Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tiago Cavalcanti Rolim
2011-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a research in the development of the 14-X hypersonic airspace vehicle at Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv from Department of Science and Aerospace Technology (DCTA of the Brazilian Air Force (FAB. The 14-X project objective is to develop a higher efficient satellite launch alternative, using a Supersonic Combustion Ramjet (SCRAMJET engine and waverider aerodynamics. For this development, the waverider technology is under investigation in Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics Laboratory (LHTN, in IEAv/DCTA. The investigation has been conducted through ground test campaigns in Hypersonic Shock Tunnel T3. The 14-X Waverider Vehicle characteristic was verified in shock tunnel T3 where surface static pressures and pitot pressure for Mach number 10 were measured and, using Schlieren photographs Diagnostic Method, it was possible to identify a leading-edge attached shock wave in 14-X lower surface.
Systems Challenges for Hypersonic Vehicles
Hunt, James L.; Laruelle, Gerard; Wagner, Alain
1997-01-01
This paper examines the system challenges posed by fully reusable hypersonic cruise airplanes and access to space vehicles. Hydrocarbon and hydrogen fueled airplanes are considered with cruise speeds of Mach 5 and 10, respectively. The access to space matrix is examined. Airbreathing and rocket powered, single- and two-stage vehicles are considered. Reference vehicle architectures are presented. Major systems/subsystems challenges are described. Advanced, enhancing systems concepts as well as common system technologies are discussed.
Numerical simulation of hypersonic flight experiment vehicle
Yamamoto, Yukimitsu; Yoshioka, Minako; 山本 行光; 吉岡 美菜子
1994-01-01
Hypersonic aerodynamic characteristics of Hypersonic FLight EXperiment (HYFLEX vehicle were investigated by numerical simulations using Navier-Stokes CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code of NAL. Numerical results were compared with experimental data obtained at Hypersonic Wind Tunnel at NAL. In order to investigate real flight aerodynamic characteristics. numerical calculations corresponding to the flight conditions suffering from maximum aero thermodynamic heating were also made and the d...
X-43 Hypersonic Vehicle Technology Development
Voland, Randall T.; Huebner, Lawrence D.; McClinton, Charles R.
2005-01-01
NASA recently completed two major programs in Hypersonics: Hyper-X, with the record-breaking flights of the X-43A, and the Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Program. The X-43A flights, the culmination of the Hyper-X Program, were the first-ever examples of a scramjet engine propelling a hypersonic vehicle and provided unique, convincing, detailed flight data required to validate the design tools needed for design and development of future operational hypersonic airbreathing vehicles. Concurrent with Hyper-X, NASA's NGLT Program focused on technologies needed for future revolutionary launch vehicles. The NGLT was "competed" by NASA in response to the President s redirection of the agency to space exploration, after making significant progress towards maturing technologies required to enable airbreathing hypersonic launch vehicles. NGLT quantified the benefits, identified technology needs, developed airframe and propulsion technology, chartered a broad University base, and developed detailed plans to mature and validate hypersonic airbreathing technology for space access. NASA is currently in the process of defining plans for a new Hypersonic Technology Program. Details of that plan are not currently available. This paper highlights results from the successful Mach 7 and 10 flights of the X-43A, and the current state of hypersonic technology.
Improved Dutch Roll Approximation for Hypersonic Vehicle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liang-Liang Yin
2014-06-01
Full Text Available An improved dutch roll approximation for hypersonic vehicle is presented. From the new approximations, the dutch roll frequency is shown to be a function of the stability axis yaw stability and the dutch roll damping is mainly effected by the roll damping ratio. In additional, an important parameter called roll-to-yaw ratio is obtained to describe the dutch roll mode. Solution shows that large-roll-to-yaw ratio is the generate character of hypersonic vehicle, which results the large error for the practical approximation. Predictions from the literal approximations derived in this paper are compared with actual numerical values for s example hypersonic vehicle, results show the approximations work well and the error is below 10 %.
Uncertainty Propagation in Hypersonic Vehicle Aerothermoelastic Analysis
Lamorte, Nicolas Etienne
Hypersonic vehicles face a challenging flight environment. The aerothermoelastic analysis of its components requires numerous simplifying approximations. Identifying and quantifying the effect of uncertainties pushes the limits of the existing deterministic models, and is pursued in this work. An uncertainty quantification framework is used to propagate the effects of identified uncertainties on the stability margins and performance of the different systems considered. First, the aeroelastic stability of a typical section representative of a control surface on a hypersonic vehicle is examined. Variability in the uncoupled natural frequencies of the system is modeled to mimic the effect of aerodynamic heating. Next, the stability of an aerodynamically heated panel representing a component of the skin of a generic hypersonic vehicle is considered. Uncertainty in the location of transition from laminar to turbulent flow and the heat flux prediction is quantified using CFD. In both cases significant reductions of the stability margins are observed. A loosely coupled airframe--integrated scramjet engine is considered next. The elongated body and cowl of the engine flow path are subject to harsh aerothermodynamic loading which causes it to deform. Uncertainty associated with deformation prediction is propagated to the engine performance analysis. The cowl deformation is the main contributor to the sensitivity of the propulsion system performance. Finally, a framework for aerothermoelastic stability boundary calculation for hypersonic vehicles using CFD is developed. The usage of CFD enables one to consider different turbulence conditions, laminar or turbulent, and different models of the air mixture, in particular real gas model which accounts for dissociation of molecules at high temperature. The system is found to be sensitive to turbulence modeling as well as the location of the transition from laminar to turbulent flow. Real gas effects play a minor role in the
Analysis of Hypersonic Vehicle Wakes
2015-09-17
Fraction of Cyanide throughout the Flowfield ................................... 131 Figure 122. Mass Fraction of Cyanide at the Nose...hypersonic flow is that as M increases the conservation equations cannot be linearized. The flow properties must be modeled in a complex fashion and can no...ablation present to react with as well. These products of ablation, along with the dissociation and ionization of the gas, gives rise to complex
Hypersonic drone vehicle design: A multidisciplinary experience
1988-01-01
UCLA's Advanced Aeronautic Design group focussed their efforts on design problems of an unmanned hypersonic vehicle. It is felt that a scaled hypersonic drone is necesary to bridge the gap between present theory on hypersonics and the future reality of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) for two reasons: (1) to fulfill a need for experimental data in the hypersonic regime, and (2) to provide a testbed for the scramjet engine which is to be the primary mode of propulsion for the NASP. The group concentrated on three areas of great concern to NASP design: propulsion, thermal management, and flight systems. Problem solving in these areas was directed toward design of the drone with the idea that the same design techniques could be applied to the NASP. A 70 deg swept double-delta wing configuration, developed in the 70's at the NASA Langley, was chosen as the aerodynamic and geometric model for the drone. This vehicle would be air launched from a B-1 at Mach 0.8 and 48,000 feet, rocket boosted by two internal engines to Mach 10 and 100,000 feet, and allowed to cruise under power of the scramjet engine until burnout. It would then return to base for an unpowered landing. Preliminary energy calculations based on flight requirements give the drone a gross launch weight of 134,000 pounds and an overall length of 85 feet.
Hypersonic Vehicle Propulsion System Simplified Model Development
Stueber, Thomas J.; Raitano, Paul; Le, Dzu K.; Ouzts, Peter
2007-01-01
This document addresses the modeling task plan for the hypersonic GN&C GRC team members. The overall propulsion system modeling task plan is a multi-step process and the task plan identified in this document addresses the first steps (short term modeling goals). The procedures and tools produced from this effort will be useful for creating simplified dynamic models applicable to a hypersonic vehicle propulsion system. The document continues with the GRC short term modeling goal. Next, a general description of the desired simplified model is presented along with simulations that are available to varying degrees. The simulations may be available in electronic form (FORTRAN, CFD, MatLab,...) or in paper form in published documents. Finally, roadmaps outlining possible avenues towards realizing simplified model are presented.
Aeroelasticity, Aerothermoelasticity and Aeroelastic Scaling of Hypersonic Vehicles
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Freidmann, Peretz P; Powell, Kenneth G
2004-01-01
...) the behavior of a complete generic hypersonic vehicle. For problems (a) the unsteady airloads were computed using third order piston theory, as well a CFD based Euler and Navier-Stokes loads. For case (b...
Advanced Control System Design for Hypersonic Vehicles, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Guidance and control system design for hypersonic vehicles is more challenging than their subsonic and supersonic counterparts. Some of these challenges are (i)...
Efficient Numerical Simulation of Aerothermoelastic Hypersonic Vehicles
Klock, Ryan J.
Hypersonic vehicles operate in a high-energy flight environment characterized by high dynamic pressures, high thermal loads, and non-equilibrium flow dynamics. This environment induces strong fluid, thermal, and structural dynamics interactions that are unique to this flight regime. If these vehicles are to be effectively designed and controlled, then a robust and intuitive understanding of each of these disciplines must be developed not only in isolation, but also when coupled. Limitations on scaling and the availability of adequate test facilities mean that physical investigation is infeasible. Ever growing computational power offers the ability to perform elaborate numerical simulations, but also has its own limitations. The state of the art in numerical simulation is either to create ever more high-fidelity physics models that do not couple well and require too much processing power to consider more than a few seconds of flight, or to use low-fidelity analytical models that can be tightly coupled and processed quickly, but do not represent realistic systems due to their simplifying assumptions. Reduced-order models offer a middle ground by distilling the dominant trends of high-fidelity training solutions into a form that can be quickly processed and more tightly coupled. This thesis presents a variably coupled, variable-fidelity, aerothermoelastic framework for the simulation and analysis of high-speed vehicle systems using analytical, reduced-order, and surrogate modeling techniques. Full launch-to-landing flights of complete vehicles are considered and used to define flight envelopes with aeroelastic, aerothermal, and thermoelastic limits, tune in-the-loop flight controllers, and inform future design considerations. A partitioned approach to vehicle simulation is considered in which regions dominated by particular combinations of processes are made separate from the overall solution and simulated by a specialized set of models to improve overall processing
Minimum weight passive insulation requirements for hypersonic cruise vehicles.
Ardema, M. D.
1972-01-01
Analytical solutions are derived for two representative cases of the transient heat conduction equation to determine the minimum weight requirements for passive insulation systems of hypersonic cruise vehicles. The cases discussed are the wet wall case with the interior wall temperature held to that of the boiling point of the fuel throughout the flight, and the dry wall case where the heat transferred through the insulation is absorbed by the interior structure whose temperature is allowed to rise.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An integrated computational environment for multidisciplinary, physics-based simulation and analyses of airbreathing hypersonic flight vehicles will be developed....
X-43A Hypersonic Experimental Vehicle - Artist Concept in Flight
1999-01-01
An artist's conception of the X-43A Hypersonic Experimental Vehicle, or 'Hyper-X' in flight. The X-43A was developed to flight test a dual-mode ramjet/scramjet propulsion system at speeds from Mach 7 up to Mach 10 (7 to 10 times the speed of sound, which varies with temperature and altitude). Hyper-X, the flight vehicle for which is designated as X-43A, is an experimental flight-research program seeking to demonstrate airframe-integrated, 'air-breathing' engine technologies that promise to increase payload capacity for future vehicles, including hypersonic aircraft (faster than Mach 5) and reusable space launchers. This multiyear program is currently underway at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Hyper-X schedule calls for its first flight later this year (2000). Hyper-X is a joint program, with Dryden sharing responsibility with NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Dryden's primary role is to fly three unpiloted X-43A research vehicles to validate engine technologies and hypersonic design tools as well as the hypersonic test facility at Langley. Langley manages the program and leads the technology development effort. The Hyper-X Program seeks to significantly expand the speed boundaries of air-breathing propulsion by being the first aircraft to demonstrate an airframe-integrated, scramjet-powered free flight. Scramjets (supersonic-combustion ramjets) are ramjet engines in which the airflow through the whole engine remains supersonic. Scramjet technology is challenging because only limited testing can be performed in ground facilities. Long duration, full-scale testing requires flight research. Scramjet engines are air-breathing, capturing their oxygen from the atmosphere. Current spacecraft, such as the Space Shuttle, are rocket powered, so they must carry both fuel and oxygen for propulsion. Scramjet technology-based vehicles need to carry only fuel. By eliminating the need to carry oxygen, future hypersonic vehicles will
Employment of hypersonic glide vehicles: Proposed criteria for use
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Olguin, Abel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2014-07-01
Hypersonic Glide Vehicles (HGVs) are a type of reentry vehicle that couples the high speed of ballistic missiles with the maneuverability of aircraft. The HGV has been in development since the 1970s, and its technology falls under the category of Conventional Prompt Global Strike (CPGS) weapons. As noted by James M. Acton, a senior associate in the Nuclear Policy Program at the Carnegie Endowment, CPGS is a “missile in search of a mission.” With the introduction of any significant new military capability, a doctrine for use—including specifics regarding how, when and where it would be used, as well as tactics, training and procedures—must be clearly defined and understood by policy makers, military commanders, and planners. In this paper, benefits and limitations of the HGV are presented. Proposed criteria and four scenarios illustrate a possible method for assessing when to use an HGV.
Optimization of the Upper Surface of Hypersonic Vehicle Based on CFD Analysis
Gao, T. Y.; Cui, K.; Hu, S. C.; Wang, X. P.; Yang, G. W.
2011-09-01
For the hypersonic vehicle, the aerodynamic performance becomes more intensive. Therefore, it is a significant event to optimize the shape of the hypersonic vehicle to achieve the project demands. It is a key technology to promote the performance of the hypersonic vehicle with the method of shape optimization. Based on the existing vehicle, the optimization to the upper surface of the Simplified hypersonic vehicle was done to obtain a shape which suits the project demand. At the cruising condition, the upper surface was parameterized with the B-Spline curve method. The incremental parametric method and the reconstruction technology of the local mesh were applied here. The whole flow field was been calculated and the aerodynamic performance of the craft were obtained by the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) technology. Then the vehicle shape was optimized to achieve the maximum lift-drag ratio at attack angle 3°, 4° and 5°. The results will provide the reference for the practical design.
Chen Xin; Liu Li; Long Teng; Yue Zhenjiang
2015-01-01
Aerothermoelasticity is one of the key technologies for hypersonic vehicles. Accurate and efficient computation of the aerothermodynamics is one of the primary challenges for hypersonic aerothermoelastic analysis. Aimed at solving the shortcomings of engineering calculation, computation fluid dynamics (CFD) and experimental investigation, a reduced order modeling (ROM) framework for aerothermodynamics based on CFD predictions using an enhanced algorithm of fast maximin Latin hypercube design ...
Experimental Investigation of Brazilian 14-X B Hypersonic Scramjet Aerospace Vehicle
de Araujo Martos, João Felipe; da Silveira Rêgo, Israel; Pachon Laiton, Sergio Nicholas; Lima, Bruno Coelho; Costa, Felipe Jean; de Paula Toro, Paulo Gilberto
2017-01-01
The Brazilian hypersonic scramjet aerospace vehicle 14-X B is a technological demonstrator of a hypersonic airbreathing propulsion system based on the supersonic combustion (scramjet) to be tested in flight into the Earth’s atmosphere at an altitude of 30 km and Mach number 7. The 14-X B has been designed at the Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics, Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv), Brazil. The IEAv T3 Hypersonic Shock Tunnel is a ground-test facility...
Heat Transfer Analysis of Thermal Protection Structures for Hypersonic Vehicles
Zhou, Chen; Wang, Zhijin; Hou, Tianjiao
2017-11-01
This research aims to develop an analytical approach to study the heat transfer problem of thermal protection systems (TPS) for hypersonic vehicles. Laplace transform and integral method are used to describe the temperature distribution through the TPS subject to aerodynamic heating during flight. Time-dependent incident heat flux is also taken into account. Two different cases with heat flux and radiation boundary conditions are studied and discussed. The results are compared with those obtained by finite element analyses and show a good agreement. Although temperature profiles of such problems can be readily accessed via numerical simulations, analytical solutions give a greater insight into the physical essence of the heat transfer problem. Furthermore, with the analytical approach, rapid thermal analyses and even thermal optimization can be achieved during the preliminary TPS design.
Basic materials and structures aspects for hypersonic transport vehicles (HTV)
Steinheil, E.; Uhse, W.
A Mach 5 transport design is used to illustrate structural concepts and criteria for materials selections and also key technologies that must be followed in the areas of computational methods, materials and construction methods. Aside from the primary criteria of low weight, low costs, and conceivable risks, a number of additional requirements must be met, including stiffness and strength, corrosion resistance, durability, and a construction adequate for inspection, maintenance and repair. Current aircraft construction requirements are significantly extended for hypersonic vehicles. Additional consideration is given to long-duration temperature resistance of the airframe structure, the integration of large-volume cryogenic fuel tanks, computational tools, structural design, polymer matrix composites, and advanced manufacturing technologies.
SINS/CNS Nonlinear Integrated Navigation Algorithm for Hypersonic Vehicle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yong-jun Yu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Celestial Navigation System (CNS has characteristics of accurate orientation and strong autonomy and has been widely used in Hypersonic Vehicle. Since the CNS location and orientation mainly depend upon the inertial reference that contains errors caused by gyro drifts and other error factors, traditional Strap-down Inertial Navigation System (SINS/CNS positioning algorithm setting the position error between SINS and CNS as measurement is not effective. The model of altitude azimuth, platform error angles, and horizontal position is designed, and the SINS/CNS tightly integrated algorithm is designed, in which CNS altitude azimuth is set as measurement information. GPF (Gaussian particle filter is introduced to solve the problem of nonlinear filtering. The results of simulation show that the precision of SINS/CNS algorithm which reaches 130 m using three stars is improved effectively.
Glass, David E.
2008-01-01
Thermal protection systems (TPS) and hot structures are required for a range of hypersonic vehicles ranging from ballistic reentry to hypersonic cruise vehicles, both within Earth's atmosphere and non-Earth atmospheres. The focus of this paper is on air breathing hypersonic vehicles in the Earth's atmosphere. This includes single-stage to orbit (SSTO), two-stage to orbit (TSTO) accelerators, access to space vehicles, and hypersonic cruise vehicles. This paper will start out with a brief discussion of aerodynamic heating and thermal management techniques to address the high heating, followed by an overview of TPS for rocket-launched and air-breathing vehicles. The argument is presented that as we move from rocket-based vehicles to air-breathing vehicles, we need to move away from the insulated airplane approach used on the Space Shuttle Orbiter to a wide range of TPS and hot structure approaches. The primary portion of the paper will discuss issues and design options for CMC TPS and hot structure components, including leading edges, acreage TPS, and control surfaces. The current state-of-the-art will be briefly discussed for some of the components. The two primary technical challenges impacting the use of CMC TPS and hot structures for hypersonic vehicles are environmental durability and fabrication, and will be discussed briefly.
Modeling and Analysis of an Air-Breathing Flexible Hypersonic Vehicle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xi-bin Zhang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available By using light-weighted material in hypersonic vehicle, the vehicle body can be easily deformed. The mutual couplings in aerodynamics, flexible structure, and propulsion system will bring great challenges for vehicle modeling. In this work, engineering estimated method is used to calculate the aerodynamic forces, moments, and flexible modes to get the physics-based model of an air-breathing flexible hypersonic vehicle. The model, which contains flexible effects and viscous effects, can capture the physical characteristics of high-speed flight. To overcome the analytical intractability of the model, a simplified control-oriented model of the hypersonic vehicle is presented with curve fitting approximations. The control-oriented model can not only reduce the complexity of the model, but also retain aero-flexible structure-propulsion interactions of the physics-based model and can be applied for nonlinear control.
Thermal response of an aeroassisted orbital-transfer vehicle with a conical drag brake
Pitts, W. C.; Murbach, M. S.
1984-01-01
As an aeroassisted orbital-transfer vehicle (AOTV) goes through an aerobraking maneuver, a significant amount of heat is generated. In this paper, the thermal response of a specific AOTV to this aerobrake heating is examined. The vehicle has a 70 deg, conical drag-brake heat shield attached to a cylindrical body which contains the payload. The heat shield is made of silica fabric. The heat-shield thickness is varied from that of a thin cloth to a 1.5-cm blanket. The fabric thickness, the radiation absorptivity of the vehicle surface materials, and radiation from the wake are all significant parameters in the thermal response to the heating produced by the braking maneuver. The maximum temperatures occur in the vicinity of the interface between the body and the conical heat shield.
Thermal Response of an Aeroassisted Orbital Transfer Vehicle with a Conical Drag Brake
Pitts, W. C.; Murbach, M. S.
1985-01-01
As an aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle (AOTV) goes through an aerobraking maneuver a significant amount of heat is generated. In this paper, the thermal response of a specific AOTV to this aerobrake heating is examined. The vehicle has a 70-deg, Conical drag-brake heat shield attached to a cylindrical body which contains the payload. The heat shield is made of ceramic fabric its thickness is varied from that of a thin cloth to a 1.5-cm blanket. The fabric thickness, the radiation absorptivity of the vehicle surface materials, and radiation from the wake are all significant parameters in the thermal response to the heating produced by the braking maneuver. The maximum temperatures occur In the vicinity of the interface between the body and the conical heat shield.
Experimental Investigation of Brazilian 14-X B Hypersonic Scramjet Aerospace Vehicle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
João Felipe de Araujo Martos
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The Brazilian hypersonic scramjet aerospace vehicle 14-X B is a technological demonstrator of a hypersonic airbreathing propulsion system based on the supersonic combustion (scramjet to be tested in flight into the Earth’s atmosphere at an altitude of 30 km and Mach number 7. The 14-X B has been designed at the Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics, Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv, Brazil. The IEAv T3 Hypersonic Shock Tunnel is a ground-test facility able to produce high Mach number and high enthalpy flows in the test section close to those encountered during the flight of the 14-X B into the Earth’s atmosphere at hypersonic flight speeds. A 1 m long stainless steel 14-X B model was experimentally investigated at T3 Hypersonic Shock Tunnel, for freestream Mach numbers ranging from 7 to 8. Static pressure measurements along the lower surface of the 14-X B, as well as high-speed Schlieren photographs taken from the 5.5° leading edge and the 14.5° deflection compression ramp, provided experimental data. Experimental data was compared to the analytical theoretical solutions and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations, showing good qualitative agreement and in consequence demonstrating the importance of these methods in the project of the 14-X B hypersonic scramjet aerospace vehicle.
DNS Studies of Transitional Hypersonic Reacting Flows Over 3-D Hypersonic Vehicles
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Zhong, Xiaolin
2003-01-01
The objectives of this research project are to develop CFD techniques and to conduct DNS studies of fundamental flow physics leading to boundary-layer instability and transition in hypersonic flows...
Aerothermodynamics of expert ballistic vehicle at hypersonic speeds
Kharitonov, A. M.; Adamov, N. P.; Chirkashenko, V. F.; Mazhul, I. I.; Shpak, S. I.; Shiplyuk, A. N.; Vasenyov, L. G.; Zvegintsev, V. I.; Muylaert, J. M.
2012-01-01
The European EXPErimental Re-entry Test bed (EXPERT) vehicle is intended for studying various basic phenomena, such as the boundary-layer transition on blunted bodies, real gas effects during shock wave/boundary layer interaction, and effect of surface catalycity. Another task is to develop methods for recalculating the results of windtunnel experiments to flight conditions. The EXPERT program implies large-scale preflight research, in particular, various calculations with the use of advanced numerical methods, experimental studies of the models in various wind tunnels, and comparative analysis of data obtained for possible extrapolation of data to in-flight conditions. The experimental studies are performed in various aerodynamic centers of Europe and Russia under contracts with ESA-ESTEC. In particular, extensive experiments are performed at the Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics (VKI, Belgium) and also at the DLR aerospace center in Germany. At ITAM SB RAS, the experimental studies of the EXPERT model characteristic were performed under ISTC Projects 2109, 3151, and 3550, in the T-313 supersonic wind tunnel and AT-303 hypersonic wind tunnel.
Daso, Endwell O. (Inventor); Pritchett, II, Victor E. (Inventor); Wang, Ten-See (Inventor); Farr, Rebecca Ann (Inventor)
2012-01-01
The upstream flowfield of a vehicle traveling in supersonic or hypersonic atmospheric flight is actively controlled using attribute(s) experienced by the vehicle. Sensed attribute(s) include pressure along the vehicle's outer mold line, temperature along the vehicle's outer mold line, heat flux along the vehicle's outer mold line, and/or local acceleration response of the vehicle. A non-heated, non-plasma-producing gas is injected into an upstream flowfield of the vehicle from at least one surface location along the vehicle's outer mold line. The pressure of the gas so-injected is adjusted based on the attribute(s) so-sensed.
Robust Switching Control for Hypersonic Vehicles, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flight in the hypersonic regime is critical to NASA's goals because access to earth orbit and re-entry from orbit to earth or to other planets with atmospheres...
A matching approach to communicate through the plasma sheath surrounding a hypersonic vehicle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao, Xiaotian; Jiang, Binhao
2015-01-01
In order to overcome the communication blackout problem suffered by hypersonic vehicles, a matching approach has been proposed for the first time in this paper. It utilizes a double-positive (DPS) material layer surrounding a hypersonic vehicle antenna to match with the plasma sheath enclosing the vehicle. Analytical analysis and numerical results indicate a resonance between the matched layer and the plasma sheath will be formed to mitigate the blackout problem in some conditions. The calculated results present a perfect radiated performance of the antenna, when the match is exactly built between these two layers. The effects of the parameters of the plasma sheath have been researched by numerical methods. Based on these results, the proposed approach is easier to realize and more flexible to the varying radiated conditions in hypersonic flight comparing with other methods
Liu, Yanbin; Liu, Mengying; Sun, Peihua
2014-01-01
A typical model of hypersonic vehicle has the complicated dynamics such as the unstable states, the nonminimum phases, and the strong coupling input-output relations. As a result, designing a robust stabilization controller is essential to implement the anticipated tasks. This paper presents a robust stabilization controller based on the guardian maps theory for hypersonic vehicle. First, the guardian maps theories are provided to explain the constraint relations between the open subsets of complex plane and the eigenvalues of the state matrix of closed-loop control system. Then, a general control structure in relation to the guardian maps theories is proposed to achieve the respected design demands. Furthermore, the robust stabilization control law depending on the given general control structure is designed for the longitudinal model of hypersonic vehicle. Finally, a simulation example is provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
Shock-tunnel combustor testing for hypersonic vehicles
Loomis, Mark P.
1994-01-01
Proposed configurations for the next generation of transatmospheric vehicles will rely on air breathing propulsion systems during all or part of their mission. At flight Mach numbers greater than about 7 these engines will operate in the supersonic combustion ramjet mode (scramjet). Ground testing of these engine concepts above Mach 8 requires high pressure, high enthalpy facilities such as shock tunnels and expansion tubes. These impulse, or short duration facilities have test times on the order of a millisecond, requiring high speed instrumentation and data systems. One such facility ideally suited for scramjet testing is the NASA-Ames 16-Inch shock tunnel, which over the last two years has completed a series of tests for the NASP (National Aero-Space Plane) program at simulated flight Mach numbers ranging from 12-16. The focus of the experimental programs consisted of a series of classified tests involving a near-full scale hydrogen fueled scramjet combustor model in the semi-free jet method of engine testing whereby the compressed forebody flow ahead of the cowl inlet is reproduced (see appendix A). The AIMHYE-1 (Ames Integrated Modular Hypersonic Engine) test entry for the NASP program was completed in April 1993, while AIMHYE-2 was completed in May 1994. The test entries were regarded as successful, resulting in some of the first data of its kind on the performance of a near full scale scramjet engine at Mach 12-16. The data was distributed to NASP team members for use in design system verification and development. Due to the classified nature of the hardware and data, the data reports resulting from this work are classified and have been published as part of the NASP literature. However, an unclassified AIAA paper resulted from the work and has been included as appendix A. It contains an overview of the test program and a description of some of the important issues.
Elevator Sizing, Placement, and Control-Relevant Tradeoffs for Hypersonic Vehicles
Dickeson, Jeffrey J.; Rodriguez, Armando A.; Sridharan, Srikanth; Korad, Akshay
2010-01-01
Within this paper, control-relevant vehicle design concepts are examined using a widely used 3 DOF (plus flexibility) nonlinear model for the longitudinal dynamics of a generic carrot-shaped scramjet powered hypersonic vehicle. The impact of elevator size and placement on control-relevant static properties (e.g. level-flight trimmable region, trim controls, Angle of Attack (AOA), thrust margin) and dynamic properties (e.g. instability and right half plane zero associated with flight path angle) are examined. Elevator usage has been examine for a class of typical hypersonic trajectories.
Ouzts, Peter J.; Soloway, Donald I.; Moerder, Daniel D.; Wolpert, David H.; Benavides, Jose Victor
2009-01-01
Airbreathing hypersonic systems offer distinct performance advantages over rocket-based systems for space access vehicles. However, these performance advantages are dependent upon advances in current state-of-the-art technologies in many areas such as ram/scramjet propulsion integration, high temperature materials, aero-elastic structures, thermal protection systems, transition to hypersonics and hypersonic control elements within the framework of complex physics and new design methods. The complex interactions between elements of an airbreathing hypersonic vehicle represent a new paradigm in vehicle design to achieve the optimal performance necessary to meet space access mission objectives. In the past, guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) analysis often follows completion of the vehicle conceptual design process. Individual component groups design subsystems which are then integrated into a vehicle configuration. GNC is presented the task of developing control approaches to meet vehicle performance objectives given that configuration. This approach may be sufficient for vehicles where significant performance margins exist. However, for higher performance vehicles engaging the GNC discipline too late in the design cycle has been costly. For example, the X-29 experimental flight vehicle was built as a technology demonstrator. One of the many technologies to be demonstrated was the use of light-weight material composites for structural components. The use of light-weight materials increased the flexibility of the X- 29 beyond that of conventional metal alloy constructed aircraft. This effect was not considered when the vehicle control system was designed and built. The impact of this is that the control system did not have enough control authority to compensate for the effects of the first fundamental structural mode of the vehicle. As a result, the resulting pitch rate response of the vehicle was below specification and no post-design changes could recover the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Liang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel integrated guidance and control (IGC method for hypersonic vehicle in terminal phase. Firstly, the system model is developed with a second order actuator dynamics. Then the back-stepping controller is designed hierarchically with command filters, where the first order command filters are implemented to construct the virtual control input with ideal states predicted by an adaptive estimator, and the nonlinear command filter is designed to produce magnitude, rate and bandwidth limited control surface deflection finally tracked by a terminal sliding mode controller with finite convergence time. Through a series of 6-DOF numerical simulations, it’s indicated that the proposed method successfully cancels out the large aerodynamics coefficient uncertainties and disturbances in hypersonic flight under limited control surface deflection. The contribution of this paper lies in the application and determination of nonlinear integrated design of guidance and control system for hypersonic vehicle.
Detailed modeling of electron emission for transpiration cooling of hypersonic vehicles
Hanquist, Kyle M.; Hara, Kentaro; Boyd, Iain D.
2017-02-01
Electron transpiration cooling (ETC) is a recently proposed approach to manage the high heating loads experienced at the sharp leading edges of hypersonic vehicles. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used to investigate the feasibility of ETC in a hypersonic environment. A modeling approach is presented for ETC, which includes developing the boundary conditions for electron emission from the surface, accounting for the space-charge limit effects of the near-wall plasma sheath. The space-charge limit models are assessed using 1D direct-kinetic plasma sheath simulations, taking into account the thermionically emitted electrons from the surface. The simulations agree well with the space-charge limit theory proposed by Takamura et al. for emitted electrons with a finite temperature, especially at low values of wall bias, which validates the use of the theoretical model for the hypersonic CFD code. The CFD code with the analytical sheath models is then used for a test case typical of a leading edge radius in a hypersonic flight environment. The CFD results show that ETC can lower the surface temperature of sharp leading edges of hypersonic vehicles, especially at higher velocities, due to the increase in ionized species enabling higher electron heat extraction from the surface. The CFD results also show that space-charge limit effects can limit the ETC reduction of surface temperatures, in comparison to thermionic emission assuming no effects of the electric field within the sheath.
Geometry Modeling and Adaptive Control of Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicles
Vick, Tyler Joseph
Air-breathing hypersonic vehicles have the potential to provide global reach and affordable access to space. Recent technological advancements have made scramjet-powered flight achievable, as evidenced by the successes of the X-43A and X-51A flight test programs over the last decade. Air-breathing hypersonic vehicles present unique modeling and control challenges in large part due to the fact that scramjet propulsion systems are highly integrated into the airframe, resulting in strongly coupled and often unstable dynamics. Additionally, the extreme flight conditions and inability to test fully integrated vehicle systems larger than X-51 before flight leads to inherent uncertainty in hypersonic flight. This thesis presents a means to design vehicle geometries, simulate vehicle dynamics, and develop and analyze control systems for hypersonic vehicles. First, a software tool for generating three-dimensional watertight vehicle surface meshes from simple design parameters is developed. These surface meshes are compatible with existing vehicle analysis tools, with which databases of aerodynamic and propulsive forces and moments can be constructed. A six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear dynamics simulation model which incorporates this data is presented. Inner-loop longitudinal and lateral control systems are designed and analyzed utilizing the simulation model. The first is an output feedback proportional-integral linear controller designed using linear quadratic regulator techniques. The second is a model reference adaptive controller (MRAC) which augments this baseline linear controller with an adaptive element. The performance and robustness of each controller are analyzed through simulated time responses to angle-of-attack and bank angle commands, while various uncertainties are introduced. The MRAC architecture enables the controller to adapt in a nonlinear fashion to deviations from the desired response, allowing for improved tracking performance, stability, and
Qu, Feng; Sun, Di; Zuo, Guang
2018-06-01
With the rapid development of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Accurate computing hypersonic heating is in a high demand for the design of the new generation reusable space vehicle to conduct deep space exploration. In the past years, most researchers try to solve this problem by concentrating on the choice of the upwind schemes or the definition of the cell Reynolds number. However, the cell Reynolds number dependencies and limiter dependencies of the upwind schemes, which are of great importance to their performances in hypersonic heating computations, are concerned by few people. In this paper, we conduct a systematic study on these properties respectively. Results in our test cases show that SLAU (Simple Low-dissipation AUSM-family) is with a much higher level of accuracy and robustness in hypersonic heating predictions. Also, it performs much better in terms of the limiter dependency and the cell Reynolds number dependency.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
2007-01-01
...: 1 CD-ROM; 4 3/4 in.; 124 MB. ABSTRACT: This RTO-AVT/VKI Lecture Series brought together specialists from Europe, USA, and Russia to discuss flight experiments that pertain to the development of hypersonic vehicles...
Characteristic Model-Based Robust Model Predictive Control for Hypersonic Vehicles with Constraints
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Jun Zhang
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Designing robust control for hypersonic vehicles in reentry is difficult, due to the features of the vehicles including strong coupling, non-linearity, and multiple constraints. This paper proposed a characteristic model-based robust model predictive control (MPC for hypersonic vehicles with reentry constraints. First, the hypersonic vehicle is modeled by a characteristic model composed of a linear time-varying system and a lumped disturbance. Then, the identification data are regenerated by the accumulative sum idea in the gray theory, which weakens effects of the random noises and strengthens regularity of the identification data. Based on the regenerated data, the time-varying parameters and the disturbance are online estimated according to the gray identification. At last, the mixed H2/H∞ robust predictive control law is proposed based on linear matrix inequalities (LMIs and receding horizon optimization techniques. Using active tackling system constraints of MPC, the input and state constraints are satisfied in the closed-loop control system. The validity of the proposed control is verified theoretically according to Lyapunov theory and illustrated by simulation results.
Propulsion integration of hypersonic air-breathing vehicles utilizing a top-down design methodology
Kirkpatrick, Brad Kenneth
In recent years, a focus of aerospace engineering design has been the development of advanced design methodologies and frameworks to account for increasingly complex and integrated vehicles. Techniques such as parametric modeling, global vehicle analyses, and interdisciplinary data sharing have been employed in an attempt to improve the design process. The purpose of this study is to introduce a new approach to integrated vehicle design known as the top-down design methodology. In the top-down design methodology, the main idea is to relate design changes on the vehicle system and sub-system level to a set of over-arching performance and customer requirements. Rather than focusing on the performance of an individual system, the system is analyzed in terms of the net effect it has on the overall vehicle and other vehicle systems. This detailed level of analysis can only be accomplished through the use of high fidelity computational tools such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) or Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The utility of the top-down design methodology is investigated through its application to the conceptual and preliminary design of a long-range hypersonic air-breathing vehicle for a hypothetical next generation hypersonic vehicle (NHRV) program. System-level design is demonstrated through the development of the nozzle section of the propulsion system. From this demonstration of the methodology, conclusions are made about the benefits, drawbacks, and cost of using the methodology.
Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicle Tracking Control Based on Adaptive Dynamic Programming.
Mu, Chaoxu; Ni, Zhen; Sun, Changyin; He, Haibo
2017-03-01
In this paper, we propose a data-driven supplementary control approach with adaptive learning capability for air-breathing hypersonic vehicle tracking control based on action-dependent heuristic dynamic programming (ADHDP). The control action is generated by the combination of sliding mode control (SMC) and the ADHDP controller to track the desired velocity and the desired altitude. In particular, the ADHDP controller observes the differences between the actual velocity/altitude and the desired velocity/altitude, and then provides a supplementary control action accordingly. The ADHDP controller does not rely on the accurate mathematical model function and is data driven. Meanwhile, it is capable to adjust its parameters online over time under various working conditions, which is very suitable for hypersonic vehicle system with parameter uncertainties and disturbances. We verify the adaptive supplementary control approach versus the traditional SMC in the cruising flight, and provide three simulation studies to illustrate the improved performance with the proposed approach.
Observer-based linear parameter varying H∞ tracking control for hypersonic vehicles
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Yiqing Huang
2016-11-01
Full Text Available This article aims to develop observer-based linear parameter varying output feedback H∞ tracking controller for hypersonic vehicles. Due to the complexity of an original nonlinear model of the hypersonic vehicle dynamics, a slow–fast loop linear parameter varying polytopic model is introduced for system stability analysis and controller design. Then, a state observer is developed by linear parameter varying technique in order to estimate the unmeasured attitude angular for slow loop system. Also, based on the designed linear parameter varying state observer, a kind of attitude tracking controller is presented to reduce tracking errors for all bounded reference attitude angular inputs. The closed-loop linear parameter varying system is proved to be quadratically stable by Lypapunov function technique. Finally, simulation results show that the developed linear parameter varying H∞ controller has good tracking capability for reference commands.
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Qin Zou
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The control problem of a flexible hypersonic vehicle is presented, where input saturation and aerodynamic uncertainty are considered. A control-oriented model including aerodynamic uncertainty is derived for simple controller design due to the nonlinearity and complexity of hypersonic vehicle model. Then it is separated into velocity subsystem and altitude subsystem. On the basis of the integration of robust adaptive control and backstepping technique, respective controller is designed for each subsystem, where an auxiliary signal provided by an additional dynamic system is used to compensate for the control saturation effect. Then to deal with the “explosion of terms” problem inherent in backstepping control, a novel first-order filter is proposed. Simulation results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the adaptive backstepping control scheme.
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Naibao He
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A novel flight control scheme is proposed using the terminal sliding mode technique, unidirectional auxiliary surfaces and the disturbance observer model. These proposed dynamic attitude control systems can improve control performance of hypersonic vehicles despite uncertainties and external disturbances. The terminal attractor is employed to improve the convergence rate associated with the critical damping characteristics problem noted in short-period motions of hypersonic vehicles. The proposed robust attitude control scheme uses a dynamic terminal sliding mode with unidirectional auxiliary surfaces. The nonlinear disturbance observer is designed to estimate system uncertainties and external disturbances. The output of the disturbance observer aids the robust adaptive control scheme and improves robust attitude control performance. Finally, simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed terminal sliding mode with unidirectional auxiliary surfaces.
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Tao Teng
2016-02-01
Full Text Available In this article, a global adaptive neural dynamic surface control with predefined tracking performance is developed for a class of hypersonic flight vehicles, whose accurate dynamics is hard to obtain. The control scheme developed in this paper overcomes the limitations of neural approximation region by employing a switching mechanism which incorporates an additional robust controller outside the neural approximation region to pull the transient state variables back when they overstep the neural approximation region, such that globally uniformly ultimately bounded stability can be guaranteed. Especially, the developed global adaptive neural control also improves the tracking performance by introducing an error transformation mechanism, such that both transient and steady-state performance can be shaped according to the predefined bounds. Simulation studies on the hypersonic flight vehicle validate that the designed controller has good velocity modulation and velocity stability performance.
Near Space Hypersonic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Dynamic Surface Backstepping Control Design
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Jinyong YU
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Compared with traditional aircraft, the near space hypersonic unmanned aerial vehicle control system design must deal with the extra prominent dynamics characters, which are differ from the traditional aircrafts control system design. A new robust adaptive control design method is proposed for one hypersonic unmanned aerial vehicle (HSUAV uncertain MIMO nonaffine block control system by using multilayer neural networks, feedback linearization technology, and dynamic surface backstepping. Multilayer neural networks are used to compensate the influence from the uncertain, which designs the robust terms to solve the problem from approach error. Adaptive backstepping is adopted designed to ensure control law, the dynamic surface control strategy to eliminate “the explosion of terms” by introducing a series of first order filters to obtain the differentiation of the virtual control inputs. Finally, nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF numerical simulation results for a HSUAV model are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
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Hongjiu Yang
2017-05-01
Full Text Available In this article, nonlinear uncertainty has been investigated for a hypersonic reentry vehicle subject to actuator saturation via active disturbance rejection control technology. A nonlinear extended state observer is designed to estimate “total disturbances,” which is compensated with a linear controller. Both convergence of the nonlinear extended state observer and stabilization of the closed-loop system are studied in this article. Some simulation results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
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Chen Xin
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Aerothermoelasticity is one of the key technologies for hypersonic vehicles. Accurate and efficient computation of the aerothermodynamics is one of the primary challenges for hypersonic aerothermoelastic analysis. Aimed at solving the shortcomings of engineering calculation, computation fluid dynamics (CFD and experimental investigation, a reduced order modeling (ROM framework for aerothermodynamics based on CFD predictions using an enhanced algorithm of fast maximin Latin hypercube design is developed. Both proper orthogonal decomposition (POD and surrogate are considered and compared to construct ROMs. Two surrogate approaches named Kriging and optimized radial basis function (ORBF are utilized to construct ROMs. Furthermore, an enhanced algorithm of fast maximin Latin hypercube design is proposed, which proves to be helpful to improve the precisions of ROMs. Test results for the three-dimensional aerothermodynamic over a hypersonic surface indicate that: the ROMs precision based on Kriging is better than that by ORBF, ROMs based on Kriging are marginally more accurate than ROMs based on POD-Kriging. In a word, the ROM framework for hypersonic aerothermodynamics has good precision and efficiency.
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Caisheng Wei
2017-03-01
Full Text Available A novel low-complexity adaptive control method, capable of guaranteeing the transient and steady-state tracking performance in the presence of unknown nonlinearities and actuator saturation, is investigated for the longitudinal dynamics of a generic hypersonic flight vehicle. In order to attenuate the negative effects of classical predefined performance function for unknown initial tracking errors, a modified predefined performance function with time-varying design parameters is presented. Under the newly developed predefined performance function, two novel adaptive controllers with low-complexity computation are proposed for velocity and altitude subsystems of the hypersonic flight vehicle, respectively. Wherein, different from neural network-based approximation, a least square support vector machine with only two design parameters is utilized to approximate the unknown hypersonic dynamics. And the relevant ideal weights are obtained by solving a linear system without resorting to specialized optimization algorithms. Based on the approximation by least square support vector machine, only two adaptive scalars are required to be updated online in the parameter projection method. Besides, a new finite-time-convergent differentiator, with a quite simple structure, is proposed to estimate the unknown generated state variables in the newly established normal output-feedback formulation of altitude subsystem. Moreover, it is also employed to obtain accurate estimations for the derivatives of virtual controllers in a recursive design. This avoids the inherent drawback of backstepping — “explosion of terms” and makes the proposed control method achievable for the hypersonic flight vehicle. Further, the compensation design is employed when the saturations of the actuator occur. Finally, the numerical simulations validate the efficiency of the proposed finite-time-convergent differentiator and control method.
Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization of Hypersonic Air-Breathing Vehicle
Wu, Peng; Tang, Zhili; Sheng, Jianda
2016-06-01
A 2D hypersonic vehicle shape with an idealized scramjet is designed at a cruise regime: Mach number (Ma) = 8.0, Angle of attack (AOA) = 0 deg and altitude (H) = 30kms. Then a multi-objective design optimization of the 2D vehicle is carried out by using a Pareto Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II). In the optimization process, the flow around the air-breathing vehicle is simulated by inviscid Euler equations using FLUENT software and the combustion in the combustor is modeled by a methodology based on the well known combination effects of area-varying pipe flow and heat transfer pipe flow. Optimization results reveal tradeoffs among total pressure recovery coefficient of forebody, lift to drag ratio of vehicle, specific impulse of scramjet engine and the maximum temperature on the surface of vehicle.
Hypersonic vehicle control law development using H(infinity) and micron-synthesis
Gregory, Irene M.; Mcminn, John D.; Shaughnessy, John D.; Chowdhry, Rajiv S.
1993-01-01
Hypersonic vehicle control law development using H(infinity) and mu-synthesis is discussed. Airbreathing SSTO vehicles has a mutli-faceted mission that includes orbital operations, as well as re-entry and descent culminating in horizontal landing. However, the most challenging part of the operations is the ascent to orbit. The airbreathing propulsion requires lengthy atmospheric flight that may last as long as 30 minutes and take the vehicle half way around the globe. The vehicles's ascent is characterized by tight payload to orbit margins which translate into minimum fuel orbit as the performance criteria. Issues discussed include: SSTO airbreathing vehicle issues; control system performance requirements; robust control law framework; H(infinity) controller frequency analysis; and mu controller frequency analysis.
Robust Adaptive Flight Control Design of Air-breathing Hypersonic Vehicles
2016-12-07
advantages over rocket - based systems for space access vehicles. The major advantage of using air-breathing engine is that the extra oxidizer is not...sideslip angle (β) is calculated as Vt = p u2 + v2 +w2, α= t an−1 ( wu ), β= si n−1 ( vVt ) The rotational dynamic equations of AHV are given as Ṗ = c1QR...inverse controller for hypersonic vehicle. In 2010 International Conference on Information, Networking and Automation (ICINA), volume 2, pages V2 –240
A QMU approach for characterizing the operability limits of air-breathing hypersonic vehicles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iaccarino, Gianluca; Pecnik, Rene; Glimm, James; Sharp, David
2011-01-01
The operability limits of a supersonic combustion engine for an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle are characterized using numerical simulations and an uncertainty quantification methodology. The time-dependent compressible flow equations with heat release are solved in a simplified configuration. Verification, calibration and validation are carried out to assess the ability of the model to reproduce the flow/thermal interactions that occur when the engine unstarts due to thermal choking. quantification of margins and uncertainty (QMU) is used to determine the safe operation region for a range of fuel flow rates and combustor geometries. - Highlights: → In this work we introduce a method to study the operability limits of hypersonic scramjet engines. → The method is based on a calibrated heat release model. → It accounts explicitly for uncertainties due to flight conditions and model correlations. → We examine changes due to the combustor geometry and fuel injection.
Validation of engineering methods for predicting hypersonic vehicle controls forces and moments
Maughmer, M.; Straussfogel, D.; Long, L.; Ozoroski, L.
1991-01-01
This work examines the ability of the aerodynamic analysis methods contained in an industry standard conceptual design code, the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System (APAS II), to estimate the forces and moments generated through control surface deflections from low subsonic to high hypersonic speeds. Predicted control forces and moments generated by various control effectors are compared with previously published wind-tunnel and flight-test data for three vehicles: the North American X-15, a hypersonic research airplane concept, and the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Qualitative summaries of the results are given for each force and moment coefficient and each control derivative in the various speed ranges. Results show that all predictions of longitudinal stability and control derivatives are acceptable for use at the conceptual design stage.
Control Relevant Modeling and Design of Scramjet-Powered Hypersonic Vehicles
Dickeson, Jeffrey James
This report provides an overview of scramjet-powered hypersonic vehicle modeling and control challenges. Such vehicles are characterized by unstable non-minimum phase dynamics with significant coupling and low thrust margins. Recent trends in hypersonic vehicle research are summarized. To illustrate control relevant design issues and tradeoffs, a generic nonlinear 3DOF longitudinal dynamics model capturing aero-elastic-propulsive interactions for wedge-shaped vehicle is used. Limitations of the model are discussed and numerous modifications have been made to address control relevant needs. Two different baseline configurations are examined over a two-stage to orbit ascent trajectory. The report highlights how vehicle level-flight static (trim) and dynamic properties change over the trajectory. Thermal choking constraints are imposed on control system design as a direct consequence of having a finite FER margin. The implication of this state-dependent nonlinear FER margin constraint, the right half plane (RHP) zero, and lightly damped flexible modes, on control system bandwidth (BW) and FPA tracking has been discussed. A control methodology has been proposed that addresses the above dynamics while providing some robustness to modeling uncertainty. Vehicle closure (the ability to fly a trajectory segment subject to constraints) is provided through a proposed vehicle design methodology. The design method attempts to use open loop metrics whenever possible to design the vehicle. The design method is applied to a vehicle/control law closed loop nonlinear simulation for validation. The 3DOF longitudinal modeling results are validated against a newly released NASA 6DOF code.
Artist Concept of X-43A/Hyper-X Hypersonic Experimental Research Vehicle in Flight
1998-01-01
An artist's conception of the X-43A Hypersonic Experimental Vehicle, or 'Hyper-X' in flight. The X-43A was developed to flight test a dual-mode ramjet/scramjet propulsion system at speeds from Mach 7 up to Mach 10 (7 to 10 times the speed of sound, which varies with temperature and altitude). Hyper-X, the flight vehicle for which is designated as X-43A, is an experimental flight-research program seeking to demonstrate airframe-integrated, 'air-breathing' engine technologies that promise to increase payload capacity for future vehicles, including hypersonic aircraft (faster than Mach 5) and reusable space launchers. This multiyear program is currently underway at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Hyper-X schedule calls for its first flight later this year (2000). Hyper-X is a joint program, with Dryden sharing responsibility with NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Dryden's primary role is to fly three unpiloted X-43A research vehicles to validate engine technologies and hypersonic design tools as well as the hypersonic test facility at Langley. Langley manages the program and leads the technology development effort. The Hyper-X Program seeks to significantly expand the speed boundaries of air-breathing propulsion by being the first aircraft to demonstrate an airframe-integrated, scramjet-powered free flight. Scramjets (supersonic-combustion ramjets) are ramjet engines in which the airflow through the whole engine remains supersonic. Scramjet technology is challenging because only limited testing can be performed in ground facilities. Long duration, full-scale testing requires flight research. Scramjet engines are air-breathing, capturing their oxygen from the atmosphere. Current spacecraft, such as the Space Shuttle, are rocket powered, so they must carry both fuel and oxygen for propulsion. Scramjet technology-based vehicles need to carry only fuel. By eliminating the need to carry oxygen, future hypersonic vehicles will
Mbagwu, Chukwuka Chijindu
High speed, air-breathing hypersonic vehicles encounter a varied range of engine and operating conditions traveling along cruise/ascent missions at high altitudes and dynamic pressures. Variations of ambient pressure, temperature, Mach number, and dynamic pressure can affect the combustion conditions in conflicting ways. Computations were performed to understand propulsion tradeoffs that occur when a hypersonic vehicle travels along an ascent trajectory. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition methods were applied for the reduction of flamelet chemistry data in an improved combustor model. Two operability limits are set by requirements that combustion efficiency exceed selected minima and flameout be avoided. A method for flameout prediction based on empirical Damkohler number measurements is presented. Operability limits are plotted that define allowable flight corridors on an altitude versus flight Mach number performance map; fixed-acceleration ascent trajectories were considered for this study. Several design rules are also presented for a hypersonic waverider with a dual-mode scramjet engine. Focus is placed on ''vehicle integration" design, differing from previous ''propulsion-oriented" design optimization. The well-designed waverider falls between that of an aircraft (high lift-to-drag ratio) and a rocket (high thrust-to-drag ratio). 84 variations of an X-43-like vehicle were run using the MASIV scramjet reduced order model to examine performance tradeoffs. Informed by the vehicle design study, variable-acceleration trajectory optimization was performed for three constant dynamic pressures ascents. Computed flameout operability limits were implemented as additional constraints to the optimization problem. The Michigan-AFRL Scramjet In-Vehicle (MASIV) waverider model includes finite-rate chemistry, applied scaling laws for 3-D turbulent mixing, ram-scram transition and an empirical value of the flameout Damkohler number. A reduced-order modeling approach is justified
Paris, S.; Charbonnier, D.; Tran, D.
2011-05-01
The main results of the aerothermodynamic hypersonic characterization of Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV), by means of both CFD simulations and wind tunnel measurements, have been reported and analyzed. In the framework of ESA FLPP Program, the VKI (Von Karman Institute) was in charge of an experimental test campaign for the consolidation of the aerothermal database in cold hypersonic regime. The tests campaign has been carried out at VKI Free Piston Longshot wind tunnel at mach 14. The numerical simulations have been performed for VKI wind tunnel conditions by CFSE with the in-house NSMB flow solver (Navier-Stokes Multi-Blocks 3D), the goal being to support the procedure of extrapolation-to-flight of the measurements and the general aerothermal characterization. Laminar, transitional and fully turbulent flows have been computed, with air considered as an ideal gas, for the wind tunnel tests numerical rebuilding. A detailed comparison of all measured and predicted hypersonic relevant phenomena and parameters (surface pressure and heat flux) is reported in the paper, together with a detailed description of configuration, freestream conditions, model attitude effects and flap deflection effect. The detailed analyze of the experimental and numerical data gives information on the nature of the flow on the body and on the flaps for the most critical configuration
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Chuanfeng Li
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Hypersonic vehicle is a typical parameter uncertain system with significant characteristics of strong coupling, nonlinearity, and external disturbance. In this paper, a combined system modeling approach is proposed to approximate the actual vehicle system. The state feedback control strategy is adopted based on the robust guaranteed cost control (RGCC theory, where the Lyapunov function is applied to get control law for nonlinear system and the problem is transformed into a feasible solution by linear matrix inequalities (LMI method. In addition, a nonfragile guaranteed cost controller solved by LMI optimization approach is employed to the linear error system, where a single hidden layer neural network (SHLNN is employed as an additive gain compensator to reduce excessive performance caused by perturbations and uncertainties. Simulation results show the stability and well tracking performance for the proposed strategy in controlling the vehicle system.
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Fang Wang
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The tracking control problem of a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle subjects to aerodynamic parameter uncertainty and input constraint is investigated by combining nonlinear disturbance observer and dynamic surface control. To design controller simply, a control-oriented model is firstly derived and divided into two subsystems, velocity subsystem and altitude subsystem based on the engineering backgrounds of flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle. In every subsystem, compounded disturbances are included to consider aerodynamic uncertainty and the effect of the flexible modes. Then, disturbance observer is not only used to handle the compounded disturbance but also to handle the input constraint, where the estimation error converges to a random small region through appropriately choosing the observer parameters. To sequel, the disturbance observer–based robust control scheme and the disturbance observer-based dynamic surface control scheme are developed for the velocity subsystem and altitude subsystem, respectively. Besides, novel filters are designed to alleviate the problem of “explosion of terms” induced by backstepping method. On the basis of Lyapunov stability theory, the presented control scheme can assure that tracking error converges to an arbitrarily small neighborhood around zero by rigorous theoretical analysis. At last, simulation result shows the effectiveness of the presented control method.
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Zhonghua Wu
2017-02-01
Full Text Available A robust adaptive neural control scheme based on a back-stepping technique is developed for the longitudinal dynamics of a flexible hypersonic flight vehicle, which is able to ensure the state tracking error being confined in the prescribed bounds, in spite of the existing model uncertainties and actuator constraints. Minimal learning parameter technique–based neural networks are used to estimate the model uncertainties; thus, the amount of online updated parameters is largely lessened, and the prior information of the aerodynamic parameters is dispensable. With the utilization of an assistant compensation system, the problem of actuator constraint is overcome. By combining the prescribed performance function and sliding mode differentiator into the neural back-stepping control design procedure, a composite state tracking error constrained adaptive neural control approach is presented, and a new type of adaptive law is constructed. As compared with other adaptive neural control designs for hypersonic flight vehicle, the proposed composite control scheme exhibits not only low-computation property but also strong robustness. Finally, two comparative simulations are performed to demonstrate the robustness of this neural prescribed performance controller.
Improved MPSP Method-based Cooperative Re-entry Guidance for Hypersonic Gliding Vehicles
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Chu Haiyan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A computationally sufficient technique is used to solve the 3-D cooperative re-entry guidance problem for hypersonic gliding vehicles. Due to the poor surrounding adaptive ability of the traditional cooperative guidance methods, a novel methodology, named as model predictive static programming (MPSP, is used to solve a class of finite-horizon optimal control problems with hard terminal constraints. The main feature of this guidance law is that it is capable of hitting the target with high accuracy for each one of the cooperative vehicles at the same time. In addition, it accurately satisfies variable constraints. Performance of the proposed MPSP-based guidance is demonstrated in 3-D nonlinear dynamics scenario. The numerical simulation results show that the proposed cooperative re-entry guidance methodology has the advantage of computational efficiency and better robustness against the perturbations.
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Yang Yi
2016-11-01
Full Text Available This article concerns a disturbance observer-based L1 robust anti-disturbance tracking algorithm for the longitudinal models of hypersonic flight vehicles with different kinds of unknown disturbances. On one hand, by applying T-S fuzzy models to represent those modeled disturbances, a disturbance observer relying on T-S disturbance models can be constructed to track the dynamics of exogenous disturbances. On the other hand, L1 index is introduced to analyze the attenuation performance of disturbance for those unmodeled disturbances. By utilizing the existing convex optimization algorithm, a disturbance observer-based proportional-integral-controlled input is proposed such that the stability of hypersonic flight vehicles can be ensured and the tracking error for velocity and altitude in hypersonic flight vehicle models can converge to equilibrium point. Furthermore, the satisfactory disturbance rejection and attenuation with L1 index can be obtained simultaneously. Simulation results on hypersonic flight vehicle models can reflect the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm.
Tsuchiya, Takeshi; Takenaka, Youichi; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Sawai, Shujiro
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA announced a long-term vision recently. In the vision, JAXA aims to develop hypersonic aircrafts. A pre-cooled turbojet engine has great potential as one of newly developed hypersonic air-breathing engines. We also expect the engine to be installed in space transportation vehicles in future. For combustion test in real flight condition of the engines, JAXA has an experimental plan with a small test vehicle falling from a high-altitude balloon. This paper applies numerical analysis and optimization techniques to conceptual designs of the test vehicle in order to obtain the best configuration and trajectory that can achieve the flight test. The results show helpful knowledge when we design prototype vehicles.
Tsuchiya, Takeshi; Takenaka, Youichi; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Sawai, Shujiro
The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA, announced a long-term vision recently. In the vision, JAXA aims to develop hypersonic aircrafts. A pre-cooled turbojet engine has great potential as one of newly developed hypersonic airbreathing engines. We also expect the engine to be installed in space transportation vehicles in the future. For combustion test in the real flight conditions of the engines, JAXA has an experimental plan where a small test vehicle is released from a high-altitude balloon. This paper applies numerical analysis and optimization techniques to conceptual designs of the test vehicle in order to obtain the best configuration and trajectory for the flight test. The results show helpful knowledge for designing prototype vehicles.
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Rui Zhou
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Synthetic aperture radar (SAR equipped on the hypersonic air vehicle in near space has many advantages over the conventional airborne SAR. However, its high-speed maneuvering characteristics with curved trajectory result in serious range migration, and exacerbate the contradiction between the high resolution and wide swath. To solve this problem, this paper establishes the imaging geometrical model matched with the flight trajectory of the hypersonic platform and the multichannel azimuth sampling model based on the displaced phase center antenna (DPCA technology. Furthermore, based on the multichannel signal reconstruction theory, a more efficient spectrum reconstruction model using discrete Fourier transform is proposed to obtain the azimuth uniform sampling data. Due to the high complexity of the slant range model, it is difficult to deduce the processing algorithm for SAR imaging. Thus, an approximate range model is derived based on the minimax criterion, and the optimal second-order approximate coefficients of cosine function are obtained using the two-population coevolutionary algorithm. On this basis, aiming at the problem that the traditional Omega-K algorithm cannot compensate the residual phase with the difficulty of Stolt mapping along the range frequency axis, this paper proposes an Exact Transfer Function (ETF algorithm for SAR imaging, and presents a method of range division to achieve wide swath imaging. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the ETF imaging algorithm.
Zhou, Rui; Sun, Jinping; Hu, Yuxin; Qi, Yaolong
2018-01-31
Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) equipped on the hypersonic air vehicle in near space has many advantages over the conventional airborne SAR. However, its high-speed maneuvering characteristics with curved trajectory result in serious range migration, and exacerbate the contradiction between the high resolution and wide swath. To solve this problem, this paper establishes the imaging geometrical model matched with the flight trajectory of the hypersonic platform and the multichannel azimuth sampling model based on the displaced phase center antenna (DPCA) technology. Furthermore, based on the multichannel signal reconstruction theory, a more efficient spectrum reconstruction model using discrete Fourier transform is proposed to obtain the azimuth uniform sampling data. Due to the high complexity of the slant range model, it is difficult to deduce the processing algorithm for SAR imaging. Thus, an approximate range model is derived based on the minimax criterion, and the optimal second-order approximate coefficients of cosine function are obtained using the two-population coevolutionary algorithm. On this basis, aiming at the problem that the traditional Omega-K algorithm cannot compensate the residual phase with the difficulty of Stolt mapping along the range frequency axis, this paper proposes an Exact Transfer Function (ETF) algorithm for SAR imaging, and presents a method of range division to achieve wide swath imaging. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the ETF imaging algorithm.
Nonlinear control of linear parameter varying systems with applications to hypersonic vehicles
Wilcox, Zachary Donald
The focus of this dissertation is to design a controller for linear parameter varying (LPV) systems, apply it specifically to air-breathing hypersonic vehicles, and examine the interplay between control performance and the structural dynamics design. Specifically a Lyapunov-based continuous robust controller is developed that yields exponential tracking of a reference model, despite the presence of bounded, nonvanishing disturbances. The hypersonic vehicle has time varying parameters, specifically temperature profiles, and its dynamics can be reduced to an LPV system with additive disturbances. Since the HSV can be modeled as an LPV system the proposed control design is directly applicable. The control performance is directly examined through simulations. A wide variety of applications exist that can be effectively modeled as LPV systems. In particular, flight systems have historically been modeled as LPV systems and associated control tools have been applied such as gain-scheduling, linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), linear fractional transformations (LFT), and mu-types. However, as the type of flight environments and trajectories become more demanding, the traditional LPV controllers may no longer be sufficient. In particular, hypersonic flight vehicles (HSVs) present an inherently difficult problem because of the nonlinear aerothermoelastic coupling effects in the dynamics. HSV flight conditions produce temperature variations that can alter both the structural dynamics and flight dynamics. Starting with the full nonlinear dynamics, the aerothermoelastic effects are modeled by a temperature dependent, parameter varying state-space representation with added disturbances. The model includes an uncertain parameter varying state matrix, an uncertain parameter varying non-square (column deficient) input matrix, and an additive bounded disturbance. In this dissertation, a robust dynamic controller is formulated for a uncertain and disturbed LPV system. The developed
Hyper-X and Pegasus Launch Vehicle: A Three-Foot Model of the Hypersonic Experimental Research Vehic
1997-01-01
The configuration of the X-43A Hypersonic Experimental Research Vehicle, or Hyper-X, attached to a Pegasus launch vehicle is displayed in this three-foot-long model at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Hyper-X, the flight vehicle for which is designated as X-43A, is an experimental flight-research program seeking to demonstrate airframe-integrated, 'air-breathing' engine technologies that promise to increase payload capacity for future vehicles, including hypersonic aircraft (faster than Mach 5) and reusable space launchers. This multiyear program is currently underway at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Hyper-X schedule calls for its first flight later this year (2000). Hyper-X is a joint program, with Dryden sharing responsibility with NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Dryden's primary role is to fly three unpiloted X-43A research vehicles to validate engine technologies and hypersonic design tools as well as the hypersonic test facility at Langley. Langley manages the program and leads the technology development effort. The Hyper-X Program seeks to significantly expand the speed boundaries of air-breathing propulsion by being the first aircraft to demonstrate an airframe-integrated, scramjet-powered free flight. Scramjets (supersonic-combustion ramjets) are ramjet engines in which the airflow through the whole engine remains supersonic. Scramjet technology is challenging because only limited testing can be performed in ground facilities. Long duration, full-scale testing requires flight research. Scramjet engines are air-breathing, capturing their oxygen from the atmosphere. Current spacecraft, such as the Space Shuttle, are rocket powered, so they must carry both fuel and oxygen for propulsion. Scramjet technology-based vehicles need to carry only fuel. By eliminating the need to carry oxygen, future hypersonic vehicles will be able to carry heavier payloads. Another unique aspect of the X-43
Adaptive Finite-Time Control for a Flexible Hypersonic Vehicle with Actuator Fault
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Jie Wang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of robust fault-tolerant tracking control is investigated. Simulation on the longitudinal model of a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (FAHV with actuator faults and uncertainties is conducted. In order to guarantee that the velocity and altitude track their desired commands in finite time with the partial loss of actuator effectiveness, an adaptive fault-tolerant control strategy is presented based on practical finite-time sliding mode method. The adaptive update laws are used to estimate the upper bound of uncertainties and the minimum value of actuator efficiency factor. Finally, simulation results show that the proposed control strategy is effective in rejecting uncertainties even in the presence of actuator faults.
Wang, Jie; Zong, Qun; Su, Rui; Tian, Bailing
2014-05-01
This paper investigates the problem of tracking control with uncertainties for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (FAHV). In order to overcome the analytical intractability of this model, an Input-Output linearization model is constructed for the purpose of feedback control design. Then, the continuous finite time convergence high order sliding mode controller is designed for the Input-Output linearization model without uncertainties. In addition, a nonlinear disturbance observer is applied to estimate the uncertainties in order to compensate the controller and disturbance suppression, where disturbance observer and controller synthesis design is obtained. Finally, the synthesis of controller and disturbance observer is used to achieve the tracking for the velocity and altitude of the FAHV and simulations are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the control strategies. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Improved State Feedback H∞ Control for Flexible Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicles on LMI Approach
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Zhang Xue
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Focusing on a nonlinear longitudinal dynamical model for Air-breathing Hypersonic Flight Vehicles (AHFV, a linearized model on a nominal trim condition is proposed. To stabilize the flight of an AHFV in the presence of external disturbances and actuator uncertainties, a state feedback H∞ control is designed. With bounds on the uncertainties, a feedback stabilization problem is converted to an optimal control problem and the cost function is minimized by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities. Since uncertainties in the design of AHFV are inevitable, to make a comparison, a general H∞ robust controller is constructed by only considering the disturbances firstly. Then the results are extended by incorporating the actual existing uncertainties as well as the external disturbances in the AHFV system. Numerical simulation shows that the controller, which takes both disturbances and uncertainties into account, can effectively stabilize the AHFV system.
Nonlinear Robust Control of a Hypersonic Flight Vehicle Using Fuzzy Disturbance Observer
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Lei Zhengdong
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a novel tracking controller design for a hypersonic flight vehicle in complex and volatile environment. The attitude control model is challengingly constructed with multivariate uncertainties and external disturbances, such as structure dynamic and stochastic wind disturbance. In order to resist the influence of uncertainties and disturbances on the flight control system, nonlinear disturbance observer is introduced to estimate them. Moreover, for the sake of high accuracy and sensitivity, fuzzy theory is adopted to improve the performance of the nonlinear disturbance observer. After the total disturbance is eliminated by dynamic inversion method, a cascade system is obtained and then stabilized by a sliding-mode controller. Finally, simulation results show that the strong robust controller achieves excellent performance when the closed-loop control system is influenced by mass uncertainties and external disturbances.
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Xianlei Cheng
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a predictive sliding mode control (PSMC scheme for attitude control of hypersonic vehicle (HV with system uncertainties and external disturbances based on an improved fuzzy disturbance observer (IFDO. First, for a class of uncertain affine nonlinear systems with system uncertainties and external disturbances, we propose a predictive sliding mode control based on fuzzy disturbance observer (FDO-PSMC, which is used to estimate the composite disturbances containing system uncertainties and external disturbances. Afterward, to enhance the composite disturbances rejection performance, an improved FDO-PSMC (IFDO-PSMC is proposed by incorporating a hyperbolic tangent function with FDO to compensate for the approximate error of FDO. Finally, considering the actuator dynamics, the proposed IFDO-PSMC is applied to attitude control system design for HV to track the guidance commands with high precision and strong robustness. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed attitude control scheme.
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Bu Xiangwei
2015-08-01
Full Text Available A novel adaptive neural control strategy is exploited for the longitudinal dynamics of a generic flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (FAHV. By utilizing functional decomposition method, the dynamics of FAHV is decomposed into the velocity subsystem and the altitude subsystem. For each subsystem, only one neural network is employed for the unknown function approximation. To further reduce the computational burden, minimal-learning parameter (MLP technology is used to estimate the norm of ideal weight vectors rather than their elements. By introducing sliding mode differentiator (SMD to estimate the newly defined variables, there is no need for the strict-feedback form and virtual controller. Hence the developed control law is considerably simpler than the ones derived from back-stepping scheme. Finally, simulation studies are made to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control approach in spite of the flexible effects, system uncertainties and varying disturbances.
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Pengfei Wang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The design of an adaptive neural back-stepping control for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (AHV in the presence of input constraint and aerodynamic uncertainty is discussed. Based on functional decomposition, the dynamics can be decomposed into the velocity subsystem and the altitude subsystem. To guarantee the exploited controller’s robustness with respect to parametric uncertainties, neural network (NN is applied to approximate the lumped uncertainty of each subsystem of AHV model. The exceptional contribution is that novel auxiliary systems are introduced to compensate both the tracking errors and desired control laws, based on which the explored controller can still provide effective tracking of velocity and altitude commands when the actuators are saturated. Finally, simulation studies are made to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control approach in spite of the flexible effects, system uncertainties, and varying disturbances.
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Xiangwei Bu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a novel simplified neural control strategy is proposed for the longitudinal dynamics of an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (AHV directly using nonaffine models instead of affine ones. For the velocity dynamics, an adaptive neural controller is devised based on a minimal-learning parameter (MLP technique for the sake of decreasing computational loads. The altitude dynamics is rewritten as a pure feedback nonaffine formulation, for which a novel concise neural control approach is achieved without backstepping. The special contributions are that the control architecture is concise and the computational cost is low. Moreover, the exploited controller possesses good practicability since there is no need for affine models. The semiglobally uniformly ultimate boundedness of all the closed-loop system signals is guaranteed via Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, simulation results are presented to validate the effectiveness of the investigated control methodology in the presence of parametric uncertainties.
An, Hao; Wang, Changhong; Fidan, Baris
2017-10-01
This paper presents a backstepping procedure to design an adaptive controller for the air-breathing hypersonic flight vehicle (AHFV) subject to external disturbances and actuator saturations. In each step, a sliding mode exact disturbance observer (SMEDO) is exploited to exactly estimate the lumped disturbance in finite time. Specific dynamics are introduced to handle the possible actuator saturations. Based on SMEDO and introduced dynamics, an adaptive control law is designed, along with the consideration on ;explosion of complexity; in backstepping design. The developed controller is equipped with fast disturbance rejection and great capability to accommodate the saturated actuators, which also lead to a wider application scope. A simulation study is provided to show the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed controller.
Prediction of shock-layer ultraviolet radiation for hypersonic vehicles in near space
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Niu Qinglin
2016-10-01
Full Text Available A systemic and validated model was developed to predict ultraviolet spectra features from the shock layer of near-space hypersonic vehicles in the “solar blind” band region. Computational procedures were performed with 7-species thermal non-equilibrium fluid mechanics, finite rate chemistry, and radiation calculations. The thermal non-equilibrium flow field was calculated with a two-temperature model by the finite volume technique and verified against the bow-shock ultra-violet (BSUV flight experiments. The absorption coefficient of the mixture gases was evaluated with a line-by-line method and validated through laboratory shock tube measurements. Using the line of sight (LOS method, radiation was calculated from three BSUV flights at altitudes of 38, 53.5 and 71 km. The investigation focused on the level and structure of ultraviolet spectra radiated from a NO band system in wavelengths of 200–400 nm. Results predicted by the current model show qualitative spatial agreement with the measured data. At a velocity of 3.5 km/s (about Mach 11, the peak absolute intensity at an altitude of 38 km is two orders of magnitude higher than that at 53.5 km. Under the same flight conditions, the spectra structures have quite a similar distribution at different viewing angles. The present computational model performs well in the prediction of the ultraviolet spectra emitted from the shock layer and will contribute to the investigation and analysis of radiative features of hypersonic vehicles in near space.
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Jin Wang
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This article proposes a multiple-step fault estimation algorithm for hypersonic flight vehicles that uses an interval type-II Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy model. An interval type-II Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy model is developed to approximate the nonlinear dynamic system and handle the parameter uncertainties of hypersonic firstly. Then, a multiple-step time-varying additive fault estimation algorithm is designed to estimate time-varying additive elevator fault of hypersonic flight vehicles. Finally, the simulation is conducted in both aspects of modeling and fault estimation; the validity and availability of such method are verified by a series of the comparison of numerical simulation results.
Hypersonic vehicle model and control law development using H(infinity) and micron synthesis
Gregory, Irene M.; Chowdhry, Rajiv S.; Mcminn, John D.; Shaughnessy, John D.
1994-01-01
The control system design for a Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) air breathing vehicle will be central to a successful mission because a precise ascent trajectory will preserve narrow payload margins. The air breathing propulsion system requires the vehicle to fly roughly halfway around the Earth through atmospheric turbulence. The turbulence, the high sensitivity of the propulsion system to inlet flow conditions, the relatively large uncertainty of the parameters characterizing the vehicle, and continuous acceleration make the problem especially challenging. Adequate stability margins must be provided without sacrificing payload mass since payload margins are critical. Therefore, a multivariable control theory capable of explicitly including both uncertainty and performance is needed. The H(infinity) controller in general provides good robustness but can result in conservative solutions for practical problems involving structured uncertainty. Structured singular value mu framework for analysis and synthesis is potentially much less conservative and hence more appropriate for problems with tight margins. An SSTO control system requires: highly accurate tracking of velocity and altitude commands while limiting angle-of-attack oscillations, minimized control power usage, and a stabilized vehicle when atmospheric turbulence and system uncertainty are present. The controller designs using H(infinity) and mu-synthesis procedures were compared. An integrated flight/propulsion dynamic mathematical model of a conical accelerator vehicle was linearized as the vehicle accelerated through Mach 8. Vehicle acceleration through the selected flight condition gives rise to parametric variation that was modeled as a structured uncertainty. The mu-analysis approach was used in the frequency domain to conduct controller analysis and was confirmed by time history plots. Results demonstrate the inherent advantages of the mu framework for this class of problems.
Masternak, Tadeusz J.
This research determines temperature-constrained optimal trajectories for a scramjet-based hypersonic reconnaissance vehicle by developing an optimal control formulation and solving it using a variable order Gauss-Radau quadrature collocation method with a Non-Linear Programming (NLP) solver. The vehicle is assumed to be an air-breathing reconnaissance aircraft that has specified takeoff/landing locations, airborne refueling constraints, specified no-fly zones, and specified targets for sensor data collections. A three degree of freedom scramjet aircraft model is adapted from previous work and includes flight dynamics, aerodynamics, and thermal constraints. Vehicle control is accomplished by controlling angle of attack, roll angle, and propellant mass flow rate. This model is incorporated into an optimal control formulation that includes constraints on both the vehicle and mission parameters, such as avoidance of no-fly zones and coverage of high-value targets. To solve the optimal control formulation, a MATLAB-based package called General Pseudospectral Optimal Control Software (GPOPS-II) is used, which transcribes continuous time optimal control problems into an NLP problem. In addition, since a mission profile can have varying vehicle dynamics and en-route imposed constraints, the optimal control problem formulation can be broken up into several "phases" with differing dynamics and/or varying initial/final constraints. Optimal trajectories are developed using several different performance costs in the optimal control formulation: minimum time, minimum time with control penalties, and maximum range. The resulting analysis demonstrates that optimal trajectories that meet specified mission parameters and constraints can be quickly determined and used for larger-scale operational and campaign planning and execution.
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Peng Fei Wang
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The design of an adaptive fuzzy tracking control for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle with actuator constraints is discussed. Based on functional decomposition methodology, velocity and altitude controllers are designed. Fuzzy logic systems are applied to approximate the lumped uncertainty of each subsystem of air-breathing hypersonic vehicle model. Every controllers contain only one adaptive parameter that needs to be updated online with a minimal-learning-parameter scheme. The back-stepping design is not demanded by converting the altitude subsystem into the normal output-feedback formulation, which predigests the design of a controller. The special contribution is that novel auxiliary systems are developed to compensate both the tracking errors and desired control laws, based on which the explored controller can still provide effective tracking of velocity and altitude commands when the inputs are saturated. Finally, reference trajectory tracking simulation shows the effectiveness of the proposed method in its application to air-breathing hypersonic vehicle control.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hypersonic aircraft are subjected to extreme conditions with respect to mechanical thermal and acoustic loads. Materials with complex microstructure, such as...
A Scramjet Compression System for Hypersonic Air Transportation Vehicle Combined Cycle Engines
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Devendra Sen
2018-06-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a compression system for a scramjet, to be used as part of a combined cycle engine on a hypersonic transport vehicle that can achieve sustained flight at 8 Mach 8. Initially research into scramjet compression system and shock wave interaction was conducted to establish the foundation of the scramjet inlet and isolator sections. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD campaign was conducted, where the shock structure and flow characteristics was analysed between Mach 4.5–8. The compression system of a scramjet is of crucial importance in providing air at suitable Mach number, pressure and temperature to the combustion chamber. The use of turbojet engines in over-under configuration with the scramjet was investigated as well as the study of a combined cycle scramjet-ramjet configuration. It was identified that locating the scramjet in the centre with a rotated ramjet on either side, where its ramps make up the scramjet wall was the most optimal configuration, as it mitigated the effect of the oblique shocks propagating from the scramjet walls into the adjacent ramjet. Furthermore, this meant that the forebody of the vehicle could solely be used as the compression surface by the scramjet. In this paper, the sizing of the scramjet combustion chamber and nozzle were modified to match the flow properties of the oncoming flow with the purpose of producing the most optimum scramjet configuration for the cruise speed of Mach 8. CFD simulations showed that the scramjet inlet did not provide the levels of compression and stagnation pressure recovery initially required. However, it was found that the scramjet provided significantly more thrust than the drag of the aircraft at sustained Mach 8 flight, due to its utilisation of a very aerodynamic vehicle design.
T-S Fuzzy Modelling and H∞ Attitude Control for Hypersonic Gliding Vehicles
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Weidong Zhang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the T-S fuzzy modelling and H∞ attitude control in three channels for hypersonic gliding vehicles (HGVs. First, the control-oriented affine nonlinear model has been established which is transformed from the reentry dynamics. Then, based on Taylor’s expansion approach and the fuzzy linearization approach, the homogeneous T-S local modelling technique for HGVs is proposed. Given the approximation accuracy and controller design complexity, appropriate fuzzy premise variables and operating points of interest are selected to construct the T-S homogeneous submodels. With so-called fuzzy blending, the original plant is transformed into the overall T-S fuzzy model with disturbance. By utilizing Lyapunov functional approach, a state feedback fuzzy controller has been designed based on relaxed linear matrix inequality (LMI conditions to stable the original plants with a prescribed H∞ performance of disturbance. Finally, numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed H∞ T-S fuzzy controller for the original attitude dynamics; the superiority of the designed T-S fuzzy controller compared with other local controllers based on the constructed fuzzy model is shown as well.
Tian, Jiayi; Zhang, Shifeng; Zhang, Yinhui; Li, Tong
2018-03-01
Since motion control plant (y (n) =f(⋅)+d) was repeatedly used to exemplify how active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) works when it was proposed, the integral chain system subject to matched disturbances is always regarded as a canonical form and even misconstrued as the only form that ADRC is applicable to. In this paper, a systematic approach is first presented to apply ADRC to a generic nonlinear uncertain system with mismatched disturbances and a robust output feedback autopilot for an airbreathing hypersonic vehicle (AHV) is devised based on that. The key idea is to employ the feedback linearization (FL) and equivalent input disturbance (EID) technique to decouple nonlinear uncertain system into several subsystems in canonical form, thus it would be much easy to directly design classical/improved linear/nonlinear ADRC controller for each subsystem. It is noticed that all disturbances are taken into account when implementing FL rather than just omitting that in previous research, which greatly enhances controllers' robustness against external disturbances. For autopilot design, ADRC strategy enables precise tracking for velocity and altitude reference command in the presence of severe parametric perturbations and atmospheric disturbances only using measurable output information. Bounded-input-bounded-output (BIBO) stable is analyzed for closed-loop system. To illustrate the feasibility and superiority of this novel design, a series of comparative simulations with some prominent and representative methods are carried out on a benchmark longitudinal AHV model. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Yu Fan
2016-10-01
Full Text Available In order to defend the hypersonic glide vehicle (HGV, a cost-effective single-model tracking algorithm using Cubature Kalman filter (CKF is proposed in this paper based on modified aerodynamic model (MAM as process equation and radar measurement model as measurement equation. In the existing aerodynamic model, the two control variables attack angle and bank angle cannot be measured by the existing radar equipment and their control laws cannot be known by defenders. To establish the process equation, the MAM for HGV tracking is proposed by using additive white noise to model the rates of change of the two control variables. For the ease of comparison several multiple model algorithms based on CKF are presented, including interacting multiple model (IMM algorithm, adaptive grid interacting multiple model (AGIMM algorithm and hybrid grid multiple model (HGMM algorithm. The performances of these algorithms are compared and analyzed according to the simulation results. The simulation results indicate that the proposed tracking algorithm based on modified aerodynamic model has the best tracking performance with the best accuracy and least computational cost among all tracking algorithms in this paper. The proposed algorithm is cost-effective for HGV tracking.
A new surface catalytic model for silica-based thermal protection material for hypersonic vehicles
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Li Kai
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Silica-based materials are widely employed in the thermal protection system for hypersonic vehicles, and the investigation of their catalytic characteristics is crucially important for accurate aerothermal heating prediction. By analyzing the disadvantages of Norman’s high and low temperature models, this paper combines the two models and proposes an eight-reaction combined surface catalytic model to describe the catalysis between oxygen and silica surface. Given proper evaluation of the parameters according to many references, the recombination coefficient obtained shows good agreement with experimental data. The catalytic mechanisms between oxygen and silica surface are then analyzed. Results show that with the increase of the wall temperature, the dominant reaction contributing to catalytic coefficient varies from Langmuir–Hinshelwood (LH recombination (TW 1350 K. The surface coverage of chemisorption areas varies evidently with the dominant reactions in the high temperature (HT range, while the surface coverage of physisorption areas varies within quite low temperature (LT range (TW < 250 K. Recommended evaluation of partial parameters is also given.
Xingling, Shao; Honglun, Wang
2014-11-01
This paper proposes a novel hybrid control framework by combing observer-based sliding mode control (SMC) with trajectory linearization control (TLC) for hypersonic reentry vehicle (HRV) attitude tracking problem. First, fewer control consumption is achieved using nonlinear tracking differentiator (TD) in the attitude loop. Second, a novel SMC that employs extended disturbance observer (EDO) to counteract the effect of uncertainties using a new sliding surface which includes the estimation error is integrated to address the tracking error stabilization issues in the attitude and angular rate loop, respectively. In addition, new results associated with EDO are examined in terms of dynamic response and noise-tolerant performance, as well as estimation accuracy. The key feature of the proposed compound control approach is that chattering free tracking performance with high accuracy can be ensured for HRV in the presence of multiple uncertainties under control constraints. Based on finite time convergence stability theory, the stability of the resulting closed-loop system is well established. Also, comparisons and extensive simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the control strategy. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ye, Linqi; Zong, Qun; Tian, Bailing; Zhang, Xiuyun; Wang, Fang
2017-09-01
In this paper, the nonminimum phase problem of a flexible hypersonic vehicle is investigated. The main challenge of nonminimum phase is the prevention of dynamic inversion methods to nonlinear control design. To solve this problem, we make research on the relationship between nonminimum phase and backstepping control, finding that a stable nonlinear controller can be obtained by changing the control loop on the basis of backstepping control. By extending the control loop to cover the internal dynamics in it, the internal states are directly controlled by the inputs and simultaneously serve as virtual control for the external states, making it possible to guarantee output tracking as well as internal stability. Then, based on the extended control loop, a simplified control-oriented model is developed to enable the applicability of adaptive backstepping method. It simplifies the design process and releases some limitations caused by direct use of the no simplified control-oriented model. Next, under proper assumptions, asymptotic stability is proved for constant commands, while bounded stability is proved for varying commands. The proposed method is compared with approximate backstepping control and dynamic surface control and is shown to have superior tracking accuracy as well as robustness from the simulation results. This paper may also provide a beneficial guidance for control design of other complex systems. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shao, Xingling; Wang, Honglun
2015-01-01
This paper investigates a novel compound control scheme combined with the advantages of trajectory linearization control (TLC) and alternative active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) for hypersonic reentry vehicle (HRV) attitude tracking system with bounded uncertainties. Firstly, in order to overcome actuator saturation problem, nonlinear tracking differentiator (TD) is applied in the attitude loop to achieve fewer control consumption. Then, linear extended state observers (LESO) are constructed to estimate the uncertainties acting on the LTV system in the attitude and angular rate loop. In addition, feedback linearization (FL) based controllers are designed using estimates of uncertainties generated by LESO in each loop, which enable the tracking error for closed-loop system in the presence of large uncertainties to converge to the residual set of the origin asymptotically. Finally, the compound controllers are derived by integrating with the nominal controller for open-loop nonlinear system and FL based controller. Also, comparisons and simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the control strategy. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fault-tolerant control with mixed aerodynamic surfaces and RCS jets for hypersonic reentry vehicles
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Jingjing He
2017-04-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a fault-tolerant strategy for hypersonic reentry vehicles with mixed aerodynamic surfaces and reaction control systems (RCS under external disturbances and subject to actuator faults. Aerodynamic surfaces are treated as the primary actuator in normal situations, and they are driven by a continuous quadratic programming (QP allocator to generate torque commanded by a nonlinear adaptive feedback control law. When aerodynamic surfaces encounter faults, they may not be able to provide sufficient torque as commanded, and RCS jets are activated to augment the aerodynamic surfaces to compensate for insufficient torque. Partial loss of effectiveness and stuck faults are considered in this paper, and observers are designed to detect and identify the faults. Based on the fault identification results, an RCS control allocator using integer linear programming (ILP techniques is designed to determine the optimal combination of activated RCS jets. By treating the RCS control allocator as a quantization element, closed-loop stability with both continuous and quantized inputs is analyzed. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
An extended supersonic combustion model for the dynamic analysis of hypersonic vehicles
Bossard, J. A.; Peck, R. E.; Schmidt, D. K.
1993-01-01
The development of an advanced dynamic model for aeroelastic hypersonic vehicles powered by air breathing engines requires an adequate engine model. This report provides a discussion of some of the more important features of supersonic combustion and their relevance to the analysis and design of supersonic ramjet engines. Of particular interest are those aspects of combustion that impact the control of the process. Furthermore, the report summarizes efforts to enhance the aeropropulsive/aeroelastic dynamic model developed at the Aerospace Research Center of Arizona State University by focusing on combustion and improved modeling of this flow. The expanded supersonic combustor model described here has the capability to model the effects of friction, area change, and mass addition, in addition to the heat addition process. A comparison is made of the results from four cases: (1) heat addition only; (2) heat addition plus friction; (3) heat addition, friction, and area reduction, and (4) heat addition, friction, area reduction, and mass addition. The relative impact of these effects on the Mach number, static temperature, and static pressure distributions within the combustor are then shown. Finally, the effects of frozen versus equilibrium flow conditions within the exhaust plume is discussed.
Development and Validation of a Hypersonic Vehicle Design Tool Based On Waverider Design Technique
Dasque, Nastassja
Methodologies for a tool capable of assisting design initiatives for practical waverider based hypersonic vehicles were developed and validated. The design space for vehicle surfaces was formed using an algorithm that coupled directional derivatives with the conservation laws to determine a flow field defined by a set of post-shock streamlines. The design space is used to construct an ideal waverider with a sharp leading edge. A blunting method was developed to modify the ideal shapes to a more practical geometry for real-world application. Empirical and analytical relations were then systematically applied to the resulting geometries to determine local pressure, skin-friction and heat flux. For the ideal portion of the geometry, flat plate relations for compressible flow were applied. For the blunted portion of the geometry modified Newtonian theory, Fay-Riddell theory and Modified Reynolds analogy were applied. The design and analysis methods were validated using analytical solutions as well as empirical and numerical data. The streamline solution for the flow field generation technique was compared with a Taylor-Maccoll solution and showed very good agreement. The relationship between the local Stanton number and skin friction coefficient with local Reynolds number along the ideal portion of the body showed good agreement with experimental data. In addition, an automated grid generation routine was formulated to construct a structured mesh around resulting geometries in preparation for Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis. The overall analysis of the waverider body using the tool was then compared to CFD studies. The CFD flow field showed very good agreement with the design space. However, the distribution of the surface properties was near CFD results but did not have great agreement.
SiC Matrix Composites for High Temperature Hypersonic Vehicle Applications, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Durable high temperature materials are required for hypersonic engine and structural thermal protection systems. In particular, 2700ºF or greater capable structural...
Application of CFD to a generic hypersonic flight research study
Green, Michael J.; Lawrence, Scott L.; Dilley, Arthur D.; Hawkins, Richard W.; Walker, Mary M.; Oberkampf, William L.
1993-01-01
Computational analyses have been performed for the initial assessment of flight research vehicle concepts that satisfy requirements for potential hypersonic experiments. Results were obtained from independent analyses at NASA Ames, NASA Langley, and Sandia National Labs, using sophisticated time-dependent Navier-Stokes and parabolized Navier-Stokes methods. Careful study of a common problem consisting of hypersonic flow past a slightly blunted conical forebody was undertaken to estimate the level of uncertainty in the computed results, and to assess the capabilities of current computational methods for predicting boundary-layer transition onset. Results of this study in terms of surface pressure and heat transfer comparisons, as well as comparisons of boundary-layer edge quantities and flow-field profiles are presented here. Sensitivities to grid and gas model are discussed. Finally, representative results are presented relating to the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics in the vehicle design and the integration/support of potential experiments.
Global strike hypersonic weapons
Lewis, Mark J.
2017-11-01
Beginning in the 1940's, the United States has pursued the development of hypersonic technologies, enabling atmospheric flight in excess of five times the speed of sound. Hypersonic flight has application to a range of military and civilian applications, including commercial transport, space access, and various weapons and sensing platforms. A number of flight tests of hypersonic vehicles have been conducted by countries around the world, including the United States, Russia, and China, that could lead the way to future hypersonic global strike weapon systems. These weapons would be especially effective at penetrating conventional defenses, and could pose a significant risk to national security.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tianbao Cheng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The transient temperature distribution of the ultrahigh-temperature ceramic (UHTC thermal protection system (TPS of hypersonic vehicles is calculated using finite volume method. Convective cooling enables a balance of heat increment and loss to be achieved. The temperature in the UHTC plate at the balance is approximately proportional to the surface heat flux and is approximately inversely proportional to the convective heat transfer coefficient. The failure modes of the UHTCs are presented by investigating the thermal stress field of the UHTC TPS under different thermal environments. The UHTCs which act as the thermal protection materials of hypersonic vehicles can fail because of the tensile stress at the lower surface, an area above the middle plane, and the upper surface as well as because of the compressive stress at the upper surface. However, the area between the lower surface and the middle plane and a small area near the upper surface are relatively safe. Neither the compressive stress nor the tensile stress will cause failure of these areas.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peng Li
2016-10-01
Full Text Available This article proposes an adaptive multivariable higher-order sliding mode control for the longitudinal model of an air-breathing vehicle under system uncertainties and actuator failures. Firstly, a fast finite-time control law is designed for a chain of integrators. Secondly, based on the input/output feedback linearization technique, the system uncertainty and external disturbances are modeled as additive certainty and the actuator failures are modeled as multiplicative uncertainty. By using the proposed fast finite-time control law, a robust multivariable higher-order sliding mode control is designed for the air-breathing hypersonic vehicle with actuator failures. Finally, adaptive laws are proposed for the adaptation of the parameters in the robust multivariable higher-order sliding mode control. Thus, the bounds of the uncertainties are not needed in the control system design. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed robust adaptive multivariable higher-order sliding mode control.
LPV H-infinity Control for the Longitudinal Dynamics of a Flexible Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicle
Hughes, Hunter Douglas
This dissertation establishes the method needed to synthesize and simulate an Hinfinity Linear Parameter-Varying (LPV) controller for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle model. A study was conducted to gain the understanding of the elastic effects on the open loop system. It was determined that three modes of vibration would be suitable for the hypersonic vehicle model. It was also discovered from the open loop study that there is strong coupling in the hypersonic vehicle states, especially between the angle of attack, pitch rate, pitch attitude, and the exible modes of the vehicle. This dissertation outlines the procedure for synthesizing a full state feedback Hinfinity LPV controller for the hypersonic vehicle. The full state feedback study looked at both velocity and altitude tracking for the exible vehicle. A parametric study was conducted on each of these controllers to see the effects of changing the number of gridding points in the parameter space and changing the parameter variation rate limits in the system on the robust performance of the controller. As a result of the parametric study, a 7 x 7 grid ranging from Mach 7 to Mach 9 in velocity and from 70,000 feet to 90,000 feet in altitude, and a parameter variation rate limit of [.5 200]T was used for both the velocity tracking and altitude tracking cases. The resulting Hinfinity robust performances were gamma = 2.2224 for the velocity tracking case and = 1:7582 for the altitude tracking case. A linear analysis was then conducted on five different selected trim points from the Hinfinity LPV controller. This was conducted for the velocity tracking and altitude tracking cases. The results of linear analysis show that there is a slight difference in the response of the Hinfinity LPV controller and the fixed point H infinity controller. For the tracking task, the Hinfinity controller responds more quickly, and has a lower Hinfinity performance value. Next, the H infinity LPV controller was simulated
Bu, Xiangwei; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Fujing; Huang, Jiaqi; Ma, Zhen; Zhang, Rui
2015-11-01
A novel prescribed performance neural controller with unknown initial errors is addressed for the longitudinal dynamic model of a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (FAHV) subject to parametric uncertainties. Different from traditional prescribed performance control (PPC) requiring that the initial errors have to be known accurately, this paper investigates the tracking control without accurate initial errors via exploiting a new performance function. A combined neural back-stepping and minimal learning parameter (MLP) technology is employed for exploring a prescribed performance controller that provides robust tracking of velocity and altitude reference trajectories. The highlight is that the transient performance of velocity and altitude tracking errors is satisfactory and the computational load of neural approximation is low. Finally, numerical simulation results from a nonlinear FAHV model demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed strategy. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Xu, Bin; Yang, Chenguang; Pan, Yongping
2015-10-01
This paper studies both indirect and direct global neural control of strict-feedback systems in the presence of unknown dynamics, using the dynamic surface control (DSC) technique in a novel manner. A new switching mechanism is designed to combine an adaptive neural controller in the neural approximation domain, together with the robust controller that pulls the transient states back into the neural approximation domain from the outside. In comparison with the conventional control techniques, which could only achieve semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded stability, the proposed control scheme guarantees all the signals in the closed-loop system are globally uniformly ultimately bounded, such that the conventional constraints on initial conditions of the neural control system can be relaxed. The simulation studies of hypersonic flight vehicle (HFV) are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed global neural DSC design.
Huang, Di; Duan, Zhisheng
2018-03-01
This paper addresses the multi-objective fault detection observer design problems for a hypersonic vehicle. Owing to the fact that parameters' variations, modelling errors and disturbances are inevitable in practical situations, system uncertainty is considered in this study. By fully utilising the orthogonal space information of output matrix, some new understandings are proposed for the construction of Lyapunov matrix. Sufficient conditions for the existence of observers to guarantee the fault sensitivity and disturbance robustness in infinite frequency domain are presented. In order to further relax the conservativeness, slack matrices are introduced to fully decouple the observer gain with the Lyapunov matrices in finite frequency range. Iterative linear matrix inequality algorithms are proposed to obtain the solutions. The simulation examples which contain a Monte Carlo campaign illustrate that the new methods can effectively reduce the design conservativeness compared with the existing methods.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Congying ZHU
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The envelope of a hypersonic vehicle is affected by severe fluctuating pressure, which causes the airborne antenna to vibrate slightly. This vibration mixes with the transmitted signals and thus introduces additional multiplicative phase noise. Antenna vibration and signal coupling effects as well as their influence on the lock threshold of the hypersonic vehicle carrier tracking system of the Ka band are investigated in this study. A vibration model is initially established to obtain phase noise in consideration of the inherent relationship between vibration displacement and electromagnetic wavelength. An analytical model of the Phase-Locked Loop (PLL, which is widely used in carrier tracking systems, is established. The coupling effects on carrier tracking performance are investigated and quantitatively analyzed by imposing the multiplicative phase noise on the PLL model. Simulation results show that the phase noise presents a Gaussian distribution and is similar to vibration displacement variation. A large standard deviation in vibration displacement exerts a significant effect on the lock threshold. A critical standard deviation is observed in the PLL of Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK and Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK signals. The effect on QPSK signals is more severe than that on BPSK signals. The maximum tolerable standard deviations normalized by the wavelength of the carrier are 0.04 and 0.02 for BPSK and QPSK signals, respectively. With these critical standard deviations, lock thresholds are increased from −12 and −4 dB to 3 and −2 dB, respectively. Keywords: Antenna vibration, Carrier tracking performance, Lock threshold, Phase locked loop, Tracking Telemetry and Command (TT&C signals
Hypersonic Control Modeling and Simulation Tool for Lifting Towed Ballutes, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Aerospace Corporation proposes to develop a hypersonic control modeling and simulation tool for hypersonic aeroassist vehicles. Our control and simulation...
Hypersonic Materials and Structures
Glass, David E.
2016-01-01
Thermal protection systems (TPS) and hot structures are required for a range of hypersonic vehicles ranging from ballistic reentry to hypersonic cruise vehicles, both within Earth's atmosphere and non-Earth atmospheres. The focus of this presentation is on air breathing hypersonic vehicles in the Earth's atmosphere. This includes single-stage to orbit (SSTO), two-stage to orbit (TSTO) accelerators, access to space vehicles, and hypersonic cruise vehicles. This paper will start out with a brief discussion of aerodynamic heating and thermal management techniques to address the high heating, followed by an overview of TPS for rocket-launched and air-breathing vehicles. The argument is presented that as we move from rocket-based vehicles to air-breathing vehicles, we need to move away from the insulated airplane approach used on the Space Shuttle Orbiter to a wide range of TPS and hot structure approaches. The primary portion of the paper will discuss issues and design options for CMC TPS and hot structure components, including leading edges, acreage TPS, and control surfaces. The current state-of-the-art will be briefly discussed for some of the components.
1996-10-01
combustion in the experimental research. Clearly, adding recirculation regions provides problems that can be nonequilibrium flow chemistry and combustion to...the transition can dominate the flow chemistry are all important. Without aerothermal characteristics of hypersonic vehicles experimental verification...current models of turbulent mixing in these flows are seriously in question. 4-3 Again, flow chemistry and viscous/inviscid flow interaction control
Pegasus hypersonic flight research
Curry, Robert E.; Meyer, Robert R., Jr.; Budd, Gerald D.
1992-01-01
Hypersonic aeronautics research using the Pegasus air-launched space booster is described. Two areas are discussed in the paper: previously obtained results from Pegasus flights 1 and 2, and plans for future programs. Proposed future research includes boundary-layer transition studies on the airplane-like first stage and also use of the complete Pegasus launch system to boost a research vehicle to hypersonic speeds. Pegasus flight 1 and 2 measurements were used to evaluate the results of several analytical aerodynamic design tools applied during the development of the vehicle as well as to develop hypersonic flight-test techniques. These data indicated that the aerodynamic design approach for Pegasus was adequate and showed that acceptable margins were available. Additionally, the correlations provide insight into the capabilities of these analytical tools for more complex vehicles in which design margins may be more stringent. Near-term plans to conduct hypersonic boundary-layer transition studies are discussed. These plans involve the use of a smooth metallic glove at about the mid-span of the wing. Longer-term opportunities are proposed which identify advantages of the Pegasus launch system to boost large-scale research vehicles to the real-gas hypersonic flight regime.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Quanwu Li
2016-01-01
Full Text Available High reliability is required for the permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PM-BLDCM in an electrical pump of hypersonic vehicle. The PM-BLDCM is a short-time duty motor with high-power-density. Since thermal equilibrium is not reached for the PM-BLDCM, the temperature distribution is not uniform and there is a risk of local overheating. The winding is a main heat source and its insulation is thermally sensitive, so reducing the winding temperature rise is the key to the improvement of the reliability. In order to reduce the winding temperature rise, an electromagnetic-thermal integrated design optimization method is proposed. The method is based on electromagnetic analysis and thermal transient analysis. The requirements and constraints of electromagnetic and thermal design are considered in this method. The split ratio and the maximum flux density in stator lamination, which are highly relevant to the windings temperature rise, are optimized analytically. The analytical results are verified by finite element analysis (FEA and experiments. The maximum error between the analytical and the FEA results is 4%. The errors between the analytical and measured windings temperature rise are less than 8%. It can be proved that the method can obtain the optimal design accurately to reduce the winding temperature rise.
Bu, Xiangwei; He, Guangjun; Wang, Ke
2018-04-01
This study considers the design of a new back-stepping control approach for air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (AHV) non-affine models via neural approximation. The AHV's non-affine dynamics is decomposed into velocity subsystem and altitude subsystem to be controlled separately, and robust adaptive tracking control laws are developed using improved back-stepping designs. Neural networks are applied to estimate the unknown non-affine dynamics, which guarantees the addressed controllers with satisfactory robustness against uncertainties. In comparison with the existing control methodologies, the special contributions are that the non-affine issue is handled by constructing two low-pass filters based on model transformations, and virtual controllers are treated as intermediate variables such that they aren't needed for back-stepping designs any more. Lyapunov techniques are employed to show the uniformly ultimately boundedness of all closed-loop signals. Finally, simulation results are presented to verify the tracking performance and superiorities of the investigated control strategy. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaomeng Yin
2018-01-01
Full Text Available With respect to the nonlinear hypersonic vehicle (HV dynamics, achieving a satisfactory tracking control performance under uncertainties is always a challenge. The high-order sliding mode control (HOSMC method with strong robustness has been applied to HVs. However, there are few methods for determining suitable HOSMC parameters for an efficacious control of HV, given that the uncertainties are randomly distributed. In this study, we introduce a hybrid fireworks algorithm- (FWA- based parameter optimization into HV control design to satisfy the design requirements with high probability. First, the complex relation between design parameters and the cost function that evaluates the likelihood of system instability and violation of design requirements is modeled via stochastic robustness analysis. Subsequently, we propose an efficient hybrid FWA to solve the complex optimization problem concerning the uncertainties. The efficiency of the proposed hybrid FWA-based optimization method is demonstrated in the search of the optimal HV controller, in which the proposed method exhibits a better performance when compared with other algorithms.
Wu, Yun-Jie; Zuo, Jing-Xing; Sun, Liang-Hua
2017-11-01
In this paper, the altitude and velocity tracking control of a generic hypersonic flight vehicle (HFV) is considered. A novel adaptive terminal sliding mode controller (ATSMC) with strictly lower convex function based nonlinear disturbance observer (SDOB) is proposed for the longitudinal dynamics of HFV in presence of both parametric uncertainties and external disturbances. First, for the sake of enhancing the anti-interference capability, SDOB is presented to estimate and compensate the equivalent disturbances by introducing a strictly lower convex function. Next, the SDOB based ATSMC (SDOB-ATSMC) is proposed to guarantee the system outputs track the reference trajectory. Then, stability of the proposed control scheme is analyzed by the Lyapunov function method. Compared with other HFV control approaches, key novelties of SDOB-ATSMC are that a novel SDOB is proposed and drawn into the (virtual) control laws to compensate the disturbances and that several adaptive laws are used to deal with the differential explosion problem. Finally, it is illustrated by the simulation results that the new method exhibits an excellent robustness and a better disturbance rejection performance than the convention approach. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Guo, Zongyi; Chang, Jing; Guo, Jianguo; Zhou, Jun
2018-06-01
This paper focuses on the adaptive twisting sliding mode control for the Hypersonic Reentry Vehicles (HRVs) attitude tracking issue. The HRV attitude tracking model is transformed into the error dynamics in matched structure, whereas an unmeasurable state is redefined by lumping the existing unmatched disturbance with the angular rate. Hence, an adaptive finite-time observer is used to estimate the unknown state. Then, an adaptive twisting algorithm is proposed for systems subject to disturbances with unknown bounds. The stability of the proposed observer-based adaptive twisting approach is guaranteed, and the case of noisy measurement is analyzed. Also, the developed control law avoids the aggressive chattering phenomenon of the existing adaptive twisting approaches because the adaptive gains decrease close to the disturbance once the trajectories reach the sliding surface. Finally, numerical simulations on the attitude control of the HRV are conducted to verify the effectiveness and benefit of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Iodine Tagging Velocimetry and Mechanism in the Hypersonic Near Wake of a MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle
Balla, R. Jeffrey
2013-01-01
This study demonstrates a new molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV) method for velocity measurements of high speed flow. It demonstrates offbody Iodine Tagging Velocimetry (ITV) in the hypersonic near wake of a MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) model. Experiments are performed in the NASA-Langley 31-inch Mach 10 air wind tunnel. A 0.5% I2 / N2 mixture is seeded on the leeward backshell of the model using a pressure tap. I2 laser-induced fluorescence is excited along a 5.5 mm line using an ArF excimer laser near 193 nm. Results indicate I2 absorbs at least 2 photons to produce iodine ions and electrons. These recombine as the tagged region is displaced downstream to produce I (2P3/2) whose emission is monitored at 206 nm. Results at P0 = 2.41 MPa (350 psi), T0 = 990K, and 10 micro-sec transit times produce velocities from 630-820 m/sec across the I2 seeded jet at a distance of 38.2 mm (25.5 jet diameters) downstream from the jet orifice. Maximum wake jet velocities near the shear layer are 59% of freestream velocity.
Simulating flow around scaled model of a hypersonic vehicle in wind tunnel
Markova, T. V.; Aksenov, A. A.; Zhluktov, S. V.; Savitsky, D. V.; Gavrilov, A. D.; Son, E. E.; Prokhorov, A. N.
2016-11-01
A prospective hypersonic HEXAFLY aircraft is considered in the given paper. In order to obtain the aerodynamic characteristics of a new construction design of the aircraft, experiments with a scaled model have been carried out in a wind tunnel under different conditions. The runs have been performed at different angles of attack with and without hydrogen combustion in the scaled propulsion engine. However, the measured physical quantities do not provide all the information about the flowfield. Numerical simulation can complete the experimental data as well as to reduce the number of wind tunnel experiments. Besides that, reliable CFD software can be used for calculations of the aerodynamic characteristics for any possible design of the full-scale aircraft under different operation conditions. The reliability of the numerical predictions must be confirmed in verification study of the software. The given work is aimed at numerical investigation of the flowfield around and inside the scaled model of the HEXAFLY-CIAM module under wind tunnel conditions. A cold run (without combustion) was selected for this study. The calculations are performed in the FlowVision CFD software. The flow characteristics are compared against the available experimental data. The carried out verification study confirms the capability of the FlowVision CFD software to calculate the flows discussed.
Anti-Windup Control for an Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicle Model
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Groves, Kevin P; Serrani, Andrea; Yurkovich, Stephen; Bolender, Michael A; Doman, David B
2005-01-01
.... Anti-windup control allows the input constraints to be considered explicitly in the design of linear controllers to track a reference trajectory for the vehicle velocity, altitude, and angle of attack...
2009-12-04
flattening parameter of 0.0033528. In UPTOP, the vehicle’s geocentric latitude, geodetic latitude and longitude (both over an inertial and rotating planet...5sin2 A) (l-5sin2^) 3-3 where J2 = 1.08263x10°, re is the equatorial radius of the Earth, and X is the geocentric latitude. UPTOP incorporates two...computational cost associated with this effectiveness. 3.3.2 Objective Function Calculation Objective and constraint function calculations depend on
Hypersonic and Supersonic Static Aerodynamics of Mars Science Laboratory Entry Vehicle
Dyakonov, Artem A.; Schoenenberger, Mark; Vannorman, John W.
2012-01-01
This paper describes the analysis of continuum static aerodynamics of Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry vehicle (EV). The method is derived from earlier work for Mars Exploration Rover (MER) and Mars Path Finder (MPF) and the appropriate additions are made in the areas where physics are different from what the prior entry systems would encounter. These additions include the considerations for the high angle of attack of MSL EV, ablation of the heatshield during entry, turbulent boundary layer, and other aspects relevant to the flight performance of MSL. Details of the work, the supporting data and conclusions of the investigation are presented.
Novel methodology for wide-ranged multistage morphing waverider based on conical theory
Liu, Zhen; Liu, Jun; Ding, Feng; Xia, Zhixun
2017-11-01
This study proposes the wide-ranged multistage morphing waverider design method. The flow field structure and aerodynamic characteristics of multistage waveriders are also analyzed. In this method, the multistage waverider is generated in the same conical flowfield, which contains a free-stream surface and different compression-stream surfaces. The obtained results show that the introduction of the multistage waverider design method can solve the problem of aerodynamic performance deterioration in the off-design state and allow the vehicle to always maintain the optimal flight state. The multistage waverider design method, combined with transfiguration flight strategy, can lead to greater design flexibility and the optimization of hypersonic wide-ranged waverider vehicles.
A trajectory design method via target practice for air-breathing hypersonic vehicle
Kong, Xue; Yang, Ming; Ning, Guodong; Wang, Songyan; Chao, Tao
2017-11-01
There are strong coupling interactions between aerodynamics and scramjet, this kind of aircraft also has multiple restrictions, such as the range and difference of dynamic pressure, airflow, and fuel. On the one hand, we need balance the requirement between maneuverability of vehicle and stabilization of scramjet. On the other hand, we need harmonize the change of altitude and the velocity. By describing aircraft's index system of climbing capability, acceleration capability, the coupling degree in aerospace, this paper further propose a rapid design method which based on target practice. This method aimed for reducing the coupling degree, it depresses the coupling between aircraft and engine in navigation phase, satisfy multiple restriction conditions to leave some control buffer and create good condition for control implementation. According to the simulation, this method could be used for multiple typical fly commissions such as climbing, acceleration or both.
Akopyan, A V
2007-01-01
The book is devoted to the properties of conics (plane curves of second degree) that can be formulated and proved using only elementary geometry. Starting with the well-known optical properties of conics, the authors move to less trivial results, both classical and contemporary. In particular, the chapter on projective properties of conics contains a detailed analysis of the polar correspondence, pencils of conics, and the Poncelet theorem. In the chapter on metric properties of conics the authors discuss, in particular, inscribed conics, normals to conics, and the Poncelet theorem for confoca
Retooling CFD for hypersonic aircraft
Dwoyer, Douglas L.; Kutler, Paul; Povinelli, Louis A.
1987-01-01
The CFD facility requirements of hypersonic aircraft configuration design development are different from those thus far employed for reentry vehicle design, because (1) the airframe and the propulsion system must be fully integrated to achieve the desired performance; (2) the vehicle must be reusable, with minimum refurbishment requirements between flights; and (3) vehicle performance must be optimized for a wide range of Mach numbers. An evaluation is presently made of flow resolution within shock waves, transition and turbulence phenomenon tractability, chemical reaction modeling, and hypersonic boundary layer transition, with state-of-the-art CFD.
Stanley, Thomas Troy; Alexander, Reginald; Landrum, Brian
2000-01-01
Presented is a computer-based tool that connects several disciplines that are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to every other system, as is the case of SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by NASA. An RBCC propulsion system integrates airbreathing and rocket propulsion into a single engine assembly enclosed within a cowl or duct. A typical RBCC propulsion system operates as a ducted rocket up to approximately Mach 3. Then there is a transition to a ramjet mode for supersonic-to-hypersonic acceleration. Around Mach 8 the engine transitions to a scramjet mode. During the ramjet and scramjet modes, the integral rockets operate as fuel injectors. Around Mach 10-12 (the actual value depends on vehicle and mission requirements), the inlet is physically closed and the engine transitions to an integral rocket mode for orbit insertion. A common feature of RBCC propelled vehicles is the high degree of integration between the propulsion system and airframe. At high speeds the vehicle forebody is fundamentally part of the engine inlet, providing a compression surface for air flowing into the engine. The compressed air is mixed with fuel and burned. The combusted mixture must be expanded to an area larger than the incoming stream to provide thrust. Since a conventional nozzle would be too large, the entire lower after body of the vehicle is used as an expansion surface. Because of the high external temperatures seen during atmospheric flight, the design of an airbreathing SSTO vehicle requires delicate tradeoffs between engine design, vehicle shape, and thermal protection system (TPS) sizing in order to produce an optimum system in terms of weight (and cost) and maximum performance. To adequately determine the performance of the engine/vehicle, the Hypersonic Flight Inlet Model (HYFIM) module was designed to interface with the RBCC
Stanley, Thomas Troy; Alexander, Reginald
1999-01-01
Presented is a computer-based tool that connects several disciplines that are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to every other system, as is the case of SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by NASA. The deficiencies in the scramjet powered concept led to a revival of interest in Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems. An RBCC propulsion system integrates airbreathing and rocket propulsion into a single engine assembly enclosed within a cowl or duct. A typical RBCC propulsion system operates as a ducted rocket up to approximately Mach 3. At this point the transitions to a ramjet mode for supersonic-to-hypersonic acceleration. Around Mach 8 the engine transitions to a scram4jet mode. During the ramjet and scramjet modes, the integral rockets operate as fuel injectors. Around Mach 10-12 (the actual value depends on vehicle and mission requirements), the inlet is physically closed and the engine transitions to an integral rocket mode for orbit insertion. A common feature of RBCC propelled vehicles is the high degree of integration between the propulsion system and airframe. At high speeds the vehicle forebody is fundamentally part of the engine inlet, providing a compression surface for air flowing into the engine. The compressed air is mixed with fuel and burned. The combusted mixture must be expanded to an area larger than the incoming stream to provide thrust. Since a conventional nozzle would be too large, the entire lower after body of the vehicle is used as an expansion surface. Because of the high external temperatures seen during atmospheric flight, the design of an airbreathing SSTO vehicle requires delicate tradeoffs between engine design, vehicle shape, and thermal protection system (TPS) sizing in order to produce an optimum system in terms of weight (and cost) and maximum performance.
CFD applications in hypersonic flight
Edwards, T. A.
1992-01-01
Design studies are underway for a variety of hypersonic flight vehicles. The National Aero-Space Plane will provide a reusable, single-stage-to-orbit capability for routine access to low earth orbit. Flight-capable satellites will dip into the atmosphere to maneuver to new orbits, while planetary probes will decelerate at their destination by atmospheric aerobraking. To supplement limited experimental capabilities in the hypersonic regime, CFD is being used to analyze the flow about these configurations. The governing equations include fluid dynamic as well as chemical species equations, which are solved with robust upwind differencing schemes. Examples of CFD applications to hypersonic vehicles suggest an important role this technology will play in the development of future aerospace systems. The computational resources needed to obtain solutions are large, but various strategies are being exploited to reduce the time required for complete vehicle simulations.
Khatri, Jaidev
This thesis examines themodeling, analysis, and control system design issues for scramjet powered hypersonic vehicles. A nonlinear three degrees of freedom longitudinal model which includes aero-propulsion-elasticity effects was used for all analyses. This model is based upon classical compressible flow and Euler-Bernouli structural concepts. Higher fidelity computational fluid dynamics and finite element methods are needed for more precise intermediate and final evaluations. The methods presented within this thesis were shown to be useful for guiding initial control relevant design. The model was used to examine the vehicle's static and dynamic characteristics over the vehicle's trimmable region. The vehicle has significant longitudinal coupling between the fuel equivalency ratio (FER) and the flight path angle (FPA). For control system design, a two-input two-output plant (FER - elevator to speed-FPA) with 11 states (including 3 flexible modes) was used. Velocity, FPA, and pitch were assumed to be available for feedback. Aerodynamic heat modeling and design for the assumed TPS was incorporated to original Bolender's model to study the change in static and dynamic properties. De-centralized control stability, feasibility and limitations issues were dealt with the change in TPS elasticity, mass and physical dimension. The impact of elasticity due to TPS mass, TPS physical dimension as well as prolonged heating was also analyzed to understand performance limitations of de-centralized control designed for nominal model.
Maughmer, Mark D.; Ozoroski, L.; Ozoroski, T.; Straussfogel, D.
1990-01-01
Many types of hypersonic aircraft configurations are currently being studied for feasibility of future development. Since the control of the hypersonic configurations throughout the speed range has a major impact on acceptable designs, it must be considered in the conceptual design stage. The ability of the aerodynamic analysis methods contained in an industry standard conceptual design system, APAS II, to estimate the forces and moments generated through control surface deflections from low subsonic to high hypersonic speeds is considered. Predicted control forces and moments generated by various control effectors are compared with previously published wind tunnel and flight test data for three configurations: the North American X-15, the Space Shuttle Orbiter, and a hypersonic research airplane concept. Qualitative summaries of the results are given for each longitudinal force and moment and each control derivative in the various speed ranges. Results show that all predictions of longitudinal stability and control derivatives are acceptable for use at the conceptual design stage. Results for most lateral/directional control derivatives are acceptable for conceptual design purposes; however, predictions at supersonic Mach numbers for the change in yawing moment due to aileron deflection and the change in rolling moment due to rudder deflection are found to be unacceptable. Including shielding effects in the analysis is shown to have little effect on lift and pitching moment predictions while improving drag predictions.
Hypersonic Air Flow with Finite Rate Chemistry
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Boyd, Ian
1997-01-01
... describe the effects of non-equilibrium flow chemistry, shock interaction, and turbulent mixing and combustion on the performance of vehicles and air breathing engines designed to fly in the hypersonic flow...
Cheng, Yung-Chang; Lee, Cheng-Kang
2017-10-01
This paper proposes a systematic method, integrating the uniform design (UD) of experiments and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO), to solve the problem of a robust design for a railway vehicle suspension system. Based on the new nonlinear creep model derived from combining Hertz contact theory, Kalker's linear theory and a heuristic nonlinear creep model, the modeling and dynamic analysis of a 24 degree-of-freedom railway vehicle system were investigated. The Lyapunov indirect method was used to examine the effects of suspension parameters, wheel conicities and wheel rolling radii on critical hunting speeds. Generally, the critical hunting speeds of a vehicle system resulting from worn wheels with different wheel rolling radii are lower than those of a vehicle system having original wheels without different wheel rolling radii. Because of worn wheels, the critical hunting speed of a running railway vehicle substantially declines over the long term. For safety reasons, it is necessary to design the suspension system parameters to increase the robustness of the system and decrease the sensitive of wheel noises. By applying UD and QPSO, the nominal-the-best signal-to-noise ratio of the system was increased from -48.17 to -34.05 dB. The rate of improvement was 29.31%. This study has demonstrated that the integration of UD and QPSO can successfully reveal the optimal solution of suspension parameters for solving the robust design problem of a railway vehicle suspension system.
Bu, Xiangwei; Wu, Xiaoyan; Tian, Mingyan; Huang, Jiaqi; Zhang, Rui; Ma, Zhen
2015-09-01
In this paper, an adaptive neural controller is exploited for a constrained flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (FAHV) based on high-order tracking differentiator (HTD). By utilizing functional decomposition methodology, the dynamic model is reasonably decomposed into the respective velocity subsystem and altitude subsystem. For the velocity subsystem, a dynamic inversion based neural controller is constructed. By introducing the HTD to adaptively estimate the newly defined states generated in the process of model transformation, a novel neural based altitude controller that is quite simpler than the ones derived from back-stepping is addressed based on the normal output-feedback form instead of the strict-feedback formulation. Based on minimal-learning parameter scheme, only two neural networks with two adaptive parameters are needed for neural approximation. Especially, a novel auxiliary system is explored to deal with the problem of control inputs constraints. Finally, simulation results are presented to test the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy in the presence of system uncertainties and actuators constraints. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gillman, Eric D.; Foster, John E.; Blankson, Isaiah M.
2010-01-01
Vehicles flying at hypersonic velocities within the atmosphere become enveloped in a "plasma sheath" that prevents radio communication, telemetry, and most importantly, GPS signal reception for navigation. This radio "blackout" period has been a problem since the dawn of the manned space program and was an especially significant hindrance during the days of the Apollo missions. An appropriate mitigation method must allow for spacecraft to ground control and ground control to spacecraft communications through the reentry plasma sheath. Many mitigation techniques have been proposed, including but not limited to, aerodynamic shaping, magnetic windows, and liquid injection. The research performed on these mitigation techniques over the years will be reviewed and summarized, along with the advantages and obstacles that each technique will need to overcome to be practically implemented. A unique approach for mitigating the blackout communications problem is presented herein along with research results associated with this method. The novel method involves the injection of ceramic metal-oxide particulate into a simulated reentry plasma to quench the reentry plasma. Injection of the solid ceramic particulates is achieved by entrainment within induced, energetic cathode spot flows.
Ordaz, Irian
This thesis addresses the challenges associated with thermal management systems (TMS) evaluation and selection in the conceptual design of hypersonic, air-breathing vehicles with sustained cruise. The proposed methodology identifies analysis tools and techniques which allow the proper investigation of the design space for various thermal management technologies. The design space exploration environment and alternative multi-objective decision making technique defined as Pareto-based Joint Probability Decision Making (PJPDM) is based on the approximation of 3-D Pareto frontiers and probabilistic technology effectiveness maps. These are generated through the evaluation of a Pareto Fitness function and Monte Carlo analysis. In contrast to Joint Probability Decision Making (JPDM), the proposed PJPDM technique does not require preemptive knowledge of weighting factors for competing objectives or goal constraints which can introduce bias into the final solution. Preemptive bias in a complex problem can degrade the overall capabilities of the final design. The implementation of PJPDM in this thesis eliminates the need for the numerical optimizer which is required with JPDM in order to improve upon a solution. In addition, a physics-based formulation is presented for the quantification of TMS safety effectiveness corresponding to debris impact/damage and how it can be applied towards risk mitigation. Lastly, a formulation loosely based on non-preemptive Goal Programming with equal weighted deviations is provided for the resolution of the inverse design space. This key step helps link vehicle capabilities to TMS technology subsystems in a top-down design approach. The methodology provides the designer more knowledge up front to help make proper engineering decisions and assumptions in the conceptual design phase regarding which technologies show greatest promise, and how to guide future technology research.
Progress in modeling hypersonic turbulent boundary layers
Zeman, Otto
1993-01-01
A good knowledge of the turbulence structure, wall heat transfer, and friction in turbulent boundary layers (TBL) at high speeds is required for the design of hypersonic air breathing airplanes and reentry space vehicles. This work reports on recent progress in the modeling of high speed TBL flows. The specific research goal described here is the development of a second order closure model for zero pressure gradient TBL's for the range of Mach numbers up to hypersonic speeds with arbitrary wall cooling requirements.
TBCC Discipline Overview. Hypersonics Project
Thomas, Scott R.
2011-01-01
The "National Aeronautics Research and Development Policy" document, issued by the National Science and Technology Council in December 2006, stated that one (among several) of the guiding objectives of the federal aeronautics research and development endeavors shall be stable and long-term foundational research efforts. Nearly concurrently, the National Academies issued a more technically focused aeronautics blueprint, entitled: the "Decadal Survey of Civil Aeronautics - Foundations for the Future." Taken together these documents outline the principles of an aeronautics maturation plan. Thus, in response to these overarching inputs (and others), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) organized the Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP), a program within the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). The FAP initiated foundational research and technology development tasks to enable the capability of future vehicles that operate across a broad range of Mach numbers, inclusive of the subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic flight regimes. The FAP Hypersonics Project concentrates on two hypersonic missions: (1) Air-breathing Access to Space (AAS) and (2) the (Planetary Atmospheric) Entry, Decent, and Landing (EDL). The AAS mission focuses on Two-Stage-To-Orbit (TSTO) systems using air-breathing combined-cycle-engine propulsion; whereas, the EDL mission focuses on the challenges associated with delivering large payloads to (and from) Mars. So, the FAP Hypersonic Project investments are aligned to achieve mastery and intellectual stewardship of the core competencies in the hypersonic-flight regime, which ultimately will be required for practical systems with highly integrated aerodynamic/vehicle and propulsion/engine technologies. Within the FAP Hypersonics, the technology management is further divided into disciplines including one targeting Turbine-Based Combine-Cycle (TBCC) propulsion. Additionally, to obtain expertise and support from outside
Pirrello, C. J.; Baker, A. H.; Stone, J. E.
1976-01-01
A detailed analytical study was made to investigate the effects of fuselage cross section (circular and elliptical) and the structural arrangement (integral and nonintegral tanks) on aircraft performance. The vehicle was a 200 passenger, liquid hydrogen fueled Mach 6 transport designed to meet a range goal of 9.26 Mn (5000 NM). A variety of trade studies were conducted in the area of configuration arrangement, structural design, and active cooling design in order to maximize the performance of each of three point design aircraft: (1) circular wing-body with nonintegral tanks, (2) circular wing-body with integral tanks and (3) elliptical blended wing-body with integral tanks. Aircraft range and weight were used as the basis for comparison. The resulting design and performance characteristics show that the blended body integral tank aircraft weights the least and has the greatest range capability, however, producibility and maintainability factors favor nonintegral tank concepts.
Nose-to-tail analysis of an airbreathing hypersonic vehicle using an in-house simplified tool
Piscitelli, Filomena; Cutrone, Luigi; Pezzella, Giuseppe; Roncioni, Pietro; Marini, Marco
2017-07-01
SPREAD (Scramjet PREliminary Aerothermodynamic Design) is a simplified, in-house method developed by CIRA (Italian Aerospace Research Centre), able to provide a preliminary estimation of the performance of engine/aeroshape for airbreathing configurations. It is especially useful for scramjet engines, for which the strong coupling between the aerothermodynamic (external) and propulsive (internal) flow fields requires real-time screening of several engine/aeroshape configurations and the identification of the most promising one/s with respect to user-defined constraints and requirements. The outcome of this tool defines the base-line configuration for further design analyses with more accurate tools, e.g., CFD simulations and wind tunnel testing. SPREAD tool has been used to perform the nose-to-tail analysis of the LAPCAT-II Mach 8 MR2.4 vehicle configuration. The numerical results demonstrate SPREAD capability to quickly predict reliable values of aero-propulsive balance (i.e., net-thrust) and aerodynamic efficiency in a pre-design phase.
Balakalyani, G.; Saravanan, S.; Jagadeesh, G.
Reduced drag and aerodynamic heating are the two basic design requirements for any hypersonic vehicle [1]. The flowfield around an axisymmetric blunt body is characterized by a bow shockwave standing ahead of its nose. The pressure and temperature behind this shock wave are very high. This increased pressure and temperature are responsible for the high levels of drag and aerodynamic heating over the body. In the past, there have been many investigations on the use of aerospikes as a drag reduction tool. These studies on spiked bodies aim at reducing both the drag and aerodynamic heating by modifying the hypersonic flowfield ahead of the nose of the body [2]. However, most of them used very simple configurations to experimentally study the drag reduction using spikes at hypersonic speeds [3] and therefore very little experimental data is available for a realistic geometric configuration. In the present study, the standard AGARD Hypervelocity Ballistic model 1 is used as the test model. The addition of the spike to the blunt body significantly alters the flowfield ahead of the nose, leading to the formation of a low pressure conical recirculation region, thus causing a reduction in drag and wall heat flux [4]. In the present investigation, aerodynamic drag force is measured over the Hypervelocity Ballistic model-1, with and without spike, at a flow enthalpy of 1.7 MJ/kg. The experiments are carried out at a Mach number of 8 and at zero angle of attack. An internally mountable accelerometer based 3-component force balance system is used to measure the aerodynamic forces on the model. Also computational studies are carried out to complement the experiments.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future reentry and hypersonic vehicles require advanced lightweight leading edge thermal protection systems that can provide the dual functionality of...
Nye, Kyle; Eslam-Panah, Azar
2016-11-01
Root canal treatment involves the removal of infected tissue inside the tooth's canal system and filling the space with a dense sealing agent to prevent further infection. A good root canal treatment happens when the canals are filled homogeneously and tightly down to the root apex. Such a tooth is able to provide valuable service for an entire lifetime. However, there are some examples of poorly performed root canals where the anterior and posterior routes are not filled completely. Small packets of air can be trapped in narrow access cavities when restoring with resin composites. Such teeth can cause trouble even after many years and lead the conditions like acute bone infection or abscesses. In this study, the filling of dead-end conical cavities with various liquids is reported. The first case studies included conical cavity models with different angles and lengths to visualize the filling process. In this investigation, the rate and completeness at which a variety of liquids fill the cavity were observed to find ideal conditions for the process. Then, a 3D printed model of the scaled representation of a molar with prepared post spaces was used to simulate the root canal treatment. The results of this study can be used to gain a better understanding of the restoration for endodontically treated teeth.
Numerical optimization of conical flow waveriders including detailed viscous effects
Bowcutt, Kevin G.; Anderson, John D., Jr.; Capriotti, Diego
1987-01-01
A family of optimized hypersonic waveriders is generated and studied wherein detailed viscous effects are included within the optimization process itself. This is in contrast to previous optimized waverider work, wherein purely inviscid flow is used to obtain the waverider shapes. For the present waveriders, the undersurface is a streamsurface of an inviscid conical flowfield, the upper surface is a streamsurface of the inviscid flow over a tapered cylinder (calculated by the axisymmetric method of characteristics), and the viscous effects are treated by integral solutions of the boundary layer equations. Transition from laminar to turbulent flow is included within the viscous calculations. The optimization is carried out using a nonlinear simplex method. The resulting family of viscous hypersonic waveriders yields predicted high values of lift/drag, high enough to break the L/D barrier based on experience with other hypersonic configurations. Moreover, the numerical optimization process for the viscous waveriders results in distinctly different shapes compared to previous work with inviscid-designed waveriders. Also, the fine details of the viscous solution, such as how the shear stress is distributed over the surface, and the location of transition, are crucial to the details of the resulting waverider geometry. Finally, the moment coefficient variations and heat transfer distributions associated with the viscous optimized waveriders are studied.
Hypersonic drone design: A multidisciplinary experience
1988-01-01
Efforts were focused on design problems of an unmanned hypersonic vehicle. It is felt that a scaled hypersonic drone is necessary to bridge the gap between present theory on hypersonics and the future reality of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) for two reasons: to fulfill a need for experimental data in the hypersonic regime, and to provide a testbed for the scramjet engine which is to be the primary mode of propulsion for the NASP. Three areas of great concern to NASP design were examined: propulsion, thermal management, and flight systems. Problem solving in these areas was directed towards design of the drone with the idea that the same design techniques could be applied to the NASP. A seventy degree swept double delta wing configuration, developed in the 70's at NASA Langley, was chosen as the aerodynamic and geometric model for the drone. This vehicle would be air-launched from a B-1 at Mach 0.8 and 48,000 feet, rocket boosted by two internal engines to Mach 10 and 100,000 feet, and allowed to cruise under power of the scramjet engine until burnout. It would then return to base for an unpowered landing. Preliminary energy calculations based upon the flight requirements give the drone a gross launch weight of 134,000 lb. and an overall length of 85 feet.
Gorishnyy, T; Ullal, C K; Maldovan, M; Fytas, G; Thomas, E L
2005-03-25
In this Letter we propose the use of hypersonic phononic crystals to control the emission and propagation of high frequency phonons. We report the fabrication of high quality, single crystalline hypersonic crystals using interference lithography and show that direct measurement of their phononic band structure is possible with Brillouin light scattering. Numerical calculations are employed to explain the nature of the observed propagation modes. This work lays the foundation for experimental studies of hypersonic crystals and, more generally, phonon-dependent processes in nanostructures.
Campbell, David R.
Arc-heated wind tunnels are the primary test facility for screening and qualification of candidate materials for hypersonic thermal protection systems (TPS). Via an electric arc that largely augments the enthalpy (by tens of MJ/kg) of the working fluid (Air, Nitrogen, CO2 in case of Mars-entry studies) passed through a converging-diverging nozzle at specific stagnation conditions, different regimes encountered in entry and re-entry hypersonic aerothermodynamics can be simulated. Because of the high-enthalpies (and associated temperatures that generally exceed the limits required by the thermo-structural integrity of the facility) the active cooling of the arc-heated wind tunnel's parts exposed to the working gas is critical. This criticality is particularly severe in these facilities due to the time scales associated with their continuous operation capabilities (order of minutes). This research focuses on the design and the conjugate heat transfer and resultant thermo-structural analysis of a multi-segment nozzle and low-Reynolds, hypersonic diffuser for the new arc-heated wind tunnel (AHWT-II) of the University of Texas at Arlington. Nozzles and hypersonic diffusers are critical components that experience highly complex flows (non-equilibrium aerothermochemistry) and high (local and distributed) heat-flux loads which significantly augment the complexity of the problems associated with their thermal management. The proper design and thermo-mechanical analysis of these components are crucial elements for the operability of the new facility. This work is centered on the design considerations, methodologies and the detailed analysis of the aforementioned components which resulted in the definition of final parts and assemblies that are under manufacturing at this writing. The project is jointly sponsored by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) and the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA).
Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF)
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF) is a blow-down, non-vitiated (clean air) free-jet wind tunnel capable of testing large-scale, propulsion systems at Mach 5, 6,...
2010-08-01
fly two X-30 manned reusable air-breathing SSTO vehicles. Competing contractors developed vehicle and system concepts and identified critical...computational analysis would reduce the time and cost required to produce two man-rated SSTO vehicles. The planned total program cost of $3.3 Billion...varied strengths of the contractors a National Team was formed instead of down-selecting. The ambitious airbreathing SSTO goal made nearly every
Airbreathing Hypersonic Systems Focus at NASA Langley Research Center
Hunt, James L.; Rausch, Vincent L.
1998-01-01
This paper presents the status of the airbreathing hypersonic airplane and space-access vehicle design matrix, reflects on the synergies and issues, and indicates the thrust of the effort to resolve the design matrix and to focus/advance systems technology maturation. Priority is given to the design of the vision operational vehicles followed by flow-down requirements to flight demonstrator vehicles and their design for eventual consideration in the Future-X Program.
CFD for hypersonic airbreathing aircraft
Kumar, Ajay
1989-01-01
A general discussion is given on the use of advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in analyzing the hypersonic flow field around an airbreathing aircraft. Unique features of the hypersonic flow physics are presented and an assessment is given of the current algorithms in terms of their capability to model hypersonic flows. Several examples of advanced CFD applications are then presented.
Mendoza, John Cadiz
1995-01-01
The computational fluid dynamics code, PARC3D, is tested to see if its use of non-physical artificial dissipation affects the accuracy of its results. This is accomplished by simulating a shock-laminar boundary layer interaction and several hypersonic flight conditions of the Pegasus(TM) launch vehicle using full artificial dissipation, low artificial dissipation, and the Engquist filter. Before the filter is applied to the PARC3D code, it is validated in one-dimensional and two-dimensional form in a MacCormack scheme against the Riemann and convergent duct problem. For this explicit scheme, the filter shows great improvements in accuracy and computational time as opposed to the nonfiltered solutions. However, for the implicit PARC3D code it is found that the best estimate of the Pegasus experimental heat fluxes and surface pressures is the simulation utilizing low artificial dissipation and no filter. The filter does improve accuracy over the artificially dissipative case but at a computational expense greater than that achieved by the low artificial dissipation case which has no computational time penalty and shows better results. For the shock-boundary layer simulation, the filter does well in terms of accuracy for a strong impingement shock but not as well for weaker shock strengths. Furthermore, for the latter problem the filter reduces the required computational time to convergence by 18.7 percent.
Technologies for propelled hypersonic flight: Technologies des vols hypersoniques propulsés
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
2006-01-01
These reports document the results of the Applied Vehicle Technology Panel Working Group 10, Subgroups 1, 2, and 3, who aimed to address selected critical issues related to propelled hypersonic flight...
RTO WG 10: Test Cases for CFD Validation of Hypersonic Flight
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Knight, Doyle
2006-01-01
.... An overview of Subgroup 3 (SG 3) is presented in this paper. The SG 3 participants defined six topical areas for which validation of CFD methodologies was deemed essential for effective analysis and design of propelled hypersonic vehicles...
Recombination Catalysts for Hypersonic Fuels
Chinitz, W.
1998-01-01
The goal of commercially-viable access to space will require technologies that reduce propulsion system weight and complexity, while extracting maximum energy from the products of combustion. This work is directed toward developing effective nozzle recombination catalysts for the supersonic and hypersonic aeropropulsion engines used to provide such access to space. Effective nozzle recombination will significantly reduce rk=le length (hence, propulsion system weight) and reduce fuel requirements, further decreasing the vehicle's gross lift-off weight. Two such catalysts have been identified in this work, barium and antimony compounds, by developing chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms for these materials and determining the engine performance enhancement for a typical flight trajectory. Significant performance improvements are indicated, using only 2% (mole or mass) of these compounds in the combustor product gas.
I’m Discovering Conics and Designing Buildings with Conics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Serkan KULOGLU
2015-01-01
Full Text Available There are three stages in this activity. At the first stage, it is provided that gifted students learn the subject of conic through discovery learning method. By this way, the formation of misconceptions that students frequently encounter in mathematics has been prevented. At the second stage, gifted students have been asked to draw the conical objects which they encounter in their daily life. Thus, it has contributed to the development of gifted students’ creativity. At the third stage, gifted students have been asked to design a buildings consisting of conics. Moreover, gifted students have been informed that the buildings which they have been asked to design, would be evaluated according to the criteria which set before. And then, the building design model has been done by gifted students.
Initiation of Gaseous Detonation by Conical Projectiles
Verreault, Jimmy
Initiation and stabilization of detonation by hypersonic conical projectiles launched into combustible gas mixtures is investigated. This phenomenon must be understood for the design and optimization of specific hypersonic propulsion devices, such as the oblique detonation wave engine and the ram accelerator. The criteria for detonation initiation by a projectile is also related to fundamental aspects of detonation research, such as the requirement for direct initiation of a detonation by a blast wave. Experimental results of this problem also offer useful references for validation of numerical and theoretical modeling. Projectiles with cone half angles varying from 15° to 60° were launched into stoichiometric mixtures of hydrogen/oxygen with 70% argon dilution at initial pressures between 10 and 200 kPa. The projectiles were launched from a combustion-driven gas gun at velocities up to 2.2 km/s (corresponding to 133% of the Chapman Jouguet velocity). Pictures of the flowfields generated by the projectiles were taken via Schlieren photography. Five combustion regimes were observed about the projectile ranging from prompt and delayed oblique detonation wave formation, combustion instabilities, a wave splitting, and an inert shock wave. Two types of transition from the prompt oblique detonation wave regime to the inert shock regime were observed. The first (the delayed oblique detonation wave regime) showed an inert shock attached to the tip of the projectile followed by a sharp kink at the onset of an oblique detonation wave; this regime occurred by decreasing the cone angle at high mixture pressures. The second (the combustion instabilities regime) exhibited large density gradients due to combustion ignition and quenching phenomena; this regime occurred by decreasing the mixture pressure at large cone angles. A number of theoretical models were considered to predict critical conditions for the initiation of oblique detonations. The Lee-Vasiljev model agreed
CFD analysis of hypersonic, chemically reacting flow fields
Edwards, T. A.
1993-01-01
Design studies are underway for a variety of hypersonic flight vehicles. The National Aero-Space Plane will provide a reusable, single-stage-to-orbit capability for routine access to low earth orbit. Flight-capable satellites will dip into the atmosphere to maneuver to new orbits, while planetary probes will decelerate at their destination by atmospheric aerobraking. To supplement limited experimental capabilities in the hypersonic regime, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is being used to analyze the flow about these configurations. The governing equations include fluid dynamic as well as chemical species equations, which are being solved with new, robust numerical algorithms. Examples of CFD applications to hypersonic vehicles suggest an important role this technology will play in the development of future aerospace systems. The computational resources needed to obtain solutions are large, but solution adaptive grids, convergence acceleration, and parallel processing may make run times manageable.
CFD on hypersonic flow geometries with aeroheating
Sohail, Muhammad Amjad; Chao, Yan; Hui, Zhang Hui; Ullah, Rizwan
2012-11-01
The hypersonic flowfield around a blunted cone and cone-flare exhibits some of the major features of the flows around space vehicles, e.g. a detached bow shock in the stagnation region and the oblique shock wave/boundary layer interaction at the cone-flare junction. The shock wave/boundary layer interaction can produce a region of separated flow. This phenomenon may occur, for example, at the upstream-facing corner formed by a deflected control surface on a hypersonic entry vehicle, where the length of separation has implications for control effectiveness. Computational fluid-dynamics results are presented to show the flowfield around a blunted cone and cone-flare configurations in hypersonic flow with separation. This problem is of particular interest since it features most of the aspects of the hypersonic flow around planetary entry vehicles. The region between the cone and the flare is particularly critical with respect to the evaluation of the surface pressure and heat flux with aeroheating. Indeed, flow separation is induced by the shock wave boundary layer interaction, with subsequent flow reattachment, that can dramatically enhance the surface heat transfer. The exact determination of the extension of the recirculation zone is a particularly delicate task for numerical codes. Laminar flow and turbulent computations have been carried out using a full Navier-Stokes solver, with freestream conditions provided by the experimental data obtained at Mach 6, 8, and 16.34 wind tunnel. The numerical results are compared with the measured pressure and surface heat flux distributions in the wind tunnel and a good agreement is found, especially on the length of the recirculation region and location of shock waves. The critical physics of entropy layer, boundary layers, boundary layers and shock wave interaction and flow behind shock are properly captured and elaborated.. Hypersonic flows are characterized by high Mach number and high total enthalpy. An elevated
Characterizing conical refraction optical tweezers
McDonald, C.; McDougall, C.; Rafailov, E.; McGloin, D.
2014-12-01
Conical refraction occurs when a beam of light travels through an appropriately cut biaxial crystal. By focussing the conically refracted beam through a high numerical aperture microscope objective, conical refraction optical tweezers can be created, allowing for particle manipulation in both Raman spots and in the Lloyd/Poggendorff rings. We present a thorough quantification of the trapping properties of such a beam, focussing on the trap stiffness and how this varies with trap power and trapped particle location. We show that the lower Raman spot can be thought of as a single-beam optical gradient force trap, while radiation pressure dominates in the upper Raman spot, leading to optical levitation rather than trapping. Particles in the Lloyd/Poggendorff rings experience a lower trap stiffness than particles in the lower Raman spot but benefit from rotational control.
An engineering code to analyze hypersonic thermal management systems
Vangriethuysen, Valerie J.; Wallace, Clark E.
1993-01-01
Thermal loads on current and future aircraft are increasing and as a result are stressing the energy collection, control, and dissipation capabilities of current thermal management systems and technology. The thermal loads for hypersonic vehicles will be no exception. In fact, with their projected high heat loads and fluxes, hypersonic vehicles are a prime example of systems that will require thermal management systems (TMS) that have been optimized and integrated with the entire vehicle to the maximum extent possible during the initial design stages. This will not only be to meet operational requirements, but also to fulfill weight and performance constraints in order for the vehicle to takeoff and complete its mission successfully. To meet this challenge, the TMS can no longer be two or more entirely independent systems, nor can thermal management be an after thought in the design process, the typical pervasive approach in the past. Instead, a TMS that was integrated throughout the entire vehicle and subsequently optimized will be required. To accomplish this, a method that iteratively optimizes the TMS throughout the vehicle will not only be highly desirable, but advantageous in order to reduce the manhours normally required to conduct the necessary tradeoff studies and comparisons. A thermal management engineering computer code that is under development and being managed at Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, is discussed. The primary goal of the code is to aid in the development of a hypersonic vehicle TMS that has been optimized and integrated on a total vehicle basis.
Understanding the Conics through Augmented Reality
Salinas, Patricia; Pulido, Ricardo
2017-01-01
This paper discusses the production of a digital environment to foster the learning of conics through augmented reality. The name conic refers to curves obtained by the intersection of a plane with a right circular conical surface. The environment gives students the opportunity to interact with the cone and the plane as virtual objects in real…
Assessment of CFD capability for prediction of hypersonic shock interactions
Knight, Doyle; Longo, José; Drikakis, Dimitris; Gaitonde, Datta; Lani, Andrea; Nompelis, Ioannis; Reimann, Bodo; Walpot, Louis
2012-01-01
The aerothermodynamic loadings associated with shock wave boundary layer interactions (shock interactions) must be carefully considered in the design of hypersonic air vehicles. The capability of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software to accurately predict hypersonic shock wave laminar boundary layer interactions is examined. A series of independent computations performed by researchers in the US and Europe are presented for two generic configurations (double cone and cylinder) and compared with experimental data. The results illustrate the current capabilities and limitations of modern CFD methods for these flows.
Three-Dimensional Aeroelastic and Aerothermoelastic Behavior in Hypersonic Flow
McNamara, Jack J.; Friedmann, Peretz P.; Powell, Kenneth G.; Thuruthimattam, Biju J.; Bartels, Robert E.
2005-01-01
The aeroelastic and aerothermoelastic behavior of three-dimensional configurations in hypersonic flow regime are studied. The aeroelastic behavior of a low aspect ratio wing, representative of a fin or control surface on a generic hypersonic vehicle, is examined using third order piston theory, Euler and Navier-Stokes aerodynamics. The sensitivity of the aeroelastic behavior generated using Euler and Navier-Stokes aerodynamics to parameters governing temporal accuracy is also examined. Also, a refined aerothermoelastic model, which incorporates the heat transfer between the fluid and structure using CFD generated aerodynamic heating, is used to examine the aerothermoelastic behavior of the low aspect ratio wing in the hypersonic regime. Finally, the hypersonic aeroelastic behavior of a generic hypersonic vehicle with a lifting-body type fuselage and canted fins is studied using piston theory and Euler aerodynamics for the range of 2.5 less than or equal to M less than or equal to 28, at altitudes ranging from 10,000 feet to 80,000 feet. This analysis includes a study on optimal mesh selection for use with Euler aerodynamics. In addition to the aeroelastic and aerothermoelastic results presented, three time domain flutter identification techniques are compared, namely the moving block approach, the least squares curve fitting method, and a system identification technique using an Auto-Regressive model of the aeroelastic system. In general, the three methods agree well. The system identification technique, however, provided quick damping and frequency estimations with minimal response record length, and therefore o ers significant reductions in computational cost. In the present case, the computational cost was reduced by 75%. The aeroelastic and aerothermoelastic results presented illustrate the applicability of the CFL3D code for the hypersonic flight regime.
Path integration in conical space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inomata, Akira; Junker, Georg
2012-01-01
Quantum mechanics in conical space is studied by the path integral method. It is shown that the curvature effect gives rise to an effective potential in the radial path integral. It is further shown that the radial path integral in conical space can be reduced to a form identical with that in flat space when the discrete angular momentum of each partial wave is replaced by a specific non-integral angular momentum. The effective potential is found proportional to the squared mean curvature of the conical surface embedded in Euclidean space. The path integral calculation is compatible with the Schrödinger equation modified with the Gaussian and the mean curvature. -- Highlights: ► We study quantum mechanics on a cone by the path integral approach. ► The path integral depends only on the metric and the curvature effect is built in. ► The approach is consistent with the Schrödinger equation modified by an effective potential. ► The effective potential is found to be of the “Jensen–Koppe” and “da Costa” type.
Povinelli, Louis A.
1991-01-01
An overview is given of research activity on the application of computational fluid dynamics (CDF) for hypersonic propulsion systems. After the initial consideration of the highly integrated nature of air-breathing hypersonic engines and airframe, attention is directed toward computations carried out for the components of the engine. A generic inlet configuration is considered in order to demonstrate the highly three dimensional viscous flow behavior occurring within rectangular inlets. Reacting flow computations for simple jet injection as well as for more complex combustion chambers are then discussed in order to show the capability of viscous finite rate chemical reaction computer simulations. Finally, the nozzle flow fields are demonstrated, showing the existence of complex shear layers and shock structure in the exhaust plume. The general issues associated with code validation as well as the specific issue associated with the use of CFD for design are discussed. A prognosis for the success of CFD in the design of future propulsion systems is offered.
CONICAL EQUIPOTENTIAL SUBSTRATE FOR LIQUID METAL SOURCES
Kubby , J.; Siegel , B.
1986-01-01
Morphological changes that occur at an ion bombarded surface as a result of erosion by sputtering can be utilized for the machining of cylindrically symmetric submicron structures. Such structuring has produced tungsten field emitters of conical configuration with variable cone half angle. A conical equipotential surface with an included half angle of 49.3° would be a useful emitter substrate for experiments designed to produce an equilibrium conical interface to a conducting fluid in an appl...
Investigation of piloting aids for manual control of hypersonic maneuvers
Raney, David L.; Phillips, Michael R.; Person, Lee H., Jr.
1995-01-01
An investigation of piloting aids designed to provide precise maneuver control for an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle is described. Stringent constraints and nonintuitive high-speed flight effects associated with maneuvering in the hypersonic regime raise the question of whether manual control of such a vehicle should even be considered. The objectives of this research were to determine the extent of manual control that is desirable for a vehicle maneuvering in this regime and to identify the form of aids that must be supplied to the pilot to make such control feasible. A piloted real-time motion-based simulation of a hypersonic vehicle concept was used for this study, and the investigation focused on a single representative cruise turn maneuver. Piloting aids, which consisted of an auto throttle, throttle director, autopilot, flight director, and two head-up display configurations, were developed and evaluated. Two longitudinal control response types consisting of a rate-command/attitude-hold system and a load factor-rate/load-factor-hold system were also compared. The complete set of piloting aids, which consisted of the autothrottle, throttle director, and flight director, improved the average Cooper-Harper flying qualities ratings from 8 to 2.6, even though identical inner-loop stability and control augmentation was provided in all cases. The flight director was determined to be the most critical of these aids, and the cruise turn maneuver was unachievable to adequate performance specifications in the absence of this flight director.
Leidenfrost phenomenon on conical surfaces
Hidalgo-Caballero, S.; Escobar-Ortega, Y.; Pacheco-Vázquez, F.
2016-09-01
The Leidenfrost state is typically studied by placing droplets on flat or slightly curved surfaces. Here this phenomenon is investigated by depositing water in hot conical bowls. We found that this phase exists even for large amounts of liquid in very narrow cones without considerable effect of the confinement on the Leidenfrost transition temperature TL. At a fixed temperature, T >TL , the total evaporation time τ has a nonmonotonic dependence on the angle of confinement θ : for large volumes (˜20 ml) on flat surfaces (θ ˜0∘ ), vapor chimneys appear and accelerate the evaporation rate, their frequency diminishes as θ augments and becomes zero at a certain angle θc, at which τ reaches its maximum value; then, τ decreases again at larger angles because the vapor layer holding up the water becomes thinner due to the increase of hydrostatic pressure and because the geometry facilitates the vapor expulsion along the conical wall. For small volumes (˜1 ml), surface tension mainly determines the drop curvature and the lifetime is practically independent of θ . Different chimney regimes and oscillation patterns were observed and summarized in a phase diagram. Finally, we developed a simple model to decipher the shape adopted by the liquid volume and its evolution as a function of time, and the predictions are in good agreement with the experimental results.
Hollis, Brian R.; Hollingsworth, Kevin E.
2017-01-01
A wind tunnel test program was conducted to obtain aeroheating environment data on Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator aeroshells with flexible thermal protection systems. Data were obtained on a set of rigid wind tunnel models with surface deflection patterns of various heights that simulated a range of potential in-flight aeroshell deformations. Wind tunnel testing was conducted at Mach 6 at unit Reynolds numbers from 2.1 × 10(exp 6)/ft to 8.3 × 10(exp 6)/ft and angles of attack from 0 deg to 18 deg. Boundary-layer transition onset and global surface heating distribution measurements were performed using phosphor thermography and flow field images were obtained through schlieren photography. Surface deflections were found to both promote early transition of the boundary layer and to augment heating levels for both laminar and turbulent flows. A complimentary computational flow field study was also performed to provide heating predictions for comparison with the measurements as well as boundary layer flow field properties for use in correlating the data. Correlations of the wind tunnel data were developed to predict deflection effects on boundary layer transition and surface heating and were applied to both the wind tunnel test conditions and to the trajectory of NASA's successful IRVE-3 flight test. In general, the correlations produced at least qualitative agreement with the wind tunnel data, although the heating levels were underpredicted for some of the larger surface deflections. For the flight conditions, the correlations suggested that peak heating levels on the leeward side conical flank of the IRVE-3 vehicle may have exceeded those at nose for times late in the trajectory after the peak heating time point. However, the flight estimates were based on a conservative assumption of surface deflection magnitude (i.e., larger) than likely was produced in flight.
Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) Technology Development Overview
Hughes, Stephen J.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Calomino, Anthony M.; Wright, Henry S.; Wusk, Mary E.; Hughes, Monica F.
2013-01-01
The successful flight of the Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE)-3 has further demonstrated the potential value of Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) technology. This technology development effort is funded by NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Game Changing Development Program (GCDP). This paper provides an overview of a multi-year HIAD technology development effort, detailing the projects completed to date and the additional testing planned for the future.
Guidance Law and Neural Control for Hypersonic Missile to Track Targets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenxing Fu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Hypersonic technology plays an important role in prompt global strike. Because the flight dynamics of a hypersonic vehicle is nonlinear, uncertain, and highly coupled, the controller design is challenging, especially to design its guidance and control law during the attack of a maneuvering target. In this paper, the sliding mode control (SMC method is used to develop the guidance law from which the desired flight path angle is derived. With the desired information as control command, the adaptive neural control in discrete time is investigated ingeniously for the longitudinal dynamics of the hypersonic missile. The proposed guidance and control laws are validated by simulation of a hypersonic missile against a maneuvering target. It is demonstrated that the scheme has good robustness and high accuracy to attack a maneuvering target in the presence of external disturbance and missile model uncertainty.
Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop an entry and descent technology to enhance and enable robotic and scientific missions to destinations with atmospheres.The Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic...
Advanced Control Method for Hypersonic Vehicles
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research effort aims to develop software control algorithms that will correct for roll reversal before it happens. Roll reversal occurs when an aircraft is...
Advanced Control Method for Hypersonic Vehicles
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research effort aims to develop software control algorithms that will correct for roll reversal before it happens. Roll reversal occurs when an aircraft is...
Transition on Hypersonic Vehicles with Crossflow
2017-11-01
within the uncertainty of the measured flight AoA. Full flow conditions for the computation and current Best Estimated Trajectory ( BET ) are found in...shape and definition of the boundary of the entropy layer, and the choice of boundary layer assumptions. Therefore one should not think of the
On Challenges for Hypersonic Turbulent Simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yee, H.C.; Sjogreen, B.
2009-01-01
This short note discusses some of the challenges for design of suitable spatial numerical schemes for hypersonic turbulent flows, including combustion, and thermal and chemical nonequilibrium flows. Often, hypersonic turbulent flows in re-entry space vehicles and space physics involve mixed steady strong shocks and turbulence with unsteady shocklets. Material mixing in combustion poses additional computational challenges. Proper control of numerical dissipation in numerical methods beyond the standard shock-capturing dissipation at discontinuities is an essential element for accurate and stable simulations of the subject physics. On one hand, the physics of strong steady shocks and unsteady turbulence/shocklet interactions under the nonequilibrium environment is not well understood. On the other hand, standard and newly developed high order accurate (fourth-order or higher) schemes were developed for homogeneous hyperbolic conservation laws and mixed hyperbolic and parabolic partial differential equations (PDEs) (without source terms). The majority of finite rate chemistry and thermal nonequilibrium simulations employ methods for homogeneous time-dependent PDEs with a pointwise evaluation of the source terms. The pointwise evaluation of the source term might not be the best choice for stability, accuracy and minimization of spurious numerics for the overall scheme
Soft tissue modelling with conical springs.
Omar, Nadzeri; Zhong, Yongmin; Jazar, Reza N; Subic, Aleksandar; Smith, Julian; Shirinzadeh, Bijan
2015-01-01
This paper presents a new method for real-time modelling soft tissue deformation. It improves the traditional mass-spring model with conical springs to deal with nonlinear mechanical behaviours of soft tissues. A conical spring model is developed to predict soft tissue deformation with reference to deformation patterns. The model parameters are formulated according to tissue deformation patterns and the nonlinear behaviours of soft tissues are modelled with the stiffness variation of conical spring. Experimental results show that the proposed method can describe different tissue deformation patterns using one single equation and also exhibit the typical mechanical behaviours of soft tissues.
Effects of shock on hypersonic boundary layer stability
Pinna, F.; Rambaud, P.
2013-06-01
The design of hypersonic vehicles requires the estimate of the laminar to turbulent transition location for an accurate sizing of the thermal protection system. Linear stability theory is a fast scientific way to study the problem. Recent improvements in computational capabilities allow computing the flow around a full vehicle instead of using only simplified boundary layer equations. In this paper, the effect of the shock is studied on a mean flow provided by steady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) computations and simplified boundary layer calculations.
Handbook on semidefinite, conic and polynomial optimization
Anjos, Miguel F
2012-01-01
This book offers the reader a snapshot of the state-of-the-art in the growing and mutually enriching areas of semidefinite optimization, conic optimization and polynomial optimization. It covers theory, algorithms, software and applications.
Controlling nanowire emission profile using conical taper
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Mørk, Jesper
2008-01-01
The influence of a conical taper on nanowire light emission is studied. For nanowires with divergent output beams, the introduction of tapers improves the emission profile and increase the collection efficiency of the detection optics....
Covered by lines and Conic connected varieties
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alex Massarenti
2011-12-01
Full Text Available We study some properties of an embedded variety covered by lines and give a numerical criterion ensuring the existence of a singular conic through two of its general points. We show that our criterion is sharp. Conic-connected, covered by lines, QEL, LQEL, prime Fano, defective, and dual defective varieties are closely related. We study some relations between the above mentioned classes of objects using basic results by Ein and Zak.
Dilley, Arthur D.; McClinton, Charles R. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Results from a study to assess the accuracy of turbulent heating and skin friction prediction techniques for hypersonic applications are presented. The study uses the original and a modified Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model with a space marching code. Grid converged turbulent predictions using the wall damping formulation (original model) and local damping formulation (modified model) are compared with experimental data for several flat plates. The wall damping and local damping results are similar for hot wall conditions, but differ significantly for cold walls, i.e., T(sub w) / T(sub t) hypersonic vehicles. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that the local damping formulation be used with the Baldwin-Lomax and Cebeci-Smith turbulence models in design and analysis of Hyper-X and future hypersonic vehicles.
Watching Electrons at Conical Intersections and Funnels
Jonas, David M.; Smith, Eric R.; Peters, William K.; Kitney, Katherine A.
2009-06-01
The electronic motion at conical intersections and funnels is probed after polarized excitation of aligned electronic wavepackets. The pulses have bandwidth sufficient to observe vibrations mainly through their effect on the electrons. Vibrational symmetry can be identified by the polarization anisotropy of vibrational quantum beats. The polarized transients show signatures of electronic wavepacket motion (due to the energy gaps) and of electron transfer between orbitals (due to the couplings) driven by the conical intersection. For a conical intersection in a four-fold symmetric symmetry silicon naphthalocyanine molecule, electronic motions on a 100 fs timescale are driven by couplings of 1 meV. In the lower symmetry free-base naphthalocyanine, the conical intersection may be missed or missing (conical funnel), and the motions are nearly as rapid, but electronic equilibration is incomplete for red-edge excitation. These experiments probe non-adiabatic electronic dynamics with near-zero nuclear momentum - the electronic motions are determined by the principal slopes of the conical intersection and the width of the vibrational wavepacket.
Bose, Deepak
2012-01-01
The design of entry vehicles requires predictions of aerothermal environment during the hypersonic phase of their flight trajectories. These predictions are made using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes that often rely on physics and chemistry models of nonequilibrium processes. The primary processes of interest are gas phase chemistry, internal energy relaxation, electronic excitation, nonequilibrium emission and absorption of radiation, and gas-surface interaction leading to surface recession and catalytic recombination. NASAs Hypersonics Project is advancing the state-of-the-art in modeling of nonequilibrium phenomena by making detailed spectroscopic measurements in shock tube and arcjets, using ab-initio quantum mechanical techniques develop fundamental chemistry and spectroscopic databases, making fundamental measurements of finite-rate gas surface interactions, implementing of detailed mechanisms in the state-of-the-art CFD codes, The development of new models is based on validation with relevant experiments. We will present the latest developments and a roadmap for the technical areas mentioned above
Downstream Effects on Orbiter Leeside Flow Separation for Hypersonic Flows
Buck, Gregory M.; Pulsonetti, Maria V.; Weilmuenster, K. James
2005-01-01
Discrepancies between experiment and computation for shuttle leeside flow separation, which came to light in the Columbia accident investigation, are resolved. Tests were run in the Langley Research Center 20-Inch Hypersonic CF4 Tunnel with a baseline orbiter model and two extended trailing edge models. The extended trailing edges altered the wing leeside separation lines, moving the lines toward the fuselage, proving that wing trailing edge modeling does affect the orbiter leeside flow. Computations were then made with a wake grid. These calculations more closely matched baseline experiments. Thus, the present findings demonstrate that it is imperative to include the wake flow domain in CFD calculations in order to accurately predict leeside flow separation for hypersonic vehicles at high angles of attack.
Hypersonic CFD applications for the National Aero-Space Plane
Richardson, Pamela F.; Mcclinton, Charles R.; Bittner, Robert D.; Dilley, A. Douglas; Edwards, Kelvin W.
1989-01-01
Design and analysis of the NASP depends heavily upon developing the critical technology areas that cover the entire engineering design of the vehicle. These areas include materials, structures, propulsion systems, propellants, integration of airframe and propulsion systems, controls, subsystems, and aerodynamics areas. Currently, verification of many of the classical engineering tools relies heavily on computational fluid dynamics. Advances are being made in the development of CFD codes to accomplish nose-to-tail analyses for hypersonic aircraft. Additional details involving the partial development, analysis, verification, and application of the CFL3D code and the SPARK combustor code are discussed. A nonequilibrium version of CFL3D that is presently being developed and tested is also described. Examples are given of portion calculations for research hypersonic aircraft geometries and comparisons with experiment data show good agreement.
Heat removing under hypersonic conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Semenov Mikhail E.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we consider the heat transfer properties of the axially symmetric body with parabolic shape at hypersonic speeds (with a Mach number M > 5. We use the numerical methods based on the implicit difference scheme (Fedorenko method with direct method based on LU-decomposition and iterative method based on the Gauss-Seigel method. Our numerical results show that the heat removing process should be performed in accordance with the nonlinear law of heat distribution over the surface taking into account the hypersonic conditions of motion.
Preliminary Studies on Aerodynamic Control with Direct Current Discharge at Hypersonic Speed
Watanabe, Yasumasa; Takama, Yoshiki; Imamura, Osamu; Watanuki, Tadaharu; Suzuki, Kojiro
A new idea of an aerodynamic control device for hypersonic vehicles using plasma discharges is presented. The effect of DC plasma discharge on a hypersonic flow is examined with both experiments and CFD analyses. It is revealed that the surface pressure upstream of plasma area significantly increases, which would be preferable in realizing a new aerodynamic control devices. Such pressure rise is also observed in the result of analyses of the Navier-Stokes equations with energy addition that simulates the Joule heating of a plasma discharge. It is revealed that the pressure rise due to the existence of the plasma discharge can be qualitatively explained as an effect of Joule heating.
Conical wavefronts in optics and tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soroko, L.M.
1990-01-01
A wide range of techniques in which the information is transferred by conical (nonspherical and nonplanar) wave fronts is considered. This is the first summary of papers published in the field of mesooptics and optical tomography. After the introduction into the new branch of modern optics - mesooptics -the properties of conical wavefronts are treated in detail. Some possible applications of mesooptics in science and technology are considered. The long history of mesooptics treated in the last chapter of this review lecture goes from the early stage of our Universe, gravitational lens, first publications in the last century and up-to-date innovations in optics, mesooptics and optical tomography. 3 refs
Status of Turbulence Modeling for Hypersonic Propulsion Flowpaths
Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Yoder, Dennis A.; Vyas, Manan A.; Engblom, William A.
2012-01-01
This report provides an assessment of current turbulent flow calculation methods for hypersonic propulsion flowpaths, particularly the scramjet engine. Emphasis is placed on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) methods, but some discussion of newer meth- ods such as Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is also provided. The report is organized by considering technical issues throughout the scramjet-powered vehicle flowpath including laminar-to-turbulent boundary layer transition, shock wave / turbulent boundary layer interactions, scalar transport modeling (specifically the significance of turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbers) and compressible mixing. Unit problems are primarily used to conduct the assessment. In the combustor, results from calculations of a direct connect supersonic combustion experiment are also used to address the effects of turbulence model selection and in particular settings for the turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbers. It is concluded that RANS turbulence modeling shortfalls are still a major limitation to the accuracy of hypersonic propulsion simulations, whether considering individual components or an overall system. Newer methods such as LES-based techniques may be promising, but are not yet at a maturity to be used routinely by the hypersonic propulsion community. The need for fundamental experiments to provide data for turbulence model development and validation is discussed.
Applications of an implicit HLLC-based Godunov solver for steady state hypersonic problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Link, R.A.; Sharman, B.
2005-01-01
Over the past few years, there has been considerable activity developing research vehicles for studying hypersonic propulsion. Successful launches of the Australian Hyshot and the US Hyper-X vehicles have added a significant amount of flight test data to a field that had previously been limited to numerical simulation. A number of approaches have been proposed for hypersonics propulsion, including attached detonation wave, supersonics combustion, and shock induced combustion. Due to the high cost of developing flight hardware, CFD simulations will continue to be a key tool for investigating the feasibility of these concepts. Capturing the interactions of the vehicle body with the boundary layer and chemical reactions pushes the limits of available modelling tools and computer hardware. Explicit formulations are extremely slow in converging to a steady state; therefore, the use of implicit methods are warranted. An implicit LLC-based Godunov solver has been developed at Martec in collaboration with DRDC Valcartier to solve hypersonic problems with a minimum of CPU time and RAM storage. The solver, Chinook Implicit, is based upon the implicit formulation adopted by Batten et. al. The solver is based on a point implicit Gauss-Seidel method for unstructured grids, and includes fully implicit boundary conditions. Preliminary results for small and large scale inviscid hypersonics problems will be presented. (author)
Thermal design of AOTV heatshields for a conical drag brake
Pitts, W. C.; Murbach, M. S.
1985-01-01
Results are presented from an on-going study of the thermal performance of thermal protection systems for a conical drag brake type AOTV. Three types of heatshield are considered: rigid ceramic insulation, flexible ceramic blankets, and ceramic cloths. The results for the rigid insulation apply to other types of AOTV as well. Charts are presented in parametric form so that they may be applied to a variety of missions and vehicle configurations. The parameters considered include: braking maneuver heat flux and total heat load, heatshield material and thickness, heatshield thermal mass and conductivity, absorptivity and emissivity of surfaces, thermal mass of support structure, and radiation transmission through thin heatshields. Results of temperature calculations presented show trends with and sensitivities to these parameters. The emphasis is on providing information that will be useful in estimating the minimum required mass of these heatshield materials.
Decomposition in conic optimization with partially separable structure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sun, Yifan; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Vandenberghe, Lieven
2014-01-01
Decomposition techniques for linear programming are difficult to extend to conic optimization problems with general nonpolyhedral convex cones because the conic inequalities introduce an additional nonlinear coupling between the variables. However in many applications the convex cones have...
Supersonic Combustion in Air-Breathing Propulsion Systems for Hypersonic Flight
Urzay, Javier
2018-01-01
Great efforts have been dedicated during the last decades to the research and development of hypersonic aircrafts that can fly at several times the speed of sound. These aerospace vehicles have revolutionary applications in national security as advanced hypersonic weapons, in space exploration as reusable stages for access to low Earth orbit, and in commercial aviation as fast long-range methods for air transportation of passengers around the globe. This review addresses the topic of supersonic combustion, which represents the central physical process that enables scramjet hypersonic propulsion systems to accelerate aircrafts to ultra-high speeds. The description focuses on recent experimental flights and ground-based research programs and highlights associated fundamental flow physics, subgrid-scale model development, and full-system numerical simulations.
Development of a Multi-Disciplinary Aerothermostructural Model Applicable to Hypersonic Flight
Kostyk, Chris; Risch, Tim
2013-01-01
The harsh and complex hypersonic flight environment has driven design and analysis improvements for many years. One of the defining characteristics of hypersonic flight is the coupled, multi-disciplinary nature of the dominant physics. In an effect to examine some of the multi-disciplinary problems associated with hypersonic flight engineers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center developed a non-linear 6 degrees-of-freedom, full vehicle simulation that includes the necessary model capabilities: aerothermal heating, ablation, and thermal stress solutions. Development of the tool and results for some investigations will be presented. Requirements and improvements for future work will also be reviewed. The results of the work emphasize the need for a coupled, multi-disciplinary analysis to provide accurate
Second-mode control in hypersonic boundary layers over assigned complex wall impedance
Sousa, Victor; Patel, Danish; Chapelier, Jean-Baptiste; Scalo, Carlo
2017-11-01
The durability and aerodynamic performance of hypersonic vehicles greatly relies on the ability to delay transition to turbulence. Passive aerodynamic flow control devices such as porous acoustic absorbers are a very attractive means to damp ultrasonic second-mode waves, which govern transition in hypersonic boundary layers under idealized flow conditions (smooth walls, slender geometries, small angles of attack). The talk will discuss numerical simulations modeling such absorbers via the time-domain impedance boundary condition (TD-IBC) approach by Scalo et al. in a hypersonic boundary layer flow over a 7-degree wedge at freestream Mach numbers M∞ = 7.3 and Reynolds numbers Rem = 1.46 .106 . A three-parameter impedance model tuned to the second-mode waves is tested first with varying resistance, R, and damping ratio, ζ, revealing complete mode attenuation for R workers at DLR-Göttingen.
RDHWT/MARIAH II Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Research Program
2008-09-01
Summary of Baseline Design Concepts SSTO : Single Stage to Orbit TSTO: Two Stage to Orbit RBCC: Rocket-Based Combined Cycle ODWE: Oblique Detonation...for most other hypersonic air-breathing propulsion applications. Required test times for the Mach 8 Cruise and SSTO type vehicles are shown in Table 3...Air-BreathingMach Range Length, m (ft) Propulsion Mach 8 Cruise Missile 4 to 8 4.3 (14) Hydrocarbon Scramjet SSTO Space Access with RBCC 0 to 14 62.8
Numerical simulation of air hypersonic flows with equilibrium chemical reactions
Emelyanov, Vladislav; Karpenko, Anton; Volkov, Konstantin
2018-05-01
The finite volume method is applied to solve unsteady three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured meshes. High-temperature gas effects altering the aerodynamics of vehicles are taken into account. Possibilities of the use of graphics processor units (GPUs) for the simulation of hypersonic flows are demonstrated. Solutions of some test cases on GPUs are reported, and a comparison between computational results of equilibrium chemically reacting and perfect air flowfields is performed. Speedup of solution on GPUs with respect to the solution on central processor units (CPUs) is compared. The results obtained provide promising perspective for designing a GPU-based software framework for practical applications.
Hypersonic modes in nanophononic semiconductors.
Hepplestone, S P; Srivastava, G P
2008-09-05
Frequency gaps and negative group velocities of hypersonic phonon modes in periodically arranged composite semiconductors are presented. Trends and criteria for phononic gaps are discussed using a variety of atomic-level theoretical approaches. From our calculations, the possibility of achieving semiconductor-based one-dimensional phononic structures is established. We present results of the location and size of gaps, as well as negative group velocities of phonon modes in such structures. In addition to reproducing the results of recent measurements of the locations of the band gaps in the nanosized Si/Si{0.4}Ge{0.6} superlattice, we show that such a system is a true one-dimensional hypersonic phononic crystal.
Hypersonic Threats to the Homeland
2017-03-28
ADAM) system . This ground based system protects 7 soldiers against rocket threats and utilizes a 10 kW laser with an effective range out to...early warning systems for response to hypersonic threats . The integration of directed energy defensive systems with Space Based Infrared Sensors (SBIRS...and early warning radars already in operation will save costs. By capitalizing on Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system capabilities
Design, Analysis and Qualification of Elevon for Reusable Launch Vehicle
Tiwari, S. B.; Suresh, R.; Krishnadasan, C. K.
2017-12-01
Reusable launch vehicle technology demonstrator is configured as a winged body vehicle, designed to fly in hypersonic, supersonic and subsonic regimes. The vehicle will be boosted to hypersonic speeds after which the winged body separates and descends using aerodynamic control. The aerodynamic control is achieved using the control surfaces mainly the rudder and the elevon. Elevons are deflected for pitch and roll control of the vehicle at various flight conditions. Elevons are subjected to aerodynamic, thermal and inertial loads during the flight. This paper gives details about the configuration, design, qualification and flight validation of elevon for Reusable Launch Vehicle.
T.M. Dunster (Mark); A. Gil (Amparo); J. Segura (Javier); N.M. Temme (Nico)
2017-01-01
textabstractConical functions appear in a large number of applications in physics and engineering. In this paper we describe an extension of our module Conical (Gil et al., 2012) for the computation of conical functions. Specifically, the module includes now a routine for computing the function
Parametric Study of Cantilever Plates Exposed to Supersonic and Hypersonic Flows
Sri Harsha, A.; Rizwan, M.; Kuldeep, S.; Giridhara Prasad, A.; Akhil, J.; Nagaraja, S. R.
2017-08-01
Analysis of hypersonic flows associated with re-entry vehicles has gained a lot of significance due to the advancements in Aerospace Engineering. An area that is studied extensively by researchers is the simultaneous reduction aerodynamic drag and aero heating in re-entry vehicles. Out of the many strategies being studied, the use of aerospikes at the stagnation point of the vehicle is found to give favourable results. The structural stability of the aerospike becomes important as it is exposed to very high pressures and temperatures. Keeping this in view, the deflection and vibration of an inclined cantilever plate in hypersonic flow is carried out using ANSYS. Steady state pressure distribution obtained from Fluent is applied as load to the transient structural module for analysis. After due validation of the methods, the effects of parameters like flow Mach number, plate inclination and plate thickness on the deflection and vibration are studied.
Overview of hypersonic CFD code calibration studies
Miller, Charles G.
1987-01-01
The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: definitions of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code validation; climate in hypersonics and LaRC when first 'designed' CFD code calibration studied was initiated; methodology from the experimentalist's perspective; hypersonic facilities; measurement techniques; and CFD code calibration studies.
Surface Heat Flux and Pressure Distribution on a Hypersonic Blunt Body With DEAS
Salvador, I. I.; Minucci, M. A. S.; Toro, P. G. P.; Oliveira, A. C.; Channes, J. B.
2008-04-01
With the currently growing interest for advanced technologies to enable hypersonic flight comes the Direct Energy Air Spike concept, where pulsed beamed laser energy is focused upstream of a blunt flight vehicle to disrupt the flow structure creating a virtual, slender body geometry. This allies in the vehicle both advantages of a blunt body (lower thermal stresses) to that of a slender geometry (lower wave drag). The research conducted at the Henry T. Nagamatsu Laboratory for Aerodynamics and Hypersonics focused on the measurement of the surface pressure and heat transfer rates on a blunt model. The hypersonic flight conditions were simulated at the HTN Laboratory's 0.3 m T2 Hypersonic Shock Tunnel. During the tests, the laser energy was focused upstream the model by an infrared telescope to create the DEAS effect, which was supplied by a TEA CO2 laser. Piezoelectric pressure transducers were used for the pressure measurements and fast response coaxial thermocouples were used for the measurement of surface temperature, which was later used for the estimation of the wall heat transfer using the inverse heat conduction theory.
Parametric Analysis of a Hypersonic Inlet using Computational Fluid Dynamics
Oliden, Daniel
For CFD validation, hypersonic flow fields are simulated and compared with experimental data specifically designed to recreate conditions found by hypersonic vehicles. Simulated flow fields on a cone-ogive with flare at Mach 7.2 are compared with experimental data from NASA Ames Research Center 3.5" hypersonic wind tunnel. A parametric study of turbulence models is presented and concludes that the k-kl-omega transition and SST transition turbulence model have the best correlation. Downstream of the flare's shockwave, good correlation is found for all boundary layer profiles, with some slight discrepancies of the static temperature near the surface. Simulated flow fields on a blunt cone with flare above Mach 10 are compared with experimental data from CUBRC LENS hypervelocity shock tunnel. Lack of vibrational non-equilibrium calculations causes discrepancies in heat flux near the leading edge. Temperature profiles, where non-equilibrium effects are dominant, are compared with the dissociation of molecules to show the effects of dissociation on static temperature. Following the validation studies is a parametric analysis of a hypersonic inlet from Mach 6 to 20. Compressor performance is investigated for numerous cowl leading edge locations up to speeds of Mach 10. The variable cowl study showed positive trends in compressor performance parameters for a range of Mach numbers that arise from maximizing the intake of compressed flow. An interesting phenomenon due to the change in shock wave formation for different Mach numbers developed inside the cowl that had a negative influence on the total pressure recovery. Investigation of the hypersonic inlet at different altitudes is performed to study the effects of Reynolds number, and consequently, turbulent viscous effects on compressor performance. Turbulent boundary layer separation was noted as the cause for a change in compressor performance parameters due to a change in Reynolds number. This effect would not be
Black hole thermodynamics with conical defects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Appels, Michael [Centre for Particle Theory, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Gregory, Ruth [Centre for Particle Theory, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Perimeter Institute,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Kubiznák, David [Perimeter Institute,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada)
2017-05-22
Recently we have shown https://www.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.131303 how to formulate a thermodynamic first law for a single (charged) accelerated black hole in AdS space by fixing the conical deficit angles present in the spacetime. Here we show how to generalise this result, formulating thermodynamics for black holes with varying conical deficits. We derive a new potential for the varying tension defects: the thermodynamic length, both for accelerating and static black holes. We discuss possible physical processes in which the tension of a string ending on a black hole might vary, and also map out the thermodynamic phase space of accelerating black holes and explore their critical phenomena.
Scaled Rocket Testing in Hypersonic Flow
Dufrene, Aaron; MacLean, Matthew; Carr, Zakary; Parker, Ron; Holden, Michael; Mehta, Manish
2015-01-01
NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) uses four clustered liquid rocket engines along with two solid rocket boosters. The interaction between all six rocket exhaust plumes will produce a complex and severe thermal environment in the base of the vehicle. This work focuses on a recent 2% scale, hot-fire SLS base heating test. These base heating tests are short-duration tests executed with chamber pressures near the full-scale values with gaseous hydrogen/oxygen engines and RSRMV analogous solid propellant motors. The LENS II shock tunnel/Ludwieg tube tunnel was used at or near flight duplicated conditions up to Mach 5. Model development was strongly based on the Space Shuttle base heating tests with several improvements including doubling of the maximum chamber pressures and duplication of freestream conditions. Detailed base heating results are outside of the scope of the current work, rather test methodology and techniques are presented along with broader applicability toward scaled rocket testing in supersonic and hypersonic flow.
Zhao, Wei; Dou, Zhiguo; Li, Qian
2012-03-01
The theory of laser-induced plasmas addition to hypersonic airflow off a vehicle to increase air mass capture and improve the performance of hypersonic inlets at Mach numbers below the design value is explored. For hypersonic vehicles, when flying at mach numbers lower than the design one, we can increase the mass capture ratio of inlet through laser-induced plasmas injection to the hypersonic flow upstream of cowl lip to form a virtual cowl. Based on the theory, the model of interaction between laser-induced plasmas and hypersonic flow was established. The influence on the effect of increasing mass capture ratio was studied at different positions of laser-induced plasmas region for the external compression hypersonic inlet at Mach 5 while the design value is 6, the power of plasmas was in the range of 1-8mJ. The main results are as follows: 1. the best location of the plasma addition region is near the intersection of the nose shock of the vehicle with the continuation of the cowl line, and slightly below that line. In that case, the shock generated by the heating is close to the shock that is a reflection of the vehicle nose shock off the imaginary solid surface-extension of the cowl. 2. Plasma addition does increase mass capture, and the effect becomes stronger as more energy is added, the peak value appeared when the power of plasma was about 4mJ, when the plasma energy continues to get stronger, the mass capture will decline slowly.
The NASA-sponsored Maryland center for hypersonic education and research
Lewis, Mark J.; Gupta, Ashwani K.
1995-01-01
The Office of Aeronautics of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration has established a program to support university programs in the field of hypersonic flight. Beginning in the fall of 1993, three universities, including the University of Maryland at College Park, were selected to participate in this activity. The program at the University of Maryland includes faculty in the Department of Aerospace Engineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering, and provides a multidisciplinary environment for graduate and undergraduate students to study and conduct research in the field of hypersonic flight. Ongoing projects cover the range of applications from cruisers through transatmospheric and reentry vehicles. Research activities, focused on propulsion, fluid dynamics, inverse design, and vehicle optimization and integration, are conducted in conjuntion with industrial partners and government laboratories.
Hypersonic wave drag reduction performance of cylinders with repetitive laser energy depositions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fang, J; Hong, Y J; Li, Q; Huang, H
2011-01-01
It has been widely research that wave drag reduction on hypersonic vehicle by laser energy depositions. Using laser energy to reduce wave drag can improve vehicle performance. A second order accurate scheme based on finite-difference method and domain decomposition of structural grid is used to compute the drag performance of cylinders in a hypersonic flow of Mach number 2 at altitude of 15km with repetitive energy depositions. The effects of frequency on drag reduction are studied. The calculated results show: the recirculation zone is generated due to the interaction between bow shock over the cylinder and blast wave produced by energy deposition, and a virtual spike which is supported by an axis-symmetric recirculation, is formed in front of the cylinder. By increasing the repetitive frequency, the drag is reduced and the oscillation of the drag is decreased; however, the energy efficiency decreases by increasing the frequency.
Time resolution measurements with an improved discriminator and conical scintillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McGervey, J.D.; Vogel, J.; Sen, P.; Knox, C.
1977-01-01
A new constant fraction discriminator with improved stability and walk characteristics is described. The discriminator was used with RCA C31024 photomultiplier tubes to test scintillators of conical and cylindrical shapes. Conical scintillators of 2.54 cm base diameter, 1.0 cm top diameter, and 2.54 cm height gave a fwhm of 155 ps for 60 Co gamma rays; larger conical scintillators gave an improvement of 10-15% in fwhm over cylindrical scintillators of equal volume. (Auth.)
Conical Double Frequency Emission by Femtosecond Laser Pulses from DKDP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xi-Peng, Zhang; Hong-Bing, Jiang; Shan-Chun, Tang; Qi-Huang, Gong
2009-01-01
Conical double frequency emission is investigated by femtosecond laser pulses at a wavelength of 800 nm in a DKDP crystal. It is demonstrated that the sum frequency of incident wave and its scattering wave accounts for the conical double frequency emission. The gaps on the conical rings are observed and they are very sensitive to the propagation direction, and thus could be used to detect the small angle deviation of surface direction. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))
Conical Refraction: new observations and a dual cone model.
Sokolovskii, G S; Carnegie, D J; Kalkandjiev, T K; Rafailov, E U
2013-05-06
We propose a paraxial dual-cone model of conical refraction involving the interference of two cones of light behind the exit face of the crystal. The supporting experiment is based on beam selecting elements breaking down the conically refracted beam into two separate hollow cones which are symmetrical with one another. The shape of these cones of light is a product of a 'competition' between the divergence caused by the conical refraction and the convergence due to the focusing by the lens. The developed mathematical description of the conical refraction demonstrates an excellent agreement with experiment.
Switching Exciton Pulses Through Conical Intersections
Leonhardt, K.; Wüster, S.; Rost, J. M.
2014-11-01
Exciton pulses transport excitation and entanglement adiabatically through Rydberg aggregates, assemblies of highly excited light atoms, which are set into directed motion by resonant dipole-dipole interaction. Here, we demonstrate the coherent splitting of such pulses as well as the spatial segregation of electronic excitation and atomic motion. Both mechanisms exploit local nonadiabatic effects at a conical intersection, turning them from a decoherence source into an asset. The intersection provides a sensitive knob controlling the propagation direction and coherence properties of exciton pulses. The fundamental ideas discussed here have general implications for excitons on a dynamic network.
Conical differentiability for evolution variational inequalities
Jarušek, Jiří; Krbec, Miroslav; Rao, Murali; Sokołowski, Jan
The conical differentiability of solutions to the parabolic variational inequality with respect to the right-hand side is proved in the paper. From one side the result is based on the Lipschitz continuity in H {1}/{2},1 (Q) of solutions to the variational inequality with respect to the right-hand side. On the other side, in view of the polyhedricity of the convex cone K={v∈ H;v |Σ c⩾0,v |Σ d=0}, we prove new results on sensitivity analysis of parabolic variational inequalities. Therefore, we have a positive answer to the question raised by Fulbert Mignot (J. Funct. Anal. 22 (1976) 25-32).
Conic coconuts : the pricing of contingent capital notes using conic finance
Madan, D.B.; Schoutens, W.
2010-01-01
In this paper we introduce a fundamental model under which we will price contingent capital notes using conic finance techniques. The model is based on more realistic balance-sheet models recognizing the fact that asset and liabilities are both risky and have been treated differently taking into
Hypersonic sliding target tracking in near space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiang-yu Zhang
2015-12-01
Full Text Available To improve the tracking accuracy of hypersonic sliding target in near space, the influence of target hypersonic movement on radar detection and tracking is analyzed, and an IMM tracking algorithm is proposed based on radial velocity compensating and cancellation processing of high dynamic biases under the earth centered earth fixed (ECEF coordinate. Based on the analysis of effect of target hypersonic movement, a measurement model is constructed to reduce the filter divergence which is caused by the model mismatch. The high dynamic biases due to the target hypersonic movement are approximately compensated through radial velocity estimation to achieve the hypersonic target tracking at low systematic biases in near space. The high dynamic biases are further eliminated by the cancellation processing of different radars, in which the track association problem can be solved when the dynamic biases are low. An IMM algorithm based on constant acceleration (CA, constant turning (CT and Singer models is used to achieve the hypersonic sliding target tracking in near space. Simulation results show that the target tracking in near space can be achieved more effectively by using the proposed algorithm.
Simplified Thermo-Chemical Modelling For Hypersonic Flow
Sancho, Jorge; Alvarez, Paula; Gonzalez, Ezequiel; Rodriguez, Manuel
2011-05-01
Hypersonic flows are connected with high temperatures, generally associated with strong shock waves that appear in such flows. At high temperatures vibrational degrees of freedom of the molecules may become excited, the molecules may dissociate into atoms, the molecules or free atoms may ionize, and molecular or ionic species, unimportant at lower temperatures, may be formed. In order to take into account these effects, a chemical model is needed, but this model should be simplified in order to be handled by a CFD code, but with a sufficient precision to take into account the physics more important. This work is related to a chemical non-equilibrium model validation, implemented into a commercial CFD code, in order to obtain the flow field around bodies in hypersonic flow. The selected non-equilibrium model is composed of seven species and six direct reactions together with their inverse. The commercial CFD code where the non- equilibrium model has been implemented is FLUENT. For the validation, the X38/Sphynx Mach 20 case is rebuilt on a reduced geometry, including the 1/3 Lref forebody. This case has been run in laminar regime, non catalytic wall and with radiative equilibrium wall temperature. The validated non-equilibrium model is applied to the EXPERT (European Experimental Re-entry Test-bed) vehicle at a specified trajectory point (Mach number 14). This case has been run also in laminar regime, non catalytic wall and with radiative equilibrium wall temperature.
Wind-Tunnel Balance Characterization for Hypersonic Research Applications
Lynn, Keith C.; Commo, Sean A.; Parker, Peter A.
2012-01-01
Wind-tunnel research was recently conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center s 31-Inch Mach 10 Hypersonic Facility in support of the Mars Science Laboratory s aerodynamic program. Researchers were interested in understanding the interaction between the freestream flow and the reaction control system onboard the entry vehicle. A five-component balance, designed for hypersonic testing with pressurized flow-through capability, was used. In addition to the aerodynamic forces, the balance was exposed to both thermal gradients and varying internal cavity pressures. Historically, the effect of these environmental conditions on the response of the balance have not been fully characterized due to the limitations in the calibration facilities. Through statistical design of experiments, thermal and pressure effects were strategically and efficiently integrated into the calibration of the balance. As a result of this new approach, researchers were able to use the balance continuously throughout the wide range of temperatures and pressures and obtain real-time results. Although this work focused on a specific application, the methodology shown can be applied more generally to any force measurement system calibration.
Hypersonic MHD Propulsion System Integration for the Mercury Lightcraft
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myrabo, L.N.; Rosa, R.J.
2004-01-01
Introduced herein are the design, systems integration, and performance analysis of an exotic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) slipstream accelerator engine for a single-occupant 'Mercury' lightcraft. This ultra-energetic, laser-boosted vehicle is designed to ride a 'tractor beam' into space, transmitted from a future orbital network of satellite solar power stations. The lightcraft's airbreathing combined-cycle engine employs a rotary pulsed detonation thruster mode for lift-off and landing, and an MHD slipstream accelerator mode at hypersonic speeds. The latter engine transforms the transatmospheric acceleration path into a virtual electromagnetic 'mass-driver' channel; the hypersonic momentum exchange process (with the atmosphere) enables engine specific impulses in the range of 6000 to 16,000 seconds, and propellant mass fractions as low as 10%. The single-stage-to-orbit, highly reusable lightcraft can accelerate at 3 Gs into low Earth orbit with its throttle just barely beyond 'idle' power, or virtually 'disappear' at 30 G's and beyond. The objective of this advanced lightcraft design is to lay the technological foundations for a safe, very low cost (e.g., 1000X below chemical rockets) air and space transportation for human life in the mid-21st Century - a system that will be completely 'green' and independent of Earth's limited fossil fuel reserves
Numerical analysis of hypersonic turbulent film cooling flows
Chen, Y. S.; Chen, C. P.; Wei, H.
1992-01-01
As a building block, numerical capabilities for predicting heat flux and turbulent flowfields of hypersonic vehicles require extensive model validations. Computational procedures for calculating turbulent flows and heat fluxes for supersonic film cooling with parallel slot injections are described in this study. Two injectant mass flow rates with matched and unmatched pressure conditions using the database of Holden et al. (1990) are considered. To avoid uncertainties associated with the boundary conditions in testing turbulence models, detailed three-dimensional flowfields of the injection nozzle were calculated. Two computational fluid dynamics codes, GASP and FDNS, with the algebraic Baldwin-Lomax and k-epsilon models with compressibility corrections were used. It was found that the B-L model which resolves near-wall viscous sublayer is very sensitive to the inlet boundary conditions at the nozzle exit face. The k-epsilon models with improved wall functions are less sensitive to the inlet boundary conditions. The testings show that compressibility corrections are necessary for the k-epsilon model to realistically predict the heat fluxes of the hypersonic film cooling problems.
Hypersonic MHD Propulsion System Integration for the Mercury Lightcraft
Myrabo, L. N.; Rosa, R. J.
2004-03-01
Introduced herein are the design, systems integration, and performance analysis of an exotic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) slipstream accelerator engine for a single-occupant ``Mercury'' lightcraft. This ultra-energetic, laser-boosted vehicle is designed to ride a `tractor beam' into space, transmitted from a future orbital network of satellite solar power stations. The lightcraft's airbreathing combined-cycle engine employs a rotary pulsed detonation thruster mode for lift-off & landing, and an MHD slipstream accelerator mode at hypersonic speeds. The latter engine transforms the transatmospheric acceleration path into a virtual electromagnetic `mass-driver' channel; the hypersonic momentum exchange process (with the atmosphere) enables engine specific impulses in the range of 6000 to 16,000 seconds, and propellant mass fractions as low as 10%. The single-stage-to-orbit, highly reusable lightcraft can accelerate at 3 Gs into low Earth orbit with its throttle just barely beyond `idle' power, or virtually `disappear' at 30 G's and beyond. The objective of this advanced lightcraft design is to lay the technological foundations for a safe, very low cost (e.g., 1000X below chemical rockets) air and space transportation for human life in the mid-21st Century - a system that will be completely `green' and independent of Earth's limited fossil fuel reserves.
Rarefaction Effects in Hypersonic Aerodynamics
Riabov, Vladimir V.
2011-05-01
The Direct Simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) technique is used for numerical analysis of rarefied-gas hypersonic flows near a blunt plate, wedge, two side-by-side plates, disk, torus, and rotating cylinder. The role of various similarity parameters (Knudsen and Mach numbers, geometrical and temperature factors, specific heat ratios, and others) in aerodynamics of the probes is studied. Important kinetic effects that are specific for the transition flow regime have been found: non-monotonic lift and drag of plates, strong repulsive force between side-by-side plates and cylinders, dependence of drag on torus radii ratio, and the reverse Magnus effect on the lift of a rotating cylinder. The numerical results are in a good agreement with experimental data, which were obtained in a vacuum chamber at low and moderate Knudsen numbers from 0.01 to 10.
Gao, WenZhi; Li, ZhuFei; Yang, JiMing
2015-10-01
A hybrid CFD/characteristic method (CCM) was proposed for fast design and evaluation of hypersonic inlet flow with nose bluntness, which targets the combined advantages of CFD and method of characteristics. Both the accuracy and efficiency of the developed CCM were verified reliably, and it was well demonstrated for the external surfaces design of a hypersonic forebody/inlet with nose bluntness. With the help of CCM method, effects of nose bluntness on forebody shock shapes and the flowfield qualities which dominate inlet performance were examined and analyzed on the two-dimensional and axisymmetric configurations. The results showed that blunt effects of a wedge forebody are more substantial than that of related cone cases. For a conical forebody with a properly blunted nose, a recovery of the shock front back to that of corresponding sharp nose is exhibited, accompanied with a gradually fading out of entropy layer effects. Consequently a simplification is thought to be reasonable for an axisymmetric inlet with a proper compression angle, and a blunt nose of limited radius can be idealized as a sharp nose, as the spillage and flow variations at the entrance are negligible, even though the nose scale increases to 10% cowl lip radius. Whereas for two-dimensional inlets, the blunt effects are substantial since not only the inlet capturing/starting capabilities, but also the flow uniformities are obviously degraded.
Simulation of an hypersonic gas turbine ramjet engine intake in the supersonic regime
El Houas Ghouddana, Ismael
2017-01-01
Since the beginning of time, we have fixed our eyes in space, imagining the possibility to arrive there. After hundreds of years of investigation, in the 20th century, we have achieved this goal. Now, in the 21st century, making the space accessible is the new challenge which we have proposed. There are different ways in order to achieve this goal: reusable rockets, pico-satellites or hypersonic vehicles. The idea of using vehicles that are able of going from a runway to space is the base of ...
Numerical study on aerodynamic heat of hypersonic flight
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huang Haiming
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Accurate prediction of the shock wave has a significant effect on the development of space transportation vehicle or exploration missions. Taking Lobb sphere as the example, the aerodynamic heat of hypersonic flight in different Mach numbers is simulated by the finite volume method. Chemical reactions and non-equilibrium heat are taken into account in this paper, where convective flux of the space term adopts the Roe format, and discretization of the time term is achieved by backward Euler algorithm. The numerical results reveal that thick mesh can lead to accurate prediction, and the thickness of the shock wave decreases as grid number increases. Furthermore, most of kinetic energy converts into internal energy crossing the shock wave.
Quasi-conical centrifugal ion trap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golikov, Yu.K.; Solov'ev, K.V.; Grigor'ev, D.V.; Flegontova, E.Yu.
1999-01-01
This paper describes a new excellent ion trap that principally differs from the classic hyperbolic one by its action. The action is based on the axisymmetric electrostatic quasi-conical field with the following potential type: F=F 0 [ln r - r 2 /2+z 2 ], where r, z are cylindrical dimensionless coordinates. The radial potential run (f=ln r-r 2 /2), in this case, is exactly presented by the approximation function f a =ar 2 +b/r 2 +c. In addition, there are some ranges of r (for example, 0.6< r<0.35), in which the concurrence accuracy value is above 0.5%. The paper presents the theory of particles dynamics in the centrifugal trap. Basic correlation for resolution ratios and sensitivity values are developed. Recommendations on the centrifugal trap design implementation, including the recording system, are given
Dirac operator on spaces with conical singularities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chou, A.W.
1982-01-01
The Dirac operator on compact spaces with conical singularities is studied via the separation of variables formula and the functional calculus of the Dirac Laplacian on the cone. A Bochner type vanishing theorem which gives topological obstructions to the existence of non-negative scalar curvature k greater than or equal to 0 in the singular case is proved. An index formula relating the index of the Dirac operator to the A-genus and Eta-invariant similar to that of Atiyah-Patodi-Singer is obtained. In an appendix, manifolds with boundary with non-negative scalar curvature k greater than or equal to 0 are studied, and several new results on constructing complete metrics with k greater than or equal to on them are obtained
Hypervelocity jets from conical hollow-charges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Velarde, P. M.; Martinez-Val, J. M.; Eliezer, S.; Piera, M.; Guillen, J.; Cobo, M. D.; Ogando, F.; Crisol, A.; Gonzalez, L.; Prieto, J.; Velarde, G.
1997-01-01
In this article the formation of jets by means of the implosion of conical targets is analyzed. This implosion might be induced by high intensity lasers or X rays. It is known of experiments with explosive and numeric simulations that the formation of jets depends critically on the aperture of the cone. It is found in these simulations that for a given collapsing speed an angle of the cone exists below which jet doesn't take place. This critical angle grows with the collapsing speed. The numerical simulations seem to indicate that the production of jets is related to the separation of the shock wave that takes place in the collapsing region. We will also analyze the mass and kinetic energy of the jets taken place as a function of the initial opening of the cone
Conically scanning lidar error in complex terrain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ferhat Bingöl
2009-05-01
Full Text Available Conically scanning lidars assume the flow to be homogeneous in order to deduce the horizontal wind speed. However, in mountainous or complex terrain this assumption is not valid implying a risk that the lidar will derive an erroneous wind speed. The magnitude of this error is measured by collocating a meteorological mast and a lidar at two Greek sites, one hilly and one mountainous. The maximum error for the sites investigated is of the order of 10 %. In order to predict the error for various wind directions the flows at both sites are simulated with the linearized flow model, WAsP Engineering 2.0. The measurement data are compared with the model predictions with good results for the hilly site, but with less success at the mountainous site. This is a deficiency of the flow model, but the methods presented in this paper can be used with any flow model.
Bender, Jason D.
Understanding hypersonic aerodynamics is important for the design of next-generation aerospace vehicles for space exploration, national security, and other applications. Ground-level experimental studies of hypersonic flows are difficult and expensive; thus, computational science plays a crucial role in this field. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of extremely high-speed flows require models of chemical and thermal nonequilibrium processes, such as dissociation of diatomic molecules and vibrational energy relaxation. Current models are outdated and inadequate for advanced applications. We describe a multiscale computational study of gas-phase thermochemical processes in hypersonic flows, starting at the atomic scale and building systematically up to the continuum scale. The project was part of a larger effort centered on collaborations between aerospace scientists and computational chemists. We discuss the construction of potential energy surfaces for the N4, N2O2, and O4 systems, focusing especially on the multi-dimensional fitting problem. A new local fitting method named L-IMLS-G2 is presented and compared with a global fitting method. Then, we describe the theory of the quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) approach for modeling molecular collisions. We explain how we implemented the approach in a new parallel code for high-performance computing platforms. Results from billions of QCT simulations of high-energy N2 + N2, N2 + N, and N2 + O2 collisions are reported and analyzed. Reaction rate constants are calculated and sets of reactive trajectories are characterized at both thermal equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions. The data shed light on fundamental mechanisms of dissociation and exchange reactions -- and their coupling to internal energy transfer processes -- in thermal environments typical of hypersonic flows. We discuss how the outcomes of this investigation and other related studies lay a rigorous foundation for new macroscopic models for
Ramjet Nozzle Analysis for Transport Aircraft Configuration for Sustained Hypersonic Flight
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raman Baidya
2018-04-01
Full Text Available For the past several decades, research dealing with hypersonic flight regimes has been restricted mainly to military applications. Hypersonic transportation could be a possible and affordable solution to travel in the medium term and there is renewed interest from several private organisations for commercial exploitation in this direction. Various combined cycle propulsion configurations have been proposed and the present paper deals with implications for the nozzle component of a ramjet configuration as part of one such combined cycle propulsion configuration. An investigation was undertaken for a method of turbine-based propulsion which enables the hypersonic vehicle to take off under its own power and propel the aircraft under different mission profiles into ramjet operational Mach regimes. The present study details an optimal method of ramjet exhaust expansion to produce sufficient thrust to propel the vehicle into altitudes and Mach regimes where scramjet operation can be initiated. This aspect includes a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD-based geometric study to determine the optimal configuration to provide the best thrust values. The CFD parametric analysis investigated three candidate nozzles and indicated that the dual bell nozzle design produced the highest thrust values when compared to other nozzle geometries. The altitude adaptation study also validated the effectiveness of the nozzle thrust at various altitudes without compromising its thrust-producing capabilities. Computational data were validated against published experimental data, which indicated that the computed values correlated well with the experimental data.
Computational investigations of blunt body drag-reduction spikes in hypersonic flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamran, N.; Zahir, S.; Khan, M.A.
2003-01-01
Drag is an important parameter in the designing of high-speed vehicles. Such vehicles include hypervelocity projectiles, reentry modules, and hypersonic aircrafts. Therefore, there exists an active or passive technique to reduce drag due to the high pressures at nosetip region of the vehicle. Drag can be reduced by attaching a forward facing spike on the nose of the vehicle. The present study reviews and deals with the CFD analysis made on a standard blunt body to reduce aerodynamic drag due to the attachment of forward facing spikes for High-Speed vehicles. Different spike lengths have been examined to study the forebody flowfield. The investigation concludes that spikes are an effective way to reduce the aerodynamic drag due to reduced dynamic pressure on the nose caused by the separated flow on the spikes. With the accomplishment of confidence on computational data, study was extended in hypersonic Mach range with a drag prediction accuracy of ± 10%. In the present work, viscous fluid dynamics studies were performed for a complete freestream Mach number range of 5.0, 6.0, 7.0 and 8.0 for different spike lengths and zero degree angle of attack. (author)
Space Shuttle and Hypersonic Entry
Campbell, Charles H.; Gerstenmaier, William H.
2014-01-01
Fifty years of human spaceflight have been characterized by the aerospace operations of the Soyuz, of the Space Shuttle and, more recently, of the Shenzhou. The lessons learned of this past half decade are important and very significant. Particularly interesting is the scenario that is downstream from the retiring of the Space Shuttle. A number of initiatives are, in fact, emerging from in the aftermath of the decision to terminate the Shuttle program. What is more and more evident is that a new era is approaching: the era of the commercial usage and of the commercial exploitation of space. It is probably fair to say, that this is the likely one of the new frontiers of expansion of the world economy. To make a comparison, in the last 30 years our economies have been characterized by the digital technologies, with examples ranging from computers, to cellular phones, to the satellites themselves. Similarly, the next 30 years are likely to be characterized by an exponential increase of usage of extra atmospheric resources, as a result of more economic and efficient way to access space, with aerospace transportation becoming accessible to commercial investments. We are witnessing the first steps of the transportation of future generation that will drastically decrease travel time on our Planet, and significantly enlarge travel envelope including at least the low Earth orbits. The Steve Jobs or the Bill Gates of the past few decades are being replaced by the aggressive and enthusiastic energy of new entrepreneurs. It is also interesting to note that we are now focusing on the aerospace band, that lies on top of the aeronautical shell, and below the low Earth orbits. It would be a mistake to consider this as a known envelope based on the evidences of the flights of Soyuz, Shuttle and Shenzhou. Actually, our comprehension of the possible hypersonic flight regimes is bounded within really limited envelopes. The achievement of a full understanding of the hypersonic flight
Engineering method for aero-propulsive characteristics at hypersonic Mach numbers
Goradia, Suresh; Torres, Abel O.; Stack, Sharon H.; Everhart, Joel L.
1991-01-01
An engineering method has been developed for the rapid analysis of external aerodynamics and propulsive performance characteristics of airbreathing vehicles at hypersonic Mach numbers. This method, based on the theory of characteristics, has been developed to analyze fuselage-wing body combinations and body flaps with blunt or sharp leading/trailing edges. Arbitrary ratio of specific heat for the flowing medium can be specified in the program. Furthermore, the capability exists in the code to compute the inviscid inlet mass capture and momentum flux. The method is under development for computations of pressure distribution, and flow characteristics in the inlet, along with the effect of viscosity. Correlative studies have been performed for representative hypersonic configurations using the current method. The results of these correlations for various aerodynamics parameters are encouraging.
Aerothermodynamic shape optimization of hypersonic blunt bodies
Eyi, Sinan; Yumuşak, Mine
2015-07-01
The aim of this study is to develop a reliable and efficient design tool that can be used in hypersonic flows. The flow analysis is based on the axisymmetric Euler/Navier-Stokes and finite-rate chemical reaction equations. The equations are coupled simultaneously and solved implicitly using Newton's method. The Jacobian matrix is evaluated analytically. A gradient-based numerical optimization is used. The adjoint method is utilized for sensitivity calculations. The objective of the design is to generate a hypersonic blunt geometry that produces the minimum drag with low aerodynamic heating. Bezier curves are used for geometry parameterization. The performances of the design optimization method are demonstrated for different hypersonic flow conditions.
Issues Associated with a Hypersonic Maglev Sled
Haney, Joseph W.; Lenzo, J.
1996-01-01
Magnetic levitation has been explored for application from motors to transportation. All of these applications have been at velocities where the physics of the air or operating fluids are fairly well known. Application of Maglev to hypersonic velocities (Mach greater than 5) presents many opportunities, but also issues that require understanding and resolution. Use of Maglev to upgrade the High Speed Test Track at Holloman Air Force Base in Alamogordo New Mexico is an actual hypersonic application that provides the opportunity to improve test capabilities. However, there are several design issues that require investigation. This paper presents an overview of the application of Maglev to the test track and the issues associated with developing a hypersonic Maglev sled. The focus of this paper is to address the issues with the Maglev sled design, rather than the issues with the development of superconducting magnets of the sled system.
Conjugate Heat Transfer Study in Hypersonic Flows
Sahoo, Niranjan; Kulkarni, Vinayak; Peetala, Ravi Kumar
2018-04-01
Coupled and decoupled conjugate heat transfer (CHT) studies are carried out to imitate experimental studies for heat transfer measurement in hypersonic flow regime. The finite volume based solvers are used for analyzing the heat interaction between fluid and solid domains. Temperature and surface heat flux signals are predicted by both coupled and decoupled CHT analysis techniques for hypersonic Mach numbers. These two methodologies are also used to study the effect of different wall materials on surface parameters. Effectiveness of these CHT solvers has been verified for the inverse problem of wall heat flux recovery using various techniques reported in the literature. Both coupled and decoupled CHT techniques are seen to be equally useful for prediction of local temperature and heat flux signals prior to the experiments in hypersonic flows.
Heating Augmentation for Short Hypersonic Protuberances
Mazaheri, Ali R.; Wood, William A.
2008-01-01
Computational aeroheating analyses of the Space Shuttle Orbiter plug repair models are validated against data collected in the Calspan University of Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC) 48 inch shock tunnel. The comparison shows that the average difference between computed heat transfer results and the data is about 9.5%. Using CFD and Wind Tunnel (WT) data, an empirical correlation for estimating heating augmentation on short hypersonic protuberances (k/delta less than 0.3) is proposed. This proposed correlation is compared with several computed flight simulation cases and good agreement is achieved. Accordingly, this correlation is proposed for further investigation on other short hypersonic protuberances for estimating heating augmentation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toro, P. G. P.; Minucci, M. A. S.; Chanes, J. B. Jr; Oliveira, A. C.; Gomes, F. A. A.; Myrabo, L. N.; Nagamatsu, Henry T.
2008-01-01
The new 0.60-m. nozzle exit diameter hypersonic shock tunnel was designed to study advanced air-breathing propulsion system such as supersonic combustion and/or laser technologies. In addition, it may be used for hypersonic flow studies and investigations of the electromagnetic (laser) energy addition for flow control. This new hypersonic shock tunnel was designed and installed at the Laboratory for of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu, IEAv-CTA, Brazil. The design of the tunnel enables relatively long test times, 2-10 milliseconds, suitable for the experiments performed at the laboratory. Free stream Mach numbers ranging from 6 to 25 can be produced and stagnation pressures and temperatures up to 360 atm. and up to 9,000 K, respectively, can be generated. Shadowgraph and schlieren optical techniques will be used for flow visualization
Early structure of LPG partially premixed conically stabilized flames
Elbaz, Ayman M.
2013-01-01
This paper presents experimental investigation of LPG partially premixed turbulent flames stabilized within a conical nozzle burner under constant degree of partial premixing. The stability limits and mean flame structure are presented based
Vortex breakdown in a truncated conical bioreactor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balci, Adnan; Brøns, Morten [DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Herrada, Miguel A [E.S.I, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, E-41092 (Spain); Shtern, Vladimir N, E-mail: mobr@dtu.dk [Shtern Research and Consulting, Houston, TX 77096 (United States)
2015-12-15
This numerical study explains the eddy formation and disappearance in a slow steady axisymmetric air–water flow in a vertical truncated conical container, driven by the rotating top disk. Numerous topological metamorphoses occur as the water height, H{sub w}, and the bottom-sidewall angle, α, vary. It is found that the sidewall convergence (divergence) from the top to the bottom stimulates (suppresses) the development of vortex breakdown (VB) in both water and air. At α = 60°, the flow topology changes eighteen times as H{sub w} varies. The changes are due to (a) competing effects of AMF (the air meridional flow) and swirl, which drive meridional motions of opposite directions in water, and (b) feedback of water flow on AMF. For small H{sub w}, the AMF effect dominates. As H{sub w} increases, the swirl effect dominates and causes VB. The water flow feedback produces and modifies air eddies. The results are of fundamental interest and can be relevant for aerial bioreactors. (paper)
Vortex breakdown in a truncated conical bioreactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balci, Adnan; Brøns, Morten; Herrada, Miguel A; Shtern, Vladimir N
2015-01-01
This numerical study explains the eddy formation and disappearance in a slow steady axisymmetric air–water flow in a vertical truncated conical container, driven by the rotating top disk. Numerous topological metamorphoses occur as the water height, H w , and the bottom-sidewall angle, α, vary. It is found that the sidewall convergence (divergence) from the top to the bottom stimulates (suppresses) the development of vortex breakdown (VB) in both water and air. At α = 60°, the flow topology changes eighteen times as H w varies. The changes are due to (a) competing effects of AMF (the air meridional flow) and swirl, which drive meridional motions of opposite directions in water, and (b) feedback of water flow on AMF. For small H w , the AMF effect dominates. As H w increases, the swirl effect dominates and causes VB. The water flow feedback produces and modifies air eddies. The results are of fundamental interest and can be relevant for aerial bioreactors. (paper)
DE 1 and Viking observations associated with electron conical distributions
Menietti, J. D.; Weimer, D. R.; Andre, M.; Eliasson, L.
1994-01-01
Data from the electron detectors on board the Swedish Viking satellite launched during a period of low solar activity and from the Dynamic Explorer (DE) 1 satellite launched during active solar coditions have been examined for the occurrence and location of electron conical distributions and several conclusions can be drawn. First, we note that most of the best examples of electron conics observed by the V-3 experiment onboard Viking occurred in the afternoon sector in the range of magneitc local time 14 hours less than Magnetic Local Time (MLT) less than 18 hours, at midaltitudes in the range 10,000 km less than h less than 13,500 km, with few occurring in the nightside auroral region, a region poorly sampled at altitudes greater than 5000 km. For the Viking data there is an association of electron conics with upper hybrid waves. DE 1 observations made by the high-altitude plasma instrument (HAPI) indicate that electron conics were observed in the midmorning sector and the late evening sector, and as has been reported earlier, the correlation with upper hybird waves was good. The HAPI did not sample the afternoon sector. The electon conics observed on both satellites occurred in the presence of at least a modest (several kilovolts) potential difference beneath the satellite with a maximum energy that was usually, but not always, equal to or greater than the maximum energy of the electron conics. Two independent sets of observations by DE 1 suggest two distinct production mechanisms for electron conics. Examiniation of DE 1 electric field measurements from the plasma wave instrument during the observation of electron conics show simultaneous parallel oscillations in the frequency range of 0.2 Hz less than f less than 0.5 Hz during one and perhaps two of four events examined, and upper hybrid waves were observed on all four events. In addition, recent observations of '90-deg' electron conics associated with auroral kilometric radiation source regions suggest a
Heat transfer behaviors in round tube with conical ring inserts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Promvonge, P.
2008-01-01
To increase convection heat transfer in a uniform heat flux tube by a passive method, several conical rings used as turbulators are mounted over the test tube. The effects of the conical ring turbulator inserts on the heat transfer rate and friction factor are experimentally investigated in the present work. Conical rings with three different diameter ratios of the ring to tube diameter (d/D = 0.5, 0.6, 0.7) are introduced in the tests, and for each ratio, the rings are placed with three different arrangements (converging conical ring, referred to as CR array, diverging conical ring, DR array and converging-diverging conical ring, CDR array). In the experiment, cold air at ambient condition for Reynolds numbers in a range of 6000-26,000 is passed through the uniform heat flux circular tube. It is found that the ring to tube diameter ratio and the ring arrays provide a significant effect on the thermal performance of the test tube. The experimental results demonstrate that the use of conical ring inserts leads to a higher heat transfer rate than that of the plain surface tube, and the DR array yields a better heat transfer than the others. The results are also correlated in the form of Nusselt number as a function of Reynolds number, Prandtl number and diameter ratio. An augmentation of up to 197%, 333%, and 237% in Nusselt number is obtained in the turbulent flow for the CR, DR and CDR arrays, respectively, although the effect of using the conical ring causes a substantial increase in friction factor
Manufacture of conical springs with elastic medium technology improvement
Kurguzov, S. A.; Mikhailova, U. V.; Kalugina, O. B.
2018-01-01
This article considers the manufacturing technology improvement by using an elastic medium in the stamping tool forming space to improve the conical springs performance characteristics and reduce the costs of their production. Estimation technique of disk spring operational properties is developed by mathematical modeling of the compression process during the operation of a spring. A technique for optimizing the design parameters of a conical spring is developed, which ensures a minimum voltage value when operated in the edge of the spring opening.
Tip-to-tail numerical simulation of a hypersonic air-breathing engine with ethylene fuel
Dharavath, Malsur; Manna, P.; Chakraborty, Debasis
2016-11-01
End to end CFD simulations of external and internal flow paths of an ethylene fueled hypersonic airbreathing vehicle with including forebody, horizontal fins, vertical fins, intake, combustor, single expansion ramp nozzle are carried out. The performance of the scramjet combustor and vehicle net thrust-drag is calculated for hypersonic cruise condition. Three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved along with SST-k-ω turbulence model using the commercial CFD software CFX-14. Single step chemical reaction based on fast chemistry assumption is used for combustion of gaseous ethylene fuel. Simulations captured complex shock structures including the shocks generated from the vehicle nose and compression ramps, impingement of cowl-shock on vehicle undersurface and its reflection in the intake and combustor etc. Various thermochemical parameters are analyzed and performance parameters are evaluated for nonreacting and reacting cases. Very good mixing ( 98%) of fuel with incoming air stream is observed. Positive thrust-drag margins are obtained for fuel equivalence ratio of 0.6 and computed combustion efficiency is observed to be 94 %. Effect of equivalence ratio on the vehicle performance is studied parametrically. Though the combustion efficiency has come down by 8% for fuel equivalence ratio of 0.8, net vehicle thrust is increased by 44%. Heat flux distribution on the various walls of the whole vehicle including combustor is estimated for the isothermal wall condition of 1000 K in reacting flow. Higher local heat flux values are observed at all the leading edges of the vehicle (i.e., nose, wing, fin and cowl leading edges) and strut regions of the combustor.
Computational Study of Hypersonic Boundary Layer Stability on Cones
Gronvall, Joel Edwin
Due to the complex nature of boundary layer laminar-turbulent transition in hypersonic flows and the resultant effect on the design of re-entry vehicles, there remains considerable interest in developing a deeper understanding of the underlying physics. To that end, the use of experimental observations and computational analysis in a complementary manner will provide the greatest insights. It is the intent of this work to provide such an analysis for two ongoing experimental investigations. The first focuses on the hypersonic boundary layer transition experiments for a slender cone that are being conducted at JAXA's free-piston shock tunnel HIEST facility. Of particular interest are the measurements of disturbance frequencies associated with transition at high enthalpies. The computational analysis provided for these cases included two-dimensional CFD mean flow solutions for use in boundary layer stability analyses. The disturbances in the boundary layer were calculated using the linear parabolized stability equations. Estimates for transition locations, comparisons of measured disturbance frequencies and computed frequencies, and a determination of the type of disturbances present were made. It was found that for the cases where the disturbances were measured at locations where the flow was still laminar but nearly transitional, that the highly amplified disturbances showed reasonable agreement with the computations. Additionally, an investigation of the effects of finite-rate chemistry and vibrational excitation on flows over cones was conducted for a set of theoretical operational conditions at the HIEST facility. The second study focuses on transition in three-dimensional hypersonic boundary layers, and for this the cone at angle of attack experiments being conducted at the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 quiet tunnel at Purdue University were examined. Specifically, the effect of surface roughness on the development of the stationary crossflow instability are investigated
Efficient multigrid computation of steady hypersonic flows
Koren, B.; Hemker, P.W.; Murthy, T.K.S.
1991-01-01
In steady hypersonic flow computations, Newton iteration as a local relaxation procedure and nonlinear multigrid iteration as an acceleration procedure may both easily fail. In the present chapter, same remedies are presented for overcoming these problems. The equations considered are the steady,
Detached Eddy Simulations of Hypersonic Transition
Yoon, S.; Barnhardt, M.; Candler, G.
2010-01-01
This slide presentation reviews the use of Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) of hypersonic transistion. The objective of the study was to investigate the feasibility of using CFD in general, DES in particular, for prediction of roughness-induced boundary layer transition to turbulence and the resulting increase in heat transfer.
Hypersonic - Model Analysis as a Service
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Acretoaie, Vlad; Störrle, Harald
2014-01-01
Hypersonic is a Cloud-based tool that proposes a new approach to the deployment of model analysis facilities. It is implemented as a RESTful Web service API o_ering analysis features such as model clone detection. This approach allows the migration of resource intensive analysis algorithms from...
Weakly Ionized Plasmas in Hypersonics: Fundamental Kinetics and Flight Applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Macheret, Sergey
2005-01-01
The paper reviews some of the recent studies of applications of weakly ionized plasmas to supersonic/hypersonic flight. Plasmas can be used simply as means of delivering energy (heating) to the flow, and also for electromagnetic flow control and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation. Plasma and MHD control can be especially effective in transient off-design flight regimes. In cold air flow, nonequilibrium plasmas must be created, and the ionization power budget determines design, performance envelope, and the very practicality of plasma/MHD devices. The minimum power budget is provided by electron beams and repetitive high-voltage nanosecond pulses, and the paper describes theoretical and computational modeling of plasmas created by the beams and repetitive pulses. The models include coupled equations for non-local and unsteady electron energy distribution function (modeled in forward-back approximation), plasma kinetics, and electric field. Recent experimental studies at Princeton University have successfully demonstrated stable diffuse plasmas sustained by repetitive nanosecond pulses in supersonic air flow, and for the first time have demonstrated the existence of MHD effects in such plasmas. Cold-air hypersonic MHD devices are shown to permit optimization of scramjet inlets at Mach numbers higher than the design value, while operating in self-powered regime. Plasma energy addition upstream of the inlet throat can increase the thrust by capturing more air (Virtual Cowl), or it can reduce the flow Mach number and thus eliminate the need for an isolator duct. In the latter two cases, the power that needs to be supplied to the plasma would be generated by an MHD generator downstream of the combustor, thus forming the 'reverse energy bypass' scheme. MHD power generation on board reentry vehicles is also discussed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mihai Leonida NICULESCU
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The temperature in the nose region of a hypersonic vehicle can be extremely high, for example, reaching approximately 11 000 K at a Mach number of 36 (Apollo reentry. The bow shock wave is normal, or nearly normal, in the nose region of a blunt body, and the gas temperature behind this shock wave can be enormous at hypersonic speeds. In this case, the assumption of a calorically perfect nonreacting gas with the ratio of specific heats of 1.4 gives an unrealistically high value of temperature. Therefore, the proper inclusion of chemically reacting effects is vital to the calculation of an accurate normal shock wave temperature.
Study of the coupling between real gas effects and rarefied effects on hypersonic aerodynamics
Chen, Song; Hu, Yuan; Sun, Quanhua
2012-11-01
Hypersonic vehicles travel across the atmosphere at very high speed, and the surrounding gas experiences complicated physical and chemical processes. These processes produce real gas effects at high temperature and rarefied gas effects at high altitude where the two effects are coupled through molecular collisions. In this study, we aim to identify the individual real gas and rarefied gas effects by simulating hypersonic flow over a 2D cylinder, a sphere and a blunted cone using a continuum-based CFD approach and the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. It is found that physical processes such as vibrational excitation and chemical reaction will reduce significantly the shock stand-off distance and flow temperature for flows having small Knudsen number. The calculated skin friction and surface heat flux will decrease when the real gas effects are considered in simulations. The trend, however, gets weakened as the Knudsen number increases. It is concluded that the rarefied gas effects weaken the real gas effects on hypersonic flows.
Improved Hypersonic Inlet Performance Using Validated Strut Compression Designs
Bulman, M. J.; Stout, P. W.; Fernandez, R.
1997-01-01
Aerojet is currently executing two Strutjet propulsion contracts: one a Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine for a NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Reusable Transportation Technology (ARTT) program, the second a Dual Mode Ram/Scramjet engine for a USAF Wright Laboratories Storable Fuel Scramjet Flow Path Concepts program. The engines employed in both programs operate at supersonic and low hypersonic speeds and use inlets employing forebody external and sidewall compression. Aerojet has developed and validated a successful design methodology applicable to these inlet types. Design features include an integrated vehicle forebody, external side compression struts, strut sidewall and throat bleed, a throat shock trap, and variable geometry internal contraction. Computation Fluid Dynamic (CFD) predictions and test data show these inlets allow substantially increased flow turning angles over other designs. These increased flow turning angles allow shorter and lighter engines than current designs, which in turn enables higher performing vehicles with broad operating characteristics. This paper describes the designs of two different inlets evaluated by the NASA-MSFC and USAF programs, discusses the results of wind tunnel tests performed by NASA-Lewis Research Center, and provides correlations of test data with CFD predictions. Parameters of interest include low Mach number starting capability, start sensitivity as a function of back pressure at various contraction ratios, flow turning angles, strut and throat bleed effects, and pressure recovery at various Mach numbers.
An Upgrade of the Imaging for Hypersonic Experimental Aeroheating Testing (IHEAT) Software
Mason, Michelle L.; Rufer, Shann J.
2015-01-01
The Imaging for Hypersonic Experimental Aeroheating Testing (IHEAT) code is used at NASA Langley Research Center to analyze global aeroheating data on wind tunnel models tested in the Langley Aerothermodynamics Laboratory. One-dimensional, semi-infinite heating data derived from IHEAT are used to design thermal protection systems to mitigate the risks due to the aeroheating loads on hypersonic vehicles, such as re-entry vehicles during descent and landing procedures. This code was originally written in the PV-WAVE programming language to analyze phosphor thermography data from the two-color, relativeintensity system developed at Langley. To increase the efficiency, functionality, and reliability of IHEAT, the code was migrated to MATLAB syntax and compiled as a stand-alone executable file labeled version 4.0. New features of IHEAT 4.0 include the options to batch process all of the data from a wind tunnel run, to map the two-dimensional heating distribution to a three-dimensional computer-aided design model of the vehicle to be viewed in Tecplot, and to extract data from a segmented line that follows an interesting feature in the data. Results from IHEAT 4.0 were compared on a pixel level to the output images from the legacy code to validate the program. The differences between the two codes were on the order of 10-5 to 10-7. IHEAT 4.0 replaces the PV-WAVE version as the production code for aeroheating experiments conducted in the hypersonic facilities at NASA Langley.
Current Hypersonic and Space Vehicle Flight Test and Instrumentation
2015-06-22
ground station hardware and software. B. Space- based Platforms There are already in place several satellite based options to collecting and... Transceive data over very long range at low to very high altitudes DARPA: XS-1 Ground Based Aircraft Based Space Based Future Data...412TW-PA-15264 AIR FORCE TEST CENTER EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE , CALIFORNIA AIR FORCE MATERIEL COMMAND UNITED STATES AIR FORCE REPORT
CFD Aerothermodynamic Characterization Of The IXV Hypersonic Vehicle
Roncioni, P.; Ranuzzi, G.; Marini, M.; Battista, F.; Rufolo, G. C.
2011-05-01
In this paper, and in the framework of the ESA technical assistance activities for IXV project, the numerical activities carried out by ASI/CIRA to support the development of Aerodynamic and Aerothermodynamic databases, independent from the ones developed by the IXV Industrial consortium, are reported. A general characterization of the IXV aerothermodynamic environment has been also provided for cross checking and verification purposes. The work deals with the first year activities of Technical Assistance Contract agreed between the Italian Space Agency/CIRA and ESA.
Multifunctional Aerogel Thermal Protection Systems for Hypersonic Vehicles, Phase II
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of the Phase II project is to develop lightweight reinforced aerogel materials for use as the core structural insulation material in...
Low Density Real Gas Flows About Hypersonic Vehicles.
1991-11-01
equations with fully-coupled finite rate air chemistry. The development of the HYLDA code was motivated by the difficulty of current wind tunnel...2ps,,.,, - psj = , (3-30) PN. 2pNwa - pNead u Uadj v Vadj w T Wadj bc 2TLMau - TadJ where PS4 -- PSj if noncatalytic wall = calculated if catalytic wall
Environmental Assessment for Hypersonic Technology Vehicle 2 Flight Tests
2009-04-01
areas were noted to contain high-quality Pisonia and Pisonia/ Cordia forests and some coconut palm trees. Twelve kinds of sea and shore birds and other...Pisonia, Cordia , and/or other tree and shrub species. Coconut palms are also common and widespread on several of the islands. Bird populations are
Final Environmental Assessment for Hypersonic Technology Vehicle 2 Flight Tests
2009-04-28
areas were noted to contain high-quality Pisonia and Pisonia/ Cordia forests and some coconut palm trees. Twelve kinds of sea and shore birds and other...Pisonia, Cordia , and/or other tree and shrub species. Coconut palms are also common and widespread on several of the islands. Bird populations are
Reduced-Order Aerothermoelastic Analysis of Hypersonic Vehicle Structures
2012-01-01
varying extents and are motivated largely by the need to assess the response of the structure as well as its aerothermoelastic stability. Praveen and...Florida, AIAA 2010-2965. [38] Praveen , G. N. and Reddy, J. N., “Nonlinear Transient Thermoelastic Analysis of Functionally Graded Ceramic-Metal Plates
Numerical simulation as an important tool in developing novel hypersonic technologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bocharov, A N; Bityurin, V A; Medin, S A; Naumov, N D; Petrovskiy, V P; Ryabkov, O I; Tatarinov, A V; Teplyakov, I O; Fortov, V E; Balakirev, B A; Golovin, N N; Solomonov, Yu S; Tikhonov, A A; Gryaznov, V K; Iosilevskiy, I L; Evstigneev, N M
2015-01-01
Development of novel hypersonic technologies necessarily requires the development of methods for analyzing a motion of hypervelocity vehicles. This paper could be considered as the initial stage in developing of complex computational model for studying flows around hypervelocity vehicles of arbitrary shape. Essential part of the model is a solution to three-dimensional transport equations for mass, momentum and energy for the medium in the state of both LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium) and non-LTE. One of the primary requirements to the developed model is the realization on the modern heterogeneous computer systems including both CPU and GPU. The paper presents the first results on numerical simulation of hypersonic flow. The first problem considered is three-dimensional flow around curved body under angle of attack. The performance of heterogeneous 4-GPU computer system is tested. The second problem highlights the capabilities of the developed model to study heat and mass transfer problems. Namely, interior heat problem is considered which takes into account ablation of thermal protection system and variation of the surface shape of the vehicle. (paper)
Biophysical basis for the geometry of conical stromatolites.
Petroff, Alexander P; Sim, Min Sub; Maslov, Andrey; Krupenin, Mikhail; Rothman, Daniel H; Bosak, Tanja
2010-06-01
Stromatolites may be Earth's oldest macroscopic fossils; however, it remains controversial what, if any, biological processes are recorded in their morphology. Although the biological interpretation of many stromatolite morphologies is confounded by the influence of sedimentation, conical stromatolites form in the absence of sedimentation and are, therefore, considered to be the most robust records of biophysical processes. A qualitative similarity between conical stromatolites and some modern microbial mats suggests a photosynthetic origin for ancient stromatolites. To better understand and interpret ancient fossils, we seek a quantitative relationship between the geometry of conical stromatolites and the biophysical processes that control their growth. We note that all modern conical stromatolites and many that formed in the last 2.8 billion years display a characteristic centimeter-scale spacing between neighboring structures. To understand this prominent-but hitherto uninterpreted-organization, we consider the role of diffusion in mediating competition between stromatolites. Having confirmed this model through laboratory experiments and field observation, we find that organization of a field of stromatolites is set by a diffusive time scale over which individual structures compete for nutrients, thus linking form to physiology. The centimeter-scale spacing between modern and ancient stromatolites corresponds to a rhythmically fluctuating metabolism with a period of approximately 20 hr. The correspondence between the observed spacing and the day length provides quantitative support for the photosynthetic origin of conical stromatolites throughout geologic time.
Conical twist fields and null polygonal Wilson loops
Castro-Alvaredo, Olalla A.; Doyon, Benjamin; Fioravanti, Davide
2018-06-01
Using an extension of the concept of twist field in QFT to space-time (external) symmetries, we study conical twist fields in two-dimensional integrable QFT. These create conical singularities of arbitrary excess angle. We show that, upon appropriate identification between the excess angle and the number of sheets, they have the same conformal dimension as branch-point twist fields commonly used to represent partition functions on Riemann surfaces, and that both fields have closely related form factors. However, we show that conical twist fields are truly different from branch-point twist fields. They generate different operator product expansions (short distance expansions) and form factor expansions (large distance expansions). In fact, we verify in free field theories, by re-summing form factors, that the conical twist fields operator product expansions are correctly reproduced. We propose that conical twist fields are the correct fields in order to understand null polygonal Wilson loops/gluon scattering amplitudes of planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory.
Generation of fast multiply charged ions in conical targets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demchenko, V.V.; Chukbar, K.V.
1990-01-01
So-called conical targets, when the thermonuclear fuel is compressed and heated in a conical cavity in a heavy material (lead, gold, etc.) with the help of a spherical segment that is accelerated by a laser pulse or a beam of charged particles, are often employed in experimental studies of inertial-confinement fusion. In spite of the obvious advantages of such a scheme, one of which is a significant reduction of the required energy input compared with the complete spherical target, it also introduces additional effects into the process of cumulation of energy. In this paper the authors call attention to an effect observed in numerical calculations: the hydrodynamic heating of a small group of multiply charged heavy ions of the walls of the conical cavity up to high energies (T i approx-gt 100 keV). This effect ultimately occurs as a result of the high radiation losses of a multiply charged plasma
Hole Feature on Conical Face Recognition for Turning Part Model
Zubair, A. F.; Abu Mansor, M. S.
2018-03-01
Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP) is the bridge between CAD and CAM and pre-processing of the CAD data in the CAPP system is essential. For CNC turning part, conical faces of part model is inevitable to be recognised beside cylindrical and planar faces. As the sinus cosines of the cone radius structure differ according to different models, face identification in automatic feature recognition of the part model need special intention. This paper intends to focus hole on feature on conical faces that can be detected by CAD solid modeller ACIS via. SAT file. Detection algorithm of face topology were generated and compared. The study shows different faces setup for similar conical part models with different hole type features. Three types of holes were compared and different between merge faces and unmerge faces were studied.
Probabilistic structural assessment of conical grouted joint using numerical modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Njomo-Wandji, Wilfried; Natarajan, Anand; Dimitrov, Nikolay
2018-01-01
Conical grouted joints have been proposed as a solution for the relative settlement observed between the sleeve and the pile on monopiles for wind turbines. In this paper, the influence of the design parameters such as steel wall thicknesses and conical angle on the failure modes associated...... to continual loadings are assessed based on finite element analysis. It is found that both the sleeve's and pile's wall thicknesses have a significant impact on the grouted joint health. Namely, the larger are the wall thicknesses, the more vulnerable the grout is with respect to fatigue and material...
Wave-vector and polarization dependence of conical refraction.
Turpin, A; Loiko, Yu V; Kalkandjiev, T K; Tomizawa, H; Mompart, J
2013-02-25
We experimentally address the wave-vector and polarization dependence of the internal conical refraction phenomenon by demonstrating that an input light beam of elliptical transverse profile refracts into two beams after passing along one of the optic axes of a biaxial crystal, i.e. it exhibits double refraction instead of refracting conically. Such double refraction is investigated by the independent rotation of a linear polarizer and a cylindrical lens. Expressions to describe the position and the intensity pattern of the refracted beams are presented and applied to predict the intensity pattern for an axicon beam propagating along the optic axis of a biaxial crystal.
Modeling study of rarefied gas effects on hypersonic reacting stagnation flows
Wang, Zhihui; Bao, Lin
2014-12-01
Recent development of the near space hypersonic sharp leading vehicles has raised a necessity to fast and accurately predict the aeroheating in hypersonic rarefied flows, which challenges our understanding of the aerothermodynamics and aerothermochemistry. The present flow and heat transfer problem involves complex rarefied gas effects and nonequilibrium real gas effects which are beyond the scope of the traditional prediction theory based on the continuum hypothesis and equilibrium assumption. As a typical example, it has been found that the classical Fay-Riddell equation fails to predict the stagnation point heat flux, when the flow is either rarefied or chemical nonequilibrium. In order to design a more general theory covering the rarefied reacting flow cases, an intuitive model is proposed in this paper to describe the nonequilibrium dissociation-recombination flow along the stagnation streamline towards a slightly blunted nose in hypersonic rarefied flows. Some characteristic flow parameters are introduced, and based on these parameters, an explicitly analytical bridging function is established to correct the traditional theory to accurately predict the actual aeroheating performance. It is shown that for a small size nose in medium density flows, the flow at the outer edge of the stagnation point boundary layer could be highly nonequilibrium, and the aeroheating performance is distinguished from that of the big blunt body reentry flows at high altitudes. As a result, when the rarefied gas effects and the nonequilibrium real gas effects are both significant, the classical similarity law could be questionable, and it is inadequate to directly analogize results from the classical blunt body reentry problems to the present new generation sharp-leading vehicles. In addition, the direct simulation Monte Carlo method is also employed to validate the conclusion.
Features of the Upgraded Imaging for Hypersonic Experimental Aeroheating Testing (IHEAT) Software
Mason, Michelle L.; Rufer, Shann J.
2016-01-01
The Imaging for Hypersonic Experimental Aeroheating Testing (IHEAT) software is used at the NASA Langley Research Center to analyze global aeroheating data on wind tunnel models tested in the Langley Aerothermodynamics Laboratory. One-dimensional, semi-infinite heating data derived from IHEAT are used in the design of thermal protection systems for hypersonic vehicles that are exposed to severe aeroheating loads, such as reentry vehicles during descent and landing procedures. This software program originally was written in the PV-WAVE(Registered Trademark) programming language to analyze phosphor thermography data from the two-color, relative-intensity system developed at Langley. To increase the efficiency, functionality, and reliability of IHEAT, the program was migrated to MATLAB(Registered Trademark) syntax and compiled as a stand-alone executable file labeled version 4.0. New features of IHEAT 4.0 include the options to perform diagnostic checks of the accuracy of the acquired data during a wind tunnel test, to extract data along a specified multi-segment line following a feature such as a leading edge or a streamline, and to batch process all of the temporal frame data from a wind tunnel run. Results from IHEAT 4.0 were compared on a pixel level to the output images from the legacy software to validate the program. The absolute differences between the heat transfer data output from the two programs were on the order of 10(exp -5) to 10(exp -7). IHEAT 4.0 replaces the PV-WAVE(Registered Trademark) version as the production software for aeroheating experiments conducted in the hypersonic facilities at NASA Langley.
GPM GROUND VALIDATION CONICAL SCANNING MILLIMETER-WAVE IMAGING RADIOMETER (COSMIR) MC3E V1
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (COSMIR) MC3E dataset used the Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer...
GPM GROUND VALIDATION CONICAL SCANNING MILLIMETER-WAVE IMAGING RADIOMETER (COSMIR) GCPEX V1
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (COSMIR) GCPEx dataset used the Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer...
Experimental Investigation of Hypersonic Flow and Plasma Aerodynamic Actuation Interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Quan; Cheng Bangqin; Li Yinghong; Cui Wei; Yu Yonggui; Jie Junhun
2013-01-01
For hypersonic flow, it was found that the most effective plasma actuator is derived from an electromagnetic perturbation. An experimental study was performed between hypersonic flow and plasma aerodynamic actuation interaction in a hypersonic shock tunnel, in which a Mach number of 7 was reached. The plasma discharging characteristic was acquired in static flows. In a hypersonic flow, the flow field can affect the plasma discharging characteristics. DC discharging without magnetic force is unstable, and the discharge channel cannot be maintained. When there is a magnetic field, the energy consumption of the plasma source is approximately three to four times larger than that without a magnetic field, and at the same time plasma discharge can also affect the hypersonic flow field. Through schlieren pictures and pressure measurement, it was found that plasma discharging could induce shockwaves and change the total pressure and wall pressure of the flow field
Unstart coupling mechanism analysis of multiple-modules hypersonic inlet.
Hu, Jichao; Chang, Juntao; Wang, Lei; Cao, Shibin; Bao, Wen
2013-01-01
The combination of multiplemodules in parallel manner is an important way to achieve the much higher thrust of scramjet engine. For the multiple-modules scramjet engine, when inlet unstarted oscillatory flow appears in a single-module engine due to high backpressure, how to interact with each module by massflow spillage, and whether inlet unstart occurs in other modules are important issues. The unstarted flowfield and coupling characteristic for a three-module hypersonic inlet caused by center module II and side module III were, conducted respectively. The results indicate that the other two hypersonic inlets are forced into unstarted flow when unstarted phenomenon appears on a single-module hypersonic inlet due to high backpressure, and the reversed flow in the isolator dominates the formation, expansion, shrinkage, and disappearance of the vortexes, and thus, it is the major factor of unstart coupling of multiple-modules hypersonic inlet. The coupling effect among multiple modules makes hypersonic inlet be more likely unstarted.
Wilder, Michael C.; Reda, Daniel C.
2004-01-01
The NASA-Ames ballistic range provides a unique capability for aerothermodynamic testing of configurations in hypersonic, real-gas, free-flight environments. The facility can closely simulate conditions at any point along practically any trajectory of interest experienced by a spacecraft entering an atmosphere. Sub-scale models of blunt atmospheric entry vehicles are accelerated by a two-stage light-gas gun to speeds as high as 20 times the speed of sound to fly ballistic trajectories through an 24 m long vacuum-rated test section. The test-section pressure (effective altitude), the launch velocity of the model (flight Mach number), and the test-section working gas (planetary atmosphere) are independently variable. The model travels at hypersonic speeds through a quiescent test gas, creating a strong bow-shock wave and real-gas effects that closely match conditions achieved during actual atmospheric entry. The challenge with ballistic range experiments is to obtain quantitative surface measurements from a model traveling at hypersonic speeds. The models are relatively small (less than 3.8 cm in diameter), which limits the spatial resolution possible with surface mounted sensors. Furthermore, since the model is in flight, surface-mounted sensors require some form of on-board telemetry, which must survive the massive acceleration loads experienced during launch (up to 500,000 gravities). Finally, the model and any on-board instrumentation will be destroyed at the terminal wall of the range. For these reasons, optical measurement techniques are the most practical means of acquiring data. High-speed thermal imaging has been employed in the Ames ballistic range to measure global surface temperature distributions and to visualize the onset of transition to turbulent-flow on the forward regions of hypersonic blunt bodies. Both visible wavelength and infrared high-speed cameras are in use. The visible wavelength cameras are intensified CCD imagers capable of integration
Wear Assessment of Conical Pick used in Coal Cutting Operation
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Dewangan, S.; Chattopadhyaya, S.; Hloch, Sergej
-, 11/2014 (2014), s. 1-6 ISSN 0723-2632 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : conical pick * wear * SEM * EDX Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 2.420, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00603-014-0680-z
Conical Dispersion and Effective Zero Refractive Index in Photonic Quasicrystals
J. Dong; M Chang; X. Huang; Z. Hang; Z. Zhong; W. Chen; Z. Huang; C. Chan; X. Huang; Z. Huang
2015-01-01
htmlabstractIt is recognized that for a certain class of periodic photonic crystals, conical dispersion can be related to a zero-refractive index. It is not obvious whether such a notion can be extended to a noncrystalline system. We show that certain photonic quasicrystalline approximants have
Thermokinetics of heterogeneous droplet nucleation on conically textured substrates.
Singha, Sanat K; Das, Prasanta K; Maiti, Biswajit
2015-11-28
Within the framework of the classical theory of heterogeneous nucleation, a thermokinetic model is developed for line-tension-associated droplet nucleation on conical textures considering growth or shrinkage of the formed cluster due to both interfacial and peripheral monomer exchange and by considering different geometric configurations. Along with the principle of free energy extremization, Katz kinetic approach has been employed to study the effect of substrate conicity and wettability on the thermokinetics of heterogeneous water droplet nucleation. Not only the peripheral tension is found to have a considerable effect on the free energy barrier but also the substrate hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity are observed to switch over their roles between conical crest and trough for different growth rates of the droplet. Besides, the rate of nucleation increases and further promotes nucleation for negative peripheral tension as it diminishes the free energy barrier appreciably. Moreover, nucleation inhibition can be achievable for positive peripheral tension due to the enhancement of the free energy barrier. Analyzing all possible geometric configurations, the hydrophilic narrower conical cavity is found to be the most preferred nucleation site. These findings suggest a physical insight into the context of surface engineering for the promotion or the suppression of nucleation on real or engineered substrates.
Polynomial modal analysis of lamellar diffraction gratings in conical mounting.
Randriamihaja, Manjakavola Honore; Granet, Gérard; Edee, Kofi; Raniriharinosy, Karyl
2016-09-01
An efficient numerical modal method for modeling a lamellar grating in conical mounting is presented. Within each region of the grating, the electromagnetic field is expanded onto Legendre polynomials, which allows us to enforce in an exact manner the boundary conditions that determine the eigensolutions. Our code is successfully validated by comparison with results obtained with the analytical modal method.
Variable volume combustor with a conical liner support
Johnson, Thomas Edward; McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin; Keener, Chrisophter Paul; Ostebee, Heath Michael
2017-06-27
The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a conical liner support supporting the liner.
RECIPES FOR BUILDING THE DUAL OF CONIC OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Diah Chaerani
2010-08-01
Full Text Available Building the dual of the primal problem of Conic Optimization (CO isa very important step to make the ¯nding optimal solution. In many cases a givenproblem does not have the simple structure of CO problem (i.e., minimizing a linearfunction over an intersection between a±ne space and convex cones but there areseveral conic constraints and sometimes also equality constraints. In this paper wedeal with the question how to form the dual problem in such cases. We discuss theanswer by considering several conic constraints with or without equality constraints.The recipes for building the dual of such cases is formed in standard matrix forms,such that it can be used easily on the numerical experiment. Special attention isgiven to dual development of special classes of CO problems, i.e., conic quadraticand semide¯nite problems. In this paper, we also brie°y present some preliminariestheory on CO as an introduction to the main topic
Parameter dependence of conic angle of nanofibres during electrospinning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Zhengping; Wu Xiangfa; Jiang Long; Gao Xueqin; Zhao Yong; Fong Hao
2011-01-01
This paper reports the dependence of conic angle of nanofibres on the processing and material parameters during electrospinning. Solutions of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in dimethylformamide (DMF) with varied PAN concentrations were studied as the model systems, and they were electrospun into nanofibres at different high direct current (dc) voltages, flow rates and needle diameters. The dynamic and transient shear viscosities of the PAN/DMF solutions were characterized by a parallel-plate rheometer at varied shear rates. Rheological measurements showed that the PAN/DMF solutions behaved as Newtonian fluids at relatively low to medium shear rates, while the solutions with high PAN concentrations of 18 and 20 wt% exhibited a significant shear-thinning behaviour at high shear rates, especially in the case of transient shear mode. Experimental results indicated that at the electrostatic field of ∼80 kV m -1 and needle inner diameter of 0.48 mm (22 gauge), the conic angle of the nanofibre envelope decreased from ∼160° to ∼75° with an increase in PAN concentration from 12 to 20 wt%; at the PAN concentration of 16 wt%, the conic angle increased nonlinearly from ∼40° to ∼160° with an increase in electric field from 50 to 140 kV m -1 . In addition, experimental results showed that the needle inner diameter also noticeably influenced the conic angle. This study provided the experimental evidence useful for understanding the scaling properties of electrohydrodynamic jet motion for controllable electrospinning and process modelling.
Smooth structures on pseudomanifolds with isolated conical singularities
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Le, Hong-Van; Somberg, P.; Vanžura, Jiří
2013-01-01
Roč. 38, č. 1 (2013), s. 33-54 ISSN 0251-4184 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : conical pseudomanifold * symplectic form * Poisson structure Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40306-013-0009-0#
Analysis of the conical piezoelectric acoustic emission transducer
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Červená, Olga; Hora, Petr
2008-01-01
Roč. 2, č. 1 (2008), s. 13-24 ISSN 1802-680X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/06/1689 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : acoustic emission * conical transducer * FEM Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics
Performance Optimization of a Conical Dielectric Elastomer Actuator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chongjing Cao
2018-06-01
Full Text Available Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs are known as ‘artificial muscles’ due to their large actuation strain, high energy density and self-sensing capability. The conical configuration has been widely adopted in DEA applications such as bio-inspired locomotion and micropumps for its good compactness, ease for fabrication and large actuation stroke. However, the conical protrusion of the DEA membrane is characterized by inhomogeneous stresses, which complicate their design. In this work, we present an analytical model-based optimization for conical DEAs with the three biasing elements: (I linear compression spring; (II biasing mass; and (III antagonistic double-cone DEA. The optimization is to find the maximum stroke and work output of a conical DEA by tuning its geometry (inner disk to outer frame radius ratio a/b and pre-stretch ratio. The results show that (a for all three cases, stroke and work output are maximum for a pre-stretch ratio of 1 × 1 for the Parker silicone elastomer, which suggests the stretch caused by out-of-plane deformation is sufficient for this specific elastomer. (b Stroke maximization is obtained for a lower a/b ratio while a larger a/b ratio is required to maximize work output, but the optimal a/b ratio is less than 0.3 in all three cases. (c The double-cone configuration has the largest stroke while single cone with a biasing mass has the highest work output.
Flexible Thermal Protection System Development for Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators
DelCorso, Joseph A.; Bruce, Walter E., III; Hughes, Stephen J.; Dec, John A.; Rezin, Marc D.; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Guo, Haiquan; Fletcher, Douglas G.; Calomino, Anthony M.; Cheatwood, McNeil
2012-01-01
The Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (HIAD) project has invested in development of multiple thermal protection system (TPS) candidates to be used in inflatable, high downmass, technology flight projects. Flexible TPS is one element of the HIAD project which is tasked with the research and development of the technology ranging from direct ground tests, modelling and simulation, characterization of TPS systems, manufacturing and handling, and standards and policy definition. The intent of flexible TPS is to enable large deployable aeroshell technologies, which increase the drag performance while significantly reducing the ballistic coefficient of high-mass entry vehicles. A HIAD requires a flexible TPS capable of surviving aerothermal loads, and durable enough to survive the rigors of construction, handling, high density packing, long duration exposure to extrinsic, in-situ environments, and deployment. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of key work being performed within the Flexible TPS element of the HIAD project. Included in this paper is an overview of, and results from, each Flexible TPS research and development activity, which includes ground testing, physics-based thermal modelling, age testing, margins policy, catalysis, materials characterization, and recent developments with new TPS materials.
Marroquin, J.
1985-01-01
An experimental investigation was performed in the NASA/Ames Research Center 3.5-foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel to obtain supersonic heat-distribution data in areas between the orbiter and external tank using phase-change paint techniques. The tests used Novamide SSV Model 56-OTS in the first and second-stage ascent configurations. Data were obtained at a nominal Mach number of 5.3 and a Reynolds number per foot of 5 x 10 to the 6th power with angles of attack of 0 deg, +/- 5 deg, and sideslip angles of 0 deg and +/- 5 deg.
Computational study on the effect of a conical spring on handling of buses at low speed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rajagopalan Aravind
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Handling and ride characteristic are dependent to a large extent on the characteristic of a vehicle’s suspension system. This work explores the effect of the use of conical spring in place of conventional cylindrical profiled helical spring design in the handling of a bus at low speeds through full vehicle multi-body simulations. The bus was modelled using standard template available in ADAMSTM software package. The vehicle inertial properties were verified against properties in literature. The conventional spring characteristic (L from ADAMSTM database was taken as reference and compared it with a non-linear characteristic (NL based on literature data. The planned maneuover was to execute a right turn based on standard road dimension inputs from IRC 86:1983 at a constant speed of 30 km/hour with acceleration controlled by software module. Chassis displacements, displacements of spring were tracked to understand handling and ride quality. The variation of chassis displacements showed a significant improvement in ride characteristic of vehicle with most vibrations being damped in NL at time lower than the L characteristic suspension. All through the study, lateral acceleration was well within the rollover threshold and tire interaction forces did not exhibit any significant changes.
Analytical solutions of hypersonic type IV shock - shock interactions
Frame, Michael John
An analytical model has been developed to predict the effects of a type IV shock interaction at high Mach numbers. This interaction occurs when an impinging oblique shock wave intersects the most normal portion of a detached bow shock. The flowfield which develops is complicated and contains an embedded jet of supersonic flow, which may be unsteady. The jet impinges on the blunt body surface causing very high pressure and heating loads. Understanding this type of interaction is vital to the designers of cowl lips and leading edges on air- breathing hypersonic vehicles. This analytical model represents the first known attempt at predicting the geometry of the interaction explicitly, without knowing beforehand the jet dimensions, including the length of the transmitted shock where the jet originates. The model uses a hyperbolic equation for the bow shock and by matching mass continuity, flow directions and pressure throughout the flowfield, a prediction of the interaction geometry can be derived. The model has been shown to agree well with the flowfield patterns and properties of experiments and CFD, but the prediction for where the peak pressure is located, and its value, can be significantly in error due to a lack of sophistication in the model of the jet fluid stagnation region. Therefore it is recommended that this region of the flowfield be modeled in more detail and more accurate experimental and CFD measurements be used for validation. However, the analytical model has been shown to be a fast and economic prediction tool, suitable for preliminary design, or for understanding the interactions effects, including the basic physics of the interaction, such as the jet unsteadiness. The model has been used to examine a wide parametric space of possible interactions, including different Mach number, impinging shock strength and location, and cylinder radius. It has also been used to examine the interaction on power-law shaped blunt bodies, a possible candidate for
Li, Zhaoying; Zhou, Wenjie; Liu, Hao
2016-09-01
This paper addresses the nonlinear robust tracking controller design problem for hypersonic vehicles. This problem is challenging due to strong coupling between the aerodynamics and the propulsion system, and the uncertainties involved in the vehicle dynamics including parametric uncertainties, unmodeled model uncertainties, and external disturbances. By utilizing the feedback linearization technique, a linear tracking error system is established with prescribed references. For the linear model, a robust controller is proposed based on the signal compensation theory to guarantee that the tracking error dynamics is robustly stable. Numerical simulation results are given to show the advantages of the proposed nonlinear robust control method, compared to the robust loop-shaping control approach. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chen, Y. K.; Henline, W. D.
1993-01-01
The general boundary conditions including mass and energy balances of chemically equilibrated or nonequilibrated gas adjacent to ablating surfaces have been derived. A computer procedure based on these conditions was developed and interfaced with the Navier-Stokes solver for predictions of the flow field, surface temperature, and surface ablation rates over re-entry space vehicles with ablating Thermal Protection Systems (TPS). The Navier-Stokes solver with general surface thermochemistry boundary conditions can predict more realistic solutions and provide useful information for the design of TPS. A test case with a proposed hypersonic test vehicle configuration and associated free stream conditions was developed. Solutions with various surface boundary conditions were obtained, and the effect of nonequilibrium gas as well as surface chemistry on surface heating and ablation rate were examined. The solutions of the GASP code with complete ablating surface conditions were compared with those of the ASC code. The direction of future work is also discussed.
A database of aerothermal measurements in hypersonic flow for CFD validation
Holden, M. S.; Moselle, J. R.
1992-01-01
This paper presents an experimental database selected and compiled from aerothermal measurements obtained on basic model configurations on which fundamental flow phenomena could be most easily examined. The experimental studies were conducted in hypersonic flows in 48-inch, 96-inch, and 6-foot shock tunnels. A special computer program was constructed to provide easy access to the measurements in the database as well as the means to plot the measurements and compare them with imported data. The database contains tabulations of model configurations, freestream conditions, and measurements of heat transfer, pressure, and skin friction for each of the studies selected for inclusion. The first segment contains measurements in laminar flow emphasizing shock-wave boundary-layer interaction. In the second segment, measurements in transitional flows over flat plates and cones are given. The third segment comprises measurements in regions of shock-wave/turbulent-boundary-layer interactions. Studies of the effects of surface roughness of nosetips and conical afterbodies are presented in the fourth segment of the database. Detailed measurements in regions of shock/shock boundary layer interaction are contained in the fifth segment. Measurements in regions of wall jet and transpiration cooling are presented in the final two segments.
Algorithm For Hypersonic Flow In Chemical Equilibrium
Palmer, Grant
1989-01-01
Implicit, finite-difference, shock-capturing algorithm calculates inviscid, hypersonic flows in chemical equilibrium. Implicit formulation chosen because overcomes limitation on mathematical stability encountered in explicit formulations. For dynamical portion of problem, Euler equations written in conservation-law form in Cartesian coordinate system for two-dimensional or axisymmetric flow. For chemical portion of problem, equilibrium state of gas at each point in computational grid determined by minimizing local Gibbs free energy, subject to local conservation of molecules, atoms, ions, and total enthalpy. Major advantage: resulting algorithm naturally stable and captures strong shocks without help of artificial-dissipation terms to damp out spurious numerical oscillations.
Experimental Study Of SHEFEX II Hypersonic Aerodynamics And Canard Efficiency In H2K
Neeb, D.; Gulhan, A.
2011-05-01
One main objective of the DLR SHEFEX programme is to prove that sharp edged vehicles are capable of performing a re-entry into earth atmosphere by using a simple thermal protection system consisting of flat ceramic tiles. In comparison to blunt nose configurations like the Space shuttle, which are normally used for re-entry configurations, the SHEFEX TPS design is able to significantly reduce the costs and complexity of TPS structures and simultaneously increase the aerodynamic performance of the flight vehicle [1], [2]. To study its characteristics and perform several defined in-flight experiments during re-entry, the vehicle’s attitude will be controlled actively by canards [3]. In the framework of the SHEFEX II project an experimental investigation has been conducted in the hypersonic wind tunnel H2K to characterize the aerodynamic performance of the vehicle in hypersonic flow regime. The model has a modular design to enable the study of a variety of different influencing parameters. Its 4 circumferential canards have been made independently adjustable to account for the simulation of different manoeuvre conditions. To study the control behaviour of the vehicle and validate CFD data, a variation of canard deflections, angle of attack and angle of sideslip have been applied. Tests have been carried out at Mach 7 and 8.7 with a Reynolds number sensitivity study at the lower Mach number. The model was equipped with a six component internal balance to realize accurate coefficient measurements. The flow topology has been analyzed using Schlieren images. Beside general aerodynamic performance and canard efficiencies, flow phenomena like shock impingement on the canards could be determined by Schlieren images as well as by the derived coefficients.
Pitot pressure analyses in CO2 condensing rarefied hypersonic flows
Ozawa, T.; Suzuki, T.; Fujita, K.
2016-11-01
In order to improve the accuracy of rarefied aerodynamic prediction, a hypersonic rarefied wind tunnel (HRWT) was developed at Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. While this wind tunnel has been limited to inert gases, such as nitrogen or argon, we recently extended the capability of HRWT to CO2 hypersonic flows for several Mars missions. Compared to our previous N2 cases, the condensation effect may not be negligible for CO2 rarefied aerodynamic measurements. Thus, in this work, we have utilized both experimental and numerical approaches to investigate the condensation and rarefaction effects in CO2 hypersonic nozzle flows.
Yao, Kuang-Ta; Chen, Chen-Sheng; Cheng, Cheng-Kung; Fang, Hsu-Wei; Huang, Chang-Hung; Kao, Hung-Chan; Hsu, Ming-Lun
2018-02-01
Conical implant-abutment connections are popular for their excellent connection stability, which is attributable to frictional resistance in the connection. However, conical angles, the inherent design parameter of conical connections, exert opposing effects on 2 influencing factors of the connection stability: frictional resistance and abutment rigidity. This pilot study employed an optimization approach through the finite element method to obtain an optimal conical angle for the highest connection stability in an Ankylos-based conical connection system. A nonlinear 3-dimensional finite element parametric model was developed according to the geometry of the Ankylos system (conical half angle = 5.7°) by using the ANSYS 11.0 software. Optimization algorithms were conducted to obtain the optimal conical half angle and achieve the minimal value of maximum von Mises stress in the abutment, which represents the highest connection stability. The optimal conical half angle obtained was 10.1°. Compared with the original design (5.7°), the optimal design demonstrated an increased rigidity of abutment (36.4%) and implant (25.5%), a decreased microgap at the implant-abutment interface (62.3%), a decreased contact pressure (37.9%) with a more uniform stress distribution in the connection, and a decreased stress in the cortical bone (4.5%). In conclusion, the methodology of design optimization to determine the optimal conical angle of the Ankylos-based system is feasible. Because of the heterogeneity of different systems, more studies should be conducted to define the optimal conical angle in various conical connection designs.
Production of ion beam by conical pinched electron beam diode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsukawa, Y.; Nakagawa, Y.
1982-01-01
Some properties of the ion beam produced by pinched electron beam diode having conical shape electrodes and organic insulator anode was studied. Ion energy is about 200keV and the peak diode current is about 30 kA. At 11cm from the diode apex, not the geometrical focus point, concentrated ion beam was obtained. Its density is more than 500A/cm 2 . The mean ion current density within the radius of 1.6cm around the axis from conical diode is two or three times that from an usual pinched electron beam diode with flat parallel electrodes of same dimension and impedance under the same conditions. (author)
Self-Propulsion Of Catalytic Conical Micro-Swimmer
Gallino, Giacomo; Gallaire, Francois; Lauga, Eric; Michelin, Sebastien
2017-11-01
Self-propelled artificial micro-motors have attracted much attention both as fundamental examples of active matter and for their potential biomedical applications (e.g. drug delivery, cell sorting). A popular design exploits the catalytic decomposition of a fuel (e.g. hydrogen peroxide) on the active surface of the motor to produce oxygen bubbles that propel the swimmer, effectively converting chemical energy into swimming motion. We focus here on a conical shape swimmer with chemically-active inner surfaces. Using numerical simulations of the chemical problem and viscous hydrodynamics, we analyze the formation, growth and motion of the bubbles inside the micro-motor and the resulting swimming motion. Our results shed light on the fundamental hydrodynamics of the propulsion of conical swimmers and may help to improve the efficiency of these machines. G.G. aknowledges support from the Swiss National Science Fundation.
Anisotropic Exchange Interaction in the Conical Magnetic Phase of Erbium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, J.
1974-01-01
From a general two ion spin Hamiltonian, an expression is deduced for the energies of spin waves propagating in a hexagonal solid in which the magnetic moments are ordered in a conical or helical structure. The spin wave dispersion relation in the c direction of Er in its conical magnetic phase...... at 4.5K, which has been studied by Nicklow et al (1971) is reanalysed. In this analysis an alternative kind of anisotropic coupling between the total angular moments (Ji and Jj) on the sites i and j is introduced which is proportional to the following combination of Racah operators: O2, -2(Ji), O2, -2......(Jj), expressed with respect to a coordinate system with the z axis along the c direction. The resulting anisotropy (both the constant and the q dependent part) is reduced by an order of magnitude in comparison with that deduced by Nicklow et al (1971). The constant anisotropy is found to be equal...
Helico-conical beams for generating optical twisters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin; Daria, Vincent Ricardo Mancao
2010-01-01
charge is increased, the area where destructive interference at the centre increases thereby enlarging the light ring. The propagation along the optical axis follows a conical ray of light where the concentration of high intensities is maintained at the outskirts of the conical beam where constructive...... with an apodized helical phase front at the outskirts and linearly scaled towards no phase singularity at the centre of the beam. At the focal volume, we show that our beam fonms an intensity distribution that can be accurately described as an "optical twister" as it propagates along the optical axis. Unlike LG...... beams, an optical twister can have minimal changes in radius but with a scalable DAM. Furthenmore, we characterize the DAM in tenms of its capacity to introduce spiral motion on particles trapped along its orbit. We also show that our "optical twister" maintains a high concentration of photons...
Direct determination of the resonance properties of metallic conical nanoantennas
Tuccio, Salvatore; Razzari, Luca; Alabastri, Alessandro; Toma, Andrea; Liberale, Carlo; De Angelis, Francesco De; Candeloro, Patrizio; Das, Gobind; Giugni, Andrea; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Proietti Zaccaria, Remo
2014-01-01
We present a simple method that is able to predict the resonant frequencies of a metallic conical nanoantenna. The alculation is based on an integral relation that takes into account the dependence of the effective refractive index of the plasmonic mode on the cone radius. Numerical simulations retrieving the near field properties of nanocones with different lengths are also performed for comparison. The fine agreement between the two approaches demonstrates the validity of our method. © 2014 Optical Society of America.
High efficiency conical scanner for earth resources applications
Bates, J. C.; Dumas, H. J., Jr.
1975-01-01
A description is given of a six-arm conical scanner which was selected to provide a continuous line-of-sight scan. Two versions of the instrument are considered. The two versions differ in their weight. The weight of the heavy version is 600 lbs. A light weight design which employs beryllium and aluminum optical components weighs only 350 lbs. A multiplexer and analog-to-digital converter are to be incorporated into the design. Questions of instrument performance are also discussed.
Mixed-Integer Conic Linear Programming: Challenges and Perspectives
2013-10-01
The novel DCCs for MISOCO may be used in branch- and-cut algorithms when solving MISOCO problems. The experimental software CICLO was developed to...perform limited, but rigorous computational experiments. The CICLO solver utilizes continuous SOCO solvers, MOSEK, CPLES or SeDuMi, builds on the open...submitted Fall 2013. Software: 1. CICLO : Integer conic linear optimization package. Authors: J.C. Góez, T.K. Ralphs, Y. Fu, and T. Terlaky
Radially Polarized Conical Beam from an Embedded Etched Fiber
Kalaidji , D.; Spajer , M.; Marthouret , N.; Grosjean , T.
2009-01-01
International audience; We propose a method for producing a conical beam based on the lateral refraction of the TM01 mode from a two-mode fiber after chemical etching of the cladding, and for controlling its radial polarization. The whole power of the guided mode is transferred to the refracted beam with low diffraction. Polarization control by a series of azimuthal detectors and a stress controller affords the transmission of a stabilized radial polarization through an optical fiber. A solid...
The Poisson equation in axisymmetric domains with conical points
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nkemzi, B.
2003-01-01
This paper analyzes the application of the Fourier-finite-element method (FFEM) for the resolution of the Derichlet problem for the Poisson equation -Δu-circumflex = f-circumflex in axisymmetric domains Ω-circumflex subset of R 3 with conical points on the rotation axis. The FFEM combines the approximate Fourier method with respect to one space direction with the finite element method for the approximate calculation of the Fourier coefficients of the solution. Here, the influence of the conical points on the regularity of the Fourier coefficients of the solution is analyzed and the asymptotic behaviour of the coefficients near the conical points is described by some singularity functions and treated numerically by mesh grading in the two-dimensional meridian of Ω-circumflex. It is proved that for f-circumflex in L 2 (Ω-circumflex), the rate of convergence of the combined approximations in the Sobolev space W 2 1 (Ω-circumflex) is of the order O(h + N -1 ), where h and N represent, respectively, the parameters of the finite-element- and the Fourier-approximation, with h → 0 and n → ∞. (author)
Experiments on active precision isolation with a smart conical adapter
Li, H.; Li, H. Y.; Chen, Z. B.; Tzou, H. S.
2016-07-01
Based on a conical shell adaptor, an active vibration isolator for vibration control of precision payload is designed and tested in this study. Flexible piezoelectric sensors and actuators are bonded on the adaptor surface for active vibration monitoring and control. The mathematical model of a piezoelectric laminated conical shell is derived and then optimal design of the actuators is performed for the first axial vibration mode of the isolation system. A scaled conical adaptor is manufactured with four MFC actuators laminating on its outer surface. Active vibration isolation efficiency is then evaluated on a vibration shaker. The control model is built in Matlab/Simulink and programmed into the dSPACE control board. Experimental results show that, the proposed active isolator is effective in vibration suppression of payloads with the negative velocity feedback control. In contrast, the amplitude responses increase with positive feedback control. Furthermore, the amplitude responses increases when time delay is added into the control signals, and gets the maximum when the delay is close to one quarter of one cycle time.
On the efficiency of conical targets for laser thermonuclear fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borovskij, A.V.; Korobkin, V.V.
1981-01-01
Advantages and drawbacks of conical targets (CT) for laser fusion (LF) are discussed. Possibility of the laser power reduction, laser pulse lengthening and neutron yield increase are analyzed for an ideal conical target with absolutely rigid and heat-proof walls as compared to a spherical target of the same mass. A simple theory is suggested which makes it possible to take into account an effect of walls on the fusion process in the conical target with gaseous fuel and heavy shell. Energy losses due to wall deformations and heat conduction are estimated. An influence of these effects on the neutron yield is estimated. CT used in the LF experiments are found to have serious drawbacks in comparison with spherical ones. These drawbacks are connected with the effect of walls on the processes taking place in CT. Analysis of CT, for which the effect of walls is not significant, points up some definite advantages of CT as compared with spherical one. These advantages are the possibility of laser pulse lengthening and laser power reduction in comparison with the irradiation of a sphere of an equal mass. These two positive qualities are connected with the fact that CT has large linear dimensions [ru
Conical refraction in a degenerated two-crystal cascade
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peet, V
2016-01-01
When a collimated light beam is passed consequently along the optic axes of two identical biaxial crystals, the conical refraction produces in the focal image plane a specific light pattern consisting of a ring and a central spot. The ring is formed due to the additive action of two crystals, while the spot results from the reversed conical refraction in such a degenerated cascade arrangement. The relative intensity of these two components depends on the azimuth angle between the orientations of the crystals about the beam axis. It is shown that this dependence arises due to the interference of pairs of waves produced by conical refraction in two crystals. If a part of these waves is blocked by polarization selection of beam components, the dependence of the light pattern on the azimuth angle vanishes. In this case, the outgoing light profile consists of a ring and a central spot with fixed intensities so that the total beam power is divided equally between these two components. Depending on the applied polarization, the central spot appears either as a restored input beam or a charge-two optical vortex. The results of numerical simulations of the effect are in a very good agreement with the experimental observations. (paper)
Ultrafast X-Ray Spectroscopy of Conical Intersections
Neville, Simon P.; Chergui, Majed; Stolow, Albert; Schuurman, Michael S.
2018-06-01
Ongoing developments in ultrafast x-ray sources offer powerful new means of probing the complex nonadiabatically coupled structural and electronic dynamics of photoexcited molecules. These non-Born-Oppenheimer effects are governed by general electronic degeneracies termed conical intersections, which play a key role, analogous to that of a transition state, in the electronic-nuclear dynamics of excited molecules. Using high-level ab initio quantum dynamics simulations, we studied time-resolved x-ray absorption (TRXAS) and photoelectron spectroscopy (TRXPS) of the prototypical unsaturated organic chromophore, ethylene, following excitation to its S2(π π*) state. The TRXAS, in particular, is highly sensitive to all aspects of the ensuing dynamics. These x-ray spectroscopies provide a clear signature of the wave packet dynamics near conical intersections, related to charge localization effects driven by the nuclear dynamics. Given the ubiquity of charge localization in excited state dynamics, we believe that ultrafast x-ray spectroscopies offer a unique and powerful route to the direct observation of dynamics around conical intersections.
Experimental Studies on Hypersonic Stagnation Point Chemical Environment
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Chazot, O
2006-01-01
Development of space transportation is a very challenging task. Hypersonic flight should be investigated in details to allow designing spacecraft according to the severe environment of their flight conditions...
Development of an aerodynamic measurement system for hypersonic rarefied flows.
Ozawa, T; Fujita, K; Suzuki, T
2015-01-01
A hypersonic rarefied wind tunnel (HRWT) has lately been developed at Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency in order to improve the prediction of rarefied aerodynamics. Flow characteristics of hypersonic rarefied flows have been investigated experimentally and numerically. By conducting dynamic pressure measurements with pendulous models and pitot pressure measurements, we have probed flow characteristics in the test section. We have also improved understandings of hypersonic rarefied flows by integrating a numerical approach with the HRWT measurement. The development of the integration scheme between HRWT and numerical approach enables us to estimate the hypersonic rarefied flow characteristics as well as the direct measurement of rarefied aerodynamics. Consequently, this wind tunnel is capable of generating 25 mm-core flows with the free stream Mach number greater than 10 and Knudsen number greater than 0.1.
Fluid dynamic modeling and numerical simulation of low-density hypersonic flow
Cheng, H. K.; Wong, Eric Y.
1988-01-01
The concept of a viscous shock-layer and several related versions of continuum theories/methods are examined for their adequacy as a viable framework to study flow physics and aerothermodynamics of relevance to sustained hypersonic flights. Considering the flat plate at angle of attack, or the wedge, as a generic example for the major aerodynamic component of a hypersonic vehicle, the relative importance of the molecular-transport effects behind the shock (in the form of the 'shock slip') and the wall-slip effects are studied. In the flow regime where the shock-transition-zone thickness remains small compared to the shock radius of curvature, a quasi-one-dimensional shock structure under the Burnett/thirteen-moment approximation, as well as particulate/collisional models, can be consistently developed. The fully viscous version of the shock-layer model is shown to provide the crucial boundary condition downstream the shock in this case. The gas-kinetic basis of the continuum description for the flow behind the bow shock, and certain features affecting the non-equilibrium flow chemistry, are also discussed.
The 1 × 1 m hypersonic wind tunnel Kochel/Tullahoma 1940-1960
Eckardt, Dietrich
2015-03-01
Peenemünde and Cape Canaveral mark cornerstones of space history. Kochel in Southern Germany and Tullahoma in Tennessee, USA also belong in this category. The technically unique Kochel wind tunnel was part of the German long-distance missile development strategy, planned and prepared in secret before the beginning of World War II. A 57 MW closed-circuit wind tunnel facility with 1 × 1 m measuring section was planned for continuous-flow simulation at high Mach numbers Ma 7-10. In the early 1940 s a site beside the Walchensee Power Station at Kochel am See in Upper Bavaria, Germany was chosen to provide the required altitude difference of 200 m for the hydraulic turbine drives. The preparatory activities for the erection of this impressive hypersonic wind tunnel facility were pushed ahead until an enforced temporary pause in September 1944. In early May 1945 US troops occupied the area and, in due course, scientists of General Arnold's Scientific Advisory Group, the `von Kármán team', ordered the transfer to the USA of available equipment, design materials and other paperwork. Here, at the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) Tullahoma, TN this `Tunnel A' was built to begin operation around 1957. The testing was conducted on the Mach 7 experimental aircraft X-15, space shuttle developments and still secret investigations on unmanned hypersonic vehicles.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Ying-Ming; Simmons, G.A.; Nelson, G.L.
1995-01-01
A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) funded research study to evaluate the feasibility of using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) body force accelerators to produce true air simulation for hypersonic propulsion ground testing is discussed in this paper. Testing over the airbreathing portion of a transatmospheric vehicle (TAV) hypersonic flight regime will require high quality air simulation for actual flight conditions behind a bow shock wave (forebody, pre-inlet region) for flight velocities up to Mach 16 and perhaps beyond. Material limits and chemical dissociation at high temperature limit the simulated flight Mach numbers in conventional facilities to less than Mach 12 for continuous and semi-continuous testing and less than Mach 7 for applications requiring true air chemistry. By adding kinetic energy directly to the flow, MHD accelerators avoid the high temperatures and pressures required in the reservoir region of conventional expansion facilities, allowing MHD to produce true flight conditions in flight regimes impossible with conventional facilities. The present study is intended to resolve some of the critical technical issues related to the operation of MHD at high pressure. Funding has been provided only for the first phase of a three to four year feasibility study that would culminate in the demonstration of MHD acceleration under conditions required to produce true flight conditions behind a bow shock wave to flight Mach numbers of 16 or greater. MHD critical issues and a program plan to resolve these are discussed
Wind-US Code Physical Modeling Improvements to Complement Hypersonic Testing and Evaluation
Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Yoder, Dennis A.; Towne, Charles S.; Engblom, William A.; Bhagwandin, Vishal A.; Power, Greg D.; Lankford, Dennis W.; Nelson, Christopher C.
2009-01-01
This report gives an overview of physical modeling enhancements to the Wind-US flow solver which were made to improve the capabilities for simulation of hypersonic flows and the reliability of computations to complement hypersonic testing. The improvements include advanced turbulence models, a bypass transition model, a conjugate (or closely coupled to vehicle structure) conduction-convection heat transfer capability, and an upgraded high-speed combustion solver. A Mach 5 shock-wave boundary layer interaction problem is used to investigate the benefits of k- s and k-w based explicit algebraic stress turbulence models relative to linear two-equation models. The bypass transition model is validated using data from experiments for incompressible boundary layers and a Mach 7.9 cone flow. The conjugate heat transfer method is validated for a test case involving reacting H2-O2 rocket exhaust over cooled calorimeter panels. A dual-mode scramjet configuration is investigated using both a simplified 1-step kinetics mechanism and an 8-step mechanism. Additionally, variations in the turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbers are considered for this scramjet configuration.
Hypersonic Engine Leading Edge Experiments in a High Heat Flux, Supersonic Flow Environment
Gladden, Herbert J.; Melis, Matthew E.
1994-01-01
A major concern in advancing the state-of-the-art technologies for hypersonic vehicles is the development of an aeropropulsion system capable of withstanding the sustained high thermal loads expected during hypersonic flight. Three aerothermal load related concerns are the boundary layer transition from laminar to turbulent flow, articulating panel seals in high temperature environments, and strut (or cowl) leading edges with shock-on-shock interactions. A multidisciplinary approach is required to address these technical concerns. A hydrogen/oxygen rocket engine heat source has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center as one element in a series of facilities at national laboratories designed to experimentally evaluate the heat transfer and structural response of the strut (or cowl) leading edge. A recent experimental program conducted in this facility is discussed and related to cooling technology capability. The specific objective of the experiment discussed is to evaluate the erosion and oxidation characteristics of a coating on a cowl leading edge (or strut leading edge) in a supersonic, high heat flux environment. Heat transfer analyses of a similar leading edge concept cooled with gaseous hydrogen is included to demonstrate the complexity of the problem resulting from plastic deformation of the structures. Macro-photographic data from a coated leading edge model show progressive degradation over several thermal cycles at aerothermal conditions representative of high Mach number flight.
Photogrammetry of a Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator
Kushner, Laura Kathryn; Littell, Justin D.; Cassell, Alan M.
2013-01-01
In 2012, two large-scale models of a Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic decelerator were tested in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at NASA Ames Research Center. One of the objectives of this test was to measure model deflections under aerodynamic loading that approximated expected flight conditions. The measurements were acquired using stereo photogrammetry. Four pairs of stereo cameras were mounted inside the NFAC test section, each imaging a particular section of the HIAD. The views were then stitched together post-test to create a surface deformation profile. The data from the photogram- metry system will largely be used for comparisons to and refinement of Fluid Structure Interaction models. This paper describes how a commercial photogrammetry system was adapted to make the measurements and presents some preliminary results.
Cavity-type hypersonic phononic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, A; Fytas, G; Pennec, Y; Djafari-Rouhani, B; Yanagishita, T; Masuda, H; Knoll, W
2012-01-01
We report on the engineering of the phonon dispersion diagram in monodomain anodic porous alumina (APA) films through the porosity and physical state of the material residing in the nanopores. Lattice symmetry and inclusion materials are theoretically identified to be the main factors which control the hypersonic acoustic wave propagation. This involves the interaction between the longitudinal and the transverse modes in the effective medium and a flat band characteristic of the material residing in the cavities. Air and filled nanopores, therefore, display markedly different dispersion relations and the inclusion materials lead to a locally resonant structural behavior uniquely determining their properties under confinement. APA films emerge as a new platform to investigate the rich acoustic phenomena of structured composite matter. (paper)
Generation of attosecond electron packets via conical surface plasmon electron acceleration
Greig, S. R.; Elezzabi, A. Y.
2016-01-01
We present a method for the generation of high kinetic energy attosecond electron packets via magnetostatic and aperture filtering of conical surface plasmon (SP) accelerated electrons. The conical SP waves are excited by coupling an ultrafast radially polarized laser beam to a conical silica lens coated with an Ag film. Electromagnetic and particle tracking models are employed to characterize the ultrafast electron packets. PMID:26764129
Generalized probabilistic theories and conic extensions of polytopes
Fiorini, Samuel; Massar, Serge; Patra, Manas K.; Tiwary, Hans Raj
2015-01-01
Generalized probabilistic theories (GPT) provide a general framework that includes classical and quantum theories. It is described by a cone C and its dual C*. We show that whether some one-way communication complexity problems can be solved within a GPT is equivalent to the recently introduced cone factorization of the corresponding communication matrix M. We also prove an analogue of Holevo's theorem: when the cone C is contained in {{{R}}n}, the classical capacity of the channel realized by sending GPT states and measuring them is bounded by log n. Polytopes and optimising functions over polytopes arise in many areas of discrete mathematics. A conic extension of a polytope is the intersection of a cone C with an affine subspace whose projection onto the original space yields the desired polytope. Extensions of polytopes can sometimes be much simpler geometric objects than the polytope itself. The existence of a conic extension of a polytope is equivalent to that of a cone factorization of the slack matrix of the polytope, on the same cone. We show that all 0/1 polytopes whose vertices can be recognized by a polynomial size circuit, which includes as a special case the travelling salesman polytope and many other polytopes from combinatorial optimization, have small conic extension complexity when the cone is the completely positive cone. Using recent exponential lower bounds on the linear extension complexity of polytopes, this provides an exponential gap between the communication complexity of GPT based on the completely positive cone and classical communication complexity, and a conjectured exponential gap with quantum communication complexity. Our work thus relates the communication complexity of generalizations of quantum theory to questions of mainstream interest in the area of combinatorial optimization.
Generalized probabilistic theories and conic extensions of polytopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiorini, Samuel; Massar, Serge; Patra, Manas K; Tiwary, Hans Raj
2015-01-01
Generalized probabilistic theories (GPT) provide a general framework that includes classical and quantum theories. It is described by a cone C and its dual C*. We show that whether some one-way communication complexity problems can be solved within a GPT is equivalent to the recently introduced cone factorization of the corresponding communication matrix M. We also prove an analogue of Holevo's theorem: when the cone C is contained in R n , the classical capacity of the channel realized by sending GPT states and measuring them is bounded by logn. Polytopes and optimising functions over polytopes arise in many areas of discrete mathematics. A conic extension of a polytope is the intersection of a cone C with an affine subspace whose projection onto the original space yields the desired polytope. Extensions of polytopes can sometimes be much simpler geometric objects than the polytope itself. The existence of a conic extension of a polytope is equivalent to that of a cone factorization of the slack matrix of the polytope, on the same cone. We show that all 0/1 polytopes whose vertices can be recognized by a polynomial size circuit, which includes as a special case the travelling salesman polytope and many other polytopes from combinatorial optimization, have small conic extension complexity when the cone is the completely positive cone. Using recent exponential lower bounds on the linear extension complexity of polytopes, this provides an exponential gap between the communication complexity of GPT based on the completely positive cone and classical communication complexity, and a conjectured exponential gap with quantum communication complexity. Our work thus relates the communication complexity of generalizations of quantum theory to questions of mainstream interest in the area of combinatorial optimization. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cristofolini, Andrea; Neretti, Gabriele; Borghi, Carlo A.
2012-01-01
This work proposes an experimental analysis on the magneto hydro dynamic (MHD) interaction induced by a magnetic test body immersed into a hypersonic argon flow. The characteristic plasma parameters are measured. They are related to the voltages arising in the Hall direction and to the variation of the fluid dynamic properties induced by the interaction. The tests have been performed in a hypersonic wind tunnel at Mach 6 and Mach 15. The plasma parameters are measured in the stagnation region in front of the nozzle of the wind tunnel and in the free stream region at the nozzle exit. The test body has a conical shape with the cone axis in the gas flow direction and the cone vertex against the flow. It is placed at the nozzle exit and is equipped with three permanent magnets. In the configuration adopted, the Faraday current flows in a closed loop completely immersed into the plasma of the shock layer. The electric field and the pressure variation due to MHD interaction have been measured on the test body walls. Microwave adsorption measurements have been used for the determination of the electron number density and the electron collision frequency. Continuum recombination radiation and line radiation emissions have been detected. The electron temperature has been determined by means of the spectroscopic data by using different methods. The electron number density has been also determined by means of the Stark broadening of H α and the H β lines. Optical imaging has been utilized to visualize the pattern of the electric current distribution in the shock layer around the test body. The experiments show a considerable effect of the electromagnetic forces produced by the MHD interaction acting on the plasma flow around the test body. A comparison of the experimental data with simulation results shows a good agreement.
Design of spheromak injector using conical accelerator for large helical device
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miyazawa, J.; Yamada, H.; Yasui, K.; Kato, S. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.; Uyama, T. [Himeji Inst. of Tech., Hyogo (Japan)
1999-11-01
Optimization of CT injector for LHD has been carried out and conical electrode for adiabatic CT compression is adopted in the design. Point-model of CT acceleration in a co-axial electrode is solved to optimize the electrode geometry and the power supplies. Large acceleration efficiency of 34% is to be obtained with 3.2 m long conical accelerator and 40 kV - 42 kJ power supply. The operation scenario of a CT injector named SPICA mk. I (SPheromak Injector using Conical Accelerator) consisting of 0.8 m conical accelerator is discussed based on this design. (author)
Elaboration of the technology of forming a conical product of sheet metal
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Matysiak
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The work presents a general knowledge about spinning draw pieces of sheets, one of multi-operational processes of spinning a sheet metal conical product without machining. The objective of the work was to elaborate both the technology of forming conical products of sheet metal and execution of technological tests as well as to determine the technological parameters for the process of spinning a conical insert. As a result of the investigations, the products with improved mechanical properties, stricter execution tolerance and low roughness have been obtained. The series of 200 prototype conical inserts for the shipbuilding industry have been made.
Conical pinched electron beam diode for intense ion beam source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsukawa, Yoshinobu; Nakagawa, Yoshiro
1982-01-01
For the purpose of improvement of the pinched electron beam diode, the production of an ion beam by a diode with electrodes in a conical shape was studied at low voltage operation (--200 kV). The ion beam is emitted from a small region of the diode apex. The mean ion beam current density near the axis at 12 cm from the diode apex is two or three times that from an usual flat parallel diode with the same dimension and impedance. The brightness and the power brightness at the otigin are 450 MA/cm 2 sr and 0.12 TW/cm 2 sr respectively. (author)
Conical flow near singular rays. [shock generation in ideal gas
Zahalak, G. I.; Myers, M. K.
1974-01-01
The steady flow of an ideal gas past a conical body is investigated by the method of matched asymptotic expansions, with particular emphasis on the flow near the singular ray occurring in linearized theory. The first-order problem governing the flow in this region is formulated, leading to the equation of Kuo, and an approximate solution is obtained in the case of compressive flow behind the main front. This solution is compared with the results of previous investigations with a view to assessing the applicability of the Lighthill-Whitham theories.
Radially polarized conical beam from an embedded etched fiber.
Kalaidji, Djamel; Spajer, Michel; Marthouret, Nadège; Grosjean, Thierry
2009-06-15
We propose a method for producing a conical beam based on the lateral refraction of the TM(01) mode from a two-mode fiber after chemical etching of the cladding, and for controlling its radial polarization. The whole power of the guided mode is transferred to the refracted beam with low diffraction. Polarization control by a series of azimuthal detectors and a stress controller affords the transmission of a stabilized radial polarization through an optical fiber. A solid component usable for many applications has been obtained.
Interference of conically scattered light in surface plasmon resonance.
Webster, Aaron; Vollmer, Frank
2013-02-01
Surface plasmon polaritons on thin metal films are a well studied phenomena when excited using prism coupled geometries such as the Kretschmann attenuated total reflection configuration. Here we describe a novel interference pattern in the conically scattered light emanating from such a configuration when illuminated by a focused beam. We observe conditions indicating only self-interference of scattered surface plasmon polaritions without any contributions from specular reflection. The spatial evolution of this field is described in the context of Fourier optics and has applications in highly sensitive surface plasmon based biosensing.
Simple atom trap in a conical hollow mirror: Numerical analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, J. A.; Lee, K. I.; Nha, H.; Noh, H. R.; Yoo, S. H.; Jhe, W
1996-01-01
We analyze the trap dynamic in a conical hollow (axicon) mirror system. Atom's trajectory is ring shaped if we move the coil (magnetic field) axis off the mirror axis and if we overlap these two axes trap cloud is ball shaped and it is consistent with experiment. We also make a simple comparison between 6-beam MOT and axicon MOT in the ball shaped case, and it shows that at low velocity limit the axicon MOT and typical 6-beam MOT have nearly same trap properties. The axicon trap may be useful as precooled atom source for many other atomic physics experiments such as cold atomic beam, atom funnel, and atom waveguide.
Spatiotemporal dynamics of underwater conical shock wave focusing
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hoffer, Petr; Lukeš, Petr; Akiyama, H.; Hosseini, H.
2017-01-01
Roč. 27, č. 4 (2017), s. 685-690 ISSN 0938-1287 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100431203 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Underwater shock wave focusing * multichannel * electrohydraulic discharge * conical shock wave reflection * medical application Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics OBOR OECD: Applied mechanics Impact factor: 1.107, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00193-016-0703-7
2011-01-01
NASA is interested in developing technology that leads to more routine, safe, and affordable access to space. Access to space using airbreathing propulsion systems has potential to meet these objectives based on Airbreathing Access to Space (AAS) system studies. To this end, the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP) Hypersonic Project is conducting fundamental research on a Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) propulsion system. The TBCC being studied considers a dual flow-path inlet system. One flow-path includes variable geometry to regulate airflow to a turbine engine cycle. The turbine cycle provides propulsion from take-off to supersonic flight. The second flow-path supports a dual-mode scramjet (DMSJ) cycle which would be initiated at supersonic speed to further accelerate the vehicle to hypersonic speed. For a TBCC propulsion system to accelerate a vehicle from supersonic to hypersonic speed, a critical enabling technology is the ability to safely and effectively transition from the turbine to the DMSJ-referred to as mode transition. To experimentally test methods of mode transition, a Combined Cycle Engine (CCE) Large-scale Inlet testbed was designed with two flow paths-a low speed flow-path sized for a turbine cycle and a high speed flow-path designed for a DMSJ. This testbed system is identified as the CCE Large-Scale Inlet for Mode Transition studies (CCE-LIMX). The test plan for the CCE-LIMX in the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) 10- by 10-ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel (10x10 SWT) is segmented into multiple phases. The first phase is a matrix of inlet characterization (IC) tests to evaluate the inlet performance and establish the mode transition schedule. The second phase is a matrix of dynamic system identification (SysID) experiments designed to support closed-loop control development at mode transition schedule operating points for the CCE-LIMX. The third phase includes a direct demonstration of controlled mode transition using a closed loop control
Optimal Control of Hypersonic Planning Maneuvers Based on Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Yu. Melnikov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The work objective is the synthesis of simple analytical formula of the optimal roll angle of hypersonic gliding vehicles for conditions of quasi-horizontal motion, allowing its practical implementation in onboard control algorithms.The introduction justifies relevance, formulates basic control tasks, and describes a history of scientific research and achievements in the field concerned. The author reveals a common disadvantage of the other authors’ methods, i.e. the problem of practical implementation in onboard control algorithms.The similar tasks of hypersonic maneuvers are systemized according to the type of maneuver, control parameters and limitations.In the statement of the problem the glider launched horizontally with a suborbital speed glides passive in the static Atmosphere on a spherical surface of constant radius in the Central field of gravitation.The work specifies a system of equations of motion in the inertial spherical coordinate system, sets the limits on the roll angle and optimization criteria at the end of the flight: high speed or azimuth and the minimum distances to the specified geocentric points.The solution.1 A system of equations of motion is transformed by replacing the time argument with another independent argument – the normal equilibrium overload. The Hamiltonian and the equations of mated parameters are obtained using the Pontryagin’s maximum principle. The number of equations of motion and mated vector is reduced.2 The mated parameters were expressed by formulas using current movement parameters. The formulas are proved through differentiation and substitution in the equations of motion.3 The Formula of optimal roll-position control by condition of maximum is obtained. After substitution of mated parameters, the insertion of constants, and trigonometric transformations the Formula of the optimal roll angle is obtained as functions of the current parameters of motion.The roll angle is expressed as the ratio
Photonic bandgap narrowing in conical hollow core Bragg fibers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ozturk, Fahri Emre; Yildirim, Adem; Kanik, Mehmet [UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Bayindir, Mehmet, E-mail: bayindir@nano.org.tr [UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Physics, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)
2014-08-18
We report the photonic bandgap engineering of Bragg fibers by controlling the thickness profile of the fiber during the thermal drawing. Conical hollow core Bragg fibers were produced by thermal drawing under a rapidly alternating load, which was applied by introducing steep changes to the fiber drawing speed. In conventional cylindrical Bragg fibers, light is guided by omnidirectional reflections from interior dielectric mirrors with a single quarter wave stack period. In conical fibers, the diameter reduction introduced a gradient of the quarter wave stack period along the length of the fiber. Therefore, the light guided within the fiber encountered slightly smaller dielectric layer thicknesses at each reflection, resulting in a progressive blueshift of the reflectance spectrum. As the reflectance spectrum shifts, longer wavelengths of the initial bandgap cease to be omnidirectionally reflected and exit through the cladding, which narrows the photonic bandgap. A narrow transmission bandwidth is particularly desirable in hollow waveguide mid-infrared sensing schemes, where broadband light is coupled to the fiber and the analyte vapor is introduced into the hollow core to measure infrared absorption. We carried out sensing simulations using the absorption spectrum of isopropyl alcohol vapor to demonstrate the importance of narrow bandgap fibers in chemical sensing applications.
Numerical Study of Motion of Falling Conical Graupel
Chueh, Chih-Che; Wang, Pao K.; Hashino, Tempei
2018-01-01
In the present study, the attitudes of freely-falling conical graupel with a realistic range of densities are investigated numerically by solving the transient Navier-Stokes equations and the body dynamics equations representing the 6-degrees-of-freedom motion. This framework allows us to determine the position and orientation of the graupel in response to the hydrodynamic force of the flow fields. The results show more significant horizontal movements than those cases with a fixed bulk density of ice assumed in our previous study. This is because the real graupel particles possess the density less than the bulk density of ice, which, in turn, leads to a relatively small mass and a relatively small set of moments of inertia. We demonstrate that, with the six degrees of freedom considered together, when Reynolds number is small, a typical damped oscillation occurs, whereas when Reynolds number is high, amplifying oscillation may occur which leads to more complicated and unpredictable flying attitudes such as tumbling. The drag coefficients obtained in the present study agree with the previous studies and can be approximated by that of spheres of the same Reynolds numbers. We also show that conical graupel can perform significant horizontal translations which can be on the order of 1 km in 1 h.
Fatigue induced changes in conical implant-abutment connections.
Blum, Kai; Wiest, Wolfram; Fella, Christian; Balles, Andreas; Dittmann, Jonas; Rack, Alexander; Maier, Dominik; Thomann, Ralf; Spies, Benedikt Christopher; Kohal, Ralf Joachim; Zabler, Simon; Nelson, Katja
2015-11-01
Based on the current lack of data and understanding of the wear behavior of dental two-piece implants, this study aims for evaluating the microgap formation and wear pattern of different implants in the course of cyclic loading. Several implant systems with different conical implant-abutment interfaces were purchased. The implants were first evaluated using synchrotron X-ray high-resolution radiography (SRX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The implant-abutment assemblies were then subjected to cyclic loading at 98N and their microgap was evaluated after 100,000, 200,000 and 1 million cycles using SRX, synchrotron micro-tomography (μCT). Wear mechanisms of the implant-abutment connection (IAC) after 200,000 cycles and 1 million cycles were further characterized using SEM. All implants exhibit a microgap between the implant and abutment prior to loading. The gap size increased with cyclic loading with its changes being significantly higher within the first 200,000 cycles. Wear was seen in all implants regardless of their interface design. The wear pattern comprised adhesive wear and fretting. Wear behavior changed when a different mounting medium was used (brass vs. polymer). A micromotion of the abutment during cyclic loading can induce wear and wear particles in conical dental implant systems. This feature accompanied with the formation of a microgap at the IAC is highly relevant for the longevity of the implants. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Unstart Coupling Mechanism Analysis of Multiple-Modules Hypersonic Inlet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jichao Hu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The combination of multiplemodules in parallel manner is an important way to achieve the much higher thrust of scramjet engine. For the multiple-modules scramjet engine, when inlet unstarted oscillatory flow appears in a single-module engine due to high backpressure, how to interact with each module by massflow spillage, and whether inlet unstart occurs in other modules are important issues. The unstarted flowfield and coupling characteristic for a three-module hypersonic inlet caused by center module II and side module III were, conducted respectively. The results indicate that the other two hypersonic inlets are forced into unstarted flow when unstarted phenomenon appears on a single-module hypersonic inlet due to high backpressure, and the reversed flow in the isolator dominates the formation, expansion, shrinkage, and disappearance of the vortexes, and thus, it is the major factor of unstart coupling of multiple-modules hypersonic inlet. The coupling effect among multiple modules makes hypersonic inlet be more likely unstarted.
PIC Simulations of Hypersonic Plasma Instabilities
Niehoff, D.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Niemann, C.; Decyk, V.; Schriver, D.; Clark, E.
2013-12-01
The plasma sheaths formed around hypersonic aircraft (Mach number, M > 10) are relatively unexplored and of interest today to both further the development of new technologies and solve long-standing engineering problems. Both laboratory experiments and analytical/numerical modeling are required to advance the understanding of these systems; it is advantageous to perform these tasks in tandem. There has already been some work done to study these plasmas by experiments that create a rapidly expanding plasma through ablation of a target with a laser. In combination with a preformed magnetic field, this configuration leads to a magnetic "bubble" formed behind the front as particles travel at about Mach 30 away from the target. Furthermore, the experiment was able to show the generation of fast electrons which could be due to instabilities on electron scales. To explore this, future experiments will have more accurate diagnostics capable of observing time- and length-scales below typical ion scales, but simulations are a useful tool to explore these plasma conditions theoretically. Particle in Cell (PIC) simulations are necessary when phenomena are expected to be observed at these scales, and also have the advantage of being fully kinetic with no fluid approximations. However, if the scales of the problem are not significantly below the ion scales, then the initialization of the PIC simulation must be very carefully engineered to avoid unnecessary computation and to select the minimum window where structures of interest can be studied. One method of doing this is to seed the simulation with either experiment or ion-scale simulation results. Previous experiments suggest that a useful configuration for studying hypersonic plasma configurations is a ring of particles rapidly expanding transverse to an external magnetic field, which has been simulated on the ion scale with an ion-hybrid code. This suggests that the PIC simulation should have an equivalent configuration
Hyper-X Vehicle Model - Side View
1996-01-01
A side-view of an early desk-top model of NASA's X-43A 'Hyper-X,' or Hypersonic Experimental Vehicle, which has been developed to flight test a dual-mode ramjet/scramjet propulsion system at speeds from Mach 7 up to Mach 10 (7 to 10 times the speed of sound, which varies with temperature and altitude). Hyper-X, the flight vehicle for which is designated as X-43A, is an experimental flight-research program seeking to demonstrate airframe-integrated, 'air-breathing' engine technologies that promise to increase payload capacity for future vehicles, including hypersonic aircraft (faster than Mach 5) and reusable space launchers. This multiyear program is currently underway at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Hyper-X schedule calls for its first flight later this year (2000). Hyper-X is a joint program, with Dryden sharing responsibility with NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Dryden's primary role is to fly three unpiloted X-43A research vehicles to validate engine technologies and hypersonic design tools as well as the hypersonic test facility at Langley. Langley manages the program and leads the technology development effort. The Hyper-X Program seeks to significantly expand the speed boundaries of air-breathing propulsion by being the first aircraft to demonstrate an airframe-integrated, scramjet-powered free flight. Scramjets (supersonic-combustion ramjets) are ramjet engines in which the airflow through the whole engine remains supersonic. Scramjet technology is challenging because only limited testing can be performed in ground facilities. Long duration, full-scale testing requires flight research. Scramjet engines are air-breathing, capturing their oxygen from the atmosphere. Current spacecraft, such as the Space Shuttle, are rocket powered, so they must carry both fuel and oxygen for propulsion. Scramjet technology-based vehicles need to carry only fuel. By eliminating the need to carry oxygen, future hypersonic
Hyper-X Vehicle Model - Front View
1996-01-01
A front view of an early desk-top model of NASA's X-43A 'Hyper-X,' or Hypersonic Experimental Vehicle, which has been developed to flight test a dual-mode ramjet/scramjet propulsion system at speeds from Mach 7 up to Mach 10 (7 to 10 times the speed of sound, which varies with temperature and altitude). Hyper-X, the flight vehicle for which is designated as X-43A, is an experimental flight-research program seeking to demonstrate airframe-integrated, 'air-breathing' engine technologies that promise to increase payload capacity for future vehicles, including hypersonic aircraft (faster than Mach 5) and reusable space launchers. This multiyear program is currently underway at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Hyper-X schedule calls for its first flight later this year (2000). Hyper-X is a joint program, with Dryden sharing responsibility with NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Dryden's primary role is to fly three unpiloted X-43A research vehicles to validate engine technologies and hypersonic design tools as well as the hypersonic test facility at Langley. Langley manages the program and leads the technology development effort. The Hyper-X Program seeks to significantly expand the speed boundaries of air-breathing propulsion by being the first aircraft to demonstrate an airframe-integrated, scramjet-powered free flight. Scramjets (supersonic-combustion ramjets) are ramjet engines in which the airflow through the whole engine remains supersonic. Scramjet technology is challenging because only limited testing can be performed in ground facilities. Long duration, full-scale testing requires flight research. Scramjet engines are air-breathing, capturing their oxygen from the atmosphere. Current spacecraft, such as the Space Shuttle, are rocket powered, so they must carry both fuel and oxygen for propulsion. Scramjet technology-based vehicles need to carry only fuel. By eliminating the need to carry oxygen, future hypersonic
X-43A Vehicle During Ground Testing
1999-01-01
The X-43A Hypersonic Experimental Vehicle, or 'Hyper-X' is seen here undergoing ground testing at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California in December 1999. The X-43A was developed to research a dual-mode ramjet/scramjet propulsion system at speeds from Mach 7 up to Mach 10 (7 to 10 times the speed of sound, which varies with temperature and altitude). Hyper-X, the flight vehicle for which is designated as X-43A, is an experimental flight-research program seeking to demonstrate airframe-integrated, 'air-breathing' engine technologies that promise to increase payload capacity for future vehicles, including hypersonic aircraft (faster than Mach 5) and reusable space launchers. This multiyear program is currently underway at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Hyper-X schedule calls for its first flight later this year (2000). Hyper-X is a joint program, with Dryden sharing responsibility with NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Dryden's primary role is to fly three unpiloted X-43A research vehicles to validate engine technologies and hypersonic design tools as well as the hypersonic test facility at Langley. Langley manages the program and leads the technology development effort. The Hyper-X Program seeks to significantly expand the speed boundaries of air-breathing propulsion by being the first aircraft to demonstrate an airframe-integrated, scramjet-powered free flight. Scramjets (supersonic-combustion ramjets) are ramjet engines in which the airflow through the whole engine remains supersonic. Scramjet technology is challenging because only limited testing can be performed in ground facilities. Long duration, full-scale testing requires flight research. Scramjet engines are air-breathing, capturing their oxygen from the atmosphere. Current spacecraft, such as the Space Shuttle, are rocket powered, so they must carry both fuel and oxygen for propulsion. Scramjet technology-based vehicles need to carry only
''Electron Conic'' Signatures observed in the nightside auroral zone and over the polar cap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menietti, J.D.; Burch, J.L.
1985-01-01
A preliminary search of the Dynamics Explorer 1 high-altitude plasma instrument data base has yielded examples of ''electron conic'' signatures. The three example passes show an association with regions of downward electron acceleration and upward ion beams, but this is not true of all the electron conic events. The electron conic signatures are clearly discernible on energy-flux-versus-time color spectrograms as pairs of discrete vertical bands which are symmetric about a pitch angle of approximately 180 0 . One of the examples is a polar cap pass with electron conic signatures observed at invariant latitudes from 84 0 to 75 0 . The other two cases are nightside auroral zone passes in which the regions of detectable electron conics are spatially more confined, covering only about 1 0 in invariant latitude. The conic signatures have been found at energies that range from 50 eV 0 is larger than expected for a loss cone feature. If the electrons conserve the first adiabatic invariant in a dipole magnetic field, and in some cases a parallel electric field, the mirroring altitude varies between about 500 km and 8000 km, which is above the atmospheric loss region. For this reason, and in analogy with the formation of ion conics, we suggest that the conic signatures are produced by heating of the electrons perpendicular to the magnetic field
Supersymmetric Conical Defects: Towards a string theoretic description of black hole formation
Balasubramanian, V.; de Boer, J.; Keski-Vakkuri, E.; Ross, S.F.
2001-01-01
Conical defects, or point particles, in $AdS_3$ are one of the simplest non-trivial gravitating systems, and are particularly interesting because black holes can form from their collision. We embed the BPS conical defects of three dimensions into the N=4b supergravity in six dimensions, which arises
Design of adaptive switching control for hypersonic aircraft
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xin Jiao
2015-10-01
Full Text Available This article proposes a novel adaptive switching control of hypersonic aircraft based on type-2 Takagi–Sugeno–Kang fuzzy sliding mode control and focuses on the problem of stability and smoothness in the switching process. This method uses full-state feedback to linearize the nonlinear model of hypersonic aircraft. Combining the interval type-2 Takagi–Sugeno–Kang fuzzy approach with sliding mode control keeps the adaptive switching process stable and smooth. For rapid stabilization of the system, the adaptive laws use a direct constructive Lyapunov analysis together with an established type-2 Takagi–Sugeno–Kang fuzzy logic system. Simulation results indicate that the proposed control scheme can maintain the stability and smoothness of switching process for the hypersonic aircraft.
Lateral control strategy for a hypersonic cruise missile
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yonghua Fan
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Hypersonic cruise missile always adopts the configuration of waverider body with the restraint of scramjet. As a result, the lateral motion exhibits serious coupling, and the controller design of the lateral lateral system cannot be conducted separately for yaw channel and roll channel. A multiple input and multiple output optimal control method with integrators is presented to design the lateral combined control system for hypersonic cruise missile. A hypersonic cruise missile lateral model is linearized as a multiple input and multiple output plant, which is coupled by kinematics and fin deflection between yaw and roll. In lateral combined controller, the integrators are augmented, respectively, into the loop of roll angle and lateral overload to ensure that the commands are tracked with zero steady-state error. Through simulation, the proposed controller demonstrates good performance in tracking the command of roll angle and lateral overload.
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Molecular Physics and Hypersonic Flows
1996-01-01
Molecular Physics and Hypersonic Flows bridges the gap between the fluid dynamics and molecular physics communities, emphasizing the role played by elementary processes in hypersonic flows. In particular, the work is primarily dedicated to filling the gap between microscopic and macroscopic treatments of the source terms to be inserted in the fluid dynamics codes. The first part of the book describes the molecular dynamics of elementary processes both in the gas phase and in the interaction with surfaces by using quantum mechanical and phenomenological approaches. A second group of contributions describes thermodynamics and transport properties of air components, with special attention to the transport of internal energy. A series of papers is devoted to the experimental and theoretical study of the flow of partially ionized gases. Subsequent contributions treat modern computational techniques for 3-D hypersonic flow. Non-equilibrium vibrational kinetics are then described, together with the coupling of vibra...
A new design equation for drained stability of conical slopes in cohesive-frictional soils
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boonchai Ukritchon
2018-04-01
Full Text Available New plasticity solutions to the drained stability of conical slopes in homogeneous cohesive-frictional soils were investigated by axisymmetric finite element limit analysis. Three parameters were studied, i.e. excavated height ratios, slope inclination angles, and soil friction angles. The influences of these parameters on the stability factor and predicted failure mechanism of conical slopes were discussed. A new design equation developed from a nonlinear regression of the lower bound solution was proposed for drained stability analyses of a conical slope in practice. Numerical examples were given to demonstrate a practical application of the proposed equation to stability evaluations of conical slopes with both associated and non-associated flow rules. Keywords: Limit analysis, Slope stability, Conical slope, Unsupported excavation, Cohesive-frictional soils
CFD Validation Studies for Hypersonic Flow Prediction
Gnoffo, Peter A.
2001-01-01
A series of experiments to measure pressure and heating for code validation involving hypersonic, laminar, separated flows was conducted at the Calspan-University at Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC) in the Large Energy National Shock (LENS) tunnel. The experimental data serves as a focus for a code validation session but are not available to the authors until the conclusion of this session. The first set of experiments considered here involve Mach 9.5 and Mach 11.3 N2 flow over a hollow cylinder-flare with 30 degree flare angle at several Reynolds numbers sustaining laminar, separated flow. Truncated and extended flare configurations are considered. The second set of experiments, at similar conditions, involves flow over a sharp, double cone with fore-cone angle of 25 degrees and aft-cone angle of 55 degrees. Both sets of experiments involve 30 degree compressions. Location of the separation point in the numerical simulation is extremely sensitive to the level of grid refinement in the numerical predictions. The numerical simulations also show a significant influence of Reynolds number on extent of separation. Flow unsteadiness was easily introduced into the double cone simulations using aggressive relaxation parameters that normally promote convergence.
Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator Ground Test Development
Del Corso, Jospeh A.; Hughes, Stephen; Cheatwood, Neil; Johnson, Keith; Calomino, Anthony
2015-01-01
Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) technology readiness levels have been incrementally matured by NASA over the last thirteen years, with most recent support from NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Game Changing Development Program (GCDP). Recently STMD GCDP has authorized funding and support through fiscal year 2015 (FY15) for continued HIAD ground developments which support a Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) study. The Mars study will assess the viability of various EDL architectures to enable a Mars human architecture pathfinder mission planned for mid-2020. At its conclusion in November 2014, NASA's first HIAD ground development effort had demonstrated success with fabricating a 50 W/cm2 modular thermal protection system, a 400 C capable inflatable structure, a 10-meter scale aeroshell manufacturing capability, together with calibrated thermal and structural models. Despite the unquestionable success of the first HIAD ground development effort, it was recognized that additional investment was needed in order to realize the full potential of the HIAD technology capability to enable future flight opportunities. The second HIAD ground development effort will focus on extending performance capability in key technology areas that include thermal protection system, lifting-body structures, inflation systems, flight control, stage transitions, and 15-meter aeroshell scalability. This paper presents an overview of the accomplishments under the baseline HIAD development effort and current plans for a follow-on development effort focused on extending those critical technologies needed to enable a Mars Pathfinder mission.
Optimal Growth in Hypersonic Boundary Layers
Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei; Chang, Chau-Lyan
2016-01-01
The linear form of the parabolized linear stability equations is used in a variational approach to extend the previous body of results for the optimal, nonmodal disturbance growth in boundary-layer flows. This paper investigates the optimal growth characteristics in the hypersonic Mach number regime without any high-enthalpy effects. The influence of wall cooling is studied, with particular emphasis on the role of the initial disturbance location and the value of the spanwise wave number that leads to the maximum energy growth up to a specified location. Unlike previous predictions that used a basic state obtained from a self-similar solution to the boundary-layer equations, mean flow solutions based on the full Navier-Stokes equations are used in select cases to help account for the viscous- inviscid interaction near the leading edge of the plate and for the weak shock wave emanating from that region. Using the full Navier-Stokes mean flow is shown to result in further reduction with Mach number in the magnitude of optimal growth relative to the predictions based on the self-similar approximation to the base flow.
Fong, Kahei Danny
to find the most unstable second-mode frequency that can lead to transition. And by doing a theoretical analysis such as LST, the synchronization location for the most unstable frequency can be found. Roughness elements are then strategically placed downstream of the synchronization point to damp out this dangerous second-mode wave, thus stabilizing the boundary layer and suppressing the transition process. This method is later experimentally validated in Purdue's Mach 6 quiet wind tunnel. Overall, this research has not only provided details of when and how 2-D roughness stabilizes a hypersonic boundary layer, it also has led to a successful application of numerical simulation data to the development of a new roughness-based transition delay method, which could potentially have significant contributions to the design of future generation hypersonic vehicles.
Hypersonic flow past slender bodies in dispersive hydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El, G.A.; Khodorovskii, V.V.; Tyurina, A.V.
2004-01-01
The problem of two-dimensional steady hypersonic flow past a slender body is formulated for dispersive media. It is shown that for the hypersonic flow, the original 2+0 boundary-value problem is asymptotically equivalent to the 1+1 piston problem for the fully nonlinear flow in the same physical system, which allows one to take advantage of the analytic methods developed for one-dimensional systems. This type of equivalence, well known in ideal Euler gas dynamics, has not been established for dispersive hydrodynamics so far. Two examples pertaining to collisionless plasma dynamics are considered
Flow visualization of a low density hypersonic flow field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masson, B.S.; Jumper, E.J.; Walters, E.; Segalman, T.Y.; Founds, N.D.
1989-01-01
Characteristics of laser induced iodine fluorescence (LIIF) in low density hypersonic flows are being investigated for use as a diagnostic technique. At low pressures, doppler broadening dominates the iodine absorption profile producing a fluorescence signal that is primarily temperature and velocity dependent. From this dependency, a low pressure flow field has the potential to be mapped for its velocity and temperature fields. The theory for relating iodine emission to the velocity and temperature fields of a hypersonic flow is discussed in this paper. Experimental observations are made of a fluorescencing free expansion and qualitatively related to the theory. 7 refs
MPD model for radar echo signal of hypersonic targets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xu Xuefei
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The stop-and-go (SAG model is typically used for echo signal received by the radar using linear frequency modulation pulse compression. In this study, the authors demonstrate that this model is not applicable to hypersonic targets. Instead of SAG model, they present a more realistic echo signal model (moving-in-pulse duration (MPD for hypersonic targets. Following that, they evaluate the performances of pulse compression under the SAG and MPD models by theoretical analysis and simulations. They found that the pulse compression gain has an increase of 3 dB by using the MPD model compared with the SAG model in typical cases.
Multi-Exciter Vibroacoustic Simulation of Hypersonic Flight Vibration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
GREGORY, DANNY LYNN; CAP, JEROME S.; TOGAMI, THOMAS C.; NUSSER, MICHAEL A.; HOLLINGSHEAD, JAMES RONALD
1999-01-01
Many aerospace structures must survive severe high frequency, hypersonic, random vibration during their flights. The random vibrations are generated by the turbulent boundary layer developed along the exterior of the structures during flight. These environments have not been simulated very well in the past using a fixed-based, single exciter input with an upper frequency range of 2 kHz. This study investigates the possibility of using acoustic ardor independently controlled multiple exciters to more accurately simulate hypersonic flight vibration. The test configuration, equipment, and methodology are described. Comparisons with actual flight measurements and previous single exciter simulations are also presented
Investigation of fusion gain in fast ignition with conical targets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MJ Tabatabaei
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Fast ignition is a new scheme for inertial confinement fusion (ICF. In this scheme, at first the interaction of ultraintense laser beam with the hohlraum wall surrounding a capsule containing deuterium-tritium (D-T fuel causes implosion and compression of fuel to high density and then laser produced protons penetrate in the compressed fuel and deposit their energy in it as the ignition hot spot is created. In this paper, following the energy gain of spherical target and considering relationship of the burn fraction to burn duration, we have obtained the energy gain of conical targets characterized by the angle β, and found a hemispherical capsule (β=π/2 has a gain as high as 96% of that of the whole spherical capsule. The results obtained in this study are qualitatively consistent with Atzeni et al.'s studies of simulations.
Analysis of turbulent conical diffuser flow using second moment closures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adane, K.K.; Tachie, M.F.; Ormiston, S.J.
2004-01-01
A commercial CFD code, CFX-TASCflow, is used to predict a turbulent conical diffuser flow. The computation was performed using a low-Reynolds number k-ω model, a low-Reynolds number k-ω based non-linear algebraic Reynolds stress model, and a second moment closure with a wall-function. The experimental data of Kassab are used to validate the numerical results. The results show that all the turbulence models reproduce the static pressure coefficient distribution reasonably well. The low Reynolds number k-ω models give better prediction of the friction velocity than the second moment closure. The models also predict the Reynolds shear stress reasonably well but fail to reproduce the correct level of the turbulent kinetic energy. (author)
The mechanical response of tetragonal zirconia polycrystal to conical indentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asif, S.A.S.; Biswas, S.K.
1994-01-01
Blocks of 3Y-TZP were indented with conical diamond indenters. Indentation caused tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation in a subsurface. Of the cracks generated in the subsurface, radial and lateral cracks can be accounted for by a continuum model of the indented subsurface, built using a combination of the Boussinesq and blister stress fields. Additional ring, median and cone cracks were also observed. It is hypothesized that the latter are motivated by the reduction in blister strength or residual energy brought about by the material damage caused by the phase transformation. This damage reduces the load bearing capacity of the material progressively with increasing normal load. (author). 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs
Design and Manufacture of Conical Shell Structures Using Prepreg Laminates
Khakimova, Regina; Burau, Florian; Degenhardt, Richard; Siebert, Mark; Castro, Saullo G. P.
2016-06-01
The design and manufacture of unstiffened composite conical structures is very challenging, as the variation of the fiber orientations, lay-up and the geometry of the ply pieces have a significant influence on the thickness imperfections and ply angle deviations imprinted to the final part. This paper deals with the manufacture of laminated composite cones through the prepeg/autoclave process. The cones are designed to undergo repetitive buckling tests without accumulating permanent damage. The aim is to define a process that allows the control of fiber angle deviations and the removal of thickness imperfections generated from gaps and overlaps between ply pieces. Ultrasonic scan measurements are used to proof the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Straight, conic and circular fringes in single interferogram
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rajkumar
2015-01-01
Interferometry is an important part of optics courses taught at the undergraduate level in universities throughout the world. It is used to explain to students the wave nature of light and is also used to measure parameters like length, refractive index, thickness of test samples and wavelength of light source, etc. The shape of interference fringes (linear, conic or circular) gives vital information about the interfering wavefronts and is used for firsthand visual inspection in optical shop testing and other applications of scientific and engineering importance. The present work describes a simple laboratory technique to generate fringes with different shapes in a single interferogram. This is achieved by using our diffraction-Lloyd mirror interferometer where two portions of the diffracted field are superimposed to generate the interference fringes. The technique is quite helpful in explaining the role of source orientation on the shape of interference fringes to students. (paper)
Conical Refraction Bottle Beams for Entrapment of Absorbing Droplets.
Esseling, Michael; Alpmann, Christina; Schnelle, Jens; Meissner, Robert; Denz, Cornelia
2018-03-22
Conical refraction (CR) optical bottle beams for photophoretic trapping of airborne absorbing droplets are introduced and experimentally demonstrated. CR describes the circular split-up of unpolarised light propagating along an optical axis in a biaxial crystal. The diverging and converging cones lend themselves to the construction of optical bottle beams with flexible entry points. The interaction of single inkjet droplets with an open or partly open bottle beam is shown implementing high-speed video microscopy in a dual-view configuration. Perpendicular image planes are visualized on a single camera chip to characterize the integral three-dimensional movement dynamics of droplets. We demonstrate how a partly opened optical bottle transversely confines liquid objects. Furthermore we observe and analyse transverse oscillations of absorbing droplets as they hit the inner walls and simultaneously measure both transverse and axial velocity components.
Performance of cylindrical-conical cyclones with different geometrical configurations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.D.A.M. Santana
2001-09-01
Full Text Available The present work is a continuation of a study of the influence of geometric characteristics on the performance of reverse-flow cylindrical-conical cyclones. After studying the behavior of the pressure drop in previous work (Arnosti et al., 1998, here performance in terms of collection efficiency in the removal of particulate material is addressed. The independent variables considered in this study were inlet gas velocity (three velocities and the following dimensions of the cyclone: the cylindrical section (three heights and internal height of the gas exit duct (three heights. The tests were performed using an 3³ experimental design. Analysis of the results for overall efficiency was carried out using response surfaces and the statistical parameters were estimated from linear regression.
Thermodynamical description of stationary, asymptotically flat solutions with conical singularities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herdeiro, Carlos; Rebelo, Carmen; Radu, Eugen
2010-01-01
We examine the thermodynamical properties of a number of asymptotically flat, stationary (but not static) solutions having conical singularities, with both connected and nonconnected event horizons, using the thermodynamical description recently proposed in [C. Herdeiro, B. Kleihaus, J. Kunz, and E. Radu, Phys. Rev. D 81, 064013 (2010).]. The examples considered are the double-Kerr solution, the black ring rotating in either S 2 or S 1 , and the black Saturn, where the balance condition is not imposed for the latter two solutions. We show that not only the Bekenstein-Hawking area law is recovered from the thermodynamical description, but also the thermodynamical angular momentum is the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner angular momentum. We also analyze the thermodynamical stability and show that, for all these solutions, either the isothermal moment of inertia or the specific heat at constant angular momentum is negative, at any point in parameter space. Therefore, all these solutions are thermodynamically unstable in the grand canonical ensemble.
Conical refraction of elastic waves in absorbing crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alshits, V. I.; Lyubimov, V. N.
2011-01-01
The absorption-induced acoustic-axis splitting in a viscoelastic crystal with an arbitrary anisotropy is considered. It is shown that after “switching on” absorption, the linear vector polarization field in the vicinity of the initial degeneracy point having an orientation singularity with the Poincaré index n = ±1/2, transforms to a planar distribution of ellipses with two singularities n = ±1/4 corresponding to new axes. The local geometry of the slowness surface of elastic waves is studied in the vicinity of new degeneracy points and a self-intersection line connecting them. The absorption-induced transformation of the classical picture of conical refraction is studied. The ellipticity of waves at the edge of the self-intersection wedge in a narrow interval of propagation directions drastically changes from circular at the wedge ends to linear in the middle of the wedge. For the wave normal directed to an arbitrary point of this wedge, during movement of the displacement vector over the corresponding polarization ellipse, the wave ray velocity s runs over the same cone describing refraction in a crystal without absorption. In this case, the end of the vector moves along a universal ellipse whose plane is orthogonal to the acoustic axis for zero absorption. The areal velocity of this movement differs from the angular velocity of the displacement vector on the polarization ellipse only by a constant factor, being delayed by π/2 in phase. When the wave normal is localized at the edge of the wedge in its central region, the movement of vector s along the universal ellipse becomes drastically nonuniform and the refraction transforms from conical to wedge-like.
Early structure of LPG partially premixed conically stabilized flames
Elbaz, Ayman M.
2013-01-01
This paper presents experimental investigation of LPG partially premixed turbulent flames stabilized within a conical nozzle burner under constant degree of partial premixing. The stability limits and mean flame structure are presented based on the mean gas temperature and the concentration of CO, O 2, NO, and HC at the flame early region of reaction. The investigation covered the influence of the nozzle cone angle, the jet exit velocity and the jet equivalence ratio. The stability results show that the flames with cone are more stable than those without cone. For conical stabilized flames, the stability results exhibit three different sensitivity regions between the jet velocity and equivalence ratio. The inflame measurements prove that the flame stability could be attributed to the triple flame structure at the flame leading edge. The data show that the triple flame structure is influenced by cone angle, the jet velocity and the equivalence ratio. The flame is believed to be controlled by the recirculation flow inside the cone. Increasing the cone angle induced higher air entrainment to the reaction zone as depicted by a higher O 2 concentration within the flame leading edge. Increasing the jet velocity to a certain limit enhances the intensity of combustion at the flame leading edge, while excessive increase in jet velocity reduces this intensity. At a fixed jet velocity the higher the equivalence ratio, the higher the amount of fuel diffused and engulfed to the reaction zone, the more delay of the combustion completion and the higher the emission concentrations of the flame. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
High-latitude Conic Current Sheets in the Solar Wind
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khabarova, Olga V.; Obridko, Vladimir N.; Kharshiladze, Alexander F. [Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IZMIRAN), Moscow (Russian Federation); Malova, Helmi V. [Scobeltsyn Nuclear Physics Institute of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kislov, Roman A.; Zelenyi, Lev M. [Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences (CBK PAN), Warsaw (Poland); Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Fujiki, Ken’ichi [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University (Japan); Sokół, Justyna M.; Grzedzielski, Stan [Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences (CBK), Warsaw (Poland)
2017-02-10
We provide observational evidence for the existence of large-scale cylindrical (or conic-like) current sheets (CCSs) at high heliolatitudes. Long-lived CCSs were detected by Ulysses during its passages over the South Solar Pole in 1994 and 2007. The characteristic scale of these tornado-like structures is several times less than a typical width of coronal holes within which the CCSs are observed. CCS crossings are characterized by a dramatic decrease in the solar wind speed and plasma beta typical for predicted profiles of CCSs. Ulysses crossed the same CCS at different heliolatitudes at 2–3 au several times in 1994, as the CCS was declined from the rotation axis and corotated with the Sun. In 2007, a CCS was detected directly over the South Pole, and its structure was strongly highlighted by the interaction with comet McNaught. Restorations of solar coronal magnetic field lines reveal the occurrence of conic-like magnetic separators over the solar poles in both 1994 and 2007. Such separators exist only during solar minima. Interplanetary scintillation data analysis confirms the presence of long-lived low-speed regions surrounded by the typical polar high-speed solar wind in solar minima. Energetic particle flux enhancements up to several MeV/ nuc are observed at edges of the CCSs. We built simple MHD models of a CCS to illustrate its key features. The CCSs may be formed as a result of nonaxiality of the solar rotation axis and magnetic axis, as predicted by the Fisk–Parker hybrid heliospheric magnetic field model in the modification of Burger and coworkers.
Lezberg, Erwin A.; Metzler, Allen J.; Pack, William D.
1993-01-01
Results of in-stream combustion measurements taken during Mach 5 to 7 true simulation testing of the Hypersonic Research Engine/Aerothermodynamic Integration Model (HRE/AIM) are presented. These results, the instrumentation techniques, and configuration changes to the engine installation that were required to test this model are described. In test runs at facility Mach numbers of 5 to 7, an exhaust instrumentation ring which formed an extension of the engine exhaust nozzle shroud provided diagnostic measurements at 10 circumferential locations in the HRE combustor exit plane. The measurements included static and pitot pressures using conventional conical probes, combustion gas temperatures from cooled-gas pyrometer probes, and species concentration from analysis of combustion gas samples. Results showed considerable circumferential variation, indicating that efficiency losses were due to nonuniform fuel distribution or incomplete mixing. Results using the Mach 7 facility nozzle but with Mach 6 temperature simulation, 1590 to 1670 K, showed indications of incomplete combustion. Nitric oxide measurements at the combustor exit peaked at 2000 ppmv for stoichiometric combustion at Mach 6.
Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) Technology Development Overview
Hughes, Stephen J.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Calomino, Anthony M.; Wright, Henry S.
2013-01-01
The successful flight of the Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE)-3 has further demonstrated the potential value of Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) technology. This technology development effort is funded by NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Game Changing Development Program (GCDP). This paper provides an overview of a multi-year HIAD technology development effort, detailing the projects completed to date and the additional testing planned for the future. The effort was divided into three areas: Flexible Systems Development (FSD), Mission Advanced Entry Concepts (AEC), and Flight Validation. FSD consists of a Flexible Thermal Protection Systems (FTPS) element, which is investigating high temperature materials, coatings, and additives for use in the bladder, insulator, and heat shield layers; and an Inflatable Structures (IS) element which includes manufacture and testing (laboratory and wind tunnel) of inflatable structures and their associated structural elements. AEC consists of the Mission Applications element developing concepts (including payload interfaces) for missions at multiple destinations for the purpose of demonstrating the benefits and need for the HIAD technology as well as the Next Generation Subsystems element. Ground test development has been pursued in parallel with the Flight Validation IRVE-3 flight test. A larger scale (6m diameter) HIAD inflatable structure was constructed and aerodynamically tested in the National Full-scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40ft by 80ft test section along with a duplicate of the IRVE-3 3m article. Both the 6m and 3m articles were tested with instrumented aerodynamic covers which incorporated an array of pressure taps to capture surface pressure distribution to validate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model predictions of surface pressure distribution. The 3m article also had a duplicate IRVE-3 Thermal Protection System (TPS) to test in addition to testing with the
Molecular Diagnostics for the Study of Hypersonic Flows
2000-04-01
UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO10744 TITLE: Molecular Diagnostics for the Study of Hypersonic Flows...following component part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADP010736 thru ADPO10751 UNCLASSIFIED 5-1 Molecular Diagnostics for the Study of
Quantifying Non-Equilibrium in Hypersonic Flows Using Entropy Generation
2007-03-01
do this, two experimental cases performed at the Calspan- University of Buffalo Research Center ( CUBRC ) were modeled using Navier-Stokes based CFD...data provided by the CUBRC hypersonic wind tunnel facility (Holden and Wadhams, 2004). The wall data in Figure 9 and Figure 10 reveals some difference
Shock stand off Calculations for Hemisphere in Hypersonic Flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanif, M.; Ghaffar, A.; Bilal, S.; Zahir, S.; Khan, M.A.
2004-01-01
The shape and location of shock has been studied by solving the axi symmetric Navier Stokes Equations for a hemisphere in hypersonic flow. The effect of Mach number on shock stand-off distance has been investigated. It is found that the shock location varies with Mach number and the free stream conditions at a given nose radius. (author)
Radiation from channeled positrons in a hypersonic wave field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mkrtchyan, A.R.; Gasparyan, R.A.; Gabrielyan, R.G.
1987-01-01
The radiation emitted by channeled positrons in a longitudinal or transverse standing hypersonic wave field is considered. In the case of plane channeling the spectral distribution of the radiation intensity is shown to be of a resonance nature depending on the hypersound frequency
Hypersonic drift-tearing magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fitzpatrick, R.; Waelbroeck, F. L.
2007-01-01
A two-fluid theory of long wavelength, hypersonic, drift-tearing magnetic islands in low-collisionality, low-β plasmas possessing relatively weak magnetic shear is developed. The model assumes both slab geometry and cold ions, and neglects electron temperature and equilibrium current gradient effects. The problem is solved in three asymptotically matched regions. The 'inner region' contains the island. However, the island emits electrostatic drift-acoustic waves that propagate into the surrounding 'intermediate region', where they are absorbed by the plasma. Since the waves carry momentum, the inner region exerts a net force on the intermediate region, and vice versa, giving rise to strong velocity shear in the region immediately surrounding the island. The intermediate region is matched to the surrounding 'outer region', in which ideal magnetohydrodynamic holds. Isolated hypersonic islands propagate with a velocity that lies between those of the unperturbed local ion and electron fluids, but is much closer to the latter. The ion polarization current is stabilizing, and increases with increasing island width. Finally, the hypersonic branch of isolated island solutions ceases to exist above a certain critical island width. Hypersonic islands whose widths exceed the critical width are hypothesized to bifurcate to the so-called 'sonic' solution branch
Solution-Space Screening of a Hypersonic Endurance Demonstrator
Chudoba, Bernd; Coleman, Gary; Oza, Amit; Gonzalez, Lex; Czysz, Paul
2012-01-01
This report documents a parametric sizing study performed to develop a program strategy for research and development and procurement of a feasible next-generation hypersonic air-breathing endurance demonstrator. Overall project focus has been on complementing technical and managerial decision-making during the earliest conceptual design phase towards minimization of operational, technical, and managerial risks.
Guo, Jinghui; Lin, Guiping; Bu, Xueqin; Fu, Shiming; Chao, Yanmeng
2017-07-01
The inflatable aerodynamic decelerator (IAD), which allows heavier and larger payloads and offers flexibility in landing site selection at higher altitudes, possesses potential superiority in next generation space transport system. However, due to the flexibilities of material and structure assembly, IAD inevitably experiences surface deformation during atmospheric entry, which in turn alters the flowfield around the vehicle and leads to the variations of aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics. In the current study, the effect of the static shape deformation on the hypersonic aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics of a stacked tori Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) is demonstrated and analyzed in detail by solving compressible Navier-Stokes equations with Menter's shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model. The deformed shape is obtained by structural modeling in the presence of maximum aerodynamic pressure during entry. The numerical results show that the undulating shape deformation makes significant difference to flow structure. In particular, the more curved outboard forebody surface results in local flow separations and reattachments in valleys, which consequently yields remarkable fluctuations of surface conditions with pressure rising in valleys yet dropping on crests while shear stress and heat flux falling in valleys yet rising on crests. Accordingly, compared with the initial (undeformed) shape, the corresponding differences of surface conditions get more striking outboard, with maximum augmentations of 379 pa, 2224 pa, and 19.0 W/cm2, i.e., 9.8%, 305.9%, and 101.6% for the pressure, shear stress and heat flux respectively. Moreover, it is found that, with the increase of angle of attack, the aerodynamic characters and surface heating vary and the aeroheating disparities are evident between the deformed and initial shape. For the deformable HIAD model investigated in this study, the more intense surface conditions and changed flight
Investigation of turbulence measurements with a continuous wave, conically scanning LiDAR
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wagner, Rozenn; Mikkelsen, Torben; Courtney, Michael
averaging is done in two steps: 1) the weighted averaging of the wind speed in the probe volume of the laser beam; 2) the averaging of the wind speeds occurring on the circular path described by the conically scanning lidar. Therefore the standard deviation measured by a lidar resolves only the turbulence...... of a continuous wave, conically scanning Zephir lidar. First, the wind speed standard deviation measured by such a lidar gives on average 80% of the standard deviation measured by a cup anemometer. This difference is due to the spatial averaging inherently made by a cw conically scanning lidar. The spatial...
Experimental study of CF4 conical theta pinch plasma expanding into vacuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pedrow, P.D.; Nasiruddin, A.M.
1989-01-01
Langmuir probe, photodiode, and optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) measurements have been made on a pulsed CF 4 conical theta pinch plasma. A cloud of CF 4 gas was puffed into a conical theta pinch coil, converted to plasma, and propelled into the vacuum region ahead of the expanding gas cloud. At a position 67 cm away from the conical theta pinch coil, the plasma arrived in separate packets that were about 20 μs in duration. The average drift velocity of these packets corresponded to an energy of about 3 eV. The OMA measurements showed that the second packet contained neutral atomic fluorine as well as charged particles
Hypersonic evanescent waves generated with a planar spiral coil.
Stevenson, A C; Araya-Kleinsteuber, B; Sethi, R S; Mehta, H M; Lowe, C R
2003-09-01
A planar spiral coil has been used to induce hypersonic evanescent waves in a quartz substrate with the unique ability to focus the acoustic wave down onto the chemical recognition layer. These special sensing conditions were achieved by investigating the application of a radio frequency current to a coaxial waveguide and spiral coil, so that wideband repeating electrical resonance conditions could be established over the MHz to GHz frequency range. At a selected operating frequency of 1.09 GHz, the evanescent wave depth of a quartz crystal hypersonic resonance is reduced to 17 nm, minimising unwanted coupling to the bulk fluid. Verification of the validity of the hypersonic resonance was carried out by characterising the system electrically and acoustically: Impedance calculations of the combined coil and coaxial waveguide demonstrated an excellent fit to the measured data, although above 400 MHz a transition zone was identified where unwanted impedance is parasitic of the coil influence efficiency, so the signal-to-noise ratio is reduced from 3000 to 300. Acoustic quartz crystal resonances at intervals of precisely 13.2138 MHz spacing, from the 6.6 MHz ultrasonic range and onto the desired hypersonic range above 1 GHz, were incrementally detected. Q factor measurements demonstrated that reductions in energy lost from the resonator to the fluid interface were consistent with the anticipated shrinkage of the evanescent wave with increasing operating frequency. Amplitude and frequency reduction in contact with a glucose solution was demonstrated at 1.09 GHz. The complex physical conditions arising at the solid-liquid interface under hypersonic entrainment are discussed with respect to acceleration induced slippage, rupture, longitudinal and shear radiation and multiphase relaxation affects.
An Entry Flight Controls Analysis for a Reusable Launch Vehicle
Calhoun, Philip
2000-01-01
The NASA Langley Research Center has been performing studies to address the feasibility of various single-stage to orbit concepts for use by NASA and the commercial launch industry to provide a lower cost access to space. Some work on the conceptual design of a typical lifting body concept vehicle, designated VentureStar(sup TM) has been conducted in cooperation with the Lockheed Martin Skunk Works. This paper will address the results of a preliminary flight controls assessment of this vehicle concept during the atmospheric entry phase of flight. The work includes control analysis from hypersonic flight at the atmospheric entry through supersonic speeds to final approach and landing at subsonic conditions. The requirements of the flight control effectors are determined over the full range of entry vehicle Mach number conditions. The analysis was performed for a typical maximum crossrange entry trajectory utilizing angle of attack to limit entry heating and providing for energy management, and bank angle to modulation of the lift vector to provide downrange and crossrange capability to fly the vehicle to a specified landing site. Sensitivity of the vehicle open and closed loop characteristics to CG location, control surface mixing strategy and wind gusts are included in the results. An alternative control surface mixing strategy utilizing a reverse aileron technique demonstrated a significant reduction in RCS torque and fuel required to perform bank maneuvers during entry. The results of the control analysis revealed challenges for an early vehicle configuration in the areas of hypersonic pitch trim and subsonic longitudinal controllability.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Long, W; Murakami, A; Hama, J [Mechanical Engineering Lab., Tokyo (Japan); Obokata, T [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan)
1997-10-01
The macro-characteristics of conical and improved conical sprays were analyzed using laser sheet and high speed camera. The injection pressure was 14.7, 24.5 or 34.3 MPa and the chamber pressure was 0.098, 0.98 or 1.96 MPa, where the amount of injected fuel was 28.5 mg per cycle, and the injection frequency was 8.3 Hz. As a result, at atmospheric pressure, both of the conical spray and improved conical spray have a conical pattern, but at high chamber pressure, the sprays become three dimensional. The penetration of the improved conical spray was about 25% stronger than that of the conical spray. 10 refs., 11 figs.
Local and System Level Considerations for Plasma-Based Techniques in Hypersonic Flight
Suchomel, Charles; Gaitonde, Datta
2007-01-01
The harsh environment encountered due to hypersonic flight, particularly when air-breathing propulsion devices are utilized, poses daunting challenges to successful maturation of suitable technologies. This has spurred the quest for revolutionary solutions, particularly those exploiting the fact that air under these conditions can become electrically conducting either naturally or through artificial enhancement. Optimized development of such concepts must emphasize not only the detailed physics by which the fluid interacts with the imposed electromagnetic fields, but must also simultaneously identify system level issues integration and efficiencies that provide the greatest leverage. This paper presents some recent advances at both levels. At the system level, an analysis is summarized that incorporates the interdependencies occurring between weight, power and flow field performance improvements. Cruise performance comparisons highlight how one drag reduction device interacts with the vehicle to improve range. Quantified parameter interactions allow specification of system requirements and energy consuming technologies that affect overall flight vehicle performance. Results based on on the fundamental physics are presented by distilling numerous computational studies into a few guiding principles. These highlight the complex non-intuitive relationships between the various fluid and electromagnetic fields, together with thermodynamic considerations. Generally, energy extraction is an efficient process, while the reverse is accompanied by significant dissipative heating and inefficiency. Velocity distortions can be detrimental to plasma operation, but can be exploited to tailor flows through innovative electromagnetic configurations.
Danehy, Paul M.; Alderfer, David W.; Inman, Jennifer A.; Berger, Karen T.; Buck, Gregory M.; Schwartz, Richard J.
2008-01-01
Reentry models for use in hypersonic wind tunnel tests were fabricated using a stereolithography apparatus. These models were produced in one day or less, which is a significant time savings compared to the manufacture of ceramic or metal models. The models were tested in the NASA Langley Research Center 31-Inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel. Only a few of the models survived repeated tests in the tunnel, and several failure modes of the models were identified. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of nitric oxide (NO) was used to visualize the flowfields in the wakes of these models. Pure NO was either seeded through tubes plumbed into the model or via a tube attached to the strut holding the model, which provided localized addition of NO into the model s wake through a porous metal cylinder attached to the end of the tube. Models included several 2- inch diameter Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE) models and 5-inch diameter Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) models. Various model configurations and NO seeding methods were used, including a new streamwise visualization method based on PLIF. Virtual Diagnostics Interface (ViDI) technology, developed at NASA Langley Research Center, was used to visualize the data sets in post processing. The use of calibration "dotcards" was investigated to correct for camera perspective and lens distortions in the PLIF images.
Experiments on a smooth wall hypersonic boundary layer at Mach 6
Neeb, Dominik; Saile, Dominik; Gülhan, Ali
2018-04-01
The turbulent boundary layer along the surface of high-speed vehicles drives shear stress and heat flux. Although essential to the vehicle design, the understanding of compressible turbulent boundary layers at high Mach numbers is limited due to the lack of available data. This is particularly true if the surface is rough, which is typically the case for all technical surfaces. To validate a methodological approach, as initial step, smooth wall experiments were performed. A hypersonic turbulent boundary layer at Ma = 6 (Ma_e=5.4) along a 7{}° sharp cone model at low Reynolds numbers Re_{θ } ≈ 3000 was characterized. The mean velocities in the boundary layer were acquired by means of Pitot pressure and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Furthermore, the PIV data were used to extract turbulent intensities along the profile. The mean velocities in the boundary layer agree with numerical data, independent of the measurement technique. Based on the profile data, three different approaches to extract the skin friction velocity were applied and show favorable comparison to literature and numerical data. The extracted values were used for inner and outer scaling of the van Driest transformed velocity profiles which are in good agreement to incompressible theoretical data. Morkovin scaled turbulent intensities show ambiguous results compared to literature data which may be influenced by inflow turbulence level, particle lag and other measurement uncertainties.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minucci, M. A. S.
2008-01-01
Beamed energy propulsion and beamed energy vehicle performance control concepts are equally promising and challenging. In Brazil, the two concepts are being currently investigated at the Prof Henry T Nagamatsu Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics, of the Institute for Advanced Studies--IEAv, in collaboration with the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute--RPI, Troy, NY, and the United States Air force Research Laboratory-AFRL. Until recently, only laser energy addition for hypersonic flow control was being investigated at the Laboratory using a 0.3 m nozzle exit diameter hypersonic shock tunnel, T2, and two 7 joule CO 2 TEA lasers. Flow visualization, model pressure and heat flux measurements of the laser energy addition perturbed flow around a model were produced as a result of this joint IEAv-RPI investigation. Presently, with the participation of AFRL and the newly commissioned 0.6 m. nozzle exit diameter hypersonic shock tunnel, T3, a more ambitious project is underway. Two 400 Joule Lumonics 620 CO 2 TEA lasers will deliver a 20 cm X 25 cm propulsive laser beam to a complete laser propelled air breather/rocket hypersonic engine, located inside T3 test section. Schlieren photographs of the flow inside de engine as well as surface and heat flux measurements will be performed for free stream Mach numbers ranging from 6 to 25. The present paper discusses past, present and future Brazilian activities on beamed energy propulsion and related technologies
Effect of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators on Non-equilibrium Hypersonic Flows
2014-10-28
results for MIG with the US3D code devel- oped at the University of Minnesota.61 US3D is an unstruc- tured CFD code for hypersonic flow solution used...Effect of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators on non-equilibrium hypersonic flows Ankush Bhatia,1 Subrata Roy,1 and Ryan Gosse2 1Applied...a cylindrical body in Mach 17 hypersonic flow is presented. This application focuses on using sinusoidal dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators
Numerical analysis of a hypersonic turbulent and laminar flow using a commercial CFD solver
Pajčin Miroslav P.; Simonović Aleksandar M.; Ivanov Toni D.; Komarov Dragan M.; Stupar Slobodan N.
2017-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics computations for two hypersonic flow cases using the commercial ANSYS FLUENT 16.2 CFD software were done. In this paper, an internal and external hypersonic flow cases were considered and analysis of the hypersonic flow using different turbulence viscosity models available in ANSYS FLUENT 16.2 as well as the laminar viscosity model were done. The obtained results were after compared and commented upon. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Tec...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Križan
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we will present the impact of the conical shape of a pressing chamber, an important structural parameter. Besides the known impact of the technological parameters of pressing chambers, it is also very important to pay attention to their structural parameters. In the introduction, we present a theoretical analysis of pressing chamber conicalness. An experiment aimed at detecting this impact was performed at our institute, and it showed that increasing the conicalness of a pressing chamber improves the quality of the final briquettes. The conicalness of the pressing chamber has a significanteffect on the final briquette quality and on the construction of briquetting machines. The experimental findings presented here show the importance of this parameter in the briquetting process.
Convergence of shock waves between conical and parabolic boundaries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yanuka, D.; Zinowits, H. E.; Antonov, O.; Efimov, S.; Virozub, A.; Krasik, Ya. E. [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)
2016-07-15
Convergence of shock waves, generated by underwater electrical explosions of cylindrical wire arrays, between either parabolic or conical bounding walls is investigated. A high-current pulse with a peak of ∼550 kA and rise time of ∼300 ns was applied for the wire array explosion. Strong self-emission from an optical fiber placed at the origin of the implosion was used for estimating the time of flight of the shock wave. 2D hydrodynamic simulations coupled with the equations of state of water and copper showed that the pressure obtained in the vicinity of the implosion is ∼7 times higher in the case of parabolic walls. However, comparison with a spherical wire array explosion showed that the pressure in the implosion vicinity in that case is higher than the pressure in the current experiment with parabolic bounding walls because of strong shock wave reflections from the walls. It is shown that this drawback of the bounding walls can be significantly minimized by optimization of the wire array geometry.
The fastest drop climbing on a wet conical fibre
Li, Erqiang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T
2013-01-01
We use high-speed video imaging to study the capillary-driven motion of a micro-droplet along the outside of a pre-wetted conical fiber. The cones are fabricated on a glass-puller with tip diameters as small as 1 μm, an order of magnitude smaller than in previous studies. The liquid is fed through the hollow fiber accumulating at the fiber tip to form droplets. The droplets are initially attached to the opening as they grow in size before detaching and traveling up the cone. This detachment can produce a transient oscillation of high frequency. The spatial variation of the capillary pressure drives the droplets towards the wider side of the cone. Various liquids were used to change the surface tension by a factor of 3.5 and viscosity by a factor of 1500. Within each droplet size and viscous-dissipation regime, the data for climbing speeds collapse on a single curve. Droplets traveling with and against gravity allow us to pinpoint the absolute strength of the driving capillary pressure and viscous stresses and thereby determine the prefactors in the dimensionless relationships. The motions are consistent with earlier results obtained from much larger cones. Translation velocities up to 270 mm/s were observed and overall the velocities follow capillary-viscous scaling, whereas the speed of the fastest droplets is limited by inertia following their emergence at the cone tip.
Conical singularities in AdS space time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, Cristine Nunes
2011-01-01
Full text: In recent years, the study of conformal gauge theories from 10-D has been motivated by the AdS d+1 /CFT d correspondence, first conjectured by J. Maldacena. The aim of this work is to consider the d = 4 case by analysing the configuration of the N coincident D3 branes. In this context, the work shows that there is a duality between type IIB string theory in AdS 5 x S 5 and N = 4 SU(N) Super Yang-Mills Theory in the IR. The AdS 5 /CFT 4 correspondence brought also new approaches to the strong coupling problem in QCD. Nowadays, there is a whole line of works that focus on the low dimensional correspondence AdS 4 /CFT 3 , like the application to graphene and topological insulators, and the AdS 3 /CFT 2 correspondence, related with the entanglement entropy. In this work, we consider the vortex configuration solution to the AdS 4 and AdS 3 space-time. The most important motivation is to discuss the boundary theory resulting from these solutions. We have examined a straightforward approach to a holographic computation of the graphene and entanglement entropy in the presence of the conical singularity. After this analysis, we consider the scalar field in the bulk in the presence of this metrics and work out the compactification modes. Taking the holographic point of view, we study and discuss the resulting Green function. (author)
Weakly nonlinear sloshing in a truncated circular conical tank
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gavrilyuk, I P; Hermann, M; Lukovsky, I A; Solodun, O V; Timokha, A N
2013-01-01
Sloshing of an ideal incompressible liquid in a rigid truncated (tapered) conical tank is considered when the tank performs small-magnitude oscillatory motions with the forcing frequency close to the lowest natural sloshing frequency. The multimodal method, the non-conformal mapping technique and the Moiseev type asymptotics are employed to derive a finite-dimensional system of weakly nonlinear ordinary differential (modal) equations. This modal system is a generalization of that by Gavrilyuk et al 2005 Fluid Dyn. Res. 37 399–429. Using the derived modal equations, we classify the resonant steady-state wave regimes occurring due to horizontal harmonic tank excitations. The frequency ranges are detected where the ‘planar’ and/or ‘swirling’ steady-state sloshing are stable as well as a range in which all steady-state wave regimes are not stable and irregular (chaotic) liquid motions occur is established. The results on the frequency ranges are qualitatively supported by experiments by Matta E 2002 PhD Thesis Politecnico di Torino, Torino. (paper)
The fastest drop climbing on a wet conical fibre
Li, Erqiang
2013-05-21
We use high-speed video imaging to study the capillary-driven motion of a micro-droplet along the outside of a pre-wetted conical fiber. The cones are fabricated on a glass-puller with tip diameters as small as 1 μm, an order of magnitude smaller than in previous studies. The liquid is fed through the hollow fiber accumulating at the fiber tip to form droplets. The droplets are initially attached to the opening as they grow in size before detaching and traveling up the cone. This detachment can produce a transient oscillation of high frequency. The spatial variation of the capillary pressure drives the droplets towards the wider side of the cone. Various liquids were used to change the surface tension by a factor of 3.5 and viscosity by a factor of 1500. Within each droplet size and viscous-dissipation regime, the data for climbing speeds collapse on a single curve. Droplets traveling with and against gravity allow us to pinpoint the absolute strength of the driving capillary pressure and viscous stresses and thereby determine the prefactors in the dimensionless relationships. The motions are consistent with earlier results obtained from much larger cones. Translation velocities up to 270 mm/s were observed and overall the velocities follow capillary-viscous scaling, whereas the speed of the fastest droplets is limited by inertia following their emergence at the cone tip.
Separability of diagonal symmetric states: a quadratic conic optimization problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jordi Tura
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We study the separability problem in mixtures of Dicke states i.e., the separability of the so-called Diagonal Symmetric (DS states. First, we show that separability in the case of DS in $C^d\\otimes C^d$ (symmetric qudits can be reformulated as a quadratic conic optimization problem. This connection allows us to exchange concepts and ideas between quantum information and this field of mathematics. For instance, copositive matrices can be understood as indecomposable entanglement witnesses for DS states. As a consequence, we show that positivity of the partial transposition (PPT is sufficient and necessary for separability of DS states for $d \\leq 4$. Furthermore, for $d \\geq 5$, we provide analytic examples of PPT-entangled states. Second, we develop new sufficient separability conditions beyond the PPT criterion for bipartite DS states. Finally, we focus on $N$-partite DS qubits, where PPT is known to be necessary and sufficient for separability. In this case, we present a family of almost DS states that are PPT with respect to each partition but nevertheless entangled.
Optical trapping using cascade conical refraction of light.
O'Dwyer, D P; Ballantine, K E; Phelan, C F; Lunney, J G; Donegan, J F
2012-09-10
Cascade conical refraction occurs when a beam of light travels through two or more biaxial crystals arranged in series. The output beam can be altered by varying the relative azimuthal orientation of the two biaxial crystals. For two identical crystals, in general the output beam comprises a ring beam with a spot at its centre. The relative intensities of the spot and ring can be controlled by varying the azimuthal angle between the refracted cones formed in each crystal. We have used this beam arrangement to trap one microsphere within the central spot and a second microsphere on the ring. Using linearly polarized light, we can rotate the microsphere on the ring with respect to the central sphere. Finally, using a half wave-plate between the two crystals, we can create a unique beam profile that has two intensity peaks on the ring, and thereby trap two microspheres on diametrically opposite points on the ring and rotate them around the central sphere. Such a versatile optical trap should find application in optical trapping setups.
Blanchard, R. C.; Walberg, G. D.
1980-01-01
Results of an investigation to determine the full scale drag coefficient in the high speed, low density regime of the Viking lander capsule 1 entry vehicle are presented. The principal flight data used in the study were from onboard pressure, mass spectrometer, and accelerometer instrumentation. The hypersonic continuum flow drag coefficient was unambiguously obtained from pressure and accelerometer data; the free molecule flow drag coefficient was indirectly estimated from accelerometer and mass spectrometer data; the slip flow drag coefficient variation was obtained from an appropriate scaling of existing experimental sphere data. Comparison of the flight derived drag hypersonic continuum flow regime except for Reynolds numbers from 1000 to 100,000, for which an unaccountable difference between flight and ground test data of about 8% existed. The flight derived drag coefficients in the free molecule flow regime were considerably larger than those previously calculated with classical theory. The general character of the previously determined temperature profile was not changed appreciably by the results of this investigation; however, a slightly more symmetrical temperature variation at the highest altitudes was obtained.
High-Fidelity Kinetics and Radiation Transport for NLTE Hypersonic Flows, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The modeling of NLTE hypersonic flows combines several disciplines: chemistry, kinetics, radiation transport, fluid mechanics, and surface science. No single code or...
Anisotropic power spectrum of refractive-index fluctuation in hypersonic turbulence.
Li, Jiangting; Yang, Shaofei; Guo, Lixin; Cheng, Mingjian
2016-11-10
An anisotropic power spectrum of the refractive-index fluctuation in hypersonic turbulence was obtained by processing the experimental image of the hypersonic plasma sheath and transforming the generalized anisotropic von Kármán spectrum. The power spectrum suggested here can provide as good a fit to measured spectrum data for hypersonic turbulence as that recorded from the nano-planar laser scattering image. Based on the newfound anisotropic hypersonic turbulence power spectrum, Rytov approximation was employed to establish the wave structure function and the spatial coherence radius model of electromagnetic beam propagation in hypersonic turbulence. Enhancing the anisotropy characteristics of the hypersonic turbulence led to a significant improvement in the propagation performance of electromagnetic beams in hypersonic plasma sheath. The influence of hypersonic turbulence on electromagnetic beams increases with the increase of variance of the refractive-index fluctuation and the decrease of turbulence outer scale and anisotropy parameters. The spatial coherence radius was much smaller than that in atmospheric turbulence. These results are fundamental to understanding electromagnetic wave propagation in hypersonic turbulence.
Ju, Jie; Xiao, Kai; Yao, Xi; Bai, Hao; Jiang, Lei
2013-11-06
Inspired by the efficient fog collection on cactus spines, conical copper wires with gradient wettability are fabricated through gradient electrochemical corrosion and subsequent gradient chemical modification. These dual-gradient copper wires' fog-collection ability is demonstrated to be higher than that of conical copper wires with pure hydrophobic surfaces or pure hydrophilic surfaces, and the underlying mechanism is also analyzed. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Automatic fitting of conical envelopes to free-form surfaces for flank CNC machining
Bo P.; Bartoň M.; Pottmann H.
2017-01-01
We propose a new algorithm to detect patches of free-form surfaces that can be well approximated by envelopes of a rotational cone under a rigid body motion. These conical envelopes are a preferable choice from the manufacturing point of view as they are, by-definition, manufacturable by computer numerically controlled (CNC) machining using the efficient flank (peripheral) method with standard conical tools. Our geometric approach exploits multi-valued vector fields that consist of vectors in...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Viswanathan, K. K.; Aziz, Z. A.; Javed, Saira; Yaacob, Y. [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Pullepu, Babuji [S R M University, Chennai (India)
2015-05-15
Free vibration of symmetric angle-ply laminated truncated conical shell is analyzed to determine the effects of frequency parameter and angular frequencies under different boundary condition, ply angles, different material properties and other parameters. The governing equations of motion for truncated conical shell are obtained in terms of displacement functions. The displacement functions are approximated by cubic and quintic splines resulting into a generalized eigenvalue problem. The parametric studies have been made and discussed.
Derivation of Conditions for the Normal Gain Behavior of Conical Horns
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chin Yeng Tan
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Monotonically increasing gain-versus-frequency pattern is in general expected to be a characteristic of aperture antennas that include the smooth-wall conical horn. While optimum gain conical horns do naturally exhibit this behavior, nonoptimum horns need to meet certain criterion: a minimum axial length for given aperture diameter, or, alternatively, a maximum aperture diameter for the given axial length. In this paper, approximate expressions are derived to determine these parameters.
Performance of conical abutment (Morse Taper) connection implants: a systematic review.
Schmitt, Christian M; Nogueira-Filho, Getulio; Tenenbaum, Howard C; Lai, Jim Yuan; Brito, Carlos; Döring, Hendrik; Nonhoff, Jörg
2014-02-01
In this systematic review, we aimed to compare conical versus nonconical implant-abutment connection systems in terms of their in vitro and in vivo performances. An electronic search was performed using PubMed, Embase, and Medline databases with the logical operators: "dental implant" AND "dental abutment" AND ("conical" OR "taper" OR "cone"). Names of the most common conical implant-abutment connection systems were used as additional key words to detect further data. The search was limited to articles published up to November 2012. Recent publications were also searched manually in order to find any relevant studies that might have been missed using the search criteria noted above. Fifty-two studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this systematic review. As the data and methods, as well as types of implants used was so heterogeneous, this mitigated against the performance of meta-analysis. In vitro studies indicated that conical and nonconical abutments showed sufficient resistance to maximal bending forces and fatigue loading. However, conical abutments showed superiority in terms of seal performance, microgap formation, torque maintenance, and abutment stability. In vivo studies (human and animal) indicated that conical and nonconical systems are comparable in terms of implant success and survival rates with less marginal bone loss around conical connection implants in most cases. This review indicates that implant systems using a conical implant-abutment connection, provides better results in terms of abutment fit, stability, and seal performance. These design features could lead to improvements over time versus nonconical connection systems. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Viswanathan, K. K.; Aziz, Z. A.; Javed, Saira; Yaacob, Y.; Pullepu, Babuji
2015-01-01
Free vibration of symmetric angle-ply laminated truncated conical shell is analyzed to determine the effects of frequency parameter and angular frequencies under different boundary condition, ply angles, different material properties and other parameters. The governing equations of motion for truncated conical shell are obtained in terms of displacement functions. The displacement functions are approximated by cubic and quintic splines resulting into a generalized eigenvalue problem. The parametric studies have been made and discussed.
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based on conical holed enhancing substrates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Yao; Chen, Zeng-Ping; Zuo, Qi; Shi, Cai-Xia; Yu, Ru-Qin
2015-01-01
In this contribution, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based on conical holed glass substrates deposited with silver colloids was reported for the first time. It combines the advantages of both dry SERS assays based on plane films deposited with silver colloids and wet SERS assays utilizing cuvettes or capillary tubes. Compared with plane glass substrates deposited with silver colloids, the conical holed glass substrates deposited with silver colloids exhibited five-to ten-folds of increase in the rate of signal enhancement, due to the internal multiple reflections of both the excitation laser beam and the Raman scattering photons within conical holes. The application of conical holed glass substrates could also yield significantly stronger and more reproducible SERS signals than SERS assays utilizing capillary tubes to sample the mixture of silver colloids and the solution of the analyte of interest. The conical holed glass substrates in combination with the multiplicative effects model for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (MEM SERS ) achieved quite sensitive and precise quantification of 6-mercaptopurine in complex plasma samples with an average relative prediction error of about 4% and a limit of detection of about 0.02 μM using a portable i-Raman 785H spectrometer. It is reasonable to expect that SERS technique based on conical holed enhancing substrates in combination with MEM SERS model can be developed and extended to other application areas such as drug detection, environmental monitoring, and clinic analysis, etc. - Highlights: • A novel conical holed SERS enhancing substrate was designed and manufactured. • The optimal conical holed glass substrates can produce stronger SERS signal. • The novel substrates can overcome the shortcomings of both dry and wet methods. • The novel substrates coupled with MEM SERS can realize quantitative SERS assays
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk
2008-01-01
location aware infotainment, increase safety, and lessen environmental strain. This dissertation is about service oriented architecture for pervasive computing with an emphasis on vehicle to vehicle applications. If devices are exposed as services, applications can be created by composing a set of services...... be evaluated. Service composition mechanisms for pervasive computing are categorized and we discuss how the characteristics of pervasive computing can be supported by service composition mechanisms. Finally, we investigate how to make pervasive computing systems capable of being noticed and understood...
The influence of initial pressure on the characteristics of conical bubble sonoluminescence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
He, Shoujie, E-mail: heshouj@hbu.edu.cn [Hebei Key Laboratory of Optic-electronic Information and Materials, College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Ha, Jing [Institute of Science, Hebei Agriculture University, Baoding 071001 (China); Duan, Pingguang [Hebei Key Laboratory of Optic-electronic Information and Materials, College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)
2015-12-18
Based on a conical bubble U-tube, conical bubble sonoluminescence was investigated by using pure water as the working medium. Intense cavitation luminescence can be obtained. With the decrease in initial pressure inside the bubble, the intensity and duration of light emission increased. The spectrum is mainly composed of the spectral bands of H{sub 2}O at the initial pressure of 1000 Pa. With the decrease in initial pressure, a broad continuum background spectrum that is well fitted by blackbody radiation can be detected, on which several spectral bands emitted by water molecules are superimposed. A higher temperature inside the bubble can be obtained with the decrease in initial pressure. Moreover, the intensity of the continuum background spectrum becomes more dominant compared with that of H{sub 2}O emission bands. Finally, we conclude that blackbody radiation and molecular emission contribute to luminescence of conical bubble cavitation. Moreover, the initial pressure inside the conical bubble significantly affects the emission mechanism of conical bubble sonoluminescence. - Highlights: • The spectra and light pulses of CBL are investigated in pure water. • The continuum background spectrum becomes more dominant with decrease of initial pressure. • The mechanism of CBL depends on the initial pressure of bubble. • Blackbody radiation and molecular emission contribute to luminescence of conical bubble cavitation.
CFD validation experiments for hypersonic flows
Marvin, Joseph G.
1992-01-01
A roadmap for CFD code validation is introduced. The elements of the roadmap are consistent with air-breathing vehicle design requirements and related to the important flow path components: forebody, inlet, combustor, and nozzle. Building block and benchmark validation experiments are identified along with their test conditions and measurements. Based on an evaluation criteria, recommendations for an initial CFD validation data base are given and gaps identified where future experiments could provide new validation data.
A CFD validation roadmap for hypersonic flows
Marvin, Joseph G.
1993-01-01
A roadmap for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code validation is developed. The elements of the roadmap are consistent with air-breathing vehicle design requirements and related to the important flow path components: forebody, inlet, combustor, and nozzle. Building block and benchmark validation experiments are identified along with their test conditions and measurements. Based on an evaluation criteria, recommendations for an initial CFD validation data base are given and gaps identified where future experiments would provide the needed validation data.
Assessment of predictive capabilities for aerodynamic heating in hypersonic flow
Knight, Doyle; Chazot, Olivier; Austin, Joanna; Badr, Mohammad Ali; Candler, Graham; Celik, Bayram; Rosa, Donato de; Donelli, Raffaele; Komives, Jeffrey; Lani, Andrea; Levin, Deborah; Nompelis, Ioannis; Panesi, Marco; Pezzella, Giuseppe; Reimann, Bodo; Tumuklu, Ozgur; Yuceil, Kemal
2017-04-01
The capability for CFD prediction of hypersonic shock wave laminar boundary layer interaction was assessed for a double wedge model at Mach 7.1 in air and nitrogen at 2.1 MJ/kg and 8 MJ/kg. Simulations were performed by seven research organizations encompassing both Navier-Stokes and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) methods as part of the NATO STO AVT Task Group 205 activity. Comparison of the CFD simulations with experimental heat transfer and schlieren visualization suggest the need for accurate modeling of the tunnel startup process in short-duration hypersonic test facilities, and the importance of fully 3-D simulations of nominally 2-D (i.e., non-axisymmmetric) experimental geometries.
Hypersonic nozzle/afterbody CFD code validation. I - Experimental measurements
Spaid, Frank W.; Keener, Earl R.
1993-01-01
This study was conducted to obtain a detailed experimental description of the flow field created by the interaction of a single-expansion-ramp-nozzle flow with a hypersonic external stream. Data were obtained from a generic nozzle/afterbody model in the 3.5-Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel of the NASA Ames Research Center in a cooperative experimental program involving Ames and the McDonnell Douglas Research Laboratories. This paper presents experimental results consisting primarily of surveys obtained with a five-hole total-pressure/flow-direction probe and a total-temperature probe. These surveys were obtained in the flow field created by the interaction between the underexpanded jet plume and the external flow.
Portable Fluorescence Imaging System for Hypersonic Flow Facilities
Wilkes, J. A.; Alderfer, D. W.; Jones, S. B.; Danehy, P. M.
2003-01-01
A portable fluorescence imaging system has been developed for use in NASA Langley s hypersonic wind tunnels. The system has been applied to a small-scale free jet flow. Two-dimensional images were taken of the flow out of a nozzle into a low-pressure test section using the portable planar laser-induced fluorescence system. Images were taken from the center of the jet at various test section pressures, showing the formation of a barrel shock at low pressures, transitioning to a turbulent jet at high pressures. A spanwise scan through the jet at constant pressure reveals the three-dimensional structure of the flow. Future capabilities of the system for making measurements in large-scale hypersonic wind tunnel facilities are discussed.
Progress with multigrid schemes for hypersonic flow problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radespiel, R.; Swanson, R.C.
1995-01-01
Several multigrid schemes are considered for the numerical computation of viscous hypersonic flows. For each scheme, the basic solution algorithm employs upwind spatial discretization with explicit multistage time stepping. Two-level versions of the various multigrid algorithms are applied to the two-dimensional advection equation, and Fourier analysis is used to determine their damping properties. The capabilities of the multigrid methods are assessed by solving three different hypersonic flow problems. Some new multigrid schemes based on semicoarsening strategies are shown to be quite effective in relieving the stiffness caused by the high-aspect-ratio cells required to resolve high Reynolds number flows. These schemes exhibit good convergence rates for Reynolds numbers up to 200 X 10 6 and Mach numbers up to 25. 32 refs., 31 figs., 1 tab
Anisotropic hypersonic phonon propagation in films of aligned ellipsoids.
Beltramo, Peter J; Schneider, Dirk; Fytas, George; Furst, Eric M
2014-11-14
A material with anisotropic elastic mechanical properties and a direction-dependent hypersonic band gap is fabricated using ac electric field-directed convective self-assembly of colloidal ellipsoids. The frequency of the gap, which is detected in the direction perpendicular to particle alignment and entirely absent parallel to alignment, and the effective sound velocities can be tuned by the particle aspect ratio. We hypothesize that the band gap originates from the primary eigenmode peak, the m-splitted (s,1,2) mode, of the particle resonating with the effective medium. These results reveal the potential for powerful control of the hypersonic phononic band diagram by combining anisotropic particles and self-assembly.
Examination of uniform momentum zones in hypersonic turbulent boundary layers
Williams, Owen; Helm, Clara; Martin, Pino
2017-11-01
The presence of uniform momentum zones (UMZs) separated by regions of high shear is now well-established in incompressible flows, with the mean number of such zones increasing in a log-linear fashion with Reynolds number. While known to be present in supersonic and hypersonic boundary layers, the properties of these UMZs and the appropriate Reynolds number for comparison with incompressible results have not previously been investigated. A large, previously published DNS database of hypersonic boundary layers is used in this investigation, with Mach numbers up to 12 and wall temperatures from cold to adiabatic, resulting in a wide range of outer layer Reynolds numbers. UMZs are examined using a range of parameters in both conventional inner and semi-local scalings, and Reynolds number trends examined.
Modification of polyimide wetting properties by laser ablated conical microstructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Least, Brandon T.; Willis, David A.
2013-01-01
Laser texturing of Kapton ® HN polyimide was performed by low-fluence ablation using a pulsed, frequency tripled (349 nm) Nd:YLF laser. The laser was scanned in two dimensions in order to generate texture over a large area. The laser overlap percentage and fluence were varied and the resulting texture was studied. The texture features were inspected by electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDS), while the static contact angle of de-ionized water was measured by a contact angle goniometer. Rounded bump features were formed at all fluences, which decreased in areal density with fluence and number of laser pulses. Conical microstructures or “cones” were also formed at most fluences. Cones were larger than the bumps and thus had lower areal density, which increased as a function of the number of laser pulses. The polyimide was hydrophilic before texturing, with a contact angle of approximately 76°. For most of the experimental conditions the contact angle increased as a result of texturing, with the contact angle exceeding 90° for some textured surfaces, and reaching values as high as 118°. In general, the surfaces with significant increases in contact angle had high density of texture features, either bumps or cones. The surfaces that experienced a decrease in contact angle generally had low density of texture features. The increase in contact angle from a wetting (θ 90°) cannot be explained by texturing alone. EDS measurements indicate that textured regions had higher carbon content than the untextured regions due to depletion of oxygen species. The increase in carbon content relative to the oxygen content increased the native contact angle of the surface, causing the transition from hydrophilic to hydrophobic behavior. The contact angle of a textured surface increased as the relative spacing of features (diameter to spacing) decreased.
Acoustic properties of a porous glass (vycor) at hypersonic frequencies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levelut, C; Pelous, J
2007-01-01
Brillouin scattering experiments have been performed from 5 to 1600 K in vycor, a porous silica glass. The acoustic velocity and attenuation at hypersonic frequencies are compared to those of bulk silica and others porous silica samples. The experimental evidence for the influence of porosity on the scattering by acoustic waves is compared to calculations. The correlation between internal friction and thermal conductivity at low temperature is discussed
Hypersonic Transition and Turbulence with Non-Equilibrium Thermochemistry
2009-08-31
from the literamre. In summary, this AFOSR MURI project has resulted in the production of new knowledge that should significantly improve the accuracy...behavior. The accumulated knowledge and understanding are expected to help development of better dissipation models for compressible flow fields. 2.23.2...8ffipüC<Pressurt Modieung suggestions from physics study <T acautttc Hypersonic Mach numbers Supersonic Mach numbers * skier * *a Subsonic
Simulation of hypersonic shock wave - laminar boundary layer interactions
Kianvashrad, N.; Knight, D.
2017-06-01
The capability of the Navier-Stokes equations with a perfect gas model for simulation of hypersonic shock wave - laminar boundary layer interactions is assessed. The configuration is a hollow cylinder flare. The experimental data were obtained by Calspan-University of Buffalo (CUBRC) for total enthalpies ranging from 5.07 to 21.85 MJ/kg. Comparison of the computed and experimental surface pressure and heat transfer is performed and the computed §ow¦eld structure is analyzed.
Molecular-Based Optical Diagnostics for Hypersonic Nonequilibrium Flows
Danehy, Paul; Bathel, Brett; Johansen, Craig; Winter, Michael; O'Byrne, Sean; Cutler, Andrew
2015-01-01
This presentation package consists of seven different talks rolled up into one. These talks are all invited orals presentations in a special session at the Aviation 2015 conference and represent contributions that were made to a recent AIAA book that will be published entitled 'Hypersonic Nonequilibrium Flows: Fundamentals and Recent Advances'. Slide 5 lists the individual presentations that will be given during the special session.
Hypersonic expansion of the Fokker--Planck equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernandez-Feria, R.
1989-01-01
A systematic study of the hypersonic limit of a heavy species diluted in a much lighter gas is made via the Fokker--Planck equation governing its velocity distribution function. In particular, two different hypersonic expansions of the Fokker--Planck equation are considered, differing from each other in the momentum equation of the heavy gas used as the basis of the expansion: in the first of them, the pressure tensor is neglected in that equation while, in the second expansion, the pressure tensor term is retained. The expansions are valid when the light gas Mach number is O(1) or larger and the difference between the mean velocities of light and heavy components is small compared to the light gas thermal speed. They can be applied away from regions where the spatial gradient of the distribution function is very large, but it is not restricted with respect to the temporal derivative of the distribution function. The hydrodynamic equations corresponding to the lowest order of both expansions constitute two different hypersonic closures of the moment equations. For the subsequent orders in the expansions, closed sets of moment equations (hydrodynamic equations) are given. Special emphasis is made on the order of magnitude of the errors of the lowest-order hydrodynamic quantities. It is shown that if the heat flux vanishes initially, these errors are smaller than one might have expected from the ordinary scaling of the hypersonic closure. Also it is found that the normal solution of both expansions is a Gaussian distribution at the lowest order
Effects of hypersonic field and anharmonic interactions on channelling radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
George, Juby; Pathak, Anand P; Goteti, L N S Prakash; Nagamani, G
2007-01-01
The effects of a hypersonic field on positron channelling radiation are considered. Anharmonic effects of the transverse potential induced by these longitudinal fields are incorporated and the wavefunction of the planar channelled positron is found by the solution of Dirac equation under the resonant influence of hypersound. An expression for the resonant frequency is estimated. The transition probabilities and the intensity of the channelling radiation are also calculated. It is found that the anharmonic effects change the spectral distributions considerably
Hypersonic Technology Developments with EU Co-Funded Projects
2010-09-01
and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference, AIAA-2006-8109, 06-09/11 2006, Canberra, Australia. [18] Karl S., Hannemann K., Steelant J. and...Canberra, Australia. [23] Haidn, O., Ciezki, H., Hannemann , K. and Karl., S., Selected Supersonic Combustion Activities at DLR within the European...LAPCAT Project, 2nd European Conference for Aerospace Sciences (EUCASS), July 2007, Brussels, Belgium. [24] Martinez-Schram J. , Karl S., Hannemann K
High speed digital holographic interferometry for hypersonic flow visualization
Hegde, G. M.; Jagdeesh, G.; Reddy, K. P. J.
2013-06-01
Optical imaging techniques have played a major role in understanding the flow dynamics of varieties of fluid flows, particularly in the study of hypersonic flows. Schlieren and shadowgraph techniques have been the flow diagnostic tools for the investigation of compressible flows since more than a century. However these techniques provide only the qualitative information about the flow field. Other optical techniques such as holographic interferometry and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) have been used extensively for extracting quantitative information about the high speed flows. In this paper we present the application of digital holographic interferometry (DHI) technique integrated with short duration hypersonic shock tunnel facility having 1 ms test time, for quantitative flow visualization. Dynamics of the flow fields in hypersonic/supersonic speeds around different test models is visualized with DHI using a high-speed digital camera (0.2 million fps). These visualization results are compared with schlieren visualization and CFD simulation results. Fringe analysis is carried out to estimate the density of the flow field.
On air-chemistry reduction for hypersonic external flow applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ibrahim, Ashraf; Suman, Sawan; Girimaji, Sharath S.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • The existence of the slow manifold for the air-mixture system is shown. • The QSSA estimate of the slow manifold is fairly accurate. • For mid-temperature range the reduction mechanisms could be useful. - Abstract: In external hypersonic flows, viscous and compressibility effects generate very high temperatures leading to significant chemical reactions among air constituents. Therefore, hypersonic flow computations require coupled calculations of flow and chemistry. Accurate and efficient computations of air-chemistry kinetics are of much importance for many practical applications but calculations accounting for detailed chemical kinetics can be prohibitively expensive. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of applying chemical kinetics reduction schemes for hypersonic air-chemistry. We consider two chemical kinetics sets appropriate for three different temperature ranges: 2500 K to 4500 K; 4500 K to 9000 K; and above 9000 K. By demonstrating the existence of the so-called the slow manifold in each of the chemistry sets, we show that judicious chemical kinetics reduction leading to significant computational savings is possible without much loss in accuracy
Hypersonic Navier Stokes Comparisons to Orbiter Flight Data
Campbell, Charles H.; Nompelis, Ioannis; Candler, Graham; Barnhart, Michael; Yoon, Seokkwan
2009-01-01
Hypersonic chemical nonequilibrium simulations of low earth orbit entry flow fields are becoming increasingly commonplace as software and computational capabilities become more capable. However, development of robust and accurate software to model these environments will always encounter a significant barrier in developing a suite of high quality calibration cases. The US3D hypersonic nonequilibrium Navier Stokes analysis capability has been favorably compared to a number of wind tunnel test cases. Extension of the calibration basis for this software to Orbiter flight conditions will provide an incremental increase in confidence. As part of the Orbiter Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment and the Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements project, NASA is performing entry flight testing on the Orbiter to provide valuable aerothermodynamic heating data. An increase in interest related to orbiter entry environments is resulting from this activity. With the advent of this new data, comparisons of the US3D software to the new flight testing data is warranted. This paper will provide information regarding the framework of analyses that will be applied with the US3D analysis tool. In addition, comparisons will be made to entry flight testing data provided by the Orbiter BLT Flight Experiment and HYTHIRM projects. If data from digital scans of the Orbiter windward surface become available, simulations will also be performed to characterize the difference in surface heating between the CAD reference OML and the digitized surface provided by the surface scans.
Grose, W. L.
1971-01-01
An approximate inverse solution is presented for the nonequilibrium flow in the inviscid shock layer about a vehicle in hypersonic flight. The method is based upon a thin-shock-layer approximation and has the advantage of being applicable to both subsonic and supersonic regions of the shock layer. The relative simplicity of the method makes it ideally suited for programming on a digital computer with a significant reduction in storage capacity and computing time required by other more exact methods. Comparison of nonequilibrium solutions for an air mixture obtained by the present method is made with solutions obtained by two other methods. Additional cases are presented for entry of spherical nose cones into representative Venusian and Martian atmospheres. A digital computer program written in FORTRAN language is presented that permits an arbitrary gas mixture to be employed in the solution. The effects of vibration, dissociation, recombination, electronic excitation, and ionization are included in the program.
Fallet, Clément; Caron, Julien; Oddos, Stephane; Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Moisan, Lionel; Sirat, Gabriel Y.; Braitbart, Philippe O.; Shorte, Spencer L.
2014-08-01
We present a new technology for super-resolution fluorescence imaging, based on conical diffraction. Conical diffraction is a linear, singular phenomenon taking place when a polarized beam is diffracted through a biaxial crystal. The illumination patterns generated by conical diffraction are more compact than the classical Gaussian beam; we use them to generate a super-resolution imaging modality. Conical Diffraction Microscopy (CODIM) resolution enhancement can be achieved with any type of objective on any kind of sample preparation and standard fluorophores. Conical diffraction can be used in multiple fashion to create new and disruptive technologies for super-resolution microscopy. This paper will focus on the first one that has been implemented and give a glimpse at what the future of microscopy using conical diffraction could be.
Philippart, François; Gaudry, Stéphane; Quinquis, Laurent; Lau, Nicolas; Ouanes, Islem; Touati, Samia; Nguyen, Jean Claude; Branger, Catherine; Faibis, Frédéric; Mastouri, Maha; Forceville, Xavier; Abroug, Fekri; Ricard, Jean Damien; Grabar, Sophie; Misset, Benoît
2015-03-15
The occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is linked to the aspiration of contaminated pharyngeal secretions around the endotracheal tube. Tubes with cuffs made of polyurethane rather than polyvinyl chloride or with a conical rather than a cylindrical shape increase tracheal sealing. To test whether using polyurethane and/or conical cuffs reduces tracheal colonization and VAP in patients with acute respiratory failure. We conducted a multicenter, prospective, open-label, randomized study in four parallel groups in four intensive care units between 2010 and 2012. A cohort of 621 patients with expected ventilation longer than 2 days was included at intubation with a cuff composed of cylindrical polyvinyl chloride (n = 148), cylindrical polyurethane (n = 143), conical polyvinyl chloride (n = 150), or conical polyurethane (n = 162). We used Kaplan-Meier estimates and log-rank tests to compare times to events. After excluding 17 patients who secondarily refused participation or had met an exclusion criterion, 604 were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Cumulative tracheal colonization greater than 10(3) cfu/ml at Day 2 was as follows (median [interquartile range]): cylindrical polyvinyl chloride, 0.66 (0.58-0.74); cylindrical polyurethane, 0.61 (0.53-0.70); conical polyvinyl chloride, 0.67 (0.60-0.76); and conical polyurethane, 0.62 (0.55-0.70) (P = 0.55). VAP developed in 77 patients (14.4%), and postextubational stridor developed in 28 patients (6.4%) (P = 0.20 and 0.28 between groups, respectively). Among patients requiring mechanical ventilation, polyurethane and/or conically shaped cuffs were not superior to conventional cuffs in preventing tracheal colonization and VAP. Clinical trial registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01114022).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Papin, M.
2005-06-01
This work dedicated to the study of the hypersonic re-entry of vehicles in the atmosphere crossing clouds of particles implies the study of two-fluid flow and it is shown that some developments can be applied to the two-fluid models used to describe the phase transformation occurring in a target irradiated by laser beams. The calculation of wall fluxes on hypersonic re-entry vehicles requires the modeling of the interactions with clouds. Two-fluid flows posing many physical and mathematical problems, one studies an alternative model due to Abgrall and Saurel: the discrete equation method (DEM). Three axis are chosen. The first proposes a finite volume discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations on hybrid grids adapted to the context. The second extends the DEM within a multi-fluid not-structured N-D framework. A limit study associates an original continuous model to him: it allows to modify usual two-fluid seven equations models to obtain a phasic entropy principle. In spite of good properties, the continuous description of the particles is unsuited to the problem. The last axis is a study of the follow-up of pointwise particles which does not allow realistic calculation of parietal fluxes. An original model, extending the usual hydro-erosion models, however makes it possible to evaluate rebounds, erosion of the body and wall fluxes. The appendices expose approximate and exact Riemann solvers between pure fluids, discretization of the Baer and Nunziato model, and relations describing the atmosphere, water and heat fluxes
Gao, Wenzhi; Li, Zhufei; Yang, Jiming
Leading edge bluntness is widely used in hypersonic inlet design for thermal protection[1]. Detailed research of leading edge bluntness on hypersonic inlet has been concentrated on shock shape correlation[2], boundary layer flow[3], inlet performance[4], etc. It is well known that blunted noses cause detached bow shocks which generate subsonic regions around the noses and entropy layers in the flowfield.
"Conical Hut": A Basic Form of House Types in Timor Island
Chen, Y. R.; Lim, Y. L.; Wang, M. H.; Chen, C. Y.
2015-08-01
Timor Island situates in the southeast end of Southeast Asia. The island accommodates many ethnic groups, which produce many diverse house types. As visiting East Timor in 2012 and Timor Island in 2014, we found the "Pair- House Type" widely spread over Timor Island. Uma Lulik (holy house), accommodating the ancestry soul, fireplace and elder's bed, and Uma Tidor (house for sleep), containing living, sleeping and working space, compose the pair-house. The research team visited 14 ethnic groups and their houses, some of which were measured and drawn into 3D models as back to Taiwan. Uma Tidors of each ethnic group are quite similar with rectangular volume and hip roof, however, one of the fourteen ethnic groups can build cylinder houses for Uma Tidor. Uma Luliks of different ethnic groups are diversified and special. One group of the Uma Luliks shows a rectangular or square volume sheltered by a hip roof. The other group of Uma Luliks presents a non-specific volume under a conical roof, that we called the "conical hut". Seven ethnic groups, Atoni, Weimua, Makassae, Mambai, Bunaq, Kemak and Bekais, have built "conical huts" for the use of Uma Lulik. People of the seven ethnic groups can construct a reasonable structural system to support the conical roof, and take good advantage of the space under the conical roof to meet their sacred needs and everyday life. "Conical Hut" may be regarded as the basic form of the house types adopted by the seven ethnic groups. It contains the basic spatial limits and the formal properties that the construction systems have to follow. Based on the concise rules of the basic form, people of each ethnic group use their talents, skills and building materials to generate variations of "conical hut", which are different in house scale, spatial layout, construction system and form. The "conical huts" contain the consistency that all the huts come from the basic form, meanwhile, they also present the diversification that each conical hut has
"Conical Hut": A Basic Form of House Types in Timor Island
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. R. Chen
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Timor Island situates in the southeast end of Southeast Asia. The island accommodates many ethnic groups, which produce many diverse house types. As visiting East Timor in 2012 and Timor Island in 2014, we found the “Pair- House Type” widely spread over Timor Island. Uma Lulik (holy house, accommodating the ancestry soul, fireplace and elder’s bed, and Uma Tidor (house for sleep, containing living, sleeping and working space, compose the pair-house. The research team visited 14 ethnic groups and their houses, some of which were measured and drawn into 3D models as back to Taiwan. Uma Tidors of each ethnic group are quite similar with rectangular volume and hip roof, however, one of the fourteen ethnic groups can build cylinder houses for Uma Tidor. Uma Luliks of different ethnic groups are diversified and special. One group of the Uma Luliks shows a rectangular or square volume sheltered by a hip roof. The other group of Uma Luliks presents a non-specific volume under a conical roof, that we called the “conical hut”. Seven ethnic groups, Atoni, Weimua, Makassae, Mambai, Bunaq, Kemak and Bekais, have built “conical huts” for the use of Uma Lulik. People of the seven ethnic groups can construct a reasonable structural system to support the conical roof, and take good advantage of the space under the conical roof to meet their sacred needs and everyday life. “Conical Hut” may be regarded as the basic form of the house types adopted by the seven ethnic groups. It contains the basic spatial limits and the formal properties that the construction systems have to follow. Based on the concise rules of the basic form, people of each ethnic group use their talents, skills and building materials to generate variations of “conical hut”, which are different in house scale, spatial layout, construction system and form. The “conical huts” contain the consistency that all the huts come from the basic form, meanwhile, they also present
Conical Perspective Image of an Architectural Object Close to Human Perception
Dzwierzynska, Jolanta
2017-10-01
The aim of the study is to develop a method of computer aided constructing conical perspective of an architectural object, which is close to human perception. The conical perspective considered in the paper is a central projection onto a projection surface being a conical rotary surface or a fragment of it. Whereas, the centre of projection is a stationary point or a point moving on a circular path. The graphical mapping results of the perspective representation is realized directly on an unrolled flat projection surface. The projective relation between a range of points on a line and the perspective image of the same range of points received on a cylindrical projection surface permitted to derive formulas for drawing perspective. Next, the analytical algorithms for drawing perspective image of a straight line passing through any two points were formulated. It enabled drawing a perspective wireframe image of a given 3D object. The use of the moving view point as well as the application of the changeable base elements of perspective as the variables in the algorithms enable drawing conical perspective from different viewing positions. Due to this fact, the perspective drawing method is universal. The algorithms are formulated and tested in Mathcad Professional software, but can be implemented in AutoCAD and majority of computer graphical packages, which makes drawing a perspective image more efficient and easier. The presented conical perspective representation, and the convenient method of its mapping directly on the flat unrolled surface can find application for numerous advertisement and art presentations.
The plastic instability of clamped-clamped conical thin-walled pipe reducers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Awad, Ibrahim; Saleh, Ch.A.R.; Ragab, A.R.
2016-01-01
The analytical study for plastic deformation of clamped–clamped conical reducer pipe under internal pressure does not deduce a closed form expression for the pressure at plastic instability. The presented study employs finite element analysis (FEA) to estimate the internal pressure at instability for conical reducers made of different materials and having different dimensional configurations. Forty dimensional configurations, classified as medium type, and five types of materials have been included in the analysis using ABAQUS package. A correlation expression is derived by nonlinear regression to predict the instability pressure. The proposed expression is verified for other dimensional configurations out of the above used forty models and for other materials. Experiments have been conducted by pressurizing conical clamped-clamped reducers until bursting in order to verify the finite element models. Comparison of instability pressures, strains and deflections at specific points along the conical surface shows satisfactory agreement between analysis and experiments. - Highlights: • This study offers a parametric study of the plastic instability pressure of clamped-clamped conical reducers. • A closed form analytical expression for the instability pressure is derived by using nonlinear regression. • The finite element analysis is validated by conducting bursting tests.
Hyper-X Vehicle Model - Top Front View
1996-01-01
A top front view of an early desk-top model of NASA's X-43A 'Hyper-X,' or Hypersonic Experimental Vehicle, developed to flight test a dual-mode ramjet/scramjet propulsion system at speeds from Mach 7 up to Mach 10 (7 to 10 times the speed of sound, which varies with temperature and altitude). Hyper-X, the flight vehicle for which is designated as X-43A, is an experimental flight-research program seeking to demonstrate airframe-integrated, 'air-breathing' engine technologies that promise to increase payload capacity for future vehicles, including hypersonic aircraft (faster than Mach 5) and reusable space launchers. This multiyear program is currently underway at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Hyper-X schedule calls for its first flight later this year (2000). Hyper-X is a joint program, with Dryden sharing responsibility with NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Dryden's primary role is to fly three unpiloted X-43A research vehicles to validate engine technologies and hypersonic design tools as well as the hypersonic test facility at Langley. Langley manages the program and leads the technology development effort. The Hyper-X Program seeks to significantly expand the speed boundaries of air-breathing propulsion by being the first aircraft to demonstrate an airframe-integrated, scramjet-powered free flight. Scramjets (supersonic-combustion ramjets) are ramjet engines in which the airflow through the whole engine remains supersonic. Scramjet technology is challenging because only limited testing can be performed in ground facilities. Long duration, full-scale testing requires flight research. Scramjet engines are air-breathing, capturing their oxygen from the atmosphere. Current spacecraft, such as the Space Shuttle, are rocket powered, so they must carry both fuel and oxygen for propulsion. Scramjet technology-based vehicles need to carry only fuel. By eliminating the need to carry oxygen, future hypersonic vehicles will
Hyper-X Research Vehicle - Artist Concept in Flight
1997-01-01
An artist's conception of the X-43A Hypersonic Experimental Vehicle, or 'Hyper-X' in flight. The X-43A was developed to flight test a dual-mode ramjet/scramjet propulsion system at speeds from Mach 7 up to Mach 10 (7 to 10 times the speed of sound, which varies with temperature and altitude). Hyper-X, the flight vehicle for which is designated as X-43A, is an experimental flight-research program seeking to demonstrate airframe-integrated, 'air-breathing' engine technologies that promise to increase payload capacity for future vehicles, including hypersonic aircraft (faster than Mach 5) and reusable space launchers. This multiyear program is currently underway at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Hyper-X schedule calls for its first flight later this year (2000). Hyper-X is a joint program, with Dryden sharing responsibility with NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Dryden's primary role is to fly three unpiloted X-43A research vehicles to validate engine technologies and hypersonic design tools as well as the hypersonic test facility at Langley. Langley manages the program and leads the technology development effort. The Hyper-X Program seeks to significantly expand the speed boundaries of air-breathing propulsion by being the first aircraft to demonstrate an airframe-integrated, scramjet-powered free flight. Scramjets (supersonic-combustion ramjets) are ramjet engines in which the airflow through the whole engine remains supersonic. Scramjet technology is challenging because only limited testing can be performed in ground facilities. Long duration, full-scale testing requires flight research. Scramjet engines are air-breathing, capturing their oxygen from the atmosphere. Current spacecraft, such as the Space Shuttle, are rocket powered, so they must carry both fuel and oxygen for propulsion. Scramjet technology-based vehicles need to carry only fuel. By eliminating the need to carry oxygen, future hypersonic vehicles will
Hyper-X Vehicle Model - Top Rear View
1996-01-01
This aft-quarter model view of NASA's X-43A 'Hyper-X' or Hypersonic Experimental Vehicle shows its sleek, geometric design. The X-43A was developed to flight test a dual-mode ramjet/scramjet propulsion system at speeds from Mach 7 up to Mach 10 (7 to 10 times the speed of sound, which varies with temperature and altitude). Hyper-X, the flight vehicle for which is designated as X-43A, is an experimental flight-research program seeking to demonstrate airframe-integrated, 'air-breathing' engine technologies that promise to increase payload capacity for future vehicles, including hypersonic aircraft (faster than Mach 5) and reusable space launchers. This multiyear program is currently underway at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Hyper-X schedule calls for its first flight later this year (2000). Hyper-X is a joint program, with Dryden sharing responsibility with NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Dryden's primary role is to fly three unpiloted X-43A research vehicles to validate engine technologies and hypersonic design tools as well as the hypersonic test facility at Langley. Langley manages the program and leads the technology development effort. The Hyper-X Program seeks to significantly expand the speed boundaries of air-breathing propulsion by being the first aircraft to demonstrate an airframe-integrated, scramjet-powered free flight. Scramjets (supersonic-combustion ramjets) are ramjet engines in which the airflow through the whole engine remains supersonic. Scramjet technology is challenging because only limited testing can be performed in ground facilities. Long duration, full-scale testing requires flight research. Scramjet engines are air-breathing, capturing their oxygen from the atmosphere. Current spacecraft, such as the Space Shuttle, are rocket powered, so they must carry both fuel and oxygen for propulsion. Scramjet technology-based vehicles need to carry only fuel. By eliminating the need to carry oxygen
Aerodynamic performance investigation on waverider with variable blunt radius in hypersonic flows
Li, Shibin; Wang, Zhenguo; Huang, Wei; Xu, Shenren; Yan, Li
2017-08-01
Waverider is an important candidate for the design of hypersonic vehicles. However, the ideal waverider cannot be manufactured because of its sharp leading edge, so the leading edge should be blunted. In the paper, the HMB solver and laminar flow model have been utilized to obtain the flow field properties around the blunt waverider with the freestream Mach number being 8.0, and several novel strategies have been suggested to improve the aerodynamic performance of blunt waverider. The numerical method has been validated against experimental data, and the Stanton number(St) of the predicted result has been analyzed. The obtained results show good agreement with the experimental data. Stmax decreases by 58% and L/D decreases by 8.2% when the blunt radius increases from 0.0002 m to 0.001 m. ;Variable blunt waverider; is a good compromise for aerodynamic performance and thermal insulation. The aero-heating characteristics are very sensitive to Rmax. The position of the smallest blunt radius has a great effect on the aerodynamic performance. In addition, the type of blunt leading edge has a great effect on the aero-heating characteristics when Rmax is fixed. Therefore, out of several designs, Type 4is the best way to achieve the good overall performance. The ;Variable blunt waverider; not only improves the aerodynamic performance, but also makes the aero-heating become evenly-distributed, leading to better aero-heating characteristics.
Separation and extension of cover inequalities for second-order conic knapsack constraints with GUBs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Atamtürk, Alper; Muller, Laurent Flindt; Pisinger, David
We consider the second-order conic equivalent of the classic knapsack polytope where the variables are subject to generalized upper bound constraints. We describe and compare a number of separation and extension algorithms which make use of the extra structure implied by the generalized upper bound...... constraints in order to strengthen the second-order conic equivalent of the classic cover cuts. We show that determining whether a cover can be extended with a variable is NP-hard. Computational experiments are performed comparing the proposed separation and extension algorithms. These experiments show...
Shigemaru, Daichi; Tsukamoto, Hiroshi
2010-06-01
Whirling motion of a pump impeller was calculated for the centrifugal blood pump with Conical Spiral Groove Bearings to get a criterion for the instability of impeller whirling motion. The motion of the centrifugal blood pump impeller was calculated based on a spring damping model, and unsteady flow in the pump was computed using the commercial CFD package ANSYS CFX. Also the whirling motion of rotating impeller was measured using two displacement sensors fixed to the blood pump casing. The numerical calculations were done for the blood pump impeller with conical spiral groove bearings, and impeller whirling motion was evaluated.
Spectral and spatial characteristics of third-harmonic generation in conical light beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peet, V.E.; Shchemeljov, S.V.
2003-01-01
Generation of resonance-enhanced third harmonic in Bessel and other conical beams is analyzed from a simple picture, where the fundamental light field is decomposed into elementary configurations of crossed plain-wave sub-beams. We show that the overall harmonic output can be derived as a superposition of all partial harmonic components driven by elementary configurations of the fundamental field. Good agreement with experimental observations has been obtained in simulation of spectral and spatial characteristics of the generated third harmonic. Some peculiarities of harmonic generation in conical light fields are discussed
2018-03-30
ARL-TR-8335•MAR 2018 US Army Research Laboratory Influence of Test Section Geometry on theBlast Environment in an Explosively DrivenConical Shock...ARL-TR-8335•MAR 2018 US Army Research Laboratory Influence of Test Section Geometry on theBlast Environment in an Explosively DrivenConical Shock...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f
Practical conic sections the geometric properties of ellipses, parabolas and hyperbolas
Downs, J W
2010-01-01
Illustrated with interesting examples from everyday life, this text shows how to create ellipses, parabolas, and hyperbolas and presents fascinating historical background on their ancient origins. The text starts with a discussion of techniques for generating the conic curves, showing how to create accurate depictions of large or small conic curves and describing their reflective properties, from light in telescopes to sound in microphones and amplifiers. It further defines the role of curves in the construction of auditoriums, antennas, lamps, and numerous other design applications. Only a ba
Power of the Poincaré group: elucidating the hidden symmetries in focal conic domains.
Alexander, Gareth P; Chen, Bryan Gin-Ge; Matsumoto, Elisabetta A; Kamien, Randall D
2010-06-25
Focal conic domains are typically the "smoking gun" by which smectic liquid crystalline phases are identified. The geometry of the equally spaced smectic layers is highly generic but, at the same time, difficult to work with. In this Letter we develop an approach to the study of focal sets in smectics which exploits a hidden Poincaré symmetry revealed only by viewing the smectic layers as projections from one-higher dimension. We use this perspective to shed light upon several classic focal conic textures, including the concentric cyclides of Dupin, polygonal textures, and tilt-grain boundaries.
Power of the Poincare Group: Elucidating the Hidden Symmetries in Focal Conic Domains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexander, Gareth P.; Chen, Bryan Gin-ge; Matsumoto, Elisabetta A.; Kamien, Randall D.
2010-01-01
Focal conic domains are typically the 'smoking gun' by which smectic liquid crystalline phases are identified. The geometry of the equally spaced smectic layers is highly generic but, at the same time, difficult to work with. In this Letter we develop an approach to the study of focal sets in smectics which exploits a hidden Poincare symmetry revealed only by viewing the smectic layers as projections from one-higher dimension. We use this perspective to shed light upon several classic focal conic textures, including the concentric cyclides of Dupin, polygonal textures, and tilt-grain boundaries.
A new approach to evaluate the response functions for conical and cylindrical collimators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gigante, G.E.
1989-01-01
A new approach to the evaluation of the conical collimator response function is shown. The basic collimator formulae are reviewed. The collimator response function has been found in a very easy way. An approximate solution has been introduced. Studying the response of a measuring system, the use of this approximation strongly reduces the complexity of the relations to be used; therefore it would provide a useful starting point for a Monte Carlo calculation. The errors introduced are less than 10%. Approximate relations that allow the evaluation of the response of conical and cylindrical collimators to plane and line sources are also given. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahashi, Masaki; Omote, Tatsuyuki; Yoneya, Yutaka; Tanaka, Keiji; Waki, Tetsuro; Yoshida, Tomiji; Kido, Tsuyoshi.
1993-01-01
An inspection vehicle comprises a small-sized battery directly connected with a power motor or a direct power source from trolly lines and a switching circuit operated by external signals. The switch judges advance or retreat by two kinds of signals and the inspection vehicle is recovered by self-running. In order to recover the abnormally stopped inspection vehicle to the targeted place, the inspection vehicle is made in a free-running state by using a clutch mechanism and is pushed by an other vehicle. (T.M.)
Supersonic Combustion of Hydrogen Jets System in Hypersonic Stream
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhapbasbaev, U.K.; Makashev, E.P.
2003-01-01
The data of calculated theoretical investigations of diffusive combustion of plane supersonic hydrogen jets in hypersonic stream received with Navier-Stokes parabola equations closed by one-para metrical (k-l) model of turbulence and multiply staged mechanism of hydrogen oxidation are given. Combustion mechanisms depending on the operating parameters are discussing. The influences of air stream composition and ways off fuel feed to the length of ignition delay and level quantity of hydrogen bum-out have been defined. The calculated theoretical results of investigations permit to make the next conclusions: 1. The diffusive combustion of the system of plane supersonic hydrogen jets in hypersonic flow happens in the cellular structures with alternation zones of intensive running of chemical reactions with their inhibition zones. 2. Gas dynamic and heat Mach waves cause a large - scale viscous formation intensifying mixing of fuel with oxidizer. 3. The system ignition of plane supersonic hydrogen jets in hypersonic airy co-flow happens with the formation of normal flame front of hydrogen airy mixture with transition to the diffusive combustion. 4. The presence of active particles in the flow composition initiates the ignition of hydrogen - airy mixture, provides the intensive running of chemical reactions and shortens the length of ignition delay. 5. The supersonic combustion of hydrogel-airy mixture is characterized by two zones: the intensive chemical reactions with an active energy heat release is occurring in the first zone and in the second - a slow hydrogen combustion limited by the mixing of fuel with oxidizer. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martinazzo, Rocco [Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, University of Milan, Via Golgi 19, 20122 Milan (Italy); Hughes, Keith H. [School of Chemistry, Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Martelli, Fausto [Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, University of Milan, Via Golgi 19, 20122 Milan (Italy); Departement de Chimie, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); Burghardt, Irene, E-mail: irene.burghardt@ens.fr [Departement de Chimie, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France)
2010-11-25
Graphical abstract: The effect of high-dimensional environments on conical intersections can be described by hierarchies of approximate spectral densities, which translate to truncated effective-mode chains in the time domain. Abstract: A recently developed effective-mode representation is employed to characterize the influence of a multi-dimensional environment on the S{sub 2}-S{sub 1} conical intersection in pyrazine, taken as a paradigm case of high-dimensional dynamics at a conical intersection. We consider a simplified model by which four modes are strongly coupled to the electronic subsystem while a number of weakly coupled tuning modes, inducing energy gap fluctuations, are sampled from a spectral density. The latter is approximated by a series of simplified spectral densities which can be cast into a continued-fraction form, as previously demonstrated in Hughes et al. (K.H. Hughes, C.D. Christ, I. Burghardt, J. Chem. Phys. 131 (2009) 124108). In the time domain, the hierarchy of spectral densities translates to truncated effective-mode chains with a Markovian or quasi-Markovian (Rubin type) closure. A sequential deconvolution procedure is employed to generate this chain representation. The implications for the ultrafast dynamics and its representation in terms of reduced-dimensional models are discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ariko Fukushima
Full Text Available The hypersonic effect is a phenomenon in which sounds containing significant quantities of non-stationary high-frequency components (HFCs above the human audible range (max. 20 kHz activate the midbrain and diencephalon and evoke various physiological, psychological and behavioral responses. Yet important issues remain unverified, especially the relationship existing between the frequency of HFCs and the emergence of the hypersonic effect. In this study, to investigate the relationship between the hypersonic effect and HFC frequencies, we divided an HFC (above 16 kHz of recorded gamelan music into 12 band components and applied them to subjects along with an audible component (below 16 kHz to observe changes in the alpha2 frequency component (10-13 Hz of spontaneous EEGs measured from centro-parieto-occipital regions (Alpha-2 EEG, which we previously reported as an index of the hypersonic effect. Our results showed reciprocal directional changes in Alpha-2 EEGs depending on the frequency of the HFCs presented with audible low-frequency component (LFC. When an HFC above approximately 32 kHz was applied, Alpha-2 EEG increased significantly compared to when only audible sound was applied (positive hypersonic effect, while, when an HFC below approximately 32 kHz was applied, the Alpha-2 EEG decreased (negative hypersonic effect. These findings suggest that the emergence of the hypersonic effect depends on the frequencies of inaudible HFC.
Fukushima, Ariko; Yagi, Reiko; Kawai, Norie; Honda, Manabu; Nishina, Emi; Oohashi, Tsutomu
2014-01-01
The hypersonic effect is a phenomenon in which sounds containing significant quantities of non-stationary high-frequency components (HFCs) above the human audible range (max. 20 kHz) activate the midbrain and diencephalon and evoke various physiological, psychological and behavioral responses. Yet important issues remain unverified, especially the relationship existing between the frequency of HFCs and the emergence of the hypersonic effect. In this study, to investigate the relationship between the hypersonic effect and HFC frequencies, we divided an HFC (above 16 kHz) of recorded gamelan music into 12 band components and applied them to subjects along with an audible component (below 16 kHz) to observe changes in the alpha2 frequency component (10-13 Hz) of spontaneous EEGs measured from centro-parieto-occipital regions (Alpha-2 EEG), which we previously reported as an index of the hypersonic effect. Our results showed reciprocal directional changes in Alpha-2 EEGs depending on the frequency of the HFCs presented with audible low-frequency component (LFC). When an HFC above approximately 32 kHz was applied, Alpha-2 EEG increased significantly compared to when only audible sound was applied (positive hypersonic effect), while, when an HFC below approximately 32 kHz was applied, the Alpha-2 EEG decreased (negative hypersonic effect). These findings suggest that the emergence of the hypersonic effect depends on the frequencies of inaudible HFC.
A local-velocity meter for hypersonic plasma jet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nyazev, A.A.; Lerner, N.B.; Svinolupov, K.I.
1985-01-01
This paper describes a system for a resonant laser Doppler meter for the local velocity in a hypersonic plasma flow. Preliminary test results on the prototype are reported for a jet of air containing sodium at 1100 degrees K, air pressure in the working region 20-200 Pa, and jet speed 6-8 km/sec. Measured speeds agree with theoretical predictions. The prototype and the method do not impose constraints on the working conditions but can be extended to wide ranges in temperature and pressure, such as ones in which the line width does not exceed the Doppler shift
Filtering of elastic waves by opal-based hypersonic crystal.
Salasyuk, Alexey S; Scherbakov, Alexey V; Yakovlev, Dmitri R; Akimov, Andrey V; Kaplyanskii, Alexander A; Kaplan, Saveliy F; Grudinkin, Sergey A; Nashchekin, Alexey V; Pevtsov, Alexander B; Golubev, Valery G; Berstermann, Thorsten; Brüggemann, Christian; Bombeck, Michael; Bayer, Manfred
2010-04-14
We report experiments in which high quality silica opal films are used as three-dimensional hypersonic crystals in the 10 GHz range. Controlled sintering of these structures leads to well-defined elastic bonding between the submicrometer-sized silica spheres, due to which a band structure for elastic waves is formed. The sonic crystal properties are studied by injection of a broadband elastic wave packet with a femtosecond laser. Depending on the elastic bonding strength, the band structure separates long-living surface acoustic waves with frequencies in the complete band gap from bulk waves with band frequencies that propagate into the crystal leading to a fast decay.
Hypersonic aerodynamics on thin bodies with interaction and upstream influence
Smith, F. T.; Khorrami, A. F.
1994-01-01
In the fundamental configuration studied here, a steady hypersonic free stream flows over a thin sharp aligned airfoil or flat plate with a leading-edge shock wave, and the flow field in the shock layer (containing a viscous and an inviscid layer) is steady laminar and two-dimensional, for a perfect gas without real and high-temperature gas effects. The viscous and inviscid layers are analysed and computed simultaneously in the region from the leading edge to the trailing edge, including the ...
Numerical analysis of a hypersonic turbulent and laminar flow using a commercial CFD solver
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pajčin Miroslav P.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Computational fluid dynamics computations for two hypersonic flow cases using the commercial ANSYS FLUENT 16.2 CFD software were done. In this paper, an internal and external hypersonic flow cases were considered and analysis of the hypersonic flow using different turbulence viscosity models available in ANSYS FLUENT 16.2 as well as the laminar viscosity model were done. The obtained results were after compared and commented upon. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 35035
1990-03-01
Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.
Computational study of performance characteristics for truncated conical aerospike nozzles
Nair, Prasanth P.; Suryan, Abhilash; Kim, Heuy Dong
2017-12-01
Aerospike nozzles are advanced rocket nozzles that can maintain its aerodynamic efficiency over a wide range of altitudes. It belongs to class of altitude compensating nozzles. A vehicle with an aerospike nozzle uses less fuel at low altitudes due to its altitude adaptability, where most missions have the greatest need for thrust. Aerospike nozzles are better suited to Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) missions compared to conventional nozzles. In the current study, the flow through 20% and 40% aerospike nozzle is analyzed in detail using computational fluid dynamics technique. Steady state analysis with implicit formulation is carried out. Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. The results are compared with experimental results from previous work. The transition from open wake to closed wake happens in lower Nozzle Pressure Ratio for 20% as compared to 40% aerospike nozzle.
WebQuest on Conic Sections as a Learning Tool for Prospective Teachers
Kurtulus, Aytac; Ada, Tuba
2012-01-01
WebQuests incorporate technology with educational concepts through integrating online resources with student-centred and activity-based learning. In this study, we describe and evaluate a WebQuest based on conic sections, which we have used with a group of prospective mathematics teachers. The WebQuest entitled: "Creating a Carpet Design Using…
Bio-inspired multistructured conical copper wires for highly efficient liquid manipulation.
Wang, Qianbin; Meng, Qingan; Chen, Ming; Liu, Huan; Jiang, Lei
2014-09-23
Animal hairs are typical structured conical fibers ubiquitous in natural system that enable the manipulation of low viscosity liquid in a well-controlled manner, which serves as the fundamental structure in Chinese brush for ink delivery in a controllable manner. Here, drawing inspiration from these structure, we developed a dynamic electrochemical method that enables fabricating the anisotropic multiscale structured conical copper wire (SCCW) with controllable conicity and surface morphology. The as-prepared SCCW exhibits a unique ability for manipulating liquid with significantly high efficiency, and over 428 times greater than its own volume of liquid could be therefore operated. We propose that the boundary condition of the dynamic liquid balance behavior on conical fibers, namely, steady holding of liquid droplet at the tip region of the SCCW, makes it an excellent fibrous medium to manipulate liquid. Moreover, we demonstrate that the titling angle of the SCCW can also affect its efficiency of liquid manipulation by virtue of its mechanical rigidity, which is hardly realized by flexible natural hairs. We envision that the bio-inspired SCCW could give inspiration in designing materials and devices to manipulate liquid in a more controllable way and with high efficiency.
Soft Computing Technique and Conventional Controller for Conical Tank Level Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sudharsana Vijayan
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In many process industries the control of liquid level is mandatory. But the control of nonlinear process is difficult. Many process industries use conical tanks because of its non linear shape contributes better drainage for solid mixtures, slurries and viscous liquids. So, control of conical tank level is a challenging task due to its non-linearity and continually varying cross-section. This is due to relationship between controlled variable level and manipulated variable flow rate, which has a square root relationship. The main objective is to execute the suitable controller for conical tank system to maintain the desired level. System identification of the non-linear process is done using black box modelling and found to be first order plus dead time (FOPDT model. In this paper it is proposed to obtain the mathematical modelling of a conical tank system and to study the system using block diagram after that soft computing technique like fuzzy and conventional controller is also used for the comparison.
Conical square function estimates in UMD Banach spaces and applications to H?-functional calculi
Hytönen, T.; Van Neerven, J.; Portal, P.
2008-01-01
We study conical square function estimates for Banach-valued functions and introduce a vector-valued analogue of the Coifman-Meyer-Stein tent spaces. Following recent work of Auscher-M(c)Intosh-Russ, the tent spaces in turn are used to construct a scale of vector-valued Hardy spaces associated with
The index of Fourier integral operators on manifolds with conical singularities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nazaikinskii, Vladimir E; Sternin, B Yu; Schulze, B-W
2001-01-01
We describe homogeneous canonical transformations of the cotangent bundle of a manifold with conical singular points and compute the index of an elliptic Fourier integral operator obtained by the quantization of such a transformation. The answer involves the index of an elliptic Fourier integral operator on a smooth manifold and the residues of the conormal symbol
On the bound states of Schrodinger operators with -interactions on conical surfaces
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lotoreichik, Vladimir; Ourmieres-Bonafos, T.
2016-01-01
Roč. 41, č. 6 (2016), s. 999-1028 ISSN 0360-5302 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : conical and hyperconical surfaces * delta-interaction * existence of bound states * Schrodinger operator * spectral asymptotics Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.608, year: 2016
CBLIB 2014: a benchmark library for conic mixed-integer and continuous optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Friberg, Henrik Alsing
2016-01-01
The Conic Benchmark Library is an ongoing community-driven project aiming to challenge commercial and open source solvers on mainstream cone support. In this paper, 121 mixed-integer and continuous second-order cone problem instances have been selected from 11 categories as representative...
Conic Sections and the Discovery of a Novel Curve Using Differential Equations
de Alwis, Amal
2013-01-01
We began by observing a variety of properties related to the tangent and normal lines of three conic sections: a parabola, an ellipse, and a hyperbola. Some of these properties include specific relationships between the x- and y-intercepts of the tangent and normal lines. Using these properties, we were able to form several differential equations.…
Non-linear buckling of an FGM truncated conical shell surrounded by an elastic medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sofiyev, A.H.; Kuruoglu, N.
2013-01-01
In this paper, the non-linear buckling of the truncated conical shell made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) surrounded by an elastic medium has been studied using the large deformation theory with von Karman–Donnell-type of kinematic non-linearity. A two-parameter foundation model (Pasternak-type) is used to describe the shell–foundation interaction. The FGM properties are assumed to vary continuously through the thickness direction. The fundamental relations, the modified Donnell type non-linear stability and compatibility equations of the FGM truncated conical shell resting on the Pasternak-type elastic foundation are derived. By using the Superposition and Galerkin methods, the non-linear stability equations for the FGM truncated conical shell is solved. Finally, influences of variations of Winkler foundation stiffness and shear subgrade modulus of the foundation, compositional profiles and shell characteristics on the dimensionless critical non-linear axial load are investigated. The present results are compared with the available data for a special case. -- Highlights: • Nonlinear buckling of FGM conical shell surrounded by elastic medium is studied. • Pasternak foundation model is used to describe the shell–foundation interaction. • Nonlinear basic equations are derived. • Problem is solved by using Superposition and Galerkin methods. • Influences of various parameters on the nonlinear critical load are investigated
Dispersion of near-infrared laser energy through radicular dentine when using plain or conical tips.
Teo, Christine Yi Jia; George, Roy; Walsh, Laurence J
2018-02-01
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of tip design on patterns of laser energy dispersion through the dentine of tooth roots when using near-infrared diode lasers. Diode laser emissions of 810 or 940 nm were used in combination with optical fiber tips with either conventional plain ends or conical ends, to irradiate tooth roots of oval or round cross-sectional shapes. The lasers were operated in continuous wave mode at 0.5 W for 5 s with the distal end of the fiber tip placed in the apical or coronal third of the root canal at preset positions. Laser light exiting through the roots and apical foramen was imaged, and the extent of lateral spread calculated. There was a significant difference in infrared light exiting the root canal apex between plain and conical fiber tips for both laser wavelengths, with more forward transmission of laser energy through the apex for plain tips. For both laser wavelengths, there were no significant differences in emission patterns when the variable of canal shape was used and all other variables were kept the same (plain vs conical tip, tip position). To ensure optimal treatment effect and to prevent the risks of inadvertent laser effects on the adjacent periapical tissues, it is important to have a good understanding of laser transmission characteristics of the root canal and root dentine. Importantly, it is also essential to understand transmission characteristics of plain and conical fibers tips.
Optical vault: a reconfigurable bottle beam based on conical refraction of light.
Turpin, A; Shvedov, V; Hnatovsky, C; Loiko, Yu V; Mompart, J; Krolikowski, W
2013-11-04
We employ conical refraction of light in a biaxial crystal to create an optical bottle for photophoretic trapping and manipulation of particles in gaseous media. We show that by only varying the polarization state of the input light beam the optical bottle can be opened and closed in order to load and unload particles in a highly controllable manner.
Wave function continuity and the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction at conical intersections.
Meek, Garrett A; Levine, Benjamin G
2016-05-14
We demonstrate that though exact in principle, the expansion of the total molecular wave function as a sum over adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer (BO) vibronic states makes inclusion of the second-derivative nonadiabatic energy term near conical intersections practically problematic. In order to construct a well-behaved molecular wave function that has density at a conical intersection, the individual BO vibronic states in the summation must be discontinuous. When the second-derivative nonadiabatic terms are added to the Hamiltonian, singularities in the diagonal BO corrections (DBOCs) of the individual BO states arise from these discontinuities. In contrast to the well-known singularities in the first-derivative couplings at conical intersections, these singularities are non-integrable, resulting in undefined DBOC matrix elements. Though these singularities suggest that the exact molecular wave function may not have density at the conical intersection point, there is no physical basis for this constraint. Instead, the singularities are artifacts of the chosen basis of discontinuous functions. We also demonstrate that continuity of the total molecular wave function does not require continuity of the individual adiabatic nuclear wave functions. We classify nonadiabatic molecular dynamics methods according to the constraints placed on wave function continuity and analyze their formal properties. Based on our analysis, it is recommended that the DBOC be neglected when employing mixed quantum-classical methods and certain approximate quantum dynamical methods in the adiabatic representation.
Conical pitch angle distributions of very-low energy ion fluxes observed by ISEE 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horowitz, J.L.; Baugher, C.R.; Chappell, C.R.; Shelley, E.G.; Young, D.T.
1982-01-01
Observations of low-energy ionospheric ions by the plasma composition experiment abroad ISEE 1 often show conical pitch angle distributions, that is, peak fluxes between 0 0 and 90 0 to the directions parallel or antiparallel to the magnetic field. Frequently, all three primary ionospheric ion species (H + , He + , and O + ) simultaneously exhibit conical distributions with peak fluxes at essentially the same pitch angle. A distinction is made here between unidirectional, or streaming, distributions, in which ions are traveling essentially from only one hemisphere, and symmetrical distributions, in which significant fluxes are observed traveling from both hemispheres. The orbital coverage for this survey was largely restricted to the night sector, approximately 2100--0600 LT, and moderate geomagnetic latitudes of 20 0 --40 0 . Also, lack of complete pitch angle coverage at all times may have reduced detection for conics with small cone angles. However, we may conclude that the unidirectional conical distributions observed in the northern hemisphere are always observed to be traveling from the northern hemisphere and that they exhibit the following characteristics relative to the symmetric distributions, in that they (1) are typically observed on higher L shells (that is, higher geomagnetic latitudes or larger geocentric distances or both), (2) tend to have significantly larger cone angles, and (3), are associated with higher magnetic activity levels
Discharge Coefficient Measurements for Flow Through Compound-Angle Conical Holes with Cross-Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. E. Taslim
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Diffusion-shaped film holes with compound angles are currently being investigated for high temperature gas turbine airfoil film cooling. An accurate prediction of the coolant blowing rate through these film holes is essential in determining the film effectiveness. Therefore, the discharge coefficients associated with these film holes for a range of hole pressure ratios is essential in designing airfoil cooling circuits. Most of the available discharge coefficient data in open literature has been for cylindrical holes. The main objective of this experimental investigation was to measure the discharge coefficients for subsonic as well as supersonic pressure ratios through a single conical-diffusion hole. The conical hole has an exit-to-inlet area ratio of 4, a nominal flow length-to-inlet diameter ratio of 4, and an angle with respect to the exit plane (inclination angle of 0°, 30°, 45°, and 60°. Measurements were performed with and without a cross-flow. For the cases with a cross-flow, discharge coefficients were measured for each of the hole geometries and 5 angles between the projected conical hole axis and the cross-flow direction of 0°, 45°, 90°, 135°, and 180°. Results are compared with available data in open literature for cylindrical film holes as well as limited data for conical film holes.
Flow structures in large-angle conical diffusers measured by PIV
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meyer, Knud Erik; Nielsen, L.; Nielsen, N.F.
2004-01-01
Flow in two different conical diffusers with large opening angles (30° and 18°) have been measured with stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The measurements were done in a cross section just after the exit of the diffuser. The Reynolds number was 100000 based on upstream diameter...
Gnoffo, Peter A.; Berry, Scott A.; VanNorman, John W.
2011-01-01
This paper is one of a series of five papers in a special session organized by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program that addresses uncertainty assessments for CFD simulations in hypersonic flow. Simulations of a shock emanating from a compression corner and interacting with a fully developed turbulent boundary layer are evaluated herein. Mission relevant conditions at Mach 7 and Mach 14 are defined for a pre-compression ramp of a scramjet powered vehicle. Three compression angles are defined, the smallest to avoid separation losses and the largest to force a separated flow engaging more complicated flow physics. The Baldwin-Lomax and the Cebeci-Smith algebraic models, the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras model with the Catrix-Aupoix compressibility modification and two-equation models including Menter SST, Wilcox k-omega 98, and Wilcox k-omega 06 turbulence models are evaluated. Each model is fully defined herein to preclude any ambiguity regarding model implementation. Comparisons are made to existing experimental data and Van Driest theory to provide preliminary assessment of model form uncertainty. A set of coarse grained uncertainty metrics are defined to capture essential differences among turbulence models. Except for the inability of algebraic models to converge for some separated flows there is no clearly superior model as judged by these metrics. A preliminary metric for the numerical component of uncertainty in shock-turbulent-boundary-layer interactions at compression corners sufficiently steep to cause separation is defined as 55%. This value is a median of differences with experimental data averaged for peak pressure and heating and for extent of separation captured in new, grid-converged solutions presented here. This value is consistent with existing results in a literature review of hypersonic shock-turbulent-boundary-layer interactions by Roy and Blottner and with more recent computations of MacLean.
Biofouling Removal and Protein Detection Using a Hypersonic Resonator.
Pan, Shuting; Zhang, Hongxiang; Liu, Wenpeng; Wang, Yanyan; Pang, Wei; Duan, Xuexin
2017-08-25
Nonspecific binding (NSB) is a general issue for surface based biosensors. Various approaches have been developed to prevent or remove the NSBs. However, these approaches either increased the background signals of the sensors or limited to specific transducers interface. In this work, we developed a hydrodynamic approach to selectively remove the NSBs using a microfabricated hypersonic resonator with 2.5 gigahertz (GHz) resonant frequency. The high frequency device facilitates generation of multiple controlled microvortexes which then create cleaning forces at the solid-liquid interfaces. The competitive adhesive and cleaning forces have been investigated using the finite element method (FEM) simulation, identifying the feasibility of the vortex-induced NSB removal. NSB proteins have been selectively removed experimentally both on the surface of the resonator and on other substrates which contact the vortexes. Thus, the developed hydrodynamic approach is believed to be a simple and versatile tool for NSB removal and compatible to many sensor systems. The unique feature of the hypersonic resonator is that it can be used as a gravimetric sensor as well; thus a combined NSB removal and protein detection dual functional biosensor system is developed.
A model for supersonic and hypersonic impactors for nanoparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abouali, Omid; Ahmadi, Goodarz
2005-01-01
In this study the performance of supersonic and hypersonic impactors for collection efficiency of nanoparticles (in the size range of 2-100 nm) under various operating conditions is analyzed. Axisymmetric forms of the compressible Navier-Stokes and energy equations are solved and the airflow and thermal condition in the impactor are evaluated. A Lagrangian particle trajectory analysis procedure is used and the deposition rates of different size particles under various operating conditions are studied. For dilute particle concentrations, the assumption of one-way interaction is used and the effect of particles on gas flow field is ignored. The importance of drag, lift and Brownian forces on particle motions in supersonic impactors is discussed. Sensitivity of the simulation results to the use of different assumptions for the Cunningham correction coefficient is studied. It is shown that accurate evaluation of the gas mean free path and the Cunningham correction factor is important for accurate simulation of nano-particle transport and deposition in supersonic/hypersonic impactors. The computer simulation results are compared favorably with the available experimental data
Cosmic Radiation Exposure of Future Hypersonic Flight Missions.
Koops, L
2017-06-15
Cosmic radiation exposure in air traffic grows with flight altitude, geographical latitude and flight time. For future high-speed intercontinental point-to-point travel, the trade-off between reduced flight time and enhanced dose rate at higher flight altitudes is investigated. Various representative (partly) hypersonic cruise missions are considered and in dependence on solar activity the integral route dose is calculated for envisaged flight profiles and trajectories. Our results are compared to those for corresponding air connections served by present day subsonic airliners. During solar maximum, we find a significant reduction in route dose for all considered high-speed missions compared to the subsonic reference. However, during solar minimum, comparable or somewhat larger doses result on transpolar trajectories with (partly) hypersonic cruise at Mach 5. Both solar activity and routing are hence found to determine, whether passengers can profit from shorter flight times in terms of radiation exposure, despite of altitude-induced higher dose rates. Yet, aircrews with fixed number of block hours are always subject to larger annual doses, which in the considered cases take values up to five times the reference. We comment on the implications of our results for route planning and aviation decision-making in the absence of radiation shielding solutions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Further analysis of MHD acceleration for a hypersonic wind tunnel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christiansen, M.J.; Schmidt, H.J.; Chapman, J.N.
1995-01-01
A previously completed MHD study of the use of an MHD accelerator with seeded air from a state-of-the-art arc heater, was generally hailed as showing that the system studied has some promise of meeting the most critical hypersonic testing requirements. However, some concerns existed about certain aspects of the results. This paper discusses some of these problems and presents analysis of potential solutions. Specifically the problems addressed are; reducing the amount of seed in the flow, reducing test chamber temperatures, and reducing the oxygen dissociation. Modeling techniques are used to study three design variables of the MHD accelerator. The accelerator channel inlet Mach number, the accelerator channel divergence angle, and the magnetic field strength are all studied. These variables are all optimized to meet the goals for seed, temperature, and dissociated oxygen reduction. The results of this paper are encouraging, showing that all three goals can be met. General relationships are observed as to how the design variables affect the performance of the MHD accelerator facility. This paper expands on the results presented in the UTSI report and further supports the feasibility of MHD acceleration as a means to provide hypersonic flight simulation
Impulse Force Balance for Ultrashort Duration Hypersonic Test Facilities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Singh
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the measurement of side force, pitching, and yawing moments on a model, using an accelerometer force balance, in a short duration hypersonic shock tunnel. The test model is a blunt-nosed, flapped delta wing, mounted on a support sting through a force balance. The flexible rubber bushes constituting the balance allow the model to float freely on the sting during the test. The accelerometers were located in the model to record accelerations in the directions of interest. The model was tested in shock tunnel at Mach 8 at different angles of incidence with the freestream. Dynamic calibration of the test assembly was carried out for the acquisition of impulse response functions for the above components of force and moments, using an impulse hammer. The convolution technique was applied to derive the impulse response functions. The accelerometer outputs from the model in the hypersonic freestream were processed using the respective impulse response functions to derive the unknown aerodynamic force and moments. The newly adopted convolution technique has been found very effective for data reduction from accelerometer force balances developed for shock tunnel applications.
Nonlinear evolution of Mack modes in a hypersonic boundary layer
Chokani, Ndaona
2005-01-01
In hypersonic boundary layer flows the nonlinear disturbance evolution occurs relatively slowly over a very long length scale and has a profound effect on boundary layer transition. In the case of low-level freestream disturbances and negligible surface roughness, the transition is due to the modal growth of exponentially growing Mack modes that are destabilized by wall cooling. Cross-bicoherence measurements, derived from hot-wire data acquired in a quiet hypersonic tunnel, are used to identify and quantify phase-locked, quadratic sum and difference interactions involving the Mack modes. In the early stages of the nonlinear disturbance evolution, cross-bicoherence measurements indicate that the energy exchange between the Mack mode and the mean flow first occurs to broaden the sidebands; this is immediately followed by a sum interaction of the Mack mode to generate the first harmonic. In the next stages of the nonlinear disturbance evolution, there is a difference interaction of the first harmonic, which is also thought to contribute to the mean flow distortion. This difference interaction, in the latter stages, is also accompanied by a difference interaction between Mack mode and first harmonic, and a sum interaction, which forces the second harmonic. Analysis using the digital complex demodulation technique, shows that the low-frequency, phase-locked interaction that is identified in the cross bicoherence when the Mack mode and first harmonic have large amplitudes, arises due to the amplitude modulation of Mack mode and first harmonic.
Cosmic radiation exposure of future hypersonic flight missions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koops, L.
2017-01-01
Cosmic radiation exposure in air traffic grows with flight altitude, geographical latitude and flight time. For future high-speed intercontinental point-to-point travel, the trade-off between reduced flight time and enhanced dose rate at higher flight altitudes is investigated. Various representative (partly) hypersonic cruise missions are considered and in dependence on solar activity the integral route dose is calculated for envisaged flight profiles and trajectories. Our results are compared to those for corresponding air connections served by present day subsonic airliners. During solar maximum, we find a significant reduction in route dose for all considered high-speed missions compared to the subsonic reference. However, during solar minimum, comparable or somewhat larger doses result on transpolar trajectories with (partly) hypersonic cruise at Mach 5. Both solar activity and routing are hence found to determine, whether passengers can profit from shorter flight times in terms of radiation exposure, despite of altitude-induced higher dose rates. Yet, air crews with fixed number of block hours are always subject to larger annual doses, which in the considered cases take values up to five times the reference. We comment on the implications of our results for route planning and aviation decision-making in the absence of radiation shielding solutions. (author)
Mode Transition Variable Geometry for High Speed Inlets for Hypersonic Aircraft, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hypersonic propulsion research has been a focus of the NASA aeronautics program for years. Previous high-speed cruise and space access programs have examined the...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Zhong, Xiaolin
2007-01-01
.... During the three-year period, we have conducted extensive DNS studies on the receptivity of hypersonic boundary layer flows over a sharp wedge, a flat plate, a blunt cone, and the FRESH aeroshell...
Computational Tool for Coupled Simulation of Nonequilibrium Hypersonic Flows with Ablation, Phase II
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this SBIR project is to develop a predictive computational tool for the aerothermal environment around ablation-cooled hypersonic atmospheric entry...
Toward a CFD nose-to-tail capability - Hypersonic unsteady Navier-Stokes code validation
Edwards, Thomas A.; Flores, Jolen
1989-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) research for hypersonic flows presents new problems in code validation because of the added complexity of the physical models. This paper surveys code validation procedures applicable to hypersonic flow models that include real gas effects. The current status of hypersonic CFD flow analysis is assessed with the Compressible Navier-Stokes (CNS) code as a case study. The methods of code validation discussed to beyond comparison with experimental data to include comparisons with other codes and formulations, component analyses, and estimation of numerical errors. Current results indicate that predicting hypersonic flows of perfect gases and equilibrium air are well in hand. Pressure, shock location, and integrated quantities are relatively easy to predict accurately, while surface quantities such as heat transfer are more sensitive to the solution procedure. Modeling transition to turbulence needs refinement, though preliminary results are promising.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Holden, Michael
2001-01-01
... and double cone configurations in hypersonic flow. In the best Navier-Stokes solutions the structure and density of the flowfield was captured exactly over both the hollow cylinder/flare and double cone models...
Advanced Metal Rubber Sensors for Hypersonic Decelerator Entry Systems, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NanoSonic proposes to design and develop light-weight, low-modulus, and durable Metal Rubber sensors for aeroelastic analysis of Hypersonic Decelerator Entry...
High quality ceramic coatings sprayed by high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Sheng; Xu Binshi; Yao JiuKun
2005-01-01
This paper introduced the structure of the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun and the effects of hypersonic plasma jet on the sprayed particles. The optimised spraying process parameters for several ceramic powders such as Al 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , Cr 3 C 2 and Co-WC were listed. The properties and microstructure of the sprayed ceramic coatings were investigated. Nano Al 2 O 3 -TiO 2 ceramic coating sprayed by using the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying was also studied. Compared with the conventional air plasma spraying, high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying improves greatly the ceramic coatings quality but at low cost. (orig.)
Hypersonic Free-Flight Measurement of Aeroshell Forces and Flowfields, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Hypersonic Gun Tunnel and laser based high speed imaging systems will be used to generate a unique, free flight, aerodynamic data base of potential Mars aeroshell...
On nitrogen condensation in hypersonic nozzle flows: Numerical method and parametric study
Lin, Longyuan; Cheng, Wan; Luo, Xisheng; Qin, Fenghua
2013-01-01
A numerical method for calculating two-dimensional planar and axisymmetric hypersonic nozzle flows with nitrogen condensation is developed. The classical nucleation theory with an empirical correction function and the modified Gyarmathy model
Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser-Based Sensors for Hypersonic Flows (7274-050), Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ground test facilities are used by NASA to simulate the conditions present during flight at hypersonic velocities, to test thermal protection materials for existing...
A Laser-Based Diagnostic Suite for Hypersonic Test Facilities, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR effort, Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to develop a suite of laser-based diagnostics for the study of reactive and non-reactive hypersonic flows....
Bertelrud, Arild; delaTova, Geva; Hamory, Philip J.; Young, Ronald; Noffz, Gregory K.; Dodson, Michael; Graves, Sharon S.; Diamond, John K.; Bartlett, James E.; Noack, Robert;
2000-01-01
In a recent flight experiment to study hypersonic crossflow transition, boundary layer characteristics were documented. A smooth steel glove was mounted on the first stage delta wing of Orbital Sciences Corporation's Pegasus (R) launch vehicle and was flown at speeds of up to Mach 8 and altitudes of up to 250,000 ft. The wing-glove experiment was flown as a secondary payload off the coast of Florida in October 1998. This paper describes the measurement system developed. Samples of the results obtained for different parts of the trajectory are included to show the characteristics and quality of the data. Thermocouples and pressure sensors (including Preston tubes, Stanton tubes, and a "probeless" pressure rake showing boundary layer profiles) measured the time-averaged flow. Surface hot-films and high-frequency pressure transducers measured flow dynamics. Because the vehicle was not recoverable, it was necessary to design a system for real-time onboard processing and transmission. Onboard processing included spectral averaging. The quality and consistency of data obtained was good and met the experiment requirements.
On two special values of temperature factor in hypersonic flow stagnation point
Bilchenko, G. G.; Bilchenko, N. G.
2018-03-01
The hypersonic aircraft permeable cylindrical and spherical surfaces laminar boundary layer heat and mass transfer control mathematical model properties are investigated. The nonlinear algebraic equations systems are obtained for two special values of temperature factor in the hypersonic flow stagnation point. The mappings bijectivity between heat and mass transfer local parameters and controls is established. The computation experiments results are presented: the domains of allowed values “heat-friction” are obtained.
Computation of hypersonic flows with finite rate condensation and evaporation of water
Perrell, Eric R.; Candler, Graham V.; Erickson, Wayne D.; Wieting, Alan R.
1993-01-01
A computer program for modelling 2D hypersonic flows of gases containing water vapor and liquid water droplets is presented. The effects of interphase mass, momentum and energy transfer are studied. Computations are compared with existing quasi-1D calculations on the nozzle of the NASA Langley Eight Foot High Temperature Tunnel, a hypersonic wind tunnel driven by combustion of natural gas in oxygen enriched air.
Analysis of Windward Side Hypersonic Boundary Layer Transition on Blunted Cones at Angle of Attack
2017-01-09
correlated with PSE/LST N-Factors. 15. SUBJECT TERMS boundary layer transition, hypersonic, ground test 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION ...Maccoll) solution e condition at boundary layer edge w condition at wall, viscous ∞ condition in freestream Conventions LST Linear Stability Theory PSE...STATES AIR FORCE AFRL-RQ-WP-TP-2017-0169 ANALYSIS OF WINDWARD SIDE HYPERSONIC BOUNDARY LAYER TRANSITION ON BLUNTED CONES AT ANGLE OF ATTACK Roger
High Enthalpy Effects on Two Boundary Layer Disturbances in Supersonic and Hypersonic Flow
Wagnild, Ross Martin
The fluid flow phenomenon of boundary layer transition is a complicated and difficult process to model and predict. The importance of the state of the boundary layer with regard to vehicle design cannot be understated. The high enthalpy environment in which high speed vehicles operate in further complicates the transition process by adding several more degrees of freedom. In this environment, the internal properties of the gas can stabilize or destabilize the boundary layer as well as modify the disturbances that cause transition. In the current work, the interaction of two types of disturbances with the high enthalpy flow environment are analyzed. The first is known as a second mode disturbance, which is acoustic in nature. The second type is known as a transient growth disturbance and is associated with flows behind roughness elements. Theoretical analyses, linear stability analyses, and computation fluid dynamics (CFD) are used to determine the ways in which these disturbances interact with the high enthalpy environment as well as the consequences of these interactions. First, acoustic wave are directly studied in order to gain a basic understanding of the response of second mode disturbances in the high enthalpy boundary layer. Next, this understanding is used in interpreting the results of several computations attempting to simulate the flow through a high enthalpy flow facility as well as experiments attempting to take advantage of the acoustic interaction with the high enthalpy environment. Because of the difficulty in modeling these experiments, direct simulations of acoustic waves in a hypersonic flow of a gas with molecular vibration are performed. Lastly, compressible transient growth disturbances are simulated using a linear optimal disturbance solver as well as a CFD solver. The effect of an internal molecular process on this type of disturbance is tested through the use of a vibrational mode. It is the goal of the current work to reinforce the
2006-01-01
In the Netherlands, all vehicles using public roads must meet so-called permanent requirements. This is enforced by the police and, for some categories, also during the MOT. In the Netherlands, most types of motor vehicle1 can only be introduced to the market if they meet the entry requirements. For