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Sample records for congestion control protocol

  1. Congestion control for vehicular delay tolerant network routing protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Oham, Chuka Finbars

    2014-01-01

    The Vehicular Delay Tolerant Network (VDTN) is a special and challenging type of the Delay Tolerant Network because of its high mobility, frequent disconnections and nodal congestion features. These challenging features make it prone to congestion which leads to a considerable amount of message drops in the network. To minimize the impact of congestion in the network, we designed and implemented the Congestion Aware Spray and Wait (CASaW) routing protocol. We varied the buffer sizes of the no...

  2. Cross-Layer Active Predictive Congestion Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinfeng Wu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, there are numerous factors that may cause network congestion problems, such as the many-to-one communication modes, mutual interference of wireless links, dynamic changes of network topology and the memory-restrained characteristics of nodes. All these factors result in a network being more vulnerable to congestion. In this paper, a cross-layer active predictive congestion control scheme (CL-APCC for improving the performance of networks is proposed. Queuing theory is applied in the CL-APCC to analyze data flows of a single-node according to its memory status, combined with the analysis of the average occupied memory size of local networks. It also analyzes the current data change trends of local networks to forecast and actively adjust the sending rate of the node in the next period. In order to ensure the fairness and timeliness of the network, the IEEE 802.11 protocol is revised based on waiting time, the number of the node‟s neighbors and the original priority of data packets, which dynamically adjusts the sending priority of the node. The performance of CL-APCC, which is evaluated by extensive simulation experiments. is more efficient in solving the congestion in WSNs. Furthermore, it is clear that the proposed scheme has an outstanding advantage in terms of improving the fairness and lifetime of networks.

  3. Cross-layer active predictive congestion control protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiangwen; Xu, Xiaofeng; Feng, Renjian; Wu, Yinfeng

    2009-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), there are numerous factors that may cause network congestion problems, such as the many-to-one communication modes, mutual interference of wireless links, dynamic changes of network topology and the memory-restrained characteristics of nodes. All these factors result in a network being more vulnerable to congestion. In this paper, a cross-layer active predictive congestion control scheme (CL-APCC) for improving the performance of networks is proposed. Queuing theory is applied in the CL-APCC to analyze data flows of a single-node according to its memory status, combined with the analysis of the average occupied memory size of local networks. It also analyzes the current data change trends of local networks to forecast and actively adjust the sending rate of the node in the next period. In order to ensure the fairness and timeliness of the network, the IEEE 802.11 protocol is revised based on waiting time, the number of the node's neighbors and the original priority of data packets, which dynamically adjusts the sending priority of the node. The performance of CL-APCC, which is evaluated by extensive simulation experiments. is more efficient in solving the congestion in WSNs. Furthermore, it is clear that the proposed scheme has an outstanding advantage in terms of improving the fairness and lifetime of networks.

  4. Internet Congestion Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranoto Rusmin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Internet congestion occurs when resource demands exceeds the network capacity. But, it is not the only reason. Congestion can happen on some users because some others user has higher sending rate. Then some users with lower sending rate will experience congestion. This partial congestion is caused by inexactly feedback. At this moment congestion are solved by the involvement of two controlling mechanisms. These mechanisms are flow/congestion control in the TCP source and Active Queue Management (AQM in the router. AQM will provide feedback to the source a kind of indication for the occurrence of the congestion in the router, whereas the source will adapt the sending rate appropriate with the feedback. These mechanisms are not enough to solve internet congestion problem completely. Therefore, this paper will explain internet congestion causes, weakness, and congestion control technique that researchers have been developed. To describe congestion system mechanisms and responses, the system will be simulated by Matlab.

  5. ACCPndn : adaptive congestion control protocol in named data networking by learning capacities using optimized time-lagged feedforward neural network

    OpenAIRE

    Karami, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Named Data Networking (NDN) is a promising network architecture being considered as a possible replacement for the current IP-based Internet infrastructure. However, NDN is subject to congestion when the number of data packets that reach one or various routers in a certain period of time is so high than its queue gets overflowed. To address this problem many congestion control protocols have been proposed in the literature which, however, they are highly sensitive to their control parameters ...

  6. A Survey of Congestion Control Techniques and Data Link Protocols in Satellite Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Fahmy, Sonia; Jain, Raj; Lu, Fang; Kalyanaraman, Shivkumar

    1998-01-01

    Satellite communication systems are the means of realizing a global broadband integrated services digital network. Due to the statistical nature of the integrated services traffic, the resulting rate fluctuations and burstiness render congestion control a complicated, yet indispensable function. The long propagation delay of the earth-satellite link further imposes severe demands and constraints on the congestion control schemes, as well as the media access control techniques and retransmissi...

  7. Internet congestion control

    CERN Document Server

    Varma, Subir

    2015-01-01

    Internet Congestion Control provides a description of some of the most important topics in the area of congestion control in computer networks, with special emphasis on the analytical modeling of congestion control algorithms. The field of congestion control has seen many notable advances in recent years and the purpose of this book, which is targeted towards the advanced and intermediate reader, is to inform about the most important developments in this area. The book should enable the reader to gain a good understanding of the application of congestion control theory to a number of applic

  8. A Game Theory Based Congestion Control Protocol for Wireless Personal Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, the presence of congestion increases the ratio of packet loss and energy consumption and reduces the network throughput. Particularly, this situation will be more complex in Internet of Things (IoT environment, which is composed of thousands of heterogeneous nodes. RPL is an IPv6 routing protocol in low power and lossy networks standardized by IETF. However, the RPL can induce problems under network congestion, such as frequently parent changing and throughput degradation. In this paper, we address the congestion problem between parent nodes and child nodes in RPL-enabled networks, which typically consist of low power and resource constraint devices. To mitigate the effect of network congestion, we design a parent-change procedure by game theory strategy, by which the child nodes can change next hop neighbors toward the sink. Comparing to the ContikiRPL implementation, the simulation results show that our protocol can achieve more than two times improvement in throughput and reduce packet loss rate with less increasing of average hop count.

  9. Software-Defined Congestion Control Algorithm for IP Networks

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    Yao Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid evolution of computer networks, increase in the number of Internet users, and popularity of multimedia applications have exacerbated the congestion control problem. Congestion control is a key factor in ensuring network stability and robustness. When the underlying network and flow information are unknown, the transmission control protocol (TCP must increase or reduce the size of the congestion window to adjust to the changes of traffic in the Internet Protocol (IP network. However, it is possible that a software-defined approach can relieve the network congestion problem more efficiently. This approach has the characteristic of centralized control and can obtain a global topology for unified network management. In this paper, we propose a software-defined congestion control (SDCC algorithm for an IP network. We consider the difference between TCP and the user datagram protocol (UDP and propose a new method to judge node congestion. We initially apply the congestion control mechanism in the congested nodes and then optimize the link utilization to control network congestion.

  10. Congestion control and routing over satellite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinhua

    Satellite networks and transmissions find their application in fields of computer communications, telephone communications, television broadcasting, transportation, space situational awareness systems and so on. This thesis mainly focuses on two networking issues affecting satellite networking: network congestion control and network routing optimization. Congestion, which leads to long queueing delays, packet losses or both, is a networking problem that has drawn the attention of many researchers. The goal of congestion control mechanisms is to ensure high bandwidth utilization while avoiding network congestion by regulating the rate at which traffic sources inject packets into a network. In this thesis, we propose a stable congestion controller using data-driven, safe switching control theory to improve the dynamic performance of satellite Transmission Control Protocol/Active Queue Management (TCP/AQM) networks. First, the stable region of the Proportional-Integral (PI) parameters for a nominal model is explored. Then, a PI controller, whose parameters are adaptively tuned by switching among members of a given candidate set, using observed plant data, is presented and compared with some classical AQM policy examples, such as Random Early Detection (RED) and fixed PI control. A new cost detectable switching law with an interval cost function switching algorithm, which improves the performance and also saves the computational cost, is developed and compared with a law commonly used in the switching control literature. Finite-gain stability of the system is proved. A fuzzy logic PI controller is incorporated as a special candidate to achieve good performance at all nominal points with the available set of candidate controllers. Simulations are presented to validate the theory. An effocient routing algorithm plays a key role in optimizing network resources. In this thesis, we briefly analyze Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite networks, review the Cross Entropy (CE

  11. Controlling chaos in Internet congestion control model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liang; Wang Xiaofan; Han Zhengzhi

    2004-01-01

    The TCP end-to-end congestion control plus RED router queue management can be modeled as a discrete-time dynamical system, which may create complex bifurcating and chaotic behavior. Based on the basic features of the TCP-RED model, we propose a time-dependent delayed feedback control algorithm to control chaos in the system by perturbing the accessible RED parameter p max . This method is able to stabilized a router queue occupancy at a level without knowing the exact knowledge of the network. Further, we study the situation of the presence of the UDP traffic

  12. Controlling chaos in Internet congestion control model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Liang E-mail: chenmoon110@yahoo.com.cn; Wang Xiaofan; Han Zhengzhi

    2004-07-01

    The TCP end-to-end congestion control plus RED router queue management can be modeled as a discrete-time dynamical system, which may create complex bifurcating and chaotic behavior. Based on the basic features of the TCP-RED model, we propose a time-dependent delayed feedback control algorithm to control chaos in the system by perturbing the accessible RED parameter p{sub max}. This method is able to stabilized a router queue occupancy at a level without knowing the exact knowledge of the network. Further, we study the situation of the presence of the UDP traffic.

  13. Mean Field Type Control with Congestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achdou, Yves, E-mail: achdou@ljll.univ-paris-diderot.fr; Laurière, Mathieu [Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, UMR 7598, UPMC, CNRS (France)

    2016-06-15

    We analyze some systems of partial differential equations arising in the theory of mean field type control with congestion effects. We look for weak solutions. Our main result is the existence and uniqueness of suitably defined weak solutions, which are characterized as the optima of two optimal control problems in duality.

  14. Novel methods of utilizing Jitter for Network Congestion Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel paradigm for network congestion control. Instead of perpetual conflict as in TCP, a proof-of-concept first-ever protocol enabling inter-flow communication without infrastructure support thru a side channel constructed on generic FIFO queue behaviour is presented. This enables independent flows passing thru the same bottleneck queue to communicate and achieve fair capacity sharing and a stable equilibrium state in a rapid fashion.

  15. Signalling and obfuscation for congestion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareček, Jakub; Shorten, Robert; Yu, Jia Yuan

    2015-10-01

    We aim to reduce the social cost of congestion in many smart city applications. In our model of congestion, agents interact over limited resources after receiving signals from a central agent that observes the state of congestion in real time. Under natural models of agent populations, we develop new signalling schemes and show that by introducing a non-trivial amount of uncertainty in the signals, we reduce the social cost of congestion, i.e., improve social welfare. The signalling schemes are efficient in terms of both communication and computation, and are consistent with past observations of the congestion. Moreover, the resulting population dynamics converge under reasonable assumptions.

  16. Effective Road Model for Congestion Control in VANETs

    OpenAIRE

    Dongre, Manoj M.; Bawane, Narendra G.

    2016-01-01

    Congestion on the roads is a key problem to deal with, which wastes valuable time.. Due to high mobility rate and relative speed link failure occur very often. VANET is used to tackle the problem of congestion, and make decisions well in advance to avoid traffic congestion. In this paper we proposed a solution to detect and control the traffic congestion by using of both (V2V) and (V2I), as a result the drivers become aware of the location of congestion as well as way to avoid getting stuck i...

  17. Adaptive mechanism-based congestion control for networked systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Zhang, Yun; Chen, C. L. Philip

    2013-03-01

    In order to assure the communication quality in network systems with heavy traffic and limited bandwidth, a new ATRED (adaptive thresholds random early detection) congestion control algorithm is proposed for the congestion avoidance and resource management of network systems. Different to the traditional AQM (active queue management) algorithms, the control parameters of ATRED are not configured statically, but dynamically adjusted by the adaptive mechanism. By integrating with the adaptive strategy, ATRED alleviates the tuning difficulty of RED (random early detection) and shows a better control on the queue management, and achieve a more robust performance than RED under varying network conditions. Furthermore, a dynamic transmission control protocol-AQM control system using ATRED controller is introduced for the systematic analysis. It is proved that the stability of the network system can be guaranteed when the adaptive mechanism is finely designed. Simulation studies show the proposed ATRED algorithm achieves a good performance in varying network environments, which is superior to the RED and Gentle-RED algorithm, and providing more reliable service under varying network conditions.

  18. Comparative Study on New AQM Mechanisms for Congestion Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna B B

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As usage of network goes increasing day by day, managing network traffic becomes a very difficult task. It is important to avoid high packet loss rates in the Internet. Congestion is the one of the major issue in the present networks. Congestion Control is one of the solutions adopted to solve the congestion issue and to control it. Numbers of queue management algorithms are proposed for congestion control and to reduce high packet loss rates. Active Queue Management (AQM is one such mechanism which provides better control over congestion. In this paper a study is made on recent load based AQM techniques that are proposed and its merits and shortfall is presented.

  19. COALA: A Protocol for the Avoidance and Alleviation of Congestion in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandris, Dionisis; Tselikis, George; Anastasiadis, Eleftherios; Panaousis, Emmanouil; Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2017-10-31

    The occurrence of congestion has an extremely deleterious impact on the performance of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). This article presents a novel protocol, named COALA ( COngestion ALleviation and Avoidance ), which aims to act both proactively, in order to avoid the creation of congestion in WSNs, and reactively, so as to mitigate the diffusion of upcoming congestion through alternative path routing. Its operation is based on the utilization of an accumulative cost function, which considers both static and dynamic metrics in order to send data through the paths that are less probable to be congested. COALA is validated through simulation tests, which exhibit its ability to achieve remarkable reduction of loss ratios, transmission delays and energy dissipation. Moreover, the appropriate adjustment of the weighting of the accumulative cost function enables the algorithm to adapt to the performance criteria of individual case scenarios.

  20. COALA: A Protocol for the Avoidance and Alleviation of Congestion in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisis Kandris

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of congestion has an extremely deleterious impact on the performance of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. This article presents a novel protocol, named COALA (COngestion ALleviation and Avoidance, which aims to act both proactively, in order to avoid the creation of congestion in WSNs, and reactively, so as to mitigate the diffusion of upcoming congestion through alternative path routing. Its operation is based on the utilization of an accumulative cost function, which considers both static and dynamic metrics in order to send data through the paths that are less probable to be congested. COALA is validated through simulation tests, which exhibit its ability to achieve remarkable reduction of loss ratios, transmission delays and energy dissipation. Moreover, the appropriate adjustment of the weighting of the accumulative cost function enables the algorithm to adapt to the performance criteria of individual case scenarios.

  1. Design issues of a back-pressure-based congestion control mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malhotra, R.; Mandjes, M.R.H.; Scheinhardt, W.R.W.; Berg, van den J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Congestion control in packet-based networks is often realized by feedback protocols -- in this paper we assess the performance under a back-pressure mechanism that has been proposed and standardized for Ethernet metropolitan networks. Relying on our earlier results for feedback fluid queues, we

  2. Fair and efficient network congestion control based on minority game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuxi; Wang, Wen; Hu, Hanping; Deng, Zhaozhang

    2011-12-01

    Low link utility, RTT unfairness and unfairness of Multi-Bottleneck network are the existing problems in the present network congestion control algorithms at large. Through the analogy of network congestion control with the "El Farol Bar" problem, we establish a congestion control model based on minority game(MG), and then present a novel network congestion control algorithm based on the model. The result of simulations indicates that the proposed algorithm can make the achievements of link utility closing to 100%, zero packet lose rate, and small of queue size. Besides, the RTT unfairness and the unfairness of Multi-Bottleneck network can be solved, to achieve the max-min fairness in Multi-Bottleneck network, while efficiently weaken the "ping-pong" oscillation caused by the overall synchronization.

  3. Autonomous Congestion Control in Delay-Tolerant Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott; Jennings, Esther; Schoolcraft, Joshua

    2006-01-01

    This presentation highlights communication congestion control in delay-tolerant networks (DTNs). Large-scale future space exploration will offer complex communication challenges that may be best addressed by establishing a network infrastructure. However, current internet techniques for congestion control are not well suited for operation of a network over interplanetary distances. An alternative, delay-tolerant technique for congestion control in a delay-tolerant network is presented. A simple DTN was constructed and an experimental congestion control mechanism was applied. The mechanism appeared to be effective and each router was able to make its bundle acceptance decisions autonomously. Future research will examine more complex topologies and alternative bundle acceptance rules that might enhance performance.

  4. Hybrid control of bifurcation and chaos in stroboscopic model of Internet congestion control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Dawei; Zhu Jie; Luo Xiaoshu

    2008-01-01

    Interaction between transmission control protocol (TCP) and random early detection (RED) gateway in the Internet congestion control system has been modelled as a discrete-time dynamic system which exhibits complex bifurcating and chaotic behaviours. In this paper, a hybrid control strategy using both state feedback and parameter perturbation is employed to control the bifurcation and stabilize the chaotic orbits embedded in this discrete-time dynamic system of TCP/RED. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations show that the bifurcation is delayed and the chaotic orbits are stabilized to a fixed point, which reliably achieves a stable average queue size in an extended range of parameters and even completely eliminates the chaotic behaviour in a particular range of parameters. Therefore it is possible to decrease the sensitivity of RED to parameters. By using the hybrid strategy, we may improve the stability and performance of TCP/RED congestion control system significantly

  5. Cross-Layer Design of Source Rate Control and Congestion Control for Wireless Video Streaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-layer design has been used in streaming video over the wireless channels to optimize the overall system performance. In this paper, we extend our previous work on joint design of source rate control and congestion control for video streaming over the wired channel, and propose a cross-layer design approach for wireless video streaming. First, we extend the QoS-aware congestion control mechanism (TFRCC proposed in our previous work to the wireless scenario, and provide a detailed discussion about how to enhance the overall performance in terms of rate smoothness and responsiveness of the transport protocol. Then, we extend our previous joint design work to the wireless scenario, and a thorough performance evaluation is conducted to investigate its performance. Simulation results show that by cross-layer design of source rate control at application layer and congestion control at transport layer, and by taking advantage of the MAC layer information, our approach can avoid the throughput degradation caused by wireless link error, and better support the QoS requirements of the application. Thus, the playback quality is significantly improved, while good performance of the transport protocol is still preserved.

  6. Receiver-Assisted Congestion Control to Achieve High Throughput in Lossy Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kai; Shu, Yantai; Yang, Oliver; Luo, Jiarong

    2010-04-01

    Many applications would require fast data transfer in high-speed wireless networks nowadays. However, due to its conservative congestion control algorithm, Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) cannot effectively utilize the network capacity in lossy wireless networks. In this paper, we propose a receiver-assisted congestion control mechanism (RACC) in which the sender performs loss-based control, while the receiver is performing delay-based control. The receiver measures the network bandwidth based on the packet interarrival interval and uses it to compute a congestion window size deemed appropriate for the sender. After receiving the advertised value feedback from the receiver, the sender then uses the additive increase and multiplicative decrease (AIMD) mechanism to compute the correct congestion window size to be used. By integrating the loss-based and the delay-based congestion controls, our mechanism can mitigate the effect of wireless losses, alleviate the timeout effect, and therefore make better use of network bandwidth. Simulation and experiment results in various scenarios show that our mechanism can outperform conventional TCP in high-speed and lossy wireless environments.

  7. Performance analysis of SS7 congestion controls under sustained overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfield, David R.; Millsteed, Gregory K.; Zukerman, Moshe

    1994-04-01

    Congestion controls are a key factor in achieving the robust performance required of common channel signaling (CCS) networks in the face of partial network failures and extreme traffic loads, especially as networks become large and carry high traffic volume. The CCITT recommendations define a number of types of congestion control, and the parameters of the controls must be well set in order to ensure their efficacy under transient and sustained signalling network overload. The objective of this paper is to present a modeling approach to the determination of the network parameters that govern the performance of the SS7 congestion controls under sustained overload. Results of the investigation by simulation are presented and discussed.

  8. TCP Congestion Control for the Networks with Markovian Jump Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOMENI, H. R.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of TCP congestion control for the class of communication networks with random parameters. The linear dynamic model of TCP New Reno in congestion avoidance mode is considered which contains round trip delays in both state and input. The randomness of link capacity, round trip time delay and the number of TCP sessions is modeled with a continuous-time finite state Markov process. An Active Queue Management (AQM technique is then used to adjust the queue level of the congested link to a predefined value. For this purpose, a dynamic output feedback controller with mode dependent parameters is synthesized to stochastically stabilize the TCP/AQM dynamics. The procedure of the control synthesis is implemented by solving a linear matrix inequality (LMI. The results are tested within a simulation example and the effectiveness of the proposed design method is verified.

  9. Delay-based virtual congestion control in multi-tenant datacenters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuxin; Zhu, Danhong; Zhang, Dong

    2018-03-01

    With the evolution of cloud computing and virtualization, the congestion control of virtual datacenters has become the basic issue for multi-tenant datacenters transmission. Regarding to the friendly conflict of heterogeneous congestion control among multi-tenant, this paper proposes a delay-based virtual congestion control, which translates the multi-tenant heterogeneous congestion control into delay-based feedback uniformly by setting the hypervisor translation layer, modifying three-way handshake of explicit feedback and packet loss feedback and throttling receive window. The simulation results show that the delay-based virtual congestion control can effectively solve the unfairness of heterogeneous feedback congestion control algorithms.

  10. Design and simulation of airport congestion control algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Simaiakis, Ioannis; Balakrishnan, Hamsa

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a stochastic model of runway departures and a dynamic programming algorithm for their control at congested airports. Using a multi-variable state description that includes the capacity forecast, the runway system is modeled as a semi-Markov process. The paper then introduces a queuing system for modeling the controlled departure process that enables the efficient calculation of optimal pushback policies using decomposition techniques. The developed algorithm is simulated a...

  11. Infinite horizon optimal impulsive control with applications to Internet congestion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrachenkov, Konstantin; Habachi, Oussama; Piunovskiy, Alexey; Zhang, Yi

    2015-04-01

    We investigate infinite-horizon deterministic optimal control problems with both gradual and impulsive controls, where any finitely many impulses are allowed simultaneously. Both discounted and long-run time-average criteria are considered. We establish very general and at the same time natural conditions, under which the dynamic programming approach results in an optimal feedback policy. The established theoretical results are applied to the Internet congestion control, and by solving analytically and nontrivially the underlying optimal control problems, we obtain a simple threshold-based active queue management scheme, which takes into account the main parameters of the transmission control protocols, and improves the fairness among the connections in a given network.

  12. Fair decentralized data-rate congestion control for V2V communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belagal Math, C.; Li, H.; Heemstra De Groot, S.M.; Niemegeers, I.G.M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Channel congestion is one of the most critical issues in IEEE 802.11p-based vehicular ad hoc networks because congestion may lead to unreliability of applications. As a counter measure, the European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI), proposes a mandatory Decentralized Congestion Control

  13. Performance Analysis of Congestion Control Mechanism in Software Defined Network (SDN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman M. Z. A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the near future, the traditional networks architecture will be difficult to be managed. Hence, Software Defined Network (SDN will be an alternative in the future of programmable networks to replace the conventional network architecture. The main idea of SDN architecture is to separate the forwarding plane and control plane of network system, where network operators can program packet forwarding behaviour to improve the network performance. Congestion control is important mechanism for network traffic to improve network capability and achieve high end Quality of Service (QoS. In this paper, extensive simulation is conducted to analyse the performance of SDN by implementing Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP under congested network. The simulation was conducted on Mininet by creating four different fanout and the result was analysed based on differences of matrix performance. As a result, the packet loss and throughput reduction were observed when number of fanout in the topology was increased. By using LLDP protocol, huge reduction in packet loss rate has been achieved while maximizing percentage packet delivery ratio.

  14. Approaching Incast Congestion with Multi-host Ethernet Controllers

    CERN Document Server

    Jereczek, Grzegorz Edmund; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The bursty many-to-one communication pattern, typical for data acquisition systems, but also present in datacenter networks, is particularly demanding for commodity TCP/IP and Ethernet technologies. We expand our study of building incast-resistant networks based on software switches running on commercial-off-the-shelf servers. In this paper we provide the estimates for costs and physical area required to build such a network. Our estimates indicate that our proposed design offers significant cost advantage over traditional solutions, but higher space utilisation. Next, we show how the latter can be improved with multi-host Ethernet controllers, as an alternative to typical network interface cards. This can also make software switching easier to adapt in datacenter as a solution for incast congestion. We confirm the capabilities for incast-avoidance by evaluating the performance of a reference platform.

  15. Approaching Incast Congestion with Multi-host Ethernet Controllers

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)698154; The ATLAS collaboration; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Malone, David; Walukiewicz, Miroslaw

    2017-01-01

    The bursty many-to-one communication pattern, typical for data acquisition systems, but also present in datacenter networks, is particularly demanding for commodity TCP/IP and Ethernet technologies. We expand our study of building incast-resistant networks based on software switches running on commercial-off-the-shelf servers. In this paper we provide the estimates for costs and physical area required to build such a network. Our estimates indicate that our proposed design offers significant cost advantage over traditional solutions, but higher space utilisation. Next, we show how the latter can be improved with multi-host Ethernet controllers, as an alternative to typical network interface cards. This can also make software switching easier to adapt in datacenter as a solution for incast congestion. We confirm the capabilities for incast-avoidance by evaluating the performance of a reference platform.

  16. Congestion control in wireless links based on selective delivery of erroneous packets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Perkis, Andrew; Reiter, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, congestion control in packet networks is performed by reducing the transmission rate when congestion is detected, in order to cut down the traffic that overwhelms the capacity of the network. However, if the bottleneck is a wireless link, congestion is often cumulated because...... the performance of the proposed mechanism against traditional congestion control with a simulation study. The results show that the proposed approach can improve the overall performance both by increasing the throughput over the wireless and improving the video quality in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR...

  17. End to end adaptive congestion control in TCP/IP networks

    CERN Document Server

    Houmkozlis, Christos N

    2012-01-01

    This book provides an adaptive control theory perspective on designing congestion controls for packet-switching networks. Relevant to a wide range of disciplines and industries, including the music industry, computers, image trading, and virtual groups, the text extensively discusses source oriented, or end to end, congestion control algorithms. The book empowers readers with clear understanding of the characteristics of packet-switching networks and their effects on system stability and performance. It provides schemes capable of controlling congestion and fairness and presents real-world app

  18. A NEW PREDICTIVE MODEL FOR CONGESTION CONTROL IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAJME TANZADE PANAH

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increase of various applications in the domain of wireless sensor networks, the tendency to use wireless sensors has gradually increased in different applications. On the other hand, diverse traffic with different priorities generated by these sensors requires providing adaptive quality of services based on users` needs. In this paper, a congestion control predictor model is proposed for wireless sensor networks, which considers parameters like network energy consumption, packet loss rate and percentage of delivered high and medium priority packets to the destination. This method consists of congestion prevention, congestion control, and energy control plans using shortest path selection algorithm. In the congestion prevention plan, congestion is prevented by investigating the queues length. In the congestion control plan, the congestion is controlled by reducing the transmission rate. Finally, the energy control plan aims to partially balance the energy of nodes to prevent network failures due to node energy outage. Simulation results indicated that the proposed method has a higher efficiency regarding the aforementioned parameters. In addition, comparisons with other well-known methods showed the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Backpressure-based control protocols: design and computational aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miretskiy, D.I.; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; Mandjes, M.R.H.

    2009-01-01

    Congestion control in packet-based networks is often realized by feedback protocols. In this paper we assess their performance under a back-pressure mechanism that has been proposed and standardized for Ethernet metropolitan networks. In such a mechanism the service rate of an upstream queue is

  20. Backpressure-based control protocols: Design and computational aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miretskiy, D.I.; Scheinhardt, W.R.W.; Mandjes, M.R.H.

    2009-01-01

    Congestion control in packet-based networks is often realized by feedback protocols. In this paper we assess their performance under a back-pressure mechanism that has been proposed and standardized for Ethernet metropolitan networks. In such a mechanism the service rate of an upstream queue is

  1. A New TCP Congestion Control Supporting RTT-Fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Kazumine; Nemoto, Yohei; Su, Zhou; Katto, Jiro

    This paper focuses on RTT-fairness of multiple TCP flows over the Internet, and proposes a new TCP congestion control named “HRF (Hybrid RTT-Fair)-TCP”. Today, it is a serious problem that the flows having smaller RTT utilize more bandwidth than others when multiple flows having different RTT values compete in the same network. This means that a user with longer RTT may not be able to obtain sufficient bandwidth by the current methods. This RTT fairness issue has been discussed in many TCP papers. An example is CR (Constant Rate) algorithm, which achieves RTT-fairness by multiplying the square of RTT value in its window increment phase against TCP-Reno. However, the method halves its windows size same as TCP-Reno when a packet loss is detected. This makes worse its efficiency in certain network cases. On the other hand, recent proposed TCP versions essentially require throughput efficiency and TCP-friendliness with TCP-Reno. Therefore, we try to keep these advantages in our TCP design in addition to RTT-fairness. In this paper, we make intuitive analytical models in which we separate resource utilization processes into two cases: utilization of bottleneck link capacity and that of buffer space at the bottleneck link router. These models take into account three characteristic algorithms (Reno, Constant Rate, Constant Increase) in window increment phase where a sender receives an acknowledgement successfully. Their validity is proved by both simulations and implementations. From these analyses, we propose HRF-TCP which switches two modes according to observed RTT values and achieves RTT fairness. Experiments are carried out to validate the proposed method. Finally, HRF-TCP outperforms conventional methods in RTT-fairness, efficiency and friendliness with TCP-Reno.

  2. Bifurcation and stability of an improved time-delayed fluid flow model in internet congestion control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Liang, Liu; Jie, Zhu; Xiao-Shu, Luo

    2009-01-01

    Based on the fluid flow time-delayed model proposed by Misra et al in internet congestion control, one modified time-delayed model is presented, where the influence of the communication delay on the router queue length is investigated in detail. The main advantage of the new model is that its stability domain is larger even without an extra controller. By linear stability analysis and numerical simulation, the effectiveness and feasibility of the novel model in internet congestion control are verified

  3. Bifurcation and stability of an improved time-delayed fluid flow model in internet congestion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Liang; Zhu, Jie; Luo, Xiao-Shu

    2009-09-01

    Based on the fluid flow time-delayed model proposed by Misra et al in internet congestion control, one modified time-delayed model is presented, where the influence of the communication delay on the router queue length is investigated in detail. The main advantage of the new model is that its stability domain is larger even without an extra controller. By linear stability analysis and numerical simulation, the effectiveness and feasibility of the novel model in internet congestion control are verified.

  4. Mathematic Modeling and Performance Analysis of an Adaptive Congestion Control in Intelligent Transportation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Naja, Rola; Université de Versailles

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a preventive congestion control mechanism applied at highway entrances and devised for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). The proposed mechanism provides a vehicular admission control, regulates input traffic and performs vehicular traffic shaping. Our congestion control mechanism includes two classes of vehicles and is based on a specific priority ticket pool scheme with queue-length threshold scheduling policy, tailored to vehicular networks. In an attempt t...

  5. Traffic Congestion Evaluation and Signal Control Optimization Based on Wireless Sensor Networks: Model and Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the model and algorithms for traffic flow data monitoring and optimal traffic light control based on wireless sensor networks. Given the scenario that sensor nodes are sparsely deployed along the segments between signalized intersections, an analytical model is built using continuum traffic equation and develops the method to estimate traffic parameter with the scattered sensor data. Based on the traffic data and principle of traffic congestion formation, we introduce the congestion factor which can be used to evaluate the real-time traffic congestion status along the segment and to predict the subcritical state of traffic jams. The result is expected to support the timing phase optimization of traffic light control for the purpose of avoiding traffic congestion before its formation. We simulate the traffic monitoring based on the Mobile Century dataset and analyze the performance of traffic light control on VISSIM platform when congestion factor is introduced into the signal timing optimization model. The simulation result shows that this method can improve the spatial-temporal resolution of traffic data monitoring and evaluate traffic congestion status with high precision. It is helpful to remarkably alleviate urban traffic congestion and decrease the average traffic delays and maximum queue length.

  6. Applications of variable speed control for contending with recurrent highway congestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This research project developed vital operational guidelines for design of a variable speed limit (VSL) system and its integrated operations with ramp metering control in contending with recurrent highway congestion. The developed guidelines can serv...

  7. Hopf bifurcation in an Internet congestion control model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunguang; Chen Guanrong; Liao Xiaofeng; Yu Juebang

    2004-01-01

    We consider an Internet model with a single link accessed by a single source, which responds to congestion signals from the network, and study bifurcation of such a system. By choosing the gain parameter as a bifurcation parameter, we prove that Hopf bifurcation occurs. The stability of bifurcating periodic solutions and the direction of the Hopf bifurcation are determined by applying the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. Finally, a numerical example is given to verify the theoretical analysis

  8. Congestion and flow control in signaling system no. 7: Impacts of intelligent networks and new services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepf, Joachim; Rufa, Gerhard

    1994-04-01

    This paper focuses on the transient performance analysis of the congestion and flow control mechanisms in CCITT Signaling System No. 7 (SS7). Special attention is directed to the impacts of the introduction of intelligent services and new applications, e.g., Freephone, credit card services, user-to-user signaling, etc. In particular, we show that signaling traffic characteristics like signaling scenarios or signaling message length as well as end-to-end signaling capabilities have a significant influence on the congestion and flow control and, therefore, on the real-time signaling performance. One important result of our performance studies is that if, e.g., intelligent services are introduced, the SS7 congestion and flow control does not work correctly. To solve this problem, some reinvestigations into these mechanisms would be necessary. Therefore, some approaches, e.g., modification of the Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP) congestion control, usage of the SCCP relay function, or a redesign of the MTP flow control procedures are discussed in order to guarantee the efficacy of the congestion and flow control mechanisms also in the future.

  9. An Auto Tuning Substation Peak Shaving Controller for Congestion Management Using Flexible Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sossan, Fabrizio; Marinelli, Mattia

    2013-01-01

    A closed loop substation peak shaving/congestion management controller for radial distribution networks is presented. The controller it uses an individual control signal in order to shift the consumption of a population of demand side resources, DSRs. The controller auto tunes its parameters on...

  10. The congestion control algorithm based on queue management of each node in mobile ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yifei; Chang, Lin; Wang, Yali; Wang, Gaoping

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposes an active queue management mechanism, considering the node's own ability and its importance in the network to set the queue threshold. As the network load increases, local congestion of mobile ad hoc network may lead to network performance degradation, hot node's energy consumption increase even failure. If small energy nodes congested because of forwarding data packets, then when it is used as the source node will cause a lot of packet loss. This paper proposes an active queue management mechanism, considering the node's own ability and its importance in the network to set the queue threshold. Controlling nodes buffer queue in different levels of congestion area probability by adjusting the upper limits and lower limits, thus nodes can adjust responsibility of forwarding data packets according to their own situation. The proposed algorithm will slow down the send rate hop by hop along the data package transmission direction from congestion node to source node so that to prevent further congestion from the source node. The simulation results show that, the algorithm can better play the data forwarding ability of strong nodes, protect the weak nodes, can effectively alleviate the network congestion situation.

  11. A Cooperative Congestion Control Approach within VANETs: Formal Verification and Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouassida MohamedSalah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of congestion control is to best exploit the available network resources while preventing sustained overloads of network nodes and links. Appropriate congestion control mechanisms are essential to provide effcient operation of a network. Ensuring congestion control within vehicular ad hoc networks faces special challenges, due to the specificities of such environment (High mobility of nodes, high rate of topology changes, high variability in nodes density and neighborhood configuration, broadcast/geocast communication nature, etc.. In this context, we present in this paper a cooperative and fully distributed congestion control approach, based on dynamic scheduling and transmission of priority-based messages, to ensure reliable and safe communication architecture within VANET. Messages priorities are dynamically evaluated according to their types, the network context, and the neighboring nodes configuration. Considering the context of high reliability and real-time response required for intervehicular communications (including emergency breaking notification for example, we propose a complete validation method of our congestion control algorithms, taking into account reliability, temporal, and operational aspects.

  12. Wireless Sensor Network Congestion Control Based on Standard Particle Swarm Optimization and Single Neuron PID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoping; Chen, Xueying; Xia, Riting; Qian, Zhihong

    2018-04-19

    Aiming at the problem of network congestion caused by the large number of data transmissions in wireless routing nodes of wireless sensor network (WSN), this paper puts forward an algorithm based on standard particle swarm⁻neural PID congestion control (PNPID). Firstly, PID control theory was applied to the queue management of wireless sensor nodes. Then, the self-learning and self-organizing ability of neurons was used to achieve online adjustment of weights to adjust the proportion, integral and differential parameters of the PID controller. Finally, the standard particle swarm optimization to neural PID (NPID) algorithm of initial values of proportion, integral and differential parameters and neuron learning rates were used for online optimization. This paper describes experiments and simulations which show that the PNPID algorithm effectively stabilized queue length near the expected value. At the same time, network performance, such as throughput and packet loss rate, was greatly improved, which alleviated network congestion and improved network QoS.

  13. Congestion Control in a Location Service for VANETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulik, K. van; Phillipson, F.; Fouchal, H.

    2018-01-01

    Vehicular ad-hoc networks are self-organized networks to provide communication between the vehicles. It is challenging to determine a routing protocol for the communication between the vehicles since the vehicles are moving in different speeds and directions, which causes a rapidly changing network

  14. Design, Implementation and Evaluation of Congestion Control Mechanism for Video Streaming

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Noborio; Hiroyuki Hisamatsu; Hiroki Oda

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, video streaming services over TCP, such as YouTube, have become more and more popular. TCP NewReno, the current TCP standard, performs greedy congestion control, which increases the congestion window size until packet loss occurs. Therefore, because TCP transmits data at a much higher rate than the video playback rate, the probability of packet loss in the network increases, which in turn takes bandwidth from other network traffic. In this paper, we propose a new transport-la...

  15. Intelligent Traffic Control System Implementation for Traffic Violation Control, Congestion Control and Stolen Vehicle Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarup Suresh Kulkarni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Traffic is significant issue in our nation, particularly in urban ranges. Aftereffect of this, activity clog issue happens. Crisis vehicle like rescue vehicle, fire unit, squad cars confront bunches of issue to achieve their goal on account of congested driving conditions, coming about loss of human lives. To minimize this issue we approach new idea name as ”Traffic control framework for blockage control and stolen Vehicle location”. In this framework activity freedom done by transforming Red flag into Green flag. We demonstrate idea of what is called ”Green wave”. Alongside this, we distinguish stolen vehicle by utilizing extremely advantageous RFID innovation. In the event that stolen vehicle is been distinguished, the framework gives ready sign through ringer. Framework sends Message with the assistance of GSM to Police station. In this framework we Use diverse RFID labels for recognizing rescue vehicle, stolen Vehicles. On the off chance that Red flag is on and IR sensor is initiated, then framework gives ringer alarm to movement police. This is novel framework which encourage great answer for comprehend traffic clog.

  16. CCS_WHMS: A Congestion Control Scheme for Wearable Health Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafi, Mohamed Amine; Ben Othman, Jalel; Bagaa, Miloud; Badache, Nadjib

    2015-12-01

    Wearable computing is becoming a more and more attracting field in the last years thanks to the miniaturisation of electronic devices. Wearable healthcare monitoring systems (WHMS) as an important client of wearable computing technology has gained a lot. Indeed, the wearable sensors and their surrounding healthcare applications bring a lot of benefits to patients, elderly people and medical staff, so facilitating their daily life quality. But from a research point of view, there is still work to accomplish in order to overcome the gap between hardware and software parts. In this paper, we target the problem of congestion control when all these healthcare sensed data have to reach the destination in a reliable manner that avoids repetitive transmission which wastes precious energy or leads to loss of important information in emergency cases, too. We propose a congestion control scheme CCS_WHMS that ensures efficient and fair data delivery while used in the body wearable system part or in the multi-hop inter bodies wearable ones to get the destination. As the congestion detection paradigm is very important in the control process, we do experimental tests to compare between state of the art congestion detection methods, using MICAz motes, in order to choose the appropriate one for our scheme.

  17. Congestion Control and Traffic Scheduling for Collaborative Crowdsourcing in SDN Enabled Mobile Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Shen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a number of crowdsourcing-based mobile applications have been implemented in mobile networks and Internet of Things (IoT, targeted at real-time services and recommendation. The frequent information exchanges and data transmissions in collaborative crowdsourcing are heavily injected into the current communication networks, which poses great challenges for Mobile Wireless Networks (MWN. This paper focuses on the traffic scheduling and load balancing problem in software-defined MWN and designs a hybrid routing forwarding scheme as well as a congestion control algorithm to achieve the feasible solution. The traffic scheduling algorithm first sorts the tasks in an ascending order depending on the amount of tasks and then solves it using a greedy scheme. In the proposed congestion control scheme, the traffic assignment is first transformed into a multiknapsack problem, and then the Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm (AFSA is utilized to solve this problem. Numerical results on practical network topology reveal that, compared with the traditional schemes, the proposed congestion control and traffic scheduling schemes can achieve load balancing, reduce the probability of network congestion, and improve the network throughput.

  18. Congestion Control Algorithm in Distribution Feeders: Integration in a Distribution Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine L. Vandoorn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing share of distributed energy resources poses a challenge to the distribution network operator (DNO to maintain the current availability of the system while limiting the investment costs. Related to this, there is a clear trend in DNOs trying to better monitor their grid by installing a distribution management system (DMS. This DMS enables the DNOs to remotely switch their network or better localize and solve faults. Moreover, the DMS can be used to centrally control the grid assets. Therefore, in this paper, a control strategy is discussed that can be implemented in the DMS for solving current congestion problems posed by the increasing share of renewables in the grid. This control strategy controls wind turbines in order to avoid congestion while mitigating the required investment costs in order to achieve a global cost-efficient solution. Next to the application and objective of the control, the parameter tuning of the control algorithm is discussed.

  19. PI Stabilization for Congestion Control of AQM Routers with Tuning Parameter Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chebli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the problem of stabilizing network using a new proportional- integral (PI based congestion controller in active queue management (AQM router; with appropriate model approximation in the first order delay systems, we seek a stability region of the controller by using the Hermite- Biehler theorem, which isapplicable to quasipolynomials. A Genetic Algorithm technique is employed to derive optimal or near optimal PI controller parameters.

  20. Congestion Control in Data Transmission Networks Sliding Mode and Other Designs

    CERN Document Server

    Ignaciuk, Przemysław

    2013-01-01

    Congestion Control in Data Transmission Networks details the modeling and control of data traffic in communication networks. It shows how various networking phenomena can be represented in a consistent mathematical framework suitable for rigorous formal analysis. The monograph differentiates between fluid-flow continuous-time traffic models, discrete-time processes with constant sampling rates, and sampled-data systems with variable discretization periods. The authors address a number of difficult real-life problems, such as: • optimal control of flows with disparate, time-varying delay; • the existence of source and channel nonlinearities; • the balancing of quality of service and fairness requirements; and • the incorporation of variable rate allocation policies. Appropriate control mechanisms which can handle congestion and guarantee high throughput in various traffic scenarios (with different networking phenomena being considered) are proposed. Systematic design procedures using sound control-theo...

  1. A combined fair decentralized message-rate and data-rate congestion control for V2V communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belagal Math, Chetan; Li, Hong; De Groot, Sonia Heemstra; Niemegeers, Ignas

    2018-01-01

    Channel congestion Is one of the most critical Issues In IEEE 802.11p-based vehicular ad hoc networks as it leads to unreliability of safety applications. As a counter measure, the European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI), proposes a mandatory Decentralized Congestion Control (DCC)

  2. Indirect control of DSRs for regulating power provision and solving local congestions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sossan, Fabrizio; Marinelli, Mattia; Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso

    2013-01-01

    Inducing a shift in the electricity consumption using a broadcasted dynamic price for the energy is often proposed as a resource for providing regulating power and it is becoming an increasing research focus for enabling higher penetration of renewable energy in the current power system. This paper...... with the CIGRE’ MV reference network with 346 electrically heated buildings as Demand Side Resources, DSRs. The dynamic hourly price of the regulating power provided by Nord Pool Spot market has been used as indirect control signal for the flexible demand....... shows how using indirect control (or control by price) without any precautions, might easily lead to congestions in nearly saturated distribution grids. An auto tuning local controller which acts on the price signal at distribution level is proposed for solving the congestion. Simulations are performed...

  3. Energy Effective Congestion Control for Multicast with Network Coding in Wireless Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanxin Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve network throughput and reduce energy consumption, we propose in this paper a cross-layer optimization design that is able to achieve multicast utility maximization and energy consumption minimization. The joint optimization of congestion control and power allocation is formulated to be a nonlinear nonconvex problem. Using dual decomposition, a distributed optimization algorithm is proposed to avoid the congestion by control flow rate at the source node and eliminate the bottleneck by allocating the power at the intermediate node. Simulation results show that the cross-layer algorithm can increase network performance, reduce the energy consumption of wireless nodes and prolong the network lifetime, while keeping network throughput basically unchanged.

  4. Managing Recurrent Congestion of Subway Network in Peak Hours with Station Inflow Control

    OpenAIRE

    Qingru Zou; Xiangming Yao; Peng Zhao; Fei Dou; Taoyuan Yang

    2018-01-01

    Station inflow control (SIC) is an important and effective method for reducing recurrent congestion during peak hours in the Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou subway systems. This work proposes a practical and efficient method for establishing a static SIC scheme in normal weekdays for large-scale subway networks. First, a traffic assignment model without capacity constraint is utilized to determine passenger flow distributions on the network. An internal relationship between station inflows a...

  5. Wireless Sensor Network Congestion Control Based on Standard Particle Swarm Optimization and Single Neuron PID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoping; Chen, Xueying; Xia, Riting; Qian, Zhihong

    2018-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of network congestion caused by the large number of data transmissions in wireless routing nodes of wireless sensor network (WSN), this paper puts forward an algorithm based on standard particle swarm–neural PID congestion control (PNPID). Firstly, PID control theory was applied to the queue management of wireless sensor nodes. Then, the self-learning and self-organizing ability of neurons was used to achieve online adjustment of weights to adjust the proportion, integral and differential parameters of the PID controller. Finally, the standard particle swarm optimization to neural PID (NPID) algorithm of initial values of proportion, integral and differential parameters and neuron learning rates were used for online optimization. This paper describes experiments and simulations which show that the PNPID algorithm effectively stabilized queue length near the expected value. At the same time, network performance, such as throughput and packet loss rate, was greatly improved, which alleviated network congestion and improved network QoS. PMID:29671822

  6. Dynamics of the congestion control model in underwater wireless sensor networks with time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Tao; Hu, Wenjie; Liao, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a congestion control model in underwater wireless sensor network with time delay is considered. First, the boundedness of the positive equilibrium, where the samples density is positive for each node and the different event flows coexist, is investigated, which implies that the samples density of sensor node cannot exceed the Environmental carrying capacity. Then, by considering the time delay can be regarded as a bifurcating parameter, the dynamical behaviors, which include local stability and Hopf bifurcation, are investigated. It is found that when the communication time delay passes a critical value, the system loses its stability and a Hopf bifurcation occurs, which means the underwater wireless sensor network will be congested, even collapsed. Furthermore, the direction and stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions are derived by applying the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. Finally, some numerical examples are finally performed to verify the theoretical results.

  7. Dynamic Traffic Congestion Simulation and Dissipation Control Based on Traffic Flow Theory Model and Neural Network Data Calibration Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a common problem in many countries, especially in big cities. At present, China’s urban road traffic accidents occur frequently, the occurrence frequency is high, the accident causes traffic congestion, and accidents cause traffic congestion and vice versa. The occurrence of traffic accidents usually leads to the reduction of road traffic capacity and the formation of traffic bottlenecks, causing the traffic congestion. In this paper, the formation and propagation of traffic congestion are simulated by using the improved medium traffic model, and the control strategy of congestion dissipation is studied. From the point of view of quantitative traffic congestion, the paper provides the fact that the simulation platform of urban traffic integration is constructed, and a feasible data analysis, learning, and parameter calibration method based on RBF neural network is proposed, which is used to determine the corresponding decision support system. The simulation results prove that the control strategy proposed in this paper is effective and feasible. According to the temporal and spatial evolution of the paper, we can see that the network has been improved on the whole.

  8. Evaluation of TCP Congestion Control Algorithms on the Windows Vista Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yee-Ting; /SLAC

    2006-07-07

    CTCP, an innovative TCP congestion control algorithm developed by Microsoft, is evaluated and compared to HSTCP and StandardTCP. Tests were performed on the production Internet from Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to various geographically located hosts to give a broad overview of the performances. We find that certain issues were apparent during testing (not directly related to the congestion control algorithms) which may skew results. With this in mind, we find that CTCP performed similarly to HSTCP across a multitude of different network environments. However, to improve the fairness and to reduce the impact of CTCP upon existing StandardTCP traffic, two areas of further research were investigated. Algorithmic additions to CTCP for burst control to reduce the aggressiveness of its cwnd increments demonstrated beneficial improvements in both fairness and throughput over the original CTCP algorithm. Similarly, {gamma} auto-tuning algorithms were investigated to dynamically adapt CTCP flows to their network conditions for optimal performance. While the effects of these auto-tuning algorithms when used in addition to burst control showed little to no benefit to fairness nor throughput for the limited number of network paths tested, one of the auto-tuning algorithms performed such that there was negligible impact upon StandardTCP. With these improvements, CTCP was found to perform better than HSTCP in terms of fairness and similarly in terms of throughput under the production environments tested.

  9. Evaluation of TCP Congestion Control Algorithms on the Windows Vista Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y

    2006-01-01

    CTCP, an innovative TCP congestion control algorithm developed by Microsoft, is evaluated and compared to HSTCP and StandardTCP. Tests were performed on the production Internet from Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to various geographically located hosts to give a broad overview of the performances. We find that certain issues were apparent during testing (not directly related to the congestion control algorithms) which may skew results. With this in mind, we find that CTCP performed similarly to HSTCP across a multitude of different network environments. However, to improve the fairness and to reduce the impact of CTCP upon existing StandardTCP traffic, two areas of further research were investigated. Algorithmic additions to CTCP for burst control to reduce the aggressiveness of its cwnd increments demonstrated beneficial improvements in both fairness and throughput over the original CTCP algorithm. Similarly, auto-tuning algorithms were investigated to dynamically adapt CTCP flows to their network conditions for optimal performance. Whilst the effects of these auto-tuning algorithms when used in addition to burst control showed little to no benefit to fairness nor throughput for the limited number of network paths tested, one of the auto-tuning algorithms performed such that there was negligible impact upon StandardTCP. With these improvements, CTCP was found to perform better than HSTCP in terms of fairness and similarly in terms of throughput under the production environments tested

  10. A Congestion Control System Based on VANET for Small Length Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchin Jain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As vehicle population has been increasing on a daily basis, this leads towards increased number of accidents. To overcome this issue, Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET has come up with lot of novel ideas such as vehicular communication, navigation and traffic controlling. In this study, the main focus is on congestion control at the intersections which result from unclear ahead. For this purpose, a city lane and intersection model has been proposed to manage vehicle mobility. It shows the actual vehicle to vehicle and vehicle to traffic infrastructure communication. The experiment was conducted using Network Simulator 2 (NS 2. The implementation required modelling the road side unit, traffic control unit, and on-board unit along the roadside. In the simulation, including traffic volume, the distance between two signals, end-to-end delay, packet delivery ratio, throughput and packet lost were taken into consideration. These parameters ensure efficient communication between the traffic signals. This results in improved congestion control and road safety, since the vehicles will be signalled not to enter the junction box and information about other vehicles.

  11. SDTCP: Towards Datacenter TCP Congestion Control with SDN for IoT Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yifei; Ling, Zhen; Zhu, Shuhong; Tang, Ling

    2017-01-08

    The Internet of Things (IoT) has gained popularity in recent years. Today's IoT applications are now increasingly deployed in cloud platforms to perform Big Data analytics. In cloud data center networks (DCN), TCP incast usually happens when multiple senders simultaneously communicate with a single receiver. However, when TCP incast happens, DCN may suffer from both throughput collapse for TCP burst flows and temporary starvation for TCP background flows. In this paper, we propose a software defined network (SDN)-based TCP congestion control mechanism, referred to as SDTCP, to leverage the features, e.g., centralized control methods and the global view of the network, in order to solve the TCP incast problems. When we detect network congestion on an OpenFlow switch, our controller can select the background flows and reduce their bandwidth by adjusting the advertised window of TCP ACK packets of the corresponding background flows so as to reserve more bandwidth for burst flows. SDTCP is transparent to the end systems and can accurately decelerate the rate of background flows by leveraging the global view of the network gained via SDN. The experiments demonstrate that our SDTCP can provide high tolerance for burst flows and achieve better flow completion time for short flows. Therefore, SDTCP is an effective and scalable solution for the TCP incast problem.

  12. SDTCP: Towards Datacenter TCP Congestion Control with SDN for IoT Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT has gained popularity in recent years. Today’s IoT applications are now increasingly deployed in cloud platforms to perform Big Data analytics. In cloud data center networks (DCN, TCP incast usually happens when multiple senders simultaneously communicate with a single receiver. However, when TCP incast happens, DCN may suffer from both throughput collapse for TCP burst flows and temporary starvation for TCP background flows. In this paper, we propose a software defined network (SDN-based TCP congestion control mechanism, referred to as SDTCP, to leverage the features, e.g., centralized control methods and the global view of the network, in order to solve the TCP incast problems. When we detect network congestion on an OpenFlow switch, our controller can select the background flows and reduce their bandwidth by adjusting the advertised window of TCP ACK packets of the corresponding background flows so as to reserve more bandwidth for burst flows. SDTCP is transparent to the end systems and can accurately decelerate the rate of background flows by leveraging the global view of the network gained via SDN. The experiments demonstrate that our SDTCP can provide high tolerance for burst flows and achieve better flow completion time for short flows. Therefore, SDTCP is an effective and scalable solution for the TCP incast problem.

  13. Congestion Control for a Fair Packet Delivery in WSN: From a Complex System Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aguirre-Guerrero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose that packets travelling across a wireless sensor network (WSN can be seen as the active agents that make up a complex system, just like a bird flock or a fish school, for instance. From this perspective, the tools and models that have been developed to study this kind of systems have been applied. This is in order to create a distributed congestion control based on a set of simple rules programmed at the nodes of the WSN. Our results show that it is possible to adapt the carried traffic to the network capacity, even under stressing conditions. Also, the network performance shows a smooth degradation when the traffic goes beyond a threshold which is settled by the proposed self-organized control. In contrast, without any control, the network collapses before this threshold. The use of the proposed solution provides an effective strategy to address some of the common problems found in WSN deployment by providing a fair packet delivery. In addition, the network congestion is mitigated using adaptive traffic mechanisms based on a satisfaction parameter assessed by each packet which has impact on the global satisfaction of the traffic carried by the WSN.

  14. Study on the propagation and dissipation of inland ship congestion under different control strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanyi; Wu, Hongyu; Wen, Zhe

    2017-05-01

    Inland waterway transportation is an important part of the comprehensive transportation system of sustainable development, and it is also a way of transportation which is restricted by natural conditions greatly. In recent years, the problems of insufficient traffic capacity of The Three Gorges become prominent due to the increasing in the number of ships. And the ship's detention caused by gale, frog, accident and one-way traffic in dry season has occurred, which not only increased the pressure of the navigable waterway but also seriously affected the safety of shipping. Based on the different types of ships, the Arena software was used to simulate the ship traffic flow. The paper analyzed the traffic congestion propagation and dissipation rule of the ship under different navigation control methods, and provided decision reference for the navigation management department to formulate the relevant navigation control strategy.

  15. Congestion management of deregulated power systems by optimal setting of Interline Power Flow Controller using Gravitational Search algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Mishra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In a deregulated electricity market it may at times become difficult to dispatch all the required power that is scheduled to flow due to congestion in transmission lines. An Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC can be used to reduce the system loss and power flow in the heavily loaded line, improve stability and loadability of the system. This paper proposes a Disparity Line Utilization Factor for the optimal placement and Gravitational Search algorithm based optimal tuning of IPFC to control the congestion in transmission lines. DLUF ranks the transmission lines in terms of relative line congestion. The IPFC is accordingly placed in the most congested and the least congested line connected to the same bus. Optimal sizing of IPFC is carried using Gravitational Search algorithm. A multi-objective function has been chosen for tuning the parameters of the IPFC. The proposed method is implemented on an IEEE-30 bus test system. Graphical representations have been included in the paper showing reduction in LUF of the transmission lines after the placement of an IPFC. A reduction in active power and reactive power loss of the system by about 6% is observed after an optimally tuned IPFC has been included in the power system. The effectiveness of the proposed tuning method has also been shown in the paper through the reduction in the values of the objective functions.

  16. Predictive functional control for active queue management in congested TCP/IP networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigdeli, N; Haeri, M

    2009-01-01

    Predictive functional control (PFC) as a new active queue management (AQM) method in dynamic TCP networks supporting explicit congestion notification (ECN) is proposed. The ability of the controller in handling system delay along with its simplicity and low computational load makes PFC a privileged AQM method in the high speed networks. Besides, considering the disturbance term (which represents model/process mismatches, external disturbances, and existing noise) in the control formulation adds some level of robustness into the PFC-AQM controller. This is an important and desired property in the control of dynamically-varying computer networks. In this paper, the controller is designed based on a small signal linearized fluid-flow model of the TCP/AQM networks. Then, closed-loop transfer function representation of the system is derived to analyze the robustness with respect to the network and controller parameters. The analytical as well as the packet-level ns-2 simulation results show the out-performance of the developed controller for both queue regulation and resource utilization. Fast response, low queue fluctuations (and consequently low delay jitter), high link utilization, good disturbance rejection, scalability, and low packet marking probability are other features of the developed method with respect to other well-known AQM methods such as RED, PI, and REM which are also simulated for comparison.

  17. Mean Field Type Control with Congestion (II): An Augmented Lagrangian Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achdou, Yves, E-mail: achdou@ljll.univ-paris-diderot.fr; Laurière, Mathieu [Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, UMR 7598, UPMC, CNRS (France)

    2016-12-15

    This work deals with a numerical method for solving a mean-field type control problem with congestion. It is the continuation of an article by the same authors, in which suitably defined weak solutions of the system of partial differential equations arising from the model were discussed and existence and uniqueness were proved. Here, the focus is put on numerical methods: a monotone finite difference scheme is proposed and shown to have a variational interpretation. Then an Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers for solving the variational problem is addressed. It is based on an augmented Lagrangian. Two kinds of boundary conditions are considered: periodic conditions and more realistic boundary conditions associated to state constrained problems. Various test cases and numerical results are presented.

  18. Managing Recurrent Congestion of Subway Network in Peak Hours with Station Inflow Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingru Zou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Station inflow control (SIC is an important and effective method for reducing recurrent congestion during peak hours in the Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou subway systems. This work proposes a practical and efficient method for establishing a static SIC scheme in normal weekdays for large-scale subway networks. First, a traffic assignment model without capacity constraint is utilized to determine passenger flow distributions on the network. An internal relationship between station inflows and section flows is then constructed. Second, capacity bottlenecks are identified by considering the transport capacity of each section. Then, a feedback-based bottleneck elimination strategy is established to search target control stations and determine their control time and control strength. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, a decision support system coded in the C# programming language was developed, and the Beijing subway was used as a case study. The results indicate that the proposed method and tool are capable of practical applications, and the generated SIC plan has better performance over the existing SIC plan. This study provides a practical and useful method for operation agencies to construct SIC schemes in the subway system.

  19. Rate-based congestion control in networks with smart links, revision. B.S. Thesis - May 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heybey, Andrew Tyrrell

    1990-01-01

    The author uses a network simulator to explore rate-based congestion control in networks with smart links that can feed back information to tell senders to adjust their transmission rates. This method differs in a very important way from congestion control in which a congested network component just drops packets - the most commonly used method. It is clearly advantageous for the links in the network to communicate with the end users about the network capacity, rather than the users unilaterally picking a transmission rate. The components in the middle of the network, not the end users, have information about the capacity and traffic in the network. The author experiments with three different algorithms for calculating the control rate to feed back to the users. All of the algorithms exhibit problems in the form of large queues when simulated with a configuration modeling the dynamics of a packet-voice system. However, the problems are not with the algorithms themselves, but with the fact that feedback takes time. If the network steady-state utilization is low enough that it can absorb transients in the traffic through it, then the large queues disappear. If the users are modified to start sending slowly, to allow the network to adapt to a new flow without causing congestion, a greater portion of the network's bandwidth can be used.

  20. CONGESTION CONTROL IMPROVED QoS ROUTING SCHEME FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    A. Elakkiya*, B. Santhana Krishnan, Dr. M. Ramaswamy

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor network is distributed self-governing sensors used to monitor the physical conditions of the environment. They are constructed by nodes where each of them is connected to sensors. These sensor nodes acquire real time information and transmit the information. When large number of sensor nodes are active in transmitting the information there is a possibility of congestion in the data packets. Congestion occurs due to buffer overflow, channel contention, packet collision, reporti...

  1. Congestion levies; Congestieheffingen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoef, E.T. [Vakgroep Ruimtelijke Economie, Vrije Universiteit en Tinbergen Instituut, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1998-02-20

    Traffic jams or congestion can be controlled by means of Pigouvian levies. Congestion costs comprise both time losses as scheduling costs. Because a part of those costs are external costs, the free market output is not Pareto-efficient, and therefore levies are required to recover the efficiency. With some restrictions, road-pricing for the western part of the Netherlands is considered to be a feasible option

  2. Hopf bifurcation and uncontrolled stochastic traffic-induced chaos in an RED-AQM congestion control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun-Song; Yuan Rui-Xi; Gao Zhi-Wei; Wang De-Jin

    2011-01-01

    We study the Hopf bifurcation and the chaos phenomena in a random early detection-based active queue management (RED-AQM) congestion control system with a communication delay. We prove that there is a critical value of the communication delay for the stability of the RED-AQM control system. Furthermore, we show that the system will lose its stability and Hopf bifurcations will occur when the delay exceeds the critical value. When the delay is close to its critical value, we demonstrate that typical chaos patterns may be induced by the uncontrolled stochastic traffic in the RED-AQM control system even if the system is still stable, which reveals a new route to the chaos besides the bifurcation in the network congestion control system. Numerical simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical results. (general)

  3. Data rate based congestion control in V2V communication for traffic safety applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belagal Math, C.; Özgür, A.; Heemstra de Groot, S.M.; Li, H.

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication systems intend to increase safety and efficiency of the transportation networks. At high vehicle density, the communication channel may become congested, impairing the reliability of the safety applications. As a counter measure, the European Telecommunications

  4. Stream Control Transmission Protocol as a Transport for SIP: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe De Marco

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The dominant signalling protocol both in future wireless and wired networks will be the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP, as pointed out in the 3G IP-based mobile networks specifications, entailing a fully Internet integrated network. The use of SIP in the IP Multimedia Subsytem (IMS of Release 5 involves the development of servers capable to handle a large number of call requests. The signaling traffic associated to such requests could explode, if an intelligent congestion control were not introduced. Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP was born to support transport of SS7 signaling messages. However, many of the SCTP features are also useful for transport of SIP messages, as: congestion control mechanism, good separation among independent messages, multihoming. Indeed, adoption of SCTP as transport of SIP signaling might prove useful in some situations where usual transport protocols, like TCP and UDP, suffer performance degradation. In this paper, we analyse the general framework wherein SIP operates and we discuss the benefits of using SCTP as a transport for SIP, toward fair sharing of network resources. This study is carried on in the context of the implementation of an high-performance SIP Proxy Server. We also present some preliminar results of an implementation of SIP over SCTP/UDP in a real LAN environment.

  5. Towards reducing traffic congestion using cooperative adaptive cruise control on a freeway with a ramp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Arnaout

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this paper, the impact of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC systems on traffic performance is examined using microscopic agent-based simulation. Using a developed traffic simulation model of a freeway with an on-ramp - created to induce perturbations and to trigger stop-and-go traffic, the CACC system’s effect on the traffic performance is studied. The previously proposed traffic simulation model is extended and validated. By embedding CACC vehicles in different penetration levels, the results show significance and indicate the potential of CACC systems to improve traffic characteristics and therefore can be used to reduce traffic congestion. The study shows that the impact of CACC is positive but is highly dependent on the CACC market penetration. The flow rate of the traffic using CACC is proportional to the market penetration rate of CACC equipped vehicles and the density of the traffic.Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses microscopic simulation experiments followed by a quantitative statistical analysis. Simulation enables researchers manipulating the system variables to straightforwardly predict the outcome on the overall system, giving researchers the unique opportunity to interfere and make improvements to performance. Thus with simulation, changes to variables that might require excessive time, or be unfeasible to carry on real systems, are often completed within seconds.Findings: The findings of this paper are summarized as follow:•\tProvide and validate a platform (agent-based microscopic traffic simulator in which any CACC algorithm (current or future may be evaluated.•\tProvide detailed analysis associated with implementation of CACC vehicles on freeways.•\tInvestigate whether embedding CACC vehicles on freeways has a significant positive impact or not.Research limitations/implications: The main limitation of this research is that it has been conducted solely in a computer laboratory. Laboratory

  6. Co-Design Based Lateral Motion Control of All-Wheel-Independent-Drive Electric Vehicles with Network Congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanke Cao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available All-wheel-independent-drive electric vehicles (AWID-EVs have considerable advantages in terms of energy optimization, drivability and driving safety due to the remarkable actuation flexibility of electric motors. However, in their current implementations, various real-time data in the vehicle control system are exchanged via a controller area network (CAN, which causes network congestion and network-induced delays. These problems could lead to systemic instability and make the system integration difficult. The goal of this paper is to provide a design methodology that can cope with all these challenges for the lateral motion control of AWID-EVs. Firstly, a continuous-time model of an AWID-EV is derived. Then an expression for determining upper and lower bounds on the delays caused by CAN is presented and with which a discrete-time model of the closed-loop CAN system is derived. An expression on the bandwidth utilization is introduced as well. Thirdly, a co-design based scheme combining a period-dependent linear quadratic regulator (LQR and a dynamic period scheduler is designed for the resulting model and the stability criterion is also derived. The results of simulations and hard-in-loop (HIL experiments show that the proposed methodology can effectively guarantee the stability of the vehicle lateral motion control while obviously declining the network congestion.

  7. Shockwave-Based Automated Vehicle Longitudinal Control Algorithm for Nonrecurrent Congestion Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuhui Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A shockwave-based speed harmonization algorithm for the longitudinal movement of automated vehicles is presented in this paper. In the advent of Connected/Automated Vehicle (C/AV environment, the proposed algorithm can be applied to capture instantaneous shockwaves constructed from vehicular speed profiles shared by individual equipped vehicles. With a continuous wavelet transform (CWT method, the algorithm detects abnormal speed drops in real-time and optimizes speed to prevent the shockwave propagating to the upstream traffic. A traffic simulation model is calibrated to evaluate the applicability and efficiency of the proposed algorithm. Based on 100% C/AV market penetration, the simulation results show that the CWT-based algorithm accurately detects abnormal speed drops. With the improved accuracy of abnormal speed drop detection, the simulation results also demonstrate that the congestion can be mitigated by reducing travel time and delay up to approximately 9% and 18%, respectively. It is also found that the shockwave caused by nonrecurrent congestion is quickly dissipated even with low market penetration.

  8. A Review on Natural Ventilation-enabling Façade Noise Control Devices for Congested High-Rise Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Keung Tang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the current status of the research and development of natural ventilation-enabling noise control devices for use on the façades of high-rise residential buildings in congested cities. These devices are important for a sustainable urbanized city, as they are supposed to offer good acoustical protection to citizens, allowing for an acceptable level of natural ventilation inside residential units; energy for mechanical ventilation can then be saved. From the information presented in the existing literature, it is concluded that protrusive devices, such as lintels and balconies, are not effective noise screening devices, even if they are installed with sound absorbers and/or reflectors, under the effect of city reverberation. On the contrary, plenum windows and similar structures, which are plenum structures with a staggered air inlet and outlet, are interesting alternatives that are worth rigorous considerations.

  9. Reducing a congestion with introduce the greedy algorithm on traffic light control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catur Siswipraptini, Puji; Hendro Martono, Wisnu; Hartanti, Dian

    2018-03-01

    The density of vehicles causes congestion seen at every junction in the city of jakarta due to the static or manual traffic timing lamp system consequently the length of the queue at the junction is uncertain. The research has been aimed at designing a sensor based traffic system based on the queue length detection of the vehicle to optimize the duration of the green light. In detecting the length of the queue of vehicles using infrared sensor assistance placed in each intersection path, then apply Greedy algorithm to help accelerate the movement of green light duration for the path that requires, while to apply the traffic lights regulation program based on greedy algorithm which is then stored on microcontroller with Arduino Mega 2560 type. Where a developed system implements the greedy algorithm with the help of the infrared sensor it will extend the duration of the green light on the long vehicle queue and accelerate the duration of the green light at the intersection that has the queue not too dense. Furthermore, the design is made to form an artificial form of the actual situation of the scale model or simple simulator (next we just called as scale model of simulator) of the intersection then tested. Sensors used are infrared sensors, where the placement of sensors in each intersection on the scale model is placed within 10 cm of each sensor and serves as a queue detector. From the results of the test process on the scale model with a longer queue obtained longer green light time so it will fix the problem of long queue of vehicles. Using greedy algorithms can add long green lights for 2 seconds on tracks that have long queues at least three sensor levels and accelerate time at other intersections that have longer queue sensor levels less than level three.

  10. Analyzing the effect of routing protocols on media access control protocols in radio networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Drozda, M. (Martin); Marathe, A. (Achla); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.)

    2002-01-01

    We study the effect of routing protocols on the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols in wireless radio networks. Three well known MAC protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA are considered. Similarly three recently proposed routing protocols: AODV, DSR and LAR scheme 1 are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of our experiments was to study how the routing protocols affect the performance of the MAC protocols when the underlying network and traffic parameters are varied. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. five important parameters: (i) number of received packets, (ii) average latency of each packet, (iii) throughput (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Our results show that combinations of routing and MAC protocols yield varying performance under varying network topology and traffic situations. The result has an important implication; no combination of routing protocol and MAC protocol is the best over all situations. Also, the performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack needs to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. A novel aspect of our work is the use of statistical technique, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to characterize the effect of routing protocols on MAC protocols. This technique is of independent interest and can be utilized in several other simulation and empirical studies.

  11. Intensive symptom control of opioid-refractory dyspnea in congestive heart failure: Role of milrinone in the palliative care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Julio; Montoya, Maria; Bruera, Eduardo; Elsayem, Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    We describe an exemplary case of congestive heart failure (CHF) symptoms controlled with milrinone. We also analyze the benefits and risks of milrinone administration in an unmonitored setting. We describe the case of a patient with refractory leukemia and end-stage CHF who developed severe dyspnea after discontinuation of milrinone. At that point, despite starting opioids, she had been severely dyspneic and anxious, requiring admission to the palliative care unit (PCU) for symptom control. After negotiation with hospital administrators, milrinone was administered in an unmonitored setting such as the PCU. A multidisciplinary team approach was also provided. Milrinone produced a dramatic improvement in the patient's symptom scores and performance status. The patient was eventually discharged to home hospice on a milrinone infusion with excellent symptom control. This case suggests that milrinone may be of benefit for short-term inpatient administration for dyspnea management, even in unmonitored settings and consequently during hospice in do-not-resuscitate (DNR) patients. This strategy may reduce costs and readmissions to the hospital related to end-stage CHF.

  12. A Flexible Load Control Strategy for Distribution Network to Reduce the Line Losses and to Eliminate the Transmission Congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many uncertain factors in the modern distribution network, including the access of renewable energy sources and the heavy load level. The existence of these factors has brought challenges to the stability of the power distribution network, as well as increasing the risk of exceeding transmission capacity of distribution lines. The appearance of flexible load control technology provides a new idea to solve the above problems. Air conditioners (ACs account for a great proportion of all loads. In this paper, the model of dispatching AC loads in the regional power grid is constructed, and the direct load control (DLC method is adopted to reduce the load of ACs. An improved tabu search technique is proposed to solve the problem of network dispatch in distribution systems in order to reduce the resistive line losses and to eliminate the transmission congestion in lines under normal operating conditions. The optimal node solution is obtained to find the best location and reduction capacity of ACs for load control. To demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method, a test system is studied. The numerical results are also given in this article, which reveal that the proposed method is promising.

  13. V2X application-reliability analysis of data-rate and message-rate congestion control algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Math, C. Belagal; Li, H.; Heemstra de Groot, S.M.; Niemegeers, I.G.M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) require Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) communication. In dense traffic, the communication channel may become congested, impairing the reliability of the ITS safety applications. Therefore, European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI) demands

  14. Impact on Congestion and Fuel Consumption of a Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control System with Lane-Level Position Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Talavera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, vehicular communications systems have evolved and allowed for the improvement of adaptive cruise control (ACC systems to make them cooperative (cooperative adaptive cruise control, CACC. Conventional ACC systems use sensors on the ego-vehicle, such as radar or computer vision, to generate their behavioral decisions. However, by having vehicle-to-X (V2X onboard communications, the need to incorporate perception in the vehicle is drastically reduced. Thus, in this paper a CACC solution is proposed that only uses communications to make its decisions with the help of previous road mapping. At the same time, a method to develop these maps is presented, combining the information of a computer vision system to correct the positions obtained from the navigation system. In addition, the cut-in and cut-out maneuvers for a CACC platoon are taken into account, showing the tests of these situations in real environments with instrumented vehicles. To show the potential of the system in a larger-scale implementation, simulations of the behavior are provided under dense traffic conditions where the positive impact on the reduction of traffic congestion and fuel consumption is appreciated.

  15. Preventing Distribution Grid Congestion by Integrating Indirect Control in a Hierarchical Electric Vehicles Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Si, Chengyong; Lind, Morten

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a hierarchical management system is proposed to integrate electric vehicles (EVs) into a distribution grid. Three types of actors are included in the system: Distribution system operators (DSOs), Fleet operators (FOs) and EV owners. In contrast to a typical hierarchical control sys...

  16. Sleeping and resting respiratory rates in dogs and cats with medically-controlled left-sided congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porciello, F; Rishniw, M; Ljungvall, I; Ferasin, L; Haggstrom, J; Ohad, D G

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping and resting respiratory rates (SRR and RRR, respectively) are commonly used to monitor dogs and cats with left-sided cardiac disease and to identify animals with left-sided congestive heart failure (L-CHF). Dogs and cats with subclinical heart disease have SRRmean values dogs and cats with CHF that is well controlled with medical therapy. In this study, SRR and RRR were measured by the owners of 51 dogs and 22 cats with stable, well-controlled CHF. Median canine SRRmean was 20 breaths/min (7-39 breaths/min); eight dogs were ≥25 breaths/min and one dog only was ≥30 breaths/min. Canine SRRmean was unrelated to pulmonary hypertension or diuretic dose. Median feline SRRmean was 20 breaths/min (13-31 breaths/min); four cats were ≥25 breaths/min and only one cat was ≥30 breaths/min. Feline SRRmean was unrelated to diuretic dose. SRR remained stable during collection in both species with little day-to-day variability. The median canine RRRmean was 24 breaths/min (12-44 breaths/min), 17 were ≥25 breaths/min, seven were ≥30 breaths/min, two were >40 breaths/min. Median feline RRRmean was 24 breaths/min (15-45 breaths/min); five cats had RRRmean ≥25 breaths/min; one had ≥30 breaths/min, and two had ≥40 breaths/min. These data suggest that most dogs and cats with CHF that is medically well-controlled and stable have SRRmean and RRRmean dogs and cats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Congestive index of portal vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won Ho; Kim, H. K.; Lee, S. C.; Han, S. H.; Han, K. H.; Chung, J. B.; Choi, H. J.

    1989-01-01

    In patients with portal hypertension, the blood flow volume is maintained despite decreased blood flow velocity due to enlargement of the vascular cross sectional area. Thus, the 'congestion index' of the portal vein, which is the ratio between the cross sectional area (cm2) and the blood flow velocity (cm/sec) determined by a Doppler ultrasonography, may be a sensitive index by which to assess portal hypertension. We performed Doppler ultrasonography on 24 normal subjects, 14 patients with biopsy proved chronic active hepatitis and 55 patients with liver cirrhosis in order to assess the diagnostic value of the congestion index. The cross sectional area of the portal vein was significantly enlarged and the mean blood flow velocity was significantly reduced in patients with liver cirrhosis compared with controls. However, the blood flow volume was no difference. The congestion index of the portal vein was significantly increased in patients with liver cirrhosis (0.113+0.035) compared with patients with chronic active hepatitis(0.078+0.029) (p<0.001) and controls (0.053+0.016) (p<0.001). The sensitivity, specificity and predictability of the congestion index for detection of patients with the cirrhosis of the liver were 76.4%, 100% and 100% respectively, when the normal range was set at mean+2SD. The results suggest that the congestion index of the portal vein may pla a significant role in diagnosis of portal hypertensive patients

  18. Frame Transmission Efficiency-Based Cross-Layer Congestion Notification Scheme in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huaguang; Li, Taoshen; Feng, Luting; Ye, Jin

    2017-07-15

    Different from the traditional wired network, the fundamental cause of transmission congestion in wireless ad hoc networks is medium contention. How to utilize the congestion state from the MAC (Media Access Control) layer to adjust the transmission rate is core work for transport protocol design. However, recent works have shown that the existing cross-layer congestion detection solutions are too complex to be deployed or not able to characterize the congestion accurately. We first propose a new congestion metric called frame transmission efficiency (i.e., the ratio of successful transmission delay to the frame service delay), which describes the medium contention in a fast and accurate manner. We further present the design and implementation of RECN (ECN and the ratio of successful transmission delay to the frame service delay in the MAC layer, namely, the frame transmission efficiency), a general supporting scheme that adjusts the transport sending rate through a standard ECN (Explicit Congestion Notification) signaling method. Our method can be deployed on commodity switches with small firmware updates, while making no modification on end hosts. We integrate RECN transparently (i.e., without modification) with TCP on NS2 simulation. The experimental results show that RECN remarkably improves network goodput across multiple concurrent TCP flows.

  19. Energy-Efficient Boarder Node Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC) for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN), which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS), which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM) model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS), which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi

  20. Energy-efficient boarder node medium access control protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled M

    2014-03-12

    This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC) for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN), which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS), which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM) model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS), which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi

  1. Energy-Efficient Boarder Node Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razaque

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC for wireless sensor networks (WSNs, which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN, which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS, which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS, which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi

  2. Emulation of Industrial Control Field Device Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    today. The protocol operates at the application layer of the open systems interconnection ( OSI ) model, meaning it operates independently of the...the OSI model. Their job is to receive serial data from an MTU in the Modbus RTU or ASCII protocol, encapsulate and transmit the data to another modem...facing connection and out-of-band logging capabilities over the other LAN -facing connection. Despite the fact that the hardware configuration of the

  3. Congestion with incidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of random delays during a repeatedly occurring demand peak in a congested facility, such as an airport or an urban road. Congestion is described in the form of a dynamic queue using the Vickrey bottleneck model and assuming Nash equilibrium in departure times. Ever...

  4. Controlled Delegation Protocol in Mobile RFID Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang MingHour

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve off-line delegation for mobile readers, we propose a delegation protocol for mobile RFID allowing its readers access to specific tags through back-end server. That is to say, reader-tag mutual authentication can be performed without readers being connected to back-end server. Readers are also allowed off-line access to tags' data. Compared with other delegation protocols, our scheme uniquely enables back-end server to limit each reader's reading times during delegation. Even in a multireader situation, our protocol can limit reading times and reading time periods for each of them and therefore makes back-end server's delegation more flexible. Besides, our protocol can prevent authorized readers from transferring their authority to the unauthorized, declining invalid access to tags. Our scheme is proved viable and secure with GNY logic; it is against certain security threats, such as replay attacks, denial of service (DoS attacks, Man-in-the-Middle attacks, counterfeit tags, and breaches of location and data privacy. Also, the performance analysis of our protocol proves that current tags can afford the computation load required in this scheme.

  5. Mechanical verification of concurrency control and recovery protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chkliaev, D.

    2001-01-01

    The thesis concerns the formal specification and mechanized verification of concurrency control and recovery protocols for distributed databases. Such protocols are needed for many modern application such as banking and are often used in safety-critical applications. Therefore it is very important

  6. On the stability and multi-stability of a TCP/RED congestion control model with state-dependent delay and discontinuous marking function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Xu, Jian; Chung, Kwok-wai

    2015-05-01

    Random early detection (RED) is an effective algorithm to control the Internet congestion. However, researches on RED parameters are difficult since there are state-dependent delay and discontinuous terms on the right-hand side of the model. We smooth the model by hyperbolic tangent function and reformulate it by a switch function to keep state variables positive. Numerical simulations on the original system validates the reformulated model. The multi-stability phenomenon is observed and some suggestions on the selection of RED parameters are given to enhance the global stability of the model by numerical bifurcation continuation on the reformulated model.

  7. Quality control protocols for radiodiagnosis agents and radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, A.; Condor, M.; Caballero, J.; Morote, M.; Garcia, C.; Benites, M.

    1997-01-01

    Based on the compilation of pharmacopoeia methods, literature, manuals and other information developed in our laboratory, protocols have been prepared to carry out quality controls for radiodiagnosis agents (RDA), better known as kits and RDA labelled with Tc99m. Quality control protocols cover physicochemical and biological controls. Physicochemical controls described for RDA include physical characteristics, particle size and number, pH, chemical identification, humidity, tin II; whereas biological controls include sterility, acute toxicity and bacterial endotoxin determination (LAL). Physicochemical controls described for radiopharmaceuticals labelled with Tc99m are pH and radiochemical purity; while biological distribution is described as a biological control

  8. The micro-step motor controller protocol and driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Kwang Pyo; Lee, Chang Hee; Moon, Myung Kook; Choi, Bung Hun; Choi, Young Hyun; Cheon, Jong Gu

    2004-11-01

    We developed the communication protocol which is a main kernel of motor control firmware program that is used at HANARO neutron spectrometer now. This protocol driver divide into as a 4 group(Serial protocol, DLL, Active-X, Labview driver), so end-user can control the motor control as easily by PC RS232/422 port and have a merits as follows: Support a Low Level/High level driver, Support a Network Connectivity function by using High level Driver, One Server can services many client request. By using this protocol, The End-user can be easily makes a application motor control program and developed another application system program by using several kinds of programming tools under Widows and Linux based operation systems

  9. A Calculus for Control Flow Analysis of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Mikael; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2004-01-01

    The design of a process calculus for anaysing security protocols is governed by three factors: how to express the security protocol in a precise and faithful manner, how to accommodate the variety of attack scenarios, and how to utilise the strengths (and limit the weaknesses) of the underlying...... analysis methodology. We pursue an analysis methodology based on control flow analysis in flow logic style and we have previously shown its ability to analyse a variety of security protocols. This paper develops a calculus, LysaNS that allows for much greater control and clarity in the description...

  10. Sympathetic reflex control of skeletal muscle blood flow in patients with congestive heart failure: evidence for beta-adrenergic circulatory control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassis, E.; Jacobsen, T.N.; Mogensen, F.; Amtorp, O.

    1986-01-01

    Mechanisms controlling forearm muscle vascular resistance (FMVR) during postural changes were investigated in seven patients with severe congestive heart failure (CHF) and in seven control subjects with unimpaired left ventricular function. Relative brachioradial muscle blood flow was determined by the local 133 Xe-washout technique. Unloading of baroreceptors with use of 45 degree upright tilt was comparably obtained in the patients with CHF and control subjects. Control subjects had substantially increased FMVR and heart rate to maintain arterial pressure whereas patients with CHF had decreased FMVR by 51 +/- 11% and had no increase in heart rate despite a fall in arterial pressure during upright tilt. The autoregulatory and local vasoconstrictor reflex responsiveness during postural changes in forearm vascular pressures were intact in both groups. In the patients with CHF, the left axillary nerve plexus was blocked by local anesthesia. No alterations in forearm vascular pressures were observed. This blockade preserved the local regulation of FMVR but reversed the vasodilator response to upright tilt as FMVR increased by 30 +/- 7% (p less than .02). Blockade of central neural impulses to this limb combined with brachial arterial infusions of phentolamine completely abolished the humoral vasoconstriction in the tilted position. Infusions of propranolol to the contralateral brachial artery that did not affect baseline values of heart rate, arterial pressure, or the local reflex regulation of FMVR reversed the abnormal vasodilator response to upright tilt as FMVR increased by 42 +/- 12% (p less than .02). Despite augmented baseline values, forearm venous but not arterial plasma levels of epinephrine increased in the tilted position, as did arteri rather than venous plasma concentrations of norepinephrine in these patients

  11. Hopping control channel MAC protocol for opportunistic spectrum access networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jing-tuan; JI Hong; MAO Xu

    2010-01-01

    Opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) is considered as a promising approach to mitigate spectrum scarcity by allowing unlicensed users to exploit spectrum opportunities in licensed frequency bands. Derived from the existing channel-hopping multiple access (CHMA) protocol,we introduce a hopping control channel medium access control (MAC) protocol in the context of OSA networks. In our proposed protocol,all nodes in the network follow a common channel-hopping sequence; every frequency channel can be used as control channel and data channel. Considering primary users' occupancy of the channel,we use a primary user (PU) detection model to calculate the channel availability for unlicensed users' access. Then,a discrete Markov chain analytical model is applied to describe the channel states and deduce the system throughput. Through simulation,we present numerical results to demonstrate the throughput performance of our protocol and thus validate our work.

  12. Desk Congest Desktop Congesting Software for Desktop Clutter Congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon A. Adepoju

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The computer desktop environment is a working environment which can be likened unto a users desk in homes and offices. Often times the computer desktop get cluttered with files either as shortcuts used for quick links files stored temporarily to be accessed later or just being dumped there for no vivid reasons. However previous researches have shown that cluttered desktop affects users productivity and getting these files organized is a laborious task for most users. To be able to conveniently alleviate the effect clutters have on users performances and productivity there is need for third party software that will help get the desktop environment organized in a logical and efficient manner. It is to this end that desktop decongesting software is being designed and implemented to help curb clutter problems which existing tools have only partially addressed. The system is designed using Visual Basic .Net and it proves to be effective in tackling desktop congestion problem.

  13. A slotted access control protocol for metropolitan WDM ring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baziana, P. A.; Pountourakis, I. E.

    2009-03-01

    In this study we focus on the serious scalability problems that many access protocols for WDM ring networks introduce due to the use of a dedicated wavelength per access node for either transmission or reception. We propose an efficient slotted MAC protocol suitable for WDM ring metropolitan area networks. The proposed network architecture employs a separate wavelength for control information exchange prior to the data packet transmission. Each access node is equipped with a pair of tunable transceivers for data communication and a pair of fixed tuned transceivers for control information exchange. Also, each access node includes a set of fixed delay lines for synchronization reasons; to keep the data packets, while the control information is processed. An efficient access algorithm is applied to avoid both the data wavelengths and the receiver collisions. In our protocol, each access node is capable of transmitting and receiving over any of the data wavelengths, facing the scalability issues. Two different slot reuse schemes are assumed: the source and the destination stripping schemes. For both schemes, performance measures evaluation is provided via an analytic model. The analytical results are validated by a discrete event simulation model that uses Poisson traffic sources. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol manages efficient bandwidth utilization, especially under high load. Also, comparative simulation results prove that our protocol achieves significant performance improvement as compared with other WDMA protocols which restrict transmission over a dedicated data wavelength. Finally, performance measures evaluation is explored for diverse numbers of buffer size, access nodes and data wavelengths.

  14. Power supply control protocol used at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prome, M.; Baumgarten, R.; Luong, T.T.

    1986-01-01

    This document intends to establish specifications for power supply control so that, if complied with by power supply manufacturers, power supplies from any manufacturer can be linked at once to the Ganil Control system. The only points to take care of are reduced to physical link and filling of the data base

  15. Demonstration of Market-Based Real-Time Electricity Pricing on a Congested Feeder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Emil Mahler; Pinson, Pierre; le Ray, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Congestion management can delay grid reinforcements needed due to the growth of distributed technologies like photovoltaics and electric vehicles. This paper presents a method of congestion management for low voltage feeders using indirect control from the smart grid demonstration EcoGrid EU, where...... prices to 1900 houses, with a virtual feeder of 28 houses receiving congestion pricing. Simulations are used to calculate the cost from using this congestion management method, while demonstration results indicate that congestion can be managed successfully....

  16. Rerouting algorithms solving the air traffic congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adacher, Ludovica; Flamini, Marta; Romano, Elpidio

    2017-06-01

    Congestion in the air traffic network is a problem with an increasing relevance for airlines costs as well as airspace safety. One of the major issue is the limited operative capacity of the air network. In this work an Autonomous Agent approach is proposed to solve in real time the problem of air traffic congestion. The air traffic infrastructures are modeled with a graph and are considered partitioned in different sectors. Each sector has its own decision agent dealing with the air traffic control involved in it. Each agent sector imposes a real time aircraft scheduling to respect both delay and capacity constrains. When a congestion is predicted, a new aircraft scheduling is computed. Congestion is solved when the capacity constrains are satisfied once again. This can be done by delaying on ground aircraft or/and rerouting aircraft and/or postponing the congestion. We have tested two different algorithms that calculate K feasible paths for each aircraft involved in the congestion. Some results are reported on North Italian air space.

  17. A proposed protocol for remote control of automated assessment devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissock, P.S.; Pritchard, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    Systems and devices that are controlled remotely are becoming more common in security systems in the US Air Force and other government agencies to provide protection of valuable assets. These systems reduce the number of needed personnel while still providing a high level of protection. However, each remotely controlled device usually has its own communication protocol. This limits the ability to change devices without changing the system that provides the communications control to the device. Sandia is pursuing a standard protocol that can be used to communicate with the different devices currently in use, or may be used in the future, in the US Air Force and other government agencies throughout the security community. Devices to be controlled include intelligent pan/tilt mounts, day/night video cameras, thermal imaging cameras, and remote data processors. Important features of this protocol include the ability to send messages of varying length, identify the sender, and more importantly, control remote data processors. This paper describes the proposed public domain protocol, features, and examples of use. The authors hope to elicit comments from security technology developers regarding format and use of remotely controlled automated assessment devices

  18. Proposed quality control protocol of a dual energy bone densitometer from Spanish protocol for quality control of radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, F.; Benito, M. A.; Collado, P.; Saez, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose additional testing to complete the tests by the Spanish Protocol for Quality Control of Diagnostic Radiology, taking into account the particular characteristics of these units, and including these tests in the estimation of patient dose dose assessment area. There is also the possibility to independently verify the quality control tests that are done automatically.

  19. Making the Traffic Operations Case for Congestion Pricing: Operational Impacts of Congestion Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL; Hu, Patricia S [ORNL; Davidson, Diane [ORNL

    2011-02-01

    Congestion begins when an excess of vehicles on a segment of roadway at a given time, resulting in speeds that are significantly slower than normal or 'free flow' speeds. Congestion often means stop-and-go traffic. The transition occurs when vehicle density (the number of vehicles per mile in a lane) exceeds a critical level. Once traffic enters a state of congestion, recovery or time to return to a free-flow state is lengthy; and during the recovery process, delay continues to accumulate. The breakdown in speed and flow greatly impedes the efficient operation of the freeway system, resulting in economic, mobility, environmental and safety problems. Freeways are designed to function as access-controlled highways characterized by uninterrupted traffic flow so references to freeway performance relate primarily to the quality of traffic flow or traffic conditions as experienced by users of the freeway. The maximum flow or capacity of a freeway segment is reached while traffic is moving freely. As a result, freeways are most productive when they carry capacity flows at 60 mph, whereas lower speeds impose freeway delay, resulting in bottlenecks. Bottlenecks may be caused by physical disruptions, such as a reduced number of lanes, a change in grade, or an on-ramp with a short merge lane. This type of bottleneck occurs on a predictable or 'recurrent' basis at the same time of day and same day of week. Recurrent congestion totals 45% of congestion and is primarily from bottlenecks (40%) as well as inadequate signal timing (5%). Nonrecurring bottlenecks result from crashes, work zone disruptions, adverse weather conditions, and special events that create surges in demand and that account for over 55% of experienced congestion. Figure 1.1 shows that nonrecurring congestion is composed of traffic incidents (25%), severe weather (15%), work zones, (10%), and special events (5%). Between 1995 and 2005, the average percentage change in increased peak traveler

  20. Automatic Reverse Engineering of Private Flight Control Protocols of UAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of civil unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs has the potential to threaten public safety and privacy. Therefore, airspace administrators urgently need an effective method to regulate UAVs. Understanding the meaning and format of UAV flight control commands by automatic protocol reverse-engineering techniques is highly beneficial to UAV regulation. To improve our understanding of the meaning and format of UAV flight control commands, this paper proposes a method to automatically analyze the private flight control protocols of UAVs. First, we classify flight control commands collected from a binary network trace into clusters; then, we analyze the meaning of flight control commands by the accumulated error of each cluster; next, we extract the binary format of commands and infer field semantics in these commands; and finally, we infer the location of the check field in command and the generator polynomial matrix. The proposed approach is validated via experiments on a widely used consumer UAV.

  1. Control room envelope unfiltered air inleakage test protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagus, P.L.; Grot, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    In 1983, the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) recommended that the US NRC develop a control room HVAC performance testing protocol. To date no such protocol has been forthcoming. Beginning in mid-1994, an effort was funded by NRC under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant to develop several simplified test protocols based on the principles of tracer gas testing in order to measure the total unfiltered inleakage entering a CRE during emergency mode operation of the control room ventilation system. These would allow accurate assessment of unfiltered air inleakage as required in SRP 6.4. The continuing lack of a standard protocol is unfortunate since one of the significant parameters required to calculate operator dose is the amount of unfiltered air inleakage into the control room. Often it is assumed that, if the Control Room Envelope (CRE) is maintained at +1/8 in. w.g. differential pressure relative to the surroundings, no significant unfiltered inleakage can occur it is further assumed that inleakage due to door openings is the only source of unfiltered air. 23 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Control room envelope unfiltered air inleakage test protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagus, P.L. [Lagus Applied Technology, San Diego, CA (United States); Grot, R.A. [Lagus Applied Technology, Olney, MD (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In 1983, the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) recommended that the US NRC develop a control room HVAC performance testing protocol. To date no such protocol has been forthcoming. Beginning in mid-1994, an effort was funded by NRC under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant to develop several simplified test protocols based on the principles of tracer gas testing in order to measure the total unfiltered inleakage entering a CRE during emergency mode operation of the control room ventilation system. These would allow accurate assessment of unfiltered air inleakage as required in SRP 6.4. The continuing lack of a standard protocol is unfortunate since one of the significant parameters required to calculate operator dose is the amount of unfiltered air inleakage into the control room. Often it is assumed that, if the Control Room Envelope (CRE) is maintained at +1/8 in. w.g. differential pressure relative to the surroundings, no significant unfiltered inleakage can occur it is further assumed that inleakage due to door openings is the only source of unfiltered air. 23 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Efficient medium access control protocol for geostationary satellite systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娜; 顾学迈

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient medium access control (MAC) protocol based on multifrequency-time division multiple access (MF-TDMA) for geostationary satellite systems deploying multiple spot-beams and onboard processing,which uses a method of random reservation access with movable boundaries to dynamically request the transmission slots and can transmit different types of traffic. The simulation results have shown that our designed MAC protocol can achieve a high bandwidth utilization, while providing the required quality of service (QoS) for each class of service.

  4. Messaging Performance of FIPA Interaction Protocols in Networked Embedded Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García JoséAPérez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Agent-based technologies in production control systems could facilitate seamless reconfiguration and integration of mechatronic devices/modules into systems. Advances in embedded controllers which are continuously improving computational capabilities allow for software modularization and distribution of decisions. Agent platforms running on embedded controllers could hide the complexity of bootstrap and communication. Therefore, it is important to investigate the messaging performance of the agents whose main motivation is the resource allocation in manufacturing systems (i.e., conveyor system. The tests were implemented using the FIPA-compliant JADE-LEAP agent platform. Agent containers were distributed through networked embedded controllers, and agents were communicating using request and contract-net FIPA interaction protocols. The test scenarios are organized in intercontainer and intracontainer communications. The work shows the messaging performance for the different test scenarios using both interaction protocols.

  5. Messaging Performance of FIPA Interaction Protocols in Networked Embedded Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Jehovani López Orozco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Agent-based technologies in production control systems could facilitate seamless reconfiguration and integration of mechatronic devices/modules into systems. Advances in embedded controllers which are continuously improving computational capabilities allow for software modularization and distribution of decisions. Agent platforms running on embedded controllers could hide the complexity of bootstrap and communication. Therefore, it is important to investigate the messaging performance of the agents whose main motivation is the resource allocation in manufacturing systems (i.e., conveyor system. The tests were implemented using the FIPA-compliant JADE-LEAP agent platform. Agent containers were distributed through networked embedded controllers, and agents were communicating using request and contract-net FIPA interaction protocols. The test scenarios are organized in intercontainer and intracontainer communications. The work shows the messaging performance for the different test scenarios using both interaction protocols.

  6. Autonomous Power Control MAC Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy limitation has become a performance bottleneck for mobile ad hoc networks. IEEE 802.11 has been adopted as the current standard MAC protocol for ad hoc networks. However, it was developed without considering energy efficiency. To solve this problem, many modifications on IEEE 802.11 to incorporate power control have been proposed in the literature. The main idea of these power control schemes is to use a maximum possible power level for transmitting RTS/CTS and the lowest acceptable power for sending DATA/ACK. However, these schemes may degrade network throughput and reduce the overall energy efficiency of the network. This paper proposes autonomous power control MAC protocol (APCMP, which allows mobile nodes dynamically adjusting power level for transmitting DATA/ACK according to the distances between the transmitter and its neighbors. In addition, the power level for transmitting RTS/CTS is also adjustable according to the power level for DATA/ACK packets. In this paper, the performance of APCMP protocol is evaluated by simulation and is compared with that of other protocols.

  7. Framework for Traffic Congestion Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Hassan TALUKDAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic Congestion is one of many serious global problems in all great cities resulted from rapid urbanization which always exert negative externalities upon society. The solution of traffic congestion is highly geocentric and due to its heterogeneous nature, curbing congestion is one of the hard tasks for transport planners. It is not possible to suggest unique traffic congestion management framework which could be absolutely applied for every great cities. Conversely, it is quite feasible to develop a framework which could be used with or without minor adjustment to deal with congestion problem. So, the main aim of this paper is to prepare a traffic congestion mitigation framework which will be useful for urban planners, transport planners, civil engineers, transport policy makers, congestion management researchers who are directly or indirectly involved or willing to involve in the task of traffic congestion management. Literature review is the main source of information of this study. In this paper, firstly, traffic congestion is defined on the theoretical point of view and then the causes of traffic congestion are briefly described. After describing the causes, common management measures, using world- wide, are described and framework for supply side and demand side congestion management measures are prepared.

  8. Remote control of the industry processes. POWERLINK protocol application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wóbel, A.; Paruzel, D.; Paszkiewicz, B.

    2017-08-01

    The present technological development enables the use of solutions characterized by a lower failure rate, and work with greater precision. This allows you to obtain the most efficient production, high speed production and reliability of individual components. The main scope of this article was POWERLINK protocol application for communication with the controller B & R through communication Ethernet for recording process parameters. This enables control of run production cycle using an internal network connected to the PC industry. Knowledge of the most important parameters of the production in real time allows detecting of a failure immediately after occurrence. For this purpose, the position of diagnostic use driver X20CP1301 B&R to record measurement data such as pressure, temperature valve between the parties and the torque required to change the valve setting was made. The use of POWERLINK protocol allows for the transmission of information on the status of every 200 μs.

  9. Effective use of congestion in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echagüe, Juan; Cholvi, Vicent; Kowalski, Dariusz R.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we introduce a congestion-aware routing protocol that selects the paths according to the congestion of nodes in the network. The aim is twofold: on one hand, and in order to prevent the networks from collapsing, it provides a good tolerance to nodes' overloads; on the other hand, and in order to guarantee efficient communication, it also incentivize the routes to follow short paths. We analyze the performance of our proposed routing strategy by means of a series of experiments carried out by using simulations. We show that it provides a tolerance to collapse close to the optimal value. Furthermore, the average length of the paths behaves optimally up to the certain value of packet generation rate ρ and it grows in a linear fashion with the increase of ρ.

  10. Streetlight Control System Based on Wireless Communication over DALI Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido-Outeiriño, Francisco José; Quiles-Latorre, Francisco Javier; Moreno-Moreno, Carlos Diego; Flores-Arias, José María; Moreno-García, Isabel; Ortiz-López, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Public lighting represents a large part of the energy consumption of towns and cities. Efficient management of public lighting can entail significant energy savings. This work presents a smart system for managing public lighting networks based on wireless communication and the DALI protocol. Wireless communication entails significant economic savings, as there is no need to install new wiring and visual impacts and damage to the facades of historical buildings in city centers are avoided. The DALI protocol uses bidirectional communication with the ballast, which allows its status to be controlled and monitored at all times. The novelty of this work is that it tackles all aspects related to the management of public lighting: a standard protocol, DALI, was selected to control the ballast, a wireless node based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard with a DALI interface was designed, a network layer that considers the topology of the lighting network has been developed, and lastly, some user-friendly applications for the control and maintenance of the system by the technical crews of the different towns and cities have been developed. PMID:27128923

  11. Streetlight Control System Based on Wireless Communication over DALI Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Bellido-Outeiriño

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Public lighting represents a large part of the energy consumption of towns and cities. Efficient management of public lighting can entail significant energy savings. This work presents a smart system for managing public lighting networks based on wireless communication and the DALI protocol. Wireless communication entails significant economic savings, as there is no need to install new wiring and visual impacts and damage to the facades of historical buildings in city centers are avoided. The DALI protocol uses bidirectional communication with the ballast, which allows its status to be controlled and monitored at all times. The novelty of this work is that it tackles all aspects related to the management of public lighting: a standard protocol, DALI, was selected to control the ballast, a wireless node based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard with a DALI interface was designed, a network layer that considers the topology of the lighting network has been developed, and lastly, some user-friendly applications for the control and maintenance of the system by the technical crews of the different towns and cities have been developed.

  12. Streetlight Control System Based on Wireless Communication over DALI Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido-Outeiriño, Francisco José; Quiles-Latorre, Francisco Javier; Moreno-Moreno, Carlos Diego; Flores-Arias, José María; Moreno-García, Isabel; Ortiz-López, Manuel

    2016-04-27

    Public lighting represents a large part of the energy consumption of towns and cities. Efficient management of public lighting can entail significant energy savings. This work presents a smart system for managing public lighting networks based on wireless communication and the DALI protocol. Wireless communication entails significant economic savings, as there is no need to install new wiring and visual impacts and damage to the facades of historical buildings in city centers are avoided. The DALI protocol uses bidirectional communication with the ballast, which allows its status to be controlled and monitored at all times. The novelty of this work is that it tackles all aspects related to the management of public lighting: a standard protocol, DALI, was selected to control the ballast, a wireless node based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard with a DALI interface was designed, a network layer that considers the topology of the lighting network has been developed, and lastly, some user-friendly applications for the control and maintenance of the system by the technical crews of the different towns and cities have been developed.

  13. Compact wireless control network protocol with fast path switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutaka Kawamoto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sensor network protocol stacks require the addition or adjustment of functions based on customer requirements. Sensor network protocols that require low delay and low packet error rate (PER, such as wireless control networks, often adopt time division multiple access (TDMA. However, it is difficult to add or adjust functions in protocol stacks that use TDMA methods. Therefore, to add or adjust functions easily, we propose NES-SOURCE, a compact wireless control network protocol with a fast path-switching function. NES-SOURCE is implemented using carrier sense multiple access/collision avoidance (CSMA/CA rather than TDMA. Wireless control networks that use TDMA prevent communication failure by duplicating the communication path. If CSMA/CA networks use duplicate paths, collisions occur frequently, and communication will fail. NES-SOURCE switches paths quickly when communication fails, which reduces the effect of communication failures. Since NES-SOURCE is implemented using CSMA/CA rather than TDMA, the implementation scale is less than one-half that of existing network stacks. Furthermore, since NES-SOURCE’s code complexity is low, functions can be added or adjusted easily and quickly. Communication failures occur owing to changes in the communication environment and collisions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed NES-SOURCE’s path-switching function reduces the amount of communication failures when the communication environment changes owing to human movement and others. Furthermore, we clarify the relationships among the probability of a changing communication environment, the collision occurrence rate, and the PER of NES-SOURCE.

  14. Auctions for Congestion Management in Distribution Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipsen, R.M.; de Weerdt, M.M.; de Vries, L.J.

    2016-01-01

    Large controllable loads, such as electric vehicles, are increasingly penetrating electricity distribution feeders. To avoid local congestion, their consumption behaviour must be steered, for which a real-time price propagated down from the transmission system does not suffice, as it does not

  15. Improving the Authentication Scheme and Access Control Protocol for VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Wu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Privacy and security are very important in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs. VANETs are negatively affected by any malicious user’s behaviors, such as bogus information and replay attacks on the disseminated messages. Among various security threats, privacy preservation is one of the new challenges of protecting users’ private information. Existing authentication protocols to secure VANETs raise challenges, such as certificate distribution and reduction of the strong reliance on tamper-proof devices. In 2011, Yeh et al. proposed a PAACP: a portable privacy-preserving authentication and access control protocol in vehicular ad hoc networks. However, PAACP in the authorization phase is breakable and cannot maintain privacy in VANETs. In this paper, we present a cryptanalysis of an attachable blind signature and demonstrate that the PAACP’s authorized credential (AC is not secure and private, even if the AC is secretly stored in a tamper-proof device. An eavesdropper can construct an AC from an intercepted blind document. Any eavesdropper can determine who has which access privileges to access which service. For this reason, this paper copes with these challenges and proposes an efficient scheme. We conclude that an improving authentication scheme and access control protocol for VANETs not only resolves the problems that have appeared, but also is more secure and efficient.

  16. Who is driving my car? Development and analysis of a control transition strategy for collaborative automated congestion driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urhahne, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The role of the driver is changing now that vehicles with driving automation technologies appear on the road. It evolves from being an active controller of the vehicle to being a supervisor of the automated ride. The driver has to collaborate with the driving automation and remains responsible for

  17. Congestion management in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Way, R.

    2002-01-01

    The challenges facing Alberta regarding electricity market design and congestion management were described. The electricity market in the province consists of a central power pool, an open access transmission network, and a single pool price, unlike many other jurisdictions in North America which have adopted a location margin price (LMP) design with significant price differences between various locations within the power network. Alberta's transmission network is regulated and provides carrier functions. Power moves freely throughout Alberta's power pool network with no congestion, therefore the common pool price signals market participants throughout the entire network with no segregation into zones. Alberta is currently at a cross road in choosing between a single pool price model or a nodal price model. In the first instance, the province would have to strengthen the transmission network to maintain the market at a reasonable size. The alternative would permit Alberta to use market-based techniques to deal with the evolution of many smaller markets in the province, but these would be very small by North American standards and their ability to compete would be questionable

  18. Slot allocation on congested motorways : An alternative to congestion pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolstra, K.

    1999-01-01

    With respect to the prevailing congestion problems in the more urbanised regions of the European Union, transportation planners and policymakers are facing a dilemma. Supply-side measures, i.e. increasing the capacities, might shorten the congestion duration, especially if bottlenecks can be

  19. An XML-based communication protocol for accelerator distributed controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catani, L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the development of XMLvRPC, an RPC-like communication protocol based, for this particular application, on the TCP/IP and XML (eXtensible Markup Language) tools built-in in LabVIEW. XML is used to format commands and data passed between client and server while socket interface for communication uses either TCP or UDP transmission protocols. This implementation extends the features of these general purpose libraries and incorporates solutions that might provide, with limited modifications, full compatibility with well established and more general communication protocol, i.e. XML-RPC, while preserving portability to different platforms supported by LabVIEW. The XMLvRPC suite of software has been equipped with specific tools for its deployment in distributed control systems as, for instance, a quasi-automatic configuration and registration of the distributed components and a simple plug-and-play approach to the installation of new services. Key feature is the management of large binary arrays that allow coding of large binary data set, e.g. raw images, more efficiently with respect to the standard XML coding

  20. An XML-based communication protocol for accelerator distributed controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catani, L. [INFN-Roma Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy)], E-mail: luciano.catani@roma2.infn.it

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents the development of XMLvRPC, an RPC-like communication protocol based, for this particular application, on the TCP/IP and XML (eXtensible Markup Language) tools built-in in LabVIEW. XML is used to format commands and data passed between client and server while socket interface for communication uses either TCP or UDP transmission protocols. This implementation extends the features of these general purpose libraries and incorporates solutions that might provide, with limited modifications, full compatibility with well established and more general communication protocol, i.e. XML-RPC, while preserving portability to different platforms supported by LabVIEW. The XMLvRPC suite of software has been equipped with specific tools for its deployment in distributed control systems as, for instance, a quasi-automatic configuration and registration of the distributed components and a simple plug-and-play approach to the installation of new services. Key feature is the management of large binary arrays that allow coding of large binary data set, e.g. raw images, more efficiently with respect to the standard XML coding.

  1. Implementation of the quality control protocol in Crawls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambroa Rey, E. M.; Gimenez Insua, M.; Vazquez Vazquez, R.; Sanchez Garcia, M.; Luna Vega, V.; Mosquera Suero, J.; Otero Martinez, C.; Lobato Busto, R.; Pombar Camean, M.

    2013-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy is a test widely used in Nuclear Medicine of our service. 33% of the tests performed are of this type, so it is necessary to develop a specific quality control protocol for the tracking of the gamma camera acquisitions. This type of procurement means the mechanical movement of the stretcher, with a static initial phase in which the movement of the stretcher is replaced by the gradual opening of the field of view (electronic window). This creates the density of accounts to be uniform throughout the study. The presence of a movement mechanical and co-registration with the static phase implies the need for specific tests. (Author)

  2. Implementation of Quality Control Protocol in Mammography: A Serbian Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciraj Bjelac, O.; Kosutic, D.; Arandjic, D.; Kovacevic, M.

    2008-01-01

    Mammography is method of choice for early detection of breast cancer. In Serbia, mammography is performed only clinically, although there is a long term plan to introduce mammography as screening method. Currently there are 60 mammography units in practice in Serbia, resulting with 70 000 mammographies annually. The purpose of this paper is preliminary evaluation of the mammography practice in Serbia, having in mind the annual number of examinations and fact that part of examination is performed on women without any clinical signs. For pilot implementation of Quality Control (QC) protocol in mammography, five hospitals with highest workload have been selected, representing the typical mammography practice in Serbia. Developed QC protocol, based on European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis, actual practice and resources, includes equipment testing and maintenance, staff training and QC management and allocation of responsibilities. Subsequently, it should be applied on the national scale. The survey demonstrated considerable variations in technical parameters that affect image quality and patients doses. Mean glandular doses ranged from 0.12 to 2.8 mGy, while reference optical density ranged from 1.2 to 2.8. Main problems were associated with film processing, viewing conditions and optical density control. The preliminary survey of mammography practice highlighted the need for optimization of radiation protection and training of operating staff, although the survey itself was very valuable learning process for all participants. Furthermore, systematic implementation of QC protocol should provide reliable performance of mammography units and maintain satisfactory image quality and keep patient doses as low as reasonably practical.(author)

  3. Beneficial effects of metoprolol on myocardial sympathetic function: Evidence from a randomized, placebo-controlled study in patients with congestive heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Milliano, Paul A. R.; de Groot, Andre C.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; van Eck-Smit, Berthe L. F.; van Zwieten, Pieter A.; Lie, Kong I.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We sought to investigate whether beta-blockers exert a presynaptic effect in the myocardium as measured by 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine. METHODS: The study comprised 59 patients with congestive heart failure, New York Heart Association class II or III, and left ventricular ejection

  4. Congestion Management Strategies of Real-Time Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Chunyu; Ding, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The high penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) will significantly challenge the power system operation and control due to their stochastic, intermittent, and fluctuation characteristics. This enhances the difficulty of congestion management of power systems in cross-border electricity...... are introduced with the congestion constraints complied. Pre-Contingency strategy is proposed as the advance preparation for the future congestion, and In-Day re-dispatch is used for regulation. Accordingly, the requirements on facilities considering telemetry and remote control in a fast manner are discussed...

  5. Congestion Management System Process Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    In January 1995, the Indianapolis Metropolitan Planning Organization with the help of an interagency Study Review Committee began the process of developing a Congestion Management System (CMS) Plan resulting in this report. This report documents the ...

  6. Energy-Efficient Boarder Node Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC) for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols,...

  7. Auctionable fixed transmission rights for congestion management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomoush, Muwaffaq Irsheid

    Electric power deregulation has proposed a major change to the regulated utility monopoly. The change manifests the main part of engineers' efforts to reshape three components of today's regulated monopoly: generation, distribution and transmission. In this open access deregulated power market, transmission network plays a major role, and transmission congestion is a major problem that requires further consideration especially when inter-zonal/intra-zonal scheme is implemented. Declaring that engineering studies and experience are the criteria to define zonal boundaries or defining a zone based on the fact that a zone is a densely interconnected area (lake) and paths connecting these densely interconnected areas are inter-zonal lines will render insufficient and fuzzy definitions. Moreover, a congestion problem formulation should take into consideration interactions between intra-zonal and inter-zonal flows and their effects on power systems. In this thesis, we introduce a procedure for minimizing the number of adjustments of preferred schedules to alleviate congestion and apply control schemes to minimize interactions between zones. In addition, we give the zone definition a certain criterion based on the Locational Marginal Price (LMP). This concept will be used to define congestion zonal boundaries and to decide whether any zone should be merged with another zone or split into new zones. The thesis presents a unified scheme that combines zonal and FTR schemes to manage congestion. This combined scheme is utilized with LMPs to define zonal boundaries more appropriately. The presented scheme gains the best features of the FTR scheme, which are providing financial certainty, maximizing the efficient use of the system and making users pay for the actual use of congested paths. LMPs may give an indication of the impact of wheeling transactions, and calculations of and comparisons of LMPs with and without wheeling transactions should be adequate criteria to approve

  8. How Smog Awareness Influences Public Acceptance of Congestion Charge Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Lingyi Zhou; Yixin Dai

    2017-01-01

    Although various studies have investigated public acceptance of congestion charge policies, most of them have focused on behavioral and policy-related factors, and did not consider the moderating influence that individual concern about smog and perceived smog risk may have on public acceptance. This paper takes the congestion charge policy in China, targeted at smog and traffic control, and checks how smog awareness—including smog concerns and perceived smog risks, besides behavioral and poli...

  9. A NEW CONGESTION MANAGEMENT MECHANISM FOR NEXT GENERATION ROUTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMED M. KADHUM

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available While computer networks go towards dealing with varied traffic types with different service requirements, there is a necessity for modern network control mechanisms that can control the network traffic to meet the users' service requirements. Optimizing the network utilization by improving the network performance can help to accommodate more users and thus increase operators’ profits. Controlling the congestion at the gateway leads to better performance of the network. Sending congestion signal sooner can be of great benefit to the TCP connection. In this paper, we propose Fast Congestion Notification (FCN mechanism which is a new method for managing the gateway queues and fast sending of congestion signal to the sender. We tested our mechanism on Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN packets which have higher priority; we achieved good results in terms of faster congestion signal propagation and better network utilization. Our analysis and simulations results show that the use of FCN over TCP connections sharing one bottleneck can improve the throughput, having less loss, less delay time, and better network utilization.

  10. Partner randomized controlled trial: study protocol and coaching intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garbutt Jane M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many children with asthma live with frequent symptoms and activity limitations, and visits for urgent care are common. Many pediatricians do not regularly meet with families to monitor asthma control, identify concerns or problems with management, or provide self-management education. Effective interventions to improve asthma care such as small group training and care redesign have been difficult to disseminate into office practice. Methods and design This paper describes the protocol for a randomized controlled trial (RCT to evaluate a 12-month telephone-coaching program designed to support primary care management of children with persistent asthma and subsequently to improve asthma control and disease-related quality of life and reduce urgent care events for asthma care. Randomization occurred at the practice level with eligible families within a practice having access to the coaching program or to usual care. The coaching intervention was based on the transtheoretical model of behavior change. Targeted behaviors included 1 effective use of controller medications, 2 effective use of rescue medications and 3 monitoring to ensure optimal control. Trained lay coaches provided parents with education and support for asthma care, tailoring the information provided and frequency of contact to the parent's readiness to change their child's day-to-day asthma management. Coaching calls varied in frequency from weekly to monthly. For each participating family, follow-up measurements were obtained at 12- and 24-months after enrollment in the study during a telephone interview. The primary outcomes were the mean change in 1 the child's asthma control score, 2 the parent's quality of life score, and 3 the number of urgent care events assessed at 12 and 24 months. Secondary outcomes reflected adherence to guideline recommendations by the primary care pediatricians and included the proportion of children prescribed controller medications

  11. Energy-efficient TDMA medium access control protocol scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerard J.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we study the energy efficiency and channel efficiency of TDMA MAC protocol scheduling mechanisms. Most MAC protocols are based on phase grouping that basically has three phases in a frame: uplink, downlink and reservation. We propose a new mechanism in which we have multiple uplink and

  12. Directional Medium Access Control (MAC Protocols in Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tung Chong Wong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This survey paper presents the state-of-the-art directional medium access control (MAC protocols in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks (WAHSNs. The key benefits of directional antennas over omni-directional antennas are longer communication range, less multipath interference, more spatial reuse, more secure communications, higher throughput and reduced latency. However, directional antennas lead to single-/multi-channel directional hidden/exposed terminals, deafness and neighborhood, head-of-line blocking, and MAC-layer capture which need to be overcome. Addressing these problems and benefits for directional antennas to MAC protocols leads to many classes of directional MAC protocols in WAHSNs. These classes of directional MAC protocols presented in this survey paper include single-channel, multi-channel, cooperative and cognitive directional MACs. Single-channel directional MAC protocols can be classified as contention-based or non-contention-based or hybrid-based, while multi-channel directional MAC protocols commonly use a common control channel for control packets/tones and one or more data channels for directional data transmissions. Cooperative directional MAC protocols improve throughput in WAHSNs via directional multi-rate/single-relay/multiple-relay/two frequency channels/polarization, while cognitive directional MAC protocols leverage on conventional directional MAC protocols with new twists to address dynamic spectrum access. All of these directional MAC protocols are the pillars for the design of future directional MAC protocols in WAHSNs.

  13. Supporting Tablet Configuration, Tracking, and Infection Control Practices in Digital Health Interventions: Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furberg, Robert D; Ortiz, Alexa M; Zulkiewicz, Brittany A; Hudson, Jordan P; Taylor, Olivia M; Lewis, Megan A

    2016-06-27

    Tablet-based health care interventions have the potential to encourage patient care in a timelier manner, allow physicians convenient access to patient records, and provide an improved method for patient education. However, along with the continued adoption of tablet technologies, there is a concomitant need to develop protocols focusing on the configuration, management, and maintenance of these devices within the health care setting to support the conduct of clinical research. Develop three protocols to support tablet configuration, tablet management, and tablet maintenance. The Configurator software, Tile technology, and current infection control recommendations were employed to develop three distinct protocols for tablet-based digital health interventions. Configurator is a mobile device management software specifically for iPhone operating system (iOS) devices. The capabilities and current applications of Configurator were reviewed and used to develop the protocol to support device configuration. Tile is a tracking tag associated with a free mobile app available for iOS and Android devices. The features associated with Tile were evaluated and used to develop the Tile protocol to support tablet management. Furthermore, current recommendations on preventing health care-related infections were reviewed to develop the infection control protocol to support tablet maintenance. This article provides three protocols: the Configurator protocol, the Tile protocol, and the infection control protocol. These protocols can help to ensure consistent implementation of tablet-based interventions, enhance fidelity when employing tablets for research purposes, and serve as a guide for tablet deployments within clinical settings.

  14. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihua; Zhang, Yaping; Liu, Lan; Xing, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the "external cost of surface congestion" is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm.

  15. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Liu

    Full Text Available In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the "external cost of surface congestion" is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm.

  16. Air congestion delay: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alberto Pamplona

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a literature review of the air congestion delay and its costs. Air congestion is a worldwide problem. Its existence brings costs for airlines and discomfort for passengers. With the increasing demand for air transport, the study of air congestion has attracted the attention of many researchers around the world. The cause for the delays is erroneously attributed only to the lack of infrastructure investments. The literature review shows that other factors such as population growth, increasing standards of living, lack of operational planning and environmental issues exercise decisive influence. Several studies have been conducted in order to analyze and propose solutions to this problem that affects society as a whole.

  17. Endogenous scheduling preferences and congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    We consider the timing of activities through a dynamic model of commuting with congestion, in which workers care solely about leisure and consumption. Implicit preferences for the timing of the commute form endogenously due to temporal agglomeration economies. Equilibrium exists uniquely and is i......We consider the timing of activities through a dynamic model of commuting with congestion, in which workers care solely about leisure and consumption. Implicit preferences for the timing of the commute form endogenously due to temporal agglomeration economies. Equilibrium exists uniquely...... and is indistinguishable from that of a generalized version of the classical Vickrey bottleneck model, based on exogenous trip-timing preferences, but optimal policies differ: the Vickrey model will misstate the benefits of a capacity increase, it will underpredict the benefits of congestion pricing, and pricing may make...

  18. Dynamic Power Tariff for Congestion Management in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Shahidehpour, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes dynamic power tariff (DPT), a new concept for congestion management in distribution networks with high penetration of electric vehicles (EVs), and heat pumps (HPs). The DPT concept is proposed to overcome a drawback of the dynamic tariff (DT) method, i.e., DPT can replace...... the price sensitivity parameter in the DT method, which is relatively unrealistic in practice. Based on the control theory, a control model with two control loops, i.e., the power flow control and voltage control, is established to analyze the congestion management process by the DPT method. Furthermore...

  19. Endogenous scheduling preferences and congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    and leisure, but agglomeration economies at home and at work lead to scheduling preferences forming endogenously. Using bottleneck congestion technology, we obtain an equilibrium queuing pattern consistent with a general version of the Vickrey bottleneck model. However, the policy implications are different....... Compared to the predictions of an analyst observing untolled equilibrium and taking scheduling preferences as exogenous, we find that both the optimal capacity and the marginal external cost of congestion have changed. The benefits of tolling are greater, and the optimal time varying toll is different....

  20. Implementation to spanish protocol of quality control of accelerators to daily control of electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaimi Hernandez, P.; Ramirez Ros, J. C.; Casa de Julian, M. A. de la; Clemente Gutierrez, F.; Cabello Murillo, E.; Diaz Fuente, R.; Ferrando Sanchez, A.

    2011-01-01

    A revised procedure for daily control of the electron beams to make measurements more meaningful physically, having a better reproducibility and more in line with the recommendations of the Spanish Protocol for Quality Control in Electron Linear Accelerators Clinical Use. The daily quality control beams of high energy electrons that had been done so far was the finding that the record of a series of measures (symmetry, uniformity, stability, energy, beam central dose) were within tolerance values established. The amendment is to check the beam quality by directly measuring changes in absorption depth at which the dose is reduced to half its maximum value, R50.

  1. Impact of Transport Control Protocol on Full Duplex Performance in 5G Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gatnau, Marta; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Mahmood, Nurul Huda

    2016-01-01

    Full duplex (FD) communication has attracted the attention of the industry and the academia as an important feature in the design of the future 5th generation (5G) wireless communication system. Such technology allows a device to simultaneously transmit and receive in the same frequency band......, which comes at the price of increased delay and reduced system throughput. FD is expected to accelerate the TCP congestion control mechanism and hence mitigate such consequences. System level results show that FD can outperform HD and alleviate the TCP drawbacks when the inter-cell interference...

  2. Framework for Traffic Congestion Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaki, J.F.W.; Ali-Eldin, A.M.T.; Hussein, S.E.; Saraya, S.F.; Areed, F.F.

    2016-01-01

    Traffic Congestion is a complex dilemma facing most major cities. It has undergone a lot of research since the early 80s in an attempt to predict traffic in the short-term. Recently, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) became an integral part of traffic research which helped in modeling and

  3. Congestion and residential moving behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Marott; Pilegaard, Ninette; Van Ommeren, Jos

    2008-01-01

    to congestion. We focus on the equilibrium in which some workers currently living in one region accept jobs in the other, with a fraction of them choosing to commute from their current residence to the new job in the other region and the remainder choosing to move to the region in which the new job is located...

  4. Medium Access Control Protocols for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Zareei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available New wireless network paradigms will demand higher spectrum use and availability to cope with emerging data-hungry devices. Traditional static spectrum allocation policies cause spectrum scarcity, and new paradigms such as Cognitive Radio (CR and new protocols and techniques need to be developed in order to have efficient spectrum usage. Medium Access Control (MAC protocols are accountable for recognizing free spectrum, scheduling available resources and coordinating the coexistence of heterogeneous systems and users. This paper provides an ample review of the state-of-the-art MAC protocols, which mainly focuses on Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks (CRAHN. First, a description of the cognitive radio fundamental functions is presented. Next, MAC protocols are divided into three groups, which are based on their channel access mechanism, namely time-slotted protocol, random access protocol and hybrid protocol. In each group, a detailed and comprehensive explanation of the latest MAC protocols is presented, as well as the pros and cons of each protocol. A discussion on future challenges for CRAHN MAC protocols is included with a comparison of the protocols from a functional perspective.

  5. Testing the activitystat hypothesis: a randomised controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomersall, Sjaan; Maher, Carol; Norton, Kevin; Dollman, Jim; Tomkinson, Grant; Esterman, Adrian; English, Coralie; Lewis, Nicole; Olds, Tim

    2012-10-08

    The activitystat hypothesis proposes that when physical activity or energy expenditure is increased or decreased in one domain, there will be a compensatory change in another domain to maintain an overall, stable level of physical activity or energy expenditure. To date, there has been no experimental study primarily designed to test the activitystat hypothesis in adults. The aim of this trial is to determine the effect of two different imposed exercise loads on total daily energy expenditure and physical activity levels. This study will be a randomised, multi-arm, parallel controlled trial. Insufficiently active adults (as determined by the Active Australia survey) aged 18-60 years old will be recruited for this study (n=146). Participants must also satisfy the Sports Medicine Australia Pre-Exercise Screening System and must weigh less than 150 kg. Participants will be randomly assigned to one of three groups using a computer-generated allocation sequence. Participants in the Moderate exercise group will receive an additional 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week for six weeks, and those in the Extensive exercise group will receive an additional 300 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week for six weeks. Exercise targets will be accumulated through both group and individual exercise sessions monitored by heart rate telemetry. Control participants will not be given any instructions regarding lifestyle. The primary outcome measures are activity energy expenditure (doubly labeled water) and physical activity (accelerometry). Secondary measures will include resting metabolic rate via indirect calorimetry, use of time, maximal oxygen consumption and several anthropometric and physiological measures. Outcome measures will be conducted at baseline (zero weeks), mid- and end-intervention (three and six weeks) with three (12 weeks) and six month (24 week) follow-up. All assessors will be blinded to group allocation. This protocol

  6. Testing objects in Computerized Axial Tomography. Contributions to the Spanish Protocol on quality control in radiodiagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaescusa, J.I.; Campayo, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    In the provisional version of the Spanish Protocol about the technical aspects of Quality Control in Radiodiagnostic,SEFM-SEPR 1993, it is dedicated a section to Computerized Axial tomography, establishing a total of eleven technical parameters of the equipment for examination. The present work describes the practical use of the Protocol using various types of Test Object. The authors also propose new tests that should be considered in the final version of the Spanish Protocol. (Author)

  7. OPTIMAL CONGESTION CHARGES IN GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Joo MOON, Ph.D.

    2002-01-01

    Another maximization problem involves characterizing the second-best optimal solution. In this problem, it is assumed to impose the congestion toll only on a single highway link. This problem yields the second-best congestion toll different from the first-best one. This second-best optimal congestion toll has the structure to reflect its impact on other highway links exempt from the congestion charge program.

  8. MiDAS ENCORE: Randomized Controlled Study Design and Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamin, Ramsin M; Staats, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    efficacy outcome measures include the proportion of Zurich Claudication Questionnaire (ZCQ) and Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) responders from baseline to follow-up using validated MIC thresholds. Improvement in ZCQ domains of ≥ 0.5 is considered significant, and a Patient Satisfaction score of at least 2.5 represents a satisfied patient. A reduction of ≥ 2 points in NPRS is considered significant pain relief. The primary safety outcome measure is the incidence of device- and/or procedure-related adverse events. Descriptive summaries will be presented by randomized group for all outcome measures at baseline and follow-up time points. Inferential statistical analysis will be conducted to determine significant differences related to functional improvement, pain relief, and safety outcomes. Primary study results will be presented based on one-year follow-up data, with an interim analysis report when 6-month follow-up data become available. Patients are not blinded due to significant differences in treatment protocols between study groups. Also, since neither study arm is focused on treatment of radicular pain, there may be a higher non-responder rate for both groups versus standard of care due to study restrictions on adjunctive pain therapies. This prospective, multi-center, randomized controlled study will provide Level I evidence of the safety and effectiveness of mild versus ESIs in managing neurogenic claudication symptoms in LSS patients.

  9. A communication protocol for interactively controlling software tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulp, van der J.

    2008-01-01

    We present a protocol for interactively using software tools in a loosely coupled tool environment. Such an environment can assist the user in doing tasks that require the use of multiple tools. For example, it can invoke tools on certain input, set processing parameters, await task completion and

  10. Design Aspects of An Energy-Efficient, Lightweight Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoesel, L.F.W.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This document gives an overview of the most relevant design aspects of the lightweight medium access control (LMAC) protocol [16] for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). These aspects include selfconfiguring and localized operation of the protocol, time synchronization in multi-hop networks, network

  11. A DUAL RESERVATION CDMA-BASED MAC PROTOCOL WITH POWER CONTROL FOR AD HOC NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Min; Chen Huimin; Yuan Yuhua

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a new multi-channel Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol named as Dual Reservation Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) based MAC protocol with Power Control (DRCPC). The code channel is divided into common channel, broadcast channel and several data channels. And dynamic power control mechanism is implemented to reduce near-far interference. Compared with IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) protocol, the results show that the proposed mechanism improves the average throughput and limits the transmission delay efficiently.

  12. Towards Scalable Distributed Framework for Urban Congestion Traffic Patterns Warehousing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Boulmakoul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We put forward architecture of a framework for integration of data from moving objects related to urban transportation network. Most of this research refers to the GPS outdoor geolocation technology and uses distributed cloud infrastructure with big data NoSQL database. A network of intelligent mobile sensors, distributed on urban network, produces congestion traffic patterns. Congestion predictions are based on extended simulation model. This model provides traffic indicators calculations, which fuse with the GPS data for allowing estimation of traffic states across the whole network. The discovery process of congestion patterns uses semantic trajectories metamodel given in our previous works. The challenge of the proposed solution is to store patterns of traffic, which aims to ensure the surveillance and intelligent real-time control network to reduce congestion and avoid its consequences. The fusion of real-time data from GPS-enabled smartphones integrated with those provided by existing traffic systems improves traffic congestion knowledge, as well as generating new information for a soft operational control and providing intelligent added value for transportation systems deployment.

  13. Subgroup analyses in randomised controlled trials: cohort study on trial protocols and journal publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasenda, Benjamin; Schandelmaier, Stefan; Sun, Xin; von Elm, Erik; You, John; Blümle, Anette; Tomonaga, Yuki; Saccilotto, Ramon; Amstutz, Alain; Bengough, Theresa; Meerpohl, Joerg J; Stegert, Mihaela; Olu, Kelechi K; Tikkinen, Kari A O; Neumann, Ignacio; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Faulhaber, Markus; Mulla, Sohail M; Mertz, Dominik; Akl, Elie A; Bassler, Dirk; Busse, Jason W; Ferreira-González, Ignacio; Lamontagne, Francois; Nordmann, Alain; Gloy, Viktoria; Raatz, Heike; Moja, Lorenzo; Rosenthal, Rachel; Ebrahim, Shanil; Vandvik, Per O; Johnston, Bradley C; Walter, Martin A; Burnand, Bernard; Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Hemkens, Lars G; Bucher, Heiner C; Guyatt, Gordon H; Briel, Matthias

    2014-07-16

    To investigate the planning of subgroup analyses in protocols of randomised controlled trials and the agreement with corresponding full journal publications. Cohort of protocols of randomised controlled trial and subsequent full journal publications. Six research ethics committees in Switzerland, Germany, and Canada. 894 protocols of randomised controlled trial involving patients approved by participating research ethics committees between 2000 and 2003 and 515 subsequent full journal publications. Of 894 protocols of randomised controlled trials, 252 (28.2%) included one or more planned subgroup analyses. Of those, 17 (6.7%) provided a clear hypothesis for at least one subgroup analysis, 10 (4.0%) anticipated the direction of a subgroup effect, and 87 (34.5%) planned a statistical test for interaction. Industry sponsored trials more often planned subgroup analyses compared with investigator sponsored trials (195/551 (35.4%) v 57/343 (16.6%), P<0.001). Of 515 identified journal publications, 246 (47.8%) reported at least one subgroup analysis. In 81 (32.9%) of the 246 publications reporting subgroup analyses, authors stated that subgroup analyses were prespecified, but this was not supported by 28 (34.6%) corresponding protocols. In 86 publications, authors claimed a subgroup effect, but only 36 (41.9%) corresponding protocols reported a planned subgroup analysis. Subgroup analyses are insufficiently described in the protocols of randomised controlled trials submitted to research ethics committees, and investigators rarely specify the anticipated direction of subgroup effects. More than one third of statements in publications of randomised controlled trials about subgroup prespecification had no documentation in the corresponding protocols. Definitive judgments regarding credibility of claimed subgroup effects are not possible without access to protocols and analysis plans of randomised controlled trials. © The DISCO study group 2014.

  14. Modelling and experimental study for automated congestion driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urhahne, Joseph; Piastowski, P.; van der Voort, Mascha C.; Bebis, G; Boyle, R.; Parvin, B.; Koracin, D.; Pavlidis, I.; Feris, R.; McGraw, T.; Elendt, M.; Kopper, R.; Ragan, E.; Ye, Z.; Weber, G.

    2015-01-01

    Taking a collaborative approach in automated congestion driving with a Traffic Jam Assist system requires the driver to take over control in certain traffic situations. In order to warn the driver appropriately, warnings are issued (“pay attention” vs. “take action”) due to a control transition

  15. Avoiding congestion in recommender systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Xiaolong; Lü, Linyuan; Liu, Runran; Zhang, Jianlin

    2014-01-01

    Recommender systems use the historical activities and personal profiles of users to uncover their preferences and recommend objects. Most of the previous methods are based on objects’ (and/or users’) similarity rather than on their difference. Such approaches are subject to a high risk of increasingly exposing users to a narrowing band of popular objects. As a result, a few objects may be recommended to an enormous number of users, resulting in the problem of recommendation congestion, which is to be avoided, especially when the recommended objects are limited resources. In order to quantitatively measure a recommendation algorithm's ability to avoid congestion, we proposed a new metric inspired by the Gini index, which is used to measure the inequality of the individual wealth distribution in an economy. Besides this, a new recommendation method called directed weighted conduction (DWC) was developed by considering the heat conduction process on a user–object bipartite network with different thermal conductivities. Experimental results obtained for three benchmark data sets showed that the DWC algorithm can effectively avoid system congestion, and greatly improve the novelty and diversity, while retaining relatively high accuracy, in comparison with the state-of-the-art methods. (paper)

  16. Radiotherapy for hypersplenism from congestive splenomegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Mu-Tai; Hsieh, Chang-Yo; Chang, Tung-Hao; Lin, Jao-Perng; Huang, Chia-Chun

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of splenic irradiation on the common hematological disorders of hypersplenism. From August 2002 to March 2003, five patients with hypersplenism due to congestive splenomegaly underwent splenic irradiation at the Department od Radiation Oncology, Changhua Chirstian Hospital, Taiwan. 3 were males and 2 were females aging from 38 to 66 years. All patients had history of liver cirrhosis. 4 patients underwent thee-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and received conventional radiotherapy with anterior-posterior parallel opposing fields. The followup-period ranged from 1 to 7 months. Thrombocytopenia and splenomegaly were found in all 5 patients by physical examination, hematological test, abdominal sonography and/or abdominal computed tomography. After radiotherapy, thrombocytopenia improved, but leukopenia and anemia did not. No complication due to radiotherapy was found during the follow-up period after splenic irradiation. 2 patients died of hepatocellular carcinoma with active bleeding. One patient died of renal failure due to end-stage renal disease. Based on our results, it seems that splenic irradiation might be effective in treating thrombocytopenia and splenomegaly. Splenic irradiatin seems to be effective for thrombocytopenia, splenomegaly and splenic pain associated with hypersplenism from congenstive splenomegaly. This approach is non-invasive and may be an alternative treatment for splenectomy and splenic embolization for patients with hypersplenism due to congestive splenomegaly. The shortcoming of this study are small sample size, short period of follow-up and lack of randomization. A randomized control trial with more cases and further follow-up of hematological tests and splenic size estimation are warranted to evaluate long term improvement of congestive splenomegaly with thrombocytopeniaafter splenic irradiation

  17. A distributed Synchronous reservation multiple access control protocol for mobile Ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yanling; SUN Xianpu; LI Jiandong

    2007-01-01

    This study proposes a new multiple access control protocol named distributed synchronous reservation multiple access control protocol.in which the hidden and exposed terminal problems are solved,and the quality of service(QoS)requirements for real-time traffic are guaranteed.The protocol is founded on time division multiplex address and a different type of traffic is assigned to difierent priority,according to which a node should compete for and reserve the free slots in a different method.Moreover,there is a reservation acknowledgement process before data transmit in each reserved slot,so that the intruded terminal problem is solved.The throughput and average packets drop probability of this protocol are analyzed and simulated in a fully connected network.the results of which indicate that this protocol is efficient enough to support the real-time traffic.and it is more suitable to MANETs.

  18. Quality control protocols for radiodiagnosis agents and radiopharmaceuticals; Protocolos de control de calidad para agentes de radiodiagnostico y radiofarmacos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, A; Condor, M; Caballero, J; Morote, M; Garcia, C; Benites, M

    1997-07-01

    Based on the compilation of pharmacopoeia methods, literature, manuals and other information developed in our laboratory, protocols have been prepared to carry out quality controls for radiodiagnosis agents (RDA), better known as kits and RDA labelled with Tc99m. Quality control protocols cover physicochemical and biological controls. Physicochemical controls described for RDA include physical characteristics, particle size and number, pH, chemical identification, humidity, tin II; whereas biological controls include sterility, acute toxicity and bacterial endotoxin determination (LAL). Physicochemical controls described for radiopharmaceuticals labelled with Tc99m are pH and radiochemical purity; while biological distribution is described as a biological control.

  19. Suppressing traffic-driven epidemic spreading by use of the efficient routing protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wu, Zhi-Xi

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive work on the interplay between traffic dynamics and epidemic spreading, the control of epidemic spreading by routing strategies has not received adequate attention. In this paper, we study the impact of an efficient routing protocol on epidemic spreading. In the case of infinite node-delivery capacity, where the traffic is free of congestion, we find that that there exist optimal values of routing parameter, leading to the maximal epidemic threshold. This means that epidemic spreading can be effectively controlled by fine tuning the routing scheme. Moreover, we find that an increase in the average network connectivity and the emergence of traffic congestion can suppress the epidemic outbreak. (paper)

  20. Green supply chain: Simulating road traffic congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Muhammad Zulqarnain Hakim Abd; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd; Laailatul Hanim Mat Desa, Wan; Khalid, Ruzelan; Khalid Abduljabbar, Waleed; Ramli, Razamin

    2017-09-01

    With the increasing awareness of the consumers about environmental issues, businesses, households and governments increasingly want use green products and services which lead to green supply chain. This paper discusses a simulation study of a selected road traffic system that will contribute to the air pollution if in the congestion state. Road traffic congestion (RTC) can be caused by a temporary obstruction, a permanent capacity bottleneck in the network itself, and stochastic fluctuation in demand within a particular sector of the network, leading to spillback and queue propagation. A discrete-event simulation model is developed to represent the real traffic light control (TLC) system condition during peak hours. Certain performance measures such as average waiting time and queue length were measured using the simulation model. Existing system uses pre-set cycle time to control the light changes which is fixed time cycle. In this research, we test several other combination of pre-set cycle time with the objective to find the best system. In addition, we plan to use a combination of the pre-set cycle time and a proximity sensor which have the authority to manipulate the cycle time of the lights. The sensors work in such situation when the street seems to have less occupied vehicles, obviously it may not need a normal cycle for green light, and automatically change the cycle to street where vehicle is present.

  1. Difficulties in Controlling Mobilization Pain Using a Standardized Patient-Controlled Analgesia Protocol in Burns

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Andreas; Kalman, Sigga; Arvidsson, Anders; Sjöberg, Folke

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate pain relief for patients with burns during rest and mobilization with morphine according to a standard protocol for patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). Eighteen patients with a mean (SD) burned TBSA% of 26 (20) were studied for 10 days. Using a numeric rating scale (NRS, 0 = no pain and 10 = unbearable pain), patients were asked to estimate their acceptable and worst experienced pain by specifying a number on a scale and at what point they would like addi...

  2. Implementation of anomaly detection algorithms for detecting transmission control protocol synchronized flooding attacks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkuzangwe, NNP

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work implements two anomaly detection algorithms for detecting Transmission Control Protocol Synchronized (TCP SYN) flooding attack. The two algorithms are an adaptive threshold algorithm and a cumulative sum (CUSUM) based algorithm...

  3. Self-perceived symptoms and care needs of patients with severe to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure or chronic renal failure and its consequences for their closest relatives: the research protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schols Jos MGA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research shows that the prevalence of patients with very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, congestive heart failure (CHF and chronic renal failure (CRF continues to rise over the next years. Scientific studies concerning self-perceived symptoms and care needs in patients with severe to very severe COPD, CHF and CRF are scarce. Consequently, it will be difficult to develop an optimal patient-centred palliative care program for patients with end-stage COPD, CHF or CRF. The present study has been designed to assess the symptoms, care needs, end-of-life care treatment preferences and communication needs of patients with severe to very severe COPD, CHF or CRF. Additionally, family distress and care giving burden of relatives of these patients will be assessed. Methods/design A cross-sectional comparative and prospective longitudinal study in patients with end-stage COPD, CHF or CRF has been designed. Patients will be recruited by their treating physician specialist. Patients and their closest relatives will be visited at baseline and every 4 months after baseline for a period of 12 months. The following outcomes will be assessed during home visits: self-perceived symptoms and care needs; daily physical functioning; general health status; end-of-life care treatment preferences; end-of-life care communication and care-giver burden of family caregivers. Additionally, end-of-life care communication and prognosis of survival will be assessed with the physician primarily responsible for the management of the chronic organ failure. Finally, if patients decease during the study period, the baseline preferences with regard to life-sustaining treatments will be compared with the real end-of-life care. Discussion To date, the symptoms, care needs, caregiver burden, end-of-life care treatment preferences and communication needs of patients with very severe COPD, CHF or CRF remain unknown. The present study will

  4. On TCP-based Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Server Overload Control

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Charles; Schulzrinne, Henning

    2010-01-01

    The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) server overload management has attracted interest since SIP is being widely deployed in the Next Generation Networks (NGN) as a core signaling protocol. Yet all existing SIP overload control work is focused on SIP-over-UDP, despite the fact that TCP is increasingly seen as the more viable choice of SIP transport. This paper answers the following questions: is the existing TCP flow control capable of handling the SIP overload problem? If not, why and how c...

  5. A Novel Congestion Detection Scheme in TCP Over OBS Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shihada, Basem

    2009-02-01

    This paper introduces a novel congestion detection scheme for high-bandwidth TCP flows over optical burst switching (OBS) networks, called statistical additive increase multiplicative decrease (SAIMD). SAIMD maintains and analyzes a number of previous round-trip time (RTTs) at the TCP senders in order to identify the confidence with which a packet loss event is due to network congestion. The confidence is derived by positioning short-term RTT in the spectrum of long-term historical RTTs. The derived confidence corresponding to the packet loss is then taken in the developed policy for TCP congestion window adjustment. We will show through extensive simulation that the proposed scheme can effectively solve the false congestion detection problem and significantly outperform the conventional TCP counterparts without losing fairness. The advantages gained in our scheme are at the expense of introducing more overhead in the SAIMD TCP senders. Based on the proposed congestion control algorithm, a throughput model is formulated, and is further verified by simulation results.

  6. Difficulties in controlling mobilization pain using a standardized patient-controlled analgesia protocol in burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Andreas; Kalman, Sigga; Sonesson, Lena Karin; Arvidsson, Anders; Sjöberg, Folke

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate pain relief for patients with burns during rest and mobilization with morphine according to a standard protocol for patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). Eighteen patients with a mean (SD) burned TBSA% of 26 (20) were studied for 10 days. Using a numeric rating scale (NRS, 0 = no pain and 10 = unbearable pain), patients were asked to estimate their acceptable and worst experienced pain by specifying a number on a scale and at what point they would like additional analgesics. Patients were allowed free access to morphine with a PCA pump device. Bolus doses were set according to age, (100 - age)/24 = bolus dose (mg), and 6 minutes lockout time. Degrees of pain, morphine requirements, doses delivered and demanded, oral intake of food, and antiemetics given were used as endpoints. Acceptable pain (mean [SD]) was estimated to be 3.8 (1.3) on the NRS, and additional treatment was considered necessary at scores of 4.3 (1.6) or more. NRS at rest was 2.7 (2.2) and during mobilization 4.7 (2.6). Required mean morphine per day was 81 (15) mg, and the number of doses requested increased during the first 6 days after the burn. The authors found no correlation between dose of morphine required and any other variables. Background pain can be controlled adequately with a standard PCA protocol. During mobilization, the pain experienced was too intense, despite having the already high doses of morphine increased. The present protocol must be refined further to provide analgesia adequate to cover mobilization as well.

  7. Intermittent renewable generation and network congestion: an empirical analysis of Italian Power Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardian, Faddy; Concettini, Silvia; Creti, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The literature demonstrates the likely reduction of wholesale electricity prices due to a larger penetration of renewable energy sources (RES). When markets are organized as two or more inter-connected sub-markets within a larger power market the final impact of increasing RES production may be less straightforward given the presence of network constraints. We tests this phenomenon by analyzing the impact of RES production on the probability of congestion and on the size of congestion cost in Italy. Using a database with hourly observations for a five year period we estimate two econometric models on five zonal pairings: a multinomial logit model for the occurrence and direction of congestion and a three stage least square model for the size of congestion costs. The analysis suggests that the effect of a larger local wind and solar supply is to decrease the probability of suffering congestion in entry and to increase the probability of causing a congestion in exit compared to no congestion case. Increasing hydroelectric production has a similar effect. These results hold for both importing and exporting regions, but importing regions are less likely to cause congestion in exit, therefore the installation of new RES capacity in these zones may have a positive effects in terms of flow balance between regions. Concerning the cost level, a larger local RES supply seems to push the congestion cost towards negative values as it decreases the marginal cost for balancing the system. This is true for all zones in the case of explicit congestion cost, but it is only verified in importing regions in the case of implicit congestion cost. This result suggests that the increase of RES production should be promoted in importing zones, but the overall growth should be controlled in order to avoid congestion in the opposite direction. (authors)

  8. [Perspectives of an electronic data processing-controlled anesthesia protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, G; Naujoks, B

    1987-10-01

    There are two ways to introduce electronic data processing in anesthesia recording, which should be combined in the future: (1) computer-aided data collection (during anesthesia) and (2) data analysis. Both procedures have their own advantages and disadvantages. The first step in data collection is a system whereby the on-line registered data are automatically plotted and the discrete data are noted by hand (semi-automatic recording). The second step is to keep the minutes on a display screen instead of on paper, thus producing a protocol in digital form (automatic recording). We discuss the problems of these computer-aided recording systems and future trends, in particular the problems caused by the "human-computer interface" and by uncertainty with respect to the validity of the stored data. For computer-aided data analysis of anesthesia records, one has to select appropriate data in order to build up data bases. This selection is necessary whether the protocol is in analogical or in digital form, and we attempt to develop some general rules, the concrete selection depends, of course, on the aim of the evaluation. As an example we discuss evaluations for administrative purposes. Evaluations for scientific questions are even more affected by the quality of data definitions, and the efforts involved in data management are considerably higher. At the end of this paper we sketch a hybrid information system for computer-aided anesthesia recording that combines data collection and data analysis.

  9. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the “external cost of surface congestion” is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm. PMID:28114429

  10. Power-Controlled MAC Protocols with Dynamic Neighbor Prediction for Ad hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Meng; ZHANG Lin; XIAO Yong-kang; SHAN Xiu-ming

    2004-01-01

    Energy and bandwidth are the scarce resources in ad hoc networks because most of the mobile nodes are battery-supplied and share the exclusive wireless medium. Integrating the power control into MAC protocol is a promising technique to fully exploit these precious resources of ad hoc wireless networks. In this paper, a new intelligent power-controlled Medium Access Control (MAC) (iMAC) protocol with dynamic neighbor prediction is proposed. Through the elaborate design of the distributed transmit-receive strategy of mobile nodes, iMAC greatly outperforms the prevailing IEEE 802.11 MAC protocols in not only energy conservation but also network throughput. Using the Dynamic Neighbor Prediction (DNP), iMAC performs well in mobile scenes. To the best of our knowledge, iMAC is the first protocol that considers the performance deterioration of power-controlled MAC protocols in mobile scenes and then proposes a solution. Simulation results indicate that DNP is important and necessary for power-controlled MAC protocols in mobile ad hoc networks.

  11. Using tradeable permits to achieve sustainability in the world`s large cities. Policy design issues and efficiency conditions for controlling vehicle emissions, congestion and urban decentralization with an application to Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goddard, H.C. [Instituto Tecnologico Autonomo de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    Many large cities in the world have serious ground level ozone problems, largely the product of vehicular emissions and thus the argued unsustainability of current urban growth patterns is frequently blamed on unrestricted private vehicle use. This article reviews Mexico City`s experience with vehicle use restrictions as an emissions control program and develops the conditions for optimal quantitative restrictions on vehicle use and for complementary abatement technologies. The stochastic nature of air pollution outcomes is modelled explicitly in both the static and dynamic formulations of the control problem, in which for the first time in the literature the use of tradeable vehicle use permits is proposed as a cost-effective complement to technological abatement for mobile emissions control. This control regime gives the authorities a broader and more flexible set of instruments with which to deal more effectively with vehicle emissions, and with seasonal and stochastic variation of air quality outcomes. The market in tradeable vehicle use permits would be very competitive with low transactions costs. This control policy would have very favorable impacts on air quality, vehicle congestion and on urban form and development. Given the general political resistance to environmental taxes, this program could constitute a workable and politically palatable set of policies for controlling greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector. 7 figs., 1 appendix, 23 refs.

  12. Using tradeable permits to achieve sustainability in the world's large cities. Policy design issues and efficiency conditions for controlling vehicle emissions, congestion and urban decentralization with an application to Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, H.C.

    1997-01-01

    Many large cities in the world have serious ground level ozone problems, largely the product of vehicular emissions and thus the argued unsustainability of current urban growth patterns is frequently blamed on unrestricted private vehicle use. This article reviews Mexico City's experience with vehicle use restrictions as an emissions control program and develops the conditions for optimal quantitative restrictions on vehicle use and for complementary abatement technologies. The stochastic nature of air pollution outcomes is modelled explicitly in both the static and dynamic formulations of the control problem, in which for the first time in the literature the use of tradeable vehicle use permits is proposed as a cost-effective complement to technological abatement for mobile emissions control. This control regime gives the authorities a broader and more flexible set of instruments with which to deal more effectively with vehicle emissions, and with seasonal and stochastic variation of air quality outcomes. The market in tradeable vehicle use permits would be very competitive with low transactions costs. This control policy would have very favorable impacts on air quality, vehicle congestion and on urban form and development. Given the general political resistance to environmental taxes, this program could constitute a workable and politically palatable set of policies for controlling greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector. 7 figs., 1 appendix, 23 refs

  13. Mathematical modeling of efficient protocols to control glioma growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, J R; Ferreira, J A; de Oliveira, Paula

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we propose a mathematical model to describe the evolution of glioma cells taking into account the viscoelastic properties of brain tissue. The mathematical model is established considering that the glioma cells are of two phenotypes: migratory and proliferative. The evolution of the migratory cells is described by a diffusion-reaction equation of non Fickian type deduced considering a mass conservation law with a non Fickian migratory mass flux. The evolution of the proliferative cells is described by a reaction equation. A stability analysis that leads to the design of efficient protocols is presented. Numerical simulations that illustrate the behavior of the mathematical model are included. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Protocol for the Control of Emergencies with Dangerous Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Acosta, F.

    2000-01-01

    This document is required to serve as a guide for plant engineers, in charge of the security and industrial hygiene or those people that for its work, have relationship with the use, storage and distribution of chemical substances, which represent a diversity of risks as the toxicity, the inflammability and the risk of explosion. The information that the specific protocol contains is precise and a series of sections that summarize the general information of the substance are developed, like its use, the risk of explosion, the inflammability and the physical-chemical properties. Additionally, some sections are included like the answer mechanisms before the fire presence, the personnel's decontamination and of the equipment, the gathering of the waste and the procedures of first aids. The chemical substances that cause bigger quantity of events for dangerous materials in Costa Rica are the acids, the bases, the chlorine, the liquate petroleum gas (LPG), the ammonia and the agro-chemicals. Due to the intrinsic risk that it possesses these substances, a protocol to act efficiently in front of an emergency related with some of the substances are developed. Due to the increment in the incidence of events with dangerous materials in different population's sectors, for example spills in the roads, emergencies in industries and educational centers, a law with the purpose of stopping the use and the indiscriminate manipulation of these substances in non-capable locations is necessary. Additionally, it is necessary the upgrade in the equipment and in the containers that don't fulfill the minimum requirements of security, as well as to offer the maximum security to people that have contact with such chemical substances. (Author) [es

  15. A Multilevel Congestion-Based Global Router

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan Rakai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Routing in nanometer nodes creates an elevated level of importance for low-congestion routing. At the same time, advances in mathematical programming have increased the power to solve complex problems, such as the routing problem. Hence, new routing methods need to be developed that can combine advanced mathematical programming and modeling techniques to provide low-congestion solutions. In this paper, a hierarchical mathematical programming-based global routing technique that considers congestion is proposed. The main contributions presented in this paper include (i implementation of congestion estimation based on actual routing solutions versus purely probabilistic techniques, (ii development of a congestion-based hierarchy for solving the global routing problem, and (iii generation of a robust framework for solving the routing problem using mathematical programming techniques. Experimental results illustrate that the proposed global router is capable of reducing congestion and overflow by as much as 36% compared to the state-of-the-art mathematical programming models.

  16. Road traffic congestion a concise guide

    CERN Document Server

    Falcocchio, John C

    2015-01-01

    This book on road traffic congestion in cities and suburbs describes congestion problems and shows how they can be relieved. The first part (Chapters 1 - 3) shows how congestion reflects transportation technologies and settlement patterns. The second part (Chapters 4 - 13) describes the causes, characteristics, and consequences of congestion. The third part (Chapters 14 - 23) presents various relief strategies - including supply adaptation and demand mitigation - for nonrecurring and recurring congestion. The last part (Chapter 24) gives general guidelines for congestion relief and provides a general outlook for the future. The book will be useful for a wide audience - including students, practitioners and researchers in a variety of professional endeavors: traffic engineers, transportation planners, public transport specialists, city planners, public administrators, and private enterprises that depend on transportation for their activities.  

  17. Advanced carrier sensing to resolve local channel congestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Robert K.; Brakemeier, Achim; Leinmüller, Tim; Kargl, Frank; Schäfer, Günther

    Communication performance in VANETs under high channel load is significantly degraded due to packet collisions and messages drops, also referred to as local channel congestion. So far, research was focused on the control of transmit power and the limitation of the messages rate to mitigate the

  18. Protocol converter for serial communication between digital rectifier controllers and a power plant SCADA system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukić Vladimir Đ.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the protocol converter INT-485-MBRTU, developed for serial communication between the thyristor rectifier (based on the proprietary protocol "INT-CPD-05", according to standard RS-485 and the SCADA system (based on protocol "Modbus RTU", of the same standard in the thermal power plant "Nikola Tesla B1". Elementary data on industrial communication protocols and communication gateways were provided. The basic technical characteristics of the "Omron" programmable logic controller CJ series were described, as well as the developed device INT-485-MBRTU. Protocol converters with two versions of communication software were tested, differing only in one control word, intended for a forced successive change of communication sequences, in opposite to automatic sequence relieve. The device iNT-485-MBRTU, with the program for forced successive change of communication sequences, demonstrated the reliability of data transfer of 100 %, in a sample of approximately 480 messages. For nearly the same sample, the same protocol converter, with a version of the program without any type of message identifiers, transferred less than 60 % of the foreseen data. During multiple sixty-hour tests, the reliability of data transfer of at least 99.9979% was recorded, in 100% of the analysed cases, and for a sample of nearly 96,000 pairs of the send and receive messages. We analysed the results and estimated the additional possibilities for application of the INT-485-MBRTU protocol converter.

  19. Verification of the safety communication protocol in train control system using colored Petri net

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lijie; Tang Tao; Zhao Xianqiong; Schnieder, Eckehard

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with formal and simulation-based verification of the safety communication protocol in ETCS (European Train Control System). The safety communication protocol controls the establishment of safety connection between train and trackside. Because of its graphical user interface and modeling flexibility upon the changes in the system conditions, this paper proposes a composition Colored Petri Net (CPN) representation for both the logic and the timed model. The logic of the protocol is proved to be safe by means of state space analysis: the dead markings are correct; there are no dead transitions; being fair. Further analysis results have been obtained using formal and simulation-based verification approach. The timed models for the open transmit system and the application process are created for the purpose of performance analysis of the safety communication protocol. The models describe the procedure of data transmission and processing, and also provide relevant timed and stochastic factors, as well as time delay and lost packet, which may influence the time for establishment of safety connection of the protocol. Time for establishment of safety connection of the protocol in normal state is verified by formal verification, and then time for establishment of safety connection with different probability of lost packet is simulated. After verification it is found that the time for establishment of safety connection of the safety communication protocol satisfies the safety requirements.

  20. Transvaginal ultrasound examination of women with and without pelvic venous congestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halligan, Steve; Campbell, Deidre; Bartram, Clive I.; Rogers, Vera; El-Haddad, Cadria; Patel, Sujata; Beard, Richard W.

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To determine if transvaginal ultrasound, including power Doppler examination, can distinguish between women with and without pelvic congestion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six women with pelvic congestion were prospectively examined using transvaginal ultrasonography and standard uterine and ovarian measurements made. Additionally, planimetric measurements of each ovary were taken using an image analysis program to determine the cross-sectional area of ovarian stroma and follicles, if any. Power Doppler images of adnexal vessels were obtained and planimetric estimates of surface area calculated. A congestion score was assigned to each patient, based on vein number, diameter and morphology on grey-scale scanning. Identical measurements were obtained from 19 asymptomatic women and results compared. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between women with pelvic congestion and controls with respect to power Doppler or grey-scale images of adnexal vessels, or congestion score. However, women with pelvic congestion had significantly larger and multicystic ovaries when compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Transvaginal ultrasound measurements of adnexal vasculature, including power Doppler measurements, cannot reliably distinguish women with pelvic congestion from controls. However, ultrasound may remain useful for diagnosis of pelvic congestion, predominantly because it is able to visualize multi-cystic ovaries in these patients. Halligan, S. (2000).Clinical Radiology 55 , 954-958

  1. Detection of intra-cardiac thrombi and congestive heart failure in cats using computed tomographic angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vititoe, Kyle P; Fries, Ryan C; Joslyn, Stephen; Selmic, Laura E; Howes, Mark; Vitt, Jordan P; O'Brien, Robert T

    2018-04-16

    Arterial thromboembolism is a life-threatening condition in cats most commonly secondary to cardiac disease. Echocardiography is the reference standard to evaluate for presence of a thrombus. In humans, computed tomographic (CT) angiography is becoming widely used to detect left atrial thrombi precluding the use of sedation. The purpose of this prospective, controlled, methods comparison pilot study was threefold: (1) describe new CT angiography protocol used in awake cats with cardiac disease and congestive heart failure; (2) determine accuracy of continuous and dynamic acquisition CT angiography to identify and characterize cardiac thrombi from spontaneous echocardiographic contrast using transthoracic echocardiography as our reference standard; (3) identify known negative prognostic factors and comorbidities of the thorax that CT angiography may provide that complement or supersede echocardiographic examination. Fourteen cats with heart disease were recruited; 7 with thrombi and 7 with spontaneous echocardiographic contrast. Echocardiography and awake CT angiography were performed using a microdose of contrast. Six of 7 thrombi were identified on CT angiography as filling defects by at least one reviewer within the left auricle (n = 6) and right heart (n = 1). Highest sensitivity (71.4%) was in continuous phase and highest specificity (85.7%) was in dynamic studies with fair to moderate interobserver agreement (0.38 and 0.44). CT angiography identified prognostic cardiac information (left atrial enlargement, congestive heart failure, arterial thromboembolism) and comorbidities (suspected idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, asthma). This study indicates CT angiography can readily identify cardiac thrombi, important prognostic information and comorbidities, and can be safely performed in cats with cardiac disease and congestive heart failure. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  2. A resilience-oriented approach for quantitatively assessing recurrent spatial-temporal congestion on urban roads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqing Tang

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion brings not only delay and inconvenience, but other associated national concerns, such as greenhouse gases, air pollutants, road safety issues and risks. Identification, measurement, tracking, and control of urban recurrent congestion are vital for building a livable and smart community. A considerable amount of works has made contributions to tackle the problem. Several methods, such as time-based approaches and level of service, can be effective for characterizing congestion on urban streets. However, studies with systemic perspectives have been minor in congestion quantification. Resilience, on the other hand, is an emerging concept that focuses on comprehensive systemic performance and characterizes the ability of a system to cope with disturbance and to recover its functionality. In this paper, we symbolized recurrent congestion as internal disturbance and proposed a modified metric inspired by the well-applied "R4" resilience-triangle framework. We constructed the metric with generic dimensions from both resilience engineering and transport science to quantify recurrent congestion based on spatial-temporal traffic patterns and made the comparison with other two approaches in freeway and signal-controlled arterial cases. Results showed that the metric can effectively capture congestion patterns in the study area and provides a quantitative benchmark for comparison. Also, it suggested not only a good comparative performance in measuring strength of proposed metric, but also its capability of considering the discharging process in congestion. The sensitivity tests showed that proposed metric possesses robustness against parameter perturbation in Robustness Range (RR, but the number of identified congestion patterns can be influenced by the existence of ϵ. In addition, the Elasticity Threshold (ET and the spatial dimension of cell-based platform differ the congestion results significantly on both the detected number and

  3. Congestion management in liberalized market environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper is based on the survey conducted by WG C5.4 on congestion management. It describes market conditions and institutional arrangements in the 18 countries participating in the survey, and internal and cross-border congestion management. The interaction with the electricity market is discussed, considering allocation of transmission capacity, market schedule, congestion management tools and payment for the costs incurred. The survey shows that there is a tendency towards the use of market-based methods. (author)

  4. Game theoretic analysis of congestion, safety and security networks, air traffic and emergency departments

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the roles of intelligent agents in networks, air traffic and emergency departments, this volume focuses on congestion in systems where safety and security are at stake, devoting special attention to applying game theoretic analysis of congestion to: protocols in wired and wireless networks; power generation, air transportation and emergency department overcrowding. Reviewing exhaustively the key recent research into the interactions between game theory, excessive crowding, and safety and security elements, this book establishes a new research angle by illustrating linkages between the different research approaches and serves to lay the foundations for subsequent analysis. Congestion (excessive crowding) is defined in this work as all kinds of flows; e.g., road/sea/air traffic, people, data, information, water, electricity, and organisms. Analyzing systems where congestion occurs – which may be in parallel, series, interlinked, or interdependent, with flows one way or both way...

  5. Automatic Traffic-Based Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Model Generation for ns-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    more protocols (especially at different layers of the OSI model ), implementing an inference engine to extract inter- and intrapacket dependencies, and...ARL-TR-7543 ● DEC 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Automatic Traffic-Based Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Model ...ICMP) Model Generation for ns-3 by Jaime C Acosta and Felipe Jovel Survivability/Lethality Analysis Directorate, ARL Felipe Sotelo and Caesar

  6. Performance Analysis of an Enhanced PRMA-HS Protocol for LEO Satellite Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUO Yong-ning; YAN Shao-hu; WU Shi-qi

    2005-01-01

    The packet reservation multiple access with hindering state (PRMA-HS) is a protocol suitable for LEO satellite mobile communication. Although working well with light system payload (amount of user terminals), the protocol imposes high channel congestion on system with heavy payload, thus degrades the system's quality of service. To controlling the channel congestion, a scheme of enhanced PRMA-HS protocol is proposed, which aims to reduce the collision of voice packets by adopting a mechanism of access control. Through theoretic analysis, the system's mathematic model is presented and the packet drop probability of the scheme is deduced. To testify the performance of the scheme, a simulation is performed and the results support our analysis.

  7. Day-Ahead Congestion Management in Distribution Systems through Household Demand Response and Distribution Congestion Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Weijia; Wu, Qiuwei; Wen, Fushuan

    2014-01-01

    into balancing power might challenge the operation of electric distribution systems and cause congestions. This paper presents a distribution congestion price (DCP) based market mechanism to alleviate possible distribution system congestions. By employing the loca- tional marginal pricing (LMP) model...... is proposed. Finally, a practical Danish 60kV/10.5kV distribution system is employed as the test case to verify the proposed method for mitigating congestion....

  8. Review of Congestion Management Methods for Distribution Networks with High Penetration of Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Liu, Zhaoxi

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the existing congestion management methods for distribution networks with high penetration of DERs documented in the recent research literatures. The congestion management methods for distribution networks reviewed can be grouped into two categories – market methods and direct...... control methods. The market methods consist of dynamic tariff, distribution capacity market, shadow price and flexible service market. The direct control methods are comprised of network reconfiguration, reactive power control and active power control. Based on the review of the existing methods...

  9. Wireless Plug and Play Control Systems: Hardware, Networks, and Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meybodi, Soroush Afkhami

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation reports the result of efforts to identify and solve the problems that arise when a control system is to be designed for various industrial case studies of the Plug and Play Process Control (P3C) project that require autonomous addition/removal of sensors, actuators and subsystems...... in only one of the P3C case studies where all of the nodes of the wireless networked control system are placed underground and should be able to transmit data among themselves. It is not a trivial problem because the well known radio frequency electromagnetic waves face serious difficulties penetrating...... is recommended for wireless plug and play control systems. Formation and maintenance of clusters of nodes are directly linked to the top level application layer via a novel application-based routing metric. The proposed routing metric facilitates implementation of the networking topology in accordance...

  10. Stochastic Stability in Internet Router Congestion Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Christine; Pyrga, Evangelia

    Congestion control at bottleneck routers on the internet is a long standing problem. Many policies have been proposed for effective ways to drop packets from the queues of these routers so that network endpoints will be inclined to share router capacity fairly and minimize the overflow of packets trying to enter the queues. We study just how effective some of these queuing policies are when each network endpoint is a self-interested player with no information about the other players’ actions or preferences. By employing the adaptive learning model of evolutionary game theory, we study policies such as Droptail, RED, and the greedy-flow-punishing policy proposed by Gao et al. [10] to find the stochastically stable states: the states of the system that will be reached in the long run.

  11. Implementation of imaging of the national protocol for quality control in planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caudepon Moreno, F.; Martin-Viera cueto, J. A.; Bodineau gil, C.; Benitez Villegas, E. M.; Casado Villalon, F. J.; Moreno Sainz, C.

    2011-01-01

    Quality control of the planning system (SP) plays a key role in quality assurance schemes that include all stages of the radiotherapy process.In this work we focus on the evidence detailing the ''Protocol for quality control in therapy planning systems with ionizing radiation of the SEFM in ''anatomical data acquisition (DA).

  12. Improving UDP/IP Transmission Without Increasing Congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Datagram Retransmission (DGR) is a computer program that, within certain limits, ensures the reception of each datagram transmitted under the User Datagram Protocol/Internet Protocol. [User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is considered unreliable because it does not involve a reliability-ensuring connection-initiation dialogue between sender and receiver. UDP is well suited to issuing of many small messages to many different receivers.] Unlike prior software for ensuring reception of UDP datagrams, DGR does not contribute to network congestion by retransmitting data more frequently as an ever-increasing number of messages and acknowledgements is lost. Instead, DGR does just the opposite: DGR includes an adaptive timeout-interval- computing component that provides maximum opportunity for reception of acknowledgements, minimizing retransmission. By monitoring changes in the rate at which message-transmission transactions are completed, DGR detects changes in the level of congestion and responds by imposing varying degrees of delay on the transmission of new messages. In addition, DGR maximizes throughput by not waiting for acknowledgement of a message before sending the next message. All DGR communication is asynchronous, to maximize efficient utilization of network connections. DGR manages multiple concurrent datagram transmission and acknowledgement conversations.

  13. An Improved Protocol for Controlled Deterministic Secure Quantum Communication Using Five-Qubit Entangled State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Shih-Hung; Lin, Jason; Tsai, Chia-Wei; Hwang, Tzonelih

    2018-03-01

    In early 2009, Xiu et al. (Opt. Commun. 282(2) 333-337 2009) presented a controlled deterministic secure quantum communication (CDSQC) protocol via a newly constructed five-qubit entangled quantum state. Later, Qin et al. (Opt. Commun. 282(13), 2656-2658 2009) pointed out two security loopholes in Xiu et al.'s protocol: (1) A correlation-elicitation (CE) attack can reveal the entire secret message; (2) A leakage of partial information for the receiver is noticed. Then, Xiu et al. (Opt. Commun. 283(2), 344-347 2010) presented a revised CDSQC protocol to remedy the CE attack problem. However, the information leakage problem still remains open. This work proposes a new CDSQC protocol using the same five-qubit entangled state which can work without the above mentioned security problems. Moreover, the Trojan Horse attacks can be automatically avoided without using detecting devices in the new CDSQC.

  14. An Improved Protocol for Controlled Deterministic Secure Quantum Communication Using Five-Qubit Entangled State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Shih-Hung; Lin, Jason; Tsai, Chia-Wei; Hwang, Tzonelih

    2018-06-01

    In early 2009, Xiu et al. (Opt. Commun. 282(2) 333-337 2009) presented a controlled deterministic secure quantum communication (CDSQC) protocol via a newly constructed five-qubit entangled quantum state. Later, Qin et al. (Opt. Commun. 282(13), 2656-2658 2009) pointed out two security loopholes in Xiu et al.'s protocol: (1) A correlation-elicitation (CE) attack can reveal the entire secret message; (2) A leakage of partial information for the receiver is noticed. Then, Xiu et al. (Opt. Commun. 283(2), 344-347 2010) presented a revised CDSQC protocol to remedy the CE attack problem. However, the information leakage problem still remains open. This work proposes a new CDSQC protocol using the same five-qubit entangled state which can work without the above mentioned security problems. Moreover, the Trojan Horse attacks can be automatically avoided without using detecting devices in the new CDSQC.

  15. Associations between ambient air pollution and daily mortality in a cohort of congestive heart failure: Case-crossover and nested case-control analyses using a distributed lag nonlinear model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buteau, Stephane; Goldberg, Mark S; Burnett, Richard T; Gasparrini, Antonio; Valois, Marie-France; Brophy, James M; Crouse, Dan L; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

    2018-04-01

    Persons with congestive heart failure may be at higher risk of the acute effects related to daily fluctuations in ambient air pollution. To meet some of the limitations of previous studies using grouped-analysis, we developed a cohort study of persons with congestive heart failure to estimate whether daily non-accidental mortality were associated with spatially-resolved, daily exposures to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and ozone (O 3 ), and whether these associations were modified according to a series of indicators potentially reflecting complications or worsening of health. We constructed the cohort from the linkage of administrative health databases. Daily exposure was assigned from different methods we developed previously to predict spatially-resolved, time-dependent concentrations of ambient NO 2 (all year) and O 3 (warm season) at participants' residences. We performed two distinct types of analyses: a case-crossover that contrasts the same person at different times, and a nested case-control that contrasts different persons at similar times. We modelled the effects of air pollution and weather (case-crossover only) on mortality using distributed lag nonlinear models over lags 0 to 3 days. We developed from administrative health data a series of indicators that may reflect the underlying construct of "declining health", and used interactions between these indicators and the cross-basis function for air pollutant to assess potential effect modification. The magnitude of the cumulative as well as the lag-specific estimates of association differed in many instances according to the metric of exposure. Using the back-extrapolation method, which is our preferred exposure model, we found for the case-crossover design a cumulative mean percentage changes (MPC) in daily mortality per interquartile increment in NO 2 (8.8 ppb) of 3.0% (95% CI: -0.9, 6.9%) and for O 3 (16.5 ppb) 3.5% (95% CI: -4.5, 12.1). For O 3 there was strong confounding by weather

  16. Bisoprolol for congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J.; Gustafsson, F.

    2008-01-01

    Background: beta-Blockers are a cornerstone in the treatment of systolic heart failure treatment, but not all beta-blockers are effective or in this setting. Objective: To define the role of bisoprolol, a highly selective beta(1)-antagonist in congestive heart failure due to systolic dysfunction....... Methods: Using the keywords 'bisoprolol' and 'heart failure' PubMed and BIOSIS databases were searched for information regarding pharmacology and relevant randomised clinical trials. Supplementary publications were acquired by scrutinising reference lists of relevant papers. Additional information...... was obtained from the FDA website. Conclusion: Bisoprolol is an effective and well-tolerated first-line beta-blocker for patients with systolic heart failure. The knowledge is primarily based on study patients with moderate-to-severe heart failure from the three CIBIS trials Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2...

  17. Tracing based congestion management and impact of TCPS in competitive power market using MINLP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Chanana, S.

    2006-01-01

    Efficient, fair and secure operation of the competitive power markets are key factors in managing the challenges associated with congestion management. For the system operator, the selection of generators to reschedule their output for effective management of congestion is an important task. This study used a real power flow tracing based approach for selecting the most appropriate generators to reschedule the real power output based on real power flow contribution on a congested line. These generators can be effectively used to reschedule their generation for managing congestion. Using a mixed integer non-linear programming approach for reducing the transmission congestion cost in the system, the impact of Thyristor Controlled Phase Shifter (TCPS) was also investigated and their optimal placement was obtained. The study was carried out on a 39-bus New England system for pool and mix of pool with bilateral and multilateral transactions and their impact on congestion cost. The paper presented the detailed mathematical formulation and modeling process used. It was concluded that for some transactions, the reduction in congestion cost is not very significant. Therefore, system operators should avoid such transactions during congestion to increase market efficiency. 26 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  18. Dynamic QoS management in Differentiated Services using bandwidth brokers, RSVP aggregation and load control protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westberg, Lars; Eriksson, Anders; Karagiannis, Georgios; Heijenk, Geert; Rexhepi, Vlora; Partain, David

    2001-01-01

    A method and network subsystem for providing on demand end to end Quality of Service (Qos) in a dynamic manner, use a combination of Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP), load control protocol (and its successors) and Bandwidth Brokers (BBs)(1106) which communicate using a predetermined protocol.

  19. Dynamic QoS management in Differentiated Services using bandwidth brokers, RSVP aggregation and load control protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westberg, Lars; Eriksson, Anders; Karagiannis, Georgios; Heijenk, Geert; Rexhepi, Vlora; Partain, David

    2009-01-01

    A method and network subsystem for providing on demand end to end Quality of Service (Qos) in a dynamic manner, use a combination of Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP), load control protocol (and its successors) and Bandwidth Brokers (BBs)(1106) which communicate using a predetermined protocol.

  20. Congestion management through topological corrections: A case study of Central Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jinil; Papavasiliou, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The integration of an increasing amount of renewable generation within Europe is posing operational challenges that require various balancing actions. System operators therefore need to rely increasingly on the active control of the transmission network. Transmission topology control is a fast and economical option to add flexibility to the transmission system. We model the current methodology for controlling congestion in the Central Western European (CWE) market and quantify the benefits of topology control. We also compare the results with a nodal pricing model. Our computational results suggest that topology control can significantly reduce congestion management costs under the current market coupling regime whereas the benefits of topology control are limited under nodal pricing. Topology control emerges as an attractive and implementable means of managing congestion as it provides a significant percentage of the cost savings that would be achieved by overhauling the existing European market design and shifting to a nodal pricing regime. - Highlights: • We present the congestion management model in the CWE region. • The benefits of topology control in the CWE region are quantified. • Topology control significantly reduce congestion under the current market coupling. • The benefits of topology control are limited under the nodal pricing regime. • Network topology control is a promising option for mitigating congestion in Europe.

  1. Control protocol: large scale implementation at the CERN PS complex - a first assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abie, H.; Benincasa, G.; Coudert, G.; Davydenko, Y.; Dehavay, C.; Gavaggio, R.; Gelato, G.; Heinze, W.; Legras, M.; Lustig, H.; Merard, L.; Pearson, T.; Strubin, P.; Tedesco, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Control Protocol is a model-based, uniform access procedure from a control system to accelerator equipment. It was proposed at CERN about 5 years ago and prototypes were developed in the following years. More recently, this procedure has been finalized and implemented at a large scale in the PS Complex. More than 300 pieces of equipment are now using this protocol in normal operation and another 300 are under implementation. These include power converters, vacuum systems, beam instrumentation devices, RF equipment, etc. This paper describes how the single general procedure is applied to the different kinds of equipment. The advantages obtained are also discussed. ((orig.))

  2. Software application for quality control protocol of mammography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjosevski, Vladimir; Gershan, Vesna; Ginovska, Margarita; Spasevska, Hristina

    2010-01-01

    Considering the fact that the Quality Control of the technological process of the mammographic system involves testing of a large number of parameters, it is clearly evident that there is a need for using the information technology for gathering, processing and storing of all the parameters that are result of this process. The main goal of this software application is facilitation and automation of the gathering, processing, storing and presenting process of the data related to the qualification of the physical and technical parameters during the quality control of the technological process of the mammographic system. The software application along with its user interface and database has been made with the Microsoft Access 2003 application which is part of the Microsoft Office 2003 software packet and has been chosen as a platform for developing because it is the most commonly used office application today among the computer users in the country. This is important because it will provide the end users a familiar environment to work in, without the need for additional training and improving the computer skills that they posses. Most importantly, the software application is easy to use, fast in calculating the parameters needed and it is an excellent way to store and display the results. There is a possibility for up scaling this software solution so it can be used by many different users at the same time over the Internet. It is highly recommended that this system is implemented as soon as possible in the quality control process of the mammographic systems due to its many advantages.(Author)

  3. Studying the Noise Control Engineering Protocols in Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Golshah

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, sound is one of the detrimental factors in the workplace and its harmful impact has been so important that scientists have named it “Noise Pollutions”. Hearing is one of the five senses of human being which is also a medium for communicating with other s and enjoying the pleasant feeling of listening to a piece of music. In spite of this, changes in the intensity and frequency of sound can make it annoying. Using Sound Level Meter to measure the dB of noise in the workplace and noise control principles will be discussed here.

  4. Chest ultrasound and hidden lung congestion in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuccio, Vincenzo; Enia, Giuseppe; Tripepi, Rocco; Torino, Claudia; Garozzo, Maurizio; Battaglia, Giovanni Giorgio; Marcantoni, Carmelita; Infantone, Lorena; Giordano, Guido; De Giorgi, Maria Loreta; Lupia, Mario; Bruzzese, Vincenzo; Zoccali, Carmine

    2012-09-01

    Chest ultrasound (US) is a non-invasive well-validated technique for estimating extravascular lung water (LW) in patients with heart diseases and in end-stage renal disease. We systematically applied this technique to the whole peritoneal dialysis (PD) population of five dialysis units. We studied the cross-sectional association between LW, echocardiographic parameters, clinical [pedal oedema, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class] and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) markers of volume status in 88 PD patients. Moderate to severe lung congestion was evident in 41 (46%) patients. Ejection fraction was the echocardiographic parameter with the strongest independent association with LW (r = -0.40 P = 0.002). Oedema did not associate with LW on univariate and multivariate analysis. NYHA class was slightly associated with LW (r = 0.21 P = 0.05). Among patients with severe lung congestion, only 27% had pedal oedema and the majority (57%) had no dyspnoea (NYHA Class I). Similarly, the prevalence of patients with BIA, evidence of volume excess was small (11%) and not significantly different (P = 0.79) from that observed in patients with mild or no congestion (9%). In PD patients, LW by chest US reveals moderate to severe lung congestion in a significant proportion of asymptomatic patients. Intervention studies are necessary to prove the usefulness of chest US for optimizing the control of fluid excess in PD patients.

  5. Pilot studies for the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project - Site selection, sampling protocols, analytical methods, and quality control protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.B.; Woodruff, L.G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Cannon, W.F.; Garrett, R.G.; Kilburn, J.E.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada sampled and chemically analyzed soils along two transects across Canada and the USA in preparation for a planned soil geochemical survey of North America. This effort was a pilot study to test and refine sampling protocols, analytical methods, quality control protocols, and field logistics for the continental survey. A total of 220 sample sites were selected at approximately 40-km intervals along the two transects. The ideal sampling protocol at each site called for a sample from a depth of 0-5 cm and a composite of each of the O, A, and C horizons. The Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, S, Ti, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Ga, In, La, Li, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sn, Sr, Te, Th, Tl, U, V, W, Y, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following a near-total digestion in a mixture of HCl, HNO3, HClO4, and HF. Separate methods were used for Hg, Se, total C, and carbonate-C on this same size fraction. Only Ag, In, and Te had a large percentage of concentrations below the detection limit. Quality control (QC) of the analyses was monitored at three levels: the laboratory performing the analysis, the USGS QC officer, and the principal investigator for the study. This level of review resulted in an average of one QC sample for every 20 field samples, which proved to be minimally adequate for such a large-scale survey. Additional QC samples should be added to monitor within-batch quality to the extent that no more than 10 samples are analyzed between a QC sample. Only Cr (77%), Y (82%), and Sb (80%) fell outside the acceptable limits of accuracy (% recovery between 85 and 115%) because of likely residence in mineral phases resistant to the acid digestion. A separate sample of 0-5-cm material was collected at each site for determination of organic compounds. A subset of 73 of these samples was analyzed for a suite of

  6. Increased walking variability in elderly persons with congestive heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Forman, D. E.; Ladin, Z.; Goldberger, A. L.; Rigney, D. R.; Wei, J. Y.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of congestive heart failure on a person's ability to walk at a steady pace while ambulating at a self-determined rate. SETTING: Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, a primary and tertiary teaching hospital, and a social activity center for elderly adults living in the community. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven elderly subjects (aged 70-93 years) with well compensated congestive heart failure (NY Heart Association class I or II), seven elderly subjects (aged 70-79 years) without congestive heart failure, and 10 healthy young adult subjects (aged 20-30 years). MEASUREMENTS: Subjects walked for 8 minutes on level ground at their own selected walking rate. Footswitches were used to measure the time between steps. Step rate (steps/minute) and step rate variability were calculated for the entire walking period, for 30 seconds during the first minute of the walk, for 30 seconds during the last minute of the walk, and for the 30-second period when each subject's step rate variability was minimal. Group means and 5% and 95% confidence intervals were computed. MAIN RESULTS: All measures of walking variability were significantly increased in the elderly subjects with congestive heart failure, intermediate in the elderly controls, and lowest in the young subjects. There was no overlap between the three groups using the minimal 30-second variability (elderly CHF vs elderly controls: P young: P < 0.001), and no overlap between elderly subjects with and without congestive heart failure when using the overall variability. For all four measures, there was no overlap in any of the confidence intervals, and all group means were significantly different (P < 0.05).

  7. Dynamic Postural Control in Female Athletes and Nonathletes After a Whole-Body Fatigue Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghbani, Fatemeh; Woodhouse, Linda J; Gaeini, Abbas A

    2016-07-01

    Baghbani, F, Woodhouse, LJ, and Gaeini, AA. Dynamic postural control in female athletes and nonathletes after a whole-body fatigue protocol. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1942-1947, 2016-Postural control is a crucial element in regular training of athletes, development of complex technical movement, and injury prevention; however, distributing factor of the postural control such as fatigue has been neglected by athletic trainers in novice and inexperienced athletes. The objective of this study was to compare changes in dynamic postural control of young female athletes and nonathletes after a fatigue protocol. Thirty females (15 athletes and 15 nonathletes) with no orthopedic problems were recruited to participate in this study. All participants completed the pre-SEBT (star excursion balance test) in 8 directions at baseline; then, they performed a 20-minute fatigue protocol after which post-SEBT was measured. Rating of perceived exertion was measured using the Borg scale immediately before, mid-way through (i.e., after the third station), and after performing the fatigue protocol (i.e., immediately before the post-SEBT). Female nonathlete groups had significant differences in dynamic balance performance after fatigue in the medial, posteromedial, and posterior directions (p postural control of the novice with progressing the exercise time. Our findings could also help coaches to develop trainings focused on the 3 directions of medial, posteromedial, and posterior directions and aimed at exercises increasing fatigue resistance.

  8. Semi-quantum communication: protocols for key agreement, controlled secure direct communication and dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Chitra; Thapliyal, Kishore; Pathak, Anirban

    2017-12-01

    Semi-quantum protocols that allow some of the users to remain classical are proposed for a large class of problems associated with secure communication and secure multiparty computation. Specifically, first-time semi-quantum protocols are proposed for key agreement, controlled deterministic secure communication and dialogue, and it is shown that the semi-quantum protocols for controlled deterministic secure communication and dialogue can be reduced to semi-quantum protocols for e-commerce and private comparison (socialist millionaire problem), respectively. Complementing with the earlier proposed semi-quantum schemes for key distribution, secret sharing and deterministic secure communication, set of schemes proposed here and subsequent discussions have established that almost every secure communication and computation tasks that can be performed using fully quantum protocols can also be performed in semi-quantum manner. Some of the proposed schemes are completely orthogonal-state-based, and thus, fundamentally different from the existing semi-quantum schemes that are conjugate coding-based. Security, efficiency and applicability of the proposed schemes have been discussed with appropriate importance.

  9. FPGA Congestion-Driven Placement Refinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente de, J.

    2005-07-01

    The routing congestion usually limits the complete proficiency of the FPGA logic resources. A key question can be formulated regarding the benefits of estimating the congestion at placement stage. In the last years, it is gaining acceptance the idea of a detailed placement taking into account congestion. In this paper, we resort to the Thermodynamic Simulated Annealing (TSA) algorithm to perform a congestion-driven placement refinement on the top of the common Bounding-Box pre optimized solution. The adaptive properties of TSA allow the search to preserve the solution quality of the pre optimized solution while improving other fine-grain objectives. Regarding the cost function two approaches have been considered. In the first one Expected Occupation (EO), a detailed probabilistic model to account for channel congestion is evaluated. We show that in spite of the minute detail of EO, the inherent uncertainty of this probabilistic model impedes to relieve congestion beyond the sole application of the Bounding-Box cost function. In the second approach we resort to the fast Rectilinear Steiner Regions algorithm to perform not an estimation but a measurement of the global routing congestion. This second strategy allows us to successfully reduce the requested channel width for a set of benchmark circuits with respect to the widespread Versatile Place and Route (VPR) tool. (Author) 31 refs.

  10. Acupuncture for dry eye: a randomised controlled trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Ae-Ran

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dry eye is usually managed by conventional medical interventions such as artificial tears, anti-inflammatory drugs and surgical treatment. However, since dry eye is one of the most frequent ophthalmologic disorders, safer and more effective methods for its treatment are necessary, especially for vulnerable patients. Acupuncture has been widely used to treat patients with dry eye. Our aim is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for this condition. Methods/Design A randomised, patient-assessor blinded, sham (non-acupuncture point, shallow acupuncture controlled study was established. Participants allocated to verum acupuncture and sham acupuncture groups will be treated three times weekly for three weeks for a total of nine sessions per participant. Seventeen points (GV23; bilateral BL2, GB4, TE23, Ex1 (Taiyang, ST1 and GB20; and left SP3, LU9, LU10 and HT8 for men, right for women have been selected for the verum acupuncture; for the sham acupuncture, points have been selected that do not coincide with a classical acupuncture point and that are located close to the verum points, except in the case of the rim of the eye. Ocular surface disease index, tear film breakup time, the Schirmer I test, medication quantification scale and general assessment of improvement will be used as outcome variables for evaluating the effectiveness of acupuncture. Safety will also be assessed at every visit. Primary and secondary outcomes will be assessed four weeks after screening. All statistical analyses will be performed using analysis of covariance. Discussion The results of this trial will be used as a basis for clarifying the efficacy of acupuncture for dry eye. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00969280.

  11. Relationship Between Carbon Dioxide Levels and Reported Congestion and Headaches on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Robert; Wear, Mary; Young, Millennia; Cobel, Christopher; Mason, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Congestion is commonly reported during spaceflight, and most crewmembers have reported using medications for congestion during International Space Station (ISS) missions. Although congestion has been attributed to fluid shifts during spaceflight, fluid status reaches equilibrium during the first week after launch while congestion continues to be reported throughout long duration missions. Congestion complaints have anecdotally been reported in relation to ISS CO2 levels; this evaluation was undertaken to determine whether or not an association exists. METHODS: Reported headaches, congestion symptoms, and CO2 levels were obtained for ISS expeditions 2-31, and time-weighted means and single-point maxima were determined for 24-hour (24hr) and 7-day (7d) periods prior to each weekly private medical conference. Multiple imputation addressed missing data, and logistic regression modeled the relationship between probability of reported event of congestion or headache and CO2 levels, adjusted for possible confounding covariates. The first seven days of spaceflight were not included to control for fluid shifts. Data were evaluated to determine the concentration of CO2 required to maintain the risk of congestion below 1% to allow for direct comparison with a previously published evaluation of CO2 concentrations and headache. RESULTS: This study confirmed a previously identified significant association between CO2 and headache and also found a significant association between CO2 and congestion. For each 1-mm Hg increase in CO2, the odds of a crew member reporting congestion doubled. The average 7-day CO2 would need to be maintained below 1.5 mmHg to keep the risk of congestion below 1%. The predicted probability curves of ISS headache and congestion curves appear parallel when plotted against ppCO2 levels with congestion occurring at approximately 1mmHg lower than a headache would be reported. DISCUSSION: While the cause of congestion is multifactorial, this study showed

  12. Receiver-initiated medium access control protocols for wireless sensor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Di Mauro, Alessio; Vithanage, Madava D.

    2015-01-01

    One of the fundamental building blocks of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is the Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol, that part of the system governing when and how two independent neighboring nodes activate their respective transceivers to directly interact. Historically, data exchange has always...

  13. FIT for FUNCTION: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Julie; Tang, Ada; Guyatt, Gordon; Thabane, Lehana; Xie, Feng; Sahlas, Demetrios; Hart, Robert; Fleck, Rebecca; Hladysh, Genevieve; Macrae, Louise

    2018-01-15

    The current state of evidence suggests that community-based exercise programs are beneficial in improving impairment, function, and health status, and are greatly needed for persons with stroke. However, limitations of these studies include risk of bias, feasibility, and cost issues. This single-blinded, randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 216 participants with stroke will compare the effectiveness of a 12-week YMCA community-based wellness program (FIT for FUNCTION) specifically designed for community-dwelling persons with stroke to persons who receive a standard YMCA membership. The primary outcome will be community reintegration using the Reintegration to Normal Living Index at 12 and 24 weeks. Secondary outcomes include measurement of physical activity level using the Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity and accelerometry; balance using the Berg Balance Scale; lower extremity function using the Short Physical Performance Battery; exercise capacity using the 6-min walk test; grip strength and isometric knee extension strength using hand held dynamometry; and health-related quality of life using the European Quality of Life 5-Dimension Questionnaire. We are also assessing cardiovascular health and lipids; glucose and inflammatory markers will be collected following 12-h fast for total cholesterol, insulin, glucose, and glycated hemoglobin. Self-efficacy for physical activity will be assessed with a single question and self-efficacy for managing chronic disease will be assessed using the Stanford 6-item Scale. The Patient Activation Measure will be used to assess the patient's level of knowledge, skill, and confidence for self-management. Healthcare utilization and costs will be evaluated. Group, time, and group × time interaction effects will be estimated using generalized linear models for continuous variables, including relevant baseline variables as covariates in the analysis that differ appreciably between groups at baseline. Cost data will be treated

  14. The effects of a tailored intensive care unit delirium prevention protocol: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kyoung-Ja; Lee, Sun-Mi

    2015-09-01

    A decreased incidence of delirium following the application of non-pharmacologic intervention protocols to several patient populations has been previously reported. However, few studies have been conducted to examine the effects of their application to intensive care unit (ICU) patients. To examine the effects of applying a tailored delirium preventive protocol, developed by the authors, to ICU patients by analyzing its effects on delirium incidence, in-hospital mortality, ICU readmission, and length of ICU stay in a Korean hospital. A single-blind randomized controlled trial. A 1049-bed general hospital with a 105-bed ICU. Sixty and 63 ICU patients were randomly assigned to the intervention and control groups, respectively. The researchers applied the delirium prevention protocol to the intervention group every day for the first 7 days of ICU hospitalization. Delirium incidence, mortality, and re-admission to the ICU during the same hospitalization period were analyzed by logistic regression analysis; the 7- and 30-day in-hospital mortality by Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox proportional hazard regression analysis; and length of ICU stay was assessed by linear regression analysis. Application of the protocol had no significant effect on delirium incidence, in-hospital mortality, re-admission to the ICU, or length of ICU stay. Whereas the risk of 30-day in-hospital mortality was not significantly lower in the intervention than in the control group (OR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.10-1.09), we found a significantly decreased 7-day in-hospital mortality in the intervention group after protocol application (HR: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.01-0.72). Application of a tailored delirium prevention protocol to acute stage patients during the first 7 days of ICU hospitalization appeared to reduce the 7-day in-hospital risk of mortality only for this patient population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of quality control protocol implementation of equipment in radiotherapy services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcina, Carmen S. Guzman; Lima, Luciana P. de; Rubo, Rodrigo A.; Ferraz, Eduardo; Almeida, Adelaide de

    2000-01-01

    Considering the importance of the Quality Assurance in the radiotherapy services, there was an interest to make tests' evaluation for a Quality Control for the cobalt equipment, linear accelerator and simulator as a classification and comparison. The work proposed is a suggestion that can serve as tool for medical physicists that are starting to work in the radiotherapy area and for the most experts. The discussions were made by the gathering of local tests and official protocols, resulting in a minimum protocol as a suggestion for a routine work, emphasizing the periodicity and level of tolerance of each one of the tests. (author)

  16. Efficacy of Acute Pain Control Protocol in Triage Department on Analgesics Administration Time and Patients' Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedhossein Seyyedhoseini Davaraani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Current study was conducted to develop a pain control protocol by Morphine Sulfate (MS Suppository in triage ward with the main primary outcomes of first analgesic administration time, patients' satisfaction and also the changes in pain intensity. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 318 consecutive patients attending to an academic tertiary health care center in Tehran, Iran in 2011 and 2012 were enrolled. The patients were randomly assigned to receive either routine pain control by emergency medicine residents in emergency department (n=132 or pain control protocol in triage level by nurses (n=186. Those with pain in control group were treated with conventional pain control program and those in intervention group with pain intensities higher than four were treated with suppository stat 10 mg dose of MS administered by nurses in triage ward. Results: The mean change in pain intensity was significantly (P<0.0001 higher in intervention group (4.2 versus 0.2 and the first analgesic administration time was significantly different between groups (P<0.05 being less in the intervention group (43.1 versus 4.6. Also the patients' satisfaction was significantly higher in the intervention group (P<0.0001. No drug adverse effects were seen. Conclusions: Totally, according to the obtained results, it may be concluded that acute pain control protocol in triage department by suppository of MS would result in reduced analgesics administration time and higher patients' satisfaction.   Keywords: Analgesia; Emergency Department; Pain Control

  17. Congested Aggregation via Newtonian Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Katy; Kim, Inwon; Yao, Yao

    2018-01-01

    We consider a congested aggregation model that describes the evolution of a density through the competing effects of nonlocal Newtonian attraction and a hard height constraint. This provides a counterpoint to existing literature on repulsive-attractive nonlocal interaction models, where the repulsive effects instead arise from an interaction kernel or the addition of diffusion. We formulate our model as the Wasserstein gradient flow of an interaction energy, with a penalization to enforce the constraint on the height of the density. From this perspective, the problem can be seen as a singular limit of the Keller-Segel equation with degenerate diffusion. Two key properties distinguish our problem from previous work on height constrained equations: nonconvexity of the interaction kernel (which places the model outside the scope of classical gradient flow theory) and nonlocal dependence of the velocity field on the density (which causes the problem to lack a comparison principle). To overcome these obstacles, we combine recent results on gradient flows of nonconvex energies with viscosity solution theory. We characterize the dynamics of patch solutions in terms of a Hele-Shaw type free boundary problem and, using this characterization, show that in two dimensions patch solutions converge to a characteristic function of a disk in the long-time limit, with an explicit rate on the decay of the energy. We believe that a key contribution of the present work is our blended approach, combining energy methods with viscosity solution theory.

  18. FF-LYNX: protocol and interfaces for the control and readout of future Silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amendola, A; Bianchi, G; Fanucci, L; Saponara, S; Tongiani, C [Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione (DII-EIT), Via G. Caruso 16, 56122 Pisa (Italy); Castaldi, R; Minuti, M; Verdini, P G [INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56018 Pisa (Italy); Incandela, J; Magazzu, G; Rossin, R, E-mail: Guido.Magazzu@pi.infn.i [University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB), Department of Physics, 5113 Broida Hall, CA 93106 Santa Barbara (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The FF-LYNX protocol provides an innovative solution for the integrated distribution of Timing, Trigger and Control signals and the data readout in future High Energy Physics experiments. Transmitter and receiver interfaces implementing the FF-LYNX protocol have been simulated with a high-level simulator and in an FPGA based emulator. The design of the interfaces in a commercial CMOS technology as radiation tolerant and low power modules is ongoing and the submission of a test circuit is foreseen in fall 2010. The key features of the protocol are described in this paper as well as its possible application for the transmission from Silicon Trackers to trigger processors with short and constant latency of data to be used for the L1 trigger generation.

  19. On shaky ground - A study of security vulnerabilities in control protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byres, E. J. [Wurldtech Research Inc., 7178 Lancrest Tr., Lantzville, BC V0R 2H0 (Canada); Huffman, D. [Wurldtech Analytics Inc., 208-1040 Hamilton St., Vancouver, BC V6B 2R9 (Canada); Kube, N. [Univ. of Victoria, Dept. of Computer Science, PO Box 3055 STN CSC, Victoria BC V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The recent introduction of information technologies such as Ethernet R into nuclear industry control devices has resulted in significantly less isolation from the outside world. This raises the question of whether these systems could be attacked by malware, network hackers or professional criminals to cause disruption to critical operations in a manner similar to the impacts now felt in the business world. To help answer this question, a study was undertaken to test a representative control protocol to determine if it had vulnerabilities that could be exploited. A framework was created in which a test could express a large number of test cases in very compact formal language. This in turn, allowed for the economical automation of both the generation of selectively malformed protocol traffic and the measurement of device under test's (DUT) behavior in response to this traffic. Approximately 5000 protocol conformance tests were run against two major brands of industrial controller. More than 60 categories of errors were discovered, the majority of which were in the form of incorrect error responses to malformed traffic. Several malformed packets however, caused the device to respond or communicate in inappropriate ways. These would be relatively simple for an attacker to inject into a system and could result in the plant operator losing complete view or control of the control device. Based on this relatively small set of devices, we believe that the nuclear industry urgently needs to adopt better security robustness testing of control devices as standard practice. (authors)

  20. On shaky ground - A study of security vulnerabilities in control protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byres, E. J.; Huffman, D.; Kube, N.

    2006-01-01

    The recent introduction of information technologies such as Ethernet R into nuclear industry control devices has resulted in significantly less isolation from the outside world. This raises the question of whether these systems could be attacked by malware, network hackers or professional criminals to cause disruption to critical operations in a manner similar to the impacts now felt in the business world. To help answer this question, a study was undertaken to test a representative control protocol to determine if it had vulnerabilities that could be exploited. A framework was created in which a test could express a large number of test cases in very compact formal language. This in turn, allowed for the economical automation of both the generation of selectively malformed protocol traffic and the measurement of device under test's (DUT) behavior in response to this traffic. Approximately 5000 protocol conformance tests were run against two major brands of industrial controller. More than 60 categories of errors were discovered, the majority of which were in the form of incorrect error responses to malformed traffic. Several malformed packets however, caused the device to respond or communicate in inappropriate ways. These would be relatively simple for an attacker to inject into a system and could result in the plant operator losing complete view or control of the control device. Based on this relatively small set of devices, we believe that the nuclear industry urgently needs to adopt better security robustness testing of control devices as standard practice. (authors)

  1. Modeling truck traffic volume growth congestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Modeling of the statewide transportation system is an important element in understanding issues and programming of funds to thwart potential congestion. As Alabama grows its manufacturing economy, the number of heavy vehicles traversing its highways ...

  2. Understanding congested travel in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çolak, Serdar; Lima, Antonio; González, Marta C.

    2016-03-01

    Rapid urbanization and increasing demand for transportation burdens urban road infrastructures. The interplay of number of vehicles and available road capacity on their routes determines the level of congestion. Although approaches to modify demand and capacity exist, the possible limits of congestion alleviation by only modifying route choices have not been systematically studied. Here we couple the road networks of five diverse cities with the travel demand profiles in the morning peak hour obtained from billions of mobile phone traces to comprehensively analyse urban traffic. We present that a dimensionless ratio of the road supply to the travel demand explains the percentage of time lost in congestion. Finally, we examine congestion relief under a centralized routing scheme with varying levels of awareness of social good and quantify the benefits to show that moderate levels are enough to achieve significant collective travel time savings.

  3. Congestion and cascades in payment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyeler, Walter E.; Glass, Robert J.; Bech, Morten L.; Soramäki, Kimmo

    2007-10-01

    We develop a parsimonious model of the interbank payment system. The model incorporates an endogenous instruction arrival process, a scale-free topology of payments between banks, a fixed total liquidity which limits banks’ capacity to process arriving instructions, and a global market that distributes liquidity. We find that at low liquidity the system becomes congested and payment settlement loses correlation with payment instruction arrival, becoming coupled across the network. The onset of congestion is evidently related to the relative values of three characteristic times: the time for banks’ net position to return to 0, the time for a bank to exhaust its liquidity endowment, and the liquidity market relaxation time. In the congested regime settlement takes place in cascades having a characteristic length scale. A global liquidity market substantially attenuates congestion, requiring only a small fraction of the payment-induced liquidity flow to achieve strong beneficial effects.

  4. Mathematical principles of road congestion pricing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    route during the morning peak hour: cost and demand functions. the same at all traffic levels. Although car running costs rise with increases in travel time in congested urban travel conditions, they are usually regarded by road users as being.

  5. The deployment of routing protocols in distributed control plane of SDN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingjing, Zhou; Di, Cheng; Weiming, Wang; Rong, Jin; Xiaochun, Wu

    2014-01-01

    Software defined network (SDN) provides a programmable network through decoupling the data plane, control plane, and application plane from the original closed system, thus revolutionizing the existing network architecture to improve the performance and scalability. In this paper, we learned about the distributed characteristics of Kandoo architecture and, meanwhile, improved and optimized Kandoo's two levels of controllers based on ideological inspiration of RCP (routing control platform). Finally, we analyzed the deployment strategies of BGP and OSPF protocol in a distributed control plane of SDN. The simulation results show that our deployment strategies are superior to the traditional routing strategies.

  6. The Deployment of Routing Protocols in Distributed Control Plane of SDN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jingjing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Software defined network (SDN provides a programmable network through decoupling the data plane, control plane, and application plane from the original closed system, thus revolutionizing the existing network architecture to improve the performance and scalability. In this paper, we learned about the distributed characteristics of Kandoo architecture and, meanwhile, improved and optimized Kandoo’s two levels of controllers based on ideological inspiration of RCP (routing control platform. Finally, we analyzed the deployment strategies of BGP and OSPF protocol in a distributed control plane of SDN. The simulation results show that our deployment strategies are superior to the traditional routing strategies.

  7. A Bioinspired Adaptive Congestion-Avoidance Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional mobile Ad Hoc network routing protocols are mainly based on the Shortest Path, which possibly results in many congestion nodes that incur routing instability and rerouting. To mitigate the side-efforts, this paper proposed a new bioinspired adaptive routing protocol (ATAR based on a mathematics biology model ARAS. This paper improved the ARAS by reducing the randomness and by introducing a new routing-decision metric “the next-hop fitness” which was denoted as the congestion level of node and the length of routing path. In the route maintenance, the nodes decide to forward the data to next node according to a threshold value of the fitness. In the recovery phase, the node will adopt random manner to select the neighbor as the next hop by calculation of the improved ARAS. With this route mechanism, the ATAR could adaptively circumvent the congestion nodes and the rerouting action is taken in advance. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation results show that the ATAR protocol outperforms AODV and MARAS in terms of delivery ratio, ETE delay, and the complexity. In particular, ATAR can efficiently mitigate the congestion.

  8. Treatment of congestion in upper respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli O Meltzer

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Eli O Meltzer1, Fernan Caballero2, Leonard M Fromer3, John H Krouse4, Glenis Scadding51Allergy and Asthma Medical Group and Research Center, San Diego, CA and Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, USA; 2Allergy and Clinical Immunology Service, Centro Medico-Docente La Trinidad, Caracas, Venezuela; 3David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, USA; 4Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA; 5Department of Allergy and Rhinology, Royal National TNE Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Congestion, as a symptom of upper respiratory tract diseases including seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis, acute and chronic rhinosinusitis, and nasal polyposis, is principally caused by mucosal inflammation. Though effective pharmacotherapy options exist, no agent is universally efficacious; therapeutic decisions must account for individual patient preferences. Oral H1-antihistamines, though effective for the common symptoms of allergic rhinitis, have modest decongestant action, as do leukotriene receptor antagonists. Intranasal antihistamines appear to improve congestion better than oral forms. Topical decongestants reduce congestion associated with allergic rhinitis, but local adverse effects make them unsuitable for long-term use. Oral decongestants show some efficacy against congestion in allergic rhinitis and the common cold, and can be combined with oral antihistamines. Intranasal corticosteroids have broad anti-inflammatory activities, are the most potent long-term pharmacologic treatment of congestion associated with allergic rhinitis, and show some congestion relief in rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. Immunotherapy and surgery may be used in some cases refractory to pharmacotherapy. Steps in congestion management include (1 diagnosis of the cause(s, (2 patient education and monitoring, (3 avoidance of environmental triggers where possible, (4 pharmacotherapy, and (5 immunotherapy

  9. Protocol for the quality control systems of electronic portal imaging used in verification of radiotherapy treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre, Ileana; Alfonso, Rodolfo; Garcia, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Following the approach of quality control of radiotherapy equipment, conceived in the IAEA TECDOC-1151, we analyzed the different tests must be to an EPID to guarantee levels of accuracy required in the administration of radiation treatments, including the study of the impact of different parameters, geometric and dosimetric imaging, involved in the process. Established the types and frequency of checks, as well as procedures for their implementation, the allowable tolerances set of values records and forms for recording . Was carried out assessment protocol in various services based on amorphous silicon EPID for its applicability and scope. Was designed and validated in clinical practice protocol for EPID quality control, demonstrating its applicability with a minimum of material and human resources. It We concluded that with proper and systematic quality control program, tests including dosimetry, the EPID can provide valuable information about physico-beam dosimetry, and ensure adequate accuracy geometric in the patient's location. (author)

  10. Focus on renal congestion in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Baris; Ortiz, Alberto; Covic, Adrian; Solak, Yalcin; Goldsmith, David; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2016-02-01

    Hospitalizations due to heart failure are increasing steadily despite advances in medicine. Patients hospitalized for worsening heart failure have high mortality in hospital and within the months following discharge. Kidney dysfunction is associated with adverse outcomes in heart failure patients. Recent evidence suggests that both deterioration in kidney function and renal congestion are important prognostic factors in heart failure. Kidney congestion in heart failure results from low cardiac output (forward failure), tubuloglomerular feedback, increased intra-abdominal pressure or increased venous pressure. Regardless of the cause, renal congestion is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in heart failure. The impact on outcomes of renal decongestion strategies that do not compromise renal function should be explored in heart failure. These studies require novel diagnostic markers that identify early renal damage and renal congestion and allow monitoring of treatment responses in order to avoid severe worsening of renal function. In addition, there is an unmet need regarding evidence-based therapeutic management of renal congestion and worsening renal function. In the present review, we summarize the mechanisms, diagnosis, outcomes, prognostic markers and treatment options of renal congestion in heart failure.

  11. Evaluation of pulmonary congestion by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morooka, Nobuhiro; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yoshida, Hideo; Watanabe, Shigeru; Nakamura, Mamoru

    1980-01-01

    Pulmonary congestion and pulmonary water distribution of lung fields were evaluated by computed tomography (CT) in 31 patients with congestive heart failure and 19 normal subjects in the supine position. In normal subjects, no difference was noted in the CT value between levels of intercostal spaces as well as between right and left lung fields. CT values were greater in posterior lung fields than in anterior lung fields. A significant increase of CT values at both anterior and posterior lung fields was shown in patients with congestive heart failure compared to normal subjects. In congestive heart failure, pulmonary CT values were correlated with various clinical parameters in the order of chest X-ray findings, NYHA functional classification, venous pressure, right heart catheter findings and circulation time. CT values were decreased with the improvement of parameters by medical treatment. Thus, the increase of pulmonary CT values in patients with congestive heart failure indicated the increase of pulmonary blood content and pulmonary tissue edema in a unit volume. This method was particularly useful for the evaluation of pulmonary congestion and pulmonary water distribution. (author)

  12. Interaction Control Protocols for Distributed Multi-user Multi-camera Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth W Daniel

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Video-centred communication (e.g., video conferencing, multimedia online learning, traffic monitoring, and surveillance is becoming a customary activity in our lives. The management of interactions in such an environment is a complicated HCI issue. In this paper, we present our study on a collection of interaction control protocols for distributed multiuser multi-camera environments. These protocols facilitate different approaches to managing a user's entitlement for controlling a particular camera. We describe a web-based system that allows multiple users to manipulate multiple cameras in varying remote locations. The system was developed using the Java framework, and all protocols discussed have been incorporated into the system. Experiments were designed and conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of these protocols, and to enable the identification of various human factors in a distributed multi-user and multi-camera environment. This work provides an insight into the complexity associated with the interaction management in video-centred communication. It can also serve as a conceptual and experimental framework for further research in this area.

  13. Single dental implant retained mandibular complete dentures – influence of the loading protocol: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the years, there has been a strong consensus in dentistry that at least two implants are required to retain a complete mandibular denture. It has been shown in several clinical trials that one single median implant can retain a mandibular overdenture sufficiently well for up to 5 years without implant failures, when delayed loading was used. However, other trials have reported conflicting results with in part considerable failure rates when immediate loading was applied. Therefore it is the purpose of the current randomized clinical trial to test the hypothesis that immediate loading of a single mandibular midline implant with an overdenture will result in a comparable clinical outcome as using the standard protocol of delayed loading. Methods/design This prospective nine-center randomized controlled clinical trial is still ongoing. The final patient will complete the trial in 2016. In total, 180 edentulous patients between 60 and 89 years with sufficient complete dentures will receive one median implant in the edentulous mandible, which will retain the existing complete denture using a ball attachment. Loading of the median implant is either immediately after implant placement (experimental group) or delayed by 3 months of submerged healing at second-stage surgery (control group). Follow-up of patients will be performed for 24 months after implant loading. The primary outcome measure is non-inferiority of implant success rate of the experimental group compared to the control group. The secondary outcome measures encompass clinical, technical and subjective variables. The study was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German research foundation, KE 477/8-1). Discussion This multi-center clinical trial will give information on the ability of a single median implant to retain a complete mandibular denture when immediately loaded. If viable, this treatment option will strongly improve everyday dental practice. Trial registration The trial

  14. A transport layer protocol for the future high speed grid computing: SCTP versus fast tcp multihoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshad, M.J.; Mian, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is designed for reliable data transfer on the global Internet today. One of its strong points is its use of flow control algorithm that allows TCP to adjust its congestion window if network congestion is occurred. A number of studies and investigations have confirmed that traditional TCP is not suitable for each and every type of application, for example, bulk data transfer over high speed long distance networks. TCP sustained the time of low-capacity and short-delay networks, however, for numerous factors it cannot be capable to efficiently deal with today's growing technologies (such as wide area Grid computing and optical-fiber networks). This research work surveys the congestion control mechanism of transport protocols, and addresses the different issues involved for transferring the huge data over the future high speed Grid computing and optical-fiber networks. This work also presents the simulations to compare the performance of FAST TCP multihoming with SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol) multihoming in high speed networks. These simulation results show that FAST TCP multihoming achieves bandwidth aggregation efficiently and outperforms SCTP multihoming under a similar network conditions. The survey and simulation results presented in this work reveal that multihoming support into FAST TCP does provide a lot of benefits like redundancy, load-sharing and policy-based routing, which largely improves the whole performance of a network and can meet the increasing demand of the future high-speed network infrastructures (such as in Grid computing). (author)

  15. Flow control and routing techniques for integrated voice and data networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, O. C.

    1981-10-01

    We consider a model of integrated voice and data networks. In this model the network flow problem is formulated as a convex optimization problem. The objective function comprises two types of cost functions: the congestion cost functions, which limit the average input traffic to values compatible with the network conditions; and the rate limitation cost functions, which ensure that all conversations are fairly treated. A joint flow control and routing algorithm is constructed which determines the routes for each conversation, and effects flow control by setting voice packet lengths and data input rates in a manner that achieves optimal tradeoff between each user's satisfaction and the cost of network congestion. An additional congestion control protocol is specified which could be used in conjunction with the algorithm to make the latter respond more dynamically to network congestion.

  16. Software protocol design: Communication and control in a multi-task robot machine for ITER vacuum vessel assembly and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ming; Wu, Huapeng; Handroos, Heikki; Yang, Guangyou; Wang, Yongbo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A high-level protocol is proposed for the data inter-transmission. • The protocol design is task-oriented for the robot control in the software system. • The protocol functions as a role of middleware in the software. • The protocol running stand-alone as an independent process in the software provides greater security. • Providing a reference design protocol for the multi-task robot machine in the industry. - Abstract: A specific communication and control protocol for software design of a multi-task robot machine is proposed. In order to fulfill the requirements on the complicated multi machining functions and the high performance motion control, the software design of robot is divided into two main parts accordingly, which consists of the user-oriented HMI part and robot control-oriented real-time control system. The two parts of software are deployed in the different hardware for the consideration of run-time performance, which forms a client–server-control architecture. Therefore a high-level task-oriented protocol is designed for the data inter-communication between the HMI part and the control system part, in which all the transmitting data related to a machining task is divided into three categories: trajectory-oriented data, task control-oriented data and status monitoring-oriented data. The protocol consists of three sub-protocols accordingly – a trajectory protocol, task control protocol and status protocol – which are deployed over the Ethernet and run as independent processes in both the client and server computers. The protocols are able to manage the vast amounts of data streaming due to the multi machining functions in a more efficient way. Since the protocol is functioning in the software as a role of middleware, and providing the data interface standards for the developing groups of two parts of software, it also permits greater focus of both software parts developers on their own requirements-oriented design. By

  17. Software protocol design: Communication and control in a multi-task robot machine for ITER vacuum vessel assembly and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ming, E-mail: ming.li@lut.fi [Laboratory of Intelligent Machines, Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland); Wu, Huapeng; Handroos, Heikki [Laboratory of Intelligent Machines, Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland); Yang, Guangyou [School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan (China); Wang, Yongbo [Laboratory of Intelligent Machines, Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A high-level protocol is proposed for the data inter-transmission. • The protocol design is task-oriented for the robot control in the software system. • The protocol functions as a role of middleware in the software. • The protocol running stand-alone as an independent process in the software provides greater security. • Providing a reference design protocol for the multi-task robot machine in the industry. - Abstract: A specific communication and control protocol for software design of a multi-task robot machine is proposed. In order to fulfill the requirements on the complicated multi machining functions and the high performance motion control, the software design of robot is divided into two main parts accordingly, which consists of the user-oriented HMI part and robot control-oriented real-time control system. The two parts of software are deployed in the different hardware for the consideration of run-time performance, which forms a client–server-control architecture. Therefore a high-level task-oriented protocol is designed for the data inter-communication between the HMI part and the control system part, in which all the transmitting data related to a machining task is divided into three categories: trajectory-oriented data, task control-oriented data and status monitoring-oriented data. The protocol consists of three sub-protocols accordingly – a trajectory protocol, task control protocol and status protocol – which are deployed over the Ethernet and run as independent processes in both the client and server computers. The protocols are able to manage the vast amounts of data streaming due to the multi machining functions in a more efficient way. Since the protocol is functioning in the software as a role of middleware, and providing the data interface standards for the developing groups of two parts of software, it also permits greater focus of both software parts developers on their own requirements-oriented design. By

  18. Benefits from coordinating congestion management-The Nordic power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorndal, Mette; Joernsten, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    We consider the possibility of improving the utilization of the capacity of the Nordic transmission grid, by improving on the methods for congestion management. We use a simplified model of the Nordic power market, and different load-scenarios are developed in order to illustrate the effects. By improving the coordination of the system operator function, we may achieve that the actual bottlenecks, both as regards to the location and capacity, form the basis for the definition of price areas. This may result in a better partition of the grid, not necessarily following the borders between the control areas of today's system operators. We also consider solving intra zonal bottlenecks 'directly', through the area prices and 'indirectly' by 'moving' internal capacity constraints to the borders between price areas. The examples illustrate that this 'indirect' congestion management may be costly, and result in larger price differences than necessary

  19. Lung congestion in chronic heart failure: haemodynamic, clinical, and prognostic implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melenovsky, Vojtech; Andersen, Mads Jønsson; Andress, Krystof

    2015-01-01

    AIMS:The goal of the study was to examine the prognostic impact, haemodynamic and clinical features associated with lung congestion in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). METHODS AND RESULTS:HF patients (n = 186) and HF-free controls (n = 21) underwent right heart catheterization...... days (interquartile range 80-875), 59 patients (32%) died. Lung congestion was associated with reduced survival (P renal dysfunction. CONCLUSION:Interstitial lung oedema is associated with pulmonary vascular disease, RV overload...

  20. Weight-loss intervention using implementation intentions and mental imagery: a randomised control trial study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Hattar, Anne; Hagger, Martin S; Pal, Sebely

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are major health problems worldwide. This protocol describes the HEALTHI (Healthy Eating and Active LifesTyle Health Intervention) Program, a 12-week randomised-controlled weight-loss intervention that adopts two theory-based intervention techniques, mental imagery and implementation intentions, a behaviour-change technique based on planning that have been shown to be effective in promoting health-behaviour change in previous research. The effectiveness of go...

  1. Protocol for quality control of scanners used in the simulation of radiotherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanes, Yaima; Alfonso, Rodolfo; Silvestre, Ileana

    2009-01-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) has become the tool fundamental imaging of modern radiation therapy, to locate targets and critical organs and dose planning. Tomographs used for these purposes require strict assurance program quality, which differs in many aspects of monitoring required for diagnostic use only with intention. The aim of this work has been the design and validation of a quality control protocol applicable to any TAC used for simulation, radiotherapy planning. (author)

  2. A Structured Rehabilitation Protocol for Improved Multifunctional Prosthetic Control: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, Aidan Dominic; Vujaklija, Ivan; Amsüss, Sebastian; Sturma, Agnes; Göbel, Peter; Farina, Dario; Aszmann, Oskar C.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in robotic systems have resulted in prostheses for the upper limb that can produce multifunctional movements. However, these sophisticated systems require upper limb amputees to learn complex control schemes. Humans have the ability to learn new movements through imitation and other learning strategies. This protocol describes a structured rehabilitation method, which includes imitation, repetition, and reinforcement learning, and aims to assess if this method can improve multifuncti...

  3. Effects of two exercise protocols on postural balance of elderly women: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mesquita, Laiana Sep?lveda de Andrade; de Carvalho, Fabiana Texeira; Freire, Lara Sep?lveda de Andrade; Neto, Osmar Pinto; Z?ngaro, Renato Amaro

    2015-01-01

    Background The aging process reduces both sensory capabilities and the capabilities of the motor systems responsible for postural control, resulting in a high number of falls among the elderly. Some therapeutic interventions can directly interrupt this process, including physical exercise. This study compares and examines the effects of two exercise protocols on the balance of elderly women. Methods Elderly women who participated in a local church project (n?=?63) were randomly divided into t...

  4. Cryotherapy for acute ankle sprains: a randomised controlled study of two different icing protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, C M; McDonough, S M; MacAuley, D C; Bjordal, J

    2006-08-01

    The use of cryotherapy in the management of acute soft tissue injury is largely based on anecdotal evidence. Preliminary evidence suggests that intermittent cryotherapy applications are most effective at reducing tissue temperature to optimal therapeutic levels. However, its efficacy in treating injured human subjects is not yet known. To compare the efficacy of an intermittent cryotherapy treatment protocol with a standard cryotherapy treatment protocol in the management of acute ankle sprains. Sportsmen (n = 44) and members of the general public (n = 45) with mild/moderate acute ankle sprains. Subjects were randomly allocated, under strictly controlled double blind conditions, to one of two treatment groups: standard ice application (n = 46) or intermittent ice application (n = 43). The mode of cryotherapy was standardised across groups and consisted of melting iced water (0 degrees C) in a standardised pack. Function, pain, and swelling were recorded at baseline and one, two, three, four, and six weeks after injury. Subjects treated with the intermittent protocol had significantly (p<0.05) less ankle pain on activity than those using a standard 20 minute protocol; however, one week after ankle injury, there were no significant differences between groups in terms of function, swelling, or pain at rest. Intermittent applications may enhance the therapeutic effect of ice in pain relief after acute soft tissue injury.

  5. Physical aspects of quality assurance in radiotherapy: A protocol for quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, J.F.; Alfonso-Laguardia, R.; Andreo, P.; Brunetto, M.; Marenco-Zuniga, H.; Gutt, F.; Torres-Calderon, A.

    2000-06-01

    In consistency with the increasing requests from Member States for establishing radiotherapy programmes, an IAEA Technical Co-operation project was initiated in Latin America aimed at improving the physical aspects (as a complement to the clinical issues) of quality assurance in radiotherapy; this ARCAL XXX project (RLA/6/032) was classified as a Model Project of the IAEA. Among the important outcomes of the project were (i) the training of a considerable number of medical physicists in hospitals of the region, (ii) the development of a protocol for quality control procedures, and (iii) the organization of quality audit site visits (to the participant countries) where the implementation in hospitals of the developed quality control procedures is verified. The present publication is the protocol for quality control of the physical aspects of radiotherapy. It contains detailed procedures on what should be measured by a medical physicist in a radiotherapy treatment unit and related equipment, and how this should be made. The latter is made through several appendices, which make the document rather unique. The protocol was developed by medical physicists of the region for the professionals of the region, and it is the first document of this kind ever written in Spanish. A training course was organized in November 1998 (Havana, Cuba) where its practical implementation was taught. There are plans to have this document translated into different languages for the various regions having similar TC projects. (author)

  6. Traffic congestion and blood pressure elevation: A comparative cross-sectional study in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Samra, Patrick; El Tomb, Paul; Hosni, Mohammad; Kassem, Ahmad; Rizk, Robin; Shayya, Sami; Assaad, Sarah

    2017-12-01

    This comparative cross-sectional study examines the association between traffic congestion and elevation of systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure levels among a convenience sample of 310 drivers. Data collection took place during a gas station pause at a fixed time of day. Higher average systolic (142 vs 123 mm Hg) and diastolic (87 vs 78 mm Hg) blood pressures were detected among drivers exposed to traffic congestion compared with those who were not exposed (P<.001), while controlling for body mass index, age, sex, pack-year smoking, driving hours per week, and occupational driving. Moreover, among persons exposed to traffic congestion, longer exposure time was associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms of the significant association between elevated blood pressure and traffic congestion. ©2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Congestion transition in air traffic networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Monechi

    Full Text Available Air Transportation represents a very interesting example of a complex techno-social system whose importance has considerably grown in time and whose management requires a careful understanding of the subtle interplay between technological infrastructure and human behavior. Despite the competition with other transportation systems, a growth of air traffic is still foreseen in Europe for the next years. The increase of traffic load could bring the current Air Traffic Network above its capacity limits so that safety standards and performances might not be guaranteed anymore. Lacking the possibility of a direct investigation of this scenario, we resort to computer simulations in order to quantify the disruptive potential of an increase in traffic load. To this end we model the Air Transportation system as a complex dynamical network of flights controlled by humans who have to solve potentially dangerous conflicts by redirecting aircraft trajectories. The model is driven and validated through historical data of flight schedules in a European national airspace. While correctly reproducing actual statistics of the Air Transportation system, e.g., the distribution of delays, the model allows for theoretical predictions. Upon an increase of the traffic load injected in the system, the model predicts a transition from a phase in which all conflicts can be successfully resolved, to a phase in which many conflicts cannot be resolved anymore. We highlight how the current flight density of the Air Transportation system is well below the transition, provided that controllers make use of a special re-routing procedure. While the congestion transition displays a universal scaling behavior, its threshold depends on the conflict solving strategy adopted. Finally, the generality of the modeling scheme introduced makes it a flexible general tool to simulate and control Air Transportation systems in realistic and synthetic scenarios.

  8. Congestion transition in air traffic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monechi, Bernardo; Servedio, Vito D P; Loreto, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Air Transportation represents a very interesting example of a complex techno-social system whose importance has considerably grown in time and whose management requires a careful understanding of the subtle interplay between technological infrastructure and human behavior. Despite the competition with other transportation systems, a growth of air traffic is still foreseen in Europe for the next years. The increase of traffic load could bring the current Air Traffic Network above its capacity limits so that safety standards and performances might not be guaranteed anymore. Lacking the possibility of a direct investigation of this scenario, we resort to computer simulations in order to quantify the disruptive potential of an increase in traffic load. To this end we model the Air Transportation system as a complex dynamical network of flights controlled by humans who have to solve potentially dangerous conflicts by redirecting aircraft trajectories. The model is driven and validated through historical data of flight schedules in a European national airspace. While correctly reproducing actual statistics of the Air Transportation system, e.g., the distribution of delays, the model allows for theoretical predictions. Upon an increase of the traffic load injected in the system, the model predicts a transition from a phase in which all conflicts can be successfully resolved, to a phase in which many conflicts cannot be resolved anymore. We highlight how the current flight density of the Air Transportation system is well below the transition, provided that controllers make use of a special re-routing procedure. While the congestion transition displays a universal scaling behavior, its threshold depends on the conflict solving strategy adopted. Finally, the generality of the modeling scheme introduced makes it a flexible general tool to simulate and control Air Transportation systems in realistic and synthetic scenarios.

  9. Methods for CT automatic exposure control protocol translation between scanner platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Sarah E; Seibert, J Anthony; Lamba, Ramit; Boone, John M

    2014-03-01

    An imaging facility with a diverse fleet of CT scanners faces considerable challenges when propagating CT protocols with consistent image quality and patient dose across scanner makes and models. Although some protocol parameters can comfortably remain constant among scanners (eg, tube voltage, gantry rotation time), the automatic exposure control (AEC) parameter, which selects the overall mA level during tube current modulation, is difficult to match among scanners, especially from different CT manufacturers. Objective methods for converting tube current modulation protocols among CT scanners were developed. Three CT scanners were investigated, a GE LightSpeed 16 scanner, a GE VCT scanner, and a Siemens Definition AS+ scanner. Translation of the AEC parameters such as noise index and quality reference mAs across CT scanners was specifically investigated. A variable-diameter poly(methyl methacrylate) phantom was imaged on the 3 scanners using a range of AEC parameters for each scanner. The phantom consisted of 5 cylindrical sections with diameters of 13, 16, 20, 25, and 32 cm. The protocol translation scheme was based on matching either the volumetric CT dose index or image noise (in Hounsfield units) between two different CT scanners. A series of analytic fit functions, corresponding to different patient sizes (phantom diameters), were developed from the measured CT data. These functions relate the AEC metric of the reference scanner, the GE LightSpeed 16 in this case, to the AEC metric of a secondary scanner. When translating protocols between different models of CT scanners (from the GE LightSpeed 16 reference scanner to the GE VCT system), the translation functions were linear. However, a power-law function was necessary to convert the AEC functions of the GE LightSpeed 16 reference scanner to the Siemens Definition AS+ secondary scanner, because of differences in the AEC functionality designed by these two companies. Protocol translation on the basis of

  10. Optimal topology to minimizing congestion in connected communication complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyoussef, M.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    In this paper, a new model of the interdependent complex network is proposed, based on two assumptions that (i) the capacity of a node depends on its degree, and (ii) the traffic load depends on the distribution of the links in the network. Based on these assumptions, the presented model proposes a method of connection not based on the node having a higher degree but on the region containing hubs. It is found that the final network exhibits two kinds of degree distribution behavior, depending on the kind and the way of the connection. This study reveals a direct relation between network structure and traffic flow. It is found that pc the point of transition between the free flow and the congested phase depends on the network structure and the degree distribution. Moreover, this new model provides an improvement in the traffic compared to the results found in a single network. The same behavior of degree distribution found in a BA network and observed in the real world is obtained; except for this model, the transition point between the free phase and congested phase is much higher than the one observed in a network of BA, for both static and dynamic protocols.

  11. Non-fragile ?-? control for discrete-time stochastic nonlinear systems under event-triggered protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Ding, Derui; Zhang, Sunjie; Wei, Guoliang; Liu, Hongjian

    2018-07-01

    In this paper, the non-fragile ?-? control problem is investigated for a class of discrete-time stochastic nonlinear systems under event-triggered communication protocols, which determine whether the measurement output should be transmitted to the controller or not. The main purpose of the addressed problem is to design an event-based output feedback controller subject to gain variations guaranteeing the prescribed disturbance attenuation level described by the ?-? performance index. By utilizing the Lyapunov stability theory combined with S-procedure, a sufficient condition is established to guarantee both the exponential mean-square stability and the ?-? performance for the closed-loop system. In addition, with the help of the orthogonal decomposition, the desired controller parameter is obtained in terms of the solution to certain linear matrix inequalities. Finally, a simulation example is exploited to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed event-based controller design scheme.

  12. Implementing the Kyoto protocol in Europe: Interactions between international and Community controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabau, Anne-Sophie

    2011-07-01

    This bibliographical note presents a book which discusses the coexistence of the Kyoto protocol and of a regional regime within the European Union for the actual application of rules requiring mechanisms of control. The international regime implements a continuous monitoring which combines conventional techniques and more intrusive procedures. The European Community introduced a non-contentious mechanism with a large and strong law basis and sanction ability. The author assesses the ability of the monitoring system as a whole to ensure the very credibility of the Protocol. She also assesses the reliability of international and community economic tools which aim at reducing greenhouse gas emissions at a minimum cost. She also discusses the desirable evolutions of the regime of struggle against climate changes

  13. Spectrum sharing in cognitive radio networks medium access control protocol based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Pandit, Shweta

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses the use of the spectrum sharing techniques in cognitive radio technology, in order to address the problem of spectrum scarcity for future wireless communications. The authors describe a cognitive radio medium access control (MAC) protocol, with which throughput maximization has been achieved. The discussion also includes use of this MAC protocol for imperfect sensing scenarios and its effect on the performance of cognitive radio systems. The authors also discuss how energy efficiency has been maximized in this system, by applying a simple algorithm for optimizing the transmit power of the cognitive user. The study about the channel fading in the cognitive user and licensed user and power adaption policy in this scenario under peak transmit power and interference power constraint is also present in this book.

  14. Interfaces and Communication Protocols in ATCA-Based LLRF Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Dariusz; Koprek, Waldemar; Jezynski, Tomasz; Piotrowski, Adam; Jablonski, Grzegorz; Jalmuzna, Wojciech; Simrock, Stefan

    2009-10-01

    Linear accelerators driving Free Electron Lasers (FELs), such as the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) or the X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL), require sophisticated Low Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) control systems. The controller of the LLRF system should stabilize the phase and amplitude of the field in accelerating modules below 0.02% of the amplitude and 0.01 degree for phase tolerances to produce an ultra stable electron beam that meets the required conditions for Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE). Since the LLRF system for the XFEL must be in operation for the next 20 years, it should be reliable, reproducible and upgradeable. Having in mind all requirements of the LLRF control system, the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) has been chosen to build a prototype of the LLRF system for the FLASH accelerator that is able to supervise 32 cavities of one RF station. The LLRF controller takes advantage of features offered by the ATCA standard. The LLRF system consists of a few ATCA carrier blades, Rear Transition Modules (RTM) and several Advanced Mezzanine Cards (AMCs) that provide all necessary digital and analog hardware components. The distributed hardware of the LLRF system requires a number of communication links that should provide different latencies, bandwidths and protocols. The paper presents the general view of the ATC A-based LLRF system, discusses requirements and proposes an application for various interfaces and protocols in the distributed LLRF control system.

  15. Congestive Heart Failure and Central Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Scott A; Owens, Robert L

    2016-03-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is among the most common causes of admission to hospitals in the United States, especially in those over age 65. Few data exist regarding the prevalence CHF of Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) owing to congestive heart failure in the intensive care unit (ICU). Nevertheless, CSR is expected to be highly prevalent among those with CHF. Treatment should focus on the underlying mechanisms by which CHF increases loop gain and promotes unstable breathing. Few data are available to determine prevalence of CSR in the ICU, or how CSR might affect clinical management and weaning from mechanical ventilation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Control protocol: the proposed new CERN standard access procedure to accelerator equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baribaud, G.; Barnett, I.; Benincasa, G.

    1992-01-01

    Control protocol provides a normalized access procedure for equipment of the same kind from a control system. Modelisation and the subsequent identification of functionalities with their parameters, variables and attributes have now been carried out at CERN for representative families of devices. ISO specifications, such as the ASN.1 metalanguage for data structure representation and MMS definitions and services have, to some extent, been introduced in the design for generality and compatibility with external world. The final product of this design is totally independent of the control systems and permits object oriented implementations in any controls frame. The present paper describes the different phases of the project with a short overview of the various implementations under development at CERN. (author)

  17. Developing a dynamic virtual stimulation protocol to induce linear egomotion during orthostatic posture control test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Guimarães Da-Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In this work, the effect of a dynamic visual stimulation (DS protocol was used to induce egomotion, the center of pressure (COP displacement response. Methods DS was developed concerning the scenario structure (chessboard-pattern floor and furniture and luminance. To move the scenario in a discrete forward (or backward direction, the furniture is expanded (or reduced and the black and white background is reversed during floor translation while the luminance is increased (or reduced by steps of 2 cd/m2. This protocol was evaluated using COP signals from 29 healthy volunteers: standing on a force platform observing the virtual scene (1.72 × 1.16 m projected 1 m ahead (visual incidence angle: θl = 81.4° and θv = 60.2°, which moves with constant velocity (2 m/s during 250 ms. A set of 100 DS was applied in random order, interspersed by a 10 s of static scene. Results The Tukey post-hoc test (p < 0.001 indicated egomotion in the same direction of DS. COP displacement increased over stimulation (8.4 ± 1.7 to 22.6 ±5.3 mm, as well as time to recover stability (4.1 ± 0.4 to 7.2 ± 0.6 s. The peak of egomotion during DSF occurred 200 ms after DSB (Wilcoxon, p = 0.002. Conclusion The dynamic configuration of this protocol establishes virtual flow effects of linear egomotion dependent on the direction of the dynamic visual stimulation. This finding indicates the potential application of the proposed virtual dynamic stimulation protocol to investigate the cortical visual evoked response in postural control studies.

  18. Real time driver information for congestion management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Traffic demand in the U.S. has grown substantially over the past few years because of the increase in population and : urbanization in large cities. This causes traffic congestion to spread out over U.S. highways and arterials, and subsequently : lea...

  19. Measuring accessibility and congestion in Accra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse; Kofie, Richard Y.; Allotey, Albert N.M.

    2012-01-01

    Based on extensive gps-measurements, the paper addresses the level of intra-urban accessibility and provides indications of the level of congestion in Accra, Ghana. Traffic flows within the urban area are analyzed with respect to speed, time-of-day, direction, road type and land cover type. The s...... and less during off-peak hours. Delays are frequently found within the inner fringe areas. The paper discusses the methodological potentials and barriers for applying gps tracklog points for analysing traffic flows within an urban road network........ The speed information is extrapolated to cover the total mapped urban road net¬work with time- and direction-specific data. A series of time-distance maps are created using network analysis to illustrate the level of accessibility at different times of the day and at different directions relative...... to the city centre. Peak hour traffic speeds are compared with off-peak levels and theoretical free-flow estimations to provide an indica-tion of the level of congestion. It is found that the core areas are somewhat congested during the day period, while the fringe areas are more congested during peak hours...

  20. Update in cardiomyopathies and congestive heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Heart Hospital, London, UK and Monaldi Hospital, Naples, Italy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This abstract book contains four reports and all abstracts presented to the Joint Meeting: Update in cardiomyopathies and congestive heart failure, 22-23 September 2011 - Naples, Italy, endorsed by the Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases (WG 21 of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC.

  1. The "Healthy Habits, Healthy Girls" randomized controlled trial for girls: study design, protocol, and baseline results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Ana Carolina Barco; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the study design, protocol, and baseline results of the "Healthy Habits, Healthy Girls" program. The intervention is being evaluated through a randomized controlled trial in 10 public schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Data on the following variables were collected and assessed at baseline and will be reevaluated at 7 and 12 months: body mass index, waist circumference, dietary intake, nutrition, physical activity, social cognitive mediators, physical activity level, sedentary behaviors, self-rated physical status, and overall self-esteem. According to the baseline results, 32.4% and 23.4% of girls were overweight in the intervention and control groups, respectively, and in both groups a higher percentage failed to meet daily recommendations for moderate and vigorous physical activity and maximum screen time (TV, computer, mobile devices). There were no significant differences between the groups for most of the variables, except age (p = 0.000) and waist circumference (p = 0.014). The study showed a gap in the Brazilian literature on protocols for randomized controlled trials to prevent obesity among youth. The current study may thus be an important initial contribution to the field.

  2. Cyber Security in Industrial Control Systems and SCADA Applications: Modbus TCP Protocol Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal IRMAK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrical energy generation, transmission and distribution systems are evaluated in terms of national security dimension and defined as critical infrastructures. Monitoring and controlling of these systems is provided by Industrial Control Systems (ICS or Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA systems. According to the latest advances in communication and internet technology, ICS/SCADA systems have started to become integrated with these systems. As a result of this situation, current or existing vulnerabilities in information and communication technology affect to SCADA systems directly. Therefore, this paper focuses on the cyber security of ICS/SCADA systems. It has been proved that the lack of authentication detected in Modbus TCP protocol, one of the most used in ICS/SCADA systems, can be exploited. In order to solve this security issue, a software is developed using the Python programming language for blocking or mitigating the cyber attacks. The proposed solution is subjected to several tests and results show that the attacks can be prevented successfully. Thus, it is considered that the proposed work will contribute to the security of ICS/SCADA systems and the industrial protocols using for communicating these systems.

  3. Automated respiratory therapy system based on the ARDSNet protocol with systemic perfusion control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomprapa Anake

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A medical expert system of automatic artificial ventilation is set up in a star topology with additional closed-loop hemodynamic control. Arterial blood pressure (MAP is controlled by noradrenaline (NA as a controlling variable. The overall patient-in-the-loop expert system can intensively and intelligently perform a long-term treatment based on the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network (ARDSNet protocol. Three main goals are actively carried out, namely the stabilization and regulation of oxygenation, plateau pressure and blood pH value. The developed system shows a distinctive experimental result based on a 31.5-kg pig, in order to fulfil the ventilatory goals and to ensure proper systemic perfusion. Hence, this system has enormous potentials to realize a commercial system for individual patient with ARDS.

  4. How Congested Jakarta is? Perception of Jakarta’s Citizen on Traffic Congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Halley Yudhistira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to reveal the behavior and perception of Jakarta’s citizens on traffic congestion in Jakarta. Although this approach is somewhat well-developed in behavioral science, its utilization in urban economics study, is still limited. Detecting the traffic congestion and its cause mainly relies on physical (engineering methods, i.e V/C ratio. Here, we define the traffic congestion through two variables; ordinal traffic congestion perception and proportion of expected travel time to perceived travel time. Using a non-probabilistic sampling survey held in one of densest business district in Jakarta called Sudirman-Thamrin Golden Triangle Area; the estimation results show that travel behavior plays a major role in affecting travel time perceptions.

  5. The economic cost of traffic congestion in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Traffic congestion in the U.S. is bad and getting worse, and it is expensive. Appropriate solutions to this problem require appropriate information. A comprehensive and accurate analysis of congestion costs is a critical tool for planning and impleme...

  6. Statewide GIS mapping of recurring congestion corridors : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Recurring congestion occurs when travel demand reaches or exceeds the available roadway : capacity. This project developed an interactive geographic information system (GIS) map of the : recurring congestion corridors (labeled herein as hotspots) in ...

  7. "hCG priming" effect in controlled ovarian stimulation through a long protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antsaklis Aris

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, it has been demonstrated that, in patients down-regulated by GnRH analogues (GnRHa, a short-term pre-treatment with recombinant LH (rLH, prior to recombinant FSH (rFSH administration, increases the number of small antral follicle prior to FSH stimulation and the yield of normally fertilized embryos. However, no data exist in the literature regarding the potential beneficial effect of "hCG priming" in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH through a long GnRH-a protocol, which binds the same receptor (LH/hCGR, though it is a much more potent compared to LH. The primary aims of this study were to assess the effect of short-term pre-rFSH administration of hCG in women entering an ICSI treatment cycle on follicular development, quality of oocytes and early embryo development. The secondary endpoints were to record the effects on endometrial quality and pregnancy rate. Methods Patients with a history of at least one previous unsuccessful ICSI cycle were randomly assigned into two groups to receive treatment with either a long protocol with rFSH (control group or a long protocol with rFSH and pre-treatment with hCG (hCG group. In particular, in the latter group, a fixed 7 days course of 200 IU/day hCG was administered as soon as pituitary desensitization was confirmed. Results The mean number of oocytes retrieved was not significantly different between the two treatment groups, although the percentage of mature oocytes tended to be higher but not significantly different in hCG-treated patients. The percentage of patients with more than one grade 3 embryos was higher in the pre-treatment group, which also showed a higher pregnancy rate. Conclusion All the above clinical observations, in conjunction with previous data, suggest a point towards a beneficial "hCG priming" effect in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation through a long GnRH-a down-regulation protocol, particularly in patients with previous ART failures.

  8. Implementation of the quality control protocol in Crawls; Puesta en marcha del protocolo de control de calidad en rastreos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambroa Rey, E. M.; Gimenez Insua, M.; Vazquez Vazquez, R.; Sanchez Garcia, M.; Luna Vega, V.; Mosquera Suero, J.; Otero Martinez, C.; Lobato Busto, R.; Pombar Camean, M.

    2013-07-01

    Bone scintigraphy is a test widely used in Nuclear Medicine of our service. 33% of the tests performed are of this type, so it is necessary to develop a specific quality control protocol for the tracking of the gamma camera acquisitions. This type of procurement means the mechanical movement of the stretcher, with a static initial phase in which the movement of the stretcher is replaced by the gradual opening of the field of view (electronic window). This creates the density of accounts to be uniform throughout the study. The presence of a movement mechanical and co-registration with the static phase implies the need for specific tests. (Author)

  9. C-DAM: CONTENTION BASED DISTRIBUTED RESERVATION PROTOCOL ALLOCATION ALGORITHM FOR WIMEDIA MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UMADEVI K. S.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available WiMedia Medium Access Control (MAC provides high rate data transfer for wireless networking thereby enables construction of high speed home networks. It facilitates data communication between the nodes through two modes namely: i Distributed Reservation Protocol (DRP for isochronous traffic and ii Prioritized Contention Access (PCA for asynchronous traffic. PCA mode enables medium access using CSMA/CA similar to IEEE 802.11e. In the presence of DRP, the throughput of PCA saturates when there is an increase in the number of devices accessing PCA channel. Researchers suggest that the better utilization of medium resolves many issues in an effective way. To demonstrate the effective utilization of the medium, Contention Based Distributed Reservation Protocol Allocation Algorithm for WiMedia Medium Access Control is proposed for reserving Medium Access Slots under DRP in the presence of PCA. The proposed algorithm provides a better medium access, reduces energy consumption and enhances the throughput when compared to the existing methodologies.

  10. Performance Evaluation of TDMA Medium Access Control Protocol in Cognitive Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Enes Bayrakdar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio paradigm has been revealed as a new communication technology that shares channels in wireless networks. Channel assignment is a crucial issue in the field of cognitive wireless networks because of the spectrum scarcity. In this work, we have evaluated the performance of TDMA medium access control protocol. In our simulation scenarios, primary users and secondary users utilize TDMA as a medium access control protocol. We have designed a network environment in Riverbed simulation software that consists of primary users, secondary users, and base stations. In our system model, secondary users sense the spectrum and inform the base station about empty channels. Then, the base station decides accordingly which secondary user may utilize the empty channel. Energy detection technique is employed as a spectrum sensing technique because it is the best when information about signal of primary user is acquired. Besides, different number of users is selected in simulation scenarios in order to obtain accurate delay and throughput results. Comparing analytical model with simulation results, we have shown that performance analysis of our system model is consistent and accurate.

  11. Driving with a congestion assistant : mental workload and acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookhuis, K.A.; Driel, C. J.G. van; Hof, T.; Arem, B. van; Hoedemaeker, M.

    2009-01-01

    New driver support systems are developed and introduced to the market at increasing speed. In conditions of traffic congestion drivers may be supported by a" Congestion Assistant", a system that combines the features of a Congestion Warning System (acoustic warning and gas pedal counterforce) and a

  12. Busy hour traffic congestion analysis in mobile macrocells | Ozovehe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, real live traffic data from integrated GSM/GPRS network was used for traffic congestion analysis. The analysis was carried out on 10 congesting cells using network management system (NMS) statistics data span for three years period. Correlation test showed that traffic channel (TCH) congestion depend only ...

  13. Contemporary approaches to congestion pricing : lessons learned from the national evaluation of congestion pricing strategies at six sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This document represents the final report of the national evaluation of congestion reduction strategies at six sites that received federal funding under the Urban Partnership Agreement (UPA) and Congestion Reduction Demonstration (CRD) programs. The ...

  14. Dry needling in a manual physiotherapy and therapeutic exercise protocol for patients with chronic mechanical shoulder pain of unspecific origin: a protocol for a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejera-Falcón, Emma; Toledo-Martel, Nuria Del Carmen; Sosa-Medina, Francisco Manuel; Santana-González, Fátima; Quintana-de la Fe, Miriam Del Pino; Gallego-Izquierdo, Tomás; Pecos-Martín, Daniel

    2017-09-18

    Shoulder pain of musculoskeletal origin is the main cause of upper limb pain of non-traumatic origin. Despite being one of the most common reasons for consultation, there is no established protocol for treatment due to the complexity of its etiology. However, it has been shown that the presence of myofascial trigger points on the shoulder muscles is a common condition associated with patients suffering from shoulder pain. This protocol has been created which describes the design of a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the inclusion of dry needling (DN) within a protocol of manual physiotherapy and therapeutic exercise in the treatment of chronic shoulder pain of unspecific origin. Thirty-six participants aged 18-65 years will be recruited having mechanical chronic shoulder pain on unspecific origin and meeting the inclusion criteria. These will be randomized to one of two interventions, (i) DN, manual physiotherapy and therapeutic exercise or (ii) sham DN, manual physiotherapy and therapeutic exercise. The protocol will cover 6 weeks of treatment, with a 6-month follow-up. Our main outcome measure will be the Visual Analogue Scale for pain. This is the first study to combine the use of DN, manual physiotherapy and an exercise program with a 6-month follow-up, thus becoming a new contribution to the treatment of chronic shoulder pain, while new lines of research may be established to help determine the effects of DN on chronic shoulder pain and the frequency and proper dosage. International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number Register: ISRCTN30604244 ( http://www.controlled-trials.com ) 29 June 2016.

  15. Protocol of a Multicenter International Randomized Controlled Manikin Study on Different Protocols of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation for laypeople (MANI-CPR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Enrico; Contri, Enrico; Burkart, Roman; Borrelli, Paola; Ferraro, Ottavia Eleonora; Tonani, Michela; Cutuli, Amedeo; Bertaia, Daniele; Iozzo, Pasquale; Tinguely, Caroline; Lopez, Daniel; Boldarin, Susi; Deiuri, Claudio; Dénéréaz, Sandrine; Dénéréaz, Yves; Terrapon, Michael; Tami, Christian; Cereda, Cinzia; Somaschini, Alberto; Cornara, Stefano; Cortegiani, Andrea

    2018-04-19

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is one of the leading causes of death in industrialised countries. Survival depends on prompt identification of cardiac arrest and on the quality and timing of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation. For laypeople, there has been a growing interest on hands-only CPR, meaning continuous chest compression without interruption to perform ventilations. It has been demonstrated that intentional interruptions in hands-only CPR can increase its quality. The aim of this randomised trial is to compare three CPR protocols performed with different intentional interruptions with hands-only CPR. This is a prospective randomised trial performed in eight training centres. Laypeople who passed a basic life support course will be randomised to one of the four CPR protocols in an 8 min simulated cardiac arrest scenario on a manikin: (1) 30 compressions and 2 s pause; (2) 50 compressions and 5 s pause; (3) 100 compressions and 10 s pause; (4) hands-only. The calculated sample size is 552 people. The primary outcome is the percentage of chest compression performed with correct depth evaluated by a computerised feedback system (Laerdal QCPR). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: . Due to the nature of the study, we obtained a waiver from the Ethics Committee (IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy). All participants will sign an informed consent form before randomisation. The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journal. The data collected will also be made available in a public data repository. NCT02632500. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Monitoring of high voltage supply using the Controller Area Network protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luz, Igo Amauri dos S.; Farias, Paulo Cesar M.A.; Guedes, Germano P. [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS), BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: In recent years, experimental physics has made great progress in the investigation of the phenomenology of neutrinos, with significant contribution from experiments using nuclear reactors as source of particles. In this context, The Neutrinos Angra Project proposes the use of an anti-neutrinos detector with ability to monitor parameters related to the activity of nuclear reactors. One of the tasks defined in the project is the development of a system to control and to monitor the high voltage supply units used by the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) of the detector. The solution proposed in this work is based on the use of microcontrollers, from Microchip PIC family to adjust the operating point of the high voltage supply units and to acquire the current and output voltage data. Analysis of these data allows the effective control of the gain of the PMTs and to identify anomalous operational conditions. In this work is proposed the study of the Controller Area Network (CAN) protocol and the implementation of a laboratory network to reproduce the typical operations of data acquisition and information transfer between the nodes. The development of this network is divided in two stages. The first part consisted of the setup of a CAN network, using the PIC18F2680 microcontroller, which has the CAN protocol internally implemented. This network serves as a reduced model of the final system, allowing simulation of typical situations of data acquisition and transmission between the nodes and a computer. In the second part of the work, the PIC18F4550 microcontroller was associated with the external CAN controller MCP2515 to develop a CAN/USB converter. This converter provides a new communication channel between network nodes and the computer, in addition to the RS232 interface. (author)

  17. A Game-Theoretic Approach to Information-Flow Control via Protocol Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário S. Alvim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the inference attacks studied in Quantitative Information Flow (QIF, the attacker typically tries to interfere with the system in the attempt to increase its leakage of secret information. The defender, on the other hand, typically tries to decrease leakage by introducing some controlled noise. This noise introduction can be modeled as a type of protocol composition, i.e., a probabilistic choice among different protocols, and its effect on the amount of leakage depends heavily on whether or not this choice is visible to the attacker. In this work, we consider operators for modeling visible and hidden choice in protocol composition, and we study their algebraic properties. We then formalize the interplay between defender and attacker in a game-theoretic framework adapted to the specific issues of QIF, where the payoff is information leakage. We consider various kinds of leakage games, depending on whether players act simultaneously or sequentially, and on whether or not the choices of the defender are visible to the attacker. In the case of sequential games, the choice of the second player is generally a function of the choice of the first player, and his/her probabilistic choice can be either over the possible functions (mixed strategy or it can be on the result of the function (behavioral strategy. We show that when the attacker moves first in a sequential game with a hidden choice, then behavioral strategies are more advantageous for the defender than mixed strategies. This contrasts with the standard game theory, where the two types of strategies are equivalent. Finally, we establish a hierarchy of these games in terms of their information leakage and provide methods for finding optimal strategies (at the points of equilibrium for both attacker and defender in the various cases.

  18. Genetic test feedback with weight control advice: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisel Susanne F

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic testing for risk of weight gain is already available over the internet despite uncertain benefits and concerns about adverse emotional or behavioral effects. Few studies have assessed the effect of adding genetic test feedback to weight control advice, even though one of the proposed applications of genetic testing is to stimulate preventive action. This study will investigate the motivational effect of adding genetic test feedback to simple weight control advice in a situation where weight gain is relatively common. Methods/design First-year university students (n = 800 will be randomized to receive either 1 their personal genetic test result for a gene (FTO related to weight gain susceptibility in addition to a leaflet with simple weight control advice (‘Feedback + Advice’ group, FA, or 2 only the leaflet containing simple weight control advice (‘Advice Only’ group, AO. Motivation to avoid weight gain and active use of weight control strategies will be assessed one month after receipt of the leaflet with or without genetic test feedback. Weight and body fat will be measured at baseline and eight months follow-up. We will also assess short-term psychological reactions to the genetic test result. In addition, we will explore interactions between feedback condition and gene test status. Discussion We hope to provide a first indication of the clinical utility of weight-related genetic test feedback in the prevention context. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN91178663

  19. Alleviate Cellular Congestion Through Opportunistic Trough Filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichuan Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for cellular data service has been skyrocketing since the debut of data-intensive smart phones and touchpads. However, not all data are created equal. Many popular applications on mobile devices, such as email synchronization and social network updates, are delay tolerant. In addition, cellular load varies significantly in both large and small time scales. To alleviate network congestion and improve network performance, we present a set of opportunistic trough filling schemes that leverage the time-variation of network congestion and delay-tolerance of certain traffic in this paper. We consider average delay, deadline, and clearance time as the performance metrics. Simulation results show promising performance improvement over the standard schemes. The work shed lights on addressing the pressing issue of cellular overload.

  20. Can complexity decrease in congestive heart failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sayan; Palit, Sanjay Kumar; Banerjee, Santo; Ariffin, M. R. K.; Rondoni, Lamberto; Bhattacharya, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    The complexity of a signal can be measured by the Recurrence period density entropy (RPDE) from the reconstructed phase space. We have chosen a window based RPDE method for the classification of signals, as RPDE is an average entropic measure of the whole phase space. We have observed the changes in the complexity in cardiac signals of normal healthy person (NHP) and congestive heart failure patients (CHFP). The results show that the cardiac dynamics of a healthy subject is more complex and random compare to the same for a heart failure patient, whose dynamics is more deterministic. We have constructed a general threshold to distinguish the border line between a healthy and a congestive heart failure dynamics. The results may be useful for wide range for physiological and biomedical analysis.

  1. Overriding follicle selection in controlled ovarian stimulation protocols: Quality vs quantity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelinski-Wooten Mary B

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Selection of the species-specific number of follicles that will develop and ovulate during the ovarian cycle can be overridden by increasing the levels of pituitary gonadotropin hormones, FSH and LH. During controlled ovarian stimulation (COS in nonhuman primates for assisted reproductive technology (ART protocols, the method of choice (but not the only method has been the administration of exogenous gonadotropins, either of nonprimate or primate origin. Due to species-specificity of the primate LH (but not FSH receptor, COS with nonprimate (e.g., PMSG hormones can be attributed to their FSH activity. Elevated levels of FSH alone will produce large antral follicles containing oocytes capable of fertilization in vitro (IVF. However, there is evidence that LH, probably in lesser amounts, increases the rate of follicular development, reduces heterogeneity of the antral follicle pool, and improves the viability and rate of pre-implantation development of IVF-produced embryos. Since an endogenous LH surge typically does not occur during COS cycles (especially when a GnRH antagonist is added, a large dose of an LH-like hormone (i.e., hCG may be given to reinitiate meiosis and produce fertilizable oocytes. Alternate approaches using exogenous LH (or FSH, or GnRH agonist to induce an endogenous LH surge, have received lesser attention. Current protocols will routinely yield dozens of large follicles with fertilizable eggs. However, limitations include non/poor-responding animals, heterogeneity of follicles (and presumably oocytes and subsequent short luteal phases (limiting embryo transfer in COS cycles. However, the most serious limitation to further improvements and expanded use of COS protocols for ART is the lack of availability of nonhuman primate gonadotropins. Human, and even more so, nonprimate gonadotropins are antigenic in monkeys, which limits the number of COS cycles to as few as 1 (PMSG or 3 (recombinant hCG protocols in macaques

  2. An Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network Using Double Trapdoor Chameleon Hash Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejeshwari Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN, a type of communication system, is normally deployed into the unattended environment where the intended user can get access to the network. The sensor nodes collect data from this environment. If the data are valuable and confidential, then security measures are needed to protect them from the unauthorized access. This situation requires an access control protocol (ACP in the design of sensor network because of sensor nodes which are vulnerable to various malicious attacks during the authentication and key establishment and the new node addition phase. In this paper, we propose a secured ACP for such WSN. This protocol is based on Elliptic Curve Discrete Log Problem (ECDLP and double trapdoor chameleon hash function which secures the WSN from malicious attacks such as node masquerading attack, replay attack, man-in-the-middle attack, and forgery attacks. Proposed ACP has a special feature known as session key security. Also, the proposed ACP is more efficient as it requires only one modular multiplication during the initialization phase.

  3. Interreality for the management and training of psychological stress: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychological stress occurs when an individual perceives that environmental demands tax or exceed his or her adaptive capacity. Its association with severe health and emotional diseases, points out the necessity to find new efficient strategies to treat it. Moreover, psychological stress is a very personal problem and requires training focused on the specific needs of individuals. To overcome the above limitations, the INTERSTRESS project suggests the adoption of a new paradigm for e-health - Interreality - that integrates contextualized assessment and treatment within a hybrid environment, bridging the physical and the virtual worlds. According to this premise, the aim of this study is to investigate the advantages of using advanced technologies, in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), based on a protocol for reducing psychological stress. Methods/Design The study is designed as a randomized controlled trial. It includes three groups of approximately 50 subjects each who suffer from psychological stress: (1) the experimental group, (2) the control group, (3) the waiting list group. Participants included in the experimental group will receive a treatment based on cognitive behavioral techniques combined with virtual reality, biofeedback and mobile phone, while the control group will receive traditional stress management CBT-based training, without the use of new technologies. The wait-list group will be reassessed and compared with the two other groups five weeks after the initial evaluation. After the reassessment, the wait-list patients will randomly receive one of the two other treatments. Psychometric and physiological outcomes will serve as quantitative dependent variables, while subjective reports of participants will be used as the qualitative dependent variable. Discussion What we would like to show with the present trial is that bridging virtual experiences, used to learn coping skills and emotional regulation, with real

  4. Nitrendipine binding in congestive heart failure due to myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, I.M.; Lee, S.L.; Dhalla, N.S.

    1990-01-01

    Depressed cardiac pump function is the hallmark of congestive heart failure, and it is suspected that decreased influx of Ca2+ into the cardiac cell is responsible for depressed contractile function. Since Ca2+ channels in the sarcolemmal membrane are considered to be an important route for the entry of Ca2+, we examined the status of Ca2+ receptors/channels in failing rat hearts after myocardial infarction of the left ventricular free wall. For this purpose, the left coronary artery was ligated and hearts were examined 4, 8, and 16 weeks later; sham-operated animals served as controls. Hemodynamic assessment revealed decreased total mechanical energy (left ventricular systolic pressure x heart rate), increased left ventricular diastolic pressure, and decreased positive and negative dP/dt in experimental animals at 4, 8, and 16 weeks. Although accumulation of ascites in the abdominal cavity was evident at 4 weeks, other clinical signs of congestive heart failure in experimental rats were evident from the presence of lung congestion and cardiac dilatation at 8 and 16 weeks after induction of myocardial infarction. The density of Ca2+ receptors/channels in crude membranes, as assessed by [3H]nitrendipine binding assay, was found to be decreased in the uninfarcted experimental left ventricle at 8 and 16 weeks; however, no change in the affinity of nitrendipine was evident. A similar depression in the specific binding of another dihydropyridine compound, [3H]PN200-110, was also evident in failing hearts. Brain and skeletal muscle crude membrane preparations, unlike those of the right ventricle and liver, revealed a decrease in Ca2+ receptors/channels density in experimental animals at 16 weeks

  5. How Smog Awareness Influences Public Acceptance of Congestion Charge Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyi Zhou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although various studies have investigated public acceptance of congestion charge policies, most of them have focused on behavioral and policy-related factors, and did not consider the moderating influence that individual concern about smog and perceived smog risk may have on public acceptance. This paper takes the congestion charge policy in China, targeted at smog and traffic control, and checks how smog awareness—including smog concerns and perceived smog risks, besides behavioral and policy-related factors—might influence public acceptance of the policy. In this paper, we found both a direct and moderating causal relationship between smog awareness and public acceptance. Based on a sample of 574 valid questionnaires in Beijing and Shanghai in 2016, an ordered logistic regression modeling approach was used to delineate the causality between smog awareness and public acceptance. We found that both smog concerns, such as perceived smog risk, and willingness to pay (WTP were both directly and indirectly positively correlated with public acceptance. These findings imply that policymakers should increase policy fairness with environmental-oriented policy design and should express potential policy effectiveness of the smog controlling policy to citizens to increase their acceptance level.

  6. Optimal Tradable Credits Scheme and Congestion Pricing with the Efficiency Analysis to Congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We allow for three traffic scenarios: the tradable credits scheme, congestion pricing, and no traffic measure. The utility functions of different modes (car, bus, and bicycle are developed by considering the income’s impact on travelers’ behaviors. Their purpose is to analyze the demand distribution of different modes. A social optimization model is built aiming at maximizing the social welfare. The optimal tradable credits scheme (distribution of credits, credits charging, and the credit price, congestion pricing fees, bus frequency, and bus fare are obtained by solving the model. Mode choice behavior under the tradable credits scheme is also studied. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the model’s availability and explore the effects of the three schemes on traffic system’s performance. Results show congestion pricing would earn more social welfare than the other traffic measures. However, tradable credits scheme will give travelers more consumer surplus than congestion pricing. Travelers’ consumer surplus with congestion pricing is the minimum, which injures the travelers’ benefits. Tradable credits scheme is considered the best scenario by comparing the three scenarios’ efficiency.

  7. Increasing walking in patients with intermittent claudication: Protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Carroll Ronan E

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with intermittent claudication are at increased risk of death from heart attack and stroke compared to matched controls. Surgery for intermittent claudication is for symptom management and does not reduce the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Increasing physical activity can reduce claudication symptoms and may improve cardiovascular health. This paper presents the pilot study protocol for a randomised controlled trial to test whether a brief psychological intervention leads to increased physical activity, improvement in quality of life, and a reduction in the demand for surgery, for patients with intermittent claudication. Methods/Design We aim to recruit 60 patients newly diagnosed with intermittent claudication, who will be randomised into two groups. The control group will receive usual care, and the treatment group will receive usual care and a brief 2-session psychological intervention to modify illness and walking beliefs and develop a walking action plan. The primary outcome will be walking, measured by pedometer. Secondary outcomes will include quality of life and uptake of surgery for symptom management. Participants will be followed up after (a 4 months, (b 1 year and (c 2 years. Discussion This study will assess the acceptability and efficacy of a brief psychological intervention to increase walking in patients with intermittent claudication, both in terms of the initiation, and maintenance of behaviour change. This is a pilot study, and the results will inform the design of a larger multi-centre trial. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN28051878

  8. Remote upgrade and control system of NAT crossing based on mail protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new scheme which uses transmits information such as related IP address and port by the mail server POP3 and SMTP protocol to realize net address turning (NAT crossing.The UDP connection between client and device node is realized by using "burrow" technology.Compared to the scheme that uses procedure server to realize NAT crossing schemes by the "burrow" technology,our scheme has advantages of saving operating costs,improving the stability of the system and enhancing the transferability of the system.With multiple equipment node,and a variety of network environment,we introduces the firmware update module,designs and realizes the remote upgrade and the control system of an intelligent device of Internet of Things based on the proposed scheme,and discusses the robustness of the system.

  9. Energy Efficient Medium Access Control Protocol for Clustered Wireless Sensor Networks with Adaptive Cross-Layer Scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefuba, Maria; Walingo, Tom; Takawira, Fambirai

    2015-09-18

    This paper presents an Energy Efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for clustered wireless sensor networks that aims to improve energy efficiency and delay performance. The proposed protocol employs an adaptive cross-layer intra-cluster scheduling and an inter-cluster relay selection diversity. The scheduling is based on available data packets and remaining energy level of the source node (SN). This helps to minimize idle listening on nodes without data to transmit as well as reducing control packet overhead. The relay selection diversity is carried out between clusters, by the cluster head (CH), and the base station (BS). The diversity helps to improve network reliability and prolong the network lifetime. Relay selection is determined based on the communication distance, the remaining energy and the channel quality indicator (CQI) for the relay cluster head (RCH). An analytical framework for energy consumption and transmission delay for the proposed MAC protocol is presented in this work. The performance of the proposed MAC protocol is evaluated based on transmission delay, energy consumption, and network lifetime. The results obtained indicate that the proposed MAC protocol provides improved performance than traditional cluster based MAC protocols.

  10. Effectiveness of a transdiagnostic internet-based protocol for the treatment of emotional disorders versus treatment as usual in specialized care: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Robles, Alberto; García-Palacios, Azucena; Baños, Rosa; Riera, Antonio; Llorca, Ginés; Traver, Francisco; Haro, Gonzalo; Palop, Vicente; Lera, Guillem; Romeu, José Enrique; Botella, Cristina

    2015-10-31

    Emotional disorders (depression and anxiety disorders) are highly prevalent mental health problems. Although evidence showing the effectiveness of disorder-specific treatments exists, high comorbidity rates among emotional disorders limit the utility of these protocols. This has led some researchers to focus their interest on transdiagnostic interventions, a treatment perspective that might be more widely effective across these disorders. Also, the current way of delivering treatments makes it difficult provide assistance to all of the population in need. The use of the Internet in the delivery of evidence-based treatments may help to disseminate treatments among the population. In this study, we aim to test the effectiveness of EmotionRegulation, a new transdiagnostic Internet-based protocol for unipolar mood disorders, five anxiety disorders (panic disorder, agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and anxiety disorder not otherwise specified), and obsessive-compulsive disorder in comparison to treatment as usual as provided in Spanish public specialized mental health care. We will also study its potential impact on basic temperament dimensions (neuroticism/behavioral inhibition and extraversion/behavioral activation). Expectations and opinions of patients about this protocol will also be studied. The study is a randomized controlled trial. 200 participants recruited in specialized care will be allocated to one of two treatment conditions: a) EmotionRegulation or b) treatment as usual. Primary outcome measures will be the BAI and the BDI-II. Secondary outcomes will include a specific measure of the principal disorder, and measures of neuroticism/behavioral inhibition and extraversion/behavioral activation. Patients will be assessed at baseline, post-treatment, and 3- and 12-month follow-ups. Intention to treat and per protocol analyses will be performed. Although the effectiveness of face-to-face transdiagnostic protocols has been

  11. TCP-Call Admission Control Interaction in Multiplatform Space Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Theodoridis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of efficient call admission control (CAC algorithms is useful to prevent congestion and guarantee target quality of service (QoS. When TCP protocol is adopted, some inefficiencies can arise due to the peculiar evolution of the congestion window. The development of cross-layer techniques can greatly help to improve efficiency and flexibility for wireless networks. In this frame, the present paper addresses the introduction of TCP feedback into the CAC procedures in different nonterrestrial wireless architectures. CAC performance improvement is shown for different space-based architectures, including both satellites and high altitude platform (HAP systems.

  12. TCP-Call Admission Control Interaction in Multiplatform Space Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseti Cesare

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of efficient call admission control (CAC algorithms is useful to prevent congestion and guarantee target quality of service (QoS. When TCP protocol is adopted, some inefficiencies can arise due to the peculiar evolution of the congestion window. The development of cross-layer techniques can greatly help to improve efficiency and flexibility for wireless networks. In this frame, the present paper addresses the introduction of TCP feedback into the CAC procedures in different nonterrestrial wireless architectures. CAC performance improvement is shown for different space-based architectures, including both satellites and high altitude platform (HAP systems.

  13. Locating of Series FACTS Devices for Multi-Objective Congestion Management Using Components of Nodal Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Moradi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Congestion and overloading for lines are the main problems in the exploitation of power grids. The consequences of these problems in deregulated systems can be mentioned as sudden jumps in prices in some parts of the power system, lead to an increase in market power and reduction of competition in it. FACTS devices are efficient, powerful and economical tools in controlling power flows through transmission lines that play a fundamental role in congestion management. However, after removing congestion, power systems due to targeting security restrictions may be managed with a lower voltage or transient stability rather than before removing. Thus, power system stability should be considered within the construction of congestion management. In this paper, a multi-objective structure is presented for congestion management that simultaneously optimizes goals such as total operating cost, voltage and transient security. In order to achieve the desired goals, locating and sizing of series FACTS devices are done with using components of nodal prices and the newly developed grey wolf optimizer (GWO algorithm, respectively. In order to evaluate reliability of mentioned approaches, a simulation is done on the 39-bus New England network.

  14. Real-Time Performance of Hybrid Mobile Robot Control Utilizing USB Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Augustyn

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the problem of usability of the USB 2.0 protocol in the area of real-time control of a mobile robot. Optimization methods of data transfer handling were proposed. The impact of the optimization results on the entire system's performance was examined in practice. As a test-bed, a hybrid system composed of two devices communicating by direct USB connection was implemented. The first of the mentioned devices was a 32-bit SoC micro-system serving as a direct control unit, and the second one was an off-the-shelf PDA providing supervisory control and logging. Due to this design, the system meets regimes of the real-time constraints and maintains continuity of a data stream at a large bandwidth. The real-time performances of subsystems and the entire system were experimentally examined depending on various operating conditions. Thanks to the performed experiments, the dependency of real-time limits on operational parameters has been determined.

  15. Peer mentorship to promote effective pain management in adolescents: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Loran P

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This protocol is for a study of a new program to improve outcomes in children suffering from chronic pain disorders, such as fibromyalgia, recurrent headache, or recurrent abdominal pain. Although teaching active pain self-management skills through cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT or a complementary program such as hypnotherapy or yoga has been shown to improve pain and functioning, children with low expectations of skill-building programs may lack motivation to comply with therapists' recommendations. This study will develop and test a new manualized peer-mentorship program which will provide modeling and reinforcement by peers to other adolescents with chronic pain (the mentored participants. The mentorship program will encourage mentored participants to engage in therapies that promote the learning of pain self-management skills and to support the mentored participants' practice of these skills. The study will examine the feasibility of this intervention for both mentors and mentored participants, and will assess the preliminary effectiveness of this program on mentored participants' pain and functional disability. Methods This protocol will recruit adolescents ages 12-17 with chronic pain and randomly assign them to either peer mentorship or a treatment-as-usual control group. Mentored participants will be matched with peer mentors of similar age (ages 14-18 who have actively participated in various treatment modalities through the UCLA Pediatric Pain Program and have learned to function successfully with a chronic pain disorder. The mentors will present information to mentored participants in a supervised and monitored telephone interaction for 2 months to encourage participation in skill-building programs. The control group will receive usual care but without the mentorship intervention. Mentored and control subjects' pain and functioning will be assessed at 2 months (end of intervention for mentored participants and

  16. Distributed Optimization based Dynamic Tariff for Congestion Management in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Zhao, Haoran

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed optimization based dynamic tariff (DDT) method for congestion management in distribution networks with high penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) and heat pumps (HPs). The DDT method employs a decomposition based optimization method to have aggregators explicitly...... is able to minimize the overall energy consumption cost and line loss cost, which is different from previous decomposition-based methods such as multiagent system methods. In addition, a reconditioning method and an integral controller are introduced to improve convergence of the distributed optimization...... where challenges arise due to multiple congestion points, multiple types of flexible demands and network constraints. The case studies demonstrate the efficacy of the DDT method for congestion management in distribution networks....

  17. Influence of TCSC Devices on Congestion Management in a Deregulated Power System Using Evolutionary Programming Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthichristy, A., Dr.; Elanthirayan, R.; Brindha, R., Dr.; Siddhiq, M. S.; Venkatesh, N.; Harshit, M. V.; Nikhilreddy, M.

    2018-04-01

    Congestion management is one of the technical challenges in power system deregulation. In deregulated electricity market it may always not be possible to dispatch all of the contracted power transactions due to congestion of the transmission corridors. Transmission congestion occurs when there is insufficient transmission capacity to simultaneously accommodate all constraints for transmission of a line. Flexible Alternative Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices can be an alternative to reduce the flows in the heavily loaded lines, resulting in an increased loadability, low system loss, improved stability of the network, reduced cost of production and fulfilled contractual requirement by controlling the power flow in the network. A method to determine the optimal location of FACTS has been suggested based on reduction of total system VAR power losses. The simulation was done on IEEE 14 bus system and results were obtained.

  18. CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE IN DOGS IS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED PLATELET LEUKOCYTE AGGREGATION MEASURED BY FLOW CYTOMETRY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Inge; Andreasen, Susanne SH; Olsen, Lisbeth Høier

    2010-01-01

    Sciences, Faculty of Life Science, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) in humans is associated with abnormal hemostasis, and changes in hemostatic biomarkers carry a poor prognosis. CHF in dogs has been associated with plasma markers of hypercoagulability, however......CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE IN DOGS IS ASSOCIATED WITH ENHANCED PLATELET-LEUKOCYTE AGGREGATES - A MARKER FOR PLATELET ACTIVATION. I Tarnow1, LH Olsen2, SHS Andreasen2, SG Moesgaard2, CE Rasmussen2, AT Kristensen1, T Falk2. 1Departments of Small Animal Clinical Sciences and 2Animal and Veterinary Basic......, platelet activation markers have not been investigated in dogs with clinical signs of heart disease. We hypothesized that platelet surface activation markers are higher in dogs with CHF compared to age-matched controls without clinical signs of heart failure. Dogs with compensated congestive heart failure...

  19. Mechanisms and management of diuretic resistance in congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruyne, L K M

    2003-05-01

    Diuretic drugs are used almost universally in patients with congestive heart failure, most frequently the potent loop diuretics. Despite their unproven effect on survival, their indisputable efficacy in relieving congestive symptoms makes them first line therapy for most patients. In the treatment of more advanced stages of heart failure diuretics may fail to control salt and water retention despite the use of appropriate doses. Diuretic resistance may be caused by decreased renal function and reduced and delayed peak concentrations of loop diuretics in the tubular fluid, but it can also be observed in the absence of these pharmacokinetic abnormalities. When the effect of a short acting diuretic has worn off, postdiuretic salt retention will occur during the rest of the day. Chronic treatment with a loop diuretic results in compensatory hypertrophy of epithelial cells downstream from the thick ascending limb and consequently its diuretic effect will be blunted. Strategies to overcome diuretic resistance include restriction of sodium intake, changes in dose, changes in timing, and combination diuretic therapy.

  20. Error and Congestion Resilient Video Streaming over Broadband Wireless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith Al-Jobouri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, error resilience is achieved by adaptive, application-layer rateless channel coding, which is used to protect H.264/Advanced Video Coding (AVC codec data-partitioned videos. A packetization strategy is an effective tool to control error rates and, in the paper, source-coded data partitioning serves to allocate smaller packets to more important compressed video data. The scheme for doing this is applied to real-time streaming across a broadband wireless link. The advantages of rateless code rate adaptivity are then demonstrated in the paper. Because the data partitions of a video slice are each assigned to different network packets, in congestion-prone wireless networks the increased number of packets per slice and their size disparity may increase the packet loss rate from buffer overflows. As a form of congestion resilience, this paper recommends packet-size dependent scheduling as a relatively simple way of alleviating the buffer-overflow problem arising from data-partitioned packets. The paper also contributes an analysis of data partitioning and packet sizes as a prelude to considering scheduling regimes. The combination of adaptive channel coding and prioritized packetization for error resilience with packet-size dependent packet scheduling results in a robust streaming scheme specialized for broadband wireless and real-time streaming applications such as video conferencing, video telephony, and telemedicine.

  1. Nationwide SIP Telephony Network Design to Prevent Congestion Caused by Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Daisuke; Ashitagawa, Kyoko

    We present a session initiation protocol (SIP) network design for a voice-over-IP network to prevent congestion caused by people calling friends and family after a disaster. The design increases the capacity of SIP servers in a network by using all of the SIP servers equally. It takes advantage of the fact that equipment for voice data packets is different from equipment for signaling packets in SIP networks. Furthermore, the design achieves simple routing on the basis of telephone numbers. We evaluated the performance of our design in preventing congestion through simulation. We showed that the proposed design has roughly 20 times more capacity, which is 57 times the normal load, than the conventional design if a disaster were to occur in Niigata Prefecture struck by the Chuetsu earthquake in 2004.

  2. Projecting the effects of tobacco control policies in the USA through microsimulation: a study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David T; Jeon, Jihyoun; Clarke, John; Gilkeson, Scott; Hall, Tim; Holford, Theodore R; Meza, Rafael

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death in the USA but can be reduced through policy interventions. Computational models of smoking can provide estimates of the projected impact of tobacco control policies and can be used to inform public health decision making. We outline a protocol for simulating the effects of tobacco policies on population health outcomes. Methods and analysis We extend the Smoking History Generator (SHG), a microsimulation model based on data from the National Health Interview Surveys, to evaluate the effects of tobacco control policies on projections of smoking prevalence and mortality in the USA. The SHG simulates individual life trajectories including smoking initiation, cessation and mortality. We illustrate the application of the SHG policy module for four types of tobacco control policies at the national and state levels: smoke-free air laws, cigarette taxes, increasing tobacco control programme expenditures and raising the minimum age of legal access to tobacco. Smoking initiation and cessation rates are modified by age, birth cohort, gender and years since policy implementation. Initiation and cessation rate modifiers are adjusted for differences across age groups and the level of existing policy coverage. Smoking prevalence, the number of population deaths avoided, and life-years gained are calculated for each policy scenario at the national and state levels. The model only considers direct individual benefits through reduced smoking and does not consider benefits through reduced exposure to secondhand smoke. Ethics and dissemination A web-based interface is being developed to integrate the results of the simulations into a format that allows the user to explore the projected effects of tobacco control policies in the USA. Usability testing is being conducted in which experts provide feedback on the interface. Development of this tool is under way, and a publicly accessible website is available at http

  3. Increasing organ donation via anticipated regret (INORDAR: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Carroll Ronan E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout the world there is an insufficient supply of donor organs to meet the demand for organ transplantations. This paper presents a protocol for a randomised controlled trial, testing whether a simple, theory-based anticipated regret manipulation leads to a significant increase in posthumous organ donor registrations. Methods We will use a between-groups, prospective randomised controlled design. A random sample of 14,520 members of the adult Scottish general public will be contacted via post. These participants will be randomly allocated into 1 of the 4 conditions. The no questionnaire control (NQC group will simply receive a letter and donor registration form. The questionnaire control (QC arm will receive a questionnaire measuring their emotions and non-cognitive affective attitudes towards organ donation. The theory of planned behavior (TPB group will complete the emotions and affective attitudes questionnaire plus additional items assessing their cognitive attitudes towards organ donation, perceived control over registration and how they think significant others view this action. Finally, the anticipated regret (AR group will complete the same indices as the TPB group, plus two additional anticipated regret items. These items will assess the extent to which the participant anticipates regret for not registering as an organ donor in the near future. The outcome variable will be NHS Blood and Transplant verified registrations as an organ donor within 6 months of receiving our postal intervention. Discussion This study will assess whether simply asking people to reflect on the extent to which they may anticipate regret for not registering as an organ donor increases organ donor registration 6 months later. If successful, this simple and easy to administer theory-based intervention has the potential to save lives and money for the NHS by reducing the number of people receiving treatments such as dialysis. This

  4. About the Design of QUIC Firefox Transport Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vraj Pandya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available QUIC (Quick UDP Internet Connections Chrome is an experimental transport layer network protocol designed by Jim Roskind at Google, initially implemented in 2012 and announced publicly in 2013. One of the QUIC's goals is to improve performance of connection-oriented web applications that are currently using the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP. To do that, QUIC achieves a reduced latency and a better stream-multiplexing support to avoid network congestion. In 2015, Firefox Mozilla started to work on an equivalent QUIC transport protocol for their browser. This idea was motivated by the differences between Chrome and Firefox. Despite the fact that Mozilla Firefox and Google Chrome are both web browser engines, there are some significant differences between them, such as file hierarchy, open source policies (Firefox is completely, while Chrome is only partial, tabs design, continuous integration, and more. Likewise QUIC Chrome, QUIC Firefox is a new multiplexed and secure transport based on User Datagram Protocol (UDP, designed from the ground up and optimized for Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol 2 (HTTP/2 semantics. While built with HTTP/2 as the primary application protocol, QUIC builds on decades of transport and security experience, and implements mechanisms that make it attractive as a modern general-purpose transport. In addition to describing the main design of QUIC Firefox, this paper will compare Firefox with QUIC Firefox. Our preliminary experimental results support that QUIC Firefox has a faster execution time, less latency time, and a better throughput time than the traditional Firefox.  

  5. Design of IP Camera Access Control Protocol by Utilizing Hierarchical Group Key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Kang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Unlike CCTV, security video surveillance devices, which we have generally known about, IP cameras which are connected to a network either with or without wire, provide monitoring services through a built-in web-server. Due to the fact that IP cameras can use a network such as the Internet, multiple IP cameras can be installed at a long distance and each IP camera can utilize the function of a web server individually. Even though IP cameras have this kind of advantage, it has difficulties in access control management and weakness in user certification, too. Particularly, because the market of IP cameras did not begin to be realized a long while ago, systems which are systematized from the perspective of security have not been built up yet. Additionally, it contains severe weaknesses in terms of access authority to the IP camera web server, certification of users, and certification of IP cameras which are newly installed within a network, etc. This research grouped IP cameras hierarchically to manage them systematically, and provided access control and data confidentiality between groups by utilizing group keys. In addition, IP cameras and users are certified by using PKI-based certification, and weak points of security such as confidentiality and integrity, etc., are improved by encrypting passwords. Thus, this research presents specific protocols of the entire process and proved through experiments that this method can be actually applied.

  6. Transmission congestion management in the electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we mainly discuss how to optimize the arrangement to decrease the loss of each line when the power generation side of the system transmission congestion occurs in a safe and economical manner. We respectively set the adjust model if the transmission can be eliminated which can calculate the best scheme and safety margin model when transmission cannot be eliminated which is a multi-objective planning problem. We solve the two models on the condition of the load power demands are 982.4MW and 1052.8 MW by Lingo and get the optimal management scheme.

  7. Use acupuncture to treat functional constipation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ying

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether acupuncture is effective for patients with functional constipation is still unclear. Therefore, we report the protocol of a randomized controlled trial of using acupuncture to treat functional constipation. Design A randomized, controlled, four-arm design, large-scale trial is currently undergoing in China. Seven hundred participants are randomly assigned to three acupuncture treatment groups and Mosapride Citrate control group in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Participants in acupuncture groups receive 16 sessions of acupuncture treatment, and are followed up for a period of 9 weeks after randomization. The acupuncture groups are: (1 Back-Shu and Front-Mu acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (Shu-Mu points group; (2 He-Sea and Lower He-Sea acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (He points group; (3 Combining used Back-Shu, Front-Mu, He-Sea, and Lower He-Sea acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (Shu-Mu-He points group. The control group is Mosapride Citrate group. The primary outcome is frequency of defecation per week at the fourth week after randomization. The secondary outcomes include Bristol stool scale, the extent of difficulty during defecating, MOS 36-item Short Form health survey (SF-36, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS, and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS. The first two of second outcomes are measured 1 week before randomization and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after randomization. Other second outcomes are measured 1 week before randomization and 2 and 4 weeks after randomization, but SF-36 is measured at randomization and 4 weeks after randomization. Discussion The result of this trial (which will be available in 2012 will confirm whether acupuncture is effective to treat functional constipation and whether traditional acupuncture theories play an important role in it. Trials registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT01411501

  8. Internet Protocol Display Sharing Solution for Mission Control Center Video System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    With the advent of broadcast television as a constant source of information throughout the NASA manned space flight Mission Control Center (MCC) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC), the current Video Transport System (VTS) characteristics provides the ability to visually enhance real-time applications as a broadcast channel that decision making flight controllers come to rely on, but can be difficult to maintain and costly. The Operations Technology Facility (OTF) of the Mission Operations Facility Division (MOFD) has been tasked to provide insight to new innovative technological solutions for the MCC environment focusing on alternative architectures for a VTS. New technology will be provided to enable sharing of all imagery from one specific computer display, better known as Display Sharing (DS), to other computer displays and display systems such as; large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and other offsite centers using IP networks. It has been stated that Internet Protocol (IP) applications are easily readied to substitute for the current visual architecture, but quality and speed may need to be forfeited for reducing cost and maintainability. Although the IP infrastructure can support many technologies, the simple task of sharing ones computer display can be rather clumsy and difficult to configure and manage to the many operators and products. The DS process shall invest in collectively automating the sharing of images while focusing on such characteristics as; managing bandwidth, encrypting security measures, synchronizing disconnections from loss of signal / loss of acquisitions, performance latency, and provide functions like, scalability, multi-sharing, ease of initial integration / sustained configuration, integration with video adjustments packages, collaborative tools, host / recipient controllability, and the utmost paramount priority, an enterprise solution that provides ownership to the whole

  9. An ultra low-power and traffic-adaptive medium access control protocol for wireless body area network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2012-06-01

    Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) consists of low-power, miniaturized, and autonomous wireless sensor nodes that enable physicians to remotely monitor vital signs of patients and provide real-time feedback with medical diagnosis and consultations. It is the most reliable and cheaper way to take care of patients suffering from chronic diseases such as asthma, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Some of the most important attributes of WBAN is low-power consumption and delay. This can be achieved by introducing flexible duty cycling techniques on the energy constraint sensor nodes. Stated otherwise, low duty cycle nodes should not receive frequent synchronization and control packets if they have no data to send/receive. In this paper, we introduce a Traffic-adaptive MAC protocol (TaMAC) by taking into account the traffic information of the sensor nodes. The protocol dynamically adjusts the duty cycle of the sensor nodes according to their traffic-patterns, thus solving the idle listening and overhearing problems. The traffic-patterns of all sensor nodes are organized and maintained by the coordinator. The TaMAC protocol is supported by a wakeup radio that is used to accommodate emergency and on-demand events in a reliable manner. The wakeup radio uses a separate control channel along with the data channel and therefore it has considerably low power consumption requirements. Analytical expressions are derived to analyze and compare the performance of the TaMAC protocol with the well-known beacon-enabled IEEE 802.15.4 MAC, WiseMAC, and SMAC protocols. The analytical derivations are further validated by simulation results. It is shown that the TaMAC protocol outperforms all other protocols in terms of power consumption and delay.

  10. Continuous integration congestion cost allocation based on sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Z.Q.; Wang, Y.N.

    2004-01-01

    Congestion cost allocation is a very important topic in congestion management. Allocation methods based on the Aumann-Shapley value use the discrete numerical integration method, which needs to solve the incremented OPF solution many times, and as such it is not suitable for practical application to large-scale systems. The optimal solution and its sensitivity change tendency during congestion removal using a DC optimal power flow (OPF) process is analysed. A simple continuous integration method based on the sensitivity is proposed for the congestion cost allocation. The proposed sensitivity analysis method needs a smaller computation time than the method based on using the quadratic method and inner point iteration. The proposed congestion cost allocation method uses a continuous integration method rather than discrete numerical integration. The method does not need to solve the incremented OPF solutions; which allows it use in large-scale systems. The method can also be used for AC OPF congestion management. (author)

  11. Hemostatic biomarkers in dogs with chronic congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Inge; Falk, Torkel; Tidholm, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Background: Chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) in humans is associated with abnormal hemostasis, and abnormalities in hemostatic biomarkers carry a poor prognosis. Alterations in hemostatic pathways can be involved in the pathogenesis of CHF in dogs, and microthrombosis in the myocardium could...... contribute to increased mortality. Hypothesis: That plasma concentration or activity of hemostatic biomarkers is altered in dogs with CHF and that these factors predict mortality. Animals: Thirty-four dogs with CHF caused by either dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM, n = 14) or degenerative valvular disease (CDVD......, n = 20) compared with 23 healthy age-matched control dogs were included in this study. Dogs with CHF were recruited from 2 referral cardiology clinics, and control dogs were owned by friends or colleagues of the investigators. Methods: Clinical examination and echocardiography were performed in all...

  12. Elephantiasis Nostras Verrucosa (ENV): a complication of congestive heart failure and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Drew; Bode, David; Akers, Troy; Deyoung, Zachariah

    2010-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) and obesity are common medical conditions that have many complications and an increasing incidence in the United States. Presented here is a case of a disfiguring skin condition that visually highlights the dermatologic consequences of poorly controlled CHF and obesity. This condition will probably become more common as CHF and obesity increase in the US.

  13. An Upgrade on the Rabbit Model of Anthracycline-Induced Cardiomyopathy: Shorter Protocol, Reduced Mortality, and Higher Incidence of Overt Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera, Jesús; Fernández-Del-Palacio, María Josefa; García-Nicolás, Obdulio; Seva, Juan; Brooks, Gavin; Moraleda, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    Current protocols of anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy in rabbits present with high premature mortality and nephrotoxicity, thus rendering them unsuitable for studies requiring long-term functional evaluation of myocardial function (e.g., stem cell therapy). We compared two previously described protocols to an in-house developed protocol in three groups: Group DOX2 received doxorubicin 2 mg/kg/week (8 weeks); Group DAU3 received daunorubicin 3 mg/kg/week (10 weeks); and Group DAU4 received daunorubicin 4 mg/kg/week (6 weeks). A cohort of rabbits received saline (control). Results of blood tests, cardiac troponin I, echocardiography, and histopathology were analysed. Whilst DOX2 and DAU3 rabbits showed high premature mortality (50% and 33%, resp.), DAU4 rabbits showed 7.6% premature mortality. None of DOX2 rabbits developed overt dilated cardiomyopathy; 66% of DAU3 rabbits developed overt dilated cardiomyopathy and quickly progressed to severe congestive heart failure. Interestingly, 92% of DAU4 rabbits showed overt dilated cardiomyopathy and 67% developed congestive heart failure exhibiting stable disease. DOX2 and DAU3 rabbits showed alterations of renal function, with DAU3 also exhibiting hepatic function compromise. Thus, a shortened protocol of anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy as in DAU4 group results in high incidence of overt dilated cardiomyopathy, which insidiously progressed to congestive heart failure, associated to reduced systemic compromise and very low premature mortality. PMID:26788502

  14. Evaluating a community-based early childhood education and development program in Indonesia: study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial with supplementary matched control group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pradhan, M.; Brinkman, S.A.; Beatty, A.; Maika, A.; Satriawan, E.; de Ree, J.; Hasan, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper presents the study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a supplementary matched control group. The aim of the trial is to evaluate a community-based early education and development program launched by the Government of Indonesia. The program

  15. Evaluating a community-based early childhood education and development program in Indonesia: study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial with supplementary matched control group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pradhan, M.P.; Brinkman, S.A.; Beatty, A.; Maika, A.; Satriawan, E.; de Ree, J.; Hasan, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This paper presents the study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a supplementary matched control group. The aim of the trial is to evaluate a community-based early education and development program launched by the Government of Indonesia. The program

  16. Identifying the Onset of Congestion Rapidly with Existing Traffic Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Coifman, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    From an operations standpoint, the most important task of a traffic surveillance system is determining reliably whether the facility is free flowing or congested. The second most important task is responding rapidly when the facility becomes congested. Other tasks, such as quantifying the magnitude of congestion, are desirable, but tertiary. To address the first two tasks, this paper presents a new approach for traffic surveillance using existing detectors. Rather than expending a considerabl...

  17. London-type congestion tax with revenue-recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Yukihiro Kidokoro

    2005-01-01

    Road pricing in London attracts a great deal of interest. A challenging aspect of the London scheme is that congestion tax revenue is used to upgrade public transit networks. Although Parry and Bento (2001) show that the total social surplus would increase if congestion tax revenues are used to cut labor taxes, political difficulties exist in implementing revenue-recycling between congestion taxes and labor taxes. Given such political difficulties, the London scheme seems to be very attractiv...

  18. Day case shoulder surgery: satisfactory pain control without regional anaesthesia. A prospective analysis of a perioperative protocol.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Daruwalla, Z J

    2009-03-01

    Pain control is an issue which may limit patients\\' acceptance of day case shoulder surgery. This study prospectively examined the outcome of a protocol for day case shoulder surgery to determine if satisfactory pain relief could be achieved without regional anaesthesia.

  19. Fuzzification of facial movements to generate human-machine interfaces in order to control robots by XMPP internet protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualdo Ramírez Jesús A.

    2017-01-01

    This implementation is able to establish a remote communication with any electronic device through the internet by the XMPP protocol, which gives it a dynamism of control over practically any geographical position in the world where internet connection exist, in this way, it is possible to integrate it into the internet of things.

  20. Congestion cost allocation method in a pool model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, H.S.; Hur, D.; Park, J.K.

    2003-01-01

    The congestion cost caused by transmission capacities and voltage limit is an important issue in a competitive electricity market. To allocate the congestion cost equitably, the active constraints in a constrained dispatch and the sequence of these constraints should be considered. A multi-stage method is proposed which reflects the effects of both the active constraints and the sequence. In a multi-stage method, the types of congestion are analysed in order to consider the sequence, and the relationship between congestion and the active constraints is derived in a mathematical way. The case study shows that the proposed method can give more accurate and equitable signals to customers. (Author)

  1. Electricity transmission congestion costs: A review of recent reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesieutre, Bernard C.; Eto, Joseph H.

    2003-10-01

    Recently, independent system operators (ISOs) and others have published reports on the costs of transmission congestion. The magnitude of congestion costs cited in these reports has contributed to the national discussion on the current state of U.S. electricity transmission system and whether it provides an adequate platform for competition in wholesale electricity markets. This report reviews reports of congestion costs and begins to assess their implications for the current national discussion on the importance of the U.S. electricity transmission system for enabling competitive wholesale electricity markets. As a guiding principle, we posit that a more robust electricity system could reduce congestion costs; and thereby, (1) facilitate more vibrant and fair competition in wholesale electricity markets, and (2) enable consumers to seek out the lowest prices for electricity. Yet, examining the details suggests that, sometimes, there will be trade-offs between these goals. Therefore, it is essential to understand who pays, how much, and how do they benefit in evaluating options (both transmission and non-transmission alternatives) to address transmission congestion. To describe the differences among published estimates of congestion costs, we develop and motivate three ways by which transmission congestion costs are calculated in restructured markets. The assessment demonstrates that published transmission congestion costs are not directly comparable because they have been developed to serve different purposes. More importantly, critical information needed to make them more comparable, for example in order to evaluate the impacts of options to relieve congestion, is sometimes not available.

  2. A protocol for a pragmatic randomized controlled trial evaluating outcomes of emergency nurse practitioner service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Natasha; Gardner, Glenn; O'Reilly, Gerard

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate emergency nurse practitioner service effectiveness on outcomes related to quality of care and service responsiveness. Increasing service pressures in the emergency setting have resulted in the adoption of service innovation models; the most common and rapidly expanding of these is the emergency nurse practitioner. The delivery of high quality patient care in the emergency department is one of the most important service indicators to be measured in health services today. The rapid uptake of emergency nurse practitioner service in Australia has outpaced the capacity to evaluate this model in outcomes related to safety and quality of patient care. Pragmatic randomized controlled trial at one site with 260 participants. This protocol describes a definitive prospective randomized controlled trial, which will examine the impact of emergency nurse practitioner service on key patient care and service indicators. The study control will be standard emergency department care. The intervention will be emergency nurse practitioner service. The primary outcome measure is pain score reduction and time to analgesia. Secondary outcome measures are waiting time, number of patients who did not wait, length of stay in the emergency department and representations within 48 hours. Scant research enquiry evaluating emergency nurse practitioner service on patient effectiveness and service responsiveness exists currently. This study is a unique trial that will test the effectiveness of the emergency nurse practitioner service on patients who present to the emergency department with pain. The research will provide an opportunity to further evaluate emergency nurse practitioner models of care and build research capacity into the workforce. Trial registration details: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry dated 18th August 2013, ACTRN12613000933752. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Music therapy in Huntington's disease: a protocol for a multi-center randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bruggen-Rufi, Monique; Vink, Annemieke; Achterberg, Wilco; Roos, Raymund

    2016-07-26

    Huntington's disease is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease with autosomal dominant inheritance, characterized by motor disturbances, cognitive decline and behavioral and psychological symptoms. Since there is no cure, all treatment is aimed at improving quality of life. Music therapy is a non-pharmacological intervention, aiming to improve the quality of life, but its use and efficacy in patients with Huntington's disease has hardly been studied. In this article, a protocol is described to study the effects of music therapy in comparison with a control intervention to improve quality of life through stimulating expressive and communicative skills. By targeting these skills we assume that the social-cognitive functioning will improve, leading to a reduction in behavioral problems, resulting in an overall improvement of the quality of life in patients with Huntington's disease. The study is designed as a multi-center single-blind randomised controlled intervention trial. Sixty patients will be randomised using centre-stratified block-permuted randomisation. Patients will be recruited from four long-term care facilities specialized in Huntington's disease-care in The Netherlands. The outcome measure to assess changes in expressive and communication skills is the Behaviour Observation Scale Huntington and changes in behavior will be assessed by the Problem Behaviour Assesment-short version and by the BOSH. Measurements take place at baseline, then 8, 16 (end of intervention) and 12 weeks after the last intervention (follow-up). This randomized controlled study will provide greater insight into the effectiveness of music therapy on activities of daily living, social-cognitive functioning and behavior problems by improving expressive and communication skills, thus leading to a better quality of life for patients with Huntington's disease. Netherlands Trial Register: NTR4904 , registration date Nov. 15, 2014.

  4. Family planning to promote physical activity: a randomized controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Alison; Rhodes, Ryan E; Blanchard, Chris M; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Warburton, Darren E R

    2015-10-05

    Physical activity is associated with the reduction of several chronic conditions in adults. Additionally, physical activity is extremely important for children for their development and cognitive functioning and also to create a physically active lifestyle that continues into adulthood. Despite the known benefits of physical activity, only one in five adults are achieving the public health recommendations of 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per week and only 13 % of boys and 6 % of girls between the ages of 5 and 17 years are meeting the guidelines of 60 minutes per day. This study aims to evaluate whether a planning condition improves adherence to regular physical activity compared to an education-only control condition among families. Families are eligible if there is at least one child between the ages of 6 and 12 years who is not meeting the Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines. A six-month longitudinal randomized controlled trial will be used to compare the two conditions. Materials will be delivered at baseline with 'booster' sessions at six weeks and three months. Participants will be assessed at baseline and at six months with a fitness test, as well as questionnaires and accelerometery at baseline, six weeks, three months and six months. A total of 137 families have been recruited thus far from Greater Victoria. This study is ongoing and recruitment will continue until December 2015 with the target goal of reaching 160 families. This protocol describes the implementation of a randomized controlled trial that utilizes planning strategies to try and increase physical activity among families. Research findings could be useful in public health in providing effective strategies to families to help decrease sedentary lifestyles. Additionally, findings may help to inform future interventions aimed at increasing physical activity among families. This trial was registered on June 5, 2012 with the Clinical Trials Registry maintained by the

  5. Crystal structures of three sterically congested disilanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothanda Rama Pichaandi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the three sterically congested silanes, C24H38Si2 (1 (1,1,2,2-tetraisopropyl-1,2-diphenyldisilane, C24H34Br4Si2 (2 [1,1,2,2-tetrakis(2-bromopropan-2-yl-1,2-diphenyldisilane] and C32H38Si2 (3 (1,2-di-tert-butyl-1,1,2,2-tetraphenyldisilane, the Si—Si bond length is shortest in (1 and longest in (2, with (3 having an intermediate value, which parallels the increasing steric congestion. A comparison of the two isopropyl derivatives, (1 and 2, shows a significant increase in the Si—C(ipso distance with the introduction of bromine. Also, in the brominated compound 2, attractive intermolecular Br...Br interactions exist with Br...Br separations ca 0.52 Å shorter than the sum of the van der Waals radii. In compound 2, one of the bromoisopropyl groups is rotationally disordered in an 0.8812 (9:0.1188 (9 ratio. Compound 3 exhibits `whole molecule' disorder in a 0.9645 (7:0.0355 (7 ratio with the Si—Si bonds in the two components making an angle of ca 66°.

  6. Containing air pollution and traffic congestion: Transport policy and the environment in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Anthony T. H.

    Land transportation remains one of the main contributors of noise and air pollution in urban areas. This is in addition to traffic congestion and accidents which result in the loss of productive activity. While there is a close relationship between traffic volumes and levels of noise and air pollution, transport authorities often assume that solving traffic congestion would reduce noise and air pollutant levels. Tight control over automobile ownership and use in Singapore has contributed in improving traffic flows, travel speeds and air quality. The adoption of internationally accepted standards on automobile emissions and gasoline have been effective in reducing air pollution from motor vehicles. Demand management measures have largely focused on controlling the source of traffic congestion, i.e. private automobile ownership and its use especially within the Central Business District during the day. This paper reviews and analyzes the effectiveness of two measures which are instrumental in controlling congestion and automobile ownership, i.e. road pricing and the vehicle quota scheme (VQS). While these measures have been successful in achieving desired objectives, it has also led to the spreading of traffic externalities to other roads in the network, loss in consumer welfare and rent seeking by automobile traders.

  7. ER-E2 regulation. Implementation of the national protocol for quality control of instrumentation in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this regulation is the adoption and enforcement of the 'Protocol National Quality Control Instrumentation in Nuclear Medicine'; as well as the establishment of an annual program of external audits, which take place on CCEEM, in order to verify compliance with the established considerations into protocols. It is applicable to all entities within the NHS who perform the practice of nuclear medicine in Cuba, both for use 'in vitro' and 'in vivo'.

  8. Road and street smart lighting control systems as a new application area of the hot-potato protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiedrowski, Piotr; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Boniewicz, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the new application area of the hot-potato routing protocol, which is a “last-mile” communication network for controlling systems of road and street lighting. Four variants of the hot-potato protocol are analyzed with use of the graph theory. For the assessment of the traffic ...... parameters the ETX parameter is used in relation to the length of the shortest path. Proposed methods are independent of the media type and can be implemented either in wireless or PLC....

  9. Transcranial direct current stimulation for depression in Alzheimer's disease: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Zui; Yokoi, Yuma

    2017-06-19

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease frequently elicit neuropsychiatric symptoms as well as cognitive deficits. Above all, depression is one of the most common neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease but antidepressant drugs have not shown significant beneficial effects on it. Moreover, electroconvulsive therapy has not ensured its safety for potential severe adverse events although it does show beneficial clinical effect. Transcranial direct current stimulation can be the safe alternative of neuromodulation, which applies weak direct electrical current to the brain. Although transcranial direct current stimulation has plausible evidence for its effect on depression in young adult patients, no study has explored it in older subjects with depression in Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, we present a study protocol designed to evaluate the safety and clinical effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on depression in Alzheimer's disease in subjects aged over 65 years. This is a two-arm, parallel-design, randomized controlled trial, in which patients and assessors will be blinded. Subjects will be randomized to either an active or a sham transcranial direct current stimulation group. Participants in both groups will be evaluated at baseline, immediately, and 2 weeks after the intervention. This study investigates the safety and effect of transcranial direct current stimulation that may bring a significant impact on both depression and cognition in patients with Alzheimer's disease, and may be useful to enhance their quality of life. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02351388 . Registered on 27 January 2015. Last updated on 30 May 2016.

  10. Acupuncture Antiarrhythmic Effects on Drug Refractory Persistent Atrial Fibrillation: Study Protocol for a Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimin Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common form of arrhythmia. Several trials have suggested that acupuncture may prevent AF. However, the efficacy of acupuncture for AF prevention has not been well investigated. Therefore, we designed a prospective, two-parallel-armed, participant and assessor blinded, randomized, sham-controlled clinical trial to investigate acupuncture in persistent AF (ACU-AF. Methods. A total of 80 participants will be randomly assigned to active acupuncture or sham acupuncture groups in a 1 : 1 ratio. Both groups will take the same antiarrhythmic medication during the study period. Patients will receive 10 sessions of acupuncture treatment once a week for 10 weeks. The primary endpoint is AF recurrence rate. Secondary endpoints are left atrium (LA and left atrial appendage (LAA changes in function and volume, and inflammatory biomarker changes. Ethics. This study protocol was approved by the institutional review boards (IRBs of Kyung Hee University Hospital (number 1335-04. This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov NCT02110537.

  11. Effectiveness of the home-based alcohol prevention program "In control: No alcohol!": study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdurmen Jacqueline EE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Netherlands, children start to drink at an early age; of the Dutch 12-year olds, 40% reports lifetime alcohol use, while 9.7% reports last-month drinking. Starting to drink at an early age puts youth at risk of developing several alcohol-related problems later in life. Recently, a home-based prevention program called "In control: No alcohol!" was developed to delay the age of alcohol onset in children. The main aim of this project is to conduct a Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT to evaluate the effectiveness of the program. Methods/Design The prevention program will be tested with an RCT among mothers and their 6 grade primary school children (11-12 years old, randomly assigned to the prevention or control condition. The program consists of five printed magazines and an activity book designed to improve parental alcohol-specific socialization. Parent-child dyads in the control group receive a factsheet information brochure, which is the standard alcohol brochure of the Trimbos Institute (the Netherlands Institute for Mental Health and Addiction. Outcome measures are initiation of alcohol use (have been drinking at least one glass of alcohol, alcohol-specific parenting, susceptibility to drinking alcohol, alcohol expectancies, self-efficacy, and frequency and intensity of child alcohol use. Questionnaires will be administered online on secured Internet webpages, with personal login codes for both mothers and children. Mothers and children in both the experimental and control condition will be surveyed at baseline and after 6, 12, and 18 months (follow-ups. Discussion The present study protocol presents the design of an RCT evaluating the effectiveness of the home-based "In control: No alcohol!" program for 6 grade primary school children (11-12 years old. It is hypothesized that children in the prevention condition will be less likely to have their first glass of alcohol, compared to the control condition. When the

  12. Successful implementation of a perioperative glycemic control protocol in cardiac surgery: barrier analysis and intervention using lean six sigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Elizabeth A; Chavez-Valdez, Raul; Holt, Natalie F; Grogan, Kelly L; Khalifeh, Katherine W; Slater, Tammy; Winner, Laura E; Moyer, Jennifer; Lehmann, Christoph U

    2011-01-01

    Although the evidence strongly supports perioperative glycemic control among cardiac surgical patients, there is scant literature to describe the practical application of such a protocol in the complex ICU environment. This paper describes the use of the Lean Six Sigma methodology to implement a perioperative insulin protocol in a cardiac surgical intensive care unit (CSICU) in a large academic hospital. A preintervention chart audit revealed that fewer than 10% of patients were admitted to the CSICU with glucose <200 mg/dL, prompting the initiation of the quality improvement project. Following protocol implementation, more than 90% of patients were admitted with a glucose <200 mg/dL. Key elements to success include barrier analysis and intervention, provider education, and broadening the project scope to address the intraoperative period.

  13. Successful Implementation of a Perioperative Glycemic Control Protocol in Cardiac Surgery: Barrier Analysis and Intervention Using Lean Six Sigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Elizabeth A.; Chavez-Valdez, Raul; Holt, Natalie F.; Grogan, Kelly L.; Khalifeh, Katherine W.; Slater, Tammy; Winner, Laura E.; Moyer, Jennifer; Lehmann, Christoph U.

    2011-01-01

    Although the evidence strongly supports perioperative glycemic control among cardiac surgical patients, there is scant literature to describe the practical application of such a protocol in the complex ICU environment. This paper describes the use of the Lean Six Sigma methodology to implement a perioperative insulin protocol in a cardiac surgical intensive care unit (CSICU) in a large academic hospital. A preintervention chart audit revealed that fewer than 10% of patients were admitted to the CSICU with glucose <200 mg/dL, prompting the initiation of the quality improvement project. Following protocol implementation, more than 90% of patients were admitted with a glucose <200 mg/dL. Key elements to success include barrier analysis and intervention, provider education, and broadening the project scope to address the intraoperative period. PMID:22091218

  14. Successful Implementation of a Perioperative Glycemic Control Protocol in Cardiac Surgery: Barrier Analysis and Intervention Using Lean Six Sigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Martinez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the evidence strongly supports perioperative glycemic control among cardiac surgical patients, there is scant literature to describe the practical application of such a protocol in the complex ICU environment. This paper describes the use of the Lean Six Sigma methodology to implement a perioperative insulin protocol in a cardiac surgical intensive care unit (CSICU in a large academic hospital. A preintervention chart audit revealed that fewer than 10% of patients were admitted to the CSICU with glucose <200 mg/dL, prompting the initiation of the quality improvement project. Following protocol implementation, more than 90% of patients were admitted with a glucose <200 mg/dL. Key elements to success include barrier analysis and intervention, provider education, and broadening the project scope to address the intraoperative period.

  15. Evaluating the optimal timing of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujagic, Edin; Zwimpfer, Tibor; Marti, Walter R; Zwahlen, Marcel; Hoffmann, Henry; Kindler, Christoph; Fux, Christoph; Misteli, Heidi; Iselin, Lukas; Lugli, Andrea Kopp; Nebiker, Christian A; von Holzen, Urs; Vinzens, Fabrizio; von Strauss, Marco; Reck, Stefan; Kraljević, Marko; Widmer, Andreas F; Oertli, Daniel; Rosenthal, Rachel; Weber, Walter P

    2014-05-24

    Surgical site infections are the most common hospital-acquired infections among surgical patients. The administration of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis reduces the risk of surgical site infections . The optimal timing of this procedure is still a matter of debate. While most studies suggest that it should be given as close to the incision time as possible, others conclude that this may be too late for optimal prevention of surgical site infections. A large observational study suggests that surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis should be administered 74 to 30 minutes before surgery. The aim of this article is to report the design and protocol of a randomized controlled trial investigating the optimal timing of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis. In this bi-center randomized controlled trial conducted at two tertiary referral centers in Switzerland, we plan to include 5,000 patients undergoing general, oncologic, vascular and orthopedic trauma procedures. Patients are randomized in a 1:1 ratio into two groups: one receiving surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the anesthesia room (75 to 30 minutes before incision) and the other receiving surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the operating room (less than 30 minutes before incision). We expect a significantly lower rate of surgical site infections with surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis administered more than 30 minutes before the scheduled incision. The primary outcome is the occurrence of surgical site infections during a 30-day follow-up period (one year with an implant in place). When assuming a 5% surgical site infection risk with administration of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the operating room, the planned sample size has an 80% power to detect a relative risk reduction for surgical site infections of 33% when administering surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the anesthesia room (with a two-sided type I error of 5%). We expect the study to be completed within three years. The results of this

  16. Acupuncture, Counseling, and Usual care for Depression (ACUDep: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacPherson Hugh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evidence on the effect of acupuncture or counseling for depression is not conclusive yet is sufficient to warrant further research. Our aim is to conduct a full-scale RCT to determine the clinical and cost effectiveness of acupuncture and counseling compared to usual care alone. We will explore the experiences and perspectives of patients and practitioners. Methods/Design Randomized controlled trial with three parallel arms: acupuncture plus usual care, counseling plus usual care, and usual care alone, in conjunction with a nested qualitative study using in-depth interviews with purposive samples of trial participants. Participants: Patients aged over 18 years diagnosed with depression or mood disorder by their GP and with a score of 20 or above on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II. Randomization: Computer randomization by York Trials Unit to acupuncture, counseling, and usual care alone in proportions of 2:2:1, respectively, with secure allocation concealment. Interventions: Patients allocated to acupuncture and counseling groups receive the offer of up to 12 weekly sessions. Both interventions allow flexibility to address patient variation, yet are constrained within defined protocols. Acupuncture is based on traditional Chinese medicine and counseling is non-directive within the humanistic tradition. Outcome: The PHQ-9 is the primary outcome measure, collected at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Also measured is BDI-II, SF-36 Bodily pain subscale, and EQ-5D. Texted mood scores are collected weekly over the first 15 weeks. Health-related resource use is collected over 12 months. Analysis: The sample size target was for 640 participants, calculated for an effect size of 0.32 on the PHQ-9 when comparing acupuncture with counseling given 90% power, 5% significance, and 20% loss to follow-up. Analysis of covariance will be used on an intention-to-treat basis. Thematic analysis will be used for qualitative data. We will

  17. Telerehabilitation Versus Traditional Care Following Total Hip Replacement: A Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Bourke, Michael; Crossley, Kay; Russell, Trevor

    2017-03-02

    Total hip replacement (THR) is the gold standard treatment for severe hip osteoarthritis. Effectiveness of physical rehabilitation for THR patients following discharge from hospital is supported by evidence; however, barriers such as geographical location and transport can limit access to appropriate health care. One solution to this issue is using an alternative model of care using telerehabilitation technology to deliver rehabilitation programs directly into patients' homes. A telerehabilitation model may also have potential health care cost savings for health care providers. This study aims to determine if a telerehabilitation model of care delivered remotely is as effective as face-to-face rehabilitation in the THR population and cost effective for health care providers and patients. A total of 70 people undergoing THR will be recruited to participate in a randomized, single-blind, controlled noninferiority clinical trial. The trial will compare a technology-based THR rehabilitation program to in-person care. On discharge from hospital, participants randomized to the in-person group will receive usual care, defined as a paper home exercise program (HEP) targeting strengthening exercises for quadriceps, hip abductors, extensors, and flexors; they will be advised to perform their HEP 3 times per day. At 2, 4, and 6 weeks postoperatively, they will receive a 30-minute in-person physiotherapy session with a focus on gait retraining and reviewing and progressing their HEP. The telerehabilitation protocol will involve a program similar in content to the in-person rehabilitation program, except delivery will be directly into the homes of the participants via telerehabilitation technology on an iPad. Outcomes will be evaluated preoperatively, day of discharge from in-patient physiotherapy, 6 weeks and 6 months postoperatively. The primary outcome will be the quality of life subscale of the hip disability and osteoarthritis outcome score, measured at 6 weeks. Both

  18. Prevention of abdominal wound infection (PROUD trial, DRKS00000390: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heger Ulrike

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wound infection affects a considerable portion of patients after abdominal operations, increasing health care costs and postoperative morbidity and affecting quality of life. Antibacterial coating has been suggested as an effective measure to decrease postoperative wound infections after laparotomies. The INLINE metaanalysis has recently shown the superiority of a slowly absorbable continuous suture for abdominal closure; with PDS plus® such a suture has now been made available with triclosan antibacterial coating. Methods/Design The PROUD trial is designed as a randomised, controlled, observer, surgeon and patient blinded multicenter superiority trial with two parallel groups and a primary endpoint of wound infection during 30 days after surgery. The intervention group will receive triclosan coated polydioxanone sutures, whereas the control group will receive the standard polydioxanone sutures; abdominal closure will otherwise be standardized in both groups. Statistical analysis is based on intention-to-treat population via binary logistic regression analysis, the total sample size of n = 750 is sufficient to ensure alpha = 5% and power = 80%, an interim analysis will be carried out after data of 375 patients are available. Discussion The PROUD trial will yield robust data to determine the effectiveness of antibacterial coating in one of the standard sutures for abdominal closure and potentially lead to amendment of current guidelines. The exploration of clinically objective parameters as well as quality of life holds immediate relevance for clinical management and the pragmatic trial design ensures high external validity. Trial Registration The trial protocol has been registered with the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00000390.

  19. Balance circuit classes to improve balance among rehabilitation inpatients: a protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treacy, Daniel; Schurr, Karl; Sherrington, Catherine

    2013-07-20

    Impaired balance and mobility are common among rehabilitation inpatients. Poor balance and mobility lead to an increased risk of falling. Specific balance exercise has been shown to improve balance and reduce falls within the community setting. However few studies have measured the effects of balance exercises on balance within the inpatient setting. A single centre, randomised controlled trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding and intention-to-treat analysis. One hundred and sixty two patients admitted to the general rehabilitation ward at Bankstown-Lidcombe Hospital will be recruited. Eligible participants will have no medical contraindications to exercise and will be able to: fully weight bear; stand unaided independently for at least 30 seconds; and participate in group therapy sessions with minimal supervision. Participants will be randomly allocated to an intervention group or usual-care control group. Both groups will receive standard rehabilitation intervention that includes physiotherapy mobility training and exercise for at least two hours on each week day. The intervention group will also receive six 1-hour circuit classes of supervised balance exercises designed to maximise the ability to make postural adjustments in standing, stepping and walking. The primary outcome is balance. Balance will be assessed by measuring the total time the participant can stand unsupported in five different positions; feet apart, feet together, semi-tandem, tandem and single-leg-stance. Secondary outcomes include mobility, self reported physical functioning, falls and hospital readmissions. Performance on the outcome measures will be assessed before randomisation and at two-weeks and three-months after randomisation by physiotherapists unaware of intervention group allocation. This study will determine the impact of additional balance circuit classes on balance among rehabilitation inpatients. The results will provide essential information to guide evidence

  20. Effects of two exercise protocols on postural balance of elderly women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Laiana Sepúlveda de Andrade; de Carvalho, Fabiana Texeira; Freire, Lara Sepúlveda de Andrade; Neto, Osmar Pinto; Zângaro, Renato Amaro

    2015-06-02

    The aging process reduces both sensory capabilities and the capabilities of the motor systems responsible for postural control, resulting in a high number of falls among the elderly. Some therapeutic interventions can directly interrupt this process, including physical exercise. This study compares and examines the effects of two exercise protocols on the balance of elderly women. Elderly women who participated in a local church project (n = 63) were randomly divided into three groups: the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation group (PNFG), Pilates group (PG), and control group (CG). Of the 63 women, 58 completed the program. A training program involving 50-min sessions was performed in the PNFG and PG three times a week for 4 weeks. The elderly women in the CG received no intervention and continued with their daily activities. Stabilometric parameters, the Berg Balance Scale score, functional reach test, and timed up and go test (TUG test) were assessed before and 1 month after participation. In the comparison among groups, the women in the PNFG showed a significant reduction in most of the stabilometric parameters evaluated and better Berg Balance Scale score, functional reach test result, and TUG test result than did women in the CG (p functional reach test and TUG test than did women in the CG (p < 0.05). Women in the PNFG showed significantly better static and dynamic balance than did women in the CG. Women in the PG also showed better dynamic balance than did women in the CG. However, no significant differences were observed in any of the balance variables assessed between the PNFG and PG. clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT02278731.

  1. Electroacupuncture for tapering off long-term benzodiazepine use: study protocol of randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Wing-Fai; Chung, Ka-Fai; Zhang, Zhang-Jin; Chan, Wai-Chi; Zhang, Shi-Ping; Ng, Roger Man-Kin; Chan, Connie Lai-Wah; Ho, Lai-Ming; Yu, Yee-Man; Lao, Li-Xing

    2017-03-31

    Conventional approaches for benzodiazepine tapering have their limitations. Anecdotal studies have shown that acupuncture is a potential treatment for facilitating successful benzodiazepine tapering. As of today, there was no randomized controlled trial examining its efficacy and safety. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of using electroacupuncture as an adjunct treatment to gradual tapering of benzodiazepine doses in complete benzodiazepine cessation in long-term benzodiazepine users. The study protocol of a randomized, assessor- and subject-blinded, controlled trial is presented. One hundred and forty-four patients with histories of using benzodiazepines in ≥50% of days for more than 3 months will be randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either electroacupuncture or placebo electroacupuncture combined with gradual benzodiazepine tapering schedule. Both experimental and placebo treatments will be delivered twice per week for 4 weeks. Major assessments will be conducted at baseline, week 6 and week 16 post-randomization. Primary outcome is the cessation rate of benzodiazepine use. Secondary outcomes include the percentage change in the doses of benzodiazepine usage and the severity of withdrawal symptoms experienced based on the Benzodiazepine Withdrawal Symptom Questionnaire, insomnia as measured by the Insomnia Severity Index, and anxiety and depressive symptoms as evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Adverse events will also be measured at each study visit. Results of this study will provide high quality evidence of the efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture as an adjunct treatment for benzodiazepine tapering in long-term users. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02475538 .

  2. Resource use and costs of type 2 diabetes patients receiving managed or protocolized primary care: a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Amber A W A; de Bruijne, Martine C; Feenstra, Talitha L; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Baan, Caroline A; Bosmans, Judith E; Bot, Sandra D M; Donker, Gé A; Nijpels, Giel

    2014-06-25

    The increasing prevalence of diabetes is associated with increased health care use and costs. Innovations to improve the quality of care, manage the increasing demand for health care and control the growth of health care costs are needed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the care process and costs of managed, protocolized and usual care for type 2 diabetes patients from a societal perspective. In two distinct regions of the Netherlands, both managed and protocolized diabetes care were implemented. Managed care was characterized by centralized organization, coordination, responsibility and centralized annual assessment. Protocolized care had a partly centralized organizational structure. Usual care was characterized by a decentralized organizational structure. Using a quasi-experimental control group pretest-posttest design, the care process (guideline adherence) and costs were compared between managed (n = 253), protocolized (n = 197), and usual care (n = 333). We made a distinction between direct health care costs, direct non-health care costs and indirect costs. Multivariate regression models were used to estimate differences in costs adjusted for confounding factors. Because of the skewed distribution of the costs, bootstrapping methods (5000 replications) with a bias-corrected and accelerated approach were used to estimate 95% confidence intervals (CI) around the differences in costs. Compared to usual and protocolized care, in managed care more patients were treated according to diabetes guidelines. Secondary health care use was higher in patients under usual care compared to managed and protocolized care. Compared to usual care, direct costs were significantly lower in managed care (€-1.181 (95% CI: -2.597 to -334)) while indirect costs were higher (€ 758 (95% CI: -353 to 2.701), although not significant. Direct, indirect and total costs were lower in protocolized care compared to usual care (though not significantly). Compared to usual care, managed

  3. Weighted congestion coefficient feedback in intelligent transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Chuanfei; Ma Xu; Wang Binghong

    2010-01-01

    In traffic systems, a reasonable information feedback can improve road capacity. In this Letter, we study dynamics of traffic flow with real-time information. And the influence of a feedback strategy named Weighted Congestion Coefficient Feedback Strategy (WCCFS) is introduced, based on a two-route scenario in which dynamic information can be generated and displayed on the board to guide road users to make a choice. Our model incorporates the effects of adaptability into the cellular automaton models of traffic flow and simulation results adopting this optimal information feedback strategy have demonstrated high efficiency in controlling spatial distribution of traffic patterns compared with the other three information feedback strategies, i.e., vehicle number and flux.

  4. Engaging Moms on Teen Indoor Tanning Through Social Media: Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoto, Sherry L; Baker, Katie; Griffith, Julia; Oleski, Jessica L; Palumbo, Ashley; Walkosz, Barbara J; Hillhouse, Joel; Henry, Kimberly L; Buller, David B

    2016-11-29

    Indoor tanning elevates the risk for melanoma, which is now the most common cancer in US women aged 25-29. Public policies restricting access to indoor tanning by minors to reduce melanoma morbidity and mortality in teens are emerging. In the United States, the most common policy restricting indoor tanning in minors involves parents providing either written or in person consent for the minor to purchase a tanning visit. The effectiveness of this policy relies on parents being properly educated about the harms of indoor tanning to their children. This randomized controlled trial will test the efficacy of a Facebook-delivered health communication intervention targeting mothers of teenage girls. The intervention will use health communication and behavioral modification strategies to reduce mothers' permissiveness regarding their teenage daughters' use of indoor tanning relative to an attention-control condition with the ultimate goal of reducing indoor tanning in both daughters and mothers. The study is a 12-month randomized controlled trial comparing 2 conditions: an attention control Facebook private group where content will be relevant to teen health with 25% focused on prescription drug abuse, a topic unrelated to tanning; and the intervention condition will enter participants into a Facebook private group where 25% of the teen health content will be focused on indoor tanning. A cohort of 2000 mother-teen daughter dyads will be recruited to participate in this study. Only mothers will participate in the Facebook groups. Both mothers and daughters will complete measures at baseline, end of intervention (1-year) and 6 months post-intervention. Primary outcomes include mothers' permissiveness regarding their teenage daughters' use of indoor tanning, teenage daughters' perception of their mothers' permissiveness, and indoor tanning by both mothers and daughters. The first dyad was enrolled on March 31, 2016, and we anticipate completing this study by October 2019

  5. Precision Time Protocol support hardware for ATCA control and data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Miguel, E-mail: miguelfc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Sousa, Jorge; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Santos, Bruno; Carvalho, Paulo F.; Rodrigues, António P.; Combo, Álvaro M.; Pereira, Rita C. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Correia, Carlos M.B.A. [Centro de Instrumentação, Departamento de Física, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Gonçalves, Bruno [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • ATCA based control and data acquisition subsystem has been developed at IPFN. • PTP and time stamping were implemented with VHDL and PTP daemon (PTPd) codes. • The RTM (…) provides PTP synchronization with an external GMC. • The main advantage is that timestamps are generated closer to the Physical Layer at the GMII. • IPFN's upgrade consistently exhibited jitter values below 25 ns RMS. - Abstract: An in-house, Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA) based control and data acquisition (C&DAQ) subsystem has been developed at Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear (IPFN), aiming for compliance with the ITER Fast Plant System Controller (FPSC). Timing and synchronization for the ATCA modules connects to ITER Control, Data Access and Communication (CODAC) through the Timing Communication Network (TCN), which uses IEEE 1588-2008 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) to synchronize devices to a Grand Master Clock (GMC). The TCN infrastructure was tested for an RMS jitter under the limit of 50 ns. Therefore, IPFN's hardware, namely the ATCA-PTSW-AMC4 hub-module, which is in charge of timing and synchronization distribution for all subsystem endpoints, shall also perform within this jitter limit. This paper describes a relevant upgrade, applied to the ATCA-PTSW-AMC4 hardware, to comply with these requirements – in particular, the integration of an add-on module “RMC-TMG-1588” on its Rear Transition Module (RTM). This add-on is based on a commercial FPGA-based module from Trenz Electronic, using the ZHAW “PTP VHDL code for timestamping unit and clock”, which features clock offset and drift correction and hardware-assisted time stamping. The main advantage is that timestamps are generated closer to the Physical Layer, at the Gigabit Ethernet Media Independent Interface (GMII), avoiding the timing uncertainties accumulated through the upper layers. PTP code and user software run in a MicroBlaze™ soft-core CPU with Linux in the

  6. Promoting psychosocial well-being following stroke: study protocol for a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkevold, Marit; Kildal Bragstad, Line; Bronken, Berit A; Kvigne, Kari; Martinsen, Randi; Gabrielsen Hjelle, Ellen; Kitzmüller, Gabriele; Mangset, Margrete; Angel, Sanne; Aadal, Lena; Eriksen, Siren; Wyller, Torgeir B; Sveen, Unni

    2018-04-03

    Stroke is a major public health threat globally. Psychosocial well-being may be affected following stroke. Depressive symptoms, anxiety, general psychological distress and social isolation are prevalent. Approximately one third report depressive symptoms and 20% report anxiety during the first months or years after the stroke. Psychosocial difficulties may impact significantly on long-term functioning and quality of life, reduce the effects of rehabilitation services and lead to higher mortality rates. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of a previously developed and feasibility tested dialogue-based psychosocial intervention aimed at promoting psychosocial well-being and coping following stroke among stroke survivors with and without aphasia. The study will be conducted as a multicenter, randomized, single blind controlled trial with one intervention and one control arm. It will include a total of 330 stroke survivors randomly allocated into either an intervention group (dialogue-based intervention to promote psychosocial well-being) or a control group (usual care). Participants in the intervention group will receive eight individual sessions of supported dialogues in their homes during the first six months following an acute stroke. The primary outcome measure will be psychosocial well-being measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Secondary outcome measures will be quality of life (SAQoL), sense of coherence (SOC), and depression (Yale). Process evaluation will be conducted in a longitudinal mixed methods study by individual qualitative interviews with 15-20 participants in the intervention and control groups, focus group interviews with the intervention personnel and data collectors, and a comprehensive analysis of implementation fidelity. The intervention described in this study protocol is based on thorough development and feasibility work, guided by the UK medical research council framework for developing and testing complex

  7. Precision Time Protocol support hardware for ATCA control and data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, Miguel; Sousa, Jorge; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Santos, Bruno; Carvalho, Paulo F.; Rodrigues, António P.; Combo, Álvaro M.; Pereira, Rita C.; Correia, Carlos M.B.A.; Gonçalves, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ATCA based control and data acquisition subsystem has been developed at IPFN. • PTP and time stamping were implemented with VHDL and PTP daemon (PTPd) codes. • The RTM (…) provides PTP synchronization with an external GMC. • The main advantage is that timestamps are generated closer to the Physical Layer at the GMII. • IPFN's upgrade consistently exhibited jitter values below 25 ns RMS. - Abstract: An in-house, Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA) based control and data acquisition (C&DAQ) subsystem has been developed at Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear (IPFN), aiming for compliance with the ITER Fast Plant System Controller (FPSC). Timing and synchronization for the ATCA modules connects to ITER Control, Data Access and Communication (CODAC) through the Timing Communication Network (TCN), which uses IEEE 1588-2008 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) to synchronize devices to a Grand Master Clock (GMC). The TCN infrastructure was tested for an RMS jitter under the limit of 50 ns. Therefore, IPFN's hardware, namely the ATCA-PTSW-AMC4 hub-module, which is in charge of timing and synchronization distribution for all subsystem endpoints, shall also perform within this jitter limit. This paper describes a relevant upgrade, applied to the ATCA-PTSW-AMC4 hardware, to comply with these requirements – in particular, the integration of an add-on module “RMC-TMG-1588” on its Rear Transition Module (RTM). This add-on is based on a commercial FPGA-based module from Trenz Electronic, using the ZHAW “PTP VHDL code for timestamping unit and clock”, which features clock offset and drift correction and hardware-assisted time stamping. The main advantage is that timestamps are generated closer to the Physical Layer, at the Gigabit Ethernet Media Independent Interface (GMII), avoiding the timing uncertainties accumulated through the upper layers. PTP code and user software run in a MicroBlaze™ soft-core CPU with Linux in the same FPGA

  8. Counter-proposal: A Multi-Agent Negotiation Protocol for Resolving Resource Contention in Open Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Corfixen; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2010-01-01

    The resource contention problem in control systems based on software agents occurs when agents with different goals compete with each other, to control a shared resource. In this paper we propose the counter-proposal protocol, a negotiation protocol that resolves the resource contention problem...

  9. Congestive heart failure as a determinant of postoperative delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Daniela; Luís, Clara; Veiga, Dalila; Silva, Hugo; Abelha, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    Postoperative delirium (POD) is a frequent post-surgical complication that is associated with increased mortality and poor patient outcomes. POD is a complex disorder with multiple risk factors such as pre-existing patient comorbidities and perioperative complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of POD and to identify risk factors for the development of POD in a post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). We enrolled 97 adult patients admitted to a PACU over a five-day period (start date September 6, 2010). Patient demographics and intraoperative and postoperative data were collected. Patients were followed for the development of delirium using the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist. Descriptive analyses of variables were used to summarize data, and the Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare continuous variables; the chi-square or Fisher's exact test was used for comparisons. Univariate analysis was performed using simple binary logistic regression with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The significance level for multiple comparisons was controlled by applying the Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons and variables were deemed significant if p≤0.0025. Six percent of patients developed POD. These patients were older and more likely to have higher American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status (83 vs. 22% with ASA III/IV, p=0.004) as well as a higher frequency of congestive heart failure (50 vs. 3%, p=0.003) and a higher Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI) score (33 vs. 6% with RCRI ≥2, p=0.039). The duration of anesthesia for patients with POD was also longer and they received a greater volume of crystalloids, colloids, and erythrocytes during surgery. Congestive heart disease was an independent risk factor for POD (OR 29.3, 95% CI 4.1-210.6; p<0.001). In addition, patients who developed POD had higher in-hospital mortality and longer PACU and hospital stays. Patients who developed POD had longer

  10. The Control Packet Collision Avoidance Algorithm for the Underwater Multichannel MAC Protocols via Time-Frequency Masking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishing high-speed and reliable underwater acoustic networks among multiunmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs is basic to realize cooperative and intelligent control among different UUVs. Nevertheless, different from terrestrial network, the propagation speed of the underwater acoustic network is 1500 m/s, which makes the design of the underwater acoustic network MAC protocols a big challenge. In accordance with multichannel MAC protocols, data packets and control packets are transferred through different channels, which lowers the adverse effect of acoustic network and gradually becomes the popular issues of underwater acoustic networks MAC protocol research. In this paper, we proposed a control packet collision avoidance algorithm utilizing time-frequency masking to deal with the control packets collision in the control channel. This algorithm is based on the scarcity of the noncoherent underwater acoustic communication signals, which regards collision avoiding as separation of the mixtures of communication signals from different nodes. We first measure the W-Disjoint Orthogonality of the MFSK signals and the simulation result demonstrates that there exists time-frequency mask which can separate the source signals from the mixture of the communication signals. Then we present a pairwise hydrophones separation system based on deep networks and the location information of the nodes. Consequently, the time-frequency mask can be estimated.

  11. Managing congestion and intermittent renewable generation in liberalized electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Friedrich

    2013-02-27

    This dissertation focuses on selected aspects of network congestion arising in liberalized electricity markets and their management methods with a special weight placed on the integration of increased renewable generation in Europe and Germany. In a first step, the theoretical concepts of congestion management are introduced complemented by a review of current management regimes in selected countries. In the second step, the European approach of managing congestion on international as well as national transmission links is analyzed and the benefits of an integrated congestion management regime are quantified. It is concluded that benefits can be achieved by a closer cooperation of national transmission system operators (TSOs). Thirdly, the German congestion management regime is investigated and the impact of higher renewable generation up to 2020 on congestion management cost is determined. It is shown that a homogeneous and jointly development of generation and transmission infrastructure is a prerequisite for the application of congestion alleviation methods and once they diverge congestion management cost tend to increase substantially. Lastly, the impact of intermittent and uncertain wind generation on electricity markets is analyzed. A stochastic electricity market model is described, which replicates the daily subsequent clearing of reserve, day ahead, and intraday market typical for European countries, and numerical results are presented.

  12. Statewide planning scenario synthesis : transportation congestion measurement and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    This study is a review of current practices in 13 states to: (1) measure traffic congestion and its costs; and (2) manage congestion with programs and techniques that do not involve the building of new highway capacity. In regard to the measures of c...

  13. Efficiency of equilibria in uniform matroid congestion games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Jasper; Klimm, Max; Uetz, Marc Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Network routing games, and more generally congestion games play a central role in algorithmic game theory, comparable to the role of the traveling salesman problem in combinatorial optimization. It is known that the price of anarchy is independent of the network topology for non-atomic congestion

  14. Give or take? Rewards versus charges for a congested bottleneck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouwendal, J.; Verhoef, E.T.; Knockaert, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the possibilities to relieve traffic congestion using subsidies instead of Pigouvian taxes, as well as revenue-neutral combinations of rewards and taxes ('feebates'). The model considers a Vickrey-ADL model of bottleneck congestion with endogenous scheduling. With inelastic

  15. Mathematical principles of road congestion pricing | Pienaar | ORiON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper briefly considers the objectives of road congestion pricing and identies prereq-uisites to the successful application of such a pricing scheme. The paper is divided into two sections. In the rst section, a mathematical analysis of the constituents of an optimal road congestion price is oered. The eliminated inefficiency ...

  16. Management of congestive heart failure (CHF): a case report on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case report on the management of Congestive Heart Failure is presented with emphasis on the use of DIGOXIN. Keywords: Congestive heart failure, Failing heart syndrome, Digoxin, Digoxin Toxicity. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  17. Exploring spatio-temporal patterns in traffic congestion data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveladze, Irma; Agerholm, Niels; Reinau, Kristian Hegner

    2017-01-01

    An efficient infrastructure is essential for economic development. However, economic growth has been closely connected to the increasing road transport. This increases traffic congestions significantly, and road network gets near or at its capacity limits. Hence, congestion has become a central...

  18. An Efficient Traffic Congestion Monitoring System on Internet of Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc-Binh Nguyen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing intelligent transport systems (ITS do not fully consider and resolve accuracy, instantaneity, and compatibility challenges while resolving traffic congestion in Internet of Vehicles (IoV environments. This paper proposes a traffic congestion monitoring system, which includes data collection, segmented structure establishment, traffic-flow modelling, local segment traffic congestion prediction, and origin-destination traffic congestion service for drivers. Macroscopic model-based traffic-flow factors were formalized on the basis of the analysis results. Fuzzy rules-based local segment traffic congestion prediction was performed to determine the traffic congestion state. To enhance prediction efficiency, this paper presents a verification process for minimizing false predictions which is based on the Rankine-Hugoniot condition and an origin-destination traffic congestion service is also provided. To verify the feasibility of the proposed system, a prototype was implemented. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can effectively monitor traffic congestion in terms of accuracy and system response time.

  19. Management of Traffic Congestion in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilibald Premzl

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of road vehicles is increasing, the benefits they affordhave been progressively diminished by external costs.Whereas traffic increases as we approach the centre, the roadand open space decreases. The greater specialisation allows thecity growth in size and in traffic attraction. In this way urbangrowth feeds itself !mer-urban transp011 facilities also becomemore extensive. Growth in size of the city generates greateramounts of traffic and can eventually give rise to agglomerationdiseconomies. Higher transport costs, offices and shops, attractedby the accessibility of central locations, gradually replaceresidential uses, people being forced to seek housing inthe suburbs. As the urban area expands and offices in the citycentre are built denser and highe1; traffic congestion increases.This may result in the fall in centra/land values, since accessibilitydiminishes with the saturation of transport network. Increasedpollution takes various forms as noise, smoke andovercrowded housing in the centre, urban decay in the transitionalzone as commercial development is anticipated.

  20. Xamoterol in severe congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tangø, M; Lyngborg, K; Mehlsen, J

    1992-01-01

    Twelve patients in severe congestive heart failure were given placebo, 100 mg xamoterol (Corwin) twice daily and 200 mg xamoterol twice daily, respectively, in 3 two-week periods in a double-blind randomised study. At the end of each treatment period the patients were evaluated. No differences were...... found between placebo and xamoterol in the following parameters: New York Heart Association function group index, heart volume, body weight, exercise duration on bicycle and treadmill, heart rate and systolic and diastolic blood pressure at rest. However, during exercise we found significantly lower...... heart rate and rate-pressure product during xamoterol treatment. This reduction is probably indicating occupation of beta-adrenoreceptors with concomitant reduced oxygen consumption during exercise....

  1. Lovastatin for adult patients with dengue: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue is the most important vector-borne viral infection of man, with approximately 2 billion people living in areas at risk. Infection results in a range of manifestations from asymptomatic infection through to life-threatening shock and haemorrhage. One of the hallmarks of severe dengue is vascular endothelial disruption. There is currently no specific therapy and clinical management is limited to supportive care. Statins are a class of drug initially developed for lipid lowering. There has been considerable recent interest in their effects beyond lipid lowering. These include anti-inflammatory effects at the endothelium. In addition, it is possible that lovastatin may have an anti-viral effect against dengue. Observational data suggest that the use of statins may improve outcomes for such conditions as sepsis and pneumonia. This paper describes the protocol for a randomised controlled trial investigating a short course of lovastatin therapy in adult patients with dengue. Methods/design A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial will investigate the effects of lovastatin therapy in the treatment of dengue. The trial will be conducted in two phases with an escalation of dose between phases if an interim safety review is satisfactory. This is an exploratory study focusing on safety and there are no data on which to base a sample size calculation. A target sample size of 300 patients in the second phase, enrolled over two dengue seasons, was chosen based on clinical judgement and feasibility considerations. In a previous randomised trial in dengue, about 10% and 30% of patients experienced at least one serious adverse event or adverse event, respectively. With 300 patients, we will have 80% power to detect an increase of 12% (from 10% to 22%) or 16% (from 30% to 46%) in the frequency of adverse events. Furthermore, this sample size ensures some power to explore the efficacy of statins. Discussion The development of a dengue therapeutic that can

  2. EXERCISE in pediatric autologous stem cell transplant patients: a randomized controlled trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamorro-Viña Carolina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an intensive therapy used to improve survivorship and cure various oncologic diseases. However, this therapy is associated with high mortality rates and numerous negative side-effects. The recovery of the immune system is a special concern and plays a key role in the success of this treatment. In healthy populations it is known that exercise plays an important role in immune system regulation, but little is known about the role of exercise in the hematological and immunological recovery of children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The primary objective of this randomized-controlled trial (RCT is to study the effect of an exercise program (in- and outpatient on immune cell recovery in patients undergoing an autologous stem cell transplantation. The secondary objective is to determine if an exercise intervention diminishes the usual deterioration in quality of life, physical fitness, and the acquisition of a sedentary lifestyle. Methods This RCT has received approval from The Conjoint Health Research Ethics Board (CHREB of the University of Calgary (Ethics ID # E-24476. Twenty-four participants treated for a malignancy with autologous stem cell transplant (5 to 18 years in the Alberta Children’s Hospital will be randomly assigned to an exercise or control group. The exercise group will participate in a two-phase exercise intervention (in- and outpatient from hospitalization until 10 weeks after discharge. The exercise program includes strength, flexibility and aerobic exercise. During the inpatient phase this program will be performed 5 times/week and will be supervised. The outpatient phase will combine a supervised session with two home-based exercise sessions with the use of the Wii device. The control group will follow the standard protocol without any specific exercise program. A range of outcomes, including quantitative and functional recovery of immune system

  3. Brief intervention to reduce risky drinking in pregnancy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Graeme B

    2012-09-01

    delivery, and retention in the study population, to inform power calculations for a definitive trial. The health-economics component will establish how cost-effectiveness will be assessed, and examine which data on health service resource use should be collected in a main trial. Participants’ views on instruments and procedures will be sought to confirm their acceptability. Discussion The study will produce a full trial protocol with robust sample-size calculations to extend evidence on effectiveness of screening and brief intervention. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN43218782

  4. HEART: heart exercise and remote technologies: A randomized controlled trial study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira Geoffrey

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death worldwide. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR is aimed at improving health behaviors to slow or reverse the progression of CVD disease. Exercise is a central element of CR. Technologies such as mobile phones and the Internet (mHealth offer potential to overcome many of the psychological, physical, and geographical barriers that have been associated with lack of participation in exercise-based CR. We aim to trial the effectiveness of a mobile phone delivered exercise-based CR program to increase exercise capacity and functional outcomes compared with usual CR care in adults with CVD. This paper outlines the rationale and methods of the trial. Methods A single-blinded parallel two-arm randomized controlled trial is being conducted. A total of 170 people will be randomized at 1:1 ratio either to receive a mHealth CR program or usual care. Participants are identified by CR nurses from two metropolitan hospitals in Auckland, New Zealand through outpatient clinics and existing databases. Consenting participants are contacted to attend a baseline assessment. The intervention consists of a theory-based, personalized, automated package of text and video message components via participants' mobile phones and the Internet to increase exercise behavior, delivered over six months. The control group will continue with usual CR. Data collection occurs at baseline and 24 weeks (post-intervention. The primary outcome is change in maximal oxygen uptake from baseline to 24 weeks. Secondary outcomes include post-intervention measures on self-reported physical activity (IPAQ, cardiovascular risk factors (systolic blood pressure, weight, and waist to hip ratio, health related quality of life (SF-36, and cost-effectiveness. Discussion This manuscript presents the protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a mHealth exercise-based CR program. Results of this trial will provide much needed

  5. A Fully Automated Diabetes Prevention Program, Alive-PD: Program Design and Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Gladys; Azar, Kristen Mj; Block, Torin J; Romanelli, Robert J; Carpenter, Heather; Hopkins, Donald; Palaniappan, Latha; Block, Clifford H

    2015-01-21

    In the United States, 86 million adults have pre-diabetes. Evidence-based interventions that are both cost effective and widely scalable are needed to prevent diabetes. Our goal was to develop a fully automated diabetes prevention program and determine its effectiveness in a randomized controlled trial. Subjects with verified pre-diabetes were recruited to participate in a trial of the effectiveness of Alive-PD, a newly developed, 1-year, fully automated behavior change program delivered by email and Web. The program involves weekly tailored goal-setting, team-based and individual challenges, gamification, and other opportunities for interaction. An accompanying mobile phone app supports goal-setting and activity planning. For the trial, participants were randomized by computer algorithm to start the program immediately or after a 6-month delay. The primary outcome measures are change in HbA1c and fasting glucose from baseline to 6 months. The secondary outcome measures are change in HbA1c, glucose, lipids, body mass index (BMI), weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Randomization and delivery of the intervention are independent of clinic staff, who are blinded to treatment assignment. Outcomes will be evaluated for the intention-to-treat and per-protocol populations. A total of 340 subjects with pre-diabetes were randomized to the intervention (n=164) or delayed-entry control group (n=176). Baseline characteristics were as follows: mean age 55 (SD 8.9); mean BMI 31.1 (SD 4.3); male 68.5%; mean fasting glucose 109.9 (SD 8.4) mg/dL; and mean HbA1c 5.6 (SD 0.3)%. Data collection and analysis are in progress. We hypothesize that participants in the intervention group will achieve statistically significant reductions in fasting glucose and HbA1c as compared to the control group at 6 months post baseline. The randomized trial will provide rigorous evidence regarding the efficacy of this Web- and Internet-based program in reducing or

  6. Increasing girls’ physical activity during an organised youth sport basketball program: a randomised controlled trial protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Participation in organised youth sports (OYS) has been recommended as an opportunity to increase young peoples’ moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels. Participants, however, spend a considerable proportion of time during OYS inactive. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to investigate whether coaches who attended coach education sessions (where education on increasing MVPA and decreasing inactivity during training was delivered) can increase players’ MVPA during training sessions over a 5-day basketball program compared to coaches who did not receive coach education sessions. Methods/design A convenience sample of 80 female players and 8 coaches were recruited into the UWS School Holiday Basketball Program in Greater Western Sydney, Australia. A two-arm, parallel-group randomised controlled trial was employed to investigate whether coaches who attended 2 coach education sessions (compared with a no-treatment control) can increase their players’ MVPA during training sessions over a 5-day basketball program. Objectively measured physical activity, directly observed lesson context and leader behaviour, player motivation, players’ perceived autonomy support, and coaching information (regarding training session planning, estimations on player physical activity and lesson context during training, perceived ability to modify training sessions, perceived importance of physical activity during training, intention to increase physical activity/reduce inactivity, and likelihood of increasing physical activity/reducing inactivity) were assessed at baseline (day 1) and at follow-up (day 5). Linear mixed models will be used to analyse between arm differences in changes from baseline to follow-up on all outcomes. Discussion The current trial protocol describes, to our knowledge, the first trial conducted in an OYS context to investigate the efficacy of an intervention, relative to a control, in increasing MVPA. This study’s findings will

  7. Assessment of Active Video Gaming Using Adapted Controllers by Individuals With Physical Disabilities: A Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Laurie A; Padalabalanarayanan, Sangeetha; McCroskey, Justin; Thirumalai, Mohanraj

    2017-06-16

    collected during an initial 20-minute baseline, followed by 40 minutes of game play. The controller (balance board or gaming mat) played was randomly selected. A set of games was played for 10 minutes, followed by 5 minutes of rest, and then another set of games was played for 10 minutes, followed by rest. Quality of game play was observed and documented for each set. During rest, the participant completed questions regarding enjoyment. Following the same procedures, the participant then played the two sets of games using the other version (off-the-shelf or adapted) of the controller. The entire procedure was repeated during Visit 3 with the controller that was not played. Enrollment began in February 2016 and ended in September 2016. Study results will be reported in late 2017. We hypothesized that the adapted versions of the Wii Fit balance board and gaming mat would produce greater quality of game play, enjoyment, and energy expenditure in persons with mobility impairments compared to off-the-shelf versions. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02994199; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02994199 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6qpPszPJ7). ©Laurie A Malone, Sangeetha Padalabalanarayanan, Justin McCroskey, Mohanraj Thirumalai. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 16.06.2017.

  8. Standardized evaluation of lung congestion during COPD exacerbation better identifies patients at risk of dying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Høiseth AD

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Arne Didrik Høiseth,1 Torbjørn Omland,1 Bo Daniel Karlsson,2 Pål H Brekke,1 Vidar Søyseth11Cardiothoracic Research Group, Division of Medicine, Akershus University Hospital and Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 2Deptartment of Radiology, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, NorwayBackground: Congestive heart failure is underdiagnosed in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Pulmonary congestion on chest radiograph at admission for acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD is associated with an increased risk of mortality. A standardized evaluation of chest radiographs may enhance prognostic accuracy.Purpose: We aimed to evaluate whether a standardized, liberal assessment of pulmonary congestion is superior to the routine assessment in identifying patients at increased risk of long-term mortality, and to investigate the association of heart failure with N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP concentrations.Material and methods: This was a prospective cohort study of 99 patients admitted for AECOPD. Chest radiographs obtained on admission were routinely evaluated and then later evaluated by blinded investigators using a standardized protocol looking for Kerley B lines, enlarged vessels in the lung apex, perihilar cuffing, peribronchial haze, and interstitial or alveolar edema, defining the presence of pulmonary congestion. Adjusted associations with long-term mortality and NT-proBNP concentration were calculated.Results: The standardized assessment was positive for pulmonary congestion in 32 of the 195 radiographs (16% ruled negative in the routine assessment. The standardized assessment was superior in predicting death during a median follow up of 1.9 years (P=0.022, and in multivariable analysis, only the standardized assessment showed a significant association with mortality (hazard ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–4.7 (P=0.016 and NT-proBNP (relative

  9. Streamlining tasks and roles to expand treatment and care for HIV: randomised controlled trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Vuuren Cloete

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major barrier to accessing free government-provided antiretroviral treatment (ART in South Africa is the shortage of suitably skilled health professionals. Current South African guidelines recommend that only doctors should prescribe ART, even though most primary care is provided by nurses. We have developed an effective method of educational outreach to primary care nurses in South Africa. Evidence is needed as to whether primary care nurses, with suitable training and managerial support, can initiate and continue to prescribe and monitor ART in the majority of ART-eligible adults. Methods/design This is a protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomised trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a complex intervention based on and supporting nurse-led antiretroviral treatment (ART for South African patients with HIV/AIDS, compared to current practice in which doctors are responsible for initiating ART and continuing prescribing. We will randomly allocate 31 primary care clinics in the Free State province to nurse-led or doctor-led ART. Two groups of patients aged 16 years and over will be included: a 7400 registering with the programme with CD4 counts of ≤ 350 cells/mL (mainly to evaluate treatment initiation and b 4900 already receiving ART (to evaluate ongoing treatment and monitoring. The primary outcomes will be time to death (in the first group and viral suppression (in the second group. Patients' survival, viral load and health status indicators will be measured at least 6-monthly for at least one year and up to 2 years, using an existing province-wide clinical database linked to the national death register. Trial registration Controlled Clinical Trials ISRCTN46836853

  10. The impact of a congestion assistant on traffic flow efficiency and safety in congested traffic caused by a lane drop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, Cornelie; van Arem, Bart

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a microscopic traffic simulation study conducted to investigate the impact of a Congestion Assistant on traffic efficiency and traffic safety. The Congestion Assistant is an in-vehicle system in which an active pedal supports the driver when approaching

  11. Impact of Incidents on Traffic Congestion in Dar es Salaam City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mfinanga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Poorly managed traffic incidents have largely contributed to congestion and delay in the city of Dar es Salaam. A thorough understanding of travel delays caused by incidents is therefore essential for effective countermeasures against the increasing congestion. The method used to determine delays in this research is based on the deterministic queuing theory. Information on incidents was obtained from traffic surveys, traffic police and road users. Counting of the number of vehicles passing the incident location was done on incident and incident-free days. The cumulative traffic counts on incident and incident-free days were then calculated and used to plot the queuing diagram used to determine incident induced delay. This method turned out to be a useful tool for estimating incident induced delay in areas with less sophisticated equipment i.e. where there are no sensors, CCTV cameras, etc. The method provided good estimates of incident induced delay which may help planners and transportation officials in better understanding incident related congestion and in selecting more effective countermeasures against incident related traffic congestion in the city. It was found out that the effects of incidents were different for the different zones, types of incidents and the periods the incident occurred. In addition to the incident duration and the number of vehicles affected, the impact of incidents also depended on availability of alternative routes, number of lanes on the road, discipline of the driver in manoeuvring at incident location and traffic control at the scene.

  12. Functional rehabilitation of upper limb apraxia in poststroke patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Mármol, Jose Manuel; García-Ríos, M Carmen; Barrero-Hernandez, Francisco J; Molina-Torres, Guadalupe; Brown, Ted; Aguilar-Ferrándiz, María Encarnación

    2015-11-05

    Upper limb apraxia is a common disorder associated with stroke that can reduce patients' independence levels in activities of daily living and increase levels of disability. Traditional rehabilitation programs designed to promote the recovery of upper limb function have mainly focused on restorative or compensatory approaches. However, no previous studies have been completed that evaluate a combined intervention method approach, where patients concurrently receive cognitive training and learn compensatory strategies for enhancing daily living activities. This study will use a two-arm, assessor-blinded, parallel, randomized controlled trial design, involving 40 patients who present a left- or right-sided unilateral vascular lesion poststroke and a clinical diagnosis of upper limb apraxia. Participants will be randomized to either a combined functional rehabilitation or a traditional health education group. The experimental group will receive an 8-week combined functional program at home, including physical and occupational therapy focused on restorative and compensatory techniques for upper limb apraxia, 3 days per week in 30-min intervention periods. The control group will receive a conventional health education program once a month over 8 weeks, based on improving awareness of physical and functional limitations and facilitating the adaptation of patients to the home. Study outcomes will be assessed immediately postintervention and at the 2-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure will be basic activities of daily living skills as assessed with the Barthel Index. Secondary outcome measures will include the following: 1) the Lawton and Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale, 2) the Observation and Scoring of ADL-Activities, 3) the De Renzi Test for Ideational Apraxia, 4) the De Renzi Test for Ideomotor Apraxia, 5) Recognition of Gestures, 6) the Test of Upper Limb Apraxia (TULIA), and 7) the Quality of Life Scale For Stroke (ECVI-38). This trial is

  13. Prednisolone and acupuncture in Bell's palsy: study protocol for a randomized, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Kangjun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are a variety of treatment options for Bell's palsy. Evidence from randomized controlled trials indicates corticosteroids can be used as a proven therapy for Bell's palsy. Acupuncture is one of the most commonly used methods to treat Bell's palsy in China. Recent studies suggest that staging treatment is more suitable for Bell's palsy, according to different path-stages of this disease. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of prednisolone and staging acupuncture in the recovery of the affected facial nerve, and to verify whether prednisolone in combination with staging acupuncture is more effective than prednisolone alone for Bell's palsy in a large number of patients. Methods/Design In this article, we report the design and protocol of a large sample multi-center randomized controlled trial to treat Bell's palsy with prednisolone and/or acupuncture. In total, 1200 patients aged 18 to 75 years within 72 h of onset of acute, unilateral, peripheral facial palsy will be assessed. There are six treatment groups, with four treated according to different path-stages and two not. These patients are randomly assigned to be in one of the following six treatment groups, i.e. 1 placebo prednisolone group, 2 prednisolone group, 3 placebo prednisolone plus acute stage acupuncture group, 4 prednisolone plus acute stage acupuncture group, 5 placebo prednisolone plus resting stage acupuncture group, 6 prednisolone plus resting stage acupuncture group. The primary outcome is the time to complete recovery of facial function, assessed by Sunnybrook system and House-Brackmann scale. The secondary outcomes include the incidence of ipsilateral pain in the early stage of palsy (and the duration of this pain, the proportion of patients with severe pain, the occurrence of synkinesis, facial spasm or contracture, and the severity of residual facial symptoms during the study period. Discussion The result of this trial will assess the

  14. The spinal stenosis pedometer and nutrition lifestyle intervention (SSPANLI) randomized controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins-Lane, Christy C; Lafave, Lynne M Z; Parnell, Jill A; Krishnamurthy, Ashok; Rempel, Jocelyn; Macedo, Luciana G; Moriartey, Stephanie; Stuber, Kent J; Wilson, Philip M; Hu, Richard; Andreas, Yvette M

    2013-11-14

    Because of symptoms, people with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) are often inactive, and this sedentary behaviour implies risk for diseases including obesity. Research has identified body mass index as the most powerful predictor of function in LSS. This suggests that function may be improved by targeting weight as a modifiable factor. An e-health lifestyle intervention was developed aimed at reducing fat mass and increasing physical activity in people with LSS. The main components of this intervention include pedometer-based physical activity promotion and nutrition education. The Spinal Stenosis Pedometer and Nutrition Lifestyle INTERVENTION (SSPANLI) was developed and piloted with 10 individuals. The protocol for a randomized controlled trail comparing the SSPANLI intervention to usual non-surgical care follows. One hundred six (106) overweight or obese individuals with LSS will be recruited. Baseline and follow-up testing includes dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, blood draw, 3-day food record, 7-day accelerometry, questionnaire, maximal oxygen consumption, neurological exam, balance testing and a Self-Paced Walking Test. During Week 1, the intervention group will receive a pedometer, and a personalized consultation with both a Dietitian and an exercise specialist. For 12 weeks participants will log on to the e-health website to access personal step goals, walking maps, nutrition videos, and motivational quotes. Participants will also have access to in-person Coffee Talk meetings every 3 weeks, and meet with the Dietitian and exercise specialist at week 6. The control group will proceed with usual care for the 12-week period. Follow-up testing will occur at Weeks 13 and 24. This lifestyle intervention has the potential to provide a unique, non-surgical management option for people with LSS. Through decreased fat mass and increased function, we may reduce risk for obesity, chronic diseases of inactivity, and pain. The use of e-health interventions provides an

  15. Optimising conservative management of chronic low back pain: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simson, Katherine J; Miller, Clint T; Ford, Jon; Hahne, Andrew; Main, Luana; Rantalainen, Timo; Teo, Wei-Peng; Teychenne, Megan; Connell, David; Trudel, Guy; Zheng, Guoyan; Thickbroom, Gary; Belavy, Daniel L

    2017-04-20

    Lower back pain is a global health issue affecting approximately 80% of people at some stage in their life. The current literature suggests that any exercise is beneficial for reducing back pain. However, as pain is a subjective evaluation and physical deficits are evident in low back pain, using it as the sole outcome measure to evaluate superiority of an exercise protocol for low back pain treatment is insufficient. The overarching goal of the current clinical trial is to implement two common, conservative intervention approaches and examine their impact on deficits in chronic low back pain. Forty participants, 25-45 years old with chronic (>3 months), non-specific low back pain will be recruited. Participants will be randomised to receive either motor control and manual therapy (n = 20) or general strength and conditioning (n = 20) exercise treatments for 6 months. The motor control/manual therapy group will receive twelve 30-min sessions, ten in the first 3 months (one or two per week) and two in the last 3 months. The general exercise group will attend two 1-hour sessions weekly for 3 months, and one or two a week for the following 3 months. Primary outcome measures are average lumbar spine intervertebral disc T2 relaxation time and changes in thickness of the transversus abdominis muscle on a leg lift using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Secondary outcomes include muscle size and fat content, vertebral body fat content, intervertebral disc morphology and water diffusion measured by MRI, body composition using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, physical function through functional tests, changes in corticospinal excitability and cortical motor representation of the spinal muscles using transcranial magnetic stimulation and self-reported measure of pain symptoms, health and disability. Outcome measures will be conducted at baseline, at the 3-month follow-up and at 6 months at the end of intervention. Pain, depressive symptomology and emotions will be

  16. An efficient and reliable multi-hop geographical broadcast protocol in vehicular ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajendran, R.; Jongh, J. de

    2013-01-01

    In Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), disseminating warning messages in a timely and efficient way through wireless short-range communications can save many lives and reduce traffic congestion. A geographical broadcast protocol provides data delivery to specified geographical areas, using

  17. The observance of the Kyoto Protocol on climate changes: stakes of the international control of compliance with commitments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maljean-Dubois, S.

    2007-01-01

    The author presents the conclusions of multidisciplinary research which has examined the relationship between the Kyoto protocol's observance mechanisms (control of compliance of commitments and sanction in case of non compliance) and the more conventional mechanisms of international conflict solving. It also examines the peculiar characteristics of these mechanisms, whether legal or not. Finally, the author examines the impact of the adopted procedure, and whether it is constraining

  18. Tongue pressure profile training for dysphagia post stroke (TPPT): study protocol for an exploratory randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M; Bayley, Mark A; Péladeau-Pigeon, Melanie; Stokely, Shauna L

    2013-05-07

    It is estimated that approximately 50% of stroke survivors will experience swallowing difficulty, or dysphagia. The associated sequelae of dysphagia include dehydration, malnutrition, and aspiration pneumonia, all of which have can have serious medical consequences. To improve swallowing safety and efficiency, alternative nutritional intake methods (for example, a feeding tube) or a modified diet texture (such as pureed foods or thickened liquids) may be recommended but these modifications may negatively affect quality of life. An alternative approach to treating dysphagia has emerged over the past few years, targeting stronger lingual muscles through maximal isometric pressure tasks. Although these studies have shown promising results, thin-liquid bolus control continues to be challenging for patients with dysphagia. Previous work investigating lingual pressures when healthy participants swallow has suggested that greater task specificity in lingual exercises may yield improved results with thin liquids. This is a small, exploratory randomized clinical trial being conducted with post-stroke patients 4 to 20 weeks after onset of dysphagia secondary to impaired lingual control. At enrollment, participants are randomly assigned to one of two treatment protocols, either tongue pressure profile training (TPPT) or the control treatment, tongue pressure strength-and-accuracy training (TPSAT). Each treatment protocol consists of 24 sessions of treatment over 8 to 12 weeks with monitoring of tongue pressure as well as a baseline and outcome videofluoroscopic swallowing study. Tongue pressure measures, videofluoroscopic measures, and functional outcome measures will be obtained following training of 60 participants (30 in each condition), to determine whether TPPT yields better outcomes. This study will continue to explore options beyond tube feeding and modified diets for people with neurogenic dysphagia following stroke. Should the novel protocol, TPPT, prove to be more

  19. Intensive group training protocol versus guideline physiotherapy for patients with chronic low back pain: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    van der Roer, Nicole; van Tulder, Maurits; Barendse, Johanna; Knol, Dirk; van Mechelen, Willem; de Vet, Henrica

    2008-01-01

    Intensive group training using principles of graded activity has been proven to be effective in occupational care for workers with chronic low back pain. Objective of the study was to compare the effects of an intensive group training protocol aimed at returning to normal daily activities and guideline physiotherapy for primary care patients with non-specific chronic low back pain. The study was designed as pragmatic randomised controlled trial with a setup of 105 primary care physiotherapist...

  20. Study protocol for the evaluation of an Infant Simulator based program delivered in schools: a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkman, Sally A; Johnson, Sarah E; Lawrence, David; Codde, James P; Hart, Michael B; Straton, Judith AY; Silburn, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background This paper presents the study protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial to evaluate the impact of a school based program developed to prevent teenage pregnancy. The program includes students taking care of an Infant Simulator; despite growing popularity and an increasing global presence of such programs, there is no published evidence of their long-term impact. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the Virtual Infant Parenting (VIP) program by investigating pre-c...

  1. Supportive Mental Health Self-Monitoring among Smartphone Users with Psychological Distress: Protocol for a Fully Mobile Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Till Beiwinkel; Stefan Hey; Olaf Bock; Wulf Rössler; Wulf Rössler; Wulf Rössler

    2017-01-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) could be widely used in the population to improve access to psychological treatment. In this paper, we describe the development of a mHealth intervention on the basis of supportive self-monitoring and describe the protocol for a randomized controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness among smartphone users with psychological distress. Based on power analysis, a representative quota sample of N = 186 smartphone users will be recruited, with an over-sampling of persons...

  2. Chapter 3: Commercial and Industrial Lighting Controls Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Carlson, Stephen [DNV GL, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-10-04

    This Commercial and Industrial Lighting Controls Evaluation Protocol (the protocol) describes methods to account for energy savings resulting from programmatic installation of lighting control equipment in large populations of commercial, industrial, government, institutional, and other nonresidential facilities. This protocol does not address savings resulting from changes in codes and standards, or from education and training activities. When lighting controls are installed in conjunction with a lighting retrofit project, the lighting control savings must be calculated parametrically with the lighting retrofit project so savings are not double counted.

  3. Design of a protocol for the use of radiochromic films in IMRT plans control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberbuj, P.D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to design a protocol for the use of the Gafchromic EBT2 radiochromic films with the Epson CX5600 scanner as dosimetric system for IMRT patient specific quality assurance, with an emphasis on keep the uncertainty below 3%. The studied uncertainty sources are related to the scanner reproducibility, the film and scanner homogeneity, and the dose estimation. By introducing a series of modifications to the initial protocol, the total uncertainty was kept below 3% in the range 30-500 c Gy, being less than 1% between 150 and 500 c Gy. (author)

  4. Electroacupuncture versus sham electroacupuncture for urinary retention in poststroke patients: study protocol for a multicenter, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seungwon; Lee, Jiwon; Yoo, Junghee; Lim, Sung Min; Lee, Euiju

    2016-04-12

    This study protocol evaluates the effectiveness of adjuvant electroacupuncture (EA) for urinary retention in poststroke patients undergoing conventional treatments, in comparison with that of a sham control. A multicenter, blinded, randomized controlled trial will be conducted in three hospitals in the Republic of Korea. We are recruiting 54 stroke survivors (aged >19 years), who were diagnosed with urinary retention based on the results of two consecutive post-void residual (PVR) tests, and dividing them randomly into two arms: the EA and Park-sham control groups. They will receive ten sessions of EA or sham treatment for 2 weeks. The participants will be blinded with non-penetrating needles and fake sounds of EA stimulators. The daily PVR ratio will be primarily measured at baseline and at the end of the study to statistically test the effectiveness of EA for poststroke urinary retention. Then, the Korean version of the Qualiveen Questionnaire, the Korean version of the International Prostate Symptom Score, and the blinding index will be assessed. After each EA session or sham EA, adverse events will be reported to evaluate the safety of EA. Results will be analyzed by using the independent t-test or Mann-Whitney U test, based on both intention-to-treat and per-protocol principles. The findings will provide clinical evidence for the effectiveness of EA treatment to improve urinary retention in stroke survivors. This study protocol was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02472288) on 10 June 2015.

  5. Evaluating congestion management in the Dutch electricity transmission grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blijswijk, Martti J. van; Vries, Laurens J. de

    2012-01-01

    Due to the increase in electricity generation capacity in the Netherlands and a new connection policy, transmission system operator (TSO) TenneT expects a significant increase in congestion in the Dutch transmission grid. To manage this, the Dutch government implemented redispatching, a method which is argued in the literature to potentially impose large congestion costs upon the TSO. A quantitative model of the Dutch electricity system was developed in order to evaluate this method. The outcomes were compared to the performance of three alternative congestion management methods. Regardless of the method, congestion costs were found to be substantially lower than in previous studies. Because combined-cycle gas turbines are the marginal generation technology in almost all cases, the costs of up and down regulation do not differ much. Consequently, the redispatching costs for the TSO are expected to be relatively low, and the opportunities for abuse of market power appear to be limited. While all the evaluated methods are effective and economically efficient, they have significantly different welfare effects. Market splitting creates significantly larger welfare effects than the different varieties of redispatching. - Highlights: ► Congestion management was recently introduced in the Netherlands. ► We quantitatively evaluate the effects of its application. ► We compare this to other congestion management methods. ► Given the specific situation that the marginal cost curve of production is flat, congestion costs are expected to be low.

  6. The influence of a protocol of aquatic exercises in postural control of obese elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Avelar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a protocol of aquatic exercises in postural control of elderly subjects with overweight and the influence of body mass and body mass index in variables of the center of pressure. Method: Each participant was positioned on the force platform, without shoes, feet apart on the same alignment of the upper limbs along the body. For the collection, the subjects were instructed to stay on in bipedal support on the force platform with eyes fixed on the bright spot for 60 s. Results: Results indicated a notable difference in the variables root mean square-mediolateral and COP area after aquatic exercise practice. However, visual condition analyzed indicates significant differences in the variables root mean square-anteroposterior and speed anteroposterior. Conclusion: Aquatic exercise had positive effects when analyzing the sensory condition suggesting maintenance of postural control. However, when analyzed post aquatic exercise in closed eyes condition and the interaction effects of visual condition did not improve postural stability. In obese elderly, body mass index resulted in a functional adaptation in control of upright stance, suggesting that the balance was preserved in the population studied. Resumen: Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los efectos de un protocolo de ejercicios acuáticos en el control postural de sujetos de edad avanzada con exceso de peso y la influencia de masa corporal y el índice de masa corporal en las variables del centro de presiones. Método: Cada participante se posicionó en la plataforma de fuerza sin zapatos, los pies separados con la misma alineación de las extremidades superiores a lo largo del cuerpo. Para el análisis, los sujetos fueron instruidos para permanecer en apoyo bípedo sobre la plataforma de fuerza con los ojos fijos en un punto brillante durante 60 segundos. Resultados: Los resultados indicaron una diferencia

  7. Electroacupuncture to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gajin; Leem, Jungtae; Lee, Hojung; Lee, Junhee

    2016-05-17

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease lowers the quality of life and increases medical costs. Electroacupuncture has been used to ease symptoms and improve gastrointestinal motility in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. The main purposes of this study are to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this procedure. This is a protocol for a randomized, patient-blinded, assessor-blinded, sham-controlled trial. Sixty participants with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease, who have previously undergone standard treatment, will be recruited from August 2015 at Kyung Hee University Korean Medicine Hospital. The participants will be allocated to either the electroacupuncture (n = 30) or the sham electroacupuncture group (n = 30); the allocation will be concealed from both the participants and the assessors. The EA group will undergo penetrating acupuncture at 18 fixed points and two optional points chosen using the pattern identification for gastroesophageal reflux disease. Electrical stimulation will be applied at some of the acupoints. The sham electroacupuncture group will undergo nonpenetrating acupuncture without electrical stimulation at 18 nonspecific points, each of which will be only 2 cm away from the true acupoints used in the electroacupuncture group. In both groups, the procedure will be performed using the Park device. The treatment will last for 6 weeks (with two sessions each week), and the outcome will be evaluated at baseline, 3 weeks, and 6 weeks. The primary outcome will be the proportion of responders with adequate symptom relief, whereas the secondary outcomes will comprise the results of the Nepean dyspepsia index; the Korean gastrointestinal symptom rating scale; the EQ-5D™; levels of gastrin, motilin, and inflammatory cytokines; the perceived stress scale; the qi-stagnation questionnaire; the patient global impression of change; and the spleen qi deficiency questionnaire. The results of this trial will provide information

  8. Person-centered care planning and service engagement: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Victoria; Tondora, Janis; Davidson, Larry; Choy-Brown, Mimi; Marcus, Steven C

    2015-04-22

    Service disengagement is a pervasive challenge the mental health care system faces. Mental health services are of little value should persons with mental illnesses continue to opt out of receiving them. Consumers attribute disengagement from care to an absence of choice in their treatment. In response, the mental health system is adopting a person-centered model, based upon recovery principles, to engage consumers more actively in their care. Person-centered care planning is a promising practice involving collaboration to develop and implement an actionable plan to assist the person in achieving personal recovery goals. This study design combines a parallel-group randomized controlled trial of community mental health organizations with qualitative methods to assess the effectiveness of person-centered care planning. Participants at 14 sites in Delaware and Connecticut will be randomized to treatment as usual or the person-centered care planning intervention. Participants will be in leadership (n = 70) or supervisory or direct care (n = 210) roles. The person-centered care planning intervention involves intensive staff training and 12 months of ongoing technical assistance. Quantitative survey data will be collected at baseline, 6 months and 12 months measuring person-centered care planning competency and organizational factors. Consumer outcomes (engagement, medication adherence, functioning and consumer satisfaction) will be assessed by Medicaid and state-level data. Qualitative data focused on process factors will include staff and consumer interviews and focus groups. In this intent-to-treat analysis, we will use mixed-effects multivariate regression models to evaluate the differential impact of the person-centered care planning intervention on each consumer and implementation outcome as well as the extent to which clinician assessments of organizational factors are associated with the implementation outcome. Mixed methods will triangulate and strengthen the

  9. Psychosocial therapy for Parkinson's-related dementia: study protocol for the INVEST randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Sheree A; McDonald, Kathryn R; Vatter, Sabina; Orgeta, Vasiliki; Poliakoff, Ellen; Smith, Sarah; Silverdale, Monty A; Fu, Bo; Leroi, Iracema

    2017-06-19

    Parkinson's disease (PD) with mild cognitive impairment (MCI-PD) or dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are characterised by motor and 'non-motor' symptoms which impact on quality of life. Treatment options are generally limited to pharmacological approaches. We developed a psychosocial intervention to improve cognition, quality of life and companion burden for people with MCI-PD, PDD or DLB. Here, we describe the protocol for a single-blind randomised controlled trial to assess feasibility, acceptability and tolerability of the intervention and to evaluate treatment implementation. The interaction among the intervention and selected outcome measures and the efficacy of this intervention in improving cognition for people with MCI-PD, PDD or DLB will also be explored. Dyads will be randomised into two treatment arms to receive either 'treatment as usual' (TAU) or cognitive stimulation therapy specifically adapted for Parkinson's-related dementias (CST-PD), involving 30 min sessions delivered at home by the study companion three times per week over 10 weeks. A mixed-methods approach will be used to collect data on the operational aspects of the trial and treatment implementation. This will involve diary keeping, telephone follow-ups, dyad checklists and researcher ratings. Analysis will include descriptive statistics summarising recruitment, acceptability and tolerance of the intervention, and treatment implementation. To pilot an outcome measure of efficacy, we will undertake an inferential analysis to test our hypothesis that compared with TAU, CST-PD improves cognition. Qualitative approaches using thematic analysis will also be applied. Our findings will inform a larger definitive trial. Ethical opinion was granted (REC reference: 15/YH/0531). Findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and at conferences. We will prepare reports for dissemination by organisations involved with PD and dementia. ISRCTN (ISRCTN11455062). © Article author

  10. Implementation of a quality control protocol in a radiotherapy planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condori, P.; Paucar, R.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the impossibility of each particular case analysis and taking as example the spanish protocol (Under revision), necessary tests have been performed for the verification of the calculations for the Multidata planning system, including: calculation algorithms, reconstruction of the rectangular beams, light modulators, irregular fields, fields summation, weights, normalization, prescription and calculation of UM, for the teletherapy planning

  11. Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial: tongue strengthening exercises in head and neck cancer patients, does exercise load matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nuffelen, Gwen; Van den Steen, Leen; Vanderveken, Olivier; Specenier, Pol; Van Laer, Carl; Van Rompaey, Diane; Guns, Cindy; Mariën, Steven; Peeters, Marc; Van de Heyning, Paul; Vanderwegen, Jan; De Bodt, Marc

    2015-09-04

    Reduced tongue strength is an important factor contributing to early and late dysphagia in head and neck cancer patients previously treated with chemoradiotherapy. The evidence is growing that tongue strengthening exercises can improve tongue strength and swallowing function in both healthy and dysphagic subjects. However, little is known about the impact of specific features of an exercise protocol for tongue strength on the actual outcome (strength or swallowing function). Previous research originating in the fields of sports medicine and physical rehabilitation shows that the degree of exercise load is an influential factor for increasing muscle strength in the limb skeletal muscles. Since the tongue is considered a muscular hydrostat, it remains to be proven whether the same concepts will apply. This ongoing randomized controlled trial in chemoradiotherapy-treated patients with head and neck cancer investigates the effect of three tongue strengthening exercise protocols, with different degrees of exercise load, on tongue strength and swallowing. At enrollment, 51 patients whose dysphagia is primarily related to reduced tongue strength are randomly assigned to a training schedule of 60, 80, or 100% of their maximal tongue strength. Patients are treated three times a week for 8 weeks, executing 120 repetitions of the assigned exercise once per training day. Exercise load is progressively adjusted every 2 weeks. Patients are evaluated before, during and after treatment by means of tongue strength measurements, fiber-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing and quality-of-life questionnaires. This randomized controlled trial is the first to systematically investigate the effect of different exercise loads in tongue strengthening exercise protocols. The results will allow the development of more efficacious protocols. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN14447678.

  12. Intensive group training protocol versus guideline physiotherapy for patients with chronic low back pain: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Roer, Nicole; van Tulder, Maurits; Barendse, Johanna; Knol, Dirk; van Mechelen, Willem; de Vet, Henrica

    2008-09-01

    Intensive group training using principles of graded activity has been proven to be effective in occupational care for workers with chronic low back pain. Objective of the study was to compare the effects of an intensive group training protocol aimed at returning to normal daily activities and guideline physiotherapy for primary care patients with non-specific chronic low back pain. The study was designed as pragmatic randomised controlled trial with a setup of 105 primary care physiotherapists in 49 practices and 114 patients with non-specific low back pain of more than 12 weeks duration participated in the study. In the intensive group training protocol exercise therapy, back school and operant-conditioning behavioural principles are combined. Patients were treated during 10 individual sessions along 20 group sessions. Usual care consisted of physiotherapy according to the Dutch guidelines for Low Back Pain. Main outcome measures were functional disability (Roland Morris disability questionnaire), pain intensity, perceived recovery and sick leave because of low back pain assessed at baseline and after 6, 13, 26 and 52 weeks. Both an intention-to-treat analysis and a per-protocol analysis were performed. Multilevel analysis did not show significant differences between both treatment groups on any outcome measures during the complete follow-up period, with one exception. After 26 weeks the protocol group showed more reduction in pain intensity than the guideline group, but this difference was absent after 52 weeks. We finally conclude that an intensive group training protocol was not more effective than usual physiotherapy for chronic low back pain.

  13. Compliance with the national palestinian infection prevention and control protocol at governmental paediatric hospitals in gaza governorates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eljedi, Ashraf; Dalo, Shareef

    2014-08-01

    Nosocomial infections are a significant burden for both patients and the healthcare system. For this reason, infection prevention and control (IPC) practices are extremely important. The Palestinian Ministry of Health adopted the national IPC Protocol in 2004. This study aimed to assess the compliance of healthcare providers (HCPs) with the Protocol in three governmental paediatric hospitals in Gaza governorates. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from February to November 2010. Data were collected from a sample of doctors, nurses and physiotherapists (N = 334) using a self-administered questionnaire and observation checklists to record HCP practices and assess the hospital environment. The response rate was 92%. The most important reasons for non-compliance with the IPC Protocol were the absence of an education programme (61.5%), lack of knowledge (52.4%) and the scarcity of required supplies (46.9%). Only 2.3% of respondents had a copy of the IPC Protocol, while 65.8% did not know of its existence. Only 16.9% had participated in training sessions regarding general IPC practices. The observation checklist regarding HCP practices revealed low levels of compliance in hand washing (45.9%), wearing gloves (40.7%) and using antiseptics/disinfectants (49.16%). The health facilities checklist indicated that there was a lack of certain essential equipment and materials, such as covered waste containers and heavy-duty gloves. Due to the lack of HPC knowledge, the authors recommend that the IPC Protocol be made available in all hospitals. In addition, a qualified team should implement intensive IPC education and training programmes and facilities should provide the required equipment and materials.

  14. First-order, stationary mean-field games with congestion

    KAUST Repository

    Evangelista, David

    2018-04-30

    Mean-field games (MFGs) are models for large populations of competing rational agents that seek to optimize a suitable functional. In the case of congestion, this functional takes into account the difficulty of moving in high-density areas. Here, we study stationary MFGs with congestion with quadratic or power-like Hamiltonians. First, using explicit examples, we illustrate two main difficulties: the lack of classical solutions and the existence of areas with vanishing densities. Our main contribution is a new variational formulation for MFGs with congestion. With this formulation, we prove the existence and uniqueness of solutions. Finally, we consider applications to numerical methods.

  15. First-order, stationary mean-field games with congestion

    KAUST Repository

    Evangelista, David; Ferreira, Rita; Gomes, Diogo A.; Nurbekyan, Levon; Voskanyan, Vardan K.

    2018-01-01

    Mean-field games (MFGs) are models for large populations of competing rational agents that seek to optimize a suitable functional. In the case of congestion, this functional takes into account the difficulty of moving in high-density areas. Here, we study stationary MFGs with congestion with quadratic or power-like Hamiltonians. First, using explicit examples, we illustrate two main difficulties: the lack of classical solutions and the existence of areas with vanishing densities. Our main contribution is a new variational formulation for MFGs with congestion. With this formulation, we prove the existence and uniqueness of solutions. Finally, we consider applications to numerical methods.

  16. Dilated congestive cardiomyopathy in Doberman pinschers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvert, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy of Doberman Pinschers (DCDP) is a progressive disease often presenting with a history of episodic weakness and syncope, or with clinical signs of predominantly left-sided congestive heart failure. A systematic dissection and histomorphologic evaluation of the heart from 32 Doberman Pinschers with a clinical diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy revealed a highly specific location for the characteristic myocardial lesions. The lesions of DCDP were found only in the left ventricular free wall, and in 30 cases, the lesions were characterized by myofiber degeneration and atrophy, and replacement of myocardium by dense bundles of collagen and clusters of adipocytes. In the two remaining hearts, myofiber atrophy and degeneration were accompanied by collagen deposition, but not adipocytes. In stained longitudinal (base to apex) tissue sections of the left ventricle, the lesions of DCDP were usually apparent to the unaided eye; appearing as a central linear pale zone, aligned in the long axis of the ventricular free wall. The lesions did not contain inflammatory cell infiltrates and often involved >50% of ventricular wall

  17. Route Optimization for Offloading Congested Meter Fixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Min; Zelinski, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The Optimized Route Capability (ORC) concept proposed by the FAA facilitates traffic managers to identify and resolve arrival flight delays caused by bottlenecks formed at arrival meter fixes when there exists imbalance between arrival fixes and runways. ORC makes use of the prediction capability of existing automation tools, monitors the traffic delays based on these predictions, and searches the best reroutes upstream of the meter fixes based on the predictions and estimated arrival schedules when delays are over a predefined threshold. Initial implementation and evaluation of the ORC concept considered only reroutes available at the time arrival congestion was first predicted. This work extends previous work by introducing an additional dimension in reroute options such that ORC can find the best time to reroute and overcome the 'firstcome- first-reroute' phenomenon. To deal with the enlarged reroute solution space, a genetic algorithm was developed to solve this problem. Experiments were conducted using the same traffic scenario used in previous work, when an arrival rush was created for one of the four arrival meter fixes at George Bush Intercontinental Houston Airport. Results showed the new approach further improved delay savings. The suggested route changes from the new approach were on average 30 minutes later than those using other approaches, and fewer numbers of reroutes were required. Fewer numbers of reroutes reduce operational complexity and later reroutes help decision makers deal with uncertain situations.

  18. A Brief Survey of Media Access Control, Data Link Layer, and Protocol Technologies for Lunar Surface Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallett, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper surveys and describes some of the existing media access control and data link layer technologies for possible application in lunar surface communications and the advanced wideband Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DSCDMA) conceptual systems utilizing phased-array technology that will evolve in the next decade. Time Domain Multiple Access (TDMA) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) are standard Media Access Control (MAC) techniques that can be incorporated into lunar surface communications architectures. Another novel hybrid technique that is recently being developed for use with smart antenna technology combines the advantages of CDMA with those of TDMA. The relatively new and sundry wireless LAN data link layer protocols that are continually under development offer distinct advantages for lunar surface applications over the legacy protocols which are not wireless. Also several communication transport and routing protocols can be chosen with characteristics commensurate with smart antenna systems to provide spacecraft communications for links exhibiting high capacity on the surface of the Moon. The proper choices depend on the specific communication requirements.

  19. Examining the impact of genetic testing for type 2 diabetes on health behaviors: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voils Corrine I

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe the study design, procedures, and development of the risk counseling protocol used in a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the impact of genetic testing for diabetes mellitus (DM on psychological, health behavior, and clinical outcomes. Methods/Design Eligible patients are aged 21 to 65 years with body mass index (BMI ≥27 kg/m2 and no prior diagnosis of DM. At baseline, conventional DM risk factors are assessed, and blood is drawn for possible genetic testing. Participants are randomized to receive conventional risk counseling for DM with eye disease counseling or with genetic test results. The counseling protocol was pilot tested to identify an acceptable graphical format for conveying risk estimates and match the length of the eye disease to genetic counseling. Risk estimates are presented with a vertical bar graph denoting risk level with colors and descriptors. After receiving either genetic counseling regarding risk for DM or control counseling on eye disease, brief lifestyle counseling for prevention of DM is provided to all participants. Discussion A standardized risk counseling protocol is being used in a randomized trial of 600 participants. Results of this trial will inform policy about whether risk counseling should include genetic counseling. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01060540

  20. Improving pain treatment with a smartphone app: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suso-Ribera, Carlos; Mesas, Ángela; Medel, Javier; Server, Anna; Márquez, Esther; Castilla, Diana; Zaragozá, Irene; García-Palacios, Azucena

    2018-02-27

    Chronic pain has become a major health problem across the world, especially in older adults. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of medical interventions is modest. Some have argued that assessment strategies should be improved if the impact of medical interventions is to be improved. Ecological momentary assessment using smartphones is now considered the gold standard in monitoring in health settings, including chronic pain. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no randomized controlled trial to show that telemonitoring using a smartphone app can indeed improve the effectiveness of medical treatments in adults with chronic pain. The goal of this study will be to explore the effects of using a smartphone app for telemonitoring adults with chronic pain. The study will be a randomized controlled trial with three groups: treatment as usual (TAU), TAU+app, and TAU+app+alarms. All groups will receive the adequate treatment for their pain, which will be prescribed the first day of study according to clinical guidelines. Assessment in the TAU group will be the usual at the Pain Clinic, that is, a paper-and-pencil evaluation at the onset of treatment (beginning of study) and at follow up (end of study, 30 days later). The other two groups (TAU+app and TAU+app+alarms) will be assessed daily using Pain Monitor, a smartphone app developed by our multidisciplinary team. Telemonitoring will only be made in the TAU+app+alarms group. For this group, physicians at the Pain Clinic may decide to adjust pain treatment in response to alarms. Telemonitoring is not the usual practice at the Pain Clinic and will not occur in the other two groups (TAU and TAU+app), so no changes in treatment are expected in these groups after the first appointment. The total sample size will be 150, with 50 patients in each group. The assessment protocol will be the same in all groups and will include pain intensity and side effects of the medication (primary outcomes), together with several pain

  1. Managing truck arrivals with time windows to alleviate gate congestion at container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, G.; Govindan, Kannan; Yang, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Long truck queues at gates often limit the efficiency of a container terminal and generate serious air pollution. To reduce the gate congestion, this paper proposes a method called'vessel dependent time windows (VDTWs)' to control truck arrivals, which involves partitioning truck entries into gro......Long truck queues at gates often limit the efficiency of a container terminal and generate serious air pollution. To reduce the gate congestion, this paper proposes a method called'vessel dependent time windows (VDTWs)' to control truck arrivals, which involves partitioning truck entries...... into groups and assigning different time windows to the groups. The proposed VDTWs method includes three steps: (1) predicting truck arrivals based on the time window assignment, (2) estimating the queue length of trucks, and (3) optimizing the arrangement of time windows to minimize the total cost...

  2. Supporting Tablet Configuration, Tracking, and Infection Control Practices in Digital Health Interventions: Study Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Furberg, Robert D; Ortiz, Alexa M; Zulkiewicz, Brittany A; Hudson, Jordan P; Taylor, Olivia M; Lewis, Megan A

    2016-01-01

    Background Tablet-based health care interventions have the potential to encourage patient care in a timelier manner, allow physicians convenient access to patient records, and provide an improved method for patient education. However, along with the continued adoption of tablet technologies, there is a concomitant need to develop protocols focusing on the configuration, management, and maintenance of these devices within the health care setting to support the conduct of clinical research. Obj...

  3. Artery-only fingertip replantations using a controlled nailbed bleeding protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erken, H Yener; Takka, Semih; Akmaz, Ibrahim

    2013-11-01

    We report our experience, treatment protocol, and 2-year follow-up results of 24 fingertip replantations treated using the artery-only technique without vein or nerve repair. We performed a retrospective review of 24 patients who had undergone fingertip replantation at the same center between 2005 and 2011. All patients in this study had complete fingertip amputation at or distal to the distal interphalangeal joint of the fingers or interphalangeal joint of the thumb. Patients with incomplete and complete amputations who had undergone vein and/or nerve repair along with artery repair were excluded. All patients received the same protocol including removal of the nail at the surgery and intravenous heparin 70 U/kg administered at the time of arterial anastomosis. After surgery, the nailbed was mechanically made to bleed with a sterile needle and mechanically scrubbed with a heparin-saline gauze. All patients received the same postoperative medical treatment protocol until physiological outflow was restored. Successful replantation was confirmed with clinical observation. Twenty-one of the 24 fingertip replantations (88%) were successful. The mean length of hospital stay was 7 days (range, 4-9 d). Fifteen of 22 patients required blood transfusion. The average amount of blood transfusion was 1.2 U (range, 0-3 U). This study shows that the described technique and protocol reconstructed circulation without vein anastomosis and with a high success rate. Furthermore, adequate sensory recovery without any nerve repair had occurred by the 2-year follow-up. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Release protocol to address DOE moratorium on shipments of waste generated in radiologically controlled areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathbun, L.A.; Boothe, G.F.

    1992-10-01

    On May 17, 1991 the US DOE Office of Waste Operations issued a moratorium on the shipment of hazardous waste from radiologically contaminated or potentially contaminated areas on DOE sites to offsite facilities not licensed for radiological material. This document describes a release protocol generated by Westinghouse Hanford submitted for US DOE approval. Topics considered include designating Radiological Materials Management Areas (RMMAs), classification of wastes, handling of mixed wastes, detection limits

  5. Safeguards agreement and additional protocol - IAEA instruments for control of nuclear materials distribution and their application in Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasrulloev, Kh.; Mirsaidov, U.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: It is known that IAEA plays an important role in facilitation of nuclear non-proliferation as international authority which carries out nuclear inspections. Republic of Tajikistan in 1997 signed nuclear weapon non-proliferation treaty. Then in 2004 Safeguards agreement, additional protocol and small quantity protocol were signed. During 5 years Republic of Tajikistan submits information on its nuclear activity as declarations, foreseen in article 2.3 of Additional protocol to Safeguards agreement. Currently 66 declarations are submitted. Information required in accordance with Safeguards agreement and Additional Protocol is figured on that IAEA could compile more detailed and exact conception about nuclear activity in Tajikistan and it has the following purpose: information will lead to more transparency, and make it possible to IAEA to ensure with high extent of confidence that in the framework of declared program, any unstated nuclear activity is concealed; the more exact and comprehensive information, the rare is questions and discrepancies are originating; required information is the basis for effective planning and IAEA activity realization, related not only with safeguards implementation in regard to declared nuclear material but also ensuring of confidence in absence of undeclared nuclear activity in Tajikistan. IAEA inspection mission consisting of Messrs. N.Lazarev and F. Coillou visited Dushanbe in 2008 for verification of republic’s declarations on account for and control of nuclear materials under Additional protocol and Small quantity protocol, as well as consultations were provided on correct declaration completing and providing information on all nuclear materials. Besides, in 2006, the training course was conducted in Chkalovsk with participation of Commonwealth of Independent States countries on Safeguards agreement and Additional protocol. These visits and events will facilitate to strengthening of weapons of mass destruction non

  6. Validation of the Tensoval Duo Control II blood pressure monitor for clinic use and self-measurement according to the British Hypertension Society protocol and the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol Revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greeff, Annemarie; Shennan, Andrew H

    2013-06-01

    The Tensoval Duo Control II is an automated upper arm device that uses a combination of oscillometric and auscultatory technology to determine blood pressure noninvasively. The accuracy of this device was assessed according to the British Hypertension Society (BHS) protocol and the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010 (ESH-IP2) in an adult population. Ethical approval was obtained. Eighty-five and 33 adult individuals, respectively, were recruited to fulfil the requirements of each protocol. Trained observers took nine sequential same-arm measurements alternating between a mercury sphygmomanometer and the device. The device had to achieve at least a B grade for both systolic and diastolic pressures to pass the BHS protocol and had to fulfil the criteria of all three phases of the ESH-IP2 protocol to receive recommendation. The device achieved an A/A grading for the BHS protocol and passed all three phases of the ESH-IP2 protocol. The mean difference±SD for the BHS/ESH protocols, respectively, was -1.8±6.5/-0.7±5.7 mmHg for systolic pressure and 1.9±5.1/2.4±4.5 mmHg for diastolic pressure. The device maintained its A/A grading throughout the low-pressure, medium-pressure and high-pressure ranges. The Tensoval Duo Control II device is recommended for clinical and home use according to both the BHS and the ESH-IP2 standard.

  7. Congested Link Inference Algorithms in Dynamic Routing IP Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance descending of current congested link inference algorithms is obviously in dynamic routing IP network, such as the most classical algorithm CLINK. To overcome this problem, based on the assumptions of Markov property and time homogeneity, we build a kind of Variable Structure Discrete Dynamic Bayesian (VSDDB network simplified model of dynamic routing IP network. Under the simplified VSDDB model, based on the Bayesian Maximum A Posteriori (BMAP and Rest Bayesian Network Model (RBNM, we proposed an Improved CLINK (ICLINK algorithm. Considering the concurrent phenomenon of multiple link congestion usually happens, we also proposed algorithm CLILRS (Congested Link Inference algorithm based on Lagrangian Relaxation Subgradient to infer the set of congested links. We validated our results by the experiments of analogy, simulation, and actual Internet.

  8. Mendenhall Glacier Visitor Center vehicular and pedestrian traffic congestion study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The Mendenhall Glacier Visitor Center of Tongass National Forest in Juneau, Alaska is experiencing vehicular and pedestrian congestion. This study was initiated by the United States Forest Service, Alaska Region, in cooperation with Western Federal L...

  9. Urban Partnership Agreement and Congestion Reduction Demonstration : National Evaluation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-21

    This report provides an analytical framework for evaluating six deployments under the United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) Urban Partnership Agreement (UPA) and Congestion Reduction Demonstration (CRD) Programs. The six UPA/CRD sites...

  10. Developing Policy for Urban Autonomous Vehicles: Impact on Congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Metz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An important problem for surface transport is road traffic congestion, which is ubiquitous and difficult to mitigate. Accordingly, a question for policymakers is the possible impact on congestion of autonomous vehicles. It seems likely that the main impact of vehicle automation will not be seen until driverless vehicles are sufficiently safe for use amid general traffic on urban streets. Shared use driverless vehicles could reduce the cost of taxis and a wider range of public transport vehicles could be economic. Individually owned autonomous vehicles would have the ability to travel unoccupied and may need to be regulated where this might add to congestion. It is possible that autonomous vehicles could provide mobility services at lower cost and wider scope, such that private car use in urban areas could decline and congestion reduce. City authorities should be alert to these possibilities in developing transport policy.

  11. Addressing congestion on single allocation hub-and-spoke networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Saraiva de Camargo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When considering hub-and-spoke networks with single allocation, the absence of alternative routes makes this kind of systems specially vulnerable to congestion effects. In order to improve the design of such networks, congestion costs must be addressed. This article deploys two different techniques for addressing congestion on single allocation hub-and-spoke networks: the Generalized Benders Decomposition and the Outer Approximation method. Both methods are able to solve large scale instances. Computational experiments show how the adoption of advanced solution strategies, such as Pareto-optimal cut generation on the Master Problem branch-and-bound tree, may be decisive. They also demonstrate that the solution effort is not only associated with the size of the instances, but also with their combination of the installation and congestion costs.

  12. A Novel Congestion Detection Scheme in TCP Over OBS Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shihada, Basem; Ho, Pin-Han; Zhang, Qiong

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel congestion detection scheme for high-bandwidth TCP flows over optical burst switching (OBS) networks, called statistical additive increase multiplicative decrease (SAIMD). SAIMD maintains and analyzes a number

  13. 434 Urban Traffic Congestion and Its Attendant Health Effects on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... Keywords: Congestion, Effects, Health, Road Traffic, and Road Users. ..... of transport problems that can be identified are: bad roads, fuel problem (high fuel price .... Cities.www.ghanaweb.com/ghanahomepage/news archive.

  14. CONGESTION AS A RESULT OF SCHOOL AND SHOPPING CENTER ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Kumaat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of land use in public facilities such as shopping center and school gives an impact on transportation problem in Manado City, North Sulawesi.  To determine factors which have causal relationship with congestion  as a result of school and shopping center activity then it need to be assessed and studied.  Descriptive study with observational survey was used in this study. The study ran Structural Equation Modelling (SEM by using AMOS program. Estimated method was used to calculate sample size then found 300 repondents, comprised : visitors and mall managers, school visitors, parents, school managers, Public Works department, and urban planning department .The study yielded a statistically significant correlation between  school and shopping center activity with congestion s. The result  indicated that school activity was positively related to congestion with p value  at p=0,000 (p ≤ 0,05. Shopping center activity was positively related to congestion with p value  at p=0,000 (p ≤ 0,05. The closer proximity from school to shooping center will causes severe traffic congestion. The relationship between school facility with proximity was found in p value at  p=0,000 (p ≤ 0,05 . The relationship between shopping center facility with proximity was found in p value at  p= 0,020 (p ≤ 0,05. While, the relationship between proximity with congestion was p= 0,008 (p ≤ 0,05. Monastery school and Mega Mall activity were affecting congestion because a closer proximity of two facilities. This indicates that the occurence of traffic congestion in Monastery School  may be dependent on existence of  Piere Tendean road link

  15. Traffic Congestion Detection System through Connected Vehicles and Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Néstor Cárdenas-Benítez; Raúl Aquino-Santos; Pedro Magaña-Espinoza; José Aguilar-Velazco; Arthur Edwards-Block; Aldo Medina Cass

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the simulation and evaluation of a traffic congestion detection system which combines inter-vehicular communications, fixed roadside infrastructure and infrastructure-to-infrastructure connectivity and big data. The system discussed in this article permits drivers to identify traffic congestion and change their routes accordingly, thus reducing the total emissions of CO2 and decreasing travel time. This system monitors, processes and stores large amounts of data, which ...

  16. Public Capital, Congestion and Private Production in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Lei Song

    2002-01-01

    This paper is an empirical investigation into the impact of public capital on the private sector’s economic activity in Australia. In particular, it is assumed that the contribution of public capital to private factor productivity is subject to congestion. New data sets of capital stocks and private output are constructed for the Australian economy. By estimating flexible functional forms of private sector production functions with congestion in public capital services, the paper shows that p...

  17. Association between ambient carbon monoxide levels and hospitalizations for congestive heart failure in the elderly in 10 canadian cities; Association entre les niveaux atmospheriques de monoxyde de carbone et les hospitalisations pour insuffisance cardiaque congestive des personnes agees dans 10 villes canadiennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, R.T.; Dales, R.E.; Brook, J.R.; Raizenne, M.E.; Krewski, D.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995, two studies, realized in the USA, showed the relation between the carbon monoxide content in the urban air and the hospitalization of elderly people for congestive heart failure. This study, realized this time in the Canada, take again the protocol of one of them increasing the period (4 to 11 years) and the number of concerned towns. (A.L.B.)

  18. Local empathy provides global minimization of congestion in communication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Sandro; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2010-11-01

    We present a mechanism to avoid congestion in complex networks based on a local knowledge of traffic conditions and the ability of routers to self-coordinate their dynamical behavior. In particular, routers make use of local information about traffic conditions to either reject or accept information packets from their neighbors. We show that when nodes are only aware of their own congestion state they self-organize into a hierarchical configuration that delays remarkably the onset of congestion although leading to a sharp first-order-like congestion transition. We also consider the case when nodes are aware of the congestion state of their neighbors. In this case, we show that empathy between nodes is strongly beneficial to the overall performance of the system and it is possible to achieve larger values for the critical load together with a smooth, second-order-like, transition. Finally, we show how local empathy minimize the impact of congestion as much as global minimization. Therefore, here we present an outstanding example of how local dynamical rules can optimize the system’s functioning up to the levels reached using global knowledge.

  19. Congestion, air pollution, and road safety in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shefer, Daniel [Department of Urban and Regional Economics and Transport, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel)

    1993-06-01

    The continuous rapid growth in Vehicle Miles Travelled (VMT), coupled with the rapid increase in traffic congestion on highways of virtually every large urban area, explain a major portion of the observed deterioration of urban air quality. To halt this deterioration process and to secure safe and healthy environments and improve the quality of life in our cities, it is paramount to initiate and implement programs which jointly treat traffic congestion, air quality, and road safety. A host of market-based strategies, driven by price mechanisms, have been proposed as the best and most efficient way to decrease traffic congestion and to reduce vehicle emission. Congestion pricing, emission fees, reducing emissions of high polluting vehicles, and introducing more efficient vehicle and/or fuel technologies are not mutually exclusive strategies and therefore they can, and perhaps should, be employed jointly within an overall strategy. In view of the conflicting objectives which may exist between improving urban air quality and reducing road fatalities and traffic congestion, it is of great importance to thoroughly investigate these functional relationships. The results of such studies will help decision makers identify the `socially optimal level of congestion` which will yield the highest net social benefit. 2 figs., 43 refs.

  20. Stochastic congestion management in power markets using efficient scenario approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaili, Masoud; Amjady, Nima; Shayanfar, Heidar Ali

    2010-01-01

    Congestion management in electricity markets is traditionally performed using deterministic values of system parameters assuming a fixed network configuration. In this paper, a stochastic programming framework is proposed for congestion management considering the power system uncertainties comprising outage of generating units and transmission branches. The Forced Outage Rate of equipment is employed in the stochastic programming. Using the Monte Carlo simulation, possible scenarios of power system operating states are generated and a probability is assigned to each scenario. The performance of the ordinary as well as Lattice rank-1 and rank-2 Monte Carlo simulations is evaluated in the proposed congestion management framework. As a tradeoff between computation time and accuracy, scenario reduction based on the standard deviation of accepted scenarios is adopted. The stochastic congestion management solution is obtained by aggregating individual solutions of accepted scenarios. Congestion management using the proposed stochastic framework provides a more realistic solution compared with traditional deterministic solutions. Results of testing the proposed stochastic congestion management on the 24-bus reliability test system indicate the efficiency of the proposed framework.

  1. Congestion management considering voltage security of power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaili, Masoud; Shayanfar, Heidar Ali; Amjady, Nima

    2009-01-01

    Congestion in a power network is turned up due to system operating limits. To relieve congestion in a deregulated power market, the system operator pays to market participants, GENCOs and DISCOs, to alter their active powers considering their bids. After performing congestion management, the network may be operated with a low security level because of hitting some flows their upper limit and some voltages their lower limit. In this paper, a novel congestion management method based on the voltage stability margin sensitivities is introduced. Using the proposed method, the system operator so alleviates the congestion that the network can more retain its security. The proposed method not only makes the system more secure after congestion management than other methods already presented for this purpose but also its cost of providing security is lower than the earlier methods. Test results of the proposed method along with the earlier ones on the New-England test system elaborate the efficiency of the proposed method from the viewpoint of providing a better voltage stability margin and voltage profile as well as a lower security cost. (author)

  2. A theory of traffic congestion at heavy bottlenecks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerner, Boris S [Daimler AG, GR/ETI, HPC: G021, 71059 Sindelfingen (Germany)

    2008-05-30

    Spatiotemporal features and physics of vehicular traffic congestion occurring due to heavy highway bottlenecks caused for example by bad weather conditions or accidents are found based on simulations in the framework of three-phase traffic theory. A model of a heavy bottleneck is presented. Under a continuous non-limited increase in bottleneck strength, i.e., when the average flow rate within a congested pattern allowed by the heavy bottleneck decreases continuously up to zero, the evolution of the traffic phases in congested traffic, synchronized flow and wide moving jams, is studied. It is found that at a small enough flow rate within the congested pattern, the pattern exhibits a non-regular structure: a pinch region of synchronized flow within the pattern disappears and appears randomly over time; wide moving jams upstream of the pinch region exhibit a complex non-regular dynamics in which the jams appear and disappear randomly. At greater bottleneck strengths, wide moving jams merge onto a mega-wide moving jam (mega-jam) within which low-speed patterns with a complex non-regular spatiotemporal dynamics occur. We show that when the bottleneck strength is great enough, only the mega-jam survives and synchronized flow remains only within its downstream front separating free flow and congested traffic. Theoretical results presented can explain why no sequence of wide moving jams can often be distinguished in non-homogeneous traffic congestion measured at very heavy bottlenecks caused by bad weather conditions or accidents.

  3. A theory of traffic congestion at heavy bottlenecks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, Boris S

    2008-01-01

    Spatiotemporal features and physics of vehicular traffic congestion occurring due to heavy highway bottlenecks caused for example by bad weather conditions or accidents are found based on simulations in the framework of three-phase traffic theory. A model of a heavy bottleneck is presented. Under a continuous non-limited increase in bottleneck strength, i.e., when the average flow rate within a congested pattern allowed by the heavy bottleneck decreases continuously up to zero, the evolution of the traffic phases in congested traffic, synchronized flow and wide moving jams, is studied. It is found that at a small enough flow rate within the congested pattern, the pattern exhibits a non-regular structure: a pinch region of synchronized flow within the pattern disappears and appears randomly over time; wide moving jams upstream of the pinch region exhibit a complex non-regular dynamics in which the jams appear and disappear randomly. At greater bottleneck strengths, wide moving jams merge onto a mega-wide moving jam (mega-jam) within which low-speed patterns with a complex non-regular spatiotemporal dynamics occur. We show that when the bottleneck strength is great enough, only the mega-jam survives and synchronized flow remains only within its downstream front separating free flow and congested traffic. Theoretical results presented can explain why no sequence of wide moving jams can often be distinguished in non-homogeneous traffic congestion measured at very heavy bottlenecks caused by bad weather conditions or accidents

  4. A theory of traffic congestion at moving bottlenecks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerner, Boris S [Daimler AG, GR/PTF, HPC: G021, 71059 Sindelfingen (Germany); Klenov, Sergey L, E-mail: boris.kerner@daimler.co [Department of Physics, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2010-10-22

    The physics of traffic congestion occurring at a moving bottleneck on a multi-lane road is revealed based on the numerical analyses of vehicular traffic with a discrete stochastic traffic flow model in the framework of three-phase traffic theory. We find that there is a critical speed of a moving bottleneck at which traffic breakdown, i.e. a first-order phase transition from free flow to synchronized flow, occurs spontaneously at the moving bottleneck, if the flow rate upstream of the bottleneck is great enough. The greater the flow rate, the higher the critical speed of the moving bottleneck. A diagram of congested traffic patterns at the moving bottleneck is found, which shows regions in the flow-rate-moving-bottleneck-speed plane in which congested patterns emerge spontaneously or can be induced through large enough disturbances in an initial free flow. A comparison of features of traffic breakdown and resulting congested patterns at the moving bottleneck with known ones at an on-ramp (and other motionless) bottleneck is made. Nonlinear features of complex interactions and transformations of congested traffic patterns occurring at on- and off-ramp bottlenecks due to the existence of the moving bottleneck are found. The physics of the phenomenon of traffic congestion due to 'elephant racing' on a multi-lane road is revealed.

  5. A theory of traffic congestion at moving bottlenecks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, Boris S; Klenov, Sergey L

    2010-01-01

    The physics of traffic congestion occurring at a moving bottleneck on a multi-lane road is revealed based on the numerical analyses of vehicular traffic with a discrete stochastic traffic flow model in the framework of three-phase traffic theory. We find that there is a critical speed of a moving bottleneck at which traffic breakdown, i.e. a first-order phase transition from free flow to synchronized flow, occurs spontaneously at the moving bottleneck, if the flow rate upstream of the bottleneck is great enough. The greater the flow rate, the higher the critical speed of the moving bottleneck. A diagram of congested traffic patterns at the moving bottleneck is found, which shows regions in the flow-rate-moving-bottleneck-speed plane in which congested patterns emerge spontaneously or can be induced through large enough disturbances in an initial free flow. A comparison of features of traffic breakdown and resulting congested patterns at the moving bottleneck with known ones at an on-ramp (and other motionless) bottleneck is made. Nonlinear features of complex interactions and transformations of congested traffic patterns occurring at on- and off-ramp bottlenecks due to the existence of the moving bottleneck are found. The physics of the phenomenon of traffic congestion due to 'elephant racing' on a multi-lane road is revealed.

  6. Congestion Quantification Using the National Performance Management Research Data Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia P. Sisiopiku

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of transportation system performance is a key element of any transportation operation and planning strategy. Estimation of dependable performance measures relies on analysis of large amounts of traffic data, which are often expensive and difficult to gather. National databases can assist in this regard, but challenges still remain with respect to data management, accuracy, storage, and use for performance monitoring. In an effort to address such challenges, this paper showcases a process that utilizes the National Performance Management Research Data Set (NPMRDS for generating performance measures for congestion monitoring applications in the Birmingham region. The capabilities of the relational database management system (RDBMS are employed to manage the large amounts of NPMRDS data. Powerful visual maps are developed using GIS software and used to illustrate congestion location, extent and severity. Travel time reliability indices are calculated and utilized to quantify congestion, and congestion intensity measures are developed and employed to rank and prioritize congested segments in the study area. The process for managing and using big traffic data described in the Birmingham case study is a great example that can be replicated by small and mid-size Metropolitan Planning Organizations to generate performance-based measures and monitor congestion in their jurisdictions.

  7. Measurement of effective renal plasma flow in congestive heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauxe, W.N.; Dubovsky, E.V.; Mantle, J.A.; Dustan, H.P.; Logic, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    In the management of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), it is often desirable to have precise knowledge of overall renal function, including the effective renal plasma flow (ERPF). It has long been recognized that ERPF is diminished in CHF. Since glomerular filtration rate is often decreased to a much lesser extent, other noninvasive procedures such as the measurement of creatinine clearances may not be entirely suitable. ERPF determination by the single plasma sampling (SPS) method affords a rapid, simple, noninvasive, and economical technique that is quite accurate and reproducible. A SPS method has been well-tested in patients following renal transplantation plus a wide variety of nephrological disorders. We have been concerned whether the SPS method would be valid in volume expanded patients. In 28 determinations of ERPF in patients with CHF, and in five patients who did not have CHF, we have found the SPS estimation of ERPF to yield results that are not clinically significantly different from those obtained by the detailed compartmental analysis method. The volumes of 131 I-orthoiodohippurate (OIH) distribution were found to be somewhat higher in CHF than in controls, but fractional rate constants were proportionately lower so that intercompartmental flow rates and OIH concentrations were not different from controls. Therefore, the SPS estimation of ERPF is valid in patients with CHF and may be useful in monitoring the renal effects of various hemodynamic and pharmacological interventions. (orig.)

  8. Congestive heart failure in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poskurica Mileta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disorders are the most frequent cause of death (46-60% among patients with advanced chronic renal failure (CRF, and on dialysis treatment. Uremic cardiomyopathy is the basic pathophysiologic substrate, whereas ischemic heart disease (IHD and anemia are the most important contributing factors. Associated with well-know risk factors and specific disorders for terminal kidney failure and dialysis, the aforementioned factors instigate congestive heart failure (CHF. Suspected CHF is based on the anamnesis, clinical examination and ECG, while it is confirmed and defined more precisely on the basis of echocardiography and radiology examination. Biohumoral data (BNP, NT-proBNP are not sufficiently reliable because of specific volemic fluctuation and reduced natural clearance. Therapy approach is similar to the one for the general population: ACEI, ARBs, β-blockers, inotropic drugs and diuretics. Hypervolemia and most of the related symptoms can be kept under control effectively by the isolated or ultrafiltation, in conjunction with dialysis, during the standard bicarbonate hemodialysis or hemodiafiltration. In the same respect peritoneal dialysis is efficient for the control of hypervolemia symptoms, mainly during the first years of its application and in case of the lower NYHA class (II°/III°. In general, heart support therapy, surgical interventions of the myocardium and valve replacement are rarely used in patients on dialysis, whereas revascularization procedures are beneficial for associated IHD. In selected cases the application of cardiac resynchronization and/or implantation of a cardioverter defibrillator are advisable.

  9. Atrial natriuretic factor binding sites in experimental congestive heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, C.; Thibault, G.; Wrobel-Konrad, E.; De Lean, A.; Genest, J.; Cantin, M.

    1989-01-01

    A quantitative in vitro autoradiographic study was performed on the aorta, renal glomeruli, and adrenal cortex of cardiomyopathic hamsters in various stages of heart failure and correlated, in some instances, with in vivo autoradiography. The results indicate virtually no correlation between the degree of congestive heart failure and the density of 125I-labeled atrial natriuretic factor [(Ser99, Tyr126)ANF] binding sites (Bmax) in the tissues examined. Whereas the Bmax was increased in the thoracic aorta in moderate and severe heart failure, there were no significant changes in the zona glomerulosa. The renal glomeruli Bmax was lower in mild and moderate heart failure compared with control and severe heart failure. The proportion of ANF B- and C-receptors was also evaluated in sections of the aorta, adrenal, and kidney of control and cardiomyopathic hamsters with severe heart failure. (Arg102, Cys121)ANF [des-(Gln113, Ser114, Gly115, Leu116, Gly117) NH2] (C-ANF) at 10(-6) M displaced approximately 505 of (Ser99, Tyr126)125I-ANF bound in the aorta and renal glomeruli and approximately 20% in the adrenal zona glomerulosa in both series of animals. These results suggest that ANF may exert a buffering effect on the vasoconstriction of heart failure and to a certain extent may inhibit aldosterone secretion. The impairment of renal sodium excretion does not appear to be related to glomerular ANF binding sites at any stage of the disease

  10. Physical aspects of quality assurance in radiotherapy: A protocol for quality control; Aspectos fisicos de la garantia de calidad en radioterapia: Protocolo de control de calidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre, J F [Radiological Physics Center, M.D. Anderson Hospital, Houston (United States); Alfonso-Laguardia, R [Instituto Nacional de Oncologia y Radiobiologia (INOR), La Habana (Cuba); Andreo, P [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Brunetto, M [FaMAF (UNC), Centro Medico Dean Funes, Cordoba (Argentina); Marenco-Zuniga, H [Hospital Mexico, San Jose (Costa Rica); Gutt, F [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, LSCD, Caracas (Venezuela); Torres-Calderon, A [Hospital Siglo XXI, Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2000-06-01

    In consistency with the increasing requests from Member States for establishing radiotherapy programmes, an IAEA Technical Co-operation project was initiated in Latin America aimed at improving the physical aspects (as a complement to the clinical issues) of quality assurance in radiotherapy; this ARCAL XXX project (RLA/6/032) was classified as a Model Project of the IAEA. Among the important outcomes of the project were (i) the training of a considerable number of medical physicists in hospitals of the region, (ii) the development of a protocol for quality control procedures, and (iii) the organization of quality audit site visits (to the participant countries) where the implementation in hospitals of the developed quality control procedures is verified. The present publication is the protocol for quality control of the physical aspects of radiotherapy. It contains detailed procedures on what should be measured by a medical physicist in a radiotherapy treatment unit and related equipment, and how this should be made. The latter is made through several appendices, which make the document rather unique. The protocol was developed by medical physicists of the region for the professionals of the region, and it is the first document of this kind ever written in Spanish. A training course was organized in November 1998 (Havana, Cuba) where its practical implementation was taught. There are plans to have this document translated into different languages for the various regions having similar TC projects. (author)

  11. DESIGN OF CAUCUS MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL (C-MAC PROTOCOL FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS IN SMART GRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEETU SHARMA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A Caucus-based medium access control protocol (C-MAC is proposed to reduce the end to end delay and battery consumption of the sensor nodes deployed in the monitoring of various smart grid regions, such as substation, pole and wires, perimeter security, real time and non-real-time monitoring using wireless sensor networks. The objective is to prolong the network lifetime and to reduce the end to end delay by mitigating the energy-hole problem and by eliminating bottlenecks significantly by using caucus based efficient synchronization techniques in multi-hop square grid topology of the wireless sensor networks (WSNs. The protocol self-reliantly and adaptively schedules node’s wake-up times, decreases idle listening and collisions, increases network throughput, and extends network lifetime. It induces a low duty cycle for adjusting wake-up times of sensor nodes. The appropriate selection of active and sleep time slots and next hop relay nodes are proposed to minimize the data transmission latency and to reduce battery consumption to increase the network lifetime. The uniform and synchronized transmission of the data packets is of prime importance to improve the network performance. Simulation results justify that the proposed C-MAC protocol increases the network lifetime, successful data transmission ratio along-with the reduction in end to end delay. The objective of this paper is to envisage benefits and utilization of C-MAC protocol for WSNs deployed in smart grids and to draw the attention of researchers in this area.

  12. TosNet: An easy-to-use, real-time communications protocol for modular, distributed robot controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falsig, Simon; Sørensen, Anders Stengaard

    2009-01-01

    Net supports up to 15 nodes, with cycle-rates up to 25 kHz, depending on the configuration. The protocol stack is completely specified as VHDL code, implemented in an FPGA. The physical layer is implemented with Toslink fiberoptic links, offering a compact, robust and highly available link technology......This paper presents the TosNet network, created for robotics research, education, and prototyping, emphasizing ease of use, robustness, compactness, flexibility and fast hard realtime response, to allow distribution of all levels of the robot control system. The current implementation of Tos...

  13. Reducing Traffic Congestions by Introducing CACC-Vehicles on a Multi-Lane Highway Using Agent-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaout, Georges M.; Bowling, Shannon R.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic congestion is an ongoing problem of great interest to researchers from different areas in academia. With the emerging technology for inter-vehicle communication, vehicles have the ability to exchange information with predecessors by wireless communication. In this paper, we present an agent-based model of traffic congestion and examine the impact of having CACC (Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control) embedded vehicle(s) on a highway system consisting of 4 traffic lanes without overtaking. In our model, CACC vehicles adapt their acceleration/deceleration according to vehicle-to-vehicle inter-communication. We analyze the average speed of the cars, the shockwaves, and the evolution of traffic congestion throughout the lifecycle of the model. The study identifies how CACC vehicles affect the dynamics of traffic flow on a complex network and reduce the oscillatory behavior (stop and go) resulting from the acceleration/deceleration of the vehicles.

  14. Phantom Tumor of the Lung: Localized Interlobar Effusion in Congestive Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mislav Lozo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Localized interlobar effusions in congestive heart failure (phantom or vanishing lung tumor/s is/are uncommon but well known entities. An 83-year-old man presented with shortness of breath, swollen legs, and dry cough enduring five days. Chest-X-ray (CXR revealed massive sharply demarked round/oval homogeneous dense shadow 10 × 7 cm in size in the right inferior lobe. The treatment with the loop diuretics and fluid intake reduction resulted in complete resolution of the observed round/oval tumor-like image on the control CXR three days later. Radiologic appearance of such a mass-like configuration in patients with congestive heart failure demands correction of the underlying heart condition before further diagnostic investigation is performed to avoid unnecessary, expensive, and possibly harmful diagnostic and treatment errors.

  15. Arteriosclerotic changes in the myocardium, lung, and kidney in dogs with chronic congestive heart failure and myxomatous mitral valve disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Bo Torkel; Jönsson, Lennart; Olsen, Lisbeth Høier

    2006-01-01

    Background: The occurrence of small vessel arteriosclerosis in the myocardium, kidney, and lung in dogs with naturally occurring myxomatous mitral valve disease has not been previously investigated systematically. Methods: Twenty-one dogs with naturally occurring congestive heart failure and 21 age......-matched, sex-matched, and weight-matched control dogs underwent extensive pathological and histopathological examination. Morphometry and scoring of tissue sections were used to measure arterial narrowing and fibrosis in the myocardium, kidney, and lung; and intimal thickness and plaque formation in the aorta...... and pulmonary artery. Results: Dogs with congestive heart failure had significantly more arterial narrowing in the left ventricle (Pdogs. However...

  16. Intelligent routing protocol for ad hoc wireless network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chaorong; Chen, Chang Wen

    2006-05-01

    A novel routing scheme for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), which combines hybrid and multi-inter-routing path properties with a distributed topology discovery route mechanism using control agents is proposed in this paper. In recent years, a variety of hybrid routing protocols for Mobile Ad hoc wireless networks (MANETs) have been developed. Which is proactively maintains routing information for a local neighborhood, while reactively acquiring routes to destinations beyond the global. The hybrid protocol reduces routing discovery latency and the end-to-end delay by providing high connectivity without requiring much of the scarce network capacity. On the other side the hybrid routing protocols in MANETs likes Zone Routing Protocol still need route "re-discover" time when a route between zones link break. Sine the topology update information needs to be broadcast routing request on local zone. Due to this delay, the routing protocol may not be applicable for real-time data and multimedia communication. We utilize the advantages of a clustering organization and multi-routing path in routing protocol to achieve several goals at the same time. Firstly, IRP efficiently saves network bandwidth and reduces route reconstruction time when a routing path fails. The IRP protocol does not require global periodic routing advertisements, local control agents will automatically monitor and repair broke links. Secondly, it efficiently reduces congestion and traffic "bottlenecks" for ClusterHeads in clustering network. Thirdly, it reduces significant overheads associated with maintaining clusters. Fourthly, it improves clusters stability due to dynamic topology changing frequently. In this paper, we present the Intelligent Routing Protocol. First, we discuss the problem of routing in ad hoc networks and the motivation of IRP. We describe the hierarchical architecture of IRP. We describe the routing process and illustrate it with an example. Further, we describe the control manage

  17. Health-social partnership intervention programme for community-dwelling older adults: a research protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kwan Ching; Wong, Frances Kam Yuet; Chang, Katherine Ka Pik

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims to describe the research protocol that will be used to determine the effectiveness of a health-social partnership intervention programme among community-dwelling older adults. Ageing in place is a preferred option for overcoming challenges of the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases and the risk for hospitalization associated with the ageing population. Nevertheless, our knowledge of how to implement this concept is limited. The integrated efforts of health and social services may help to enable older adults to live with a sense of control over their daily life and to be independent to the fullest extent possible in the community. This is a randomized, controlled trial. Participants are community-dwelling older adults referred from a community centre. Sample size calculation was based on power analysis. The intervention group will receive the programme with the standard protocols guided by a comprehensive assessment-intervention-evaluation framework. Home visits and telephones follow-up will be employed as means of conducting the interventions and monitoring their progress. The customary care group will receive placebo social calls. The duration of the interventions will be 3 months. The study was funded by the School of Nursing in Hong Kong. Research Ethics Committee approval was obtained in September 2014. The results of this research are expected to enable older adults to stay in the community with optimal health and well-being. Health and social sciences are integrated into the practice in this research protocol. The scarce literature on this topic means that this study can also provide an opportunity to bridge the caring gap among older adults. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Certain hormonal profiles of postpartum anestrus jersey crossbred cows treated with controlled internal drug release and ovsynch protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanidhi Jena

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to determine the serum levels of certain hormones in post-partum anestrus cows following treatment with controlled internal drug release (CIDR and Ovsynch protocol. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 postpartum anestrus cows were divided into three equal groups after thorough gynecoclinical examination. The Group 1 animals received an intravaginal progesterone device on day 0 and 2 ml of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α on day of CIDR removal (7th day, Group 2 cows were treated with ovsynch protocol (gonadotropinreleasing hormone [GnRH]-PGF2α-GnRH on day 0, 7 and 9, respectively, and Group 3 cows were supplemented with mineral mixture and treated as control. The serum estrogen, progesterone, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine concentration were estimated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit and absorbance was read at 450 nm with Perkin Elmer Wallac 1420 Microplate Reader. Results: There was a significant increase in progesterone level in Group 1 after withdrawal of CIDR as compared to other two groups. However, the estrogen assay revealed a greater concentration in Group 2 against Group 1 on day 7 of sampling. However, there was no significant difference for serum triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4 irrespective of treatment protocols and days of sampling. Conclusion: Treatment with CIDR based progesterone therapy and drug combinations may affect the reproductive hormonal balance like estrogen and progesterone, which is inevitable for successful return to cyclicity and subsequent fertilization and conception. However, as far as serum T3 and T4 concentration concerned it may not give an astounding result.

  19. ABORt: Acknowledgement-Based Opportunistic Routing Protocol for High Data Rate Multichannel WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamadoun Tall

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The ease of deployment and the auto-configuration capabilities of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs make them very attractive in different domains like environmental, home automation or heath care applications. The use of multichannel communications in WSNs helps to improve the overall performance of the network. However, in heavy traffic scenarios, routing protocols should be adapted to allow load balancing and to avoid losing data packets due to congestion and queue overflow. In this paper, we present an Acknowledgement-Based Opportunistic Routing (ABORt protocol designed for high data rate multichannel WSNs. It is a low overhead protocol that does not rely on synchronization for control traffic exchange during the operational phase of the network. ABORt is an opportunistic protocol that relies on link layer acknowledgements to disseminate routing metrics, which helps to reduce overhead. The performance of ABORt is evaluated using the Cooja simulator and the obtained results show that ABORt has a high packet delivery ratio with reduced packet end-to-end delay compared to two single channel routing protocols and two multichannel routing protocols that use number of hops and expected transmission count as routing metrics.

  20. The effect of four-phasic versus three-phasic contrast media injection protocols on extravasation rate in coronary CT angiography. A randomized controlled trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karady, Julia; Panajotu, Alexisz; Kolossvary, Marton; Szilveszter, Balint; Jermendy, Adam L.; Bartykowszki, Andrea; Karolyi, Mihaly; Celeng, Csilla; Merkely, Bela; Maurovich-Horvat, Pal [Semmelweis University, MTA-SE Cardiovascular Imaging Research Group, Heart and Vascular Center, Budapest (Hungary)

    2017-11-15

    Contrast media (CM) extravasation is a well-known complication of CT angiography (CTA). Our prospective randomized control study aimed to assess whether a four-phasic CM administration protocol reduces the risk of extravasation compared to the routinely used three-phasic protocol in coronary CTA. Patients referred to coronary CTA due to suspected coronary artery disease were included in the study. All patients received 400 mg/ml iomeprol CM injected with dual-syringe automated injector. Patients were randomized into a three-phasic injection-protocol group, with a CM bolus of 85 ml followed by 40 ml of 75%:25% saline/CM mixture and 30 ml saline chaser bolus; and a four-phasic injection-protocol group, with a saline pacer bolus of 10 ml injected at a lower flow rate before the three-phasic protocol. 2,445 consecutive patients were enrolled (mean age 60.6 ± 12.1 years; females 43.6%). Overall rate of extravasation was 0.9% (23/2,445): 1.4% (17/1,229) in the three-phasic group and 0.5% (6/1,216) in the four-phasic group (p = 0.034). Four-phasic CM administration protocol is easy to implement in the clinical routine at no extra cost. The extravasation rate is reduced by 65% with the application of the four-phasic protocol compared to the three-phasic protocol in coronary CTA. (orig.)

  1. Effect of venous and lymphatic congestion on lymph capillary pressure of the skin in healthy volunteers and patients with lymph edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretener, S B; Läuchli, S; Leu, A J; Koppensteiner, R; Franzeck, U K

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of venous and lymphatic congestion on lymph capillary pressure (LCP) in the skin of the foot dorsum of healthy volunteers and of patients with lymph edema. LCP was measured at the foot dorsum of 12 patients with lymph edema and 18 healthy volunteers using the servo-nulling technique. Glass micropipettes (7-9 microm) were inserted under microscopic control into lymphatic microvessels visualized by fluorescence microlymphography before and during venous congestion. Venous and lymphatic congestion was attained by cuff compression (50 mm Hg) at the thigh level. Simultaneously, the capillary filtration rate was measured using strain gauge plethysmography. The mean LCP in patients with lymph edema increased significantly (p < 0.05) during congestion (15.7 +/- 8.8 mm Hg) compared to the control value (12.2 +/- 8.9 mm Hg). The corresponding values of LCP in healthy volunteers were 4.3 +/- 2.6 mm Hg during congestion and 2.6 +/- 2.8 mm Hg during control conditions (p < 0.01). The mean increase in LCP in patients with lymph edema was 3.4 +/- 4.1 mm Hg, and 1.7 +/- 2.0 mm Hg in healthy volunteers (NS). The maximum spread of the lymph capillary network in patients increased from 13.9 +/- 6.8 mm before congestion to 18.8 +/- 8.2 mm during thigh compression (p < 0.05). No increase could be observed in healthy subjects. In summary, venous and lymphatic congestion by cuff compression at the thigh level results in a significant increase in LCP in healthy volunteers as well as in patients with lymph edema. The increased spread of the contrast medium in the superficial microlymphatics in lymph edema patients indicates a compensatory mechanism for lymphatic drainage during congestion of the veins and lymph collectors of the leg. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Mecasin treatment in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungha; Kim, Jae Kyoun; Son, Mi Ju; Kim, Dongwoung; Song, Bongkeun; Son, Ilhong; Kang, Hyung Won; Lee, Jongdeok; Kim, Sungchul

    2018-04-13

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that causes paralysis of limb, swallowing, and breathing muscles. Riluzole, the Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for ALS, provides minimal benefit, prolonging patient life by only 2-3 months. Previous studies have found a neuro-protective and anti-neuroinflammatory effect of Mecasin, with retrospective studies providing suggestive evidence for a beneficial effect of Mecasin. The aim of this study was to develop a protocol to determine the proper dosage of Mecasin. This is a phase II-A, multi-center, randomized study with three arms. Thirty-six patients with ALS will be randomly assigned to one of three groups, each receiving the standard treatment with 100 mg of riluzole in addition to one of 1.6 g of Mecasin, 2.4 g of Mecasin, or a placebo. The Primary outcome is the Korean version of the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised result after 12 weeks of treatment. Secondary outcomes include results of the Short Form Health Survey-8, Medical Research Council Scale, Visual Analogue Scale for Pain, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Fatigue Severity Scale, Patient Global Impression of Change, pulmonary function test, forced expiratory volume in 1 s and its ratio to forced vital capacity, creatine kinase, and body weight. The frequencies of total adverse events and serious adverse events will be described and documented. The trial protocol has been approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Wonkwang University Gwangju and Sanbon Hospital (2016-5-4 and 2016-34-01, respectively). An Investigational New Drug status (30731) was granted by the Korea Food and Drug Administration. This trial will aim to identify the optimal dosage of Mecasin. Additionally, it will test the efficacy and safety of Mecasin in conjunction with standard treatment, riluzole, for alleviating the functional decline in patients with ALS. Korean National Clinical Trial Registry CRIS; KCT

  3. Thromboelastometry versus standard coagulation tests versus restrictive protocol to guide blood transfusion prior to central venous catheterization in cirrhosis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Leonardo Lima; Pessoa, Camila Menezes Souza; Neto, Ary Serpa; do Prado, Rogerio Ruscitto; Silva, Eliezer; de Almeida, Marcio Dias; Correa, Thiago Domingos

    2017-02-27

    Liver failure patients have traditionally been empirically transfused prior to invasive procedures. Blood transfusion is associated with immunologic and nonimmunologic reactions, increased risk of adverse outcomes and high costs. Scientific evidence supporting empirical transfusion is lacking, and the best approach for blood transfusion prior to invasive procedures in cirrhotic patients has not been established so far. The aim of this study is to compare three transfusion strategies (routine coagulation test-guided - ordinary or restrictive, or thromboelastometry-guided) prior to central venous catheterization in critically ill patients with cirrhosis. Design and setting: a double-blinded, parallel-group, single-center, randomized controlled clinical trial in a tertiary private hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. adults (aged 18 years or older) admitted to the intensive care unit with cirrhosis and an indication for central venous line insertion. Patients will be randomly assigned to three groups for blood transfusion strategy prior to central venous catheterization: standard coagulation tests-based, thromboelastometry-based, or restrictive. The primary efficacy endpoint will be the proportion of patients transfused with any blood product prior to central venous catheterization. The primary safety endpoint will be the incidence of major bleeding. Secondary endpoints will be the proportion of transfusion of fresh frozen plasma, platelets and cryoprecipitate; infused volume of blood products; hemoglobin and hematocrit before and after the procedure; intensive care unit and hospital length of stay; 28-day and hospital mortality; incidence of minor bleeding; transfusion-related adverse reactions; and cost analysis. This study will evaluate three strategies to guide blood transfusion prior to central venous line placement in severely ill patients with cirrhosis. We hypothesized that thromboelastometry-based and/or restrictive protocols are safe and would significantly

  4. Implementation to spanish protocol of quality control of accelerators to daily control of electron beams; Implementacion del protocolo espanol de control de calidad de aceleradores al control diario de haces de electrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adaimi Hernandez, P.; Ramirez Ros, J. C.; Casa de Julian, M. A. de la; Clemente Gutierrez, F.; Cabello Murillo, E.; Diaz Fuente, R.; Ferrando Sanchez, A.

    2011-07-01

    A revised procedure for daily control of the electron beams to make measurements more meaningful physically, having a better reproducibility and more in line with the recommendations of the Spanish Protocol for Quality Control in Electron Linear Accelerators Clinical Use. The daily quality control beams of high energy electrons that had been done so far was the finding that the record of a series of measures (symmetry, uniformity, stability, energy, beam central dose) were within tolerance values established. The amendment is to check the beam quality by directly measuring changes in absorption depth at which the dose is reduced to half its maximum value, R50.

  5. Chapter 19: HVAC Controls (DDC/EMS/BAS) Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Romberger, Jeff [SBW Consulting, Inc., Bellevue, WA (United States)

    2017-10-09

    The HVAC Controls Evaluation Protocol is designed to address evaluation issues for direct digital controls/energy management systems/building automation systems (DDC/EMS/BAS) that are installed to control heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment in commercial and institutional buildings. (This chapter refers to the DDC/EMS/BAS measure as HVAC controls.) This protocol may also be applicable to industrial facilities such as clean rooms and labs, which have either significant HVAC equipment or spaces requiring special environmental conditions.

  6. Toward Automating Web Protocol Configuration for a Programmable Logic Controller Emulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-19

    Security Risks for Industrial Control Systems ,” VDE 2004 Congress, Berlin, Germany, October 2004, pp. 1-7. [Cis12] Cisco, NetFlow Configuration Guide...Date 29 May 2014 Date AFIT-ENG-T-14-J-4 Abstract Industrial Control Systems (ICS) remain vulnerable through attack vectors that exist within programmable...5 2.2 Industrial Control Systems

  7. Improvement The Transmission Efficiency For Wireless Packet Communication Systems Using Automatic Control for power And Time Slot Width Of Slotted Non persistent ISMA Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad M. Hardan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In packed communication systems which use a protocol, the protocol should perform the allocation of channels such that the transmission channel is used efficiently. Efficiency is usually measured in terms of channel throughput and the average transmission  delay. The Slotted Nonpersistent ISMA protocol is one of random access protocols used in packed communication systems. In this research a Slotted Nonpersistent ISMA protocol Model with automatic control for power and time slot is proposed. the suggested algorithm enable the base station(access point to control  the protocol time slot length and  transmission power in a dynamic way to control the normalized propagation delay d and to maintain all the uplink signals in the limit of captured power threshold (capture ratio in order to control the  throughput and the average transmission delay of the communication system by an automatic method. the computer simulation results  confirm the activity of the  proposed algorithm for increasing the  throughput and decreasing the average transmission delay by an accepted ratios.

  8. Traffic Congestion Detection and Avoidance using Vehicular Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Narendrabhai Upadhyaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a serious problem in big cities. With the number of vehicles increasing rapidly, especially in cities whose economy is booming, the situation is getting even worse. Drivers, unaware of congestion ahead eventually join it and increase the severity of it. The ability of a driver to know the traffic conditions on the roads ahead enables him/her to seek alternate routes through which time and fuel can be saved. Due to recent advancements in vehicular technologies, vehicular communication has emerged. The objective of this work is to check feasibility of using infrastructure based vehicular communication for detecting and avoiding traffic congestion. In this paper we propose a Signal Agent (SA and Car Agent(CAbased approach for detecting and avoiding traffic congestion. We analyze performance of the proposed approach for two different road network scenarios using simulations: structured grid network (like Gandhinagar City of Gujarat, India and apart of typical city road network ( Tiwan city. With the proposed approach we get reduction of 10.05% in trip duration of vehicles, reduction of 10.08% in number of vehicles in entire traffic road network and 9.82% in heavy traffic area. In an accident scenario, about 72.63% vehicles changed their route due to awareness of congestion. Error in trip time estimation and vehicle count estimation is observed to be less than 1%.

  9. Promoting physical activity in sedentary elderly Malays with type 2 diabetes: a protocol for randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazlina, Shariff-Ghazali; Browning, Colette Joy; Yasin, Shajahan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Like many countries Malaysia is facing an increase in the number of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus diabetes (T2DM) and modifiable lifestyle factors such as sedentary behaviour are important drivers of this increase. The level of physical activity is low among elderly Malay people. In Malaysia, strategies to promote physical activity in elderly Malay people with T2DM are not well documented in the research literature. This paper discusses an intervention to increase physical activity in elderly Malay people with T2DM. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of personalised feedback alone and in combination with peer support in promoting and maintaining physical activity in comparison with usual care. Methods and analysis A three-arm randomised controlled trial will be conducted among sedentary Malay adults aged 60 years and above with T2DM attending an urban primary healthcare clinic in Malaysia. The participants will be randomised into three groups for a 12-week intervention with a follow-up at 24 and 36 weeks to assess adherence. The primary outcome of this study is pedometer-determined physical activity. Glycaemic and blood pressure control, body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, balance, lipid profile, health-related quality of life, psychological well-being, social support and self-efficacy for exercise are the secondary measures. Linear mixed models will be used to determine the effect of the intervention over time and between groups. Ethical and dissemination The Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee and the Malaysian Ministry of Health's Medical Research Ethics Committee approved this protocol. The findings of this study will be presented at international conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration This study protocol has been registered with the Malaysian National Medical Research Registry and with the Current Controlled Trial Ltd (http://www.controlled

  10. Study protocol: a randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of a psychosexual training program for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Kirsten; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Tick, Nouchka T; Verhulst, Frank C; Maras, Athanasios; van der Vegt, Esther J M

    2015-08-28

    Previous research shows that adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) run several risks in their psychosexual development and that these adolescents can have limited access to reliable information on puberty and sexuality, emphasizing the need for specific guidance of adolescents with ASD in their psychosexual development. Few studies have investigated the effects of psychosexual training programs for adolescents with ASD and to date no randomized controlled trials are available to study the effects of psychosexual interventions for this target group. The randomized controlled trial (RCT) described in this study protocol aims to investigate the effects of the Tackling Teenage Training (TTT) program on the psychosexual development of adolescents with ASD. This parallel clinical trial, conducted in the South-West of the Netherlands, has a simple equal randomization design with an intervention and a waiting-list control condition. Two hundred adolescents and their parents participate in this study. We assess the participants in both conditions using self-report as well as parent-report questionnaires at three time points during 1 year: at baseline (T1), post-treatment (T2), and for follow-up (T3). To our knowledge, the current study is the first that uses a randomized controlled design to study the effects of a psychosexual training program for adolescents with ASD. It has a number of methodological strengths, namely a large sample size, a wide range of functionally relevant outcome measures, the use of multiple informants, and a standardized research and intervention protocol. Also some limitations of the described study are identified, for instance not making a comparison between two treatment conditions, and no use of blinded observational measures to investigate the ecological validity of the research results. Dutch Trial Register NTR2860. Registered on 20 April 2011.

  11. Promoting physical activity in sedentary elderly Malays with type 2 diabetes: a protocol for randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazlina, Shariff-Ghazali; Browning, Colette Joy; Yasin, Shajahan

    2012-01-01

    Like many countries Malaysia is facing an increase in the number of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus diabetes (T2DM) and modifiable lifestyle factors such as sedentary behaviour are important drivers of this increase. The level of physical activity is low among elderly Malay people. In Malaysia, strategies to promote physical activity in elderly Malay people with T2DM are not well documented in the research literature. This paper discusses an intervention to increase physical activity in elderly Malay people with T2DM. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of personalised feedback alone and in combination with peer support in promoting and maintaining physical activity in comparison with usual care. A three-arm randomised controlled trial will be conducted among sedentary Malay adults aged 60 years and above with T2DM attending an urban primary healthcare clinic in Malaysia. The participants will be randomised into three groups for a 12-week intervention with a follow-up at 24 and 36 weeks to assess adherence. The primary outcome of this study is pedometer-determined physical activity. Glycaemic and blood pressure control, body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, balance, lipid profile, health-related quality of life, psychological well-being, social support and self-efficacy for exercise are the secondary measures. Linear mixed models will be used to determine the effect of the intervention over time and between groups. ETHICAL AND DISSEMINATION: The Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee and the Malaysian Ministry of Health's Medical Research Ethics Committee approved this protocol. The findings of this study will be presented at international conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. This study protocol has been registered with the Malaysian National Medical Research Registry and with the Current Controlled Trial Ltd (http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN71447000/).

  12. A New Dual-purpose Quality Control Dosimetry Protocol for Diagnostic Reference-level Determination in Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Mehdi; Parsi, Masoumeh; Sina, Sedigheh

    2018-05-17

    A diagnostic reference level is an advisory dose level set by a regulatory authority in a country as an efficient criterion for protection of patients from unwanted medical exposure. In computed tomography, the direct dose measurement and data collection methods are commonly applied for determination of diagnostic reference levels. Recently, a new quality-control-based dose survey method was proposed by the authors to simplify the diagnostic reference-level determination using a retrospective quality control database usually available at a regulatory authority in a country. In line with such a development, a prospective dual-purpose quality control dosimetry protocol is proposed for determination of diagnostic reference levels in a country, which can be simply applied by quality control service providers. This new proposed method was applied to five computed tomography scanners in Shiraz, Iran, and diagnostic reference levels for head, abdomen/pelvis, sinus, chest, and lumbar spine examinations were determined. The results were compared to those obtained by the data collection and quality-control-based dose survey methods, carried out in parallel in this study, and were found to agree well within approximately 6%. This is highly acceptable for quality-control-based methods according to International Atomic Energy Agency tolerance levels (±20%).

  13. Camino Verde (The Green Way: evidence-based community mobilisation for dengue control in Nicaragua and Mexico: feasibility study and study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Andersson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that transmit dengue virus can breed in clean water, WHO-endorsed vector control strategies place sachets of organophosphate pesticide, temephos (Abate, in household water storage containers. These and other pesticide-dependent approaches have failed to curb the spread of dengue and multiple dengue virus serotypes continue to spread throughout tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. A feasibility study in Managua, Nicaragua, generated instruments, intervention protocols, training schedules and impact assessment tools for a cluster randomised controlled trial of community-based approaches to vector control comprising an alternative strategy for dengue prevention and control in Nicaragua and Mexico. Methods/Design The Camino Verde (Green Way is a pragmatic parallel group trial of pesticide-free dengue vector control, adding effectiveness to the standard government dengue control. A random sample from the most recent census in three coastal regions of Guerrero state in Mexico will generate 90 study clusters and the equivalent sampling frame in Managua, Nicaragua will generate 60 clusters, making a total of 150 clusters each of 137–140 households. After a baseline study, computer-driven randomisation will allocate to intervention one half of the sites, stratified by country, evidence of recent dengue virus infection in children aged 3–9 years and, in Nicaragua, level of community organisation. Following a common evidence-based education protocol, each cluster will develop and implement its own collective interventions including house-to-house visits, school-based programmes and inter-community visits. After 18 months, a follow-up study will compare dengue history, serological evidence of recent dengue virus infection (via measurement of anti-dengue virus antibodies in saliva samples and entomological indices between intervention and control sites. Discussion Our hypothesis is that

  14. Camino Verde (The Green Way): evidence-based community mobilisation for dengue control in Nicaragua and Mexico: feasibility study and study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Neil; Arostegui, Jorge; Nava-Aguilera, Elizabeth; Harris, Eva; Ledogar, Robert J

    2017-05-30

    Since the Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that transmit dengue virus can breed in clean water, WHO-endorsed vector control strategies place sachets of organophosphate pesticide, temephos (Abate), in household water storage containers. These and other pesticide-dependent approaches have failed to curb the spread of dengue and multiple dengue virus serotypes continue to spread throughout tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. A feasibility study in Managua, Nicaragua, generated instruments, intervention protocols, training schedules and impact assessment tools for a cluster randomised controlled trial of community-based approaches to vector control comprising an alternative strategy for dengue prevention and control in Nicaragua and Mexico. The Camino Verde (Green Way) is a pragmatic parallel group trial of pesticide-free dengue vector control, adding effectiveness to the standard government dengue control. A random sample from the most recent census in three coastal regions of Guerrero state in Mexico will generate 90 study clusters and the equivalent sampling frame in Managua, Nicaragua will generate 60 clusters, making a total of 150 clusters each of 137-140 households. After a baseline study, computer-driven randomisation will allocate to intervention one half of the sites, stratified by country, evidence of recent dengue virus infection in children aged 3-9 years and, in Nicaragua, level of community organisation. Following a common evidence-based education protocol, each cluster will develop and implement its own collective interventions including house-to-house visits, school-based programmes and inter-community visits. After 18 months, a follow-up study will compare dengue history, serological evidence of recent dengue virus infection (via measurement of anti-dengue virus antibodies in saliva samples) and entomological indices between intervention and control sites. Our hypothesis is that informed community mobilisation adds effectiveness in controlling

  15. Which dressing do donor site wounds need?: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubbink Dirk T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Donor site wounds after split-skin grafting are rather 'standard' wounds. At present, lots of dressings and topical agents for donor site wounds are commercially available. This causes large variation in the local care of these wounds, while the optimum 'standard' dressing for local wound care is unclear. This protocol describes a trial in which we investigate the effectiveness of various treatment options for these donor site wounds. Methods A 14-center, six-armed randomized clinical trial is being carried out in the Netherlands. An a-priori power analysis and an anticipated dropout rate of 15% indicates that 50 patients per group are necessary, totaling 300 patients, to be able to detect a 25% quicker mean time to complete wound healing. Randomization has been computerized to ensure allocation concealment. Adult patients who need a split-skin grafting operation for any reason, leaving a donor site wound of at least 10 cm2 are included and receive one of the following dressings: hydrocolloid, alginate, film, hydrofiber, silicone dressing, or paraffin gauze. No combinations of products from other intervention groups in this trial are allowed. Optimum application and changes of these dressings are pursued according to the protocol as supplied by the dressing manufacturers. Primary outcomes are days to complete wound healing and pain (using a Visual Analogue Scale. Secondary outcomes are adverse effects, scarring, patient satisfaction, and costs. Outcome assessors unaware of the treatment allocation will assess whether or not an outcome has occurred. Results will be analyzed according to the intention to treat principle. The first patient was randomized October 1, 2009. Discussion This study will provide comprehensive data on the effectiveness of different treatment options for donor site wounds. The dressing(s that will prevail in effectiveness, satisfaction and costs will be promoted among clinicians dealing with such

  16. The effect of four-phasic versus three-phasic contrast media injection protocols on extravasation rate in coronary CT angiography: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karády, Júlia; Panajotu, Alexisz; Kolossváry, Márton; Szilveszter, Bálint; Jermendy, Ádám L; Bartykowszki, Andrea; Károlyi, Mihály; Celeng, Csilla; Merkely, Béla; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál

    2017-11-01

    Contrast media (CM) extravasation is a well-known complication of CT angiography (CTA). Our prospective randomized control study aimed to assess whether a four-phasic CM administration protocol reduces the risk of extravasation compared to the routinely used three-phasic protocol in coronary CTA. Patients referred to coronary CTA due to suspected coronary artery disease were included in the study. All patients received 400 mg/ml iomeprol CM injected with dual-syringe automated injector. Patients were randomized into a three-phasic injection-protocol group, with a CM bolus of 85 ml followed by 40 ml of 75%:25% saline/CM mixture and 30 ml saline chaser bolus; and a four-phasic injection-protocol group, with a saline pacer bolus of 10 ml injected at a lower flow rate before the three-phasic protocol. 2,445 consecutive patients were enrolled (mean age 60.6 ± 12.1 years; females 43.6%). Overall rate of extravasation was 0.9% (23/2,445): 1.4% (17/1,229) in the three-phasic group and 0.5% (6/1,216) in the four-phasic group (p = 0.034). Four-phasic CM administration protocol is easy to implement in the clinical routine at no extra cost. The extravasation rate is reduced by 65% with the application of the four-phasic protocol compared to the three-phasic protocol in coronary CTA. • Four-phasic CM injection-protocol reduces extravasation rate by 65% compared to three-phasic. • The saline pacer bolus substantially reduces the risk of CM extravasation. • The implementation of four-phasic injection-protocol is at no cost.

  17. A hybrid path-oriented code assignment CDMA-based MAC protocol for underwater acoustic sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huifang; Fan, Guangyu; Xie, Lei; Cui, Jun-Hong

    2013-11-04

    Due to the characteristics of underwater acoustic channel, media access control (MAC) protocols designed for underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASNs) are quite different from those for terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Moreover, in a sink-oriented network with event information generation in a sensor field and message forwarding to the sink hop-by-hop, the sensors near the sink have to transmit more packets than those far from the sink, and then a funneling effect occurs, which leads to packet congestion, collisions and losses, especially in UWASNs with long propagation delays. An improved CDMA-based MAC protocol, named path-oriented code assignment (POCA) CDMA MAC (POCA-CDMA-MAC), is proposed for UWASNs in this paper. In the proposed MAC protocol, both the round-robin method and CDMA technology are adopted to make the sink receive packets from multiple paths simultaneously. Since the number of paths for information gathering is much less than that of nodes, the length of the spreading code used in the POCA-CDMA-MAC protocol is shorter greatly than that used in the CDMA-based protocols with transmitter-oriented code assignment (TOCA) or receiver-oriented code assignment (ROCA). Simulation results show that the proposed POCA-CDMA-MAC protocol achieves a higher network throughput and a lower end-to-end delay compared to other CDMA-based MAC protocols.

  18. A Hybrid Path-Oriented Code Assignment CDMA-Based MAC Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huifang Chen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the characteristics of underwater acoustic channel, media access control (MAC protocols designed for underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASNs are quite different from those for terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Moreover, in a sink-oriented network with event information generation in a sensor field and message forwarding to the sink hop-by-hop, the sensors near the sink have to transmit more packets than those far from the sink, and then a funneling effect occurs, which leads to packet congestion, collisions and losses, especially in UWASNs with long propagation delays. An improved CDMA-based MAC protocol, named path-oriented code assignment (POCA CDMA MAC (POCA-CDMA-MAC, is proposed for UWASNs in this paper. In the proposed MAC protocol, both the round-robin method and CDMA technology are adopted to make the sink receive packets from multiple paths simultaneously. Since the number of paths for information gathering is much less than that of nodes, the length of the spreading code used in the POCA-CDMA-MAC protocol is shorter greatly than that used in the CDMA-based protocols with transmitter-oriented code assignment (TOCA or receiver-oriented code assignment (ROCA. Simulation results show that the proposed POCA-CDMA-MAC protocol achieves a higher network throughput and a lower end-to-end delay compared to other CDMA-based MAC protocols.

  19. On the Inefficiency of Equilibria in Linear Bottleneck Congestion Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Keijzer, Bart; Schäfer, Guido; Telelis, Orestis A.

    We study the inefficiency of equilibrium outcomes in bottleneck congestion games. These games model situations in which strategic players compete for a limited number of facilities. Each player allocates his weight to a (feasible) subset of the facilities with the goal to minimize the maximum (weight-dependent) latency that he experiences on any of these facilities. We derive upper and (asymptotically) matching lower bounds on the (strong) price of anarchy of linear bottleneck congestion games for a natural load balancing social cost objective (i.e., minimize the maximum latency of a facility). We restrict our studies to linear latency functions. Linear bottleneck congestion games still constitute a rich class of games and generalize, for example, load balancing games with identical or uniformly related machines with or without restricted assignments.

  20. Dynamic Subsidy Method for Congestion Management in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic subsidy (DS) is a locational price paid by the distribution system operator (DSO) to its customers in order to shift energy consumption to designated hours and nodes. It is promising for demand side management and congestion management. This paper proposes a new DS method for congestion...... management in distribution networks, including the market mechanism, the mathematical formulation through a two-level optimization, and the method solving the optimization by tightening the constraints and linearization. Case studies were conducted with a one node system and the Bus 4 distribution network...... of the Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) with high penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) and heat pumps (HPs). The case studies demonstrate the efficacy of the DS method for congestion management in distribution networks. Studies in this paper show that the DS method offers the customers a fair opportunity...

  1. Traffic Congestion Detection System through Connected Vehicles and Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Benítez, Néstor; Aquino-Santos, Raúl; Magaña-Espinoza, Pedro; Aguilar-Velazco, José; Edwards-Block, Arthur; Medina Cass, Aldo

    2016-04-28

    This article discusses the simulation and evaluation of a traffic congestion detection system which combines inter-vehicular communications, fixed roadside infrastructure and infrastructure-to-infrastructure connectivity and big data. The system discussed in this article permits drivers to identify traffic congestion and change their routes accordingly, thus reducing the total emissions of CO₂ and decreasing travel time. This system monitors, processes and stores large amounts of data, which can detect traffic congestion in a precise way by means of a series of algorithms that reduces localized vehicular emission by rerouting vehicles. To simulate and evaluate the proposed system, a big data cluster was developed based on Cassandra, which was used in tandem with the OMNeT++ discreet event network simulator, coupled with the SUMO (Simulation of Urban MObility) traffic simulator and the Veins vehicular network framework. The results validate the efficiency of the traffic detection system and its positive impact in detecting, reporting and rerouting traffic when traffic events occur.

  2. Involvement of systemic venous congestion in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio Gracia, J; Sánchez Marteles, M; Pérez Calvo, J I

    2017-04-01

    Systemic venous congestion has gained significant importance in the interpretation of the pathophysiology of acute heart failure, especially in the development of renal function impairment during exacerbations. In this study, we review the concept, clinical characterisation and identification of venous congestion. We update current knowledge on its importance in the pathophysiology of acute heart failure and its involvement in the prognosis. We pay special attention to the relationship between abdominal congestion, the pulmonary interstitium as filtering membrane, inflammatory phenomena and renal function impairment in acute heart failure. Lastly, we review decongestion as a new therapeutic objective and the measures available for its assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  3. Formal Security-Proved Mobile Anonymous Authentication Protocols with Credit-Based Chargeability and Controllable Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-I Fan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Smart mobile phones are widely popularized and advanced mobile communication services are provided increasingly often, such that ubiquitous computing environments will soon be a reality. However, there are many security threats to mobile networks and their impact on security is more serious than that in wireline networks owing to the features of wireless transmissions and the ubiquity property. The secret information which mobile users carry may be stolen by malicious entities. To guarantee the quality of advanced services, security and privacy would be important issues when users roam within various mobile networks. In this manuscript, an anonymous authentication scheme will be proposed to protect the security of the network system and the privacy of users. Not only does the proposed scheme provide mutual authentication between each user and the system, but also each user’s identity is kept secret against anyone else, including the system. Although the system anonymously authenticates the users, it can still generate correct bills to charge these anonymous users via a credit-based solution instead of debit-based ones. Furthermore, our protocols also achieve fair privacy which allows the judge to revoke the anonymity and trace the illegal users when they have misused the anonymity property, for example, if they have committed crimes. Finally, in this paper, we also carry out complete theoretical proofs on each claimed security property.

  4. Stability of formation control using a consensus protocol under directed communications with two time delays and delay scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda-Gomez, Rudy; Olgac, Nejat

    2016-01-01

    We consider a linear algorithm to achieve formation control in a group of agents which are driven by second-order dynamics and affected by two rationally independent delays. One of the delays is in the position and the other in the velocity information channels. These delays are taken as constant and uniform throughout the system. The communication topology is assumed to be directed and fixed. The formation is attained by adding a supplementary control term to the stabilising consensus protocol. In preparation for the formation control logic, we first study the stability of the consensus, using the recent cluster treatment of characteristic roots (CTCR) paradigm. This effort results in a unique depiction of the non-conservative stability boundaries in the domain of the delays. However, CTCR requires the knowledge of the potential stability switching loci exhaustively within this domain. The creation of these loci is done in a new surrogate coordinate system, called the 'spectral delay space (SDS)'. The relative stability is also investigated, which has to do with the speed of reaching consensus. This step leads to a paradoxical control design concept, called the 'delay scheduling', which highlights the fact that the group behaviour may be enhanced by increasing the delays. These steps lead to a control strategy to establish a desired group formation that guarantees spacing among the agents. Example case studies are presented to validate the underlying analytical derivations.

  5. Evaluating Data Abstraction Assistant, a novel software application for data abstraction during systematic reviews: protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian J. Saldanha

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data abstraction, a critical systematic review step, is time-consuming and prone to errors. Current standards for approaches to data abstraction rest on a weak evidence base. We developed the Data Abstraction Assistant (DAA, a novel software application designed to facilitate the abstraction process by allowing users to (1 view study article PDFs juxtaposed to electronic data abstraction forms linked to a data abstraction system, (2 highlight (or “pin” the location of the text in the PDF, and (3 copy relevant text from the PDF into the form. We describe the design of a randomized controlled trial (RCT that compares the relative effectiveness of (A DAA-facilitated single abstraction plus verification by a second person, (B traditional (non-DAA-facilitated single abstraction plus verification by a second person, and (C traditional independent dual abstraction plus adjudication to ascertain the accuracy and efficiency of abstraction. Methods This is an online, randomized, three-arm, crossover trial. We will enroll 24 pairs of abstractors (i.e., sample size is 48 participants, each pair comprising one less and one more experienced abstractor. Pairs will be randomized to abstract data from six articles, two under each of the three approaches. Abstractors will complete pre-tested data abstraction forms using the Systematic Review Data Repository (SRDR, an online data abstraction system. The primary outcomes are (1 proportion of data items abstracted that constitute an error (compared with an answer key and (2 total time taken to complete abstraction (by two abstractors in the pair, including verification and/or adjudication. Discussion The DAA trial uses a practical design to test a novel software application as a tool to help improve the accuracy and efficiency of the data abstraction process during systematic reviews. Findings from the DAA trial will provide much-needed evidence to strengthen current recommendations for data

  6. A Challenge-Based Approach to Body Weight-Supported Treadmill Training Poststroke: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Avantika; Brown, David; Roth, Elliot

    2018-05-03

    Body weight support treadmill training protocols in conjunction with other modalities are commonly used to improve poststroke balance and walking function. However, typical body weight support paradigms tend to use consistently stable balance conditions, often with handrail support and or manual assistance. In this paper, we describe our study protocol, which involved 2 unique body weight support treadmill training paradigms of similar training intensity that integrated dynamic balance challenges to help improve ambulatory function post stroke. The first paradigm emphasized walking without any handrails or manual assistance, that is, hands-free walking, and served as the control group, whereas the second paradigm incorporated practicing 9 essential challenging mobility skills, akin to environmental barriers encountered during community ambulation along with hands-free walking (ie hands-free + challenge walking). We recruited individuals with chronic poststroke hemiparesis and randomized them to either group. Participants trained for 6 weeks on a self-driven, robotic treadmill interface that provided body weight support and a safe gait-training environment. We assessed participants at pre-, mid- and post 6 weeks of intervention-training, with a 6-month follow-up. We hypothesized greater walking improvements in the hands-free + challenge walking group following training because of increased practice opportunity of essential mobility skills along with hands-free walking. We assessed 77 individuals with chronic hemiparesis, and enrolled and randomized 30 individuals poststroke for our study (hands-free group=19 and hands-free + challenge walking group=20) from June 2012 to January 2015. Data collection along with 6-month follow-up continued until January 2016. Our primary outcome measure is change in comfortable walking speed from pre to post intervention for each group. We will also assess feasibility, adherence, postintervention efficacy, and changes in various

  7. A randomized controlled trial of community health workers using patient stories to support hypertension management: Study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargraves, J Lee; Bonollo, Debra; Person, Sharina D; Ferguson, Warren J

    2018-04-12

    Uncontrolled hypertension is a significant public health problem in the U.S. with about one half of people able to keep blood pressure (BP) under control. Uncontrolled hypertension leads to increased risk of stroke, heart attack, and death. Furthermore, the social and economic costs of poor hypertension control are staggering. People living with hypertension can benefit from additional educational outreach and support. This randomized trial conducted at two Community Health Centers (CHCs) in Massachusetts assessed the effect of community health workers (CHWs) assisting patients with hypertension. In addition to the support provided by CHWs, the study uses video narratives from patients who have worked to control their BP through diet, exercise, and better medication adherence. Participants enrolled in the study were randomly assigned to immediate intervention (I) by CHWs or a delayed intervention (DI) (4 to 6 months later). Each participant was asked to meet with the CHW 5 times (twice in person and three times telephonically). Study outcomes include systolic and diastolic BP, diet, exercise, and body mass index. CHWs working directly with patients, using multiple approaches to support patient self-management, can be effective agents to support change in chronic illness management. Moreover, having culturally appropriate tools, such as narratives available through videos, can be an important, cost effective aid to CHWs. Recruitment and intervention delivery within a busy CHC environment required adaptation of the study design and protocols for staff supervision, data collection and intervention delivery and lessons learned are presented. Clinical Trials.gov registration submitted 8/17/16: Protocol ID# 5P60MD006912-02 and Clinical trials.gov ID# NCT02874547 Community Health Workers Using Patient Stories to Support Hypertension Management. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Effectiveness of Chinese massage therapy (Tui Na) for chronic low back pain: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingxiao; Feng, Yue; Pei, Hong; Deng, Shufang; Wang, Minyu; Xiao, Xianjun; Zheng, Hui; Lai, Zhenhong; Chen, Jiao; Li, Xiang; He, Xiaoguo; Liang, Fanrong

    2014-10-29

    Low back pain is a common, disabling musculoskeletal disorder in both developing and developed countries. Although often recommended, the potential efficacy of massage therapy in general, and Chinese massage (tuina) in particular, for relief of chronic low back pain (CLBP) has not been fully established due to inadequate sample sizes, low methodological quality, and subclinical dosing regimens of trials to date. Thus, the purpose of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of tuina massage therapy versus conventional analgesics for CLBP. The present study is a single center, two-arm, open-label RCT. A total of 150 eligible CLBP patients will be randomly assigned to either a tuina treatment group or a conventional drug control group in a 1:1 ratio. Patients in the tuina group receive a 20 minutes, 4-step treatment protocol which includes both structural and relaxation massage, administered in 20 sessions over a period of 4 weeks. Patients in the conventional drug control group are instructed to take a specific daily dose of ibuprofen. The primary outcome measure is the change from baseline back pain and function, measured by Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, at two months. Secondary outcome measures include the visual analogue scale, Japanese orthopedic association score (JOAS), and McGill pain questionnaire. The design and methodological rigor of this trial will allow for collection of valuable data to evaluate the efficacy of a specific tuina protocol for treating CLBP. This trial will therefore contribute to providing a solid foundation for clinical treatment of CLBP, as well as future research in massage therapy. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov of the National Institute of Health on 22 October 2013 (http://NCT01973010).

  9. Tobacco control policies and perinatal and child health: A systematic review and meta-analysis protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.V. Been (Jasper V.); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); C. Millett (Christopher); S. Basu (Sanjay); A. Sheikh (Aziz)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Children experience considerable morbidity and mortality due to tobacco smoke exposure. Tobacco control policies may benefit child health by reducing this exposure. We aim to comprehensively assess the effects of the range of tobacco control policies advocated by the WHO on

  10. Quantum driving protocols for a two-level system: From generalized Landau-Zener sweeps to transitionless control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malossi, Nicola; Bason, Mark George; Viteau, Matthieu

    2013-01-01

    We present experimental results on the preparation of a desired quantum state in a two-level system with the maximum possible fidelity using driving protocols ranging from generalizations of the linear Landau-Zener protocol to transitionless driving protocols that ensure perfect following of the ...

  11. Congestion estimation technique in the optical network unit registration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geunyong; Yoo, Hark; Lee, Dongsoo; Kim, Youngsun; Lim, Hyuk

    2016-07-01

    We present a congestion estimation technique (CET) to estimate the optical network unit (ONU) registration success ratio for the ONU registration process in passive optical networks. An optical line terminal (OLT) estimates the number of collided ONUs via the proposed scheme during the serial number state. The OLT can obtain congestion level among ONUs to be registered such that this information may be exploited to change the size of a quiet window to decrease the collision probability. We verified the efficiency of the proposed method through simulation and experimental results.

  12. Stem Cell Therapy for Congestive Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunduz E

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHeart failure is a major cardiovascular health problem. Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of congestive heart failure (CHF [1]. Cardiac transplantation remains the most effective long-term treatment option, however is limited primarily by donor availability, rejection and infections. Mechanical circulatory support has its own indications and limitations [2]. Therefore, there is a need to develop more effective therapeutic strategies.Recently, regenerative medicine has received considerable scientific attention in the cardiovascular arena. We report here our experience demonstrating the beneficial effects of cardiac stem cell therapy on left ventricular functions in a patient with Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL who developed CHF due to ischemic heart disease during the course of lymphoma treatment. Case reportA 58-year-old male with relapsed HL was referred to our bone marrow transplantation unit in October 2009. He was given 8 courses of combination chemotherapy with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vincristine, and dacarbazine (ABVD between June 2008 and February 2009 and achieved complete remission. However, his disease relapsed 3 months after completing the last cycle of ABVD and he was decided to be treated with DHAP (cisplatin, cytarabine, dexamethasone followed autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT. After the completion of first course of DHAP regimen, he developed acute myocardial infarction (AMI and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG was performed. After his cardiac function stabilized, 3 additional courses of DHAP were given and he was referred to our centre for consideration of autologous SCT. Computed tomography scans obtained after chemotherapy confirmed complete remission. Stem cells were collected from peripheral blood after mobilization with 10 µg/kg/day granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF subcutaneously. Collection was started on the fifth day of G-CSF and performed for 3 consecutive days. Flow cytometric

  13. Peer-led healthy lifestyle program in supportive housing: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Stefancic, Ana; O'Hara, Kathleen; El-Bassel, Nabila; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Luchsinger, José A; Gates, Lauren; Younge, Richard; Wall, Melanie; Weinstein, Lara; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2015-09-02

    The risk for obesity is twice as high in people with serious mental illness (SMI) compared to the general population. Racial and ethnic minority status contribute additional health risks. The aim of this study is to describe the protocol of a Hybrid Trial Type 1 design that will test the effectiveness and examine the implementation of a peer-led healthy lifestyle intervention in supportive housing agencies serving diverse clients with serious mental illness who are overweight or obese. The Hybrid Trial Type 1 design will combine a randomized effectiveness trial with a mixed-methods implementation study. The effectiveness trial will test the health impacts of a peer-led healthy lifestyle intervention versus usual care in supportive housing agencies. The healthy lifestyle intervention is derived from the Group Lifestyle Balanced Program, lasts 12 months, and will be delivered by trained peer specialists. Repeated assessments will be conducted at baseline and at 6, 12, and 18 months post randomization. A mixed-methods (e.g., structured interviews, focus groups, surveys) implementation study will be conducted to examine multi-level implementation factors and processes that can inform the use of the healthy lifestyle intervention in routine practice, using data from agency directors, program managers, staff, and peer specialists before, during, and after the implementation of the effectiveness trial. This paper describes the use of a hybrid research design that blends effectiveness trial methodologies and implementation science rarely used when studying the physical health of people with SMI and can serve as a model for integrating implementation science and health disparities research. Rigorously testing effectiveness and exploring the implementation process are both necessary steps to establish the evidence for large-scale delivery of peer-led healthy lifestyle intervention to improve the physical health of racial/ethnic minorities with SMI. www

  14. Shared decision making for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunneman, Marleen; Branda, Megan E; Noseworthy, Peter A; Linzer, Mark; Burnett, Bruce; Dick, Sara; Spencer-Bonilla, Gabriela; Fernandez, Cara A; Gorr, Haeshik; Wambua, Mike; Keune, Shelly; Zeballos-Palacios, Claudia; Hargraves, Ian; Shah, Nilay D; Montori, Victor M

    2017-09-29

    Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common ongoing health problem that places patients at risk of stroke. Whether and how a patient addresses this risk depends on each patient's goals, context, and values. Consequently, leading cardiovascular societies recommend using shared decision making (SDM) to individualize antithrombotic treatment in patients with AF. The aim of this study is to assess the extent to which the ANTICOAGULATION CHOICE conversation tool promotes high-quality SDM and influences anticoagulation uptake and adherence in patients with AF at risk of strokes. This study protocol describes a multicenter, encounter-level, randomized trial to assess the effect of using the ANTICOAGULATION CHOICE conversation tool in the clinical encounter, compared to usual care. The participating centers include an academic hospital system, a suburban community group practice, and an urban safety net hospital, all in Minnesota, USA. Patients with ongoing nonvalvular AF at risk of strokes (CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score ≥ 1 in men, or ≥ 2 in women) will be eligible for participation. We aim to include 999 patients and their clinicians. The primary outcome is the quality of SDM as perceived by participants, and as assessed by a post-encounter survey that ascertains (a) knowledge transfer, (b) concordance of the decision made, (c) quality of communication, and (d) satisfaction with the decision-making process. Recordings of encounters will be reviewed to assess the extent of patient involvement and how participants use the tool (fidelity). Anticoagulant use, choice of agent, and adherence will be drawn from patients' medical and pharmacy records. Strokes and bleeding events will be drawn from patient records. This study will provide a valid and precise measure of the effect of the ANTICOAGULATION CHOICE conversation tool on SDM quality and processes, and on the treatment choices and adherence to therapy among AF patients at risk of stroke. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT

  15. Reducing Congestion in Obstructed Highways with Traffic Data Dissemination Using Ad hoc Vehicular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coveney PeterV

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle-to-vehicle communications can be used effectively for intelligent transport systems (ITSs and location-aware services. The ability to disseminate information in an ad hoc fashion allows pertinent information to propagate faster through a network. In the realm of ITS, the ability to spread warning information faster and further is of great advantage to receivers. In this paper we propose and present a message-dissemination procedure that uses vehicular wireless protocols to influence vehicular flow, reducing congestion in road networks. The computational experiments we present show how a car-following model and lane-change algorithm can be adapted to "react" to the reception of information. This model also illustrates the advantages of coupling together with vehicular flow modelling tools and network simulation tools.

  16. Evaluation of skeletal muscle metabolism in patients with congestive heart failure using phosphorus nuclear magnetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Patients with congestive heart failure are frequently limited by muscular fatigue due skeletal muscle underperfusion and deconditioning. Muscle underperfusion and deconditioning both produce distinctive changes in metabolic parameters which are readily measured by phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Therefore, phosphorus NMR should provide a useful noninvasive method of assessing muscle performance in heart failure. This chapter describes a protocol which allows detection of forearm muscle metabolic abnormalities in patients with heart failure, abnormalities that seem to be caused by muscle deconditioning. In the future, it is anticipated that this approach may prove to be an extremely useful method for objectively assessing muscle fatigue in patients with heart failure and for monitoring the effects on therapeutic interventions designed to treat this fatigue

  17. Research on Urban Road Traffic Congestion Charging Based on Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Sun

    Traffic congestion is a major problem which bothers our urban traffic sustainable development at present. Congestion charging is an effective measure to alleviate urban traffic congestion. The paper first probes into several key issues such as the goal, the pricing, the scope, the method and the redistribution of congestion charging from theoretical angle. Then it introduces congestion charging practice in Singapore and London and draws conclusion and suggestion that traffic congestion charging should take scientific plan, support of public, public transportation development as the premise.

  18. Design of ion-pump power supply control software system based on TCP/IP protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Feiyu; Huang Jijiang; Guo Yuhui; Fang Zheng; Wang Yanyu

    2009-01-01

    This paper discuss a Ion-pump Power Supply control system making use of RS232 series bus and Intranet. The system's hardware VAC800 is composed of MSP430F149 mixed-signal processors produced by TI and UA7000A network model. MSP430F149 has advantages of ultra-low-power and high-integration. The Ion-pump Power Supply control system has the characteristics of strong function, simple structure, high reliability, strong resistance of noise, no peripheral chip, etc. Visual studio 2005 is used to design the system's software. The Ion-pump Power supplier control system can remotely monitor and control Ion-pump Power Suppliers. (authors)

  19. Evaluation of an advanced pressure ulcer management protocol followed by trained wound, ostomy, and continence nurses: a non-randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitani T

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Toshiko Kaitani,1 Gojiro Nakagami,2 Junko Sugama,3 Masahiro Tachi,4 Yutaka Matsuyama,5 Yoshiki Miyachi,6 Takashi Nagase,2 Yukie Takemura,7 Hiromi Sanada2 1School of Nursing, Sapporo City University, Hokkaido, Japan; 2Department of Gerontological Nursing/Wound Care Management, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Clinical Nursing, Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan; 4Department of Plastic Surgery, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Miyagi, Japan; 5Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 6Department of Dermatology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 7Department of Nursing, Research Hospital, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Aims and objectives: We investigated the effectiveness and safety of an advanced pressure ulcer (PU management protocol comprising 1 ultrasonography to assess the deep tissue, 2 use of a non-contact thermometer to detect critical colonization, 3 conservative sharp debridement, 4 dressing selection, 5 negative pressure wound therapy, and 6 vibration therapy in comparison with those of a conventional approach. Each protocol was followed by trained wound, ostomy, and continence nurses (WOCNs. Background: At present, there is no systematic PU management protocol for nurses that includes appropriate assessment and intervention techniques for deep tissue injury and critical colonization. In Japan, there is no such protocol that the nurses can follow without a physician’s orders. Design and methods: This was a prospective non-randomized controlled trial. Over a 3-week period, we evaluated the effectiveness of an advanced protocol by comparing the PU severity and healing on the basis of the DESIGN-R scale and presence of patients' discomfort. We recruited ten WOCNs to follow

  20. A mindfulness-based stress prevention training for medical students (MediMind): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Sophie Merle; Bürger, Arne; Esser, Günter; Hammerle, Florian

    2015-02-08

    Medical training is very demanding and associated with a high prevalence of psychological distress. Compared to the general population, medical students are at a greater risk of developing a psychological disorder. Various attempts of stress management training in medical school have achieved positive results on minimizing psychological distress; however, there are often limitations. Therefore, the use of a rigorous scientific method is needed. The present study protocol describes a randomized controlled trial to examine the effectiveness of a specifically developed mindfulness-based stress prevention training for medical students that includes selected elements of cognitive behavioral strategies (MediMind). This study protocol presents a prospective randomized controlled trial, involving four assessment time points: baseline, post-intervention, one-year follow-up and five-year follow-up. The aims include evaluating the effect on stress, coping, psychological morbidity and personality traits with validated measures. Participants are allocated randomly to one of three conditions: MediMind, Autogenic Training or control group. Eligible participants are medical or dental students in the second or eighth semester of a German university. They form a population of approximately 420 students in each academic term. A final total sample size of 126 (at five-year follow-up) is targeted. The trainings (MediMind and Autogenic Training) comprise five weekly sessions lasting 90 minutes each. MediMind will be offered to participants of the control group once the five-year follow-up is completed. The allotment is randomized with a stratified allocation ratio by course of studies, semester, and gender. After descriptive statistics have been evaluated, inferential statistical analysis will be carried out with a repeated measures ANOVA-design with interactions between time and group. Effect sizes will be calculated using partial η-square values. Potential limitations of this study