxicity. To date, this is the highest published xylitol dose survived by a dog, as well as the only reported case that documents laboratory changes throughout the course of toxicity and includes normal hepatic indices for 7 months following xylitol toxicity. The rapidly expanding use of xylitol in a variety of products intended for human consumption has led to a rise in xylitol toxicity cases reported in dogs, and clinicians should be aware that more dogs may potentially be exposed and develop similar manifestations.

  20. Homespun remedy, homespun toxicity: baking soda ingestion for dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajbani, Keyur; Chansky, Michael E; Baumann, Brigitte M

    2011-04-01

    A 68-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with a severe metabolic alkalosis after ingesting large quantities of baking soda to treat his dyspepsia. His underlying pulmonary disease and a progressively worsening mental status necessitated intubation for respiratory failure. Laboratory studies revealed a hyponatremic, hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. The patient was successfully treated after cessation of the oral bicarbonate, initiation of intravenous hydration, and correction of electrolyte abnormalities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fate of ingested Clostridium difficile spores in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Howerton

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection (CDI is a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, a major nosocomial complication. The infective form of C. difficile is the spore, a dormant and resistant structure that forms under stress. Although spore germination is the first committed step in CDI onset, the temporal and spatial distribution of ingested C. difficile spores is not clearly understood. We recently reported that CamSA, a synthetic bile salt analog, inhibits C. difficile spore germination in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we took advantage of the anti-germination activity of bile salts to determine the fate of ingested C. difficile spores. We tested four different bile salts for efficacy in preventing CDI. Since CamSA was the only anti-germinant tested able to prevent signs of CDI, we characterized CamSa's in vitro stability, distribution, and cytotoxicity. We report that CamSA is stable to simulated gastrointestinal (GI environments, but will be degraded by members of the natural microbiota found in a healthy gut. Our data suggest that CamSA will not be systemically available, but instead will be localized to the GI tract. Since in vitro pharmacological parameters were acceptable, CamSA was used to probe the mouse model of CDI. By varying the timing of CamSA dosage, we estimated that C. difficile spores germinated and established infection less than 10 hours after ingestion. We also showed that ingested C. difficile spores rapidly transited through the GI tract and accumulated in the colon and cecum of CamSA-treated mice. From there, C. difficile spores were slowly shed over a 96-hour period. To our knowledge, this is the first report of using molecular probes to obtain disease progression information for C. difficile infection.

  2. Efficacy of Carbohydrate Ingestion on CrossFit Exercise Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountree, Jaden A.; Krings, Ben M.; Peterson, Timothy J.; Thigpen, Adam G.; McAllister, Matthew J.; Holmes, Megan E.

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion during high-intensity strength and conditioning type exercise has yield mixed results. However, little is known about shorter duration high-intensity exercise such as CrossFit. The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance impact of CHO ingestion during high-intensity exercise sessions lasting approximately 30 min. Eight healthy males participated in a total of four trials; two familiarizations, a CHO trial, and a similarly flavored, non-caloric placebo (PLA) trial. CrossFit’s “Fight Gone Bad Five” (FGBF) workout of the day was the exercise model which incorporated five rounds of maximal repetition exercises, wall throw, box jump, sumo deadlift high pull, push press, and rowing, followed by one minute of rest. Total repetitions and calories expended were summated from each round to quantify total work (FGBF score). No difference was found for the total work between CHO (321 ± 51) or PLA (314 ± 52) trials (p = 0.38). There were also no main effects (p > 0.05) for treatment comparing exercise performance across rounds. Based on the findings of this study, it does not appear that ingestion of CHO during short duration, high-intensity CrossFit exercise will provide a beneficial performance effect.

  3. Epidemiology and prevention of caustic ingestion in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, H B

    1994-01-01

    A total of 102 children less than 16 years of age admitted for caustic ingestion in the period 1976-1991 were registered. The annual incidence rate of hospitalization was 10.8:100,000 for the city of Aarhus, Denmark. Esophageal burns occurred with a frequency of 5.0:100,000 per year. Ninety-four ...... of toddlers is recommended. Information material should stress that caustics should always be inaccessible to children and stored separately, and should never be decanted.......A total of 102 children less than 16 years of age admitted for caustic ingestion in the period 1976-1991 were registered. The annual incidence rate of hospitalization was 10.8:100,000 for the city of Aarhus, Denmark. Esophageal burns occurred with a frequency of 5.0:100,000 per year. Ninety......-four percent of the children were less than 5 years old. For this age group, the incidence rates of admission and esophageal burns were 34.6:100,000 and 15.8:100,000, respectively. All ingestions were accidental. The incidence rates of esophageal burns in children 0-4 years old (p = 0.019) decreased...

  4. Lead shot pellets dispersed by hunters: ingested by ducks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danell, K [Univ. of Umea, Sweden; Andersson, A; Marcstrom, V

    1977-01-01

    Many of the lead pellets shot by waterfowl hunters over shores and waters fall on the feeding grounds of ducks and geese. These pellets, picked up and ingested by the birds, can remain in the gizzard where they are eroded by mechanical and chemical action. In some cases the bird absorbs enough lead to cause lead poisoning. This report describes the incidence of ingested lead shot pellets found in 928 ducks collected in Sweden during hunting season. Pellets were found in both dabbling and diving ducks and were present in birds from six of the eight localities sampled. Usually one or two pellets were found but some ducks contained up to 62 pellets. As the incidence of ingested pellets in the present study is approximately the same as that found in North America, where the annual duck loss due to lead poisoning is estimated to be 2 to 3 percent of the population, it may be assumed that lead poisoning is a mortality factor for Swedish ducks also.

  5. Safety-pin ingestion in children: a cultural fact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gün, Feryal; Salman, Tansu; Abbasoglu, Latif; Celik, Rüya; Celik, Alaaddin

    2003-08-01

    Pediatric foreign-body (FB) ingestion is a common problem. Many of these FBs are sharp objects such as needles, toothpicks and safety pins (SP). This report reviews the management of SP ingestion in children. During a 16-year period, we recorded 49 pediatric cases of witnessed SP ingestion. In all children, SPs were used to attach the blue beads to the child's suits with the belief of averting the evil eye. The mean age was 8 months ranging from 4 months to 2 years, and 30 patients were males and 19 were females. SPs were most commonly sited in esophagus (37%) and stomach (37%). In the remainder, the SPs have already reached the duodenum and intestine. In this series, 20 (41%) children passed SPs spontaneously, 14 (28.5%) required endoscopic removal and 15 (30.5%) underwent surgery. The outcome of all patients was uneventful. All of the esophageal SPs require endoscopic intervention, however, after passing into stomach the patients can be observed with keeping the surgical intervention in mind if the SP displays a fixed position for more than three days.

  6. Ingestion of Nevada Test Site Fallout: Internal dose estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, F.W.; Kirchner, T.B.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes individual and collective dose estimates for the internal organs of hypothetical yet representative residents of selected communities that received measurable fallout from nuclear detonations at the Nevada Test Site. The doses, which resulted from ingestion of local and regional food products contaminated with over 20 radionuclides, were estimated with use of the PATHWAY food-chain-transport model to provide estimates of central tendency and uncertainty. The thyroid gland received much higher doses than other internal organs and tissues. In a avery few cases, infants might have received thyroid doses in excess of 1 Gy, depending on location, diet, and timing of fallout. 131 I was the primary thyroid dose contributor, and fresh milk was the main exposure pathway. With the exception of the thyroid, organ doses from the ingestion pathway were much smaller (<3%) than those from external gamma exposure to deposited fallout. Doses to residents living closest to the Nevada Test Site were contributed mainly by a few fallout events; doses to more distantly located people were generally smaller, but a greater number of events provided measurable contributions. The effectiveness of different fallout events in producing internal organ doses through ingestion varied dramatically with seasonal timing of the test, with maximum dose per unit fallout occurring for early summer depositions when milk cows were on pasture and fresh, local vegetables were used. Within specific communities, internal doses differed by age, sex, and lifestyle. Collective internal dose estimates for specific geographic areas are provided

  7. Feeding type affects microplastic ingestion in a coastal invertebrate community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setälä, Outi; Norkko, Joanna; Lehtiniemi, Maiju

    2016-01-15

    Marine litter is one of the problems marine ecosystems face at present, coastal habitats and food webs being the most vulnerable as they are closest to the sources of litter. A range of animals (bivalves, free swimming crustaceans and benthic, deposit-feeding animals), of a coastal community of the northern Baltic Sea were exposed to relatively low concentrations of 10 μm microbeads. The experiment was carried out as a small scale mesocosm study to mimic natural habitat. The beads were ingested by all animals in all experimental concentrations (5, 50 and 250 beads mL(-1)). Bivalves (Mytilus trossulus, Macoma balthica) contained significantly higher amounts of beads compared with the other groups. Free-swimming crustaceans ingested more beads compared with the benthic animals that were feeding only on the sediment surface. Ingestion of the beads was concluded to be the result of particle concentration, feeding mode and the encounter rate in a patchy environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. POSTFUNDOPLICATION DYSPHAGIA CAUSES SIMILAR WATER INGESTION DYNAMICS AS ACHALASIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Roberto Oliveira; Santos, Carla Manfredi; Cassiani, Rachel Aguiar; Alves, Leda Maria Tavares; Nascimento, Weslania Viviane

    2016-01-01

    - After surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease dysphagia is a symptom in the majority of patients, with decrease in intensity over time. However, some patients may have persistent dysphagia. - The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the dynamics of water ingestion in patients with postfundoplication dysphagia compared with patients with dysphagia caused by achalasia, idiopathic or consequent to Chagas' disease, and controls. - Thirty-three patients with postfundoplication dysphagia, assessed more than one year after surgery, together with 50 patients with Chagas' disease, 27 patients with idiopathic achalasia and 88 controls were all evaluated by the water swallow test. They drunk, in triplicate, 50 mL of water without breaks while being precisely timed and the number of swallows counted. Also measured was: (a) inter-swallows interval - the time to complete the task, divided by the number of swallows during the task; (b) swallowing flow - volume drunk divided by the time taken; (c) volume of each swallow - volume drunk divided by the number of swallows. - Patients with postfundoplication dysphagia, Chagas' disease and idiopathic achalasia took longer to ingest all the volume, had an increased number of swallows, an increase in interval between swallows, a decrease in swallowing flow and a decrease in water volume of each swallow compared with the controls. There was no difference between the three groups of patients. There was no correlation between postfundoplication time and the results. - It was concluded that patients with postfundoplication dysphagia have similar water ingestion dynamics as patients with achalasia.

  9. Metabolic and exercise endurance effects of coffee and caffeine ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, T E; Hibbert, E; Sathasivam, P

    1998-09-01

    Caffeine (Caf) ingestion increases plasma epinephrine (Epi) and exercise endurance; these results are frequently transferred to coffee (Cof) consumption. We examined the impact of ingestion of the same dose of Caf in Cof or in water. Nine healthy, fit, young adults performed five trials after ingesting (double blind) either a capsule (Caf or placebo) with water or Cof (decaffeinated Cof, decaffeinated with Caf added, or regular Cof). In all three Caf trials, the Caf dose was 4.45 mg/kg body wt and the volume of liquid was 7.15 ml/kg. After 1 h of rest, the subject ran at 85% of maximal O2 consumption until voluntary exhaustion (approximately 32 min in the placebo and decaffeinated Cof tests). In the three Caf trials, the plasma Caf and paraxanthine concentrations were very similar. After 1 h of rest, the plasma Epi was increased (P capsules than with Cof. During the exercise there were no differences in Epi among the three Caf trials, and the Epi values were all greater (P capsule trial; there were no differences among the other four tests. One cannot extrapolate the effects of Caf to Cof; there must be a component(s) of Cof that moderates the actions of Caf.

  10. Modeling Commercial Turbofan Engine Icing Risk With Ice Crystal Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Veres, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of ice accretion within commercial high bypass aircraft turbine engines has been reported under certain atmospheric conditions. Engine anomalies have taken place at high altitudes that have been attributed to ice crystal ingestion, partially melting, and ice accretion on the compression system components. The result was degraded engine performance, and one or more of the following: loss of thrust control (roll back), compressor surge or stall, and flameout of the combustor. As ice crystals are ingested into the fan and low pressure compression system, the increase in air temperature causes a portion of the ice crystals to melt. It is hypothesized that this allows the ice-water mixture to cover the metal surfaces of the compressor stationary components which leads to ice accretion through evaporative cooling. Ice accretion causes a blockage which subsequently results in the deterioration in performance of the compressor and engine. The focus of this research is to apply an engine icing computational tool to simulate the flow through a turbofan engine and assess the risk of ice accretion. The tool is comprised of an engine system thermodynamic cycle code, a compressor flow analysis code, and an ice particle melt code that has the capability of determining the rate of sublimation, melting, and evaporation through the compressor flow path, without modeling the actual ice accretion. A commercial turbofan engine which has previously experienced icing events during operation in a high altitude ice crystal environment has been tested in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) altitude test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. The PSL has the capability to produce a continuous ice cloud which are ingested by the engine during operation over a range of altitude conditions. The PSL test results confirmed that there was ice accretion in the engine due to ice crystal ingestion, at the same simulated altitude operating conditions as experienced previously in

  11. Bolus Ingestion of Whey Protein Immediately Post-Exercise Does Not Influence Rehydration Compared to Energy-Matched Carbohydrate Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gethin H. Evans

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Whey protein is a commonly ingested nutritional supplement amongst athletes and regular exercisers; however, its role in post-exercise rehydration remains unclear. Eight healthy male and female participants completed two experimental trials involving the ingestion of 35 g of whey protein (WP or maltodextrin (MD at the onset of a rehydration period, followed by ingestion of water to a volume equivalent to 150% of the amount of body mass lost during exercise in the heat. The gastric emptying rates of the solutions were measured using 13C breath tests. Recovery was monitored for a further 3 h by the collection of blood and urine samples. The time taken to empty half of the initial solution (T1/2 was different between the trials (WP = 65.5 ± 11.4 min; MD = 56.7 ± 6.3 min; p = 0.05; however, there was no difference in cumulative urine volume throughout the recovery period (WP = 1306 ± 306 mL; MD = 1428 ± 443 mL; p = 0.314. Participants returned to net negative fluid balance 2 h after the recovery period with MD and 3 h with WP. The results of this study suggest that whey protein empties from the stomach at a slower rate than MD; however, this does not seem to exert any positive or negative effects on the maintenance of fluid balance in the post-exercise period.

  12. Food odors trigger an endocrine response that affects food ingestion and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushchak, Oleh V; Carlsson, Mikael A; Nässel, Dick R

    2015-08-01

    Food odors stimulate appetite and innate food-seeking behavior in hungry animals. The smell of food also induces salivation and release of gastric acid and insulin. Conversely, sustained odor exposure may induce satiation. We demonstrate novel effects of food odors on food ingestion, metabolism and endocrine signaling in Drosophila melanogaster. Acute exposure to attractive vinegar odor triggers a rapid and transient increase in circulating glucose, and a rapid upregulation of genes encoding the glucagon-like hormone adipokinetic hormone (AKH), four insulin-like peptides (DILPs) and some target genes in peripheral tissues. Sustained exposure to food odors, however, decreases food intake. Hunger-induced strengthening of synaptic signaling from olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) to brain neurons increases food-seeking behavior, and conversely fed flies display reduced food odor sensitivity and feeding. We show that increasing the strength of OSN signaling chronically by genetic manipulation of local peptide neuromodulation reduces feeding, elevates carbohydrates and diminishes lipids. Furthermore, constitutively strengthened odor sensitivity altered gene transcripts for AKH, DILPs and some of their targets. Thus, we show that food odor can induce a transient anticipatory endocrine response, and that boosted sensitivity to this odor affects food intake, as well as metabolism and hormonal signaling.

  13. ACIDIC AND NEUTRAL LIQUID INGESTION IN PATIENTS WITH GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafne Calsoni GOMES

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Sour acidic liquid has a slower distal esophageal transit than a neutral liquid. Our hypothesis was that an acidic sour bolus has a different ingestion dynamic than a neutral bolus. Method In 50 healthy volunteers and 29 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, we evaluated the ingestion dynamics of 100 mL of acidic sour liquid (concentrated lemon juice, pH: 3.0 and 100 mL of water (pH: 6.8. The time to ingest the total volume, the number of swallows to ingest the volume, the interval between swallows, the flux of ingestion and the volume ingested in each swallow was measured. Results In both groups, healthy volunteers and patients in treatment for GERD, the acidic liquid took longer to be ingested, a higher number of swallows, a slower flux of ingestion and a smaller volume in each swallow than the neutral bolus. There was no difference between healthy volunteers and patients with GERD. The ingestion in women was longer than in men for acidic and neutral liquids. Conclusion Acidic liquid has a different dynamic of ingestion than the neutral liquid, which may be consequence of the slower transit through the distal esophageal body or an anticipation to drink a sour bolus. Patients with GERD have the same prolonged ingestion of the acidic liquid bolus as seen in healthy volunteers.

  14. Acidic and neutral liquid ingestion in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Dafne Calsoni; Dantas, Roberto Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Sour acidic liquid has a slower distal esophageal transit than a neutral liquid. Our hypothesis was that an acidic sour bolus has a different ingestion dynamic than a neutral bolus. In 50 healthy volunteers and 29 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), we evaluated the ingestion dynamics of 100 mL of acidic sour liquid (concentrated lemon juice, pH: 3.0) and 100 mL of water (pH: 6.8). The time to ingest the total volume, the number of swallows to ingest the volume, the interval between swallows, the flux of ingestion and the volume ingested in each swallow was measured. In both groups, healthy volunteers and patients in treatment for GERD, the acidic liquid took longer to be ingested, a higher number of swallows, a slower flux of ingestion and a smaller volume in each swallow than the neutral bolus. There was no difference between healthy volunteers and patients with GERD. The ingestion in women was longer than in men for acidic and neutral liquids. Acidic liquid has a different dynamic of ingestion than the neutral liquid, which may be consequence of the slower transit through the distal esophageal body or an anticipation to drink a sour bolus. Patients with GERD have the same prolonged ingestion of the acidic liquid bolus as seen in healthy volunteers.

  15. Curcumin Ingestion Inhibits Mastocytosis and Suppresses Intestinal Anaphylaxis in a Murine Model of Food Allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon R M Kinney

    Full Text Available IgE antibodies and mast cells play critical roles in the establishment of allergic responses to food antigens. Curcumin, the active ingredient of the curry spice turmeric, has anti-inflammatory properties, and thus may have the capacity to regulate Th2 cells and mucosal mast cell function during allergic responses. We assessed whether curcumin ingestion during oral allergen exposure can modulate the development of food allergy using a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA-induced intestinal anaphylaxis. Herein, we demonstrate that frequent ingestion of curcumin during oral OVA exposure inhibits the development of mastocytosis and intestinal anaphylaxis in OVA-challenged allergic mice. Intragastric (i.g. exposure to OVA in sensitized BALB/c mice induced a robust IgE-mediated response accompanied by enhanced OVA-IgE levels, intestinal mastocytosis, elevated serum mMCP-1, and acute diarrhea. In contrast, mice exposed to oral curcumin throughout the experimental regimen appeared to be normal and did not exhibit intense allergic diarrhea or a significant enhancement of OVA-IgE and intestinal mast cell expansion and activation. Furthermore, allergic diarrhea, mast cell activation and expansion, and Th2 responses were also suppressed in mice exposed to curcumin during the OVA-challenge phase alone, despite the presence of elevated levels of OVA-IgE, suggesting that curcumin may have a direct suppressive effect on intestinal mast cell activation and reverse food allergy symptoms in allergen-sensitized individuals. This was confirmed by observations that curcumin attenuated the expansion of both adoptively transferred bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs, and inhibited their survival and activation during cell culture. Finally, the suppression of intestinal anaphylaxis by curcumin was directly linked with the inhibition of NF-κB activation in curcumin-treated allergic mice, and curcumin inhibited the phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB in BMMCs. In

  16. Drug induced aseptic meningitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2013-09-29

    Sep 29, 2013 ... Abstract. Drug-induced aseptic meningitis (DIAM) is a rare but important and often challenging diagnosis for the physician. Intake of antimicrobials, steroids, anal- gesics amongst others has been implicated. Signs and symptoms generally develop within 24-48 hours of drug ingestion. The pa- tient often ...

  17. Influence of culture media in viability test of conidia of entomopathogenic fungi Influência de meios de cultura em teste de viabilidade de fungos entomopatogênicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edimara Aparecida Francisco

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at investigatimg whether the culture medium used in viability tests affects the conidial germination of Lecanicillium lecanii, Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus isolates. The tests were performed on microscope slides containing one of the culture media: agar-water (AW, minimal medium (MM, potato-dextrose agar (PDA, potato-dextrose-1% yeast extract agar (PDAY, Sabouraud-dextrose-yeast extract agar (SDAY, and complete medium (CM. Three areas per slide were delimited and 0.05ml of a 5.5 x 105 conidia ml-1 suspension was applied to each area. One bioassay was performed for each isolate. Germination was determined after 15 hours of incubation at 26±0.5°C. The culture media influenced the germination of the species studied, verifying within and inter specific variations. CM and PDA provided the highest germination of L. lecanii isolates and the lowest was obtained on SDAY and AW. The germination of B. bassiana isolates was favoured by CM, PDA and PDAY media, a fact not observed in AW and MM. P. fumosoroseus isolates showed the highest germination on CM and PDA media and the lowest on SDAY. However, some isolates presented high germination on nutrient-poor media (AW and MM.O presente trabalho objetivou investigar se meios de cultura utilizados em teste de viabilidade afetam a germinação de conídios de cinco isolados de Lecanicillium lecanii, cinco de Beauveria bassiana e quatro de Paecilomyces fumosoroseus. Os testes foram realizados em lâminas de microscopia contendo um dos seguintes meios de cultura: Ágar-água (AA, Meio Mínimo (MM, Batata, dextrose e ágar (BDA, Batata, dextrose, ágar e 1% de extrato de levedura (BDAL, Sabouraud, dextrose, ágar e extrato de levedura (SDAL e Meio Completo (MC. Delimitaram-se três áreas por lâmina e em cada uma aplicou-se 0,05mL de uma suspensão com concentração de 5,5 x 105 conídios ml-1. Para cada isolado foi realizado um bioensaio, com seis tratamentos e cinco repeti

  18. Pre-exercise carbohydrate and fluid ingestion: influence of glycemic response on 10-km treadmill running performance in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J B; Braun, W A; Pizza, F X; Forrest, M

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of ingesting solutions containing mixtures of carbohydrate (CHO) types on pre-exercise glycemic response, exercise-induced hypoglycemia, metabolic responses, and 10-km treadmill running performance in a warm environment. Ten trained runners completed 6, self-paced 10-km treadmill runs one hour after ingesting 900 ml of one of the following test solutions: a water placebo (WP), an 8 g 100 ml-1 high fructose corn syrup solution (HFG; 72 g CHO), a 6 g 100 ml-1 glucose solution (GLU; 54 g CHO), a 6 g.100 ml-1 sucrose/glucose mixture (SUG; 54 g CHO), or banana with water to equal 900 ml (BAN; approx. 54 g CHO). The sixth condition was 675 ml of an 8 g.100 ml-1 HFCS solution (LFG; 54 g CHO). Blood samples were taken prior to ingestion and every 15 min during rest and at 15 and 30 min, and at the end of the 10-km run. Blood was analyzed for glucose (BG) insulin (IN), glycerol, lactate, and percent change in plasma volume. Urine volume during the 1 hour of rest and change in body mass during exercise were also determined. A significant (p glucose was related to the PEGR; however, the decline in BG did not affect 10-km running performance. In addition, there were no differences in the metabolic responses during exercise between the different CHO types, nor did the type of CHO influence running performance. Finally, the presence of CHO and/or electrolytes in the hydration solutions produced a better fluid retention during the 60-min pre-exercise rest period compared to water. The results confirmed that if a competitive athlete consumed a breakfast prior to ingesting a CHO-electrolyte beverage, a practice that is common, the glycemic responses may be different.

  19. POSTFUNDOPLICATION DYSPHAGIA CAUSES SIMILAR WATER INGESTION DYNAMICS AS ACHALASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Oliveira DANTAS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background - After surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease dysphagia is a symptom in the majority of patients, with decrease in intensity over time. However, some patients may have persistent dysphagia. Objective - The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the dynamics of water ingestion in patients with postfundoplication dysphagia compared with patients with dysphagia caused by achalasia, idiopathic or consequent to Chagas' disease, and controls. Methods - Thirty-three patients with postfundoplication dysphagia, assessed more than one year after surgery, together with 50 patients with Chagas' disease, 27 patients with idiopathic achalasia and 88 controls were all evaluated by the water swallow test. They drunk, in triplicate, 50 mL of water without breaks while being precisely timed and the number of swallows counted. Also measured was: (a inter-swallows interval - the time to complete the task, divided by the number of swallows during the task; (b swallowing flow - volume drunk divided by the time taken; (c volume of each swallow - volume drunk divided by the number of swallows. Results - Patients with postfundoplication dysphagia, Chagas' disease and idiopathic achalasia took longer to ingest all the volume, had an increased number of swallows, an increase in interval between swallows, a decrease in swallowing flow and a decrease in water volume of each swallow compared with the controls. There was no difference between the three groups of patients. There was no correlation between postfundoplication time and the results. Conclusion - It was concluded that patients with postfundoplication dysphagia have similar water ingestion dynamics as patients with achalasia.

  20. Insights into embryo defenses of the invasive apple snail Pomacea canaliculata: egg mass ingestion affects rat intestine morphology and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreon, Marcos S; Fernández, Patricia E; Gimeno, Eduardo J; Heras, Horacio

    2014-06-01

    The spread of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata is expanding the rat lungworm disease beyond its native range. Their toxic eggs have virtually no predators and unusual defenses including a neurotoxic lectin and a proteinase inhibitor, presumably advertised by a warning coloration. We explored the effect of egg perivitellin fluid (PVF) ingestion on the rat small intestine morphology and physiology. Through a combination of biochemical, histochemical, histopathological, scanning electron microscopy, cell culture and feeding experiments, we analyzed intestinal morphology, growth rate, hemaglutinating activity, cytotoxicity and cell proliferation after oral administration of PVF to rats. PVF adversely affects small intestine metabolism and morphology and consequently the standard growth rate, presumably by lectin-like proteins, as suggested by PVF hemaglutinating activity and its cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cell culture. Short-term effects of ingested PVF were studied in growing rats. PVF-supplemented diet induced the appearance of shorter and wider villi as well as fused villi. This was associated with changes in glycoconjugate expression, increased cell proliferation at crypt base, and hypertrophic mucosal growth. This resulted in a decreased absorptive surface after 3 days of treatment and a diminished rat growth rate that reverted to normal after the fourth day of treatment. Longer exposure to PVF induced a time-dependent lengthening of the small intestine while switching to a control diet restored intestine length and morphology after 4 days. Ingestion of PVF rapidly limits the ability of potential predators to absorb nutrients by inducing large, reversible changes in intestinal morphology and growth rate. The occurrence of toxins that affect intestinal morphology and absorption is a strategy against predation not recognized among animals before. Remarkably, this defense is rather similar to the toxic effect of plant antipredator strategies. This defense

  1. Insights into embryo defenses of the invasive apple snail Pomacea canaliculata: egg mass ingestion affects rat intestine morphology and growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos S Dreon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The spread of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata is expanding the rat lungworm disease beyond its native range. Their toxic eggs have virtually no predators and unusual defenses including a neurotoxic lectin and a proteinase inhibitor, presumably advertised by a warning coloration. We explored the effect of egg perivitellin fluid (PVF ingestion on the rat small intestine morphology and physiology.Through a combination of biochemical, histochemical, histopathological, scanning electron microscopy, cell culture and feeding experiments, we analyzed intestinal morphology, growth rate, hemaglutinating activity, cytotoxicity and cell proliferation after oral administration of PVF to rats. PVF adversely affects small intestine metabolism and morphology and consequently the standard growth rate, presumably by lectin-like proteins, as suggested by PVF hemaglutinating activity and its cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cell culture. Short-term effects of ingested PVF were studied in growing rats. PVF-supplemented diet induced the appearance of shorter and wider villi as well as fused villi. This was associated with changes in glycoconjugate expression, increased cell proliferation at crypt base, and hypertrophic mucosal growth. This resulted in a decreased absorptive surface after 3 days of treatment and a diminished rat growth rate that reverted to normal after the fourth day of treatment. Longer exposure to PVF induced a time-dependent lengthening of the small intestine while switching to a control diet restored intestine length and morphology after 4 days.Ingestion of PVF rapidly limits the ability of potential predators to absorb nutrients by inducing large, reversible changes in intestinal morphology and growth rate. The occurrence of toxins that affect intestinal morphology and absorption is a strategy against predation not recognized among animals before. Remarkably, this defense is rather similar to the toxic effect of plant antipredator strategies

  2. Microplastic ingestion decreases energy reserves in marine worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephanie L; Rowe, Darren; Thompson, Richard C; Galloway, Tamara S

    2013-12-02

    The indiscriminate disposal of plastic to the environment is of concern. Microscopic plastic litter (environment, originating from the fragmentation of plastic items and from industry and personal-care products [1]. On highly impacted beaches, microplastic concentrations (impacts remain understudied [1]. Here, we show that deposit-feeding marine worms maintained in sediments spiked with microscopic unplasticised polyvinylchloride (UPVC) at concentrations overlapping those in the environment had significantly depleted energy reserves by up to 50% (Figure 1). Our results suggest that depleted energy reserves arise from a combination of reduced feeding activity, longer gut residence times of ingested material and inflammation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Possible potassium chlorate nephrotoxicity associated with chronic matchstick ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlow, John S; Little, Dustin J; Baker, Thomas P; Yuan, Christina M

    2013-06-01

    We present a case of a 48-year-old active duty male soldier with a history of chronic exposure to potassium chlorate, later diagnosed with chronic interstitial nephritis. He reported regular matchstick consumption to prevent chigger (Trombicula autumnalis) bites, amounting to ∼5.8 g of potassium chlorate over 3 years. Potassium chlorate can cause anuric renal failure within days of a toxic dose. Its slow excretion and mechanism of action suggest that renal toxicity may result from lower-dose chronic exposure. This case represents possible sequelae of chronic potassium chlorate ingestion.

  4. Possible potassium chlorate nephrotoxicity associated with chronic matchstick ingestion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlow, John S.; Little, Dustin J.; Baker, Thomas P.; Yuan, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a 48-year-old active duty male soldier with a history of chronic exposure to potassium chlorate, later diagnosed with chronic interstitial nephritis. He reported regular matchstick consumption to prevent chigger (Trombicula autumnalis) bites, amounting to ∼5.8 g of potassium chlorate over 3 years. Potassium chlorate can cause anuric renal failure within days of a toxic dose. Its slow excretion and mechanism of action suggest that renal toxicity may result from lower-dose chronic exposure. This case represents possible sequelae of chronic potassium chlorate ingestion. PMID:26064493

  5. Pathophysiology of esophageal impairment due to button battery ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, Johannes; Völker, Christine; Schendzielorz, Philipp; Schraven, Sebastian P; Radeloff, Andreas; Mlynski, Robert; Hagen, Rudolf; Rak, Kristen

    2017-09-01

    The increased use of button batteries with high energy densities in devices of daily life presents a high risk of injury, especially for toddlers and young children. If an accidental ingestion of a button battery occurs, this foreign body can become caught in the constrictions of the esophagus and cause serious damage to the adjacent tissue layers. The consequences can be ulcerations, perforations with fistula formation and damage to the surrounding anatomical structures. In order to gain a better understanding of the pathophysiology after ingestion, we carried out systematic studies on fresh preparations of porcine esophagi. The lithium button battery type CR2032, used most frequently in daily life, was exposed in preparations of porcine esophagi and incubated under the addition of artificial saliva at 37 °C. A total of eight esophagi were analysed by different methods. Measurements of the pH value around the battery electrodes and histological studies of the tissue damage were carried out after 0.5-24 h exposure time. In addition, macroscopic time-lapse images were recorded. Measurements of the battery voltage and the course of the electric current supplemented the experiments. The investigations showed that the batteries caused an electrolysis reaction in the moist environment. The positive electrode formed an acidic and the negative electrode a basic medium. Consequently, a coagulation necrosis at the positive pole, and a deep colliquation necrosis at the minus pole occurred. After an exposure time of 12 h, tissue damage caused by the lye corrosion was observed on the side of the negative electrode up to the lamina muscularis. The corrosion progressed up to the final exposure time of 24 h, but the batteries still had sufficient residual voltage, such that further advancing damage would be expected. Button battery ingestion in humans poses an acute life-threatening danger and immediate endoscopic removal of the foreign body is essential. After only 2

  6. Orally ingestion of krokodil in Spain: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero Escribano, Abel; Beltrán Negre, María Teresa; Calvo Orenga, Gema; Carratalá Monfort, Sonia; Arnau Peiró, Francisco; Meca Zapatero, Sara; Haro Cortés, Gonzalo

    2016-06-14

    The krokodil use disorder is an addictive pathology with quite severe organic effects, especially at the skin level, that causes severe and degenerative necrosis of blood and muscle tissue. Though this disorder has a low prevalence in Spain, compared to the large number of consumers in other countries such as Ukraine or Russia, its consumption is slowly but gradually expanding in countries of the European Union and America. The simplicity of the process of obtaining the substance from desomorphine, together with its high availability and low cost, contribute toward consumers' self-sufficiency. This article presents the case of a user of krokodil and reviews the clinical symptoms of oral ingestion.

  7. Acute ingestion dosimetry using the ICRP 30 gastrointestinal tract model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassels, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the gastrointestinal (GI) tract model used for dosimetry as outlined in ICRP30, to allow quick calculations of effective dose equivalents for acute radionuclide ingestion. A computer program has been developed to emulate the GI tract model. The program and associated data files are structured so that the GI tract model parameters can be varied, while the file structure and algorithm for the GI tract model should require minimal modification to allow the same theories that apply in this model to be used for other dosimetric models

  8. Congenital goiter due to maternal ingestion of iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iancu, T.; Boyanower, Y.; Laurian, N.

    1974-01-01

    A newborn infant with large bilateral cervical masses developed respiratory difficulties three days after birth. A congenital goiter was suspected and a biopsy was performed. Later information pointed to the ingestion of large amounts of inorganic iodine, during the pregnancy, by the asthmatic mother. Further investigation proved the goiter to be due to transient depression of peroxidase activity by the exogenous iodine. Within several days after birth, the infant's thyroid regained its full activity, the goiter disappeared, and the few signs of hypothyroidism subsided. (U.S.)

  9. A Case of Argyria Following Colloidal Silver Ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Hyok Bu; Lee, Joon Ho; Lee, Seung Ho; Lee, Ai Young; Choi, Jong Sun; Ahn, Yeon Soon

    2009-01-01

    Argyria is a rare cutaneous discoloration caused by the intake of silver or various compounds containing silver. We report a case of argyria in a 73-year-old male following ingestion of colloidal silver as an alternative medicine over 5 years. He had a diffuse, slate gray discoloration of his face and hands. A biopsy specimen from the face revealed brown-black extracellular granules in the upper dermis and between collagen bundles. We also found silver particles in the mucous of the colon. Th...

  10. Effects of lifetime ingestion of 90Sr in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Book, S.A.; Spangler, W.L.; Swartz, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    To investigate the effects of lifetime 90 Sr ingestion, fifteen beagle dogs were fed the equivalent of 1.3, 4.0, and 12.0 μCi 90 Sr. Exposures prior to weaning were made by maternal administration of one of the same 90 Sr levels, begining at 21 days of gestation. Median survival was 12.5 years for the 1.3 μCi/day group, 6.5 years for the 4 μCi/day group, and 5.2 years of the 12 μCi/day group, compared to unirradiated control values of 14.5 to 15 years. The normal life span of more than half of the 1.3 μCi/day group is remarkable, considering they ingested 5900 to 7500 μCi 90 Sr during their lifetimes. One of seven 1.3 μCi/day dogs died of mycloproliferative syndrome (MPS), while one of four 4 μCi/day and one of four 12 μCi/day dogs died from MPS. In addition, another 12 μCi/day dog died of osteosarcoma and two others in the same group showed skeletal changes related to 90 Sr exposure. Other deaths were as could be expected in normal canine populations. Lifetime skeletal doses, determined by periodic whole-body counting, were 1990-3750, 1880-9230, and 6360-14,680 rad for the 1.3, 4, and 12 μCi/day groups, respectively. Comparison of these values with those from the large 90 Sr toxicity study at Davis in which 90 Sr feeding ended at 18 months of age indicates similar average skeletal doses from the two types of feeding regimens. The similarity of the skeletal doses may relate to the inability of 90 Sr to be incorporated to any great extent into a mature skeleton that no longer has the high calcium turnover associated with early life. As a result, deaths from lifetime 90 Sr ingestion appeared no earlier than when 90 Sr ingestion ended in early adulthood

  11. Salicylate toxicity from ingestion of traditional massage oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniandy, Rajesh Kumar; Sinnathamby, Vellan

    2012-01-01

    A 16-month-old child developed a brief generalised tonic–clonic fitting episode and vomiting at home, after accidental ingestion of traditional massage oil. As the patient presented with clinical features of salicylate toxicity, appropriate management was instituted. He was admitted to the intensive care unit for multiorgan support. The child was discharged well 1 week after the incident. Methyl-salicylate is a common component of massage oils which are used for topical treatment of joint and muscular pains. However, these massage oils may be toxic when taken orally. Early recognition of the salicylate toxicity is very important in producing a good patient outcome. PMID:22922924

  12. Characteristics of hand sanitizer ingestions by adolescents reported to poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2015-02-01

    There had been reports of adolescents using hand sanitizers to obtain alcohol and ending up in emergency departments with alcohol poisoning. This study aimed to describe the pattern of adolescent ingestions of hand sanitizers reported to a statewide poison center system. Our study subjects included patients aged 13-19 years who reported hand sanitizer ingestions as reported to Texas poison centers during 2000-2013. The distribution of the ingestions was determined for various demographic and clinical factors. Of 385 total cases, 61% of the patients were male, and the mean age was 15.3 years. The ingestion reason was unintentional (61%), intentional abuse/misuse (18%), and malicious (10%). Ingestion site was most frequently reported to be the patient's own residence (53%), followed by school (35%). About 77% of the patients were managed on site. The medical outcome was serious (moderate effect or unable to follow-potentially toxic) in 5% of the cases. The most frequently reported adverse clinical effects were vomiting (5%), abdominal pain (4%), nausea (4%), throat irritation (4%), and drowsiness (2%). Adolescents who ingested hand sanitizers were more likely to be male and younger. One-third of the ingestions occurred at school, suggesting that school personnel might be made aware of the potential problem of hand sanitizer ingestions by adolescents. Nevertheless, despite the potential for serious outcomes from adolescent hand sanitizer ingestion, most of the ingestions reported to poison centers are not likely to be serious and can be successfully managed outside of a healthcare facility.

  13. Transmesocolic double gastro-enteric fistulas due to ingestion of 28 magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Surd

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Accidental ingestion of magnetic foreign bodies has become more common due to increased availability of objects and toys with magnetic elements. The majority of them traverse the gastrointestinal system spontaneously without complication. However, ingestion of multiple magnets may require surgical resolution. Magnet ingestion usually does not cause serious complications, but in case of multiple magnet ingestion or ingestion of magnet and a metal object, it could cause intestinal obstruction, fistula formation or even perforation. Case report: We report case of a transmesocolic double gastro-enteric fistula formation following ingestion of 28 small magnets in a 17 months old boy. No history of foreign body ingestion could be obtained from parents therefore the patient was treated conservatively in a pediatric clinic for vomiting, dehydration, upper respiratory tract infection and suspicion of upper digestive tract bleeding. After 48 h he was sent in our clinic for surgical evaluation. Intraoperatively double transmesocolic gastro-enteric fistula was found. After separation of de gastric and enteral walls, resection of gastric wall and intestinal segment containing the two perforations was performed, followed by gastric suture in two layers and entero-enteric anastomosis. A total of 28 magnets were removed from the stomach and small intestine. Conclusion: Single magnet ingestion is treated as non-magnetic foreign body. Multiple magnet ingestion should be closely monitored and surgical approach could be the best option to prevent or to cure its complications. Keywords: Ingestion, Magnetic foreign body, Multiple magnets, Intestinal fistula, Children

  14. Non-convulsive status epilepticus and consciousness disturbance after star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) ingestion in a dialysis patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chung-Hsin; Yeh, Jiann-Horng

    2004-12-01

    Star fruit ingestion may induce severe neurological complications in chronic renal failure patients. We present a case on maintenance dialysis therapy who developed a consciousness disturbance without convulsion after eating star fruit. The symptoms became aggravated after haemodialysis. The brain computed tomography scan showed no abnormal findings, but the electroencephalogram found active focal sharp waves in the left central regions and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging also showed hyperintense lesions in the left central regions that were compatible with non-convulsive status epilepticus. His condition improved dramatically after anticonvulsant therapy and regular haemodialysis. The patient was discharged 20 days later without neurological sequela.

  15. Ingestion of Caustic Substances in Adults: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andon Chibishev

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ingestion of caustic agents can cause serious damages of the upper gastrointestinal tract and in some cases this kind of poisoning may have fatal outcomes. Acute caustic intoxications are one of the main problems in the modern clinical toxicology since they mainly affect young people with psychic disorders, suicidal intent, and alcohol addiction. Text: In diagnostic evaluation of this kind of poisoning, different procedures are used. Today’s golden standard for determination of the grade and extent of the lesion is esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD performed in the first 12-24 hours following corrosive ingestion. In some patients, some late complications, such as esophageal stenosis and gastric stenosis, which are the most common, as well as carcinoma of the upper gastrointestinal tract, which is rarely seen, can be detected. Acute caustic poisonings are treated with specific kinds of protocols. According to them, first, an attempt is made to neutralize the poison. Combinations of antibiotics, anti-secretory drugs, and collagen synthesis inhibitors are used. As a support therapy, nutritional liquids can be utilized, and in the most unmanageable cases, esophageal dilatation, stent placement and surgery are used. Conclusion: In the future, caustic poisonings will remain a serious socio-medical issue, due to the difficult clinical presentation, expensive diagnostic protocol, extended hospitalization, and possible permanent disability.

  16. Preliminary evidence that glucose ingestion facilitates prospective memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Leigh M; Law, Anna S; McLaughlin, Jennifer; Murray, Jennifer

    2011-05-01

    Previous research has found that the ingestion of glucose boosts task performance in the memory domain (including tasks tapping episodic, semantic, and working memory). The present pilot study tested the hypothesis that glucose ingestion would enhance performance on a test of prospective memory. In a between-subjects design, 56 adults ranging from 17 to 80 years of age performed a computerized prospective memory task and an attention (filler) task after 25 g of glucose or a sweetness-matched placebo. Blood glucose measurements were also taken to assess the impact of individual differences on glucose regulation. After the drink containing glucose, cognitive facilitation was observed on the prospective memory task after excluding subjects with impaired fasting glucose level. Specifically, subjects receiving glucose were 19% more accurate than subjects receiving a placebo, a trend that was marginally nonsignificant, F₁,₄₁ = 3.4, P = .07, but that had a medium effect size, d = 0.58. Subjects receiving glucose were also significantly faster on the prospective memory task, F₁,₃₅ = 4.8, P glucose (indicative of poor glucose regulation) was associated with slower prospective memory responding, F₁,₃₅ = 4.4, P memory and executive functioning can benefit from the increased provision of glucose to the brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ingestion of Fireworks: Rare Cause of Poisoning in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksekkaya, Hasan; Gumus, Meltem; Yucel, Aylin; Energin, Meltem; Demirci, Serafettin

    2018-03-12

    Mistaken ingestion of all manner of toxic matter is common in childhood, but poisoning with fireworks and matchsticks is rare. Fireworks usually contain 10% yellow phosphorus and 50% potassium chlorate. Potassium chlorate is an extremely reactive and toxic agent that is used in fireworks and matchstick heads. Eleven cases (7 females and 5 males; median age, 36 months [ranging from 24 to 48 months]) of poisoning after ingestion of fireworks and matchstick(s), between February 2008 and June 2014, were reviewed. The most common initial symptom was vomiting except for 2 cases in this group. Biochemical tests indicated that hyperphosphatemia was present in all patients, 8 patients (72.7%) had subclinical hepatic injury, 1 (9%) had acute hepatic failure, and 2 patients had no clinical or biochemical evidence of hepatic damage. Three patients had renal impairment, but none of them required dialysis. All of the patients recovered with supportive therapy except for 2 cases. One patient underwent cadaveric liver transplantation, whereas the other died because of circulatory dysfunction and respiratory failure due to pulmonary alveolar hemorrhage. Without prompt intervention, poisoning with fireworks carries high morbidity and mortality in children. It can cause pulmonary hemorrhage, in addition to other organ damage, including liver and kidney. Hyperphosphatemia is common, as it was seen in all of the study patients.

  18. Biogastronomy: Factors that determine the biological response to meal ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribic, T; Azpiroz, F

    2018-02-02

    The biological response to a meal includes physiological changes, primarily related to the digestive process, and a sensory experience, involving sensations related to the homeostatic control of food consumption, eg, satiety and fullness, with a hedonic dimension, ie associated with changes in digestive well-being and mood. The responses to a meal include a series of events before, during and after ingestion. While much attention has been paid to the events before and during ingestion, relatively little is known about the postprandial sensations, which are key to the gastronomical experience. The aim of this narrative review is to provide a comprehensive overview and to define the framework to investigate the factors that determine the postprandial experience. Based on a series of proof-of-concept studies and related information, we propose that the biological responses to a meal depend on the characteristics of the meal, primarily its palatability and composition, and the responsiveness of the guest, which may be influenced by multiple previous and concurrent conditioning factors. This information provides the scientific backbone to the development of personalized gastronomy. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effects of fluid, electrolyte and substrate ingestion on endurance capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, R J; Fenn, C E; Leiper, J B

    1989-01-01

    The availability of carbohydrate (CHO) as a substrate for the exercising muscles is known to be a limiting factor in the performance of prolonged cycle exercise, and provision of exogenous CHO in the form of glucose can increase endurance capacity. The present study examined the effects of ingestion of fluids and of CHO in different forms on exercise performance. Six male volunteers exercised to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer at a workload which required approximately 70% of Vo2max. After one preliminary trial, subjects performed this exercise test on six occasions, one week apart. Immediately before exercise, and at 10-min intervals throughout, subjects ingested 100 ml of one of the following: control (no drink), water, glucose syrup, fructose syrup, glucose-fructose syrup or a dilute glucose-electrolyte solution. Each of the syrup solutions contained approximately 36 g CHO per 100 ml; the isotonic glucose-electrolyte solution contained 4 g glucose per 100 ml. A randomised Latin square order of administration of trials was employed. Expired air samples for determination of Vo2, respiratory exchange ratio and rate of CHO oxidation were collected at 15-min intervals. Venous blood samples were obtained before and after exercise. Subjects drinking the isotonic glucose-electrolyte solution exercised longer (90.8 (12.4) min, mean (SEM] than on the control test (70.2 (8.3) min; p less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Aeromechanics Analysis of a Boundary Layer Ingesting Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Reddy, T. S. R.; Herrick, Gregory P.; Shabbir, Aamir; Florea, Razvan V.

    2013-01-01

    Boundary layer ingesting propulsion systems have the potential to significantly reduce fuel burn but these systems must overcome the challe nges related to aeromechanics-fan flutter stability and forced response dynamic stresses. High-fidelity computational analysis of the fan a eromechanics is integral to the ongoing effort to design a boundary layer ingesting inlet and fan for fabrication and wind-tunnel test. A t hree-dimensional, time-accurate, Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes computational fluid dynamics code is used to study aerothermodynamic and a eromechanical behavior of the fan in response to both clean and distorted inflows. The computational aeromechanics analyses performed in th is study show an intermediate design iteration of the fan to be flutter-free at the design conditions analyzed with both clean and distorte d in-flows. Dynamic stresses from forced response have been calculated for the design rotational speed. Additional work is ongoing to expan d the analyses to off-design conditions, and for on-resonance conditions.

  1. Plastic debris ingestion by marine catfish: an unexpected fisheries impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possatto, Fernanda E; Barletta, Mário; Costa, Monica F; do Sul, Juliana A Ivar; Dantas, David V

    2011-05-01

    Plastic marine debris is a pervasive type of pollution. River basins and estuaries are a source of plastics pollution for coastal waters and oceans. Estuarine fauna is therefore exposed to chronic plastic pollution. Three important catfish species [Cathorops spixii (N=60), Cathorops agassizii (N=60) and Sciades herzbergii (N=62)] from South Western Atlantic estuaries were investigated in a tropical estuary of the Brazilian Northeast in relation to their accidental ingestion of plastic marine debris. Individuals from all three species had ingested plastics. In C. spixii and C. agassizii, 18% and 33% of individuals had plastic debris in their stomachs, respectively. S. herzbergii showed 18% of individuals were contaminated. All ontogenetic phases (juveniles, sub-adults and adults) were contaminated. Nylon fragments from cables used in fishery activities (subsistence, artisanal and commercial) played a major role in this contamination. These catfish spend their entire life cycles within the estuary and are an important feeding resource for larger, economically important, species. It is not yet possible to quantify the scale and depth of the consequences of this type of pollution. However, plastics are well known threat to living resources in this and other estuaries. Conservation actions will need to from now onto take plastics pollution into consideration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Changes in mouse gastrointestinal microbial ecology with ingestion of kale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyeno, Y; Katayama, S; Nakamura, S

    2014-09-01

    Kale, a cultivar of Brassica oleracea, has attracted a great deal of attention because of its health-promoting effects, which are thought to be exerted through modulation of the intestinal microbiota. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of kale ingestion on the gastrointestinal microbial ecology of mice. 21 male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups and housed in a specific pathogen-free facility. The animals were fed either a control diet or experimental diets supplemented with different commercial kale products for 12 weeks. Contents of the caecum and colon of the mice were processed for the determination of active bacterial populations by a bacterial rRNA-based quantification method and short-chain fatty acids by HPLC. rRNAs of Bacteroides-Prevotella, the Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group, and Clostridium leptum subgroup constituted the major fraction of microbiota regardless of the composition of the diet. The ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes was higher in the colon samples of one of the kale diet groups than in the control. The colonic butyrate level was also higher with the kale-supplemented diet. Overall, the ingestion of kale tended to either increase or decrease the activity of specific bacterial groups in the mouse gastrointestinal tract, however, the effect might vary depending on the nutritional composition.

  3. Acute oxalate nephropathy after ingestion of star fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C L; Fang, H C; Chou, K J; Wang, J S; Chung, H M

    2001-02-01

    Acute oxalate nephropathy associated with ingestion of star fruit (carambola) has not been reported before. We report the first two cases. These patients developed nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and backache within hours of ingesting large quantities of sour carambola juice; then acute renal failure followed. Both patients needed hemodialysis for oliguric acute renal failure, and pathologic examinations showed typical changes of acute oxalate nephropathy. The renal function recovered 4 weeks later without specific treatment. Sour carambola juice is a popular beverage in Taiwan. The popularity of star fruit juice is not compatible with the rare discovery of star fruit-associated acute oxalate nephropathy. Commercial carambola juice usually is prepared by pickling and dilution processes that reduce oxalate content markedly, whereas pure fresh juice or mild diluted postpickled juice for traditional remedies, as used in our cases, contain high quantities of oxalate. An empty stomach and dehydrated state may pose an additional risk for development of renal injury. To avoid acute oxalate nephropathy, pure sour carambola juice or mild diluted postpickled juice should not be consumed in large amounts, especially on an empty stomach or in a dehydrated state.

  4. Effect of Coffee and Caffeine Ingestion on Resistance Exercise Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Darren L; Clarke, Neil D

    2016-10-01

    Richardson, DL and Clarke, ND. Effect of coffee and caffeine ingestion on resistance exercise performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2892-2900, 2016-The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of ingesting caffeine dose-matched anhydrous caffeine, coffee, or decaffeinated coffee plus anhydrous caffeine during resistance exercise on performance. Nine resistance-trained men (mean ± SD: age, 24 ± 2 years; weight, 84 ± 8 kg; height, 180 ± 8 cm) completed a squat and bench press exercise protocol at 60% 1 repetition maximum until failure on 5 occasions consuming 0.15 g·kg caffeinated coffee (COF), 0.15 g·kg decaffeinated coffee (DEC), 0.15 g·kg decaffeinated coffee plus 5 mg·kg anhydrous caffeine (D + C), 5 mg·kg anhydrous caffeine (CAF), or a placebo (PLA). Felt arousal and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were used to assess perceptual variables and heart rate (HR) to assess physiological responses between trials. There were significant differences in total weight lifted for the squat between conditions (p caffeine have the ability to improve performance during a resistance exercise protocol, although possibly not over multiple bouts.

  5. Carbohydrate ingestion before and during soccer match play and blood glucose and lactate concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Mark; Benton, David; Kingsley, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The ingestion of carbohydrate (CHO) before and during exercise and at halftime is commonly recommended to soccer players for maintaining blood glucose concentrations throughout match play. However, an exercise-induced rebound glycemic response has been observed in the early stages of the second half of simulated soccer-specific exercise when CHO-electrolyte beverages were consumed regularly. Therefore, the metabolic effects of CHO beverage consumption throughout soccer match play remain unclear. To investigate the blood glucose and blood lactate responses to CHOs ingested before and during soccer match play. Crossover study. Applied research study. Ten male outfield academy soccer players (age = 15.6 ± 0.2 years, height = 1.74 ± 0.02 m, mass = 65.3 ± 1.9 kg, estimated maximal oxygen consumption = 58.4 ± 0.8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)). Players received a 6% CHO-electrolyte solution or an electrolyte (placebo) solution 2 hours before kickoff, before each half (within 10 minutes), and every 15 minutes throughout exercise. Blood samples were obtained at rest, every 15 minutes during the match (first half: 0-15, 15-30, and 30-45 minutes; second half: 45-60, 60-75, and 75-90 minutes) and 10 minutes into the halftime break. Metabolic responses (blood glucose and blood lactate concentrations) and markers of exercise intensity (heart rate) were recorded. Supplementation influenced the blood glucose response to exercise (time × treatment interaction effect: P ≤ .05), such that glucose concentrations were higher at 30 to 45 minutes in the CHO than in the placebo condition. However, in the second half, blood glucose concentrations were similar between conditions because of transient reductions from peak values occurring in both trials at halftime. Blood lactate concentrations were elevated above those at rest in the first 15 minutes of exercise (time-of-sample effect: P interaction effect: P = .49). Ingestion of a 6% CHO-electrolyte beverage before and during soccer match

  6. Epidermal Growth Factor Improves Intestinal Integrity and Survival in Murine Sepsis Following Chronic Alcohol Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingensmith, Nathan J; Yoseph, Benyam P; Liang, Zhe; Lyons, John D; Burd, Eileen M; Margoles, Lindsay M; Koval, Michael; Ford, Mandy L; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2017-02-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a cytoprotective protein that improves survival in preclinical models of sepsis through its beneficial effects on intestinal integrity. Alcohol use disorder worsens intestinal integrity and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in critical illness. We sought to determine whether chronic alcohol ingestion alters the host response to systemic administration of EGF in sepsis. Six-week-old FVB/N mice were randomized to receive 20% alcohol or water for 12 weeks. All mice then underwent cecal ligation and puncture to induce polymicrobial sepsis. Mice were then randomized to receive either intraperitoneal injection of EGF (150 μg/kg/day) or normal saline. Water-fed mice given EGF had decreased 7-day mortality compared with water-fed mice (18% vs. 55%). Alcohol-fed mice given EGF also had decreased 7-day mortality compared with alcohol-fed mice (48% vs. 79%). Notably, while systemic EGF improved absolute survival to a similar degree in both water-fed and alcohol-fed mice, mortality was significantly higher in alcohol+EGF mice compared with water+EGF mice. Compared with water-fed septic mice, alcohol-fed septic mice had worsened intestinal integrity with intestinal hyperpermeability, increased intestinal epithelial apoptosis, decreased proliferation and shorter villus length. Systemic administration of EGF to septic alcohol-fed mice decreased intestinal permeability compared with septic alcohol-fed mice given vehicle, with increased levels of the tight junction mediators claudin-5 and JAM-A. Systemic administration of EGF to septic alcohol-fed mice also decreased intestinal apoptosis with an improvement in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. EGF also improved both crypt proliferation and villus length in septic alcohol-fed mice. EGF administration resulted in lower levels of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin 10 in alcohol-fed mice. EGF is therefore

  7. Does methyl salicylate, a component of herbivore-induced plant odour, promote sporulation of the mite-pathogenic fungus Neozygites tanajoae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hountondji, Fabien C C; Hanna, Rachid; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2006-01-01

    Blends of volatile chemicals emanating from cassava leaves infested by the cassava green mite were found to promote conidiation of Neozygites tanajoae, an entomopathogenic fungus specific to this mite. Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is one compound frequently present in blends of herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) as well as that of mite-infested cassava. Here, we investigated the effect of methyl salicylate in its pure form on the production of pre-infective spores (conidia), and the germination of these spores into infective spores (capilliconidia), by a Brazilian isolate and a Beninese isolate of N. tanajoae. Mummified mites previously infected by the fungal isolates were screened under optimal abiotic conditions for sporulation inside tightly closed boxes with or without methyl salicylate diffusing from a capillary tube. Production of conidia was consistently higher (37%) when the Beninese isolate was exposed to MeSA than when not exposed to it (305.5 +/- 52.62 and 223.2 +/- 38.13 conidia per mummy with and without MeSA, respectively). MeSA, however, did not promote conidia production by the Brazilian isolate (387.4 +/- 44.74 and 415.8 +/- 57.95 conidia per mummy with and without MeSA, respectively). Germination of the conidia into capilliconidia was not affected by MeSA for either isolate (0.2%, 252.6 +/- 31.80 vs. 253.0 +/- 36.65 for the Beninese isolate and 4.2%, 268.5 +/- 37.90 vs. 280.2 +/- 29.43 for the Brazilian isolate). The effects of MeSA on the production of conidia were similar to those obtained under exposure to the complete blends of HIPV for the case of the Beninese isolate, but dissimilar (no promoting effect of MeSA) for the case of the Brazilian isolate. This shows that MeSA, being one compound out of many HIPV, can be a factor promoting sporulation of N. tanajoae, but it may not be the only factor as its effect varies with the fungal isolate under study.

  8. Influence of a chronic {sup 90}Sr contamination by ingestion on the hematopoietic, immune and bone systems; Influence d'une contamination chronique par ingestion de {sup 90}Sr sur les systemes hematopoietique, immunitaire et osseux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Synhaeve, Nicholas

    2011-12-15

    Strontium 90 ({sup 90}Sr) is a radionuclide of anthropogenic origin released in large quantities in the environment as a result of nuclear atmospheric tests or accidents at nuclear facilities. {sup 90}Sr persists on a long-term basis in the environment, leading to chronic contamination by ingestion of populations living on contaminated territories. The induction of bone tumours associated with the fixation of {sup 90}Sr has been widely described. However, the occurrence of non-cancer effects is much less known. We used a mouse model with chronic contamination by ingestion of water containing 20 kBq/l of {sup 90}Sr. A bio-kinetic study confirmed the accumulation of {sup 90}Sr in the bones, with an increased rate of accumulation during bone growth. This accumulation was higher in the bones of females than in males. The whole-body absorbed doses ranged from 0.33 {+-} 0.06 mGy (birth) to 10.6 {+-} 0.1 mGy (20 weeks). The absorbed dose for the skeleton was up to 55 mGy. Ingestion of {sup 90}Sr induced a change in the expression of genes inducing an imbalance in favour of bone resorption, but without effect on bone morphology. No significant effect was observed for the hematopoietic system. On the other hand, minor modifications were observed for the immune system. To evaluate the functionality of the immune system, a vaccination test with TT and KLH antigens was used. Results showed in contaminated animals a significant decrease in the production of specific immunoglobulins, changes in the Th1/Th2 balance in the spleen and a disrupted B lymphocyte differentiation. These results improve the understanding of some of the noncancerous consequences of chronic exposure at low dose of radionuclides with a long half-life, which can be accidentally released. (author)

  9. Plastic ingestion by fish in the Southern Hemisphere: A baseline study and review of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Seon M E; Lavers, Jennifer L; Figueiredo, Bianca

    2016-06-15

    Plastic ingestion is well documented among marine birds and sea turtles but fewer studies have investigated ingestion in fish, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. We investigated the frequency of plastic ingestion in 21 species of fish and one species of cephalopod. The overall occurrence of plastic ingestion was 0.3%. Two micro-plastic items were recovered from the gastrointestinal tract of a single Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni). Ingestion rates were similar to other studies of fish conducted in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, however comparisons across species and locations are challenging due to the lack of consistency in the identification and classification of plastic debris. In response, we propose a standardised sampling protocol based on the available literature to provide a stronger basis for comparisons among existing and future studies of plastic ingestion in fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Intestinal volvulus and perforation caused by multiple magnet ingestion: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilçe, Zekeriya; Samsum, Hakan; Mammadov, Emil; Celayir, Sinan

    2007-01-01

    Ingested magnets can cause intestinal fistulas, perforation, and obstruction. There have been reports of magnet ingestion causing intestinal volvulus, but multiple magnet ingestion causing perforation and intestinal volvulus in a child is very unusual. We report the case of a 4-year-old girl, who ingested four magnets she acquired as toys, which caused intestinal volvulus and perforation as a result of pressure necrosis, several days after ingestion. At surgery we repaired two perforations, but additional bowel resection was not required. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 10. If multiple magnet ingestion is suspected in a child, the child must be monitored carefully. If there are signs of obstruction, emergency surgery is mandatory.

  11. Prevalence, clinical features and management of pediatric magnetic foreign body ingestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavarez, Melissa M; Saladino, Richard A; Gaines, Barbara A; Manole, Mioara D

    2013-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) ingestions are frequent in children. Whereas the majority of FBs pass spontaneously through the gastrointestinal tract, ingestion of magnetic FBs pose a particular risk for obstruction due to proximate attraction through the intestinal wall. We aimed to identify the prevalence, clinical presentation, and management of magnetic FB ingestions at our tertiary care institution. We performed a retrospective chart review of medical records of patients presenting to the pediatric Emergency Department (ED) or admitted to the hospital with FB ingestions from June 2003-July 2009. From those cases, patients with magnetic FB ingestions were identified. During the study period, 337,839 patients presented to the ED; 38 cases of magnetic FB ingestion were identified (prevalence 0.01%). Abdominal radiography was obtained in all cases. Ingestion of a single magnet occurred in 30 of 38 cases (79%). Of those, 4 patients underwent endoscopic removal due to signs of FB impaction in the esophagus or pylorus; no complications were noted. Ingestion of multiple magnets (range 2-6) occurred in 8 of 38 cases. Four of the 8 patients with multiple magnetic FBs (50%) presented with signs of peritonitis and required operative repair of multiple intestinal perforations. No deaths were identified. Although ingestion of a single magnetic FB may, in most cases, be managed as a simple FB ingestion, the ingestion of multiple magnetic FB is associated with a high risk of complication and requires aggressive management. We propose an algorithm for management of children with magnetic FB ingestions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Feeding behaviour of sheep fed lucerne v. grass hays with controlled post-ingestive consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Favreau, Angelique; Ginane, Cécile; Baumont, Rene

    2010-01-01

    Understanding what determines feeding behaviour in herbivores is essential to optimise the use of forages in breeding systems. Herbivores can evaluate foods by associative learning of their pre-ingestive characteristics (taste, odour, etc.) and their postingestive consequences. Post-ingestive consequences are acknowledged as influencing intake and food choices, but the role of pre-ingestive characteristics is still being debated. Our experiment was designed to test their separate effects on d...

  13. Lateral hypothalamic GLP-1 receptors are critical for the control of food reinforcement, ingestive behavior and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ferreras, L; Richard, J E; Noble, E E; Eerola, K; Anderberg, R H; Olandersson, K; Taing, L; Kanoski, S E; Hayes, M R; Skibicka, K P

    2017-09-12

    Increased motivation for highly rewarding food is a major contributing factor to obesity. Most of the literature focuses on the mesolimbic nuclei as the core of reward behavior regulation. However, the lateral hypothalamus (LH) is also a key reward-control locus in the brain. Here we hypothesize that manipulating glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activity selectively in the LH can profoundly affect food reward behavior, ultimately leading to obesity. Progressive ratio operant responding for sucrose was examined in male and female rats, following GLP-1R activation and pharmacological or genetic GLP-1R blockade in the LH. Ingestive behavior and metabolic parameters, as well as molecular and efferent targets, of the LH GLP-1R activation were also evaluated. Food motivation was reduced by activation of LH GLP-1R. Conversely, acute pharmacological blockade of LH GLP-1R increased food motivation but only in male rats. GLP-1R activation also induced a robust reduction in food intake and body weight. Chronic knockdown of LH GLP-1R induced by intraparenchymal delivery of an adeno-associated virus-short hairpin RNA construct was sufficient to markedly and persistently elevate ingestive behavior and body weight and ultimately resulted in a doubling of fat mass in males and females. Interestingly, increased food reinforcement was again found only in males. Our data identify the LH GLP-1R as an indispensable element of normal food reinforcement, food intake and body weight regulation. These findings also show, for we believe the first time, that brain GLP-1R manipulation can result in a robust and chronic body weight gain. The broader implications of these findings are that the LH differs between females and males in its ability to control motivated and ingestive behaviors.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 12 September 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.187.

  14. After the Recall: Reexamining Multiple Magnet Ingestion at a Large Pediatric Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Daniel; Strickland, Matt; Hepburn, Charlotte Moore

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a mandatory product recall on the frequency of multiple mini-magnet ingestion at a large tertiary pediatric hospital, and to examine the morbidity and mortality associated with these ingestions. In this retrospective chart review, we searched our institution's electronic patient record for patients aged magnetic foreign bodies between 2002 and 2015, a period that included the mandatory product recall. We compared the frequency and character of ingestions before and after the recall. Comparing the postrecall years (January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2015) with the 2 years immediately preceding the recall year (January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2012) yields an incidence rate ratio of 0.34 (95% CI, 0.18-0.64) for all magnet ingestions and 0.20 (95% CI, 0.08-0.53) for ingestion of multiple magnets. Based on the Fisher exact test, the incidence of both magnet ingestion (P magnet ingestion (P magnet ingestion decreased. There were no deaths in either study period. There was a significant decrease in multiple mini-magnet ingestion following a mandatory product recall. This study supports the effectiveness of the recall, which should bolster efforts to keep it in place in jurisdictions where it is being appealed. More broadly, the result provides general evidence of a recall helping decrease further harm from a product that carries a potential hazard. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Neurological syndromes linked with the intake of plants and fungi containing a toxic component (I). Neurotoxic syndromes caused by the ingestion of plants, seeds and fruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, F J

    A wide range of plants, seeds and fruits used for nutritional and medicinal purposes can give rise to neurotoxic symptoms. We review the neurological pathology associated with the acute or chronic consumption of plants, seeds and fruits in human beings and in animals. Of the plants that can trigger acute neurotoxic syndromes in humans, some of the most notable include Mandragora officinalis, Datura stramonium, Conium maculatum (hemlock), Coriaria myrtifolia (redoul), Ricinus communis, Gloriosa superba, Catharanthus roseus, Karwinskia humboldtiana and Podophyllum pelatum. We also survey different neurological syndromes linked with the ingestion of vegetable foodstuffs that are rich in cyanogenic glycosides, Jamaican vomiting sickness caused by Blighia sapida, Parkinson dementia ALS of Guam island and exposition to Cycas circinalis, Guadeloupean parkinsonism and exposition to Annonaceae, konzo caused by ingestion of wild manioc and neurolathyrism from ingestion of Lathyrus sativus, the last two being models of motor neurone disease. Locoism is a chronic disease that develops in livestock feeding on plants belonging to Astragalus and Oxytropis sp., Sida carpinifolia and Ipomea carnea, which are rich in swainsonine, a toxin that inhibits the enzyme alpha mannosidase and induces a cerebellar syndrome. The ingestion of neurotoxic seeds, fruits and plants included in the diet and acute poisoning by certain plants can give rise to different neurological syndromes, some of which are irreversible.

  16. [Psychotic Acute Episode and Rhabdomyolysis after Lovastatin Ingestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamaño, Beatriz H; Díaz, Jairo M González; Bracho, Daniel Guerrero; Herrera, Harold; Samur, Manuel Castro

    2012-09-01

    Statins are the most prescribed drugs worldwide given the benefit and security they offer. However, they can cause severe neurological, gastrointestinal, renal and muscular side effects. To describe the clinical course of a female patient with adverse drug reaction to Lovastatin. Case report and literature review. 52-year old woman with sudden psychosis and rhabdomyolysis secondary to Lovastatin and ending after the drug suspension. The causal relationship was corroborated with a score of 6 (probable ADR) on Naranjo's Scale. The simultaneous manifestation of psychosis and rhabdomiolysis represents an atypical and unique case following Lovastatin ingestion. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Selection of Models for Ingestion Pathway and Relocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.; Thompson, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The area in which intermediate phase protective actions (such as food interdiction and relocation) may be needed following postulated accidents at three Savannah River Site nonreactor nuclear facilities will be determined by modeling. The criteria used to select dispersion/deposition models are presented. Several models are considered, including ARAC, MACCS, HOTSPOT, WINDS (coupled with PUFF-PLUME), and UFOTRI. Although ARAC and WINDS are expected to provide more accurate modeling of atmospheric transport following an actual release, analyses consistent with regulatory guidance for planning purposes may be accomplished with comparatively simple dispersion models such as HOTSPOT and UFOTRI. A recommendation is made to use HOTSPOT for non-tritium facilities and UFOTRI for tritium facilities. The most recent Food and Drug Administration Derived Intervention Levels (August 1998) are adopted as evaluation guidelines for ingestion pathways

  18. Selection of Models for Ingestion Pathway and Relocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.; Thompson, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The area in which intermediate phase protective actions (such as food interdiction and relocation) may be needed following postulated accidents at three Savannah River Site nonreactor nuclear facilities will be determined by modeling. The criteria used to select dispersion/deposition models are presented. Several models are considered, including ARAC, MACCS, HOTSPOT, WINDS (coupled with PUFF-PLUME), and UFOTRI. Although ARAC and WINDS are expected to provide more accurate modeling of atmospheric transport following an actual release, analyses consistent with regulatory guidance for planning purposes may be accomplished with comparatively simple dispersion models such as HOTSPOT and UFOTRI. A recommendation is made to use HOTSPOT for non-tritium facilities and UFOTRI for tritium facilities. The most recent Food and Drug Administration Derived Intervention Levels (August 1998) are adopted as evaluation guidelines for ingestion pathways

  19. A crisis management decision support system to reduce ingestion dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenker-Wicki, A.; Gibbert, R.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental accidents such as extensive radioactive or chemical contamination can have more serious consequences for a population than any other kind of accidents known before. Owing to the serious consequences and the high number of people who may be affected, the selection of the best countermeasures to ameliorate the imminent impact is very difficult and the political responsibility is enormous. To help overcome such problems the National Emergency Operations Center in Zurich (Switzerland) has developed a decision support system to evaluate acceptable countermeasures for reducing ingestion dose after an accidental release of radioactive material. The system involves all the necessary modules and techniques for efficient decision making, based on the most recent developments in decision theory as well as the necessary structuring of the decision-making process. The decision-making concept comprehends decision making on two different levels, a technical and a political one. (author)

  20. Recurrent lactic acidosis secondary to hand sanitizer ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M E; Guru, P K; Park, J G

    2015-01-01

    Due to their ability to decrease the spread of infection, hand sanitizers are now ubiquitous in health care settings. We present the case of a 50-year-old woman who was admitted with acute alcohol intoxication and had near complete recovery in 12 hrs. Subsequently, she was found unresponsive on the floor of her hospital room on two separate occasions. Evaluations revealed repeatedly elevated levels of ethanol, acetone, and lactate as well as increased anion gap and hypotension, requiring intensive care unit evaluation and intubation for airway protection. During the second episode, she was found next to an empty bottle of ethanol-based hospital hand sanitizer. She confirmed ingesting hand sanitizer in order to become intoxicated.

  1. Recurrent lactic acidosis secondary to hand sanitizer ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M E Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their ability to decrease the spread of infection, hand sanitizers are now ubiquitous in health care settings. We present the case of a 50-year-old woman who was admitted with acute alcohol intoxication and had near complete recovery in 12 hrs. Subsequently, she was found unresponsive on the floor of her hospital room on two separate occasions. Evaluations revealed repeatedly elevated levels of ethanol, acetone, and lactate as well as increased anion gap and hypotension, requiring intensive care unit evaluation and intubation for airway protection. During the second episode, she was found next to an empty bottle of ethanol-based hospital hand sanitizer. She confirmed ingesting hand sanitizer in order to become intoxicated.

  2. Rhinocerebral Mucor circinelloides infection in immunocompromised patient following yogurt ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Stephen P; Lukaszewicz, Jennifer M; Persad, Kamleish A; Reinhardt, John F

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this case report is to illustrate the cause of this patient's headache and sinus pain in the setting of a unique environmental exposure: the patient ingested yogurt only days before presentation. This particular brand of yogurt caused controversy in early September 2013 when the manufacturer voluntarily recalled all flavors. The yogurt was found to be contaminated with Mucor circinelloides. The recall was triggered by the FDA, after receiving many complaints from consumers affected by temporary gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal cramping, diarrhea, and nausea. This patient was diagnosed with Rhinocerebral mucormycosis through fungal culture of the affected area. He was specifically colonized with Mucor circinelloides, a variant that rarely causes disease in humans. According to a literature review, only eight cases of mucormycosis in adults caused by this strain were documented before 2009.

  3. A lethal cocktail: gastric perforation following liquid nitrogen ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, James Scott; Simpson, Joanne Elizabeth; Bukhari, Moatasiem Idris

    2013-01-07

    We report a case of gastric perforation in an 18-year-old girl as a result of ingesting an alcoholic drink containing liquid nitrogen. The drink was purchased in licensed premises. The extent of the injury necessitated total gastrectomy with Roux-en Y reconstruction. We review the literature, discuss the mechanism of injury and consider the implications for medical services. The authors believe this case is of educational interest to professionals working in emergency medicine, general surgery and public health fields. It raises awareness of a rare injury, but one that may be more commonly encountered because of developing social trends. It informs surgeons confronted with this type of injury that trauma to the gastrointestinal tract can be extensive and preoperative contact with oesophago-gastric colleagues is advisable. Public health bodies must be aware of, and monitor, the use of liquid nitrogen in this way and consider regulation to prevent further injuries.

  4. Development of internal dose calculation programing via food ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. J.; Lee, W. K.; Lee, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    Most of dose for public via ingestion pathway is calculating for considering several pathways; which start from radioactive material released from a nuclear power plant to diffusion and migration. But in order to model these complicate pathways mathematically, some assumptions are essential and lots of input data related with pathways are demanded. Since there is uncertainty related with environment in these assumptions and input data, the accuracy of dose calculating result is not reliable. To reduce, therefore, these uncertain assumptions and inputs, this paper presents exposure dose calculating method using the activity of environmental sample detected in any pathway. Application of dose calculation is aim at peoples around KORI nuclear power plant and the value that is used to dose conversion factor recommended in ICRP Publ. 60

  5. Incretin effect after oral amino Acid ingestion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Ola; Pacini, Giovanni; Tura, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    is also present after amino acid ingestion is not known. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to explore insulin secretion and incretin hormones after oral and iv amino acid administration at matched total amino acid concentrations in healthy subjects. DESIGN: An amino acid mixture (Vaminolac......) was administered orally or iv at a rate resulting in matching total amino acid concentrations to 12 male volunteers with age 22.5 ± 1.4 years and a body mass index 22.4 ± 1.4 kg/m(2), who had no history of diabetes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Main outcome measures were area under the 120-minute curve for insulin, C...... after oral than after iv amino acid challenges (P = .006), whereas there was no significant difference in the glucagon response. Intact and total GIP rose after oral but not after iv amino acid administration, whereas intact and total GLP-1 levels did not change significantly in either test. CONCLUSION...

  6. Sparkle lamp ingestion: a rare cause of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundlingh, Johann; Dargan, Paul; Gokmen, Refik; Nair, Rajesh

    2010-10-01

    A 51-year-old man was brought to the emergency department after he had drunk 200 mL of fluid from a decorative sparkle lamp. His calcium level was 4.99 mmol/L with a blood gas pH of 7.21. His calcium levels were corrected and his acidosis improved, but his stay in the intensive care department was complicated on day 10 by upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage because of caustic erosions in his stomach. Ten days after admission, he had an emergency right hemicolectomy during which residual luminescent particles were found to have eroded through his cecal mucosa. He eventually died 15 days after admission because of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy and refractory septic shock. This case demonstrates the potential for fatal toxicity associated with ingestion of a common household item.

  7. Hepatic veno-occlusive disease associated with comfrey ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, M L; Swinburn, B; Kennedy, M; Nicholson, G

    1990-01-01

    A 23 year old man presented with hepatic veno-occlusive disease and severe portal hypertension and subsequently died from liver failure. Light microscopy and hepatic angiography showed occlusion of sublobular veins and small venous radicles of the liver, associated with widespread haemorrhagic necrosis of hepatocytes. The patient had been on a predominantly vegetarian diet and, prior to his illness, took comfrey leaves which are known to contain hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Comfrey is widely used as a herbal remedy, but so far has only been implicated in two other documented cases of human hepatic veno-occlusive disease. A possible causal association of comfrey and this patient's veno-occlusive disease is suggested by the temporal relationship of the ingestion of comfrey to his presentation, the histological changes in the liver and the exclusion of other known causes of the disease.

  8. The effects of caffeine ingestion on cortical areas: functional imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-A; Kang, Chang-Ki; Son, Young-Don; Choi, Eun-Jung; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Oh, Seung-Taek; Kim, Young-Bo; Park, Chan-Woong; Cho, Zang-Hee

    2014-05-01

    The effect of caffeine as a cognitive enhancer is well known; however, caffeine-induced changes in the cortical regions are still not very clear. Therefore, in this study, we conducted an investigation of the activation and deactivation with blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and of metabolic activity change with positron emission tomography (PET) in the human brain. Fourteen healthy subjects performed a visuomotor task inducing attention with 3T MRI, and PET imaging was also carried out in seven subjects to determine the cerebral glucose metabolic changes of caffeine at rest. The result by fMRI showed increased BOLD activation in the left cerebellum, putamen, insula, thalamus and the right primary motor cortex, and decreased BOLD deactivation in the posterior medial and the left posterior lateral cortex. Also, the resting state PET data showed reduced metabolic activity in the putamen, caudate nucleus, insula, pallidum and posterior medial cortex. The common cortical regions between fMRI and PET, such as putamen, insula and posterior medial cortex, where significant changes occurred after caffeine ingestion, are well known to play an important role in cognitive function like attention. This result suggests that the effect of caffeine as a cognitive enhancer is derived by modulating the attentional areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ethanol Induced Urine Acidification is Related with Early Acetaldehyde Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Kil Kwon

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, urine acidification after ethanol ingestion is related with serum acetaldehyde concentration. Early elevation of acetaldhyde could induce urine acidification, but the urine pH was elevated after a few hours, that might make prolonged acidemia.

  10. Haff disease associated with the ingestion of the freshwater fish Mylossoma duriventre (pacu-manteiga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolesani Júnior, Oswaldo; Roderjan, Christian Nejm; do Carmo Neto, Edgard; Ponte, Micheli Mikaeli; Seabra, Mariana Cristina Pelli; Knibel, Marcos Freitas

    2013-01-01

    Haff disease associated rhabdomyolysis is correlated with the ingestion of certain freshwater fish and shellfish and is caused by an unidentified toxin. We report the case of a patient who experienced rhabdomyolysis approximately 2 hours after ingestion of the freshwater fish Mylossoma duriventre (pacu-manteiga) approximately 3 years after an outbreak had been reported in Manaus, Brazilian Amazon.

  11. Increasing frequency of plastic particles ingested by seabirds in the subarctic North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, Martin D.; Piatt, John F.; Wohl, Kenton D.

    1995-01-01

    We examined gut contents of 1799 seabirds comprising 24 species collected in 1988-1990 to assess the types and quantities of plastic particles ingested by seabirds in the subarctic waters of Alaska. Of the 15 species found to ingest plastic, most were surface-feeders (shearwaters, petrels, gulls) or plankton-feeding divers (auklets, puffins). Of 4417 plastic particles examined, 76% were industrial pellets and 21% were fragments of ‘user’ plastic. Ingestion rates varied geographically, but no trends were evident and rates of plastic ingestion varied far more among species within areas than within species among areas. Comparison with similar data from 1968 seabirds comprising 37 species collected in 1969-1977 revealed that plastic ingestion by seabirds has increased significantly during the 10–15-year interval between studies. This was demonstrated by: (i) an increase in the total number of species ingesting plastic; (ii) an increase in the frequency of occurrence of plastic particles within species that ingested plastic; and, (iii) an increase in the mean number of plastic particles ingested by individuals of those species.

  12. Ingestion of an orthodontic archwire resulting in a perforated bowel: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhar, Preeti; Machesney, Michael Robert; Sharma, Pratik K

    2016-09-01

    Accidentally, ingesting components of an orthodontic appliance can result in serious consequences for the patient. This paper presents one such complication, not previously reported, where the patient needed emergency surgery to retrieve part of an orthodontic appliance. This case report highlights the consequences of and possible solutions to prevent patients inhaling or ingesting parts of their appliance.

  13. Presentation of an ingested foreign body as a vesical calculus: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vesical calculus is a common entity in children of developing countries. Foreign body ingestion is a common occurrence in the pediatric population. An ingested foreign body eroding into the urinary bladder and leading to the formation of a vesical calculus is an extremely rare condition. We encountered a 14-year-old girl ...

  14. Presentation of an ingested foreign body as a vesical calculus: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Presentation of an ingested foreign body as a vesical calculus: a common condition, but uncommon presentation. Shailendra Pal Singh a. , Anand Pandey a. , Vipin Gupta a. , Jigyasa Pandey b and. Rajesh Verma a. Vesical calculus is a common entity in children of developing countries. Foreign body ingestion is a common.

  15. Ingestive Skill Difficulties are Frequent Among Acutely-Hospitalized Frail Elderly Patients, and Predict Hospital Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina; Lambert, Heather; Faber, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Purpose : To examine the relationship between ingestive skill performance while eating and drinking and frailty status in acutely-hospitalized elderly patients and to examine whether there is a relationship between the proportion of ingestive skill difficulties and Length of Hospital Stay (LOS) a...

  16. Soil ingestion rates for children under 3 years old in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil and dust ingestion rates by children are among the most critical exposure factors in determining risks to children from exposures to environmental contaminants in soil and dust. This is the first published soil ingestion study for children in Taiwan using tracer element meth...

  17. Widespread microplastic ingestion by fish assemblages in tropical estuaries subjected to anthropogenic pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendel, A.L.; Bessa, F.; Alves, V.E.N.; Amorim, A.L.A.; Patrício, J.; Palma, A.R.T.

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to quantify microplastic ingestion by fish assemblages in two tropical Brazilian estuaries and to evaluate whether biological and ecological factors influence the ingestion of microplastics by fish species. Of 2233 fish from both estuaries (from 69 species) examined in this study, 9% of the individuals (24 species) had microplastics in their gut contents. Microplastic ingestion occurred irrespective of fish size and functional group. The diet of fish species was analyzed based on prey items identified in the fish's full stomach contents and five feeding guilds were defined. Microplastics were common throughout all feeding guilds. Low (average ingestion values 1.06 ± 0.30 items/total fish) but widespread occurrence among estuaries also indicates proliferation of microplastic pollution. Our findings highlight the need to focus on assemblage level studies to understand the real magnitude of the problem and emphasize the urgency of mitigation measures directed at microplastic pollution in estuarine ecosystems. - Highlights: • We analyzed microplastic ingestion in 69 fish species collected along two estuaries. • Microplastic ingestion was widespread in fish assemblages in two tropical estuaries. • Microplastic ingestion was independent of fish size and fish functional groups. • Microplastics were observed in fish from five different feeding guilds. • The level of anthropogenic pressures did not influence microplastic ingestion.

  18. Ingestion of a natural mineral-rich water in an animal model of metabolic syndrome: effects in insulin signalling and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Cidália D; Passos, Emanuel; Severo, Milton; Vitó, Isabel; Wen, Xiaogang; Carneiro, Fátima; Gomes, Pedro; Monteiro, Rosário; Martins, Maria J

    2016-05-01

    High-fructose and/or low-mineral diets are relevant in metabolic syndrome (MS) development. Insulin resistance (IR) represents a central mechanism in MS development. Glucocorticoid signalling dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stresses strongly contribute to IR and associate with MS. We have described that natural mineral-rich water ingestion delays fructose-induced MS development, modulates fructose effects on the redox state and glucocorticoid signalling and increases sirtuin 1 expression. Here, we investigated mineral-rich water ingestion effects on insulin signalling and ER homeostasis of fructose-fed rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats had free access to standard-chow diet and different drinking solutions (8 weeks): tap water (CONT), 10%-fructose/tap water (FRUCT) or 10%-fructose/mineral-rich water (FRUCTMIN). Hepatic and adipose (visceral, VAT) insulin signalling and hepatic ER homeostasis (Western blot or PCR) as well as hepatic lipid accumulation were evaluated. Hepatic p-IRS1Ser307/IRS1 (tendency), p-IRS1Ser307, total JNK and (activated IRE1α)/(activated JNK) decreased with fructose ingestion, while p-JNK tended to increase; mineral-rich water ingestion, totally or partially, reverted all these effects. Total PERK, p-eIF2α (tendency) and total IRS1 (tendency) decreased in both fructose-fed groups. p-ERK/ERK and total IRE1α increasing tendencies in FRUCT became significant in FRUCTMIN (similar pattern for lipid area). Additionally, unspliced-XBP1 increased with mineral-rich water. In VAT, total ERK fructose-induced increase was partially prevented in FRUCTMIN. Mineral-rich water modulation of fructose-induced effects on insulin signalling and ER homeostasis matches the better metabolic profile previously reported. Increased p-ERK/ERK, adding to decreased IRE1α activation, and increased unspliced-XBP1 and lipid area may protect against oxidative stress and IR development in FRUCTMIN.

  19. Marine debris ingestion and Thayer's law - The importance of plastic color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Robson G; Andrades, Ryan; Fardim, Lorena M; Martins, Agnaldo Silva

    2016-07-01

    In recent years marine plastic pollution has gained considerable attention as a significant threat to marine animals. Despite the abundant literature related to marine debris ingestion, only a few studies attempted to understand the factors involved in debris ingestion. Plastic ingestion is commonly attributed to visual similarities of plastic fragments to animal's prey items, such as plastic bags and jellyfish. However, this simple explanation is not always coherent with the variety of debris items ingested and with the species' main prey items. We assess differences in the conspicuousness of plastic debris related to their color using Thayer's law to infer the likelihood that visual foragers detect plastic fragments. We hypothesize that marine animals that perceive floating plastic from below should preferentially ingest dark plastic fragments, whereas animals that perceive floating plastic from above should select for paler plastic fragments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hunger and thirst interact to regulate ingestive behavior in flies and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourjine, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    In animals, nervous systems regulate the ingestion of food and water in a manner that reflects internal metabolic need. While the coordination of these two ingestive behaviors is essential for homeostasis, it has been unclear how internal signals of hunger and thirst interact to effectively coordinate food and water ingestion. In the last year, work in insects and mammals has begun to elucidate some of these interactions. As reviewed here, these studies have identified novel molecular and neural mechanisms that coordinate the regulation of food and water ingestion behaviors. These mechanisms include peptide signals that modulate neural circuits for both thirst and hunger, neurons that regulate both food and water ingestion, and neurons that integrate sensory information about both food and water in the external world. These studies argue that a deeper understanding of hunger and thirst will require closer examination of how these two biological drives interact. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Mutagenicity of monoadducts and cross-links induced in Aspergillus nidulans by 8-methoxypsoralen plus 365 nm radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.; Maley, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    8-Methoxypsoralen plus 365 nm radiation induces mutation at the methionine supressor loci of Aspergillus inhibitor-deficient conidia at low doses of near-UV radiation with one-hit kinetics and at higher near-UV radiation doses with two-hit kinetics. These results and others suggest that both monoadducts and cross-links, formed by 8-methoxypsoralen and DNA upon exposure to UV radiation, are capable of inducing mutation. Evidence is also presented that induced furocoumarin cross-links are responsible for the inactivation of the Aspergillus conidium. (author)

  2. Impact of Decontamination Therapy on Ultrasound Visualization of Ingested Pills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Bothwell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute toxic ingestion is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Emergency physicians (EP caring for overdose (OD patients are often required to make critical decisions with incomplete information. Point of care ultrasound (POCUS may have a role in assisting EPs manage OD patients. We evaluated the impact of different liquid adjuncts used for gastric decontamination on examiners’ ability to identify the presence of tablets using POCUS, and assessed examiners’ ability to quantify the numbers of tablets in a simulated massive OD. Methods: This prospective, blinded, pilot study was performed at an academic emergency department. Study participants were volunteer resident and staff EPs trained in POCUS. Five non-transparent, sealed bags were prepared with the following contents: 1 liter (L of water, 1 L of water with 50 regular aspirin (ASA tablets, 1 L of water with 50 enteric-coated aspirin tablets (ECA, 1 L of polyethylene glycol (PEG with 50 ECA, and 1 L of activated charcoal (AC with 50 ECA. After performing POCUS on each of the bags using a 10-5 MHz linear array transducer, participants completed a standardized questionnaire composed of the following questions: (1 Were pills present? YES/NO; (2 If tablets were identified, estimate the number (1-10, 11-25, >25. We used a single test on proportions using the binomial distribution to determine if the number of EPs who identified tablets differed from 50% chance. For those tablets identified in the different solutions, another test on proportions was used to determine whether the type of solution made a difference. Since 3 options were available, we used a probability of 33.3%. Results: Thirty-seven EPs completed the study. All (37/37 EP’s correctly identified the absence of tablets in the bag containing only water, and the presence of ECA in the bags containing water and PEG. For Part 2 of the study, most participants - 25/37 (67.5% using water, 23/37 (62.1% using PEG, and

  3. Acute renal failure by ingestion of Euphorbia paralias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Boubaker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia paralias is known in traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent, a purgative and for its local anesthetic property. To the best our knowledge, renal toxicity of this substance has not been previously reported. In this paper, we report the case of a 29-year-old male who developed renal damage following ingestion of Euphorbia paralias. He had been on follow-up for nephrotic syndrome since 1986, although irregularly, with several relapses but each responding well to steroid therapy. A kidney biopsy had not been performed earlier due to refusal by the patient. He was off steroids since April 2008 because the patient developed osteoporosis. He was admitted with general malaise and oliguria to our department in May 2009, following repeated vomiting and watery diarrhea for three days. On examination, he was edematous but had normal vital signs except for a pulse rate of 120/min. Hemoglobin was only 5.5 g/dL but with normal white cell and platelet counts. Blood biochemistry showed evidence of advanced renal failure with a serum creatinine level of 1835 μmol/L and urea at 44.6 mmol/L, sodium of 132 μmol/L and potassium at 4.3 mmol/L. He had features of nephrotic syndrome with severe hypoproteinamia and 24-h urinary protein of 10.45 g. Ultrasonography revealed enlarged kidneys with a reduced echogenecity of the medulla and the papillae. Subsequently, after hemodialysis with blood transfusion, a kidney biopsy was performed that showed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis associated with an acute tubular injury. On intensive interrogation, the patient gave a history of ingesting boiled Euphorbia paralias as a native treatment for edema, ten days prior to the onset of the current illness. A diagnosis of acute renal failure (ARF resulting from the possible nephrotoxic effect of Euphorbia paralias poisoning was made. He was treated with intermittent hemodialysis and corticosteroids. Serum creatinine values improved after 48 days. At six

  4. Do polymorphisms in chemosensory genes matter for human ingestive behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John E; Feeney, Emma L; Allen, Alissa L

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade, basic research in chemoreceptor genetics and neurobiology have revolutionized our understanding of individual differences in chemosensation. From an evolutionary perspective, chemosensory variations appear to have arisen in response to different living environments, generally in the avoidance of toxins and to better detect vital food sources. Today, it is often assumed that these differences may drive variable food preferences and choices, with downstream effects on health and wellness. A growing body of evidence indicates chemosensory variation is far more complex than previously believed. However, just because a genetic polymorphism results in altered receptor function in cultured cells or even behavioral phenotypes in the laboratory, this variation may not be sufficient to influence food choice in free living humans. Still, there is ample evidence to indicate allelic variation in TAS2R38 predicts variation in bitterness of synthetic pharmaceuticals (e.g., propylthiouracil) and natural plant compounds (e.g., goitrin), and this variation associates with differential intake of alcohol and vegetables. Further, this is only one of 25 unique bitter taste genes ( TAS2Rs ) in humans, and emerging evidence suggests other TAS2Rs may also contain polymorphisms that a functional with respect to ingestive behavior. For example, TAS2R16 polymorphisms are linked to the bitterness of naturally occurring plant compounds and alcoholic beverage intake, a TAS2R19 polymorphism predicts differences in quinine bitterness and grapefruit bitterness and liking, and TAS2R31 polymorphisms associate with differential bitterness of plant compounds like aristolochic acid and the sulfonyl amide sweeteners saccharin and acesulfame-K. More critically with respect to food choices, these polymorphisms may vary independently from each other within and across individuals, meaning a monolithic one-size-fits-all approach to bitterness needs to be abandoned. Nor are genetic

  5. Sublethal effects of cadmium ingestion on mallard ducks. [Anas platyrhynchos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Giulio, R T; Scanlon, P F

    1984-11-01

    Juvenile mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) drakes were fed diets containing 0, 50, 150, or 450 ppM cadmium for 42 +/- 1 days in order to assess the impacts of cadmium ingestion on energy metabolism and tissue metal concentrations in this species. Most significant effects on energy metabolism were observed only in the 450 ppM group which displayed reduced body and liver weights, increased kidney weights, reduced liver aldolase activity, increased plasma concentrations of uric acid, decreased plasma triiodothyronine concentrations, and elevated adrenal weights and adrenal corticosterone concentrations. Ducks in the 150 ppM group displayed increased adrenal and kidney weights and elevated plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations. Among all treatments, increased cadmium and zinc concentrations in both livers and kidneys were dose-related; a similar trend was observed for copper concentrations in kidneys but not livers. Cadmium interference with carbohydrate metabolism in similar studies with mammals was more severe than that observed in mallards in the present study. 52 references, 6 tables.

  6. Ingestion Exposure to Nitrosamines in Chlorinated Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kichan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is classified as a probable human carcinogen by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and is formed during the chlorination of municipal drinking water. In this study, selected nitrosamines were measured in chlorinated drinking water collected from Chuncheon, Kangwon-do, Republic of Korea, and a risk assessment for NDMA was conducted. Methods Twelve water samples were collected from 2 treatment plants and 10 household taps. Samples were analyzed for 6 nitrosamines via solid-phase extraction cleanup followed by conversion to dansyl derivatives and high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). Considering the dietary patterns of Korean people and the concentration change of NDMA by boiling, a carcinogenic risk assessment from ingestion exposure was conducted following the US EPA guidelines. Results NDMA concentrations ranged between 26.1 and 112.0 ng/L. NDMA in water was found to be thermally stable, and thus its concentration at the end of boiling was greater than before thermal treatment owing to the decrease in water volume. The estimated excess lifetime carcinogenic risk exceeded the regulatory baseline risk of 10-5. Conclusions This result suggests that more extensive studies need to be conducted on nitrosamine concentration distributions over the country and the source of relatively high nitrosamine concentrations. PMID:22125764

  7. Suicide attempt with acetonitrile ingestion in a nursing mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Capitani, Eduardo Mello; Borrasca-Fernandes, Carla Fernanda; Branco Pimenta, Maíra; Prado, Camila Carbone; Soubhia, Paula Christiane; Lanaro, Rafael; Mello Moreira, Sueli; Linden, Rafael; Nóbrega, Helena Valle; Bucaretchi, Fábio; Costa, José Luiz

    2017-09-01

    Acetonitrile (ACN) is a solvent rapidly absorbed through lungs and intestinal tract, and is slowly metabolized to cyanide (CN) by enzymatic processes mediated by CYP2E1. To describe the clinical and laboratory evolution, ACN elimination half-life, and its presence in breast milk in a nursing mother who attempted suicide. A 25-year-old 2-month nursing mother ingested an estimated dose of 2.1 g/kg of ACN. Blood and urine samples were collected 24 h later for ACN, CN and thiocyanate analysis, and 12.5 g sodium thiosulfate i.v. in 1-h infusion was started and repeated every 24 h for 4 days. ACN results showed 200 mg/L in blood and 235 mg/L in urine. ACN analysis in the breast milk at Day 6 showed level of 21 mg/L compared to 27 mg/L in blood collected at the same time, suggesting a possible relationship of 1.3:1.0 ratio. An elimination half-life of 40.4 h was calculated, compared to 32 and 36 h showed in other studies. The clinical management must involve the use of CN antidotes for more than 24 h depending on the symptoms and blood levels of ACN. Furthermore, our data showed the possible existence of a close relationship between plasma and breast milk levels.

  8. Disk Battery Ingestion A Malpractice Case that Results in Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat Şarkış

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline batteries have become the second most swallowed foreign bodies following coins. Most cases have an uncomplicated course, but some may lead to serious complications and even death. Here we report a 28 months old boy who had experienced discomfort, eating refusal, vomiting and slightly wheezing after falling from a sofa bed. He has been in three different county hospitals and two private hospitals due to complaints, has been examined by two pediatricians and a cranial surgeon. A cranial CT imaging, a cranial X-ray radiograph and a chest X-ray radiograph was obtained. Firstly, diagnosed as head and neck trauma, then diagnosed as acute bronchiolitis, and finally pneumonia. Hospitalized twice. Finally, a chest radiograph revealed a button battery in the esophagus. The foreign body was endoscopic removed. The child had a quick clinical impairment after removal of the battery. As a result, alkaline batteries with their increasing risk of engulfment poses very serious problems. The parents and physicians should be informed against increasing frequency of ingestion of alkaline batteries by infants and children. Also, clinicians should be careful about the risk of these batteries that they can cause pneumonia and infiltration which may make it difficult to detect the foreign body.

  9. Sensory texture analysis of thickened liquids during ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Edgar; Jenkins, Alicia; Mertz Garcia, Jane

    2017-12-01

    Practitioners support the use of thickened liquids for many patients with disordered swallowing. Although physical measures have highlighted differences among products there are questions about the ability of the measures to fully explain the sensory texture effects during swallowing of thickened liquids. This study used a trained sensory panel to describe the textural aspects of liquids during ingestion and swallowing. The lexicon was able to characterize differences in beverages, thickeners, and thickness levels with the most important attribute being viscosity, which loaded heavily in the almost one-dimensional space that resulted from the sensory analysis of these beverages. Other effects, such as slipperiness provided some minimal additional information on the products. Trained sensory panelists were shown to be useful in the measurement of differences in thickened liquid products prescribed for patients with dysphagia. They were able to differentiate products based on perceived differences related to flow speed, viscosity, and other parameters suggesting their use in further studies of swallowing behavior and for development of products for disordered swallowing should be considered. Understanding how these variables might relate to clinical decision making about product selection or modification to best meet the nutritional needs of a person with disordered swallowing could be helpful. This is especially true given the difficulties in measuring texture instrumentally in these products. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. PAH exposure through soil ingestion: Combining digestion models and bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiele, T.R. van de; Verstraete, W. [Ghent University (BE).Laboratory Microbial Ecology and Technology (LabMET); Siciliano, S.D. [University of Saskatchewan (Canada). Department of Soil Science

    2003-07-01

    Exposure to environmental contaminants through soil ingestion is an important issue in current health risk assessment. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) or their metabolites pose risks to humans due to their toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic or even (anti)estrogenic properties. PAH mobilization from a soil matrix (49.1{+-}1.5 mg PAH/kg DW) was assessed using a Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME). PAH GC-MS analysis was performed on the pellet and supernatant of SHIME digests and gave 101, 92, 89 and 97% recovery for water, stomach, duodenal and colon digests, respectively. PAH release was highest for the water extract (0.51%) and the stomach digestion (0.44%). Lower mobilized fractions in the duodenum (0.13%) and colon (0.30%) digests could be attributed to PAH complexation with bile salts, dissolved organic matter or colon microbiota. The digestion model provides us with relevant information to what extent soil bound PAHs are mobilized in the gastrointestinal tract and thus reach the gut wall, prior to absorption. (orig.)

  11. The Safety of Ingested Caffeine: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Temple

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug in the world. Natural sources of caffeine include coffee, tea, and chocolate. Synthetic caffeine is also added to products to promote arousal, alertness, energy, and elevated mood. Over the past decade, the introduction of new caffeine-containing food products, as well as changes in consumption patterns of the more traditional sources of caffeine, has increased scrutiny by health authorities and regulatory bodies about the overall consumption of caffeine and its potential cumulative effects on behavior and physiology. Of particular concern is the rate of caffeine intake among populations potentially vulnerable to the negative effects of caffeine consumption: pregnant and lactating women, children and adolescents, young adults, and people with underlying heart or other health conditions, such as mental illness. Here, we review the research into the safety and safe doses of ingested caffeine in healthy and in vulnerable populations. We report that, for healthy adults, caffeine consumption is relatively safe, but that for some vulnerable populations, caffeine consumption could be harmful, including impairments in cardiovascular function, sleep, and substance use. We also identified several gaps in the literature on which we based recommendations for the future of caffeine research.

  12. Hummingbirds fuel hovering flight with newly ingested sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Kenneth C; Bakken, Bradley Hartman; Martinez del Rio, Carlos; Suarez, Raul K

    2006-01-01

    We sought to characterize the ability of hummingbirds to fuel their energetically expensive hovering flight using dietary sugar by a combination of respirometry and stable carbon isotope techniques. Broadtailed hummingbirds (Selasphorus platycercus) were maintained on a diet containing beet sugar with an isotopic composition characteristic of C3 plants. Hummingbirds were fasted and then offered a solution containing cane sugar with an isotopic composition characteristic of C4 plants. By monitoring the rates of CO2 production and O2 consumption, as well as the stable carbon isotope composition of expired CO2, we were able to estimate the relative contributions of carbohydrate and fat, as well as the absolute rate at which dietary sucrose was oxidized during hovering. The combination of respirometry and carbon isotope analysis revealed that hummingbirds initially oxidized endogenous fat following a fast and then progressively oxidized proportionately more carbohydrates. The contribution from dietary sources increased with each feeding bout, and by 20 min after the first meal, dietary sugar supported approximately 74% of hovering metabolism. The ability of hummingbirds to satisfy the energetic requirements of hovering flight mainly with recently ingested sugar is unique among vertebrates. Our finding provides an example of evolutionary convergence in physiological and biochemical traits among unrelated nectar-feeding animals.

  13. Ingestive behavior of lambs confined in individual and group stalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, A Eustáquio; Carvalho, G G P; Pires, A J V; Silva, R R; Santos, P E F; Murta, R M; Pereira, F M

    2014-02-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the ingestive behavior of lambs confined in individual and group stalls. We used thirty-four lambs in their growing phase, aged an average of three months, with mean initial live weight of 17.8±5.2 kg. They were allotted in a completely randomized design with 24 animals kept in individual stalls and 10 animals confined as a group. The experiment lasted for a total of 74 days, and the first 14 days were dedicated to the animals' adaption to the management, facilities and diets. The data collection period lasted 60 days, divided into three 20-d periods for the behavior evaluation. The animals were subjected to five days of visual observation during the experiment period, by the quantification of 24 h a day, with evaluations on the 15th day of each period and an interim evaluation consisting of two consecutive days on the 30th and 31st day of the experiment. The animals confined as a group consumed less (pbehavior.

  14. NEURAL NETWORK INTERACTIONS AND INGESTIVE BEHAVIOR CONTROL DURING ANOREXIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Alan G.; Salter, Dawna S.; Neuner, Christina M.

    2007-01-01

    Many models have been proposed over the years to explain how motivated feeding behavior is controlled. One of the most compelling is based on the original concepts of Eliot Stellar whereby sets of interosensory and exterosensory inputs converge on a hypothalamic control network that can either stimulate or inhibit feeding. These inputs arise from information originating in the blood, the viscera, and the telencephalon. In this manner the relative strengths of the hypothalamic stimulatory and inhibitory networks at a particular time dictates how an animal feeds. Anorexia occurs when the balance within the networks consistently favors the restraint of feeding. This article discusses experimental evidence supporting a model whereby the increases in plasma osmolality that result from drinking hypertonic saline activate pathways projecting to neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). These neurons constitute the hypothalamic controller for ingestive behavior, and receive a set of afferent inputs from regions of the brain that process sensory information that is critical for different aspects of feeding. Important sets of inputs arise in the arcuate nucleus, the hindbrain, and in the telencephalon. Anorexia is generated in dehydrated animals by way of osmosensitive projections to the behavior control neurons in the PVH and LHA, rather than by actions on their afferent inputs. PMID:17531275

  15. Evaluation of Chewing and Swallowing Sensors for Monitoring Ingestive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Juan M; Sazonov, Edward S

    2013-03-01

    Monitoring Ingestive Behavior (MIB) of individuals is of special importance to identify and treat eating patterns associated with obesity and eating disorders. Current methods for MIB require subjects reporting every meal consumed, which is burdensome and tend to increase the reporting bias over time. This study presents an evaluation of the burden imposed by two wearable sensors for MIB during unrestricted food intake: a strain sensor to detect chewing events and a throat microphone to detect swallowing sounds. A total of 30 healthy subjects with various levels of adiposity participated in experiments involving the consumption of four meals in four different visits. A questionnaire was handled to subjects at the end of the last visit to evaluate the sensors burden in terms of the comfort levels experienced. Results showed that sensors presented high comfort levels as subjects indicated that the way they ate their meal was not considerably affected by the presence of the sensors. A statistical analysis showed that chewing sensor presented significantly higher comfort levels than the swallowing sensor. The outcomes of this study confirmed the suitability of the chewing and swallowing sensors for MIB and highlighted important aspects of comfort that should be addressed to obtain acceptable and less burdensome wearable sensors for MIB.

  16. Ghrelin: A link between memory and ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ted M; Suarez, Andrea N; Kanoski, Scott E

    2016-08-01

    Feeding is a highly complex behavior that is influenced by learned associations between external and internal cues. The type of excessive feeding behavior contributing to obesity onset and metabolic deficit may be based, in part, on conditioned appetitive and ingestive behaviors that occur in response to environmental and/or interoceptive cues associated with palatable food. Therefore, there is a critical need to understand the neurobiology underlying learned aspects of feeding behavior. The stomach-derived "hunger" hormone, ghrelin, stimulates appetite and food intake and may function as an important biological substrate linking mnemonic processes with feeding control. The current review highlights data supporting a role for ghrelin in mediating the cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms that underlie conditioned feeding behavior. We discuss the role of learning and memory on food intake control (with a particular focus on hippocampal-dependent memory processes) and provide an overview of conditioned cephalic endocrine responses. A neurobiological framework is provided through which conditioned cephalic ghrelin secretion signals in neurons in the hippocampus, which then engage orexigenic neural circuitry in the lateral hypothalamus to express learned feeding behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiological impact of the Chernobyl accident through ingestion in Europe. Ingestion doses determined by whole-body counting of radiocesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Jiro

    2012-01-01

    Reports mainly concerning the internal exposure caused by Chernobyl Accident (CA, 1986) are discussed for reference to deal with the radiation impact on public of Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant Accident. Data of the internal exposure measured by the whole body counter are particularly noted. In adults, 1 kBq of Cs-137/body/year is equivalent to the internal exposure dose of 0.03 mSV/y. The CA released Cs-137 of total 8.5 PBq, which was then partially ingested through food to result in the internal exposure to European. For instance, in the old Soviet, the exposure was reported to amount to about 100 kBq/body (1987) of residents living in the highly contaminated area (Bryansk and others). In southern Germany like Bavaria State, the amount >1 kBq/body was recorded in 1987. In Cumbria, UK, residents had about 700 Bq of Cs-137 in June, 1986, which decreased to 450 Bq a month later. In Sami people living in Lapland area of northern Scandinavia, several tens kBq/body were found as they took the meat of reindeer of which diet was the contaminated lichen. The amount of internal Cs-137 peaked in 1987 and lowered thereafter with half lives of 1-2 years, which was thought to be partly due to various protection means conducted. The internal half life tended to elongate in people who had ingested the food harvested from such sites as difficult to get rid of the contamination like forest. Overall, the internal amount/dose of Cs-137 due to CA were at a similar level to those to the nuclear experiments in open air done in 1960s. The author, based on his experience, thinks that it can be one of relevant ways to observe the time course of the internal dose change of certain typical residents in Fukushima by measuring with the whole body counter, followed by announcement and explanation of data to the public. (T.T.)

  18. Insulin Sensitivity Determines Effects of Insulin and Meal Ingestion on Systemic Vascular Resistance in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woerdeman, Jorn; Meijer, Rick I; Eringa, Etto C; Hoekstra, Trynke; Smulders, Yvo M; Serné, Erik H

    2016-01-01

    In addition to insulin's metabolic actions, insulin can dilate arterioles which increase blood flow to metabolically active tissues. This effect is blunted in insulin-resistant subjects. Insulin's effect on SVR, determined by resistance arterioles, has, however, rarely been examined directly. We determined the effects of both hyperinsulinemia and a mixed meal on SVR and its relationship with insulin sensitivity. Thirty-seven lean and obese women underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and 24 obese volunteers underwent a mixed-meal test. SVR was assessed using CPP before and during hyperinsulinemia as well as before and 60 and 120 minutes after a meal. SVR decreased significantly during hyperinsulinemia (-13%; p Insulin decreased SVR more strongly in insulin-sensitive individuals (standardized β: -0.44; p = 0.01). In addition, SVR at 60 minutes after meal ingestion was inversely related to the Matsuda index (β: -0.39; p = 0.04) and the change in postprandial SVR was directly related to postprandial glycemia (β: 0.53; p insulin resistance. This suggests that resistance to insulin-induced vasodilatation contributes to regulation of vascular resistance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The physiological stress response to high-intensity sprint exercise following the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peart, Daniel J; Kirk, Richard J; Hillman, Angela R; Madden, Leigh A; Siegler, Jason C; Vince, Rebecca V

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-exercise alkalosis on the physiological stress response to high-intensity exercise. Seven physically active males (age 22 ± 3 years, height 1.82 ± 0.06 m, mass 81.3 ± 8.4 kg and peak power output 300 ± 22 W) performed a repeated sprint cycle exercise following a dose of 0.3 g kg(-1) body mass of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) (BICARB), or a placebo of 0.045 g kg(-1) body mass of sodium chloride (PLAC). Monocyte-expressed heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) and plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were significantly attenuated in BICARB compared to PLAC (p = 0.04 and p = 0.039, respectively), however total anti-oxidant capacity, the ratio of oxidised to total glutathione, cortisol, interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 were not significantly induced by the exercise. In conclusion, monocyte-expressed HSP72 is significantly increased following high-intensity anaerobic exercise, and its attenuation following such exercise with the ingestion of NaHCO(3) is unlikely to be due to a decreased oxidative stress.

  20. The lateral neostriatum is necessary for compensatory ingestive behaviour after intravascular dehydration in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelos, M J; Harrison, D J; Rosser, A E; Dunnett, S B

    2013-12-01

    Aberrant striatal function results in an array of physiological symptoms, including impaired consummatory and regulatory behaviours, which can lead to weight loss and dehydration. It was hypothesised, therefore, that cell loss in the neostriatum may contribute to altered fluid intake by regulating physiological signals related to dehydration status. To test this theory, rats with lesions of the lateral neostriatum and sham controls underwent a series of physiological challenges, including the experimental induction of intracellular and intravascular dehydration. No baseline differences in prandial or non-prandial drinking were observed, nor were differences in locomotor activity evident between groups. Furthermore, intracellular dehydration increased water intake in lesion rats in a manner comparable to sham rats. Interestingly, a specific impairment was evident in lesion rats after subcutaneous injection of poly-ethylene glycol was used to induce intravascular dehydration, such that lesion rats failed to adapt their water intake to this physiological change. The results suggest that the striatal lesions resulted in regulatory dysfunction by impairing motivational control over compensatory ingestive behaviour after intravascular hydration, while the physiological signals related to dehydration remain intact. Loss of these cells in neurodegenerative disorders, such Huntington's disease, may contribute to regulatory changes evident in the course of the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. From appetite setpoint to appetition: 50years of ingestive behavior research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, Anthony

    2018-01-02

    I review the main themes of my 50-year research career in ingestive behavior as a graduate student at the University of Chicago and a professor at the City University of New York. A seminar course with my Ph.D. mentor, S. P. Grossman, sparked my interest in the hypothalamic obesity syndrome. I developed a wire knife to dissect the neuropathways and the functional disorder responsible for the syndrome. An elevated appetite setpoint that permitted the overconsumption of palatable foods appeared central to the hypothalamic syndrome. In brain-intact rats, providing an assortment of highly palatable foods (the cafeteria diet) stimulated diet-induced obesity that mimicked elements of hypothalamic obesity. Studies of the determinants of food palatability led to the discovery of a "new" carbohydrate taste (maltodextrin taste) and the confirmation of a fatty taste. In addition to oral taste receptors, gut nutrient sensors stimulated the intake/preference for carbohydrate- and fat-rich foods via an appetition process that stimulates brain reward systems. My research career greatly benefited from many diligent and creative students, collaborators and technicians and research support from my university and the National Institutes of Health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Beverage can stay-tabs: still a source for inadvertently ingested foreign bodies in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, Lane F. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH (United States); University of Cincinnati, College of Medicine, Departments of Radiology and Pediatrics, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2010-09-15

    In the 1970s in part to avoid inadvertent ingestion, the beverage-can industry changed can construction from pull-tabs to the stay-tabs (remain attached to can after opening) used today. Our purpose is to identify the number of inadvertent ingestions of beverage-can stay-tabs by children recognized at our institution. The medical information system of a children's hospital was searched with key terms to identify cases in which a witnessed or self-reported inadvertent ingestion of a beverage-can stay-tab resulted in a radiograph to rule out presence of a foreign body. Demographics, identification of stay-tab on radiographs, associated abnormalities, and patient management were reviewed. Nineteen cases of stay-tab ingestion were identified over 16 years. Mean age of ingesters was 8.5 years with the majority being teenagers and 15 (79%) >5 years of age. The stay-tab could be seen radiographically only in 4 (21%) cases - all with the stay-tab identified in the stomach. The identification of 19 children who inadvertently ingested beverage-can stay-tabs at a single children's hospital suggests that such ingestions still occur. Radiologists should be aware that stay-tabs are radiographically visible in the minority (21%) of cases. (orig.)

  3. Beverage can stay-tabs: still a source for inadvertently ingested foreign bodies in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, Lane F.

    2010-01-01

    In the 1970s in part to avoid inadvertent ingestion, the beverage-can industry changed can construction from pull-tabs to the stay-tabs (remain attached to can after opening) used today. Our purpose is to identify the number of inadvertent ingestions of beverage-can stay-tabs by children recognized at our institution. The medical information system of a children's hospital was searched with key terms to identify cases in which a witnessed or self-reported inadvertent ingestion of a beverage-can stay-tab resulted in a radiograph to rule out presence of a foreign body. Demographics, identification of stay-tab on radiographs, associated abnormalities, and patient management were reviewed. Nineteen cases of stay-tab ingestion were identified over 16 years. Mean age of ingesters was 8.5 years with the majority being teenagers and 15 (79%) >5 years of age. The stay-tab could be seen radiographically only in 4 (21%) cases - all with the stay-tab identified in the stomach. The identification of 19 children who inadvertently ingested beverage-can stay-tabs at a single children's hospital suggests that such ingestions still occur. Radiologists should be aware that stay-tabs are radiographically visible in the minority (21%) of cases. (orig.)

  4. A pair of pharyngeal gustatory receptor neurons regulates caffeine-dependent ingestion in Drosophila larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaekyun Choi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The sense of taste is an essential chemosensory modality that enables animals to identify appropriate food sources and control feeding behavior. In particular, the recognition of bitter taste prevents animals from feeding on harmful substances. Feeding is a complex behavior comprised of multiple steps, and food quality is continuously assessed. We here examined the role of pharyngeal gustatory organs in ingestion behavior. As a first step, we constructed a gustatory receptor-to-neuron map of the larval pharyngeal sense organs, and examined corresponding gustatory receptor neuron projections in the larval brain. Out of 22 candidate bitter compounds, we found 14 bitter compounds that elicit inhibition of ingestion in a dose-dependent manner. We provide evidence that certain pharyngeal gustatory receptor neurons are necessary and sufficient for the ingestion response of larvae to caffeine. Additionally, we show that a specific pair of pharyngeal gustatory receptor neurons, DP1, responds to caffeine by calcium imaging. In this study we show that a specific pair of gustatory receptor neurons in the pharyngeal sense organs coordinates caffeine sensing with regulation of behavioral responses such as ingestion. Our results indicate that in Drosophila larvae, the pharyngeal gustatory receptor neurons have a major role in sensing food palatability to regulate ingestion behavior. The pharyngeal sense organs are prime candidates to influence ingestion due to their position in the pharynx, and they may act as first level sensors of ingested food.

  5. Magnet ingestions in children presenting to US emergency departments, 2002-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mazen I; Oliva-Hemker, Maria; Choi, Joon; Lustik, Michael; Gilger, Mark A; Noel, R Adam; Schwarz, Kathleen; Nylund, Cade M

    2013-07-01

    In the last 10 years, there have been an increasing number of case reports concerning gastrointestinal injury related to magnet ingestions; however, the magnitude of the problem remains to be clearly defined. The aim of the study was to examine the epidemiology of magnet ingestion-related emergency department (ED) visits among children in the United States. We performed a trend analysis using a nationally representative sample from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission, National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) database for ED visits involving magnet ingestion in children younger than 18 years from 2002 to 2011. A national estimate of 16,386 (95% CI 12,175-20,598) children younger than 18 years presented to EDs in the United States during the 10-year study period with possible magnet ingestion. The incidence of visits increased 8.5-fold (from 0.45/100,000 to 3.75/100,000) from 2002 to 2011 with a 75% average annual increase per year. The majority of patients reported to have ingested magnets were younger than 5 years (54.7%). From 2009 to 2011 there was an increase in older children ingesting multiple small and/or round magnets, with a mean average age of 7.1 ± 0.56 years during the study period. There has been an alarming increase in ED visits for magnet ingestion in children. Increased public education and prevention efforts are needed.

  6. Impact of a chronic ingestion of radionuclides on cholesterol metabolism in the rat: example of depleted uranium and cesium 137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racine, Radjini

    2009-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) and cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) are radionuclides spread in the environment due to industrial activities, incidents or accidents. This pollution sets a risk of human exposure to low levels of radiations through contaminated foodstuff. The impact of a chronic ingestion of DU or 137 Cs on cholesterol metabolism in the liver and the brain has been studied. Indeed, cholesterol is crucial in physiology, being a component of cell membranes and a precursor to numerous molecules (bile acids...). Disruption of its metabolism is associated to many pathologies such as atherosclerosis or Alzheimer disease. Rats daily ingested a low level of DU or 137 Cs over 9 months. For each radionuclide, a reference model (rats contaminated since adulthood) and a more sensitive model (hypercholesterolemic or contaminated since fetal life) were studied. The effects mainly consist of changes in gene expression or enzymatic activity of various actors of cholesterol metabolism. DU mainly affects one catabolism enzyme in both models, as well as membrane transporters and regulation factors. 137 Cs mainly affects the storage enzyme in both models as well as catabolism enzymes, apolipoproteins, and regulation factors. No change in the plasma profile or in the tissue concentration of cholesterol (hepatic/cerebral) is recorded, whatever the model and the radionuclide. Thus, a chronic internal contamination with DU or 137 Cs induces molecular modifications in cholesterol metabolism in the rat, without affecting its homeostasis or the general health status in all of our experimental models. (author)

  7. Maternal stress and high-fat diet effect on maternal behavior, milk composition, and pup ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Ryan H; Sun, Bo; Pass, Lauren L; Power, Michael L; Moran, Timothy H; Tamashiro, Kellie L K

    2011-09-01

    Chronic variable prenatal stress or maternal high-fat diet results in offspring that are significantly heavier by the end of the first postnatal week with increased adiposity by weaning. It is unclear, however, what role maternal care and diet play in the ontogenesis of this phenotype and what contributions come from differences already established in the rat pups. In the present studies, we examined maternal behavior and milk composition as well as offspring ingestive behavior. Our aim was to better understand the development of the obese phenotype in offspring from dams subjected to prenatal stress and/or fed a high-fat (HF) diet during gestation and lactation. We found that dams maintained on a HF diet through gestation and lactation spent significantly more time nursing their pups during the first postnatal week. In addition, offspring of prenatal stress dams consumed more milk at postnatal day (PND) 3 and offspring of HF dams consume more milk on PND 7 in an independent ingestion test. Milk from HF dams showed a significant increase in fat content from PND 10-21. Together these results suggest that gestational dietary or stress manipulations can alter the rat offspring's developmental environment, evidence of which is apparent by PND 3. Alterations in maternal care, milk composition, and pup consumption during the early postnatal period may contribute to long-term changes in body weight and adiposity induced by maternal prenatal stress or high-fat diet. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fetal rat metabonome alteration by prenatal caffeine ingestion probably due to the increased circulatory glucocorticoid level and altered peripheral glucose and lipid metabolic pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yansong [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Xu, Dan [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Feng, Jianghua, E-mail: jianghua.feng@xmu.edu.cn [Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Department of Electronic Science, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005 (China); Kou, Hao; Liang, Gai [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang; Chen, Liaobin [Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China)

    2012-07-15

    The aims of this study were to clarify the metabonome alteration in fetal rats after prenatal caffeine ingestion and to explore the underlying mechanism pertaining to the increased fetal circulatory glucocorticoid (GC). Pregnant Wistar rats were daily intragastrically administered with different doses of caffeine (0, 20, 60 and 180 mg/kg) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20. Metabonome of fetal plasma and amniotic fluid on GD20 were analyzed by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics. Gene and protein expressions involved in the GC metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolic pathways in fetal liver and gastrocnemius were measured by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Fetal plasma metabonome were significantly altered by caffeine, which presents as the elevated α- and β‐glucose, reduced multiple lipid contents, varied apolipoprotein contents and increased levels of a number of amino acids. The metabonome of amniotic fluids showed a similar change as that in fetal plasma. Furthermore, the expressions of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD-2) were decreased, while the level of blood GC and the expressions of 11β-HSD-1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) were increased in fetal liver and gastrocnemius. Meanwhile, the expressions of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-1 receptor and insulin receptor were decreased, while the expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, leptin receptors and AMP-activated protein kinase α2 were increased after caffeine treatment. Prenatal caffeine ingestion characteristically change the fetal metabonome, which is probably attributed to the alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic pathways induced by increased circulatory GC, activated GC metabolism and enhanced GR expression in peripheral metabolic tissues. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal caffeine ingestion altered the metabonome of IUGR fetal rats. ► Caffeine altered the glucose and lipid metabolic pathways of IUGR fetal rats. ► Prenatal caffeine

  9. Fetal rat metabonome alteration by prenatal caffeine ingestion probably due to the increased circulatory glucocorticoid level and altered peripheral glucose and lipid metabolic pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yansong; Xu, Dan; Feng, Jianghua; Kou, Hao; Liang, Gai; Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang; Chen, Liaobin; Magdalou, Jacques; Wang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to clarify the metabonome alteration in fetal rats after prenatal caffeine ingestion and to explore the underlying mechanism pertaining to the increased fetal circulatory glucocorticoid (GC). Pregnant Wistar rats were daily intragastrically administered with different doses of caffeine (0, 20, 60 and 180 mg/kg) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20. Metabonome of fetal plasma and amniotic fluid on GD20 were analyzed by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics. Gene and protein expressions involved in the GC metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolic pathways in fetal liver and gastrocnemius were measured by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Fetal plasma metabonome were significantly altered by caffeine, which presents as the elevated α- and β‐glucose, reduced multiple lipid contents, varied apolipoprotein contents and increased levels of a number of amino acids. The metabonome of amniotic fluids showed a similar change as that in fetal plasma. Furthermore, the expressions of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD-2) were decreased, while the level of blood GC and the expressions of 11β-HSD-1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) were increased in fetal liver and gastrocnemius. Meanwhile, the expressions of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-1 receptor and insulin receptor were decreased, while the expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, leptin receptors and AMP-activated protein kinase α2 were increased after caffeine treatment. Prenatal caffeine ingestion characteristically change the fetal metabonome, which is probably attributed to the alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic pathways induced by increased circulatory GC, activated GC metabolism and enhanced GR expression in peripheral metabolic tissues. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal caffeine ingestion altered the metabonome of IUGR fetal rats. ► Caffeine altered the glucose and lipid metabolic pathways of IUGR fetal rats. ► Prenatal caffeine ingestion

  10. Developing a Digital Medicine System in Psychiatry: Ingestion Detection Rate and Latency Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profit, Deborah; Rohatagi, Shashank; Zhao, Cathy; Hatch, Ainslie; Docherty, John P; Peters-Strickland, Timothy S

    2016-09-01

    A digital medicine system (DMS) has been developed to measure and report adherence to an atypical antipsychotic, aripiprazole, in psychiatric patients. The DMS consists of 3 components: ingestible sensor embedded in a medication tablet, wearable sensor, and secure mobile and cloud-based applications. An umbrella study protocol was designed to rapidly assess the technical performance and safety of the DMS in multiple substudies to guide the technology development. Two sequential substudies enrolled 30 and 29 healthy volunteers between March-April 2014 and February-March 2015, respectively, to assess detection accuracy of the ingestible sensor by the DMS and the latency period between ingestion and detection of the ingestion by the wearable sensor or the cloud-based server. The first substudy identified areas for improvement using early versions of the wearable sensor and the mobile application. The second substudy tested updated versions of the components and showed an overall ingestion detection rate of 96.6%. Mean latency times for the signal transmission were 1.1-1.3 minutes (from ingestion to the wearable sensor detection) and 6.2-10.3 minutes (from the wearable sensor detection to the server detection). Half of transmissions were completed in < 2 minutes, and ~90% of ingestions were registered by the smartphone within 30 minutes of ingestion. No serious adverse events, discontinuations, or clinically significant laboratory/vital signs findings were reported. The DMS implementing modified versions of the smartphone application and the wearable sensor has the technical capability to detect and report tablet ingestion with high accuracy and acceptable latency time. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02091882. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  11. The earthworm gut: an ideal habitat for ingested N2O-producing microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Marcus A; Schramm, Andreas; Drake, Harold L

    2003-03-01

    The in vivo production of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) by earthworms is due to their gut microbiota, and it is hypothesized that the microenvironment of the gut activates ingested N(2)O-producing soil bacteria. In situ measurement of N(2)O and O(2) with microsensors demonstrated that the earthworm gut is anoxic and the site of N(2)O production. The gut had a pH of 6.9 and an average water content of approximately 50%. The water content within the gut decreased from the anterior end to the posterior end. In contrast, the concentration of N(2)O increased from the anterior end to the mid-gut region and then decreased along the posterior part of the gut. Compared to the soil in which worms lived and fed, the gut of the earthworm was highly enriched in total carbon, organic carbon, and total nitrogen and had a C/N ratio of 7 (compared to a C/N ratio of 12 in soil). The aqueous phase of gut contents contained up to 80 mM glucose and numerous compounds that were indicative of anaerobic metabolism, including up to 9 mM formate, 8 mM acetate, 3 mM lactate, and 2 mM succinate. Compared to the soil contents, nitrite and ammonium were enriched in the gut up to 10- and 100-fold, respectively. The production of N(2)O by soil was induced when the gut environment was simulated in anoxic microcosms for 24 h (the approximate time for passage of soil through the earthworm). Anoxia, high osmolarity, nitrite, and nitrate were the dominant factors that stimulated the production of N(2)O. Supplemental organic carbon had a very minimal stimulatory effect on the production of N(2)O, and addition of buffer or ammonium had essentially no effect on the initial N(2)O production rates. However, a combination of supplements yielded rates greater than that obtained mathematically for single supplements, suggesting that the maximum rates observed were due to synergistic effects of supplements. Collectively, these results indicate that the special microenvironment of the earthworm gut is ideally suited

  12. New Jersey's experience with implementing Protective Action Guides during the 1988 Salem ingestion pathway exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Duncan

    1989-01-01

    On November 30 and December 1, 1988, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) and three other State agencies (Health, Agriculture and State Police) participated in the ingestion pathway portion of the 1988 Salem Nuclear Generating Station Emergency Exercise. The purpose of this phase of the exercise was to demonstrate the ingestion pathway components of the State's Radiological Emergency Response Plan (RERP) to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The intent of this paper is to provide a summary of difficulties and some lessons learned in implementing the DEP's ingestion pathway Protective Action Guides (PAGs) during the exercise as well as during the preparation of a total population dose estimate (TPDE)

  13. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic diagnosis of acute alcohol ingestion with hidden history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pungavkar, S.A.; Joshi, V.; Patkar, D.P.; Lawande, M.; Gadani, S.; Shah-Mehta, N.

    2006-01-01

    Parenchymal changes within the brain in chronic alcoholics are well known, and specific MRI and MR spectroscopy findings have been described. However, recent alcohol ingestion goes undetected on routine MRI because of lack of specific parenchymal changes in the acute setting. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy can detect the presence of ethanol as a metabolite in the brain accurately and can provide valuable information regarding acute ingestion of alcohol. This may be useful especially in cases where history of alcohol ingestion is withheld. Copyright (2006) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  14. New Jersey's experience with implementing Protective Action Guides during the 1988 Salem ingestion pathway exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Duncan [New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton, NJ (United States)

    1989-09-01

    On November 30 and December 1, 1988, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) and three other State agencies (Health, Agriculture and State Police) participated in the ingestion pathway portion of the 1988 Salem Nuclear Generating Station Emergency Exercise. The purpose of this phase of the exercise was to demonstrate the ingestion pathway components of the State's Radiological Emergency Response Plan (RERP) to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The intent of this paper is to provide a summary of difficulties and some lessons learned in implementing the DEP's ingestion pathway Protective Action Guides (PAGs) during the exercise as well as during the preparation of a total population dose estimate (TPDE)

  15. Effects of carbohydrate and caffeine ingestion on performance during a rugby union simulation protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Simon P; Stokes, Keith A; Trewartha, Grant; Doyle, J; Hogben, P; Thompson, Dylan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of ingesting carbohydrate alone or with caffeine on performance of a rugby union-specific shuttle running protocol. On three occasions, at least one week apart in a counterbalanced trial order, eight male rugby union forwards ingested either placebo or carbohydrate (1.2g center dot kg-1 body mass center dot h-1) before and during a rugby union-specific protocol, with pre-exercise caffeine ingestion (4mg center dot kg-1) before one of the carbohydrate ...

  16. Ingestion of safety razor blade and delayed hanging in a complex suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Mohit Singh; Behera, C; Naagar, Sunil; Sreenivas, M

    2016-12-01

    Ingestion of a foreign body is mostly accidental in children and intentional in prisoners to achieve hospitalization; however, use of this method of suicide is rare. We report a case where the victim first ingested a safety razor blade, but failed to die and then hanged himself, but failed again and finally succumbed to the complications on the sixth day. He had also attempted suicide by inflicting multiple incised wounds on his neck four days before the safety blade ingestion, but none were fatal. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Changes in aminoacidergic and monoaminergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus and amygdala of rats after ayahuasca ingestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eduardo; Ferreira; de; Castro-Neto; Rafael; Henrique; da; Cunha; Dartiu; Xavier; da; Silveira; Mauricio; Yonamine; Telma; Luciana; Furtado; Gouveia; Esper; Abro; Cavalheiro; Débora; Amado; Maria; da; Graa; Naffah-Mazzacoratti

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate changes in neurotransmission induced by a psychoactive beverage ayahuasca in the hippocampus and amygdala of naive rats. METHODS: The level of monoamines, their main metabolites and amino acid neurotransmitters concentrations were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). Four groups of rats were employed: saline-treated and rats receiving 250, 500 and 800 mg/kg of ayahuasca infusion(gavage). Animals were killed 40 min after drug ingestion and the structures stored at-80 ℃ until HPLC assay. The data from all groups were compared using Analysis of variance and Scheffé as post test and P < 0.05 was accepted as significant. RESULTS: The results showed decreased concentrations of glycine(GLY)(0.13 ± 0.03 vs 0.29 ± 0.07, P < 0.001) and γ-aminobutyric acid(GABA)(1.07 ± 0.14 vs 1.73 ± 0.25, P < 0.001) in the amygdala of rats that received 500 of ayahuasca. Animals that ingested 800 mg/kg of ayahuasca also showed a reduction of GLY level(0.11 ± 0.01 vs 0.29 ± 0.07, P < 0.001) and GABA(0.98 ± 0.06 vs 1.73 ± 0.25, P < 0.001). In the hippocampus, increased GABA levels were found in rats that received all ayahuasca doses: 250 mg/kg(1.29 ± 0.19 vs 0.84 ± 0.21, P < 0.05); 500 mg/kg(2.23 ± 038 vs 084 ± 0.21, P < 0.05) and 800 mg/kg(1.98 ± 0.92 vs 0.84 ± 0.21, P < 0.05). In addition, an increased utilization rate of all monoamines was found in the amygdala after ayahuasca administration in doses: 250 mg/kg(noradrenaline: 0.16 ± 0.02 vs 0.36 ± 0.06, P < 0.01; dopamine: 0.39 ± 0.012 vs 2.39 ± 0.84, P < 0.001; serotonin: 1.02 ± 0.22 vs 4.04 ± 0.91, P < 0.001), 500 mg/kg(noradrenaline: 0.08 ± 0.02 vs 0.36 ± 0.06, P < 0.001; dopamine: 0.33 ± 0.19 vs 2.39 ± 0.84, P < 0.001; serotonin: 0.59 ± 0.08 vs 4.04 ± 0.91, P < 0.001) and 800 mg/kg(noradrenaline: 0.16 ± 0.04 vs 0.36 ± 0.06, P < 0.001; dopamine: 0.84 ± 0.65 vs2.39 ± 0.84, P < 0.05; serotonin: 0.36 ± 0.02 vs 4.04 ± 0.91, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest

  18. Lxr-driven enterocyte lipid droplet formation delays transport of ingested lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Garcia, Lourdes; Schlegel, Amnon

    2014-09-01

    Liver X receptors (Lxrs) are master regulators of cholesterol catabolism, driving the elimination of cholesterol from the periphery to the lumen of the intestine. Development of pharmacological agents to activate Lxrs has been hindered by synthetic Lxr agonists' induction of hepatic lipogenesis and hypertriglyceridemia. Elucidating the function of Lxrs in regulating enterocyte lipid handling might identify novel aspects of lipid metabolism that are pharmacologically amenable. We took a genetic approach centered on the single Lxr gene nr1h3 in zebrafish to study the role of Lxr in enterocyte lipid metabolism. Loss of nr1h3 function causes anticipated gene regulatory changes and cholesterol intolerance, collectively reflecting high evolutionary conservation of zebrafish Lxra function. Intestinal nr1h3 activation delays transport of absorbed neutral lipids, with accumulation of neutral lipids in enterocyte cytoplasmic droplets. This delay in transport of ingested neutral lipids protects animals from hypercholesterolemia and hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet. On a gene regulatory level, Lxra induces expression of acsl3a, which encodes acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 3a, a lipid droplet-anchored protein that directs fatty acyl chains into lipids. Forced overexpression of acls3a in enterocytes delays, in part, the appearance of neutral lipids in the vasculature of zebrafish larvae. Activation of Lxr in the intestine cell-autonomously regulates the rate of delivery of absorbed lipids by inducting a temporary lipid intestinal droplet storage depot. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Muscle glycogen storage after different amounts of carbohydrate ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, J L; Lee, M C; Brozinick, J T; Reed, M J

    1988-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the rate of muscle glycogen storage could be enhanced during the initial 4-h period postexercise by substantially increasing the amount of the carbohydrate consumed. Eight subjects cycled for 2 h on three separate occasions to deplete their muscle glycogen stores. Immediately and 2 h after exercise they consumed either 0 (P), 1.5 (L), or 3.0 g glucose/kg body wt (H) from a 50% glucose polymer solution. Blood samples were drawn from an antecubital vein before exercise, during exercise, and throughout recovery. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis immediately, 2 h, and 4 h after exercise. Blood glucose and insulin declined significantly during exercise in each of the three treatments. They remained below the preexercise concentrations during recovery in the P treatment but increased significantly above the preexercise concentrations during the L and H treatments. By the end of the 4 h-recovery period, blood glucose and insulin were still significantly above the preexercise concentrations in both treatments. Muscle glycogen storage was significantly increased above the basal rate (P, 0.5 mumol.g wet wt-1.h-1) after ingestion of either glucose polymer supplement. The rates of muscle glycogen storage, however, were not different between the L and H treatments during the first 2 h (L, 5.2 +/- 0.9 vs. H, 5.8 +/- 0.7 mumol.g wet wt-1.h-1) or the second 2 h of recovery (L, 4.0 +/- 0.9 vs. H, 4.5 +/- 0.6 mumol.g wet wt-1. h-1).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Understanding the control of ingestive behavior in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark E; Moore, Carla J; Ethun, Kelly F; Johnson, Zachary P

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". Ingestive behavior in free-ranging populations of nonhuman primates is influenced by resource availability and social group organization and provides valuable insight on the evolution of ecologically adaptive behaviors and physiological systems. As captive populations were established, questions regarding proximate mechanisms that regulate food intake in these animals could be more easily addressed. The availability of these captive populations has led to the use of selected species to understand appetite control or metabolic physiology in humans. Recognizing the difficulty of quantitating food intake in free-ranging groups, the use of captive, singly-housed animals provided a distinct advantage though, at the same time, produced a different social ecology from the animals' natural habitat. However, the recent application of novel technologies to quantitate caloric intake and energy expenditure in free-feeding, socially housed monkeys permits prospective studies that can accurately define how food intake changes in response to any number of interventions in the context of a social environment. This review provides an overview of studies examining food intake using captive nonhuman primates organized into three areas: a) neurochemical regulation of food intake in nonhuman primates; b) whether exposure to specific diets during key developmental periods programs differences in diet preferences or changes the expression of feeding related neuropeptides; and c) how psychosocial factors influence appetite regulation. Because feeding patterns are driven by more than just satiety and orexigenic signals, appreciating how the social context influences pattern of feeding in nonhuman primates may be quite informative for understanding the biological complexity of feeding in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Inducible immune proteins in the dampwood termite Zootermopsis angusticollis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B.; Cornelisse, Tara; Guschanski, Katerina; Traniello, James F. A.

    2007-01-01

    Dampwood termites, Zootermopsis angusticollis (Isoptera: Termopsidae), mount an immune response to resist microbial infection. Here we report on results of a novel analysis that allowed us to electrophoretically assess changes in hemolymph proteins in the same individual before and after exposure to a pathogen. We demonstrate that contact with a sublethal concentration of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycotina:Hypomycetes) induces the production of protective proteins in nymphs, pseudergates (false workers), and soldiers. Termites exposed to an immunizing dosage of fungal conidia consistently showed an enhancement of constitutive proteins (62-85 kDa) in the hemolymph as well as an induction of novel proteins (28-48 kDa) relative to preimmunization levels. No significant differences in protein banding patterns relative to baseline levels in control and naïve termites were observed. Incubating excised and eluted induced proteins produced by immunized pseudergates or immunized soldiers with conidia significantly reduced the germination of the fungus. The fungistatic effect of eluted proteins differed significantly among five colonies examined. Our results show that the upregulation of protective proteins in the hemolymph underscores the in vivo immune response we previously recorded in Z. angusticollis.

  2. Poisoning by the ingestion of seeds of the fruit of the "cotieira" (Joannesia princeps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio de Andrade Nishioka

    Full Text Available A 15-year-old boy ingested the core of two seeds of a fruit of Joannesia princeps, a large tree sometimes found planted in sidewalks on streets in Brazilian towns. Four hours after the ingestion, he had several episodes of vomiting and diarrhea, but recovered spontaneously th same day. Poisoning by the ingestion of seeds of Joannesia princeps is possibly not rare, considering that the tree gives plenty of fruit and the seeds have an agreeable flavor, but is probably underestimated as mild cases are unlikely to be reported. Ingestion by small children, that could lead to potentially more severe cases, is in part probably prevented by the hardness of the shells covering the seeds.

  3. Foreign body ingestion in an adolescent – A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan Yu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body ingestion (FBI more commonly occurs in paediatric, psychiatric and intellectually impaired patients. Current guidelines primarily focus on paediatrics and adults with less emphasis on the adolescent population. We present a case of a 16-year-old male with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, who presented with generalised abdominal tenderness. Abdominal X-Ray showed a radioopaque sharp object in the right upper quadrant. Subsequent CT revealed a needle-like object in the proximal small bowel. Clinically, his symptoms continued to worsen despite no radiographic evidence of complications. However, his symptoms markedly improved without intervention and he was managed conservatively. This patient subsequently passed a 5cm needle three days after presentation. This article discusses the challenges involved in managing and communicating with intellectually impaired patients who present with foreign body ingestion. Guidelines from the most recent literature on managing adolescents with foreign body ingestion, particularly sharp object ingestion, are also discussed.

  4. Caloric densities of ingested food of Etroplus suratensis (Bloch) grown in a culture pond

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Krishnakumari, L.; Dhawan, R.M.; Royan, J.P.

    Analyses of stomach contents of E.suratensis indicated that it is principally a phytoplankton-detritus feeder. Biochemical analyses of the ingested food showed that of the total consumed food, 44% was contributed by ash content, while 56...

  5. Facial Muscle Coordination in Monkeys During Rhythmic Facial Expressions and Ingestive Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Stephen V.; Lanzilotto, Marco; Ghazanfar, Asif A.

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses regarding the origins of communication signals generally, and primate orofacial communication signals in particular, suggest that these signals derive by ritualization of noncommunicative behaviors, notably including ingestive behaviors such as chewing and nursing. These theories are appealing in part because of the prominent periodicities in both types of behavior. Despite their intuitive appeal, however, there are little or no data with which to evaluate these theories because the coordination of muscles innervated by the facial nucleus has not been carefully compared between communicative and ingestive movements. Such data are especially crucial for reconciling neurophysiological assumptions regarding facial motor control in communication and ingestion. We here address this gap by contrasting the coordination of facial muscles during different types of rhythmic orofacial behavior in macaque monkeys, finding that the perioral muscles innervated by the facial nucleus are rhythmically coordinated during lipsmacks and that this coordination appears distinct from that observed during ingestion. PMID:22553017

  6. Ingestive Behavior of Ovine Fed with Marandu Grass Silage Added with Naturally Dehydrated Brewery Residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus Ferreira, Daniele; de Moura Zanine, Anderson; de Paula Lana, Rogério; Lima de Souza, Alexandre; Divino Ribeiro, Marinaldo; Mattos Negrão, Fagton; Castro, Wanderson José Rodrigues; Nunes Parente, Henrique; Valério Geron, Luiz Juliano; de Azevedo Câmara, Larissa Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the ingestive behavior of ovine fed Marandu grass silage with dehydrated brewery residue added. The experiment had a completely randomized design with five treatments and four repetitions, with the treatments levels of inclusion being of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% natural matter of naturally dehydrated brewery residue for 36 hours to the marandu grass silage. 20 ovines were used and the experimental period was 21 days, 15 being for adaptation to diets. The use of brewery byproduct promoted quadratic effect (P Ingestion efficiency and rumination efficiency of dry matter (g DM/hour) were significant (P behavior, and NDF ingestion and rumination efficiency showed crescent linear behavior. The DM and NDF consumption expressed in kg/meal and in minutes/kg were also significant (P behavior. Rumination activity expressed in g DM and NDF/piece was influenced (P ingestive behavior.

  7. A simplified ingestion procedure for esophageal capsule endoscopy: initial evaluation in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralnek, I M; Rabinovitz, R; Afik, D; Eliakim, R

    2006-09-01

    Initial studies on esophageal capsule endoscopy (PillCam ESO) reported excellent sensitivity and specificity, but these were followed by mixed results in several subsequent studies, probably due to deviations from the recommended ingestion protocol and the inconvenience of capsule ingestion in the supine position. The aim of this study was therefore to test a simplified ingestion procedure (SIP) for PillCam ESO. Using a cross-over study design, the SIP was prospectively compared with the original ingestion procedure for PillCam ESO in 24 healthy volunteers (15 men, nine women; mean age 44, range 27 - 70) and evaluated for: bubbles/saliva interference at the Z-line, Z-line circumferential visualization (quadrants), and convenience and ease of the ingestion procedure. All Rapid 4 videos were reviewed in a randomized manner and read by an experienced PillCam ESO reader blinded to the ingestion procedure used. It was found that the SIP significantly improved visualization in comparison with the original ingestion procedure, with less interference due to bubbles/saliva observed at the gastroesophageal junction ( P = 0.002) and improved visualization of the Z-line ( P = 0.025). Although the esophageal transit time was significantly faster with the SIP (3 : 45 min vs. 0 : 38 min; P = 0.0001), there were no differences in the number of Z-line frames/images captured. This new, simplified ingestion procedure for PillCam ESO provides significantly improved visualization of the Z-line in healthy volunteers. The overall test characteristics of PillCam ESO using SIP should be tested in patients with esophageal disease.

  8. Risk Analysis Reveals Global Hotspots for Marine Debris Ingestion by Sea Turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Q. A.; Wilcox, C.; Townsend, K.; Wedemeyer-Strombel, K.; Balazs, G.; van Sebille, E.; Hardesty, B. D.

    2016-02-01

    Plastic marine debris pollution is rapidly becoming one of the critical environmental concerns facing wildlife in the 21st century. Here we present a risk analysis for plastic ingestion by sea turtles on a global scale. We combined global marine plastic distributions based on ocean drifter data with sea turtle habitat maps to predict exposure levels to plastic pollution. Empirical data from necropsies of deceased animals were then utilised to assess the consequence of exposure to plastics. We modelled the risk (probability of debris ingestion) by incorporating exposure to debris and consequence of exposure, and included life history stage, species of sea turtle, and date of stranding observation as possible additional explanatory factors. Life history stage is the best predictor of debris ingestion, but the best-fit model also incorporates encounter rates within a limited distance from stranding location, marine debris predictions specific to the date of the stranding study, and turtle species. There was no difference in ingestion rates between stranded turtles vs. those caught as bycatch from fishing activity, suggesting that stranded animals are not a biased representation of debris ingestion rates in the background population. Oceanic life-stage sea turtles are at the highest risk of debris ingestion, and olive ridley turtles are the most at-risk species. The regions of highest risk to global sea turtle populations are off of the east coasts of the USA, Australia, and South Africa; the east Indian Ocean, and Southeast Asia. Model results can be used to predict the number of sea turtles globally at risk of debris ingestion. Based on currently available data, initial calculations indicate that up to 52% of sea turtles may have ingested debris.

  9. Risk analysis reveals global hotspots for marine debris ingestion by sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Qamar A; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy A; Wedemeyer-Strombel, Kathryn R; Balazs, George; van Sebille, Erik; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2016-02-01

    Plastic marine debris pollution is rapidly becoming one of the critical environmental concerns facing wildlife in the 21st century. Here we present a risk analysis for plastic ingestion by sea turtles on a global scale. We combined global marine plastic distributions based on ocean drifter data with sea turtle habitat maps to predict exposure levels to plastic pollution. Empirical data from necropsies of deceased animals were then utilised to assess the consequence of exposure to plastics. We modelled the risk (probability of debris ingestion) by incorporating exposure to debris and consequence of exposure, and included life history stage, species of sea turtle and date of stranding observation as possible additional explanatory factors. Life history stage is the best predictor of debris ingestion, but the best-fit model also incorporates encounter rates within a limited distance from stranding location, marine debris predictions specific to the date of the stranding study and turtle species. There is no difference in ingestion rates between stranded turtles vs. those caught as bycatch from fishing activity, suggesting that stranded animals are not a biased representation of debris ingestion rates in the background population. Oceanic life-stage sea turtles are at the highest risk of debris ingestion, and olive ridley turtles are the most at-risk species. The regions of highest risk to global sea turtle populations are off of the east coasts of the USA, Australia and South Africa; the east Indian Ocean, and Southeast Asia. Model results can be used to predict the number of sea turtles globally at risk of debris ingestion. Based on currently available data, initial calculations indicate that up to 52% of sea turtles may have ingested debris. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Acute Chloroform Ingestion Successfully Treated with Intravenously Administered N-acetylcysteine

    OpenAIRE

    Dell’Aglio, Damon M.; Sutter, Mark E.; Schwartz, Michael D.; Koch, David D.; Algren, D. A.; Morgan, Brent W.

    2010-01-01

    Chloroform, a halogenated hydrocarbon, causes central nervous system depression, cardiac arrhythmias, and hepatotoxicity. We describe a case of chloroform ingestion with a confirmatory serum level and resultant hepatotoxicity successfully treated with intravenously administered N-acetylcysteine (NAC). A 19-year-old man attempting suicide ingested approximately 75 mL of chloroform. He was unresponsive and intubated upon arrival. Intravenously administered NAC was started after initial stabiliz...

  11. Acute alcohol intoxication in a child following ingestion of an ethyl-alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, James H; Radwick, Allison

    2015-07-01

    While uncommon, ingestion of ethanol-based hand sanitizers by children may be associated with significant intoxication. We report the case of a 7-year-old with acute alcohol intoxication following hand sanitizer ingestion. Alcohol elimination in this patient followed zero-order kinetics with a clearance rate of 22.5 mg/kg/h, consistent with the limited pharmacokinetic information available for children who experience alcohol intoxication from more traditional sources.

  12. Nonsurgical Management of Severe Esophageal and Gastric Injury Following Alkali Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramy D Abaskharoun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The ingestion of caustic substances may result in significant gastrointestinal injury. Endoscopy can play a major role in the initial evaluation and subsequent therapy of such injuries. The case of a 50-year-old man who ingested an alkaline floor stripper is described, including the endoscopic management of esophageal and pyloric strictures, with good functional results. The role of endoscopy, steroids and acid suppression in the management of such patients is also explored.

  13. Feasibility of an ingestible sensor-based system for monitoring adherence to tuberculosis therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Belknap

    Full Text Available Poor adherence to tuberculosis (TB treatment hinders the individual's recovery and threatens public health. Currently, directly observed therapy (DOT is the standard of care; however, high sustaining costs limit its availability, creating a need for more practical adherence confirmation methods. Techniques such as video monitoring and devices to time-register the opening of pill bottles are unable to confirm actual medication ingestions. A novel approach developed by Proteus Digital Health, Inc. consists of an ingestible sensor and an on-body wearable sensor; together, they electronically confirm unique ingestions and record the date/time of the ingestion. A feasibility study using an early prototype was conducted in active TB patients to determine the system's accuracy and safety in confirming co-ingestion of TB medications with sensors. Thirty patients completed 10 DOT visits and 1,080 co-ingestion events; the system showed 95.0% (95% CI 93.5-96.2% positive detection accuracy, defined as the number of detected sensors divided by the number of transmission capable sensors administered. The specificity was 99.7% [95% CI 99.2-99.9%] based on three false signals recorded by receivers. The system's identification accuracy, defined as the number of correctly identified ingestible sensors divided by the number of sensors detected, was 100%. Of 11 adverse events, four were deemed related or possibly related to the device; three mild skin rashes and one complaint of nausea. The system's positive detection accuracy was not affected by the subjects' Body Mass Index (p = 0.7309. Study results suggest the system is capable of correctly identifying ingestible sensors with high accuracy, poses a low risk to users, and may have high patient acceptance. The system has the potential to confirm medication specific treatment compliance on a dose-by-dose basis. When coupled with mobile technology, the system could allow wirelessly observed therapy (WOT for

  14. Micropinocytic ingestion of glycosylated albumin by isolated microvessels: possible role in pathogenesis of diabetic microangiopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, S K; Devenny, J J; Bitensky, M W

    1981-01-01

    Microvessels isolated from rat epididymal fat exhibit differential vesicular ingestion rates for unmodified and non-enzymatically glycosylated rat albumin. While unmodified rat albumin is excluded from ingestion by endothelial micropinocytic vesicles, glycosylated albumin is avidly taken up by endocytosis. Interaction of albumin and glycosylated albumin with endothelium was studied with a double-label fluorescence assay of micropinocytosis. When glycosylated albumin was present at a concentra...

  15. Appetitive and consummatory ingestive behavior : Role of taste, dopamine and NPY

    OpenAIRE

    Sederholm, Fredrik

    2001-01-01

    The present thesis has examined the role of taste, dopamine and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the regulation of the two phases of ingestive behavior: appetitive (approaching and handling of food) and consummatory ingestive behavior (chewing and swallowing). Behavioral studies were performed in male and female rats. THE ROLE OF TASTE: Background. A sweet stimulus loses its pleasantness to humans preloaded with glucose, but not if the subjects are food deprived. Thus, physiologi...

  16. Plastic and Non-plastic Debris Ingestion in Three Gull Species Feeding in an Urban Landfill Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif, S; Provencher, J F; Avery-Gomm, S; Daoust, P-Y; Mallory, M L; Smith, P A

    2018-04-01

    Plastic debris is recognized as a widespread, common and problematic environmental pollutant. An important consequence of this pollution is the ingestion of plastic debris by wildlife. Assessing the degree to which different species ingest plastics, and the potential effects of these plastics on their health are important research needs for understanding the impacts of plastic pollution. We examined debris (plastic and other types) ingestion in three sympatric overwintering gull species (Herring gulls Larus smithsonianus, Great Black-backed Gulls Larus marinus, and Iceland Gulls Larus glaucoides) to understand how debris ingestion differs among species, age classes and sexes in gulls. We also assessed how plastic burdens were associated with body condition to investigate how gulls may be affected by debris ingestion. There were no differences among the species, age classes or sexes in the incidence of debris ingestion (plastic or otherwise), the mass or number of debris pieces ingested. We found no correlation between ingested plastics burdens and individual condition. Gulls ingested plastic debris, but also showed high levels of other debris types as well, including metal, glass and building materials, including a metal piece of debris found within an abscess in the stomach. Thus, when the health effects of debris ingestion on gulls, and other species that ingest debris, is of interest, either from a physical or chemical perspective, it may be necessary to consider all debris types and not just plastic burdens as is often currently done for seabirds.

  17. The effect of free glutamine and peptide ingestion on the rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Saris, W H; van de Schoor, P A

    2000-01-01

    hydrolysate (26% glutamine) and 3) a whey hydrolysate (6.6% glutamine). Plasma glutamine, decreased by approximately 20% during recovery with ingestion of the control drink, no changes with ingestion of the protein hydrolysates drinks, and a 2-fold increase with ingestion of the free glutamine drinks....... The rate of glycogen resynthesis was not significantly different in the four tests: 28 +/- 5, 26 +/- 6, 33 +/- 4, and 34 +/- 3 mmol glucosyl units x kg(-1) dry weight muscle x h(-1) for the control, glutamine, wheat- and whey hydrolysate ingestion, respectively. It is concluded that ingestion...... of a glutamine/carbohydrate mixture does not increase the rate of glycogen resynthesis in muscle. Glycogen resynthesis rates were higher, although not statistically significant, after ingestion of the drink containing the wheat (21 +/- 8%) and whey protein hydrolysate (20 +/- 6%) compared to ingestion...

  18. Muscle glycogen resynthesis during recovery from cycle exercise: no effect of additional protein ingestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Shirreffs, S M; Calbet, J A

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the effect of carbohydrate and protein hydrolysate ingestion on muscle glycogen resynthesis during 4 h of recovery from intense cycle exercise. Five volunteers were studied during recovery while they ingested, immediately after exercise, a 600-ml bolus......, and 18 +/- 6 for the first 1.5 h of recovery and decreased to 30 +/- 6, 36 +/- 3, and 8 +/- 6 mmol. kg dry muscle(-1). h(-1) between 1.5 and 4 h for CHO/protein, CHO, and water ingestion, respectively. No differences could be observed between CHO/protein and CHO ingestion ingestion. It is concluded...... and then every 15 min a 150-ml bolus containing 1) 1.67 g. kg body wt(-1). l(-1) of sucrose and 0.5 g. kg body wt(-1). l(-1) of a whey protein hydrolysate (CHO/protein), 2) 1.67 g. kg body wt(-1). l(-1) of sucrose (CHO), and 3) water. CHO/protein and CHO ingestion caused an increased arterial glucose...

  19. Adherence of microplastics to soft tissue of mussels: A novel way to uptake microplastics beyond ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolandhasamy, Prabhu; Su, Lei; Li, Jiana; Qu, Xiaoyun; Jabeen, Khalida; Shi, Huahong

    2018-01-01

    Microplastic pollution is recognized as an emerging threat to aquatic ecosystems. One of the main environmental risks associated with microplastics is their bioavailability to marine organisms. Up to date, ingestion has been widely accepted as the sole way for the animals to uptake microplastics. Nevertheless, microplastics have also been found in some organs which are not involved in the process of ingestion. We hypothesize that the animal might uptake microplastics through adherence in addition to ingestion. To test this hypothesis, we collected mussels from the fishery farms, conducted exposure/clearance experiments and analyzed the accumulation of microplastics in specific organ of mussels. Our studies clearly showed the uptake of microplastic in multiple organs of mussels. In the field investigations, we found that the abundance of microplastic by weight but not by individual showed significant difference among organs, and the intestine contained the highest level of microplastics (9.2items/g). In the uptake and clearance experiment, the accumulation and retention of microfibers could also be observed in all tested organs of mussels including foot and mantle. Our results strongly suggest that adherence rather than ingestion led to the accumulation of microplastics in those organs which are not involved in ingestion process. To our best knowledge, it is the first time to propose that adherence is a novel way for animals to uptake microplastics beyond ingestion. This new finding makes us rethink about the bioavailability, accumulation and toxicity of microplastics to aquatic animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ingestion of magnetic toys: report of serious complications requiring surgical intervention and a proposed management algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jerry; Shaul, Donald B; Sydorak, Roman M; Lau, Stanley T; Akmal, Yasir; Rodriguez, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Increasing popularity of strong magnets as toys has led to their ingestion by children, putting them at risk of potentially harmful gastrointestinal tract injuries. To heighten physician awareness of the potential complications of magnetic foreign body ingestion, and to provide an updated algorithm for management of a patient who is suspected to have ingested magnets. A retrospective review of magnet ingestions treated over a two-year period at our institutions in the Southern California Permanente Medical Group. Data including patient demographics, clinical information, radiologic images, and surgical records were used to propose a management strategy. Five patients, aged 15 months to 18 years, presented with abdominal symptoms after magnet ingestion. Four of the 5 patients suffered serious complications, including bowel necrosis, perforation, fistula formation, and obstruction. All patients were successfully treated with laparoscopic-assisted exploration with or without endoscopy. Total days in the hospital averaged 5.2 days (range = 3 to 9 days). Average time to discharge following surgery was 4 days (range = 2 to 7 days). Ex vivo experimentation with toy magnetic beads were performed to reveal characteristics of the magnetic toys. Physicians should have a heightened sense of caution when treating a patient in whom magnetic foreign body ingestion is suspected, because of the potential gastrointestinal complications. An updated management strategy is proposed that both prevents delays in surgical care and avoids unnecessary surgical exploration.

  1. Medication adherence assessment: high accuracy of the new Ingestible Sensor System in kidney transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberger, Ute; Wüthrich, Rudolf P; Bock, Andreas; Ambühl, Patrice; Steiger, Jürg; Intondi, Allison; Kuranoff, Susan; Maier, Thomas; Green, Damian; DiCarlo, Lorenzo; Feutren, Gilles; De Geest, Sabina

    2013-08-15

    This open-label single-arm exploratory study evaluated the accuracy of the Ingestible Sensor System (ISS), a novel technology for directly assessing the ingestion of oral medications and treatment adherence. ISS consists of an ingestible event marker (IEM), a microsensor that becomes activated in gastric fluid, and an adhesive personal monitor (APM) that detects IEM activation. In this study, the IEM was combined to enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (ECMPS). Twenty stable adult kidney transplants received IEM-ECMPS for a mean of 9.2 weeks totaling 1227 cumulative days. Eight patients prematurely discontinued treatment due to ECMPS gastrointestinal symptoms (n=2), skin intolerance to APM (n=2), and insufficient system usability (n=4). Rash or erythema due to APM was reported in 7 (37%) patients, all during the first month of use. No serious or severe adverse events and no rejection episode were reported. IEM detection accuracy was 100% over 34 directly observed ingestions; Taking Adherence was 99.4% over a total of 2824 prescribed IEM-ECMPS ingestions. ISS could detect accurately the ingestion of two IEM-ECMPS capsules taken at the same time (detection rate of 99.3%, n=2376). ISS is a promising new technology that provides highly reliable measurements of intake and timing of intake of drugs that are combined with the IEM.

  2. An analysis of ingestion doses from a range of postulated Magnox reactor releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis was carried out of ingestion doses from a range of postulated Magnox reactor releases to the atmosphere. Doses to the adult, ten year old child and one year old child were calculated, which showed the one year old child to receive the highest dose. Detailed studies were made of the significance of the ingestion dose to the one year old child in relation to other exposure routes. The ingestion dose was analysed for its contributing critical organs, foods and nuclides. Approximate calculations were also made of the dependence of the ingestion dose on the time of year when the release occurs. The ingestion pathway was found to dominate if the release occurs towards the end of the growing season but to be less significant relative to other exposure pathways at all other times. The calculations enabled a set of release-specific emergency action guidance levels of critical nuclide concentrations in the critical foods to be produced, which comply with NRPB's ingestion Emergency Reference Level guidelines. (author)

  3. The effect of caffeine ingestion on functional performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, M J; Clarke, N D; Tallis, J; Guimarães-Ferreira, L; Leddington Wright, S

    2014-12-01

    Caffeine is a widely used nutritional supplement which has been shown to enhance both physical and cognitive performance in younger adults. However, few studies have assessed the effect of caffeine ingestion on performance, particularly functional performance in older adults. The present study aims to assess the effect of acute caffeine ingestion on functional performance, manual dexterity and readiness to invest effort in older adults. 19 apparently healthy, volunteers (10 females and 9 males aged 61-79; 66 ± 2 years) performed tests of functional fitness and manual dexterity post ingestion of caffeine (3mg*kg-1) or placebo in a randomised order. Pre and 60 minutes post ingestion, participants also completed measures of readiness to invest physical (RTIPE) and mental (RTIME) effort. A series of repeated measures ANOVAS indicated enhanced performance in the following functional fitness tests; arm curls (P = .04), 8 foot up and go (P = .007), six minute walk (P = .016). Manual dexterity was also improved in the presence of caffeine (P = .001). RTIME increased (P = .015) pre to post ingestion in the caffeine condition but not in the placebo condition. There were no significant main effects or interactions for RTIPE or gender in any analysis (all P > .05). The results of this study suggest that acute caffeine ingestion positively enhances functional performance, manual dexterity and readiness to invest effort in apparently healthy older adults.

  4. Effects of β-Glucans Ingestion on Alveolar Bone Loss, Intestinal Morphology, Systemic Inflammatory Profile, and Pancreatic β-Cell Function in Rats with Periodontitis and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Viviam de O.; Lobato, Raquel V.; Orlando, Débora R.; Borges, Bruno D.B.; de Sousa, Raimundo V.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of β-glucan ingestion (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on the plasmatic levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10), alveolar bone loss, and pancreatic β-cell function (HOMA-BF) in diabetic rats with periodontal disease (PD). Besides, intestinal morphology was determined by the villus/crypt ratio. A total of 48 Wistar rats weighing 203 ± 18 g were used. Diabetes was induced by the intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (80 mg/kg) and periodontal inflammation, by ligature. The design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme 2 × 2 × 2 (diabetic or not, with or without periodontitis, and ingesting β-glucan or not). The animals received β-glucan by gavage for 28 days. Alveolar bone loss was determined by scanning electron microscopy (distance between the cementoenamel junction and alveolar bone crest) and histometric analysis (bone area between tooth roots). β-glucan reduced plasmatic levels of TNF-α in diabetic animals with PD and of IL-10 in animals with PD (p < 0.05). β-glucan reduced bone loss in animals with PD (p < 0.05). In diabetic animals, β-glucan improved β-cell function (p < 0.05). Diabetic animals had a higher villus/crypt ratio (p < 0.05). In conclusion, β-glucan ingestion reduced the systemic inflammatory profile, prevented alveolar bone loss, and improved β-cell function in diabetic animals with PD. PMID:28906456

  5. Cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) activity is modified after chronic ingestion of depleted uranium in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, R; Grandcolas, L; Grison, S; Stefani, J; Delissen, O; Gourmelon, P; Veyssière, G; Souidi, M

    2010-05-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is a radioactive heavy metal derived from the nuclear energy production. Its wide use in civilian and military items increases the risk of its environmental dissemination, and thus the risk of internal contamination of populations living in such contaminated territories. Previous studies have shown that vitamin D and cerebral cholesterol metabolisms were affected following chronic ingestion of DU. Even more than the brain, the liver is a crucial organ in cholesterol homeostasis since it regulates cholesterol distribution and elimination at body level. The aim of this work was to assess the impact of a low-level chronic ingestion of DU on hepatic cholesterol metabolism. Rats were contaminated with DU in their drinking water at a concentration of 40mg/l for 9 months. The major effect induced by DU was a decrease of CYP7A1 specific activity (-60%) correlated with a matching decrease of its product 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol in the plasma. Hepatic gene expression of transporters ABC A1, ABC G5, ABC G8 and of nuclear receptor RXR was increased, whereas that of catabolism enzyme CYP7B1 was decreased. Thus, after a chronic ingestion of DU, rats experience a modulation of cholesterol catabolism but overcome it, since their cholesterolemia is preserved and no pathology is declared.

  6. Low serum levels of short-chain fatty acids after lactulose ingestion may indicate impaired colonic fermentation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Undseth R

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ragnhild Undseth,1 Greta Jakobsdottir,2 Margareta Nyman,2 Arnold Berstad,3 Jørgen Valeur3 1Department of Radiology, Lovisenberg Diaconal Hospital, Oslo, Norway; 2Food for Health Science Centre, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; 3Unger-Vetlesen Institute, Lovisenberg Diaconal Hospital, Oslo, Norway Background: Ingestion of low-digestible carbohydrates triggers symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. These carbohydrates become substrates for microbial fermentation in the colon, yielding short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs that are readily absorbed. Aiming to compare colonic fermentation in patients with IBS and healthy controls, we analyzed the concentrations of SCFA in serum at fasting and 90 minutes following ingestion of an unabsorbable, but fermentable carbohydrate, lactulose. Methods: Patients with IBS according to Rome III criteria (n=22 and healthy controls (n=20 ingested 10 g lactulose dissolved in water. Symptoms were graded by questionnaires and SCFA were analyzed using hollow fiber-supported liquid membrane extraction coupled with gas chromatography. Results: Lactulose induced more symptoms in patients with IBS than in healthy controls (P=0.0001. Fasting serum levels of SCFA did not differ between patients with IBS and controls. However, the postprandial levels of total SCFA (P=0.0002, acetic acid (P=0.005, propionic acid (P=0.0001, and butyric acid (P=0.01 were significantly lower in patients with IBS compared with healthy controls. There was no correlation between the levels of serum SCFA and symptom severity. Conclusion: Low-serum levels of SCFA after lactulose ingestion may indicate impaired colonic fermentation in patients with IBS. Conceivably, this disturbance is related to symptom generation, but the mechanism is not clear. Keywords: fermentation, FODMAP, irritable bowel syndrome, microbiota, short-chain fatty acids 

  7. Acute Sodium Ingestion Before Exercise Increases Voluntary Water Consumption Resulting In Preexercise Hyperhydration and Improvement in Exercise Performance in the Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David M; Huot, Joshua R; Jetton, Adam M; Collier, Scott R; Utter, Alan C

    2015-10-01

    Dehydration has been shown to hinder performance of sustained exercise in the heat. Consuming fluids before exercise can result in hyperhydration, delay the onset of dehydration during exercise and improve exercise performance. However, humans normally drink only in response to thirst, which does not result in hyperhydration. Thirst and voluntary fluid consumption have been shown to increase following oral ingestion or infusion of sodium into the bloodstream. We measured the effects of acute sodium ingestion on voluntary water consumption and retention during a 2-hr hydration period before exercise. Subjects then performed a 60-min submaximal dehydration ride (DR) followed immediately by a 200 kJ performance time trial (PTT) in a warm (30 °C) environment. Water consumption and retention during the hydration period was greater following sodium ingestion (1380 ± 580 mL consumed, 821 ± 367 ml retained) compared with placebo (815 ± 483 ml consumed, 244 ± 402 mL retained) and no treatment (782 ± 454 ml consumed, 148 ± 289 mL retained). Dehydration levels following the DR were significantly less after sodium ingestion (0.7 ± 0.6%) compared with placebo (1.3 ± 0.7%) and no treatment (1.6 ± 0.4%). Time to complete the PTT was significantly less following sodium consumption (773 ± 158 s) compared with placebo (851 ± 156 s) and no treatment (872 ± 190 s). These results suggest that voluntary hyperhydration can be induced by acute consumption of sodium and has a favorable effect on hydration status and performance during subsequent exercise in the heat.

  8. Zinc-induced hemolytic anemia caused by ingestion of pennies by a pup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latimer, K.S.; Jain, A.V.; Inglesby, H.B.; Clarkson, W.D.; Johnson, G.B.

    1989-01-01

    A 4-month-old Pomeranian pup was examined because of anorexia, salivation, and persistent vomiting. Initial laboratory testing revealed marked hemolytic anemia with spherocytosis. Survey abdominal radiography revealed 4 metal objects which, when removed by gastrotomy, were identified as pennies. Of 4 pennies, 3 were minted since 1983 and were heavily pitted over the surface and rim. Partially digested pennies were composed of a copper-plated high zinc concentration alloy. Further laboratory testing indicated a marked increase in serum zinc concentration in the pup (28.8 mg/L), confirming metal toxicosis. Serum zinc concentrations decreased during recovery

  9. Chronic ingestion of 2-deoxy-D-glucose induces cardiac vacuolization and increases mortality in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor, Robin K.; Smith, Daniel L.; Sossong, Alex M.; Kaushik, Susmita; Poosala, Suresh; Spangler, Edward L.; Roth, George S.; Lane, Mark; Allison, David B.; Cabo, Rafael de; Ingram, Donald K.; Mattison, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR), the purposeful reduction of energy intake with maintenance of adequate micronutrient intake, is well known to extend the lifespan of laboratory animals. Compounds like 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) that can recapitulate the metabolic effects of CR are of great interest for their potential to extend lifespan. 2DG treatment has been shown to have potential therapeutic benefits for treating cancer and seizures. 2DG has also recapitulated some hallmarks of the CR phenotype including reduced body temperature and circulating insulin in short-term rodent trials, but one chronic feeding study in rats found toxic effects. The present studies were performed to further explore the long-term effects of 2DG in vivo. First we demonstrate that 2DG increases mortality of male Fischer-344 rats. Increased incidence of pheochromocytoma in the adrenal medulla was also noted in the 2DG treated rats. We reconfirm the cardiotoxicity of 2DG in a 6-week follow-up study evaluating male Brown Norway rats and a natural form of 2DG in addition to again examining effects in Fischer-344 rats and the original synthetic 2DG. High levels of both 2DG sources reduced weight gain secondary to reduced food intake in both strains. Histopathological analysis of the hearts revealed increasing vacuolarization of cardiac myocytes with dose, and tissue staining revealed the vacuoles were free of both glycogen and lipid. We did, however, observe higher expression of both cathepsin D and LC3 in the hearts of 2DG-treated rats which indicates an increase in autophagic flux. Although a remarkable CR-like phenotype can be reproduced with 2DG treatment, the ultimate toxicity of 2DG seriously challenges 2DG as a potential CR mimetic in mammals and also raises concerns about other therapeutic applications of the compound.

  10. Chloroform ingestion causing severe gastrointestinal injury, hepatotoxicity and dermatitis confirmed with plasma chloroform concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaweera, Dushan; Islam, Shawkat; Gunja, Naren; Cowie, Chris; Broska, James; Poojara, Latesh; Roberts, Michael S; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2017-02-01

    Poisoning due to chloroform ingestion is rare. The classic features of acute chloroform toxicity include central nervous system (CNS) and respiratory depression, and delayed hepatotoxicity. A 30-year-old female ingested 20-30 mL of 99% chloroform solution, which caused rapid loss of consciousness, transient hypotension and severe respiratory depression requiring endotracheal intubation and ventilation. She was alert by 12 h and extubated 16 h post-overdose. At 38-h post-ingestion, her liver function tests started to rise and she was commenced on intravenous acetylcysteine. Her alanine transaminase (1283 U/L), aspartate transaminase (734 U/L) and international normalized ratio (2.3) peaked 67- to 72-h post-ingestion. She also developed severe abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhoea. An abdominal CT scan was consistent with severe enterocolitis, and an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed erosive oesophagitis, severe erosive gastritis and ulceration. She was treated with opioid analgesia, proton pump inhibitors, sucralfate and total parenteral nutrition. Secretions caused a contact dermatitis of her face and back. Nine days post-ingestion she was able to tolerate food. Her liver function tests normalized and the dermatitis resolved. Chloroform was measured using headspace gas chromatograph mass spectrometry, with a peak concentration of 2.00 μg/mL, 4 h 20 min post-ingestion. The concentration-time data fitted a 1-compartment model with elimination half-life 6.5 h. In addition to early CNS depression and delayed hepatotoxicity, we report severe gastrointestinal injury and dermatitis with chloroform ingestion. Recovery occurred with good supportive care, acetylcysteine and management of gastrointestinal complications.

  11. Retrospective evaluation of xylitol ingestion in dogs: 192 cases (2007-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuHadway, Meghan R; Sharp, Claire R; Meyers, Katherine E; Koenigshof, Amy M

    2015-01-01

    To summarize the signalment, clinical signs, prevalence of decreased blood glucose concentration (BG), prevalence of increased liver values, treatment, and outcome in dogs known to have ingested xylitol. Retrospective study from December 2007 to February 2012 SETTING: Three university teaching hospitals. One hundred ninety-two client-owned dogs with known or suspected xylitol ingestion. None. The median ingested xylitol dose was 0.32 g/kg (range 0.03-3.64 g/kg). Clinical signs were present in 39 (20%) dogs on presentation to the veterinary teaching hospitals. The most common clinical sign was vomiting (n = 25), followed by lethargy (12). The median duration of clinical signs prior to presentation was 93 minutes (range 0-5,040 minutes). Dogs that developed clinical signs ingested a significantly higher dose of xylitol than those that were asymptomatic. Thirty dogs became hypoglycemic (BG ≤ 3.3 mmol/L [60 mg/dL]) at some time point during their hospitalization. When evaluating all dogs, there was a significant difference between the initial and lowest BGs. Thirty dogs had increased alanine aminotransferase activity or total serum bilirubin concentration. Dogs with increases in alanine aminotransferase activity or total serum bilirubin concentration had a significantly lower nadir BG. All dogs survived to discharge and 158 were known to be alive at 28 days. The rest were lost to follow up. The prognosis for dogs evaluated by a veterinarian that ingest lower doses of xylitol and do not develop liver failure is excellent. Dogs ingesting xylitol should be hospitalized and monitored for variations in BG, because BG drops in most dogs following presentation. Additional studies are needed in dogs ingesting higher doses of xylitol before correlations between dose and the development of clinical signs or liver failure can be established. Treatment and prognosis for these dogs warrants further investigation. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  12. Suicide attempt using pure methanol with hospitalization of the patient soon after ingestion: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucaretchi, Fábio; De Capitani, Eduardo Mello; Madureira, Paulo Roberto de; Cesconetto, Danielle Menezes; Lanaro, Rafael; Vieira, Ronan José

    2009-05-01

    Most patients with methanol poisoning typically show up one to several days after ingestion, presenting severe acidosis, visual disorders, or both. Reports of hospitalization less than 6 h after exposure are unusual. We describe a case of attempted suicide using methanol admitted 3 h after ingestion. A 52-year-old male was hospitalized 3 h after intentional ingestion of 150 ml of 99.9% methanol with no co-ingestion of ethanol. He was alert and cooperative, presenting nausea and vertigo, and reporting six episodes of vomiting. Physical examination showed no remarkable features. A blood sample for methanol and ethanol determination was obtained 4 h after ingestion. The result (available 10 h after ingestion) showed 70 mg/dl of methanol, without detectable ethanol. He was treated with a loading dose of 10% ethanol solution (7 ml/kg, intravenously), followed by a maintenance dose of 0.9-1.0 ml/kg/h intravenously (10 to 51 h); hemodialysis (19 to 27 h, together with 2.1 ml/kg/h of 10% ethanol intravenously); and folinic acid intravenously (50 mg every 6 h, from 4 to 51 h). He developed mild/moderate metabolic acidosis without acidemia and was discharged on day four after ophthalmological evaluation and cerebral computed tomography scan, without abnormalities. Follow-up revealed no sequelae. This could be classified as a potentially severe case of methanol poisoning, according to the amount and concentration of methanol ingested, and blood methanol concentration at 4 h. The good outcome was attributable to early hospitalization and early antidotal therapy with hemodialysis, starting at 10 and 19 h, respectively.

  13. Suicide attempt using pure methanol with hospitalization of the patient soon after ingestion: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Bucaretchi

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Most patients with methanol poisoning typically show up one to several days after ingestion, presenting severe acidosis, visual disorders, or both. Reports of hospitalization less than 6 h after exposure are unusual. We describe a case of attempted suicide using methanol admitted 3 h after ingestion. CASE REPORT: A 52-year-old male was hospitalized 3 h after intentional ingestion of 150 ml of 99.9% methanol with no co-ingestion of ethanol. He was alert and cooperative, presenting nausea and vertigo, and reporting six episodes of vomiting. Physical examination showed no remarkable features. A blood sample for methanol and ethanol determination was obtained 4 h after ingestion. The result (available 10 h after ingestion showed 70 mg/dl of methanol, without detectable ethanol. He was treated with a loading dose of 10% ethanol solution (7 ml/kg, intravenously, followed by a maintenance dose of 0.9-1.0 ml/kg/h intravenously (10 to 51 h; hemodialysis (19 to 27 h, together with 2.1 ml/kg/h of 10% ethanol intravenously; and folinic acid intravenously (50 mg every 6 h, from 4 to 51 h. He developed mild/moderate metabolic acidosis without acidemia and was discharged on day four after ophthalmological evaluation and cerebral computed tomography scan, without abnormalities. Follow-up revealed no sequelae. CONCLUSION: This could be classified as a potentially severe case of methanol poisoning, according to the amount and concentration of methanol ingested, and blood methanol concentration at 4 h. The good outcome was attributable to early hospitalization and early antidotal therapy with hemodialysis, starting at 10 and 19 h, respectively.

  14. Successful treatment of rare-earth magnet ingestion via minimally invasive techniques: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosut, Jessica S; Johnson, Sidney M; King, Jeremy L; Garnett, Gwendolyn; Woo, Russell K

    2013-04-01

    Cases of rare-earth magnet ingestions have been increasingly reported in the literature. However, these descriptions have focused on the severity of the injuries, rather than the clinical presentation and/or therapeutic approach. We report a series of eight children, ranging in age from 2 to 10 years, who ingested powerful rare-earth magnets. The rare-earth magnets were marketed in 2009 under the trade name Buckyballs(®) (Maxfield & Oberton, New York, NY). They are about 5 mm in size, spherical, and brightly colored, making them appealing for young children to play with and place in their mouths. Three children presented within hours of ingestion, and the magnets were successfully removed via endoscopy in two, whereas the third child required laparoscopy. No fistulas were found in these children. A fourth child presented 2 days after ingestion with evidence of bowel wall erosion, but without fistula formation; the magnets were removed via laparoscopy. A fifth child ingested nine magnets in a ring formation, which were removed via colonoscopy without evidence of injury or fistula formation. The three remaining children presented late (5-8 days after ingestion) and were found to have associated fistulas. They were treated successfully with a combination of endoscopy and laparoscopy with fluoroscopy. None of the children in our series required an open surgical procedure. All children were discharged home without complications. This case series highlights the potential dangers of rare-earth magnet ingestion in children. Our experience suggests that prompt intervention using minimally invasive approaches can lead to successful outcomes.

  15. Appendicitis caused by ingestion of metal foreign body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Inácio de Almeida Neto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The ingestion of foreign bodies is a frequent occurrence, especially among children. The majority of these objects travel safely through the gastrointestinal tract, without causing symptoms or leaving sequelae. Acute appendicitis is the emergency surgical pathology of greater prevalence. However, the impaction of a foreign body into the appendicular lumen as an etiologic agent of appendicitis is a very rare event. Case report: We describe the case of a 21-year-old male patient with lower abdominal pain over approximately six days, in association with vomiting, fever and abdominal distension. After imaging studies, a radiopaque foreign body was identified in a pelvic topography, with distention and air-fluid levels in intestinal loops. Our patient was submitted to an open appendectomy, evidencing acute perforated appendicitis and the presence of two foreign bodies in its lumen. The patient progressed satisfactorily in the post-operative period, with use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Discussion: Foreign bodies impacted in the gastrointestinal tract are usually removed by endoscopic techniques. When these bodies cause infections, there should be a resolution, preferably by surgical laparoscopy, which will serve both for diagnostic as therapeutic purposes. Resumo: Introdução: A ingesta de corpos estranhos é um acontecimento frequente, principalmente entre crianças. A maioria destes passa de forma inócua pelo trato gastrointestinal, sem causar sintomas ou deixar sequelas. Apendicite aguda é a patologia cirúrgica emergencial de maior prevalência. Contudo: a impactação de um corpo estranho no lúmen apendicular como agente etiológico de apendicite é um evento muito raro. Relato de caso: Descrevemos o caso de um paciente masculino de 21 anos com quadro de dor abdominal baixa há aproximadamente 6 dias, associando-se a vômitos, febre e distensão abdominal. Após exames de imagem, identificou-se corpo estranho radiopaco em

  16. Theoretical modelling of hot gas ingestion through turbine rim seals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michael Owen

    2012-12-01

    The nozzle guide vanes create three-dimensional (3D variations in the distribution of pressure in the mainstream annulus and the turbine blades create unsteady effects. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD is both time-consuming and expensive for these 3D unsteady flows, and engine designers tend to use correlations or simple models to predict ingress. This paper describes the application of simple ‘orifice models’, the analytical solutions of which can be used to calculate the sealing effectiveness of turbine rim seals. The solutions agree well with available data for externally-induced ingress, where the effects of rotation are negligible, for rotationally-induced ingress, where the effects of the external flow are small, and for combined ingress, where the effects of both external flow and rotation are significant.

  17. Branched-Chain Amino Acid Ingestion Stimulates Muscle Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis following Resistance Exercise in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Jackman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ingestion of intact protein or essential amino acids (EAA stimulates mechanistic target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1 signaling and muscle protein synthesis (MPS following resistance exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the response of myofibrillar-MPS to ingestion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs only (i.e., without concurrent ingestion of other EAA, intact protein, or other macronutrients following resistance exercise in humans. Ten young (20.1 ± 1.3 years, resistance-trained men completed two trials, ingesting either 5.6 g BCAA or a placebo (PLA drink immediately after resistance exercise. Myofibrillar-MPS was measured during exercise recovery with a primed, constant infusion of L-[ring13C6] phenylalanine and collection of muscle biopsies pre and 4 h-post drink ingestion. Blood samples were collected at time-points before and after drink ingestion. Western blotting was used to measure the phosphorylation status of mTORC1 signaling proteins in biopsies collected pre, 1-, and 4 h-post drink. The percentage increase from baseline in plasma leucine (300 ± 96%, isoleucine (300 ± 88%, and valine (144 ± 59% concentrations peaked 0.5 h-post drink in BCAA. A greater phosphorylation status of S6K1Thr389 (P = 0.017 and PRAS40 (P = 0.037 was observed in BCAA than PLA at 1 h-post drink ingestion. Myofibrillar-MPS was 22% higher (P = 0.012 in BCAA (0.110 ± 0.009%/h than PLA (0.090 ± 0.006%/h. Phenylalanine Ra was ~6% lower in BCAA (18.00 ± 4.31 μmol·kgBM−1 than PLA (21.75 ± 4.89 μmol·kgBM−1; P = 0.028 after drink ingestion. We conclude that ingesting BCAAs alone increases the post-exercise stimulation of myofibrillar-MPS and phosphorylation status mTORC1 signaling.

  18. Detection of β-lactoglobulin in human breast-milk 7 days after cow milk ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matangkasombut, Ponpan; Padungpak, Savitree; Thaloengsok, Sasikanya; Kamchaisatian, Wasu; Sasisakulporn, Cherapat; Jotikasthira, Wanlapa; Benjaponpitak, Suwat; Manuyakorn, Wiparat

    2017-08-01

    β-lactoglobulin (BLG), a major allergen in cow milk (CM) can be detected in human breast-milk (BM) and is associated with exacerbation of symptoms in breastfed infants with cow milk protein allergy (CMPA). Currently, it is not known how long lactating mothers who consume dairy products need to withhold breastfeeding. To elucidate the kinetics of BLG in BM after maternal ingestion of a single dose of CM. Nineteen lactating mothers, four of whom had infants with CMPA, were instructed to avoid CM for 7 days before ingesting a single dose of CM and to continue to withhold CM thereafter throughout the study period. BLG was measured by ELISA in BM from 15 mothers of healthy infants before and at 3, 6 and 24 h, and 3 and 7 days after CM ingestion. Four pairs of mothers and CMPA infants were enrolled for BM challenge after the mothers had ingested CM. After CM ingestion, the level of BLG in BM increased significantly from 0.58 ng/ml (0.58 g/L) (IQR 0.38-0.88) to a peak level of 1.23 ng/ml (IQR 1.03-2.29), p < 0.001. The BLG level on day 3 (1.15 ng/ml, IQR 0.89-1.45) and day 7 (1.08 ng/ml (IQR 0.86-1.25) after CM ingestion was significantly higher than baseline (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001, respectively). BLG was detected in all BM samples from the four mothers of CMPA infants after CM ingestion, and the level was not different from that in the mothers of the 15 healthy infants. Three of the four CMPA infants developed symptoms such as maculopapular rash and hypersecretion in the airways after BM challenge. BLG can be detected in BM up to 7 days after CM ingestion. Lactating mothers should suspend breastfeeding to CMPA infants more than 7 days after CM ingestion.

  19. Issues in Continuous 24-h Core Body Temperature Monitoring in Humans Using an Ingestible Capsule Telemetric Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathriona R. Monnard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThere is increasing interest in the use of pill-sized ingestible capsule telemetric sensors for assessing core body temperature (Tc as a potential indicator of variability in metabolic efficiency and thrifty metabolic traits. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and accuracy of measuring Tc using the CorTemp® system.MethodsTc was measured over an average of 20 h in 27 human subjects, with measurements of energy expenditure made in the overnight fasted state at rest, during standardized low-intensity physical activity and after a 600 kcal mixed meal. Validation of accuracy of the capsule sensors was made ex vivo against mercury and electronic thermometers across the physiological range (35–40°C in morning and afternoon of 2 or 3 consecutive days. Comparisons between capsule sensors and thermometers were made using Bland–Altman analysis. Systematic bias, error, and temperature drift over time were assessed.ResultsThe circadian Tc profile classically reported in free-living humans was confirmed. Significant increases in Tc (+0.2°C were found in response to low-power cycling at 40–50 W (~3–4 METs, but no changes in Tc were detectable during low-level isometric leg press exercise (<2 METs or during the peak postprandial thermogenesis induced by the 600 kcal meal. Issues of particular interest include fast “turbo” gut transit with expulsion time of <15 h after capsule ingestion in one out of every five subjects and sudden erratic readings in teletransmission of Tc. Furthermore, ex vivo validation revealed a substantial mean bias (exceeding ±0.5°C between the Tc capsule readings and mercury or electronic thermometers in half of the capsules. When examined over 2 or 3 days, the initial bias (small or large drifted in excess of ±0.5°C in one out of every four capsules.ConclusionSince Tc is regulated within a very narrow range in the healthy homeotherm’s body (within 1°C, physiological

  20. The biological impacts of ingested radioactive materials on the pale grass blue butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Chiyo; Hiyama, Atsuki; Taira, Wataru; Tanahara, Akira; Otaki, Joji M.

    2014-05-01

    A massive amount of radioactive materials has been released into the environment by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, but its biological impacts have rarely been examined. Here, we have quantitatively evaluated the relationship between the dose of ingested radioactive cesium and mortality and abnormality rates using the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha. When larvae from Okinawa, which is likely the least polluted locality in Japan, were fed leaves collected from polluted localities, mortality and abnormality rates increased sharply at low doses in response to the ingested cesium dose. This dose-response relationship was best fitted by power function models, which indicated that the half lethal and abnormal doses were 1.9 and 0.76 Bq per larva, corresponding to 54,000 and 22,000 Bq per kilogram body weight, respectively. Both the retention of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the ingested dose throughout the larval stage and the accumulation of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the activity concentration in a diet were highest at the lowest level of cesium ingested. We conclude that the risk of ingesting a polluted diet is realistic, at least for this butterfly, and likely for certain other organisms living in the polluted area.