WorldWideScience

Sample records for confronting environmental perceptions

  1. To Confront Versus not to Confront: Women’s Perception of Sexual Harassment

    OpenAIRE

    María del Carmen Herrera; Antonio Herrera; Francisca Expósito

    2017-01-01

    Current research has postulated that sexual harassment is one of the most serious social problems. Perceptions of sexual harassment vary according to some factors: gender, context, and perceiver’s ideology. The strategies most commonly used by women to cope with harassment range from avoiding or ignoring the harasser to confronting the harasser or reporting the incident. The aim of this study was to explore women’s perception of sexual harassment, and to assess the implications of different v...

  2. To Confront Versus not to Confront: Women’s Perception of Sexual Harassment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Herrera

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Current research has postulated that sexual harassment is one of the most serious social problems. Perceptions of sexual harassment vary according to some factors: gender, context, and perceiver’s ideology. The strategies most commonly used by women to cope with harassment range from avoiding or ignoring the harasser to confronting the harasser or reporting the incident. The aim of this study was to explore women’s perception of sexual harassment, and to assess the implications of different victim responses to harassment. A total of 138 women were administered a questionnaire where the type of harassment, and victim response were manipulated. Moreover, the influence of ideological variables (i.e. ambivalent sexism and the acceptance of myths of sexual harassment on perception was assessed. Results show perception of sexual harassment was lower in gender harassment than in unwanted sexual attention and participants believed women who confronted their harasser would be evaluated negatively by men. Furthermore, effects of ideology on perception of harassment were found. The results underscore the complexities involved in defining certain behaviours as harassment, and the implications of different victim responses to harassment.

  3. Unraveling the age-productivity nexus : Confronting perceptions of employers and employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.; Schippers, J.

    2009-01-01

    What determines the perceived productivity of young and older workers? In this study we present evidence for (Dutch) employers and employees. By confronting the perceptions of employers and employees some remarkable similarities and differences are revealed. It turns out that productivity

  4. Unraveling the age-productivity nexus: confronting perceptions of employers and employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.; Schippers, J.

    2009-01-01

    What determines the perceived productivity of young and older workers? In this study we present evidence for (Dutch) employers and employees. By confronting the perceptions of employers and employees some remarkable similarities and differences are revealed. It turns out that productivity

  5. Perceptions of racial confrontation: the role of color blindness and comment ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Linda X; Dickter, Cheryl L

    2013-01-01

    Because of its emphasis on diminishing race and avoiding racial discourse, color-blind racial ideology has been suggested to have negative consequences for modern day race relations. The current research examined the influence of color blindness and the ambiguity of a prejudiced remark on perceptions of a racial minority group member who confronts the remark. One hundred thirteen White participants responded to a vignette depicting a White character making a prejudiced comment of variable ambiguity, after which a Black target character confronted the comment. Results demonstrated that the target confronter was perceived more negatively and as responding less appropriately by participants high in color blindness, and that this effect was particularly pronounced when participants responded to the ambiguous comment. Implications for the ways in which color blindness, as an accepted norm that is endorsed across legal and educational settings, can facilitate Whites' complicity in racial inequality are discussed.

  6. When Do We Confront? Perceptions of Costs and Benefits Predict Confronting Discrimination on Behalf of the Self and Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Jessica J.; Moss-Racusin, Corinne A.; Sanchez, Diana T.

    2012-01-01

    Across two studies, we tested whether perceived social costs and benefits of confrontation would similarly predict confronting discrimination both when it was experienced and when it was observed as directed at others. Female undergraduate participants were asked to recall past experiences and observations of sexism, as well as their confronting…

  7. Continuing to Confront COPD International Surveys : comparison of patient and physician perceptions about COPD risk and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menezes, Ana M.; Landis, Sarah H.; Han, MeiLan K.; Muellerova, Hana; Aisanov, Zaurbek; van der Molen, Thys; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Ichinose, Masakazu; Mannino, David M.; Davis, Kourtney J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Using data from the Continuing to Confront COPD International Physician and Patient Surveys, this paper describes physicians' attitudes and beliefs regarding chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prognosis, and compares physician and patient perceptions with respect to COPD. Methods:

  8. [How do universities confront and manage environmental problems?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inadera, H

    2001-06-01

    Occupational medicine is concerned with the recognition and prevention of diseases related to the work environment. The special tools, namely, epidemiology, toxicology, and public health and clinical expertise, are joined by another specialty, environmental medicine. The Environmental Science Center (ESC) of the University of Tokyo was established in April 1975 for the purpose of treating chemically-hazardous wastes deriving from the university. The ESC houses various sections including research, education, operations, management, and also a waste-collection and-treatment division. In this review, the author intends to summarize the activity of the ESC, and then review the approaches we have applied in order to deal with the environmental problems we have faced.

  9. Confronting reality in strategic environmental assessment in Slovenia — Costs and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontić, Branko; Dermol, Urška

    2015-01-01

    We enlarge on the viewpoint published in the Environmental Impact Assessment Review in 2012 — A viewpoint on the approval context of strategic environmental assessments. Additional alerts concerning the procedural ineffectiveness of the strategic environmental assessment (SEA) process from the cost–benefit point of view are advanced. The major contribution to the long lasting, costly SEA processes, comes from ultraistic treatment of Natura 2000. The case study deals with a plan for constructing a traffic bypass around Škofljica, a town near Ljubljana. Based on their conclusions the authors propose that the following elements of the SEA procedure should be improved and optimised: –CBA for SEA should become a regular component when measuring its effectiveness. –Concretisation of expected SEA inputs to the plan should clarify its role at the earliest stage of the process. –SEA should contribute interactively to the optimisation of alternatives; cost–benefit analysis of the SEA process could support this process. –Nature protection interest should be confronted and balanced with wider development interests as formulated in the plan and should not be applied in absolute terms (e.g. Natura 2000). - Highlights: • SEA in Slovenia is ineffective and costly • SEA serves fundamentalism of nature protection through the Natura 2000 system • SEA does not support optimization and improvement of development projects

  10. Confronting reality in strategic environmental assessment in Slovenia — Costs and benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontić, Branko, E-mail: branko.kontic@ijs.si; Dermol, Urška, E-mail: urska.dermol@gmail.com

    2015-01-15

    We enlarge on the viewpoint published in the Environmental Impact Assessment Review in 2012 — A viewpoint on the approval context of strategic environmental assessments. Additional alerts concerning the procedural ineffectiveness of the strategic environmental assessment (SEA) process from the cost–benefit point of view are advanced. The major contribution to the long lasting, costly SEA processes, comes from ultraistic treatment of Natura 2000. The case study deals with a plan for constructing a traffic bypass around Škofljica, a town near Ljubljana. Based on their conclusions the authors propose that the following elements of the SEA procedure should be improved and optimised: –CBA for SEA should become a regular component when measuring its effectiveness. –Concretisation of expected SEA inputs to the plan should clarify its role at the earliest stage of the process. –SEA should contribute interactively to the optimisation of alternatives; cost–benefit analysis of the SEA process could support this process. –Nature protection interest should be confronted and balanced with wider development interests as formulated in the plan and should not be applied in absolute terms (e.g. Natura 2000). - Highlights: • SEA in Slovenia is ineffective and costly • SEA serves fundamentalism of nature protection through the Natura 2000 system • SEA does not support optimization and improvement of development projects.

  11. Continuing to Confront COPD International Surveys: comparison of patient and physician perceptions about COPD risk and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menezes AM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ana M Menezes,1 Sarah H Landis,2 MeiLan K Han,3 Hana Muellerova,2 Zaurbek Aisanov,4 Thys van der Molen,5 Yeon-Mok Oh,6 Masakazu Ichinose,7 David M Mannino,8 Kourtney J Davis9 1Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil; 2Worldwide Epidemiology, GlaxoSmithKline, Uxbridge, UK; 3Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 4Pulmonology Research Institute, Moscow, Russia; 5University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; 6University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea; 7Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; 8University of Kentucky College of Public Health, Lexington, KY, USA; 9Worldwide Epidemiology, GlaxoSmithKline, Wavre, Belgium Purpose: Using data from the Continuing to Confront COPD International Physician and Patient Surveys, this paper describes physicians’ attitudes and beliefs regarding chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD prognosis, and compares physician and patient perceptions with respect to COPD. Methods: In 12 countries worldwide, 4,343 patients with COPD were identified through systematic screening of population samples, and 1,307 physicians who regularly saw patients with COPD were sampled from in-country professional databases. Both patients and physicians completed surveys about their COPD knowledge, beliefs, and perceptions; physicians answered further questions about diagnostic methods and treatment choices for COPD. Results: Most physicians (79% responded that the long-term health outlook for patients with COPD has improved over the past decade, largely attributed to the introduction of better medications. However, patient access to medication remains an issue in many countries, and some physicians (39% and patients (46% agreed/strongly agreed with the statement “there are no truly effective treatments for COPD”. There was strong concordance between physicians and patients

  12. Confrontation clause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachuk Sviatoslav

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution enumerates a cluster of rights granted to criminal defendants and is designed to make criminal prosecutions more accurate, fair, and legitimate. The Confrontation Clause, which states that „In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right…to be confronted with the witness against him” should not be underestimated. This article seeks to analyse the evolution of the Confrontation Clause and the extent of a defendant’s right to face-to-face confrontation. The article analyse the case Crawford v. Washington, which was a key shift in the Supreme Court’s Confrontation Clause jurisprudence.

  13. Sensory Perception, Rationalism and Outdoor Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Matthew R.

    2008-01-01

    There is a strong emphasis on sensory perception and "hands-on" learning in the outdoor environmental education of children. In addition, normative concerns infuse children's environmental curricula, and in particular, the notion that environmental education is not a passive undertaking; when one appreciates the essential value of the…

  14. Confrontation With Scorpions As an Environmental Permanent Risk in Iran: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhullah Dehghani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Among the Iranians, scorpion is considered as one of the most important natural hazards and introduced as a dangerous animal. The outcome of this confrontation is to create stories and different beliefs about them .The primary aim of this study is to investigate and deliberate on the validity and fraudulence of these beliefs in how Iranian looked upon scorpions. Materials & Methods: The study is a review of descriptive analysis. In other words, the study was conducted, considering the key terms such as: treatment of scorpion venom, motifs of humans and scorpions in internet and related websites; moreover, the study was carried on by professional journals, articles and researches as well as related published books in this filed. By considering the situation and its requirements, the references were chosen to be analyzed. Results: Owing to the fact that scorpions have poisonous, painful and sometimes mortal venoms, they have attracted more attention compared to other creatures in the history and culture of Iran. Such creatures are regarded as the symbol of power and sentry in several references as they can be found in the works and studies remained from ancients throughout Iran. Conclusions: Due to the medical importance of scorpions and Iranian’s cultural beliefs, scorpion motifs has been regarded as a significant symbol of Iran’s history. Moreover, in creating the scorpion motifs about the dangers of this creature, beliefs, the realities and the analysis of customs have been playing the great roles.

  15. Public perception of environmental quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech Cantuaria, Manuella

    outcomes. The quality of the environment and its impacts on communities’ health consist in a growing source of public and government concern and therefore, are being widely investigated in epidemiological studies. These studies are usually designed so that potential errors are minimized and high...... of the cases, investigating the impacts that these issues may have on health effect estimates and the interpretation of epidemiological results. For this purpose, the thesis is based on two distinct case studies: the first one refers to non-urban communities of Denmark living nearby agricultural and livestock...... farming activities; while the second case study analyzes urban populations living in the capital city of Switzerland, being constantly exposed to noise and air pollution from traffic sources. The following methodological issues are hereby confronted throughout the thesis: 1) misclassification...

  16. Higher Education Students' Perceptions of Environmental Issues and Media Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinonen, Tuula; Palmberg, Irmeli; Kukkonen, Jari; Yli-Panula, Eija; Persson, Christel; Vilkonis, Rytis

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to find higher education students' perceptions about environmental issues and how the perceptions are related to perceptions of media coverage. This study investigates higher education students' perceptions of the seriousness of environmental issues and their relation to perceptions of media coverage. Higher education students…

  17. Environmental Perception as a Diagnostic Probe of Environmental Complexity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Mirlaine R.; Macedo, Renato L. G.; Freitas, Matheus P.; Nunes, Cleiton A.; Venturin, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Educational methods to diagnose and improve the level of environmental conception are required. The present work reports a methodology based on studies about the environmental perception of a university public, divided into general students and those related to the forest sciences, who are involved with disciplines and researches related…

  18. Confronting Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buswell, Carol

    2011-01-01

    People confront stereotypes every day, both in and out of the classroom. Some ideas have been carried in the collective memory and classroom textbooks for so long they are generally recognized as fact. Many are constantly being reinforced by personal experiences, family discussions, and Hollywood productions as well. The distinct advantage to…

  19. Chile Confronts its Environmental Health Future After 25 Years of Accelerated Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Paulina; Iglesias, Verónica; Garreaud, René; Cortés, Sandra; Canals, Mauricio; Folch, Walter; Burgos, Soledad; Levy, Karen; Naeher, Luke P; Steenland, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Chile has recently been reclassified by the World Bank from an upper-middle-income country to a high-income country. There has been great progress in the last 20 to 30 years in relation to air and water pollution in Chile. Yet after 25 years of unrestrained growth, there remain clear challenges posed by air and water pollution, as well as climate change. The aim of this study was to review environmental health in Chile. In late 2013, a 3-day workshop on environmental health was held in Santiago, Chile, bringing together researchers and government policymakers. As a follow-up to that workshop, here we review the progress made in environmental health in the past 20 to 30 years and discuss the challenges of the future. We focus on air and water pollution and climate change, which we believe are among the most important areas of environmental health in Chile. Air pollution in some cities remains among the highest in the continent. Potable water is generally available, but weak state supervision has led to serious outbreaks of infectious disease and ongoing issues with arsenic exposure in some regions. Climate change modeling in Chile is quite sophisticated, and a number of the impacts of climate change can be reasonably predicted in terms of which areas of the country are most likely to be affected by increased temperature and decreased availability of water, as well as expansion of vector territory. Some health effects, including changes in vector-borne diseases and excess heat mortality, can be predicted. However, there has yet to be an integration of such research with government planning. Although great progress has been made, currently there are a number of problems. We suspect that the Chilean experience in environmental health may be of some use for other Latin American countries with rapid economic development. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Confronting ecological futures: global environmental crises in contemporary survival quests for young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Hammer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines representations of societal concern in the futuristic ecological disaster fictions of three British authors: Julie Bertagna (Exodus; Zenith, Jan Mark (Riding Tycho; Voyager and Marcus Sedgwick Floodland. The depicted refugee journeys in these futuristic worlds speak into a growing global disquiet that surrounds current historic events. Environmental crises that ground the emergent world orders of depicted future societies set the scene in each coming of age frame: each survival quest embeds social and cultural issues recognisable to contemporary audiences in futuristic representations of changed world orders, limited resources, and isolated communities. Authors resist the mythic frame of a traditional quest journey − a call to journey, the engagement with growth through a road of trials and then celebrations in a return to home territory: their conclusions offer limited resolutions, the struggle to survive entrenched as a linear path. Because authors link depictions of the refugee subject with environmental degradation, apocalyptic scenarios that signify the devastating consequences of global environmental crises provide an ecocritical platform from which each author situates a discourse of protest. Interrogating contemporary political positions of ambiguity and denial their novels profile social justice issues experienced by refugee populations in contemporary society.

  1. A Sustainable Industry-Environment Model for the Identification of Urban Environmental Risk to Confront Air Pollution in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilin Gao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an optimized industry-environment model is proposed for identifying environmental risk under uncertainties. The strategy associated with an emission-permit trading mechanism has been introduced into the industrial-environment regulation (model for remitting the pressures of frequent/severe haze events in Beijing City. A dual stochastic mixed fuzzy risk analysis method with Laplace’s criterion (DSFRL can be embedded into industry-environment issues with a trading emission-permit trading mechanism (IEST for handling uncertainties regarded as possibility and probability distributions. Meanwhile, this can also reflect the environmental risks and corresponding system benefits due to the occurrence of a random event (such as random wind velocity. Based on the application of the proposed IEST with DSFRL, the numbers of the obtained results associated with production reduction, adjustment of industrial layout pattern, emission-permit transactions, pollutant mitigation and system benefits under various Laplace criterion cases can be analyzed. A tradeoff between production development and pollution mitigation based on the preference of policymakers can be used for rectifying current strategies with a sustainable mode, which can prompt an effort to confront air pollution

  2. Confronting Ambiguity in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Katherine; Harlow, Danielle; Whitmer, Ali; Gaines, Steven

    2015-01-01

    People are regularly confronted with environmental and science-related issues presented to them in newspapers, on television, or even in their own doctor's office. Often the information they use to inform their decisions on matters of science may be ambiguous and contradictory. This article presents an activity that investigates how students deal…

  3. Confronting Decision Cliffs: Diagnostic Assessment of Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms' Performance for Addressing Uncertain Environmental Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, V. L.; Singh, R.; Reed, P. M.; Keller, K.

    2014-12-01

    As water resources problems typically involve several stakeholders with conflicting objectives, multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) are now key tools for understanding management tradeoffs. Given the growing complexity of water planning problems, it is important to establish if an algorithm can consistently perform well on a given class of problems. This knowledge allows the decision analyst to focus on eliciting and evaluating appropriate problem formulations. This study proposes a multi-objective adaptation of the classic environmental economics "Lake Problem" as a computationally simple but mathematically challenging MOEA benchmarking problem. The lake problem abstracts a fictional town on a lake which hopes to maximize its economic benefit without degrading the lake's water quality to a eutrophic (polluted) state through excessive phosphorus loading. The problem poses the challenge of maintaining economic activity while confronting the uncertainty of potentially crossing a nonlinear and potentially irreversible pollution threshold beyond which the lake is eutrophic. Objectives for optimization are maximizing economic benefit from lake pollution, maximizing water quality, maximizing the reliability of remaining below the environmental threshold, and minimizing the probability that the town will have to drastically change pollution policies in any given year. The multi-objective formulation incorporates uncertainty with a stochastic phosphorus inflow abstracting non-point source pollution. We performed comprehensive diagnostics using 6 algorithms: Borg, MOEAD, eMOEA, eNSGAII, GDE3, and NSGAII to ascertain their controllability, reliability, efficiency, and effectiveness. The lake problem abstracts elements of many current water resources and climate related management applications where there is the potential for crossing irreversible, nonlinear thresholds. We show that many modern MOEAs can fail on this test problem, indicating its suitability as a

  4. Public Perception of Environmental Pollution in Warri, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Keyword: Perception, Environmental pollution, Warri, Nigeria, Environmental laws. Pollution has been ..... Table 3: Awareness of the impacts of pollution on environmental resources. Impacts on crop .... Oil Exploitation: The Case of Isoko Local.

  5. Confronting conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika

    in developing community development and participatory practices (Ledwith 2011) and they have a long tradition for working closely with citizens and other local stakeholders in the development of innovative solutions to wicked problems. The everyday service delivery or lack thereof by public institutions...... and the direct contact between citizens and civil servants are of utmost importance for the citizens’ perceptions of public institutions. With inspiration from Healey (2012) we aim to analyse the contribution of governance micro-practices, drawing on experiences of “democracy-in –action” in the fine grain...

  6. The perception of exposure to environmental risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautard, Eric

    2014-10-01

    This publication reports and comments the results of a survey performed every 6 years on the perception of exposure to environmental risks. It notably comments the evolution between 2007 and 2013 of the perception of exposure to different types of risks: seismic risks, terrorism, major industrial risks, flooding risks, nuclear risks, food-related risks, risks related to climate change, unemployment, air pollution, and cancer. The perceptions of inhabitants of cities exposed or not exposed to some risks (industrial, climate, flooding) are compared. Risks are ranked from very important to not important at all. The influence of the existence of a risk when choosing to settle in a dwelling is also assessed, as well as the already lived consequences of catastrophes, the level of concern about possible consequences of a catastrophe, the respective roles of the State and citizen in the field of risk prevention, the opinions on law efficiency to protect people and goods, the knowledge of prevention arrangements against natural and technological risk, the level of confidence in public action regarding risks to which interviewed people are actually exposed (industrial risks, risks related to climate, flooding)

  7. Higher Education Students’ Perceptions of Environmental Issues and Media Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keinonen Tuula

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find higher education students’ perceptions about environmental issues and how the perceptions are related to perceptions of media coverage. This study investigates higher education students’ perceptions of the seriousness of environmental issues and their relation to perceptions of media coverage. Higher education students perceived a global problem, lack of clean water, as most serious environmental problem. Media has had an effect on students’ perceptions on environmental issues: when students perceived the problem as serious they also perceived the information in media concerning it appropriate. Students perceived that the media underestimate and obscure some environmental problems such as biological diversity and global warming. It was concluded that higher education educators need more knowledge of students’, future decision makers’ concerns and perceptions about environmental issues to develop more effective teaching practices in higher education. Through education environmental issues literacy, which is a precursor for engaged protection of the environment, can be fostered. This study offers some insights into higher education students’ perceptions of the media’s role in environmental issues.

  8. Public Perception of Environmental Pollution in Warri, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the public perception on the environmental pollution profile in Warri ... that water pollution leads to loss of aquatic lives and reduction of potable water. ... The study therefore suggested among others that government should ...

  9. Managing Marine Litter: Exploring the Evolving Role of International and European Law in Confronting a Persistent Environmental Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Arie Trouwborst

    2011-01-01

     The contamination of the world's oceans by human garbage, especially plastics, ranks among those environmental problems whose resolution appears remote, despite the considerable public attention paid to the 'Great Garbage Patch' in the Pacific, 'plastic soup', and the like. This 'marine litter' (or 'marine debris') problem is characterized by diffuse sources and an array of adverse environmental impacts, including entanglement of and ingestion by albatrosses, fulmars, turtles, seals and a va...

  10. Assessment of the environmental risk perceptions and environmental attitudes of nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayan, Betül; Kaya, Hatice

    2016-12-01

    This is a descriptive study examining nursing students' perceptions of the environmental risks and their environmental attitudes. The study population comprised 2364 nursing students studying at universities in Istanbul in the fall semester of the 2012-2013 academic year. The sampling group was formed by 778 students which were selected by a stratified random sampling procedure. The data were collected using "The Student Personal Information Form", "The Environmental Risk Perception Scale" and "The Environmental Attitudes Scale". The students' mean score on perceptions of environmental risk was 6.04 ± 0.81(min 2.56; max 7.00) and the mean score of their environmental attitudes was 4.02 ± 0.47(min 2.28; max 5.00). It was determined that factors such as gender, interest in environmental issues, endorsement of the college course on environment as necessary, and participation in an environmental activity and awareness of non-government environmental organizations affected the environmental risk perception and environmental attitudes. A moderate positive relationship (r = 0.366, p environmental risk perceptions and their environmental attitudes. Effective environmental education should be planned at all stages of the nursing education.

  11. Managing Marine Litter: Exploring the Evolving Role of International and European Law in Confronting a Persistent Environmental Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trouwborst, Arie

    2011-01-01

    The contamination of the world's oceans by human garbage, especially plastics, ranks among those environmental problems whose resolution appears remote, despite the considerable public attention paid to the 'Great Garbage Patch' in the Pacific, 'plastic soup', and the like. This 'marine litter' (or

  12. Assessment of reduction in perception of nuclear risk related to perception of environmental risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boemer, Veronica Araujo; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a bibliographic research accomplished to evaluate the matter of reduction in risk perception, on people in general, that nuclear energy can show, for generation of electric power, face to perception of risk associated to environmental questions, as the global warming, from greenhouse effect, addressing the matter to the relevance of public acceptance for the development of new technologies. (author)

  13. Managing Marine Litter: Exploring the Evolving Role of International and European Law in Confronting a Persistent Environmental Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Trouwborst

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of the world's oceans by human garbage, especially plastics, ranks among those environmental problems whose resolution appears remote, despite the considerable public attention paid to the 'Great Garbage Patch' in the Pacific, 'plastic soup', and the like. This 'marine litter' (or 'marine debris' problem is characterized by diffuse sources and an array of adverse environmental impacts, including entanglement of and ingestion by albatrosses, fulmars, turtles, seals and a variety of other marine wildlife. This article explores the evolving role of international law in the efforts to manage marine litter, including recent developments involving the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR Convention and the European Union's Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD.

  14. Managing Marine Litter: Exploring the Evolving Role of International and European Law in Confronting a Persistent Environmental Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Trouwborst

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available  The contamination of the world's oceans by human garbage, especially plastics, ranks among those environmental problems whose resolution appears remote, despite the considerable public attention paid to the 'Great Garbage Patch' in the Pacific, 'plastic soup', and the like. This 'marine litter' (or 'marine debris' problem is characterized by diffuse sources and an array of adverse environmental impacts, including entanglement of and ingestion by albatrosses, fulmars, turtles, seals and a variety of other marine wildlife. This article explores the evolving role of international law in the efforts to manage marine litter, including recent developments involving the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR Convention and the European Union's Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD.

  15. A Sustainable Industry-Environment Model for the Identification of Urban Environmental Risk to Confront Air Pollution in Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Guilin Gao; Xueting Zeng; Chunjiang An; Lei Yu

    2018-01-01

    In this study, an optimized industry-environment model is proposed for identifying environmental risk under uncertainties. The strategy associated with an emission-permit trading mechanism has been introduced into the industrial-environment regulation (model) for remitting the pressures of frequent/severe haze events in Beijing City. A dual stochastic mixed fuzzy risk analysis method with Laplace’s criterion (DSFRL) can be embedded into industry-environment issues with a trading emission-perm...

  16. Climate change and coastal environmental risk perceptions in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Stuart J; Jacobson, Susan K

    2013-11-30

    Understanding public perceptions of climate change risks is a prerequisite for effective climate communication and adaptation. Many studies of climate risk perceptions have either analyzed a general operationalization of climate change risk or employed a case-study approach of specific adaptive processes. This study takes a different approach, examining attitudes toward 17 specific, climate-related coastal risks and cognitive, affective, and risk-specific predictors of risk perception. A survey of 558 undergraduates revealed that risks to the physical environment were a greater concern than economic or biological risks. Perceptions of greater physical environment risks were significantly associated with having more pro-environmental attitudes, being female, and being more Democratic-leaning. Perceptions of greater economic risks were significantly associated with having more negative environmental attitudes, being female, and being more Republican-leaning. Perceptions of greater biological risks were significantly associated with more positive environmental attitudes. The findings suggest that focusing on physical environment risks maybe more salient to this audience than communications about general climate change adaptation. The results demonstrate that climate change beliefs and risk perceptions are multifactorial and complex and are shaped by individuals' attitudes and basic beliefs. Climate risk communications need to apply this knowledge to better target cognitive and affective processes of specific audiences, rather than providing simple characterizations of risks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Confronting barriers and recognizing opportunities: Developing effective community-based environmental monitoring programs to meet the needs of Aboriginal communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, Ariana J.; Johnson, Chris J.

    2017-01-01

    Aboriginal communities can be negatively affected by resource development, but often they do not have a full opportunity to participate in project review and the resulting monitoring and mitigation activities. Cumulative impacts of resource development are also typically neglected in monitoring protocols that focus on a limited number of environmental values, rather than adopting a long-term, holistic view of development over time and space. Community-based environmental monitoring (CBEM) is emerging as a way to meaningfully include local Aboriginal citizens in the decision-making process as well as the assessment of the long-term impacts of the development of natural resources. We explored opportunities and barriers for developing CBEM programs that meet the needs of small and rural Aboriginal communities that are faced with the rapid and wide-spread development of natural resources. We conducted interviews with a local Aboriginal community, and natural resource management practitioners who could provide perspectives on the application of CBEM to resource management in north-central British Columbia, Canada. Results demonstrate that CBEM offers a locally adapted and culturally appropriate approach to facilitate the participation of Aboriginal communities in natural resource decision making and management. The interpretation of the specific role and purpose of CBEM differed among participants, depending on their objectives for and concerns about natural resource development. However, all parties were consistent in viewing CBEM as an effective method for engaging in dialogue, cooperation, and tracking environmental change. The development or improvement of CBEM programs should consider the efficacy of monitoring protocols, social cohesion and relationships, ability to inform decision-making, and effectiveness of CBEM for the members of the community. - Highlights: • We explored how to develop effective CBEM with a focus on Aboriginal communities. • We identified

  18. Confronting barriers and recognizing opportunities: Developing effective community-based environmental monitoring programs to meet the needs of Aboriginal communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKay, Ariana J., E-mail: ariana.mckay@outlook.com; Johnson, Chris J., E-mail: chris.johnson@unbc.ca

    2017-05-15

    Aboriginal communities can be negatively affected by resource development, but often they do not have a full opportunity to participate in project review and the resulting monitoring and mitigation activities. Cumulative impacts of resource development are also typically neglected in monitoring protocols that focus on a limited number of environmental values, rather than adopting a long-term, holistic view of development over time and space. Community-based environmental monitoring (CBEM) is emerging as a way to meaningfully include local Aboriginal citizens in the decision-making process as well as the assessment of the long-term impacts of the development of natural resources. We explored opportunities and barriers for developing CBEM programs that meet the needs of small and rural Aboriginal communities that are faced with the rapid and wide-spread development of natural resources. We conducted interviews with a local Aboriginal community, and natural resource management practitioners who could provide perspectives on the application of CBEM to resource management in north-central British Columbia, Canada. Results demonstrate that CBEM offers a locally adapted and culturally appropriate approach to facilitate the participation of Aboriginal communities in natural resource decision making and management. The interpretation of the specific role and purpose of CBEM differed among participants, depending on their objectives for and concerns about natural resource development. However, all parties were consistent in viewing CBEM as an effective method for engaging in dialogue, cooperation, and tracking environmental change. The development or improvement of CBEM programs should consider the efficacy of monitoring protocols, social cohesion and relationships, ability to inform decision-making, and effectiveness of CBEM for the members of the community. - Highlights: • We explored how to develop effective CBEM with a focus on Aboriginal communities. • We identified

  19. Anticipated and experienced emotions in environmental risk perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Bohm

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Affective forecasting with respect to two environmental risks (ozone depletion, air pollution was investigated by studying tourists who travelled to either Australia or Bangkok and were thus confronted with one of these risks. We measured anticipated outcome and anticipated emotions before the journey, actually experienced outcome and actually experienced emotions during the journey, and anticipated outcome and emotions concerning a future encounter with the same risk after the journey. Results indicate that tourists underestimate (air pollution or correctly predict (ozone depletion both the seriousness of the outcome and their emotional reactions. The relationship between actual outcome and actual emotions is stronger than that between anticipated outcome and anticipated emotions. Furthermore, tourists learn from their travel experience and adjust their anticipations concerning future encounters with the environmental risk. Findings suggest that the domain of environmental risks differs from personal outcomes with respect to the process of affective forecasting.

  20. A score for measuring health risk perception in environmental surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Alessandro; Nguyen, Giang; Rava, Marta; Braggion, Marco; Grassi, Mario; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta

    2015-09-15

    In environmental surveys, risk perception may be a source of bias when information on health outcomes is reported using questionnaires. Using the data from a survey carried out in the largest chipboard industrial district in Italy (Viadana, Mantova), we devised a score of health risk perception and described its determinants in an adult population. In 2006, 3697 parents of children were administered a questionnaire that included ratings on 7 environmental issues. Items dimensionality was studied by factor analysis. After testing equidistance across response options by homogeneity analysis, a risk perception score was devised by summing up item ratings. Factor analysis identified one latent factor, which we interpreted as health risk perception, that explained 65.4% of the variance of five items retained after scaling. The scale (range 0-10, mean ± SD 9.3 ± 1.9) had a good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.87). Most subjects (80.6%) expressed maximum risk perception (score = 10). Italian mothers showed significantly higher risk perception than foreign fathers. Risk perception was higher for parents of young children, and for older parents with a higher education, than for their counterparts. Actual distance to major roads was not associated with the score, while self-reported intense traffic and frequent air refreshing at home predicted higher risk perception. When investigating health effects of environmental hazards using questionnaires, care should be taken to reduce the possibility of awareness bias at the stage of study planning and data analysis. Including appropriate items in study questionnaires can be useful to derive a measure of health risk perception, which can help to identify confounding of association estimates by risk perception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Perception of environmental sounds by experienced cochlear implant patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Gygi, Brian; Cheng, Min-Yu; Vachhani, Jay; Mulvey, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Environmental sound perception serves an important ecological function by providing listeners with information about objects and events in their immediate environment. Environmental sounds such as car horns, baby cries or chirping birds can alert listeners to imminent dangers as well as contribute to one's sense of awareness and well being. Perception of environmental sounds as acoustically and semantically complex stimuli, may also involve some factors common to the processing of speech. However, very limited research has investigated the abilities of cochlear implant (CI) patients to identify common environmental sounds, despite patients' general enthusiasm about them. This project (1) investigated the ability of patients with modern-day CIs to perceive environmental sounds, (2) explored associations among speech, environmental sounds and basic auditory abilities, and (3) examined acoustic factors that might be involved in environmental sound perception. Design Seventeen experienced postlingually-deafened CI patients participated in the study. Environmental sound perception was assessed with a large-item test composed of 40 sound sources, each represented by four different tokens. The relationship between speech and environmental sound perception, and the role of working memory and some basic auditory abilities were examined based on patient performance on a battery of speech tests (HINT, CNC, and individual consonant and vowel tests), tests of basic auditory abilities (audiometric thresholds, gap detection, temporal pattern and temporal order for tones tests) and a backward digit recall test. Results The results indicated substantially reduced ability to identify common environmental sounds in CI patients (45.3%). Except for vowels, all speech test scores significantly correlated with the environmental sound test scores: r = 0.73 for HINT in quiet, r = 0.69 for HINT in noise, r = 0.70 for CNC, r = 0.64 for consonants and r = 0.48 for vowels. HINT and

  2. Environmental Inversion Effects in Face Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidenko, Nicolas; Flusberg, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Visual processing is highly sensitive to stimulus orientation; for example, face perception is drastically worse when faces are oriented inverted vs. upright. However, stimulus orientation must be established in relation to a particular reference frame, and in most studies, several reference frames are conflated. Which reference frame(s) matter in…

  3. Using perceptions as evidence to improve conservation and environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nathan James

    2016-06-01

    The conservation community is increasingly focusing on the monitoring and evaluation of management, governance, ecological, and social considerations as part of a broader move toward adaptive management and evidence-based conservation. Evidence is any information that can be used to come to a conclusion and support a judgment or, in this case, to make decisions that will improve conservation policies, actions, and outcomes. Perceptions are one type of information that is often dismissed as anecdotal by those arguing for evidence-based conservation. In this paper, I clarify the contributions of research on perceptions of conservation to improving adaptive and evidence-based conservation. Studies of the perceptions of local people can provide important insights into observations, understandings and interpretations of the social impacts, and ecological outcomes of conservation; the legitimacy of conservation governance; and the social acceptability of environmental management. Perceptions of these factors contribute to positive or negative local evaluations of conservation initiatives. It is positive perceptions, not just objective scientific evidence of effectiveness, that ultimately ensure the support of local constituents thus enabling the long-term success of conservation. Research on perceptions can inform courses of action to improve conservation and governance at scales ranging from individual initiatives to national and international policies. Better incorporation of evidence from across the social and natural sciences and integration of a plurality of methods into monitoring and evaluation will provide a more complete picture on which to base conservation decisions and environmental management. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Are Tourists’ Environmental Behavior Affected by Their Environmental Perceptions and Beliefs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichola Anastasia RAMCHURJEE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The key to eliminating environmental problems depends mainly on how much individuals are motivated to change their consumer behaviors and participate in more environmentally responsible practices. The purpose of this research is to examine if tourists’ environmental behaviors are affected by their environmental perceptions and beliefs and how these concepts influence tourists to engage in environmentally responsible behaviors while visiting Hassan, Karnataka India. Random sampling utilizes a structured questionnaire for this investigation. The questionnaire consisted of four sections with 335 participants. The results showed that some tourists engage in positive environmental behaviors. It also revealed that the tourists largely held positive environmental beliefs and perceptions, and are aware of the concerns for the environment, however, they are not ready to transfer their environmental beliefs into their behavioral practices. Their main aim when on vacation is to experience the destination and activities offered, relax and enjoy the cultural atmosphere and to generally “have a good time”.

  5. Environmental Concerns in the Geography Curriculum: Perceptions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, I use the qualitative data generated from my PhD study to show how three of the geography teachers grapple with the meaning of environmental education, sustainable development and education for sustainable development. The data reveals that the three teachers have conceptual difficulties regarding ...

  6. Perception of environmental health risks among workers in a food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Workplace safety relies partially on workers' ability to recognize hazards that could result in personal injury. This study aimed to determine the perception of industrial workers to the environmental risks that they are exposed to and their practice of self protection through the use of PPE. Methods: It was a ...

  7. A Study of the Environmental Risk Perceptions and Environmental Awareness Levels of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anilan, Burcu

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive research was conducted to determine the levels of environmental risk perceptions and environmental awareness of high school students in Eskisehir. High school students in the towns Tepebasi and Odunpazari in the 2010-2011 school years constitute the universe of the research. The sample of the research is composed of 413 high…

  8. Global environmental change: local perceptions, understandings, and explanations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aili Pyhälä

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Global environmental change (GEC is an increasingly discussed phenomenon in the scientific literature as evidence of its presence and impacts continues to grow. Yet, while the documentation of GEC is becoming more readily available, local perceptions of GEC - particularly in small-scale societies - and preferences about how to deal with it, are still largely overlooked. Local knowledge and perceptions of GEC are important in that agents make decisions (including on natural resource management based on individual perceptions. We carried out a systematic literature review that aims to provide an exhaustive state-of-the-art of the degree to and manner in which the study of local perceptions of change are being addressed in GEC research. We reviewed 126 articles found in peer-reviewed journals (between 1998 and 2014 that address local perceptions of GEC. We used three particular lenses of analysis that are known to influence local perceptions, namely (i cognition, (ii culture and knowledge, and (iii possibilities for adaptation.We present our findings on the geographical distribution of the current research, the most common changes reported, perceived drivers and impacts of change, and local explanations and evaluations of change and impacts. Overall, we found the studies to be geographically biased, lacking methodological reporting, mostly theory based with little primary data, and lacking of indepth analysis of the psychological and ontological influences in perception and implications for adaptation. We provide recommendations for future GEC research and propose the development of a "meta-language" around adaptation, perception, and mediation to encourage a greater appreciation and understanding of the diversity around these phenomena across multiple scales, and improved codesign and facilitation of locally relevant adaptation and mitigation strategies.

  9. The influence of environmental sound training on the perception of spectrally degraded speech and environmental sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Gygi, Brian; Ho, Kim Thien N

    2012-06-01

    Perceptual training with spectrally degraded environmental sounds results in improved environmental sound identification, with benefits shown to extend to untrained speech perception as well. The present study extended those findings to examine longer-term training effects as well as effects of mere repeated exposure to sounds over time. Participants received two pretests (1 week apart) prior to a week-long environmental sound training regimen, which was followed by two posttest sessions, separated by another week without training. Spectrally degraded stimuli, processed with a four-channel vocoder, consisted of a 160-item environmental sound test, word and sentence tests, and a battery of basic auditory abilities and cognitive tests. Results indicated significant improvements in all speech and environmental sound scores between the initial pretest and the last posttest with performance increments following both exposure and training. For environmental sounds (the stimulus class that was trained), the magnitude of positive change that accompanied training was much greater than that due to exposure alone, with improvement for untrained sounds roughly comparable to the speech benefit from exposure. Additional tests of auditory and cognitive abilities showed that speech and environmental sound performance were differentially correlated with tests of spectral and temporal-fine-structure processing, whereas working memory and executive function were correlated with speech, but not environmental sound perception. These findings indicate generalizability of environmental sound training and provide a basis for implementing environmental sound training programs for cochlear implant (CI) patients.

  10. Confronting an Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munnerley, Danny; Bacon, Matt; Wilson, Anna; Steele, James; Hedberg, John; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2012-01-01

    How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself ? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and…

  11. Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture : Confronting the Livelihood ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture : Confronting the Livelihood and Environmental Realities. Couverture du livre Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture: Confronting the Livelihood and Environmental Realities. Directeur(s) : Christopher Scott, Naser I. Faruqui et Liqa Raschid. Maison(s) d'édition : CABI, IWMI, CRDI.

  12. Confronting the stigma of epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev V Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stigma and resultant psychosocial issues are major hurdles that people with epilepsy confront in their daily life. People with epilepsy, particularly women, living in economically weak countries are often ill equipped to handle the stigma that they experience at multiple levels. This paper offers a systematic review of the research on stigma from sociology and social psychology and details how stigma linked to epilepsy or similar conditions can result in stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination. We also briefly discuss the strategies that are most commonly utilized to mitigate stigma. Neurologists and other health care providers, social workers, support groups and policy makers working with epilepsy need to have a deep understanding of the social and cultural perceptions of epilepsy and the related stigma. It is necessary that societies establish unique determinants of stigma and set up appropriate strategies to mitigate stigma and facilitate the complete inclusion of people with epilepsy as well as mitigating any existing discrimination.

  13. Environmental non-government organizations' perceptions of geologic sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Ray, Isha; Farrell, Alexander E

    2008-01-01

    Environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have been influential in shaping public perceptions of environmental problems, their causes and potential solutions. Over the last decade, carbon capture and storage (CCS) has emerged as a potentially important technological response to climate change. In this paper we investigate how leading US NGOs perceive geologic sequestration, a potentially controversial part of CCS. We examine how and why their perceptions and strategies might differ, and if and how they plan to shape public perceptions of geologic sequestration. We approach these questions through semi-structured interviews with representatives from a range of NGOs, supplemented by content analysis of their documents. We find that while all the NGOs are committed to combating climate change, their views on CCS as a mitigation strategy vary considerably. We find that these views are correlated with NGOs' histories of activism and advocacy, as well as with their sources of funding. Overall, most of these NGOs accept the necessity of geologic sequestration, while only a small fraction do not

  14. Individual Local Farmers’ Perceptions of Environmental Change in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Röschel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Climatic and environmental changes are expected to affect in particular those regions where the economy is primarily based on the agricultural sector and where the dependency on water availability is high. This study examines how smallholder farmers in rural Tanzania perceived climatic and environmental changes over the past 20 years and the resulting effects on water availability and food security. The study is based on a household survey of 899 farmers in a semi-arid and a sub-humid region in Tanzania. It was found that (a significant differences in perceptions of the environment by farmers can be attributed to agro-climatic location, while the distance to a water source has less impact on individual perception; (b differently perceived changes affect individual water availability and food security; and (c the farm level adaptation methods applied are linked to vulnerability to changes and the household dependence on the immediate environment. The authors conclude that the specific environmental surroundings paired with socio-economic factors can severely compound the negative effects of water scarcity on rural farmers.

  15. Athletic Trainers' Attitudes and Perceptions of Environmental Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potteiger, Kelly; Pitney, William A; Cappaert, Thomas A; Wolfe, Angela

    2017-12-01

    Environmental sustainability efforts are becoming a critical concern in health care. However, little is known regarding how athletic trainers feel about the environment or what can be done to reduce the environmental impact of the practice of athletic training.   To examine athletic trainers' attitudes toward and perceptions of factors related to environmental sustainability.   Sequential, mixed methods using a survey, focus groups, and personal interviews.   Field study.   Four hundred forty-two individuals completed the survey. Sixteen participated in the qualitative portion.   Quantitative results from the Athletic Training Environmental Impact Survey included data from a 5-point Likert scale (1 = lowest rating and 5 = highest rating). Descriptive statistics and 1-way analyses of variance were used to describe perceptions and determine differences in mean opinion, National Athletic Trainers' Association district, and use of green techniques. Qualitative data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed inductively.   The mean score for opinion of the environment was 3.30 ± 0.52. A difference was found between opinion and National Athletic Trainers' Association district ( F 9, 429 = 2.43, P = .01). A Bonferroni post hoc analysis identified this difference ( P = .03) between members of District 2 (Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania) and District 9 (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee). An inductive analysis resulted in 3 emergent themes: (1) barriers to using green techniques, (2) motivators for using green techniques, and (3) solutions to overcoming the barriers. The information gleaned from participants in the qualitative portion of the study can be useful for clinicians wishing to implement basic conservation efforts in their practice settings and may guide future sustainability projects.   Overall, participants reported a positive opinion of environmental sustainability topics related to athletic

  16. Approaching Environmental Sustainability: Perceptions of Self-Efficacy and Changeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Nicola S; Bhullar, Navjot

    2017-04-03

    This paper describes a model focused on the role of self-efficacy and belief in changeability of behavior in motivating environmentally sustainable behavior. The model was tested in two studies. The first study found that participants who had greater self-efficacy for sustainability behavior and a greater belief in their changeability of sustainability behavior had a higher level of approach motivation toward sustainability behavior and reported more such actual behavior. The second study investigated the effect of brief interventions intended to increase perception of self-efficacy for sustainability-related purchasing and changeability of sustainability-related purchasing. The intervention that focused on enhancing self-efficacy for making sustainability-related purchases had the strongest impact on intention to purchase. These findings have implications for interventions intended to change behavior related to environmental sustainability.

  17. Recognizing, Confronting, and Eliminating Workplace Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Peggy Ann; Gillespie, Gordon L; Fisher, Bonnie S; Gormley, Denise K

    2016-07-01

    Workplace bullying (WPB) behaviors negatively affect nurse productivity, satisfaction, and retention, and hinder safe patient care. The purpose of this article is to define WPB, differentiate between incivility and WPB, and recommend actions to prevent WPB behaviors. Informed occupational and environmental health nurses and nurse leaders must recognize, confront, and eliminate WPB in their facilities and organizations. Recognizing, confronting, and eliminating WPB behaviors in health care is a crucial first step toward sustained improvements in patient care quality and the health and safety of health care employees. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Consumer Perception of Environmental Harm and Willingness to Pay Environmental Handling Fees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin Lakhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study undertook a critical examination of the relationship between perception of environmental harm and consumer willingness to pay for environmental handling fees (EHF. This analysis was supplemented by asking study participants to indicate under what circumstances (and for what materials they believe a visible fee is appropriate. This study found that there is a statistically significant correlation between willingness to pay environmental handling fees and the perceived environmental harm of the product on which the fee is applied. For items that respondents viewed as “innocuous to the environment” (i.e., “keyboards and mice”, they were relatively unwilling to pay an environmental handling fee. Conversely, for the full range of hazardous waste materials, consumers expressed a willingness to pay EHFs. With respect to fee visibility, respondents indicated that they preferred visible fees (at the sticker for products that they perceived to be dangerous. There is a strong correlation between perceived environmental harm and whether fees should be visible. Consumers are not necessarily averse to paying an eco fee on products (be they hazardous waste, electronic waste, etc., but their willingness to do so is almost entirely a function of whether they believe the product is environmentally burdensome. It is the recommendation of this study that promotion and education campaigns for environmental handling fees, particularly those surrounding waste electronics, place greater emphasis on environmental consequences of improper disposal.

  19. Risk policies and risk perceptions: a comparative study of environmental health risk policy and perception in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröer, C.; Moerman, G.; Spruijt, P.; van Poll, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the influence that health risk policies have on the citizens’ perceptions of those health risks. Previously, detailed mixed methods research revealed that noise annoyance policies shaped noise perception. This idea is now applied to nine different environmental health risks in

  20. Confronting an augmented reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hedberg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and suggest that they be used as drivers for research into effective educational applications of augmented reality. We discuss how multi-modal, sensorial augmentation of reality links to existing theories of education and learning, focusing on ideas of cognitive dissonance and the confrontation of new realities implied by exposure to new and varied perspectives. We also discuss connections with broader debates brought on by the social and cultural changes wrought by the increased digitalisation of our lives, especially the concept of the extended mind. Rather than offer a prescription for augmentation, our intention is to throw open debate and to provoke deep thinking about what interacting with and creating an augmented reality might mean for both teacher and learner.

  1. Environmental risk perception from visual cues: the psychophysics of tornado risk perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitt, Barry; Fischhoff, Baruch; Davis, Alexander; Broomell, Stephen B.

    2015-12-01

    Lay judgments of environmental risks are central to both immediate decisions (e.g., taking shelter from a storm) and long-term ones (e.g., building in locations subject to storm surges). Using methods from quantitative psychology, we provide a general approach to studying lay perceptions of environmental risks. As a first application of these methods, we investigate a setting where lay decisions have not taken full advantage of advances in natural science understanding: tornado forecasts in the US and Canada. Because official forecasts are imperfect, members of the public must often evaluate the risks on their own, by checking environmental cues (such as cloud formations) before deciding whether to take protective action. We study lay perceptions of cloud formations, demonstrating an approach that could be applied to other environmental judgments. We use signal detection theory to analyse how well people can distinguish tornadic from non-tornadic clouds, and multidimensional scaling to determine how people make these judgments. We find that participants (N = 400 recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk) have heuristics that generally serve them well, helping participants to separate tornadic from non-tornadic clouds, but which also lead them to misjudge the tornado risk of certain cloud types. The signal detection task revealed confusion regarding shelf clouds, mammatus clouds, and clouds with upper- and mid-level tornadic features, which the multidimensional scaling task suggested was the result of participants focusing on the darkness of the weather scene and the ease of discerning its features. We recommend procedures for training (e.g., for storm spotters) and communications (e.g., tornado warnings) that will reduce systematic misclassifications of tornadicity arising from observers’ reliance on otherwise useful heuristics.

  2. Attention to bodily sensations and symptom perception in individuals with idiopathic environmental intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Sine; Zachariae, Robert; Rasmussen, Alice

    2010-01-01

    Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) is characterized by non-specific symptoms attributed to exposure to environmental odours or chemicals at levels below those known to induce adverse health effects. A clarification of whether psychological processes involved in sensory perceptions...

  3. We are at risk, and so what? Place attachment, environmental risk perceptions and preventive coping behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Dominicis, Stefano; Fornara, Ferdinando; Ganucci Cancellieri, Uberta

    2015-01-01

    Place attachment regulates people-environment transactions across various relevant environmental-psychological processes. However, there is no consensus about its role in the relationship between environmental risk perception and coping behaviours. Since place attachment is strongly related to pl...

  4. Environmental Conditions and Occupant Perceptions in European Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoops, J.L. [Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Building Services Engineering

    2003-03-01

    This is a preliminary report regarding a portion of the environmental conditions and occupant comfort perceptions from a five nation, 26 building European field data collection effort. Approximately 1,000 participants were involved in this project which included twelve monthly visits to each building. Climate, building and cultural variation will be illustrated for the five countries involved - France, Greece, Portugal, Sweden and the United Kingdom (UK). Each country used identical instrumentation; questionnaires and experimental protocols imbedded in a custom hardware/software system. The comfort survey was based on the ASHRAE model. The physical measurements included air temperature, globe temperature, relative humidity, air movement, CO{sub 2}, light, and sound levels. Where possible, connections and explanations between variables are made. Potential energy and policy ramifications are illustrated. (The publication includes two reports from EU JOULE III projects JOE3CT970066 'Smart controls and thermal comfort project)

  5. Perceptions of Future Employees toward CSR Environmental Practices in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Corina Gligor-Cimpoieru

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR in tourism, with its central evironmental dimension, represents an important component for the sustainable growth of the tourism industry. The related CSR education could prove a major factor for future professional performance in this field of activity. Thus, this article is aimed at identifying the perceptions of current business students about CSR (students from study programs dedicated to business administration in tourism and the importance they attribute to CSR environmental practices, mainly from their perspective as future employees in the tourism industry. We elaborated a research methodology based on the Ecolabelling principles, designed by the European Union in 2009. Our findings revealed that business tourism students assign more importance to several specific CSR environmental practices and that the importance of these CSR practices is statistically significant (we determined this significance by using the Friedman, Paired-Samples t-, ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and Bartlett sphericity statistical tests. The elaborated research methodology proved to be statistically highly reliable. Results also show the differences regarding the CSR practices preferred by various categories of students according to their study levels and gender. Our results pointed out that our third-year bachelor students showed a higher interest in CSR practices related to their professional training, while students from the master level degree attached more importance to CSR practices related to the environment. We also confirmed conclusions of previous studies that female respondents attach more importance to environmental issues than male respondents. Thus, we can state that a higher level of education is a key factor that supports CSR development in practice. Also, a significant conclusion of our research is related to the academic curricula for business faculties which must incorporate solid CSR and business ethics

  6. A Cross-Cultural Study on Environmental Risk Perception and Educational Strategies: Implications for Environmental Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hongxia; Fortner, Rosanne

    2010-01-01

    This cross-cultural study examined college students' environmental risk perception and their preference in terms of risk communication and educational strategies in China and the United States. The results indicated that the Chinese respondents were more concerned about environmental risk, and they perceived the environmental issues to be more…

  7. Nuclear and environmental risk perceptions: results from a study with university students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boemer, Veronica Araujo; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de

    2010-01-01

    The deployment of advanced technologies depends on public acceptance. Studies on risk perception can assist decision makers in their choices and working methodology, as well as science communicators. In this work, the field study was conducted with a university population with the objective of compare the perceptions of nuclear risk and environmental. Concluding that the perception of environmental risk has excelled in public opinion, overcoming the perceived nuclear risk. (author)

  8. Nurses' perceptions of climate and environmental issues: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anåker, Anna; Nilsson, Maria; Holmner, Åsa; Elf, Marie

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore nurses' perceptions of climate and environmental issues and examine how nurses perceive their role in contributing to the process of sustainable development. Climate change and its implications for human health represent an increasingly important issue for the healthcare sector. According to the International Council of Nurses Code of Ethics, nurses have a responsibility to be involved and support climate change mitigation and adaptation to protect human health. This is a descriptive, explorative qualitative study. Nurses (n = 18) were recruited from hospitals, primary care and emergency medical services; eight participated in semi-structured, in-depth individual interviews and 10 participated in two focus groups. Data were collected from April-October 2013 in Sweden; interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. Two main themes were identified from the interviews: (i) an incongruence between climate and environmental issues and nurses' daily work; and (ii) public health work is regarded as a health co-benefit of climate change mitigation. While being green is not the primary task in a lifesaving, hectic and economically challenging context, nurses' perceived their profession as entailing responsibility, opportunities and a sense of individual commitment to influence the environment in a positive direction. This study argues there is a need for increased awareness of issues and methods that are crucial for the healthcare sector to respond to climate change. Efforts to develop interventions should explore how nurses should be able to contribute to the healthcare sector's preparedness for and contributions to sustainable development. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Emergency Managers Confront Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Labadie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Emergency managers will have to deal with the impending, uncertain, and possibly extreme effects of climate change. Yet, many emergency managers are not aware of the full range of possible effects, and they are unsure of their place in the effort to plan for, adapt to, and cope with those effects. This may partly reflect emergency mangers’ reluctance to get caught up in the rancorous—and politically-charged—debate about climate change, but it mostly is due to the worldview shared by most emergency managers. We focus on: extreme events; acute vs. chronic hazards (floods vs. droughts; a shorter event horizon (5 years vs. 75–100 years; and a shorter planning and operational cycle. This paper explores the important intersection of emergency management, environmental management, and climate change mitigation and adaptation. It examines the different definitions of terms common to all three fields, the overlapping strategies used in all three fields, and the best means of collaboration and mutual re-enforcement among the three to confront and solve the many possible futures that we may face in the climate change world.

  10. Effect of Environmental Education Based on Transformational Learning Theory on Perceptions towards Environmental Problems and Permanency of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyanik, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine effect of environmental education based on transformational learning theory on primary school teacher candidates' perceptions towards environmental problems and permanency of learning. Pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design have been used in this study. The study group consists of 66 teacher candidates who…

  11. Older Adults' Perceptions of Nutrition as Protective against Detrimental Effects of Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Kristina; Gaetke, Lisa; Stephenson, Tammy; Brewer, Dawn

    2017-01-01

    The aging process makes older adults vulnerable to the detrimental health effects of environmental contaminants. Our study assessed older adults' perceptions regarding diet as protective against environmental contaminants, levels of concern about exposure to environmental contaminants, and interest in learning about protective food-related…

  12. Volunteer Guides in Nature Reserves: Exploring Environmental Educators' Perceptions of Teaching, Learning, Place and Self

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Emily; Ching, Cynthia Carter; Ballard, Heidi L.

    2012-01-01

    In the following case study, we examine the interplay between self-perception, environmental perception, and the interests and practice of volunteer trail guides who were recruited to provide educational services for visitors to a natural reserve in Northern California. Through semi-structured interviews with 15 guides and observations of training…

  13. Environmental vulnerability in public perceptions and attitudes : The case of Israel's urban centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drori, Israel

    Objective. This article investigates how urban environmental vulnerability to hazards reflects in the perceptions and attitudes of the public in three major cities in Israel: Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, and Haifa. Our central argument is that the differences between the residents' perceptions and attitudes

  14. Perceptions of Secondary School Students' towards Environmental Services: A Case Study from Czechia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfai, Mehreteab; Nagothu, Udaya Sekhar; Šimek, Josef; Fucíkc, Petr

    2016-01-01

    A total of 967 students (males and females) from four secondary schools in Vysocina region of Czechia were interviewed via 24-question Likert-type questionnaire to assess student's environmental awareness and perceptions. The generalized linear models were used to test if (and to what extent) student perceptions related to environment are/or not…

  15. Risk perceptions, general environmental beliefs, and willingness to address climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, R.E.; Bord, R.J.; Fisher, A.

    1999-01-01

    The research reported here examines the relationship between risk perceptions and willingness to address climate change. The data are a national sample of 1,225 mail surveys that include measures of risk perceptions and knowledge tied to climate change, support for voluntary and government actions to address the problem, general environmental beliefs, and demographic variables. Risk perceptions matter in predicting behavior intentions. Risk perceptions are not a surrogate for general environmental beliefs, but have their own power to account for behavioral intentions. There are four secondary conclusions. First, behavioral intentions regarding climate change are complex and intriguing. People are neither nonbelievers who will take no initiatives themselves and oppose all government efforts, nor are they believers who promise both to make personal efforts and to vote for every government proposal that promises to address climate change. Second, there are separate demographic sources for voluntary actions compared with voting intentions. Third, recognizing the causes of global warming is a powerful predictor of behavioral intentions independent from believing that climate change will happen and have bad consequences. Finally, the success of the risk perception variables to account for behavioral intentions should encourage greater attention to risk perceptions as independent variables. Risk perceptions and knowledge, however, share the stage with general environmental beliefs and demographic characteristics. Although related, risk perceptions, knowledge, and general environmental beliefs are somewhat independent predictors of behavioral intentions

  16. A Cross-Cultural Study on Environmental Risk Perception and Educational Strategies: Implications for Environmental Education in China

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Hongxia; Fortner, Rosanne

    2010-01-01

    This cross-cultural study examined college students’ environmental risk perception and their preference in terms of risk communication and educational strategies in China and the U.S. The results indicated that the Chinese respondents were more concerned about environmental risk, and they perceived the environmental issues to be more harmful to health, to the environment, and to social economic development of the nation than did the American respondents. Both groups desired transpar...

  17. Assessment of Environmental Attitudes and Risk Perceptions among University Students in Mersin, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapici, Gulcin; Ögenler, Oya; Kurt, Ahmet Öner; Koçaş, Fazıl; Şaşmaz, Tayyar

    2017-01-01

    Environmental destruction is one of the most important problems in this century. The aim of the study was to determine the environmental attitudes and perceived risks associated with environmental factors of the students. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 7 faculties of Mersin University. The research data were collected using a questionnaire. The questionnaire included sociodemographic characteristics, the "Environmental Attitudes Scale," and the "Environmental Risk Perception Scale." 774 students who filled out questionnaires were evaluated. The sample included 55.8% females. Environmental Attitudes Scale mean scores of students were identified as 81.1 ± 11.3. The highest perceived risk was release of radioactive materials associated with nuclear power generation. The environmental attitudes and risk perception scores were higher in Health Sciences than in the other faculties. Females were more positive towards the environment and had higher risk perceptions than the men. There is a negative correlation between age and resource depletion risk and global environmental risk score. Students had a positive attitude to the environment and had moderate-level risk perception about the environment. Environmental awareness of students, especially those studying in the Social Sciences, should be increased. The environmental education curriculum should be revised throughout all the courses.

  18. Social and psychological problems of nuclear power: perception of NPP construction and environmental risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malenchenko, A.F.; Sushko, S.N.; Saltanova, I.V.; Tushin, N.N.; Kozlovskaya, A.V.; Bortnovskij, V.N.; Dorofeeva, S.M.; Gapanovich-Kajdalov, N.V.; Gapanovich-Kajdalova, E.V.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of questioning about perception of nuclear power plant construction in Belarus and about concomitant environmental risk. The opinion poll has been conducted among students of: Department of Environmental Monitoring of the International A. Sakharov Environmental University, Physics Department of Belarus State University, Department of General Hygienic and Environmental Medicine of Gomel State Medical University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of Minsk Polytechnic College. (authors)

  19. Junior High School Students’ Perception about Simple Environmental Problem as an Impact of Problem based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapilouw, M. C.; Firman, H.; Redjeki, S.; Chandra, D. T.

    2017-09-01

    Environmental problem is a real problem that occur in student’s daily life. Junior high school students’ perception about environmental problem is interesting to be investigated. The major aim of this study is to explore junior high school students’ perception about environmental problems around them and ways to solve the problem. The subject of this study is 69 Junior High School Students from two Junior High School in Bandung. This study use two open ended question. The core of first question is environmental problem around them (near school or house). The core of second question is the way to prevent or to solve the problem. These two question are as an impact of problem based learning in science learning. There are two major findings in this study. The first finding, based on most students’ perception, plastic waste cause an environmental problem. The second finding, environmental awareness can be a solution to prevent environmental pollution. The third finding, most student can classify environmental pollution into land, water and air pollution. We can conclude that Junior High School Students see the environmental problem as a phenomenon and teacher can explore environmental problem to guide the way of preventing and resolving environmental problem.

  20. Environmental Issues in the Media--Students' Perceptions in the Three Nordic-Baltic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinonen, Tuula; Yli-Panula, Eija; Svens, Maria; Vilkonis, Rytis; Persson, Christel; Palmberg, Irmeli

    2014-01-01

    The media, as a source of information, is supposed to have a significant role in effecting people's environmental knowledge and attitudes. The purpose of this study was to find students' perceptions of environmental issues as presented in the media and how students in Finland, Lithuania and Sweden used these media sources in the matters related to…

  1. Through the eyes of children: perceptions of environmental change in tropical forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Pellier

    Full Text Available This study seeks to understand children's perceptions of their present and future environments in the highly biodiverse and rapidly changing landscapes of Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. We analyzed drawings by children (target age 10-15 years from 22 villages, which show how children perceive the present conditions of forests and wildlife surrounding their villages and how they expect conditions to change over the next 15 years. Analyses of picture elements and their relationships to current landscape variables indicate that children have a sophisticated understanding of their environment and how different environmental factors interact, either positively or negatively. Children appear to have landscape-dependent environmental perceptions, showing awareness of past environmental conditions and many aspects of recent trends, and translating these into predictions for future environmental conditions. The further removed their present landscape is from the originally forested one, the more environmental change they expect in the future, particularly declines in forest cover, rivers, animal diversity and increases in temperature and natural disasters. This suggests that loss of past perceptions and associated "shifting environmental baselines" do not feature strongly among children on Borneo, at least not for the perceptions we investigated here. Our findings that children have negative expectations of their future environmental conditions have important political implications. More than other generations, children have a stake in ensuring that future environmental conditions support their long-term well-being. Understanding what drives environmental views among children, and how they consider trade-offs between economic development and social and environmental change, should inform optimal policies on land use. Our study illuminates part of the complex interplay between perceptions of land cover and land use change. Capturing the views of children

  2. Dispatching strategies for coordinating environmental awareness and risk perception in wind power integrated system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Jingliang; Zhou, Dequn; Zhou, Peng; Qian, Shuqu; Zhang, Mingming

    2016-01-01

    Wind power plays a significant role in economic and environmental operation of electric power system. Meanwhile, the variability and uncertainty characteristics of wind power generation bring technical and economical challenges for power system operation. In order to harmonize the relationship between environmental protection and risk management in power dispatching, this paper presents a stochastic dynamic economic emission dispatch model combining risk perception with environmental awareness of decision-makers by following the principle of chance-constrained programming. In this power dispatching model, the description of wind power uncertainty is derived from the probability statistic character of wind speed. Constraints-handling techniques as a heuristic strategy are embedded into non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II. In addition, more information is digested from the Pareto optimum solution set by cluster analysis and fuzzy set theory. The simulation results eventually demonstrate that the increase of the share of wind power output will bring higher risk, though it is beneficial for economic cost and environmental protection. Since different risk perception and environmental awareness can possibly lead to diverse non-dominated solutions, decision-makers may choose an appropriate dispatching strategy according to their specific risk perception and environmental awareness. - Highlights: • A dispatch model combining environmental awareness and risk perception is proposed. • The uncertain characteristic of available wind power is determined. • Constraints-handling techniques are embedded into genetic algorithm. • An appropriate decision-making method is designed. • Dispatching strategies can be coordinated by the proposed model and method.

  3. Perceptual Mapping: A Methodology in the Assessment of Environmental Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergent, Marie T.; Sedlacek, William E.

    1989-01-01

    Describes perceptual mapping, a newly developed method for assessing perceptions of campus environments. Describes evaluation of a student union by students using this method. Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of this perceptual mapping method for assessing college environments. (Author/ABL)

  4. Self-Confrontation of Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, Richard A.

    Simply presenting teachers with information about discrepancies between their ideal and their actual classroom performances does not, in itself, lead to constructive change. In part, this is because teachers confronted with such discrepancies experience dissonance which often gives rise to anxiety. This paper discusses the psychological processes…

  5. Young children’s perceptions of environmental sustainability: a Maltese perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Spiteri, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is located in the emerging field of early childhood education for sustainability and has particular focus on Malta. It sought to gather insights into young children’s perceptions of environmental sustainability, and the influences that shaped these perceptions, particularly in the context of the family and the school. Twelve Maltese children, aged between 3 and 7 years, ten parents, five teachers and a head teacher participated in this study, which was conducted in ...

  6. Environmental policies, politics, and community risk perception: case study of community contamination in Casper, Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Mansoureh; Gottlieb, Karen; Lowndes, Nita; Stewart, Gloria

    2007-01-01

    We identify and explain factors that affected a community's perception of risk due to extensive industrial contamination and people's distrust of government agencies regarding the environmental investigations. Intrinsic bounded case study methodology was used to conduct research about extensive environmental contaminations due to activities of an oil refinery in North Casper, Wyoming, and the citizens' response. Data were collected from multiple sources that included public testimonies, observations, public hearings and meetings minutes, newspaper articles, archived records obtained from federal and state environmental and health agencies, as well as industry records obtained through Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests. The overarching theme that emerged was lack of trust due to several critical events and factors such as no response or delay in response time to community concerns, lack of transparency, perceived cover up, vague and fragmented communication by government and state officials, perception of pro-industry stance, and perceived unfair treatment. People's perception of environmental risks and their willingness to accept official explanations and outcomes of environmental investigations are strongly affected by their direct experiences with government agencies and the evidence of influence the powerful industries exert over relevant investigations. The government cannot successfully address public and community concerns about environmental health impacts of contaminations and in turn the public perception of risk unless it adopts and implements policies, procedures, and protocols that are clear, timely, transparent, and free from industry influence.

  7. Perception of the role of mass media in environmental conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is recommended that media houses should improve upon their information unit to complement their role. Government should implement policies on environmental conservation and offenders must be punished. NGO's should be more involved and encouraged to assist in environmental. [JEXT Vol.2(1) 2001: 95-101] ...

  8. The Influence of Corporate Governance Perception Index, Profit Management, and Industrial Type To Environmental Disclosure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Chrysanti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thisresearchaims to empirically analyze the influence ofCorporate Governance Perception Index, earnings management,and industry type on environmental disclosure. Environmental Disclosure is the dependent variables in this research were measured by scoring technique based on GRI3.1 Guidelines. For the independent variables in this research, using Corporate Governance Perception Index were measured by CGPI index score, earnings management were measured by discretionary accruals, and industry type were measured bycategorial. This research uses secondary data which population are companies entered Corporate Governance Perception Index in 2009-2012. While the sampling method used was purposive sampling method which is overall 44 sample choose. This research uses multiple regression method to test the hypothesis with SPSS computer program. From the analysis performed in this research, it can be concluded that Corporate Governance Perception Index has positively and significant influence to environmental disclosure. The other hand earnings management has no significant influence to environmental disclosure. The last one industry type has negatively and significant influence to environmental disclosure.

  9. Racial Differences in Perceptions of Air Pollution Health Risk: Does Environmental Exposure Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayajit Chakraborty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article extends environmental risk perception research by exploring how potential health risk from exposure to industrial and vehicular air pollutants, as well as other contextual and socio-demographic factors, influence racial/ethnic differences in air pollution health risk perception. Our study site is the Greater Houston metropolitan area, Texas, USA—a racially/ethnically diverse area facing high levels of exposure to pollutants from both industrial and transportation sources. We integrate primary household-level survey data with estimates of excess cancer risk from ambient exposure to industrial and on-road mobile source emissions of air toxics obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Statistical analysis is based on multivariate generalized estimation equation models which account for geographic clustering of surveyed households. Our results reveal significantly higher risk perceptions for non-Hispanic Black residents and those exposed to greater cancer risk from industrial pollutants, and also indicate that gender influences the relationship between race/ethnicity and air pollution risk perception. These findings highlight the need to incorporate measures of environmental health risk exposure in future analysis of social disparities in risk perception.

  10. Local expert experiences and perceptions of environmentally induced migration from Bangladesh to India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stojanov, Robert; Boas, Ingrid; Kelman, Ilan; Duží, Barbora

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates local expert perceptions of the role of environmental factors, especially in terms of contemporary climate change, in population movements from Bangladesh to India. The aim is to delve into locally held understandings of the phenomenon and to gain a better understanding of

  11. The influence of outrage and technical detail on the perception of environmental health risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochems D; Bruggen M van; IMD; GGD Rotterdam

    2004-01-01

    Differences in risk perception between a professional assessing a risk and a concerned community affected by this risk have been shown to be important obstacles in the communication of environmental health risks. The study reported here aimed at gaining insight into factors that influence people's

  12. Environmental Pollution Control Policy-Making: An Analysis of Elite Perceptions and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Phillip; Greig, William H.

    1974-01-01

    This article is based on an analysis of the perceptions and preferences of elite groups concerning environmental pollution control policy making. Results showed that although the groups agreed that present methods were inadequate, they were, nevertheless, unable to agree upon the nature of a future policy-making system. (MA)

  13. Stop Harassment! Men’s reactions to victims’ confrontation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carmen Herrera

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sexual harassment is one of the most widespread forms of gender violence. Perceptions of sexual harassment depend on gender, context, the perceivers’ ideology, and a host of other factors. Research has underscored the importance of coping strategies in raising a victim’s self-confidence by making her feel that she plays an active role in overcoming her own problems. The aim of this study was to assess the men’s perceptions of sexual harassment in relation to different victim responses. The study involved 101 men who were administered a questionnaire focusing on two of the most frequent types of harassment (gender harassment vs. unwanted sexual attention and victim response (confrontation vs. non confrontation, both of which were manipulated. Moreover, the influences of ideological variables, ambivalent sexism, and the acceptance of myths of sexual harassment on perception were also assessed. The results highlight the complexities involved in recognizing certain behaviors as harassment and the implications of different victim responses to incidents of harassment. As the coping strategies used by women to confront harassment entail drawbacks that pose problems or hinder them, the design and implementation of prevention and/or education programs should strive to raise awareness among men and women to further their understanding of this construct.

  14. Aircraft Noise Perception Study in Brazil: A Perspective on Airport Sustainable Growth and Environmental Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    deArantesGomesEller, Rogerio; Urbina, Ligia Maria Soto; Porto, Protogenes Pires

    2003-01-01

    Aircraft noise perception is related to several variables that are tangible and objective, such as the number of operations, flight schedules. Other variables, instead, are more subjective, such as preferences. However, although their elusiveness, they contribute to determine the individuals' perception of this type of externality. Despite the fact that the complaints related to aeronautical noise have been registered since the decade of 50, it has been observed that the perception of noise seems to have grown, especially since the 80's. It has been argued that this change in noise perception has its roots on the accelerated expansion of air traffic. But, it is necessary to point out the important role played on modeling preferences, by the growing environmental conscience and the higher welfare and quality of life standards and expectations. In that context, the main objective of this paper is to study the aeronautical noise perception in the neighborhoods of the Aeroporto Internacional de Sao Paulo - AISP (the biggest airport of South America). Specifically, it analyzes the relationship between aircraft noise perception and social class, which is expected to be positive. Since noise perception is an intangible variable, this study chose as a proxy the value losses of residential properties, caused by aeronautical noise. The variable social class has been measured utilizing average per capita income of the population who live nearby the airport. The comparison of both, the lowest and the highest social class suggests that the relationship between social class and noise perception is positive in the AISP region. Moreover, it was observed that all social classes are very susceptible to aircraft noise annoyance. In fact, the magnitude of the noise perception proxy for both social classes -the residential value losses- was found to be comparable to levels encountered in developed countries.

  15. Nuclear Terrorism and its Confrontation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Barody, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    The whole world first knew nuclear terrorism during the second world war through the use of excessive violence that to terror exercised by one country against another, as was carried out by USA when it exploded two nuclear bombs over Hiroshima and Nagasaki t the end of the war. there are numerous types of nuclear terrorism that can be performed by individuals or organized groups for achieving political or social objectives. the definition of the term t errorism i s correlated with u sing means capable of creating a case of public dnger . that property exists in all types of direct or indirect nuclear terrorism . the present study is divided into two chapters. Chapter one deals with nuclear terrorism and consists of two sections , the first deals with the identification of the nature of nuclear terrorism an the second deals with organize nuclear terrorism on the international level. Chapter two deals with the confrontation of nuclear terrorism in two sections. the first deals with the role of the state in combating against nuclear terrorism nd the second deals with combating against nuclear terrorism on the international level. while internally it is confronted through promulgation of legislations that deal with the protection against nuclear terrorism as well as the national legal instruments for protection of nuclear materials and installation and combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials, confrontation of nuclear terrorism on the international level is carried out through the promulgation of international convention such as that on suppression of actions of nuclear terrorism which shall be opened for signature on sept.14 -2005 according to the recommendation the general assembly of the united nations in its 59 t h session

  16. Environmental Perceptions and Health before and after Relocation to a Green Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNaughton, Piers; Spengler, John; Vallarino, Jose; Santanam, Suresh; Satish, Usha; Allen, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Green buildings are designed to have low environmental impacts and improved occupant health and well-being. Improvements to the built environment including ventilation, lighting, and materials have resulted in improved indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in green buildings, but the evidence around occupant health is currently centered around environmental perceptions and self-reported health. To investigate the objective impact of green buildings on health, we tracked IEQ, self-reported health, and heart rate in 30 participants from green and conventional buildings for two weeks. 24 participants were then selected to be relocated to the Syracuse Center of Excellence, a LEED platinum building, for six workdays. While they were there, ventilation, CO 2 , and volatile organic compound (VOC) levels were changed on different days to match the IEQ of conventional, green, and green+ (green with increased ventilation) buildings. Participants reported improved air quality, odors, thermal comfort, ergonomics, noise and lighting and fewer health symptoms in green buildings prior to relocation. After relocation, participants consistently reported fewer symptoms during the green building conditions compared to the conventional one, yet symptom counts were more closely associated with environmental perceptions than with measured IEQ. On average, participants had 4.7 times the odds of reporting a lack of air movement, 1.4 more symptoms (p-value = 0.019) and a 2 bpm higher heart rate (p-value green and conventional buildings is driven by both environmental perceptions and physiological pathways.

  17. Games Based Study of Nonblind Confrontation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixian Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Security confrontation is the second cornerstone of the General Theory of Security. And it can be divided into two categories: blind confrontation and nonblind confrontation between attackers and defenders. In this paper, we study the nonblind confrontation by some well-known games. We show the probability of winning and losing between the attackers and defenders from the perspective of channel capacity. We establish channel models and find that the attacker or the defender wining one time is equivalent to one bit transmitted successfully in the channel. This paper also gives unified solutions for all the nonblind confrontations.

  18. Navigating between Dialogue and Confrontation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Frederik

    2011-01-01

    such as human rights and ethnic discrimination, issues that may involve strong emotions. Drawing inspiration from a qualitative methodology focusing on resistance and power, the article argues that in such situations the interviewer needs to integrate both dialogic and agonistic interview methodologies through...... phronesis, Aristotle’s concept of practical rationality. A phronetic approach, involving reflections on the link between reason and emotions, is well suited for handling both dialogue and confrontation in the interview process. Empirically, the paper draws on interviews with representatives of trade unions...... and employer organizations on the subject of human rights and ethnic discrimination in the Danish labor market....

  19. A comparative study of the perceptions of nuclear and environmental risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boemer, Veronica Araujo

    2011-01-01

    With the necessity for new forms of energy production to contain the environmental crisis and the global warming, new technologies have been studied and the nuclear energy has been placed as one of the ways out for clean energy production. The study of the risk is directly related to the study of its perception, that determines the human being's actions, therefore it influences in new technologies applications, since the awareness of something as dangerous is determined by socio-historical factors. The purpose of this study was compare the perceptions of nuclear and environmental risks, considering a group of university students, with the application of research in the period from March 31 to May 31, 2010, containing: images of historical facts to be nominated; structuring of a risk scale for certain activities, and a questionnaire about risks and benefits related to the subject research. The analysis of results evidenced a reduction in the perception of nuclear risk over the perception of environmental risk in this population. (author)

  20. "We Don't Know Enough": Environmental Education and Pro-Environmental Behaviour Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaps, Sandra; McLellan, Ros

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to understand environmental knowledge and attitudes among young people to explain the relationship between environmental education (EE) and reported pro-environmental behaviours (PEB). A mixed-methods design was employed: 88 university students in the UK and Nigeria were surveyed and 6 were subsequently interviewed. The findings…

  1. Social perception and environmental behavior of communities close to a tropical urban river in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Ureña Santos, Claudio; Barrientos, Zaidett

    2017-01-01

    Urban green areas are important to keep balance in the cities, but few studies consider people`s perception of these areas. We evaluated and compared the environmental perception of two urban communities in San José, Costa Rica. The analyzed communities are separated by the Ocloro River; one has a low socioeconomic status and the other a medium-high level. We conducted surveys in 40 homes located less than 150 m from the river, and local government employees in charge of natural resources man...

  2. PERCEPTION OF SOCIO-ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICTS IN MINING AREAS: THE CASE OF THE MIRADOR PROJECT IN ECUADOR

    OpenAIRE

    SÁNCHEZ-VÁZQUEZ,LUIS; ESPINOSA,MARÍA GABRIELA; EGUIGUREN,MARÍA BEATRIZ

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In order to analyse the socio-environmental conflicts it is essential to pay attention to people's perception, because environmental problems can lead to different forms of conflict according to local economic and socio-cultural context. The main objective of this research is to determine the perception of the public about the different socio-environmental conflicts in the area of influence of the Mirador Project, the first project of large-scale mining in Ecuador. To do so, a repres...

  3. Can Perceptions of Environmental and Climate Change in Island Communities Assist in Adaptation Planning Locally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswani, Shankar; Vaccaro, Ismael; Abernethy, Kirsten; Albert, Simon; de Pablo, Javier Fernández-López

    2015-12-01

    Local perceptions of environmental and climate change, as well as associated adaptations made by local populations, are fundamental for designing comprehensive and inclusive mitigation and adaptation plans both locally and nationally. In this paper, we analyze people's perceptions of environmental and climate-related transformations in communities across the Western Solomon Islands through ethnographic and geospatial methods. Specifically, we documented people's observed changes over the past decades across various environmental domains, and for each change, we asked respondents to identify the causes, timing, and people's adaptive responses. We also incorporated this information into a geographical information system database to produce broad-scale base maps of local perceptions of environmental change. Results suggest that people detected changes that tended to be acute (e.g., water clarity, logging intensity, and agricultural diseases). We inferred from these results that most local observations of and adaptations to change were related to parts of environment/ecosystem that are most directly or indirectly related to harvesting strategies. On the other hand, people were less aware of slower insidious/chronic changes identified by scientific studies. For the Solomon Islands and similar contexts in the insular tropics, a broader anticipatory adaptation planning strategy to climate change should include a mix of local scientific studies and local observations of ongoing ecological changes.

  4. Manager’s Perception of the Importance of Environmental Accounting and its Effect on the Quality of Corporate Environmental Accounting Disclosures: Case from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindrianasari Lindrianasari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to compare perceptions of managers in Indonesia concerning environmental accounting disclosure with actual environmental accounting disclosure. The value of this research is making an original contribution to develop instrument in exploring managerial perception of environmental accounting disclosure. Samples for this study are corporate managerial from listing companies in the Jakarta Stock Exchange and also annual report companies. This research has developed strategies to measure managerial perceptions of environmental accounting disclosure. Mail surveys design used on this study. Analysis used for testing relationship between managerial perception and environmental accounting disclosure is simple regression test. The dependent sample variable data is the latest data published in Jakarta Stock Exchange. This study finds a positive correlation between managerial perception of environmental accounting disclosure and actual environmental accounting disclosure. This result shows that disclosure quality and several legal sanctions in environmental aspects could be empowerment of regulator pasties to force managers to maintain their pollution and reported their activity also in their annual report. In hence, legitimacy theory is used as an explanation for corporate reactions to threats to its legitimacy vis-á-vis the social contract, while legitimacy theory infers motivation to incorporate environmental accounting disclosure.

  5. Education confronts the energy dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The conference was convened to present a role that America's schools could play in solving or coping with the energy crisis. Eleven sessions were conducted to fulfill this concern: Our Energy Crisis and Education: A Critical Assessment; The Energy Agenda at the Office of Education; Energy Resources: Scenarios for the Future; The Moral Dilemma of Energy Education; Constraints Influencing Education's Role; Energy Education: What's Been Done to Date; Practitioners Discuss Their Future Roles, Responsibilities; Politics of Energy Education; Confronting the Energy Dilemma; The Meaning of Scarcity; and The Impact of the Carter Energy Program on American Schools. Summary reports and reactions to the conference conclude the proceedings. (MCW)

  6. Does thinking style make a difference in environmental perception and orientation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahanshahi, Asghar Afshar; Brem, Alexander; Shahabinezhad, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    prefer more tangible data, information, facts, and analytical tools, and entrepreneurs with nonlinear or non-rational thinking styles rely more on internal feelings, impressions, imagination, creativity, and sensations when making important organizational decisions. By using cross-sectional survey data......Styles of thinking set different paths for an entrepreneur's perception and strategic action. In order to understand the environmental consequences of a thinking style, we investigated the relations between entrepreneurs' linear and nonlinear styles of thinking with their perception...... of environmental uncertainty in their businesses. Furthermore, we tested the effect of the entrepreneurs' linear and nonlinear style of thinking on their newly established firms' orientation towards preserving the surrounding internal and external environment. Entrepreneurs with linear or rational thinking styles...

  7. “We don’t know enough”: Environmental education and pro-environmental behaviour perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ajaps

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to understand environmental knowledge and attitudes among young people to explain the relationship between environmental education (EE and reported pro-environmental behaviours (PEB. A mixed-methods design was employed: 88 university students in the UK and Nigeria were surveyed and 6 were subsequently interviewed. The findings indicate that the participants believe humans are abusing the earth and are very concerned about the consequences but do not know enough about environmental problems, especially global warming. Also, those who had more environmental knowledge reported more PEB. Generally, participants want more EE content to be taught in schools and in more engaging ways such as field trips. These findings offer important insights for both theory and practice related to the use of education to develop PEB for a healthier environment.

  8. Organic Food Perception: Fad, or Healthy and Environmentally Friendly? A Case on Romanian Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Dacinia Crina Petrescu; Ruxandra Malina Petrescu-Mag

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to explore consumers’ perceptions of organic food and examine whether organic food products are perceived in the North-West Region of Romania as offering health and environmental benefits or as simply another sine qua non condition to be integrated into the luxurious yuppie lifestyle. The inspiration for our study came from witnessing the stereotypical image of organic food consumers as “stylish, trendy, fancy consumers” in the last three to five years. Scien...

  9. Some recent research findings on the social dynamics of environmental risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horlick-Jones, T.; Marchi, B. de; Del Zotto, M.; Pellizzoni, L.; Ungaro, D.; Prades Lopez, A.; Diaz Hidalgo, M.; Pidgeon, N.; Sime, J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: key themes: social dynamics of public risk perception; trust, tolerability, and risk management; discourses of environmental risk; implications for risk communication and environmental valuation; application of mixed qualitative/quantitative methods in risk perception research. This paper presents some of the key findings of a two-year comparative European study (the PRISP Project) on public perception of risks associated with industrial sites in the UK, Italy and Spain. The project utilised a mixed-method approach (comprising community ethnography, semi-structured interviews, questionnaire survey and focus groups), within a Grounded Theory framework, to examine the social dynamics of risk comprehension, tolerability and politics in settings adjacent to a range of industrial facilities. These often complex industrial zones present a portfolio of 'acute' and 'chronic' risks including hazards associated with sites regulated by the European Union COMAH Directive. Our findings have important implications for the regulation of both major accident hazard and pollution risks, risk communication programmes, industrial risk management practices and for the methodological basis of health and safety and environmental valuation techniques. (authors)

  10. Speech-driven environmental control systems--a qualitative analysis of users' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Simon; Robertson, Zoë; Hawley, Mark; Enderby, Pam

    2009-05-01

    To explore users' experiences and perceptions of speech-driven environmental control systems (SPECS) as part of a larger project aiming to develop a new SPECS. The motivation for this part of the project was to add to the evidence base for the use of SPECS and to determine the key design specifications for a new speech-driven system from a user's perspective. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 users of SPECS from around the United Kingdom. These interviews were transcribed and analysed using a qualitative method based on framework analysis. Reliability is the main influence on the use of SPECS. All the participants gave examples of occasions when their speech-driven system was unreliable; in some instances, this unreliability was reported as not being a problem (e.g., for changing television channels); however, it was perceived as a problem for more safety critical functions (e.g., opening a door). Reliability was cited by participants as the reason for using a switch-operated system as back up. Benefits of speech-driven systems focused on speech operation enabling access when other methods were not possible; quicker operation and better aesthetic considerations. Overall, there was a perception of increased independence from the use of speech-driven environmental control. In general, speech was considered a useful method of operating environmental controls by the participants interviewed; however, their perceptions regarding reliability often influenced their decision to have backup or alternative systems for certain functions.

  11. Environmental Assessment of Packaging: The Consumer Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam YK

    1996-09-01

    When marketing environmentally responsible packaged products, the producer is confronted with consumer beliefs concerning the environmental friendliness of packaging materials. When making environmentally conscious packaging decisions, these consumer beliefs should be taken into account alongside the technical guidelines. Dutch consumer perceptions of the environmental friendliness of packaged products are reported and compared with the results of a life-cycle analysis assessment. It is shown that consumers judge environmental friendliness mainly from material and returnability. Furthermore, the consumer perception of the environmental friendliness of packaging material is based on the postconsumption waste, whereas the environmental effects of production are ignored. From the consumer beliefs concerning environmental friendliness implications are deduced for packaging policy and for environmental policy.KEY WORDS: Consumer behavior; Environment; Food; Packaging; Perception; Waste

  12. Environmental education and the agenda 21 chunk: perceptions of students in a school in particular the serra talhada – PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Luiz Lima Paulo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Today we face an environmental problem, which is the result of misuse of resources and energy of nature by man. In this work the diagnosis of perception of students from the 7th and 8th grade on the environment in which they live using the methodology of Agenda 21 of the piece proposed by ECOAR institute. The results show that students have a realistic perception of the current environmental situation, but need to mature the concept of the solutions.

  13. Organic Food Perception: Fad, or Healthy and Environmentally Friendly? A Case on Romanian Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacinia Crina Petrescu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to explore consumers’ perceptions of organic food and examine whether organic food products are perceived in the North-West Region of Romania as offering health and environmental benefits or as simply another sine qua non condition to be integrated into the luxurious yuppie lifestyle. The inspiration for our study came from witnessing the stereotypical image of organic food consumers as “stylish, trendy, fancy consumers” in the last three to five years. Scientific evidence on the perceptions of organic food is based on a probabilistic survey. The results indicate an environmental consciousness of organic food consumers in North-Western Region of Romania in terms of organic food: a high percentage of consumers believe that organic food is healthier than conventional food (87% and that it contributes to environmental protection more than conventional food (75%. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 was observed between people with higher education and those without higher education concerning the following beliefs: belief that most people consume organic products because they are in fashion, and belief that organic food contributes to environmental protection.

  14. Confronting shibboleths of dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masella, Richard S

    2005-10-01

    Shibboleths are common expressions presented as indisputable truths. When used in educational discussions, they reflect "motherhood and apple pie" viewpoints and tend to bring debate to a halt. Use of shibboleths may precede a desired imposition of "locksteps" in educational programming and are easily perceived as paternalistic by recipients. Nine shibboleths are presented as common beliefs of dental faculty and administrators. Evidence contradicting the veracity of the "obvious truths" is offered. The traditional "splendid isolation" of dentistry contributes to parochialism and belief in false shibboleths. Sound principles of higher and health professions education, student learning, and dental practice apply to dental education as to all health disciplines. Student passivity in dental education is not the best preparation for proficiency in dental practice. The master teacher possesses a repertoire of methodologies specific to meeting defined educational objectives. Active learning experiences bear close resemblances to professional duties and responsibilities and internally motivate future doctors of dental medicine. The difficulty in achieving curricular change leads to curricular entrenchment. Dentistry and dental education should not trade their ethical high ground for the relatively low ethical standards of the business world. Principles of professional ethics should govern relationships between dentists, whether within the dental school workplace or in practice. Suggestions are made on how to confront shibboleths in dental school settings.

  15. U.S. Marines' Perceptions of Environmental Factors Associated With Alcohol Binge Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Susan I; Hurtado, Suzanne L; Simon-Arndt, Cynthia M

    2018-02-07

    Alcohol misuse, in particular binge drinking, is a serious concern among military personnel because it is strongly associated with adverse consequences and has a deleterious effect on readiness. Although most alcohol misuse studies have focused on individual risk factors, studies are increasingly examining environmental influences and strategies for reducing alcohol risks. The purpose of this study is to address gaps in what is known about how service members' perceptions of environmental factors are related to binge drinking in the U.S. Marine Corps. The relationship between Marines' self-reports of environmental factors and alcohol binge drinking was assessed in this correlational study using data from three large Marine Corps installations drawn from the Department of Defense 2011 Health Related Behaviors Survey of Active Duty Military Personnel (N = 2,933). We proposed several directional hypotheses based on existing civilian and military studies of alcohol use and misuse, as well as health behavior theory. Agreement with the statements that alcoholic beverages cost too much, that drinking might negatively affect one's military career, and that one's immediate supervisor and installation discourage alcohol use were independently associated with decreased odds of binge drinking (i.e., protective factors). Perceptions that alcoholic beverages are difficult to get was particularly protective; the odds of having binged were lower for participants who endorsed this belief than for those who did not. Perceptions that drinking is part of being in one's unit was a risk factor for binge drinking (odds ratio = 1.29). Even after accounting for strong sociodemographic correlates, binge drinking was independently associated with a number of environmentally oriented perceptions. Beliefs that alcohol is affordable and easy to access were the strongest environmental correlates of increased risk of binge drinking. Addressing the threat alcohol misuse poses to both Marines and

  16. Perceptions of individual and community environmental influences on fruit and vegetable intake, North Carolina, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyington, Josephine E A; Schoster, Britta; Remmes Martin, Kathryn; Shreffler, Jack; Callahan, Leigh F

    2009-01-01

    Increases in obesity and other chronic conditions continue to fuel efforts for lifestyle behavior changes. However, many strategies do not address the impact of environment on lifestyle behaviors, particularly healthy dietary intake. This study explored the perceptions of environment on intake of fruits and vegetables in a cohort of 2,479 people recruited from 22 family practices in North Carolina. Participants were administered a health and social demographic survey. Formative assessment was conducted on a subsample of 32 people by using focus groups, semistructured individual interviews, community mapping, and photographs. Interviews and discussions were transcribed and content was analyzed using ATLAS.ti version 5. Survey data were evaluated for means, frequencies, and group differences. The 2,479 participants had a mean age of 52.8 years, mean body mass index (BMI) of 29.4, and were predominantly female, white, married, and high school graduates. The 32 subsample participants were older, heavier, and less educated. Some prevalent perceptions about contextual factors related to dietary intake included taste-bud fatigue (boredom with commonly eaten foods), life stresses, lack of forethought in meal planning, current health status, economic status, the ability to garden, lifetime dietary exposure, concerns about food safety, contradictory nutrition messages from the media, and variable work schedules. Perceptions about intake of fruits and vegetables intake are influenced by individual (intrinsic) and community (extrinsic) environmental factors. We suggest approaches for influencing behavior and changing perceptions using available resources.

  17. Survey of perception of the environmental problems in Arauca (Colombia): Tools for ecosystem assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Montano, Carolina; Garcia Conde, Mary Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of environmental goods and services is a useful tool for the conservation and appropriate ordination of natural resources of a region. Nevertheless, in developing countries, more susceptible to the illiteracy, it is fundamental that people have an appropriate knowledge about the environment to get a fair valuation. In Arauca (Colombia) we carried out a study of perception, in order to establish what people understand by the term environment, how they understand the environmental problems and how is possible to contribute to the solution of these problems. There were used surveys with questions that generate qualitative and quantitative information, comparing two populations by age: older adults and underage people. In total 398 people were surveyed and the results suggest that in general there is no significant difference between the perception of older adults and youth people, although the latter receive an important knowledge from basic training in schools. Population is concerned about the reduction in the quality of water and food, and considers the industry especially oil companies, are the major factors in the degradation of the environment. There is a requirement of educational effort, especially on issues such as fauna, flora and contamination, but there is a negative 49% to increase contributions to the state to improve the quality of the environment. Finally, the general perception is that agricultural and livestock activities do not relate significantly to the environment. We propose many actions previous to a contingent valuation study.

  18. Older Adults' Perceptions of Nutrition as Protective Against Detrimental Effects of Environmental Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Kristina; Gaetke, Lisa; Stephenson, Tammy; Brewer, Dawn

    2017-08-01

    The aging process makes older adults vulnerable to the detrimental health effects of environmental contaminants. Our study assessed older adults' perceptions regarding diet being protective against environmental contaminants, their levels of concern about exposure, and their interest in learning about protective food-related strategies. A needs assessment to collect such information has not been conducted among older adults. Health fair survey results showed that they perceived diet as beneficial against contaminants, were concerned about health implications of exposure, and were interested in learning how to protect health through diet-related strategies. Results suggest that a nutrition-focused curriculum addressing how dietary strategies can help protect against environmental contaminants is needed for Extension professionals.

  19. Contributions of Gors’ Environmental Perception About Squares and Parks in Brazil (2009-2013: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Amara Dorigo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The urban green spaces assume an important role in improving the environment and offering spaces for leisure and recreation, as well as contributing to urban sustainability. This research aims to study the contributions of environmental perception in public green areas, as squares and urban parks. The influence these areas have on their surroundings’ residents and goers was investigated. In order to achieve this, a research of studies on environmental perception in urban green areas was carried out in the Innovation Portal website. The criteria used for the selection of articles was published in national journals from the years 2009 to 2013.Among the findings, it was sought to determine the importance of these areas for the population that sees in them an essentially social function. According to the articles published, the positive aspects of green areas in the vision of the regulars are related to physical activity, leisure, education and promotion of environmental awareness. Regarding the negative aspects, one can notice concern about the safety issue in urban green areas, which may be associated to less frequent use of these public spaces.

  20. Effective Two-way Communication of Environmental Hazards: Understanding Public Perception in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorono-Leturiondo, Maria; O'Hare, Paul; Cook, Simon; Hoon, Stephen R.; Illingworth, Sam

    2017-04-01

    Climate change intensified hazards, such as floods and landslides, require exploring renewed ways of protecting at-risk communities (World Economic Forum 2016). Scientists are being encouraged to explore new pathways to work closely with affected communities in search of experiential knowledge that is able to complement and extend scientific knowledge (see for instance Whatmore and Landström 2011 and Höpner et al. 2010). Effective two-way communication of environmental hazards is, however, a challenge. Besides considering factors such as the purpose of communication, or the characteristics of the different formats; effective communication has to carefully acknowledge the personal framework of the individuals involved. Existing experiences, values, beliefs, and needs are critical determinants of the way they perceive and relate to these hazards, and in turn, of the communication process in which they are involved (Longnecker 2016 and Gibson et al. 2016). Our study builds on the need to analyze how the public perceives environmental hazards in order to establish forms of communication that work. Here we present early findings of a survey analysing the UK public's perception and outline how survey results can guide more effective two-way communication practices between scientists and affected communities. We explore the perception of environmental hazards in terms of how informed and concerned the public is, as well as how much ownership they claim over these phenomena. In order to gain a more accurate image, we study environmental hazards in relation to other risks threatening the UK, such as large-scale involuntary migration or unemployment (World Economic Forum 2016, Bord et al. 1998). We also explore information consumption in relation to environmental hazards and the public's involvement in advancing knowledge. All these questions are accompanied by an extensive demographics section that allows us to ascertain how the context or environment in which an

  1. Tangible Evidence, Trust and Power: Public Perceptions of Community Environmental Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen; Senier, Laura; Darrah-Okike, Jennifer; Brown, Phil; Santos, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Communities with environmental health concerns in the USA frequently request studies from their local or state departments of public health. This paper presents findings from three focus groups conducted in communities north of Boston that have been the subject of two different environmental health studies. The focus groups were designed to elicit residents’ perceptions of environmental health, and of the particular studies conducted in their communities. In all focus groups, participants had difficulty accepting the findings of health studies that contradicted their own experiences of environmental exposures and illness. Our results suggest that lay knowledge, informed in varying degrees by the experience of what we term “tangible evidence,” creates a lens through which communities interpret a health study’s findings. The differences in reliance on tangible evidence were related to participants’ sense of trust in public officials, and the institutions responsible for conducting health studies. Participants from the wealthier, predominantly white communities discussed trust in study design and methodologies used. In contrast, participants from the lower income, higher minority communities assessed health studies with reference to their trust (or lack thereof) in study sponsors and public health institutions. Participants’ experience of tangible evidence, trust or distrust in health agencies and research institutions, and a sense of relative community power, influence how they assess the findings of environmental health studies and may have implications for pubic health. PMID:18995942

  2. Risk perception and environmental health concerns in conditions of social security threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolarova, D.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: this study explores the connection between the perception of different societal risk, health concerns and behavioral attitudes of people in condition of social security threat. Two small and two big industrial towns were chosen in order to observe the social and psychological price of the structural changes in the industry such as unemployment and its reflection on the households and the individuals' social attitudes. Key stakeholders were interviewed and questionnaire survey was carried out. The results showed high level of risk sensitivity and health concerns when people felt threatened by lack of social and economic security. The pollution was found to be important problem when it caused direct and obvious risk to human health and the environment. In the same time reverse environmental behavior like insensitiveness and neglectful attitude was observed in cases when the health consequences of the pollution were perceived to be unclear and with delayed effect. In situation of a great socio-economic threat noninvolvement helped the individuals to adapt. The research proved the influence of several risk characteristics on risk perception. It was found a connection between the risk perception and risk controllability, voluntariness of exposure and cost/benefits distribution. In the study areas respondents' judgments on these characteristics reflected directly their social status and material state. The study presented here is in progress - it i's supported by research grant from Open Society Foundation. (author)

  3. Confronting New Demands : Inclusive Growth, Inclusive Trade ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Confronting New Demands : Inclusive Growth, Inclusive Trade. Policymakers, businesspeople and civil society advocates need evidence-based research to react ... understood implications, such as labour standards and intellectual property; ...

  4. Evaluation of perception on environmental movement: accessibility centered in the user

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éden Fernando Batista Ferreira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The discussion about accessibility in urban environments is observed in several studies,but the vast majority focuses attention on structural elements and not the user. Objective: This study proposes a method of assessing urban environmental movement, from the point of view of its users, to identify the relationship between perceived barriers and facilitators in the environment movement and aspects of the body functions and structures and the users’ participation in activities, which denotes the degree of accessibility of these people in this space. Method: It describes a case study in Belem, Para state, utilizing a method of assessing the perception of users, based on indicators of environmental factors, activity and participation, structure and functions of the body, highlighted by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health – ICF. Results:The main finding of this study indicates that people’s perceptions about their environment directly influences the movement involved in their occupations. Conclusion: Studies with this content are relevant and necessary in our current society, because they reveal how changes in major urban centers influence the accessibility and involvement of people in their occupations, thereby directly interfering with their health, quality of life, and participation in society.

  5. An Empirical Study on Environmental System Perception of Tourism Island Residents: A Case Study in Hainan Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Sun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Today the development of island tourism has attracted more and more attention from domestic and international tourism researches. Tourism island has become the important scenic spot in coastal cities in China. Through the empirical research of local residents' awareness of environmental system, we can better hold people's perception of the touristic environment. Method can also be drawn to promote public participation more actively in the tourism development of the islands. This paper mainly shows the residents' attitude towards tourism through their feelings of the changes of economy, local social culture and the island environment brought by tourism. The results show that residents' positive perception of tourism is more intense than negative perception, and the perception of economy is stronger than that of culture and environment. On the overall perception, there exists no significant difference while in the tiny level there are still some differences remained.

  6. Perceptions, Preferences, and Behavior Regarding Energy and Environmental Costs: The Case of Montreal Transport Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayer Daher

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Providing travel-related fuel and environmental information to transport users is becoming increasingly relevant. However, the impact of providing such information on users’ travel behavior is yet to be determined. This research examined the perceptions and preferences related to the fuel consumption costs, greenhouse gas (GHG social costs, and health-related air pollution costs, and the influence such information could have on travel behavior. Examining the case of Montreal transport users, the authors conducted a survey in which the respondents were asked general and stated preference questions. The respondents were found to be unaware of the energy and environmental footprints of their travel. Approximately 85% of the respondents were not able to estimate GHG social costs and health-related air pollution costs across different modes. The respondents generally overestimated these costs and they interestingly reported higher environmental costs for public transport (metro compared to cars. They also preferred to receive such information in monetary units, and they were more comfortable in receiving the information through mobile applications over other tools/means. The research also found that fuel and environmental information influence respondents’ travel decisions especially their route choices. Finally, the respondents would be willing to pay an average of 7 Canadian dollars/month in exchange for obtaining the information.

  7. Perception of built environmental factors and physical activity among adolescents in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding environmental factors related to adolescents’ physical activity can inform intervention for obesity control and prevention, but virtually no study has been conducted in the African region, where adolescents’ physical inactivity and chronic diseases rates are rising. This study assessed associations between perceived built environmental variables and adolescents’ physical activity (active transportation to school and leisure-time moderate-to- vigorous physical activity), and the moderating effects of neighborhood-level income on association between environmental variables and physical activity among Nigerian boys and girls. Methods Participants were 1006 adolescents (12–19 years, 50.4% girls) randomly selected from 11 secondary schools in Maiduguri city, Nigeria. Physical activity and perceptions of environmental characteristics were assessed by validated self-report questionnaires. Separate gender-based, hierarchical multiple moderated linear regression analyses were used to examine the direct associations between the environmental perceptions and physical activity variables (active transportation and leisure-time MVPA; dependent variables), as well as the moderating effects of neighborhood-level income. Results Only in boys were direct associations and interaction effect of neighborhood-level income found. Access to destinations was positively associated with active transportation to school (β = 0.18; CI = 0.67, 2.24); while residential density (β = 0.10; CI = 0.01, 1.74) and availability/quality of infrastructures (β = 0.14; CI = 0.49, 2.68) were positively associated with leisure-time MVPA. Also, neighborhood-level income moderated the association between perceived safety and leisure-time MVPA, with more perceived safety related to less MVPA (β = -0.16; CI = -0.01, -0.70) in boys living in high SES neighborhood but marginally related to more MVPA (β = 0.11; CI = -0.04, 2.88, p = 0

  8. Environmental volunteer well-being: Managers’ perception and actual well-being of volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh, Gitte; Stafford, Rick; Curtin, Susanna; Diaz, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Background: Environmental volunteering can increase well-being, but environmental volunteer well-being has rarely been compared to participant well-being associated with other types of volunteering or nature-based activities. This paper aims to use a multidimensional approach to well-being to explore the immediately experienced and later remembered well-being of environmental volunteers and to compare this to the increased well-being of participants in other types of nature-based activities and volunteering. Furthermore, it aims to compare volunteer managers’ perceptions of their volunteers’ well-being with the self-reported well-being of the volunteers. Methods: Onsite surveys were conducted of practical conservation and biodiversity monitoring volunteers, as well as their control groups (walkers and fieldwork students, respectively), to measure general well-being before their nature-based activity and activity-related well-being immediately after their activity. Online surveys of current, former and potential volunteers and volunteer managers measured remembered volunteering-related well-being and managers’ perceptions of their volunteers’ well-being. Data were analysed based on Seligman’s multidimensional PERMA (‘positive emotion’, ‘engagement’, ‘positive relationship’, ‘meaning’, ‘achievement’) model of well-being. Factor analysis recovered three of the five PERMA elements, ‘engagement’, ‘relationship’ and ‘meaning’, as well as ‘negative emotion’ and ‘health’ as factors. Results: Environmental volunteering significantly improved positive elements and significantly decreased negative elements of participants’ immediate well-being, and it did so more than walking or student fieldwork. Even remembering their volunteering up to six months later, volunteers rated their volunteering-related well-being higher than volunteers rated their well-being generally in life. However, volunteering was not found to have an

  9. Environmental volunteer well-being: Managers' perception and actual well-being of volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh, Gitte; Stafford, Rick; Curtin, Susanna; Diaz, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Background : Environmental volunteering can increase well-being, but environmental volunteer well-being has rarely been compared to participant well-being associated with other types of volunteering or nature-based activities. This paper aims to use a multidimensional approach to well-being to explore the immediately experienced and later remembered well-being of environmental volunteers and to compare this to the increased well-being of participants in other types of nature-based activities and volunteering. Furthermore, it aims to compare volunteer managers' perceptions of their volunteers' well-being with the self-reported well-being of the volunteers. Methods : Onsite surveys were conducted of practical conservation and biodiversity monitoring volunteers, as well as their control groups (walkers and fieldwork students, respectively), to measure general well-being before their nature-based activity and activity-related well-being immediately after their activity. Online surveys of current, former and potential volunteers and volunteer managers measured remembered volunteering-related well-being and managers' perceptions of their volunteers' well-being. Data were analysed based on Seligman's multidimensional PERMA ('positive emotion', 'engagement', 'positive relationship', 'meaning', 'achievement') model of well-being. Factor analysis recovered three of the five PERMA elements, 'engagement', 'relationship' and 'meaning', as well as 'negative emotion' and 'health' as factors. Results : Environmental volunteering significantly improved positive elements and significantly decreased negative elements of participants' immediate well-being, and it did so more than walking or student fieldwork. Even remembering their volunteering up to six months later, volunteers rated their volunteering-related well-being higher than volunteers rated their well-being generally in life. However, volunteering was not found to have an effect on overall mean well-being generally in life

  10. Parent's knowledge and perceptions of the health effects of environmental hazards in sakarya, turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nursan, C.; Sevin, A.; Cemile, D.; Pinar, T.; Sevin, A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge and perception of parents of high school students about the health effects of environmental hazards in Sakarya province of Turkey. Method: The cross-section study was conducted in May 2009 in which randomly assigned 362 parents answered a questionnaire inquiring about the sociodemographics and a list of environmental hazards such as tobacco smoking, sunlight exposure and skin cancer, global climate change, air pollution, noise exposure, smoking during pregnancy and low birth-weight, exposure to radon and lung cancer, reducing radon, air pollution and cardiovascular diseases, base station and childhood leukaemia, extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields and brain tumour. The participants were also asked about water pollution, environmental tobacco smoke, air pollution, ozone depletion, exposure to radon gas, soil pollution, noise pollution, formaldehyde related with furniture, ground ozone and pesticides etc. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Among the participants 226 (62.4%) were females, and 284 (78.5%) were in the 31-45 age group. There were 246 (68%) high school or university graduates. Of the participants, 357 (98.6%) knew that smoking was a health risk, but exposure to radon gas was not that prevalent (n=194; 53.6%). The most intimidating risk was claimed as unsafe water (n=311; 85.9%), while noise exposure was the least source of worry among the environmental risks (n=134; 37.0%). Conclusion: There is a necessity to inform the public about less-known but significant environmental risks such as radon gas and noise exposure which may cause health problems. (author)

  11. Parent's knowledge and perceptions of the health effects of environmental hazards in Sakarya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursan, Cinar; Müge, Alvur Tuncay; Cemile, Dede; Pinar, Topsever; Sevin, Altinkaynak

    2014-01-01

    To assess the knowledge and perception of parents of high school students about the health effects of environmental hazards in Sakarya province of Turkey. The cross-section study was conducted in May 2009 in which randomly assigned 362 parents answered a questionnaire inquiring about the sociodemographics and a list of environmental hazards such as tobacco smoking, sunlight exposure and skin cancer, global climate change, air pollution, noise exposure, smoking during pregnancy and low birth-weight, exposure to radon and lung cancer, reducing radon, air pollution and cardiovascular diseases, base station and childhood leukaemia, extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields and brain tumour.The participants were also asked about water pollution, environmental tobacco smoke, air pollution, ozone depletion, exposure to radon gas, soil pollution, noise pollution, formaldehyde related with furniture, ground ozone and pesticides etc. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Among the participants 226 (62.4%) were females, and 284 (78.5%) were in the 31-45 age group. There were 246 (68%) high school or university graduates. Of the participants, 357 (98.6%) knew that smoking was a health risk, but exposure to radon gas was not that prevalent (n=194; 53.6%). The most intimidating risk was claimed as unsafe water (n=311; 85.9%), while noise exposure was the least source of worry among the environmental risks (n=134; 37.0%). There is a necessity to inform the public about less-known but significant environmental risks such as radon gas and noise exposure which may cause health problems.

  12. Coastal dynamics vs beach users attitudes and perceptions to enhance environmental conservation and management effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretano, Roberta; Parlagreco, Luca; Semeraro, Teodoro; Zurlini, Giovanni; Petrosillo, Irene

    2017-10-15

    This work carries out a landscape analysis for the last 60years to compare the degree of preservation of two areas on the same Italian coastline characterized by different environmental protection levels: a National designated protected areas and a highly tourist coastal destination. The conversion of natural land-covers into human land uses were detected for protected and unprotected coastal stretches highlighting that the only establishment of a protected area is not enough to stem undesirable land-use outcomes. A survey analysis was also conducted to assess attitudes of beach users and to evaluate their perception of natural habitats, beach and coastal water quality, and coastal dynamic over time. The results of 2071 questionnaires showed that there is similarity between subjective and objective data. However, several beach users perceived a bad quality of coastal water in the legally unprotected coastal area. The implications from a planning and management perspective are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Participation in environmental health research by placenta donation - a perception study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Uffe; Mose, Tina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2007-01-01

    background information but no follow up. METHODS: Nineteen semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with participants in the placenta perfusion study after donation of placenta. Observation studies were made of recruitment sessions. RESULTS: The interviewed participants are generally in favour......, but trust is something which needs to be created through "trust-work". Face-to-face interaction, written information material and informed consent forms play important parts in creating trusting relationships in medical research. CONCLUSION: Medical research ethics do not only amount to specific types......BACKGROUND: Much environmental health research depends on human volunteers participating with biological samples. The perception study explores why and how people participate in a placenta perfusion study in Copenhagen. The participation implies donation of the placenta after birth and some...

  14. The Community Environmental Monitoring Program: Reducing Public Perception of Risk through Stakeholder Involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William T. Hartwell

    2007-01-01

    The Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has promoted stakeholder involvement, awareness, and understanding of radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) since 1981. It involves stakeholders in the operation, data collection, and dissemination of information obtained from a network of 29 stations across a wide area of Nevada, Utah and California. It is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration's Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. Integration of a near real-time communications system, a public web site, training workshops for involved stakeholders, and educational programs all help to alleviate public perception of risk of health effects from past activities conducted at the NTS

  15. Environmental perception among residents of Ratones and Peri Lagoon communities, Santa Catarina Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio da Silva Custódio

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lack of basic sanitation is linked to population growth disjointed of public policies. This work developed between July 2015 and July 2016 aimed to evaluate the perceptions of riverside land owners on the status of water bodies in the locations of Ratones River and Peri Lagoon, Florianópolis (Santa Catarina. We interviewed 51 residents in total. And the residents of Ratones knew a larger number of rivers and described direct supply of water bodies to their homes, compared to that obtained in the community of Peri Lagoon, where most homes was supplied by the public network. Both communities have shown intradomiciliary water filtration, assumed riparian forests degraded, considered the rainwater important for ecosystems health, and reported lack of sewage treatment. We conclude that residents tended to have an anthropocentric environmental vision, which residents interpret the environment as a space disconnected from the man.

  16. SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN NGOS: A LOOK FROM THE BUSINESS PERFORMANCE AND THEIR PERCEPTIONS AS STAKEHOLDERS FROM OTHERS ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Duarte Couto Fernandes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The reflection of environmental management is felt by the entire chain of stakeholders of an organization. Within the environmental context, the NGOs act as important actors in the dissemination and engagement, being one of the key stakeholders which relate to the company. This article aims to discuss the concept of environmental management from the performance of environmental NGOs in Uberlândia/MG, checking their perception as one of all stakeholders from organizations. The research is descriptive and exploratory. Data collection started from semi-structured interviews with managers and research websites of entities. The results of this study show the relevance of the subject; how the environmental management of the NGOs involves both aspects of environmental and social; and the difficulty to relate and act together with government agencies and private sector, given the different goals that each ball has when it comes to environmental management.

  17. Perception of the Environmental Degradation of Gold Mining on Socio-Economic Variables in Eastern Cameroon, Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Anselme Kamga; Charles Olufisayo Olatubara; Moses Monday Atteh; Serge Nzali; Adeola Adenikinju; Théodore Yimgnia Mbiatso; Ralain Bryan Ngatcha

    2018-01-01

    Artisanal mining is associated with a number of environmental impacts, including deforestation and land degradation, open pits which pose animal traps and health hazards, and heavy metals contamination of land (water and soil), dust and noise pollution. The study examines the perception of environmental degradation of gold mining sites in eastern Cameroon. Human-environment interaction and distance decay models are the conceptual framework for this study.  This study employed a survey re...

  18. Confronting new technological challenges in HEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savoy-Navarro, Aurore

    2000-01-01

    The new technological challenges that will have to be confronted in HEP are mainly due to the new physics issues. What is beyond the standard model? That is the question. This review will first list the physics demands in order to explore this unknown world. It will then show with appropriate examples, how the new physics will require confronting new technological challenges in: designing new accelerators, developing new detectors, designing new front-end readout systems and using the new software and hardware tools for the online readout and DAQ systems

  19. Perception Environmental Awareness and Green Areas: The Case Botanical Garden City Park in Sinop / MT, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinovia Cecilia Rauber

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the environmental perception of a group of residents of two neighborhoods surrounding the Botanical Garden City Park in Sinop-MT, revealing their relationship with the area as well as their involvement in proposing alternatives for the conservation of the Park. With this aim a study on the Botanical Garden Municipal Park was carried out, using the following procedures: documentary research in public agencies; site visits for description of the area and semi-structured interviews with a group of residents of two neighborhoods in the vicinity, Celeste Garden and the Botanical Garden. The presence of fauna, flora and springs that form Ribeirão Nilza within the park indicates the need for its conservation, and the residents consider the area important for the local micro weather, tourism, biodiversity conservation and also to develop researches, contributing significantly to the population's quality of life. Taking into account the above considerations, it is important to consider a new scenario, which aims to mobilize social participation, propitiating the people the feeling of belonging to what they conceive as the environment, giving rise to a participatory management by means of Environmental Education.

  20. Consideration of biodiversity in environmental impact assessment in Western Australia: practitioner perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegner, A.; Moore, S.A.; Bailey, J.

    2005-01-01

    Biodiversity has become a central concern in environmental management. As such, it is crucial that it is included and fully considered in environmental impact assessment (EIA). This paper explores the definitions and perceptions of biodiversity, and the associated management implications, held by those involved in preparing and assessing EIA documents in Western Australia. This State has world-recognised biodiversity values and comprehensive impact assessment processes. These practitioners defined biodiversity in a range of ways from a very basic through to a sophisticated, extended definition. A range of approaches to its assessment was also evident. The most sophisticated practitioners placed biodiversity in its spatial and temporal context as well as being cognizant of community aspirations and the principle of net conservation benefit. The ability to properly consider biodiversity in EIA is dependent on good information, not only on flora and fauna but also on the concepts and processes associated with biodiversity. Clear policy directions, from the assessing authority, regarding the level and detail of assessment required, are also critical

  1. Latina youths' perceptions of children's environmental health risks in an agricultural community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Julie; Peterson, Jeff; Ybarra Vega, Mary Jo; Ramon, Cristian; Cortes, Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify Latina youths' perceptions of local assets and concerns related to children's environmental health (EH) in an agricultural community. Four photovoice sessions were used to elicit 6 promotores' and 5 middle school students' perspectives on problems and strengths related to "children; environment; and health." Data collection was diverse and included a demographic and evaluation questionnaire, photographs, audio recordings of group photo-sharing sessions, and field notes. Participants identified three themes that reflected group discussion during two photo-sharing sessions: a lack of structured youth activities; poverty and stress; and benefits and detriments of agricultural work. Community assets related to creating a healthy environment for youth were identified and included the clinic, churches, and youth programs. Findings from this study reinforce that social background and position affect how EH issues are defined and may be addressed. Participant perspectives are valuable to nurses because they offer a lens through which to see the complexities of EH from the viewpoint of those most directly affected. Leadership training and opportunities to serve on coalitions and neighborhood councils are recommended approaches to meaningfully involving youth in environmental justice initiatives. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Lived Experience of Iranian Women Confronting Breast Cancer Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabi, Esmat; Hajian, Sepideh; Simbar, Masoomeh; Hoshyari, Mohammad; Zayeri, Farid

    2016-03-01

    The populations who survive from breast cancer are growing; nevertheless, they mostly encounter with many cancer related problems in their life, especially after early diagnosis and have to deal with these problems. Except for the disease entity, several socio-cultural factors may affect confronting this challenge among patients and the way they deal with. Present study was carried out to prepare clear understanding of Iranian women's lived experiences confronting breast cancer diagnosis and coping ways they applied to deal with it. This study was carried out by using qualitative phenomenological design. Data gathering was done through purposive sampling using semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 18 women who survived from breast cancer. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using Van Manen's thematic analysis approach. Two main themes were emerged from the interviews including "emotional turbulence" and "threat control". The first, comprised three sub themes including uncertainty, perceived worries, and living with fears. The second included risk control, recurrence control, immediate seeking help, seeking support and resource to spirituality. Emotional response was the immediate reflection to cancer diagnosis. However, during post-treatment period a variety of emotions were not uncommon findings, patients' perceptions have been changing along the time and problem-focused coping strategies have replaced. Although women may experience a degree of improvement and adjustment with illness, the emotional problems are not necessarily resolved, they may continue and gradually engender positive outcomes.

  3. The Lived Experience of Iranian Women Confronting Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmat Mehrabi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The populations who survive from breast cancer are growing; nevertheless, they mostly encounter with many cancer related problems in their life, especially after early diagnosis and have to deal with these problems. Except for the disease entity, several socio-cultural factors may affect confronting this challenge among patients and the way they deal with. Present study was carried out to prepare clear understanding of Iranian women's lived experiences confronting breast cancer diagnosis and coping ways they applied to deal with it. Methods: This study was carried out by using qualitative phenomenological design. Data gathering was done through purposive sampling using semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 18 women who survived from breast cancer. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using Van Manen’s thematic analysis approach. Results: Two main themes were emerged from the interviews including "emotional turbulence" and "threat control". The first, comprised three sub themes including uncertainty, perceived worries, and living with fears. The second included risk control, recurrence control, immediate seeking help, seeking support and resource to spirituality. Conclusion: Emotional response was the immediate reflection to cancer diagnosis. However, during post-treatment period a variety of emotions were not uncommon findings, patients' perceptions have been changing along the time and problem-focused coping strategies have replaced. Although women may experience a degree of improvement and adjustment with illness, the emotional problems are not necessarily resolved, they may continue and gradually engender positive outcomes.

  4. Macroeconomic Issues Confronting the Next President.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solow, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    Identifies economic issues that confronted the United States in the late 1980's and discusses how the president might deal with them. Highlights the following issues: recession, rising price levels, the budget deficit, international trade imbalance, and revival of U.S. long-term growth. (GEA)

  5. Confronting the neoliberal and libertarian reconceptualisations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Confronting this phenomenon, this paper reviews neoliberal and libertarian understandings of educational equality and democratic education and interrogates the rationale for the justification of markets in education. In the process, I criticise the notion of possessive individualism as a principle of democratic education on the ...

  6. Real or Illusory? Case Studies on the Public Perception of Environmental Health Risks in the North West of England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alex G; Luria, Paolo; Reid, John; Lyons, Mary; Jarvis, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Applied research in a public health setting seeks to provide professionals with insights and knowledge into complex environmental issues to guide actions that reduce inequalities and improve health. We describe ten environmental case studies that explore the public perception of health risk. We employed logical analysis of components of each case study and comparative information to generate new evidence. The findings highlight how concerns about environmental issues measurably affect people’s wellbeing and led to the development of new understanding about the benefits of taking an earlier and more inclusive approach to risk communication that can now be tested further. PMID:20617024

  7. Environmental impacts of modern agricultural technology diffusion in Bangladesh: an analysis of farmers' perceptions and their determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Sanzidur

    2003-06-01

    Farmers' perception of the environmental impacts of modern agricultural technology diffusion and factors determining such awareness were examined using survey data from 21 villages in three agro-ecological regions of Bangladesh. Results reveal that farmers are well aware of the adverse environmental impacts of modern agricultural technology, although their awareness remains confined within visible impacts such as soil fertility, fish catches, and health effects. Their perception of intangible impacts such as, toxicity in water and soils is weak. Level and duration of modern agricultural technology adoption directly influence awareness of its adverse effects. Education and extension contacts also play an important role in raising awareness. Awareness is higher among farmers in developed regions, fertile locations and those with access to off-farm income sources. Promotion of education and strengthening extension services will boost farmers' environmental awareness. Infrastructure development and measures to replenish depleting soil fertility will also play a positive role in raising awareness.

  8. How Blogging on Earth and Environmental Science Changed One Student's Passion, Perception, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufoe, A.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, I started a WordPress blog to engage more with my undergraduate education field of study - communications. Starting out with blog posts about social media, this blog's initial goal was to showcase my interest in the media as well as to blog about my first conference attendance and presentations. However, blogging turned into more than that for me. As I was pursuing a minor in Environmental Inquiry and therefore taking more Earth and environmental science classes, I learned that I love to write about environmental issues, particularly about how issues can be addressed and resolved. Because of this shift in my personal and professional interests, I began to blog about global topics such as global water consumption, environmental conservation and arctic sea ice. This change in direction was unprecedented, but helped define my online presence. Over the two years I have been writing my blog, the science posts have been the most successful, with WordPress.com users liking and reading the posts. Readers from all over the globe are brought to my blog from search engines, as shown through the analytics on the WordPress dashboard. However, the impact of my blog on others is challenging to quantify apart from the analytics, because most people do not comment on the posts. Regardless, and most importantly, my blog has changed MY perception of science. Before I started blogging about science topics, I was unaware of how complicated and connected Earth's processes are, including climate change, natural disasters, human actions and pollution. Overall, this blog has been important to me because it helped define my interests academically, leading me to apply and be accepted to a Masters program at the University of Montana starting in August 2013. The program in Environmental Science and Natural Resource Journalism umbrellas over both my training in communications and my love for the environment. Because of my personal growth through my blog, I am also motivated to create

  9. Public perception of odour and environmental pollution attributed to MSW treatment and disposal facilities: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Feo, Giovanni, E-mail: g.defeo@unisa.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, via Ponte don Melillo 1, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); De Gisi, Sabino [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, via Ponte don Melillo 1, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Williams, Ian D. [Waste Management Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Effects of closing MSW facilities on perception of odour and pollution studied. ► Residents’ perception of odour nuisance considerably diminished post closure. ► Odour perception showed an association with distance from MSW facilities. ► Media coverage increased knowledge about MSW facilities and how they operate. ► Economic compensation possibly affected residents’ views and concerns. - Abstract: If residents’ perceptions, concerns and attitudes towards waste management facilities are either not well understood or underestimated, people can produce strong opposition that may include protest demonstrations and violent conflicts such as those experienced in the Campania Region of Italy. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the closure of solid waste treatment and disposal facilities (two landfills and one RDF production plant) on public perception of odour and environmental pollution. The study took place in four villages in Southern Italy. Identical questionnaires were administered to residents during 2003 and after the closure of the facilities occurred in 2008. The residents’ perception of odour nuisance considerably diminished between 2003 and 2009 for the nearest villages, with odour perception showing an association with distance from the facilities. Post closure, residents had difficulty in identifying the type of smell due to the decrease in odour level. During both surveys, older residents reported most concern about the potentially adverse health impacts of long-term exposure to odours from MSW facilities. However, although awareness of MSW facilities and concern about potentially adverse health impacts varied according to the characteristics of residents in 2003, substantial media coverage produced an equalisation effect and increased knowledge about the type of facilities and how they operated. It is possible that residents of the village nearest to the facilities reported lower awareness of and concern about

  10. Public perception of odour and environmental pollution attributed to MSW treatment and disposal facilities: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Feo, Giovanni; De Gisi, Sabino; Williams, Ian D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effects of closing MSW facilities on perception of odour and pollution studied. ► Residents’ perception of odour nuisance considerably diminished post closure. ► Odour perception showed an association with distance from MSW facilities. ► Media coverage increased knowledge about MSW facilities and how they operate. ► Economic compensation possibly affected residents’ views and concerns. - Abstract: If residents’ perceptions, concerns and attitudes towards waste management facilities are either not well understood or underestimated, people can produce strong opposition that may include protest demonstrations and violent conflicts such as those experienced in the Campania Region of Italy. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the closure of solid waste treatment and disposal facilities (two landfills and one RDF production plant) on public perception of odour and environmental pollution. The study took place in four villages in Southern Italy. Identical questionnaires were administered to residents during 2003 and after the closure of the facilities occurred in 2008. The residents’ perception of odour nuisance considerably diminished between 2003 and 2009 for the nearest villages, with odour perception showing an association with distance from the facilities. Post closure, residents had difficulty in identifying the type of smell due to the decrease in odour level. During both surveys, older residents reported most concern about the potentially adverse health impacts of long-term exposure to odours from MSW facilities. However, although awareness of MSW facilities and concern about potentially adverse health impacts varied according to the characteristics of residents in 2003, substantial media coverage produced an equalisation effect and increased knowledge about the type of facilities and how they operated. It is possible that residents of the village nearest to the facilities reported lower awareness of and concern about

  11. Who confronts prejudice?: the role of implicit theories in the motivation to confront prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Aneeta; Dweck, Carol S

    2010-07-01

    Despite the possible costs, confronting prejudice can have important benefits, ranging from the well-being of the target of prejudice to social change. What, then, motivates targets of prejudice to confront people who express explicit bias? In three studies, we tested the hypothesis that targets who hold an incremental theory of personality (i.e., the belief that people can change) are more likely to confront prejudice than targets who hold an entity theory of personality (i.e., the belief that people have fixed traits). In Study 1, targets' beliefs about the malleability of personality predicted whether they spontaneously confronted an individual who expressed bias. In Study 2, targets who held more of an incremental theory reported that they would be more likely to confront prejudice and less likely to withdraw from future interactions with an individual who expressed prejudice. In Study 3, we manipulated implicit theories and replicated these findings. By highlighting the central role that implicit theories of personality play in targets' motivation to confront prejudice, this research has important implications for intergroup relations and social change.

  12. Highly polygenic variation in environmental perception determines dauer larvae formation in growing populations of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W M Green

    Full Text Available Determining how complex traits are genetically controlled is a requirement if we are to predict how they evolve and how they might respond to selection. This requires understanding how distinct, and often more simple, life history traits interact and change in response to environmental conditions. In order to begin addressing such issues, we have been analyzing the formation of the developmentally arrested dauer larvae of Caenorhabditis elegans under different conditions.We find that 18 of 22 previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs affecting dauer larvae formation in growing populations, assayed by determining the number of dauer larvae present at food patch exhaustion, can be recovered under various environmental conditions. We also show that food patch size affects both the ability to detect QTLs and estimates of effect size, and demonstrate that an allele of nath-10 affects dauer larvae formation in growing populations. To investigate the component traits that affect dauer larvae formation in growing populations we map, using the same introgression lines, QTLs that affect dauer larvae formation in response to defined amounts of pheromone. This identifies 36 QTLs, again demonstrating the highly polygenic nature of the genetic variation underlying dauer larvae formation.These data indicate that QTLs affecting the number of dauer larvae at food exhaustion in growing populations of C. elegans are highly reproducible, and that nearly all can be explained by variation affecting dauer larvae formation in response to defined amounts of pheromone. This suggests that most variation in dauer larvae formation in growing populations is a consequence of variation in the perception of the food and pheromone environment (i.e. chemosensory variation and in the integration of these cues.

  13. CHILD WITNESSES AND THE CONFRONTATION CLAUSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Thomas D; Dente, Julia A

    2012-01-01

    After the Supreme Court's ruling in Crawford v. Washington that a criminal defendant's right to confront the witnesses against him is violated by the admission of testimonial hearsay that has not been cross-examined, lower courts have overturned convictions in which hearsay from children was admitted after child witnesses were either unwilling or unable to testify. A review of social scientific evidence regarding the dynamics of child sexual abuse suggests a means for facilitating the fair receipt of children's evidence. Courts should hold that defendants have forfeited their confrontation rights if they exploited a child's vulnerabilities such that they could reasonably anticipate that the child would be unavailable to testify. Exploitation includes choosing victims on the basis of their filial dependency, their vulnerability, or their immaturity, as well as taking actions that create or accentuate those vulnerabilities.

  14. Goal preference shapes confrontations of sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Robyn K; Melchiori, Kala J

    2014-05-01

    Although most women assume they would confront sexism, assertive responses are rare. We test whether women's preference for respect or liking during interpersonal interactions explains this surprising tendency. Women report preferring respect relative to liking after being asked sexist, compared with inappropriate, questions during a virtual job interview (Study 1, n = 149). Women's responses to sexism increase in assertiveness along with their preference for being respected, and a respect-preference mediates the relation between the type of questions and response assertiveness (Studies 1 and 2). In Study 2 (n = 105), women's responses to sexist questions are more assertive when the sense of belonging is enhanced with a belonging manipulation. Moreover, preference for respect mediates the effect of the type of questions on response assertiveness, but only when belonging needs are met. Thus the likelihood of confrontation depends on the goal to be respected outweighing the goal to be liked.

  15. Participation in environmental health research by placenta donation - a perception study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Uffe; Mose, Tina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2007-11-22

    Much environmental health research depends on human volunteers participating with biological samples. The perception study explores why and how people participate in a placenta perfusion study in Copenhagen. The participation implies donation of the placenta after birth and some background information but no follow up. Nineteen semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with participants in the placenta perfusion study after donation of placenta. Observation studies were made of recruitment sessions. The interviewed participants are generally in favour of medical research. They participated in the placenta perfusion study due to a belief that societal progress follows medical research. They also felt that participating was a way of giving something back to the Danish health care system. The participants have trust in medical science and scientists, but trust is something which needs to be created through "trust-work". Face-to-face interaction, written information material and informed consent forms play important parts in creating trusting relationships in medical research. Medical research ethics do not only amount to specific types of written information material but should also be seen as a number of trust making performances involving researchers as well as research participants.

  16. Perception of Policy and Environmental Action to Promote Healthy Behaviors in African American Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Clifton; Jenkins, Brenda W Campbell; White, Monique; Henderson, Frances; McGill, Dorothy J; Antoine-LaVigne, Donna; Payton, Marinelle

    2017-03-07

    The present study aimed to examine the perceptions of African American communities regarding the involvement of political leaders in facilitating policy and environmental change promoting healthy eating and physical activity. We selected the Metro Jackson Area comprised of Hinds, Madison and Rankin Counties because it is a combination of urban and rural communities. The sample consisted of 70 participants from seven sites. A total of seven focus groups were asked to respond to one question to assess political leaders' involvement in healthy living: "When you think about your political leaders that you have in the Jackson, Mississippi area, do any of them promote healthy eating and physical activity?" Focus groups consisted of six to 12 participants and were asked to comment on their participation in physical activity. The focus group interviews were digitally recorded. The recorded interviews were transcribed by a professional transcriptionist. Community members could not recollect much participation from political leaders in the health prevention/intervention efforts. In each of the counties, there was evidence that there was some involvement by local politicians in health promotion issues, but not on a large scale. In conclusion, making healthy foods and products available in neighborhood stores has long been associated with healthy behaviors and positive health outcomes. This can make a difference in the Mississippi communities where supermarkets are not accessible and health disparities abound.

  17. Environmental perceptions as mediators of the relationship between the objective built environment and walking among socio-economically disadvantaged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Veitch, Jenny; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Thornton, Lukar; Ball, Kylie

    2013-09-19

    Women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods are at increased risk for physical inactivity and associated health outcomes and are difficult to reach through personally tailored interventions. Targeting the built environment may be an effective strategy in this population subgroup. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating role of environmental perceptions in the relationship between the objective environment and walking for transportation/recreation among women from socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Baseline data of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality (READI) study were used. In total, 4139 women (18-46 years) completed a postal survey assessing physical environmental perceptions (aesthetics, neighbourhood physical activity environment, personal safety, neighbourhood social cohesion), physical activity, and socio-demographics. Objectively-assessed data on street connectivity and density of destinations were collected using a Geographic Information System database and based on the objective z-scores, an objective destinations/connectivity score was calculated. This index was positively scored, with higher scores representing a more favourable environment. Two-level mixed models regression analyses were conducted and the MacKinnon product-of-coefficients test was used to examine the mediating effects. The destinations/connectivity score was positively associated with transport-related walking. The perceived physical activity environment mediated 6.1% of this positive association. The destinations/connectivity score was negatively associated with leisure-time walking. Negative perceptions of aesthetics, personal safety and social cohesion of the neighbourhood jointly mediated 24.1% of this negative association. For women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods, environmental perceptions were important mediators of the relationship between the objective built environment and walking. To

  18. The environmental pollution perception of residents in coal mining areas: a case study in the Hancheng mine area, Shaanxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xingmin; He, Fei

    2012-10-01

    The environmental behavior of the residents depends on their perception of environmental pollution. Hence, it is important for scientific and policy experts to research on the impact of the environmental pollution perception of local residents. Owing to the richness of natural resources, Hancheng coal mine areas are abound in heavy industries, and environmental pollution is serious and typical in this area, thus, the residents are anxious about their health. Using questionnaires, this paper surveys the perception of residents living in the coal mine area. The influential factors of environmental perception were analyzed by the Rank Sum Test. The results were: (1) the majority of the residents in the coal mine area are not satisfied with their living environment. The perception order of pollution severity is: air pollution > noise pollution > sanitation > water pollution. The residents think that pollution is mainly caused by coal processing. Hence, coal mining is not the main reason of the pollution in the coal mine area. (2) Age and length of residence have significant positive effects on perceptions of air, water, and noise pollutions; whereas education has a significant negative effect on perceptions of water and noise pollutions, as well as sanitation. This phenomenon can be explained by the various cultural groups having varied perceptions on the environmental pollution. In addition, proximity to mine has significant negative effect on perceptions of water and noise pollution. In conclusion, the paper discusses the effects of demographical and social factors on the perception of environmental pollution and gives suggestions on the planning and management of the environment.

  19. Effect of Local Community’s Environmental Perception on Trust in a Mining Company: A Case Study in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavdmaa Dagvadorj

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available While the mining industry is booming globally, local communities resist mining operations. It is crucial for mining companies to maintain trust within these communities to prevent conflicts. This research investigated local community’s trust in a mining company in Mongolia using a questionnaire survey. We assessed the residents’ perceptions of the company’s effort to maintain environmental protection, as a determinant of trust, in addition to the determinants of motivation and ability. The results showed that the trust level varied within the different respondent groups and the determinants of trust differentially explained the state of trust. The nomadic herders who lived close to the mine site had low trust while being sensitive to the environmental effects. Other herders had neutral trust. Town citizens had high trust, which was mainly related to positive perceptions of motivation. Communicability of the information provided by the company influenced formulation of positive and negative perceptions. Overall, low trust likely leads to conflicts. Therefore, mining companies are advised to conduct surveys with different groups in the local community, especially those sensitive to environmental changes, and take measures to maintain trust.

  20. Citizen-sensor-networks to confront government decision-makers: Two lessons from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, L.J.; Ache, P.M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents one emerging social-technical innovation: The evolution of citizen-sensor-networks where citizens organize themselves from the ‘bottom up’, for the sake of confronting governance officials with measured information about environmental qualities. We have observed how

  1. Perceptions of environmental changes and Lethargic crab disease among crab harvesters in a Brazilian coastal community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Lethargic Crab Disease (LCD) has caused significant mortalities in the population of Ucides cordatus crabs in the Mucuri estuary in Bahia State, Brazil, and has brought social and economic problems to many crab-harvesting communities that depend on this natural resource. The present work examined the perceptions of members of a Brazilian crab harvesting community concerning environmental changes and the Lethargic Crab Disease. Methods Field work was undertaken during the period between January and April/2009, with weekly or biweekly field excursions during which open and semi-structured interviews were held with local residents in the municipality of Mucuri, Bahia State, Brazil. A total of 23 individuals were interviewed, all of whom had at least 20 years of crab-collecting experience in the study region. Key-informants (more experienced crab harvesters) were selected among the interviewees using the "native specialist" criterion. Results According to the collectors, LCD reached the Mucuri mangroves between 2004 and 2005, decimating almost all crab population in the area, and in 2007, 2008 and 2009 high mortalities of U. cordatus were again observed as a result of recurrences of this disease in the region. In addition to LCD, crabs were also suffering great stock reductions due to habitat degradation caused by deforestation, landfills, sewage effluents, domestic and industrial wastes and the introduction of exotic fish in the Mucuri River estuary. The harvesting community was found to have significant ecological knowledge about the functioning of mangrove swamp ecology, the biology of crabs, and the mass mortality that directly affected the economy of this community, and this information was largely in accordance with scientific knowledge. Conclusions The study of traditional knowledge makes it possible to better understand human interactions with the environment and aids in the elaboration of appropriate strategies for natural resource conservation

  2. Perceptions of environmental changes and Lethargic crab disease among crab harvesters in a Brazilian coastal community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firmo Angélica MS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lethargic Crab Disease (LCD has caused significant mortalities in the population of Ucides cordatus crabs in the Mucuri estuary in Bahia State, Brazil, and has brought social and economic problems to many crab-harvesting communities that depend on this natural resource. The present work examined the perceptions of members of a Brazilian crab harvesting community concerning environmental changes and the Lethargic Crab Disease. Methods Field work was undertaken during the period between January and April/2009, with weekly or biweekly field excursions during which open and semi-structured interviews were held with local residents in the municipality of Mucuri, Bahia State, Brazil. A total of 23 individuals were interviewed, all of whom had at least 20 years of crab-collecting experience in the study region. Key-informants (more experienced crab harvesters were selected among the interviewees using the "native specialist" criterion. Results According to the collectors, LCD reached the Mucuri mangroves between 2004 and 2005, decimating almost all crab population in the area, and in 2007, 2008 and 2009 high mortalities of U. cordatus were again observed as a result of recurrences of this disease in the region. In addition to LCD, crabs were also suffering great stock reductions due to habitat degradation caused by deforestation, landfills, sewage effluents, domestic and industrial wastes and the introduction of exotic fish in the Mucuri River estuary. The harvesting community was found to have significant ecological knowledge about the functioning of mangrove swamp ecology, the biology of crabs, and the mass mortality that directly affected the economy of this community, and this information was largely in accordance with scientific knowledge. Conclusions The study of traditional knowledge makes it possible to better understand human interactions with the environment and aids in the elaboration of appropriate strategies for natural

  3. Perceptions of environmental changes and lethargic crab disease among crab harvesters in a Brazilian coastal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmo, Angélica M S; Tognella, Mônica M P; Có, Walter L O; Barboza, Raynner R D; Alves, Rômulo R N

    2011-11-16

    Lethargic Crab Disease (LCD) has caused significant mortalities in the population of Ucides cordatus crabs in the Mucuri estuary in Bahia State, Brazil, and has brought social and economic problems to many crab-harvesting communities that depend on this natural resource. The present work examined the perceptions of members of a Brazilian crab harvesting community concerning environmental changes and the Lethargic Crab Disease. Field work was undertaken during the period between January and April/2009, with weekly or biweekly field excursions during which open and semi-structured interviews were held with local residents in the municipality of Mucuri, Bahia State, Brazil. A total of 23 individuals were interviewed, all of whom had at least 20 years of crab-collecting experience in the study region. Key-informants (more experienced crab harvesters) were selected among the interviewees using the "native specialist" criterion. According to the collectors, LCD reached the Mucuri mangroves between 2004 and 2005, decimating almost all crab population in the area, and in 2007, 2008 and 2009 high mortalities of U. cordatus were again observed as a result of recurrences of this disease in the region. In addition to LCD, crabs were also suffering great stock reductions due to habitat degradation caused by deforestation, landfills, sewage effluents, domestic and industrial wastes and the introduction of exotic fish in the Mucuri River estuary. The harvesting community was found to have significant ecological knowledge about the functioning of mangrove swamp ecology, the biology of crabs, and the mass mortality that directly affected the economy of this community, and this information was largely in accordance with scientific knowledge. The study of traditional knowledge makes it possible to better understand human interactions with the environment and aids in the elaboration of appropriate strategies for natural resource conservation.

  4. Examining the Environmental Effects of Athletic Training: Perceptions of Waste and the Use of Green Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potteiger, Kelly; Pitney, William A; Cappaert, Thomas A; Wolfe, Angela

    2017-12-01

    Environmental sustainability is a critical concern in health care. Similar to other professions, the practice of athletic training necessitates the use of a large quantity of natural and manufactured resources.   To examine the perceptions of the waste produced by the practice of athletic training and the green practices currently used by athletic trainers (ATs) to combat this waste.   Mixed-methods study.   Field setting.   A total of 442 ATs completed the study. Sixteen individuals participated in the qualitative portion.   Data from sections 2 and 3 of the Athletic Training Environmental Impact Survey were analyzed. Focus groups and individual interviews were used to determine participants' views of waste and the efforts used to combat waste. Descriptive statistics were used to examine types of waste. Independent t tests, χ 2 tests, and 1-way analyses of variance were calculated to identify any differences between the knowledge and use of green techniques. Interviews and focus groups were transcribed verbatim and analyzed inductively.   Participants reported moderate knowledge of green techniques (3.18 ± 0.53 on a 5-point Likert scale). Fifty-eight percent (n = 260) of survey participants perceived that a substantial amount of waste was produced by the practice of athletic training. Ninety-two percent (n = 408) admitted they thought about the waste produced in their daily practice. The types of waste reported most frequently were plastics (n = 111, 29%), water (n = 88, 23%), and paper for administrative use (n = 81, 21%). Fifty-two percent (n = 234) agreed this waste directly affected the environment. The qualitative aspect of the study reinforced recognition of the large amount of waste produced by the practice of athletic training. Types of conservation practices used by ATs were also explored.   Participants reported concern regarding the waste produced by athletic training. The amount of waste varies depending on practice size and setting

  5. The Community Environmental Monitoring Program: Reducing Public Perception of Risk Through Stakeholder Involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Hartwell

    2007-01-01

    Between 1951 and 1992, 928 nuclear tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), including 100 atmospheric and 828 underground tests. Initial public reaction to the tests was largely supportive, but by the late 1950s this began to change, largely as a result of fear of the potential for adverse health effects to be caused by exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from the tests. The nuclear power plant accident at Three Mile Island in 1979 served to heighten these fears, as well as foster a general distrust of the federal agencies involved and low public confidence in monitoring results. Modeled after a similar program that involved the public in monitoring activities around the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant, the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has promoted stakeholder involvement, awareness, and understanding of radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the NTS since 1981. It involves stakeholders in the operation, data collection, and dissemination of information obtained from a network of 29 stations across a wide area of Nevada, Utah, and California. It is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. Since assuming administration of the program in 2000, DRI has accomplished significant enhancements to the network's data collection and transmission capabilities. A robust datalogging and communications system allows for the near real-time transmission of data to a platform maintained by DRI's Western Regional Climate Center, where the data are uploaded and displayed on a publicly accessible web site (http://cemp.dri.edu/). Additionally, the CEMP can serve as part of an emergency response network in the event of an unplanned radiological release from the NTS, and also provides an excellent platform for testing new environmental sensor technologies

  6. Confronting tracker field quintessence with data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Pao-Yu; Chen, Chien-Wen; Chen, Pisin

    2012-01-01

    We confront tracker field quintessence with observational data. The potentials considered in this paper include V(φ)∝φ −α , exp (M p /φ), exp (M p /φ)−1, exp (βM p /φ) and exp (γM p /φ)−1; while the data come from the latest SN Ia, CMB and BAO observations. Stringent parameter constraints are obtained. In comparison with the cosmological constant via information criteria, it is found that models with potentials exp (M p /φ), exp (M p /φ)−1 and exp (γM p /φ)−1 are not supported by the current data

  7. Dark radiation confronting LHC in Z′ models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solaguren-Beascoa, A.; Gonzalez-Garcia, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Recent cosmological data favour additional relativistic degrees of freedom beyond the three active neutrinos and photons, often referred to as “dark radiation”. Extensions of the SM involving TeV-scale Z ′ gauge bosons generically contain superweakly interacting light right-handed neutrinos which can constitute this dark radiation. In this Letter we confront the requirement on the parameters of the E 6 Z ′ models to account for the present evidence of dark radiation with the already existing constraints from searches for new neutral gauge bosons at LHC7

  8. Confronting Uncertainty in Life Cycle Assessment Used for Decision Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Sohn, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    the decision maker (DM) in making the best possible choice for the environment. At present, some DMs do not trust the LCA to be a reliable decisionsupport tool—often because DMs consider the uncertainty of an LCA to be too large. The standard evaluation of uncertainty in LCAs is an ex-post approach that can...... regarding which type of LCA study to employ for the decision context at hand. This taxonomy enables the derivation of an LCA classification matrix to clearly identify and communicate the type of a given LCA. By relating the LCA classification matrix to statistical principles, we can also rank the different......The aim of this article is to help confront uncertainty in life cycle assessments (LCAs) used for decision support. LCAs offer a quantitative approach to assess environmental effects of products, technologies, and services and are conducted by an LCA practitioner or analyst (AN) to support...

  9. The Perceptions of Management on the Benefits of Adopting an Environmental Management Accounting System as a Waste Management Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doorasamy Mishelle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to ascertain the perception of management on the benefits of adopting an environmental management accounting (EMA system as a waste management tool in a paper and pulp manufacturing company. This paper highlights the benefits of an EMA system and the role and importance of EMA as a decision-making tool in encouraging the adoption of cleaner production (CP techniques and technologies. This research was based on a case study of a paper and pulp manufacturing company in KwaZulu-Natal. This research was both quantitative and qualitative in nature. Data collection instruments for the study included a Likert-type questionnaire and interviews with the environmental manager and cost accountant but the findings reported in this paper are based on the empirical evidence gathered from the questionnaire which identified that there was positive correlation between environmental performance and CP techniques and technologies. Environmental costs were hidden under general overheads and understated because the company was using a conventional costing system and not an EMA system; hence, environmental costs were not traced back to the products or processes responsible for those costs. It was evident from the qualitative data analysis that management regarded their environmental costs as too insignificant to justify implementation of an EMA system. The consequent reluctance of the company to adopt CP resulted in poor waste management and lower-quality environmental performance.

  10. Perception of hydro-meteorological hazard in Camagüey province: a starting point for environmental education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parrado, O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of the perception of hazard due to floods, intense rains, in-land sea floods and strong winds are presented, according to the methodology proposed by the National Group of Evaluation of Risks that coordinates by the Environment Agency (AMA of the CITMA. The analysis units were the municipalities and the d areas of defense. For the statistical analysis of data the software Excel, SPSS and Data Entry were used. The sample taken includes 1 599 people which represents 0, 20% of the population of the county; 62.3% of the sample belongs to the municipalities of Camagüey, Florida, Nuevitas, Vertientes and Santa Cruz del Sur. The results of surveys, in most of those interviewed (53%, determines that the level of perception of the hazard on the part of the population is mainly medium (perception closed to reality aside from the structural, functional, economic and ecological vulnerabilities. There are differences levels of perception form one Popular Council to another. These differences are discussed according to the studied socio demographics variables and the hints given for the needed environmental education.

  11. Attention to bodily sensations and symptom perception in individuals with idiopathic environmental intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Signe; Zachariae, Robert; Rasmussen, Alice

    2010-01-01

    perceptions are associated with IEI would add to our understanding of this complex disorder. PURPOSE: To examine if measures of somato-sensory amplification, autonomic perception and absorption are associated with IEI. METHODS: The study included individuals with self-reported or physician-diagnosed IEI....... Participants (n = 732) completed questionnaires that included items on descriptive variables of IEI, the Somato-Sensory Amplification Scale (SSAS), the Autonomic Perception Questionnaire (APQ), the Tellegen Absorption Scale (TAS) and a Negative Affectivity Scale (NAS). RESULTS: Multiple, hierarchical linear...

  12. Assessment of public perception and environmental compliance at a pulp and paper facility: a Canadian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Emma; Bernier, Meagan; Blotnicky, Brenden; Golden, Peter G; Janes, Jeffrey; Kader, Allison; Kovacs-Da Costa, Rachel; Pettipas, Shauna; Vermeulen, Sarah; Walker, Tony R

    2015-12-01

    Communities across Canada rely heavily on natural resources for their livelihoods. One such community in Pictou County, Nova Scotia, has both benefited and suffered, because of its proximity to a pulp and paper mill (currently owned by Northern Pulp). Since production began in 1967, there have been increasing impacts to the local environment and human health. Environmental reports funded by the mill were reviewed and compared against provincial and federal regulatory compliance standards. Reports contrasted starkly to societal perceptions of local impacts and independent studies. Most environmental monitoring reports funded by the mill indicate some levels of compliance in atmospheric and effluent emissions, but when compliance targets were not met, there was a lack of regulatory enforcement. After decades of local pollution impacts and lack of environmental compliance, corporate social responsibility initiatives need implementing for the mill to maintain its social licence to operate.

  13. Perceiving and Confronting Sexism: The Causal Role of Gender Identity Salience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Katie; Dovidio, John F.

    2017-01-01

    Although many researchers have explored the relations among gender identification, discriminatory attributions, and intentions to challenge discrimination, few have examined the causal impact of gender identity salience on women’s actual responses to a sexist encounter. In the current study, we addressed this question by experimentally manipulating the salience of gender identity and assessing its impact on women’s decision to confront a sexist comment in a simulated online interaction. Female participants (N = 114) were randomly assigned to complete a short measure of either personal or collective self-esteem, which was designed to increase the salience of personal versus gender identity. They were then given the opportunity to confront a male interaction partner who expressed sexist views. Compared to those who were primed to focus on their personal identity, participants who were primed to focus on their gender identity perceived the interaction partner’s remarks as more sexist and were more likely to engage in confrontation. By highlighting the powerful role of subtle contextual cues in shaping women’s perceptions of, and responses to, sexism, our findings have important implications for the understanding of gender identity salience as an antecedent of prejudice confrontation. Online slides for instructors who want to use this article for teaching are available on PWQ’s website at http://journals.sagepub.com/page/pwq/suppl/index. PMID:29051685

  14. Perceiving and Confronting Sexism: The Causal Role of Gender Identity Salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Katie; Dovidio, John F

    2017-03-01

    Although many researchers have explored the relations among gender identification, discriminatory attributions, and intentions to challenge discrimination, few have examined the causal impact of gender identity salience on women's actual responses to a sexist encounter. In the current study, we addressed this question by experimentally manipulating the salience of gender identity and assessing its impact on women's decision to confront a sexist comment in a simulated online interaction. Female participants ( N = 114) were randomly assigned to complete a short measure of either personal or collective self-esteem, which was designed to increase the salience of personal versus gender identity. They were then given the opportunity to confront a male interaction partner who expressed sexist views. Compared to those who were primed to focus on their personal identity, participants who were primed to focus on their gender identity perceived the interaction partner's remarks as more sexist and were more likely to engage in confrontation. By highlighting the powerful role of subtle contextual cues in shaping women's perceptions of, and responses to, sexism, our findings have important implications for the understanding of gender identity salience as an antecedent of prejudice confrontation. Online slides for instructors who want to use this article for teaching are available on PWQ's website at http://journals.sagepub.com/page/pwq/suppl/index.

  15. Perception and environmental education about mangrove ecosystem improving sciences and biology subjects in public school at Recife, PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Lopes Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was developed with the aim to identify the perceptions of the students from a school about the mangrove ecosystem, using didactic and natural elements available to do an environmental education action. The previous perception of the students on the ecosystem was evaluated by means of a questionnaire, followed of a theoretical exposition, complemented with a visit to a conserved mangrove (Paripe River, Itamaracá and another impacted (Jiquiá River, Recife, near to the school, being applied new questionnaires to evaluate their conceptions and the academic strategies. The students demonstrated a relative previous knowledge on the mangrove and the educative action showed effectiveness in the transference of the ecological concepts about the ecosystem, using the method of incorporate their daily knowledge to stimulate them to know the scientific side of the subject, ending with the development of ecologic conscience.

  16. Social perceptions and environmental practices of the French people from 1995 to 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In this collective publication, the authors discuss the always greater sensitivity of French people to environmental issues, discuss the French environmental practices with respect to that of other countries, outline that environmental practices are mostly constrained, comment the evolution from intention to practice in these matters, highlight that the standard of living is crucial for environmental practices, comment the behaviour changes with respect to energy in housing, discuss the importance of the price factor for the change of household environmental practices

  17. Perceptions of environmental health risks among residents in the "Toxic Doughnut": opportunities for risk screening and community mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Brandi M; Hall, Eric S

    2015-12-10

    Surrounded by landfills, and toxic and hazardous facilities, Altgeld Gardens is located in a "toxic doughnut". With high rates of environmentally-related conditions, residents have called for a community-based environmental health assessment to improve overall health in their community. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes and beliefs of environmental health risks of Altgeld's residents which would assist community organizing efforts and provide the groundwork for a community-based environmental health assessment. A questionnaire was designed and administered to 42 Altgeld residents who also participated in focus groups to assess their perceptions of environmental health risks. All participants were Altgeld residents for at least two years and were fairly representative of the broader community. Physical and social hazards were primarily identified as posing risks to participants' family and the broader community. Physical hazards included the dumping of hazardous waste and landfills; social hazards were crime and drugs. These findings have been useful in community organizing efforts and in program planning for local community-based organizations and public health agencies. The results have also been used to prioritize health and environmental risk issues impacting the community.

  18. Stop Harassment!: men's reactions to victims' confrontation

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Herrera, M.; Herrera, Antonio; Expósito, Francisca

    2014-01-01

    Sexual harassment is one of the most widespread forms of gender violence. Perceptions of sexual harassment depend on gender, context, the perceivers' ideology, and a host of other factors. Research has underscored the importance of coping strategies in raising a victim's self-confidence by making her feel that she plays an active role in overcoming her own problems. The aim of this study was to assess the men's perceptions of sexual harassment in relation to different victim responses. The st...

  19. A universe model confronted to observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souriau, J.M.

    1982-09-01

    Present work is a detailed study of a Universe model elaborated in several steps, and some of its consequences. Absence zone in quasar spatial distribution is first described; demonstration is made it is sufficient to determine a cosmological model. Each following paragraph is concerned with a type of observation, which is confronted with the model. Universe age and density, redshift-luminosity relation for galaxies and quasars, diameter-redshift relation for radiosources, radiation isotropy at 3 0 K, matter-antimatter contact zone physics. An eventual stratification of universe parallel to this zone is more peculiarly studied; absorption lines in quasar spectra are in way interpreted, just as local super-cluster and local group of galaxies, galaxy HI region orientation, and at last neighbouring galaxy kinematics [fr

  20. Parents’ experience confronting child burning situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdira Vieira de Oliveira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to understand experiences of parents in a child burning situation during the hospitalization process. Methods: phenomenological research in view of Martin Heidegger, held with seven assisting parents at a pediatrics unit of a general hospital in Montes Claros. The information was obtained by phenomenological interview, containing the question guide: “What does it mean to you being with a son who is suffering with burns?”. Results: during the experience, parents revealed anguish, fear, helplessness, concerns and expectations of “being-in-the-world”. Conclusion: respect, understanding and care from the health team were fundamental for the adaptation and the confrontation demanded by the consequent suffering of the event.

  1. Risk perception and access to environmental information in four areas in Italy affected by natural or anthropogenic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coi, A; Minichilli, F; Bustaffa, E; Carone, S; Santoro, M; Bianchi, F; Cori, L

    2016-10-01

    A human biomonitoring (HBM) survey in four areas affected by natural or anthropogenic arsenic pollution was conducted in Italy within the framework of the SEpiAs project. A questionnaire, including the exploration of risk perception (RP) regarding environmental hazards and access to and trust in information, was administered to 282 subjects stratified by area, gender and age. The survey was designed to investigate how populations living in polluted areas could adopt prevention-oriented habits, fostered by the awareness of existing risks and, in addition, how increased knowledge of RP and information flows could support researchers in identifying recommendations, and presenting and disseminating HBM results. This study characterizes the four areas in terms of RP and access to and trust in environmental information, and provides insights into the influence of RP and environmental information on food consumption. For the data analysis, a combined random forest (RF) and logistic regression approach was carried out. RF was applied to the variables derived from the questionnaire in order to identify the most important in terms of the aims defined. Associations were then tested using Fisher's exact test and assessed with logistic regression in order to adjust for confounders. Results showed that the perception of and personal exposure to atmospheric and water pollution, hazardous industries and waste, hazardous material transportation and waste was higher in geographical areas characterized by anthropogenic pollution. Citizens living in industrial areas appeared to be aware of environmental risks and had more confidence in environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs) than in public authorities. In addition, they reported an insufficient circulation of information. Concerning the influence of RP and environmental information on food consumption, a high perception of personal exposure to atmospheric pollution and hazardous industries was associated with a lower

  2. A Novel Multi-Sensor Environmental Perception Method Using Low-Rank Representation and a Particle Filter for Vehicle Reversing Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zutao Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental perception and information processing are two key steps of active safety for vehicle reversing. Single-sensor environmental perception cannot meet the need for vehicle reversing safety due to its low reliability. In this paper, we present a novel multi-sensor environmental perception method using low-rank representation and a particle filter for vehicle reversing safety. The proposed system consists of four main steps, namely multi-sensor environmental perception, information fusion, target recognition and tracking using low-rank representation and a particle filter, and vehicle reversing speed control modules. First of all, the multi-sensor environmental perception module, based on a binocular-camera system and ultrasonic range finders, obtains the distance data for obstacles behind the vehicle when the vehicle is reversing. Secondly, the information fusion algorithm using an adaptive Kalman filter is used to process the data obtained with the multi-sensor environmental perception module, which greatly improves the robustness of the sensors. Then the framework of a particle filter and low-rank representation is used to track the main obstacles. The low-rank representation is used to optimize an objective particle template that has the smallest L-1 norm. Finally, the electronic throttle opening and automatic braking is under control of the proposed vehicle reversing control strategy prior to any potential collisions, making the reversing control safer and more reliable. The final system simulation and practical testing results demonstrate the validity of the proposed multi-sensor environmental perception method using low-rank representation and a particle filter for vehicle reversing safety.

  3. Assessment of Environmental Attitudes and Risk Perceptions among University Students in Mersin, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Yapici, Gulcin; ?genler, Oya; Kurt, Ahmet ?ner; Ko?a?, Faz?l; ?a?maz, Tayyar

    2017-01-01

    Background. Environmental destruction is one of the most important problems in this century. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the environmental attitudes and perceived risks associated with environmental factors of the students. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 7 faculties of Mersin University. The research data were collected using a questionnaire. The questionnaire included sociodemographic characteristics, the “Environmental Attitudes Scale,” and the “En...

  4. Perceptions of the Concerned Reader: An Analysis of the Subscribers of E/The Environmental Magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, Colleen P.; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a study aimed at determining if 'E/The Environmental Magazine' has met two goals: (1) its subscribers' need for environmental information and (2) its publishers' goal of inspiring environmentally responsible behavior. Results indicate that the level of the magazine's influence varied according to the reader's behavior category.…

  5. Are modern health worries, environmental concerns, or paranormal beliefs associated with perceptions of the effectiveness of complementary and alternative medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeswani, Mamta; Furnham, Adrian

    2010-09-01

    To investigate to what extent paranormal beliefs, modern health worries (MHWs), and environmental concerns were related to beliefs about, and behaviour associated with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Of the participants, 150 completed a four-part questionnaire measuring use and perception of CAM, MHWs, paranormal beliefs, and environmental concerns. A factor analysis on the CAM questions revealed three clear components, labelled efficacy of CAM, attitudes to CAM, and safety of CAM. Age, total MHWs, paranormal beliefs, and environmental concerns were used as predictor variables in regression analyses with efficacy as criterion variable. Age was found to be a significantly related to efficacy of CAM. When total MHW score, paranormal belief score, and environmental concern score were added to the model, the r(2) increased by 29%. Environmental concern did not significantly relate to efficacy but spiritualism beliefs did. A factor analysis of the MHW scale items revealed nine factors. Out of these, radiation, doctors playing God, disasters, and epidemics, as well as harmful rays and air contaminants significantly predict belief in the efficacy of CAM. Overall, older people, with more MHWs, and who believe in the paranormal are more likely to believe that CAM works, possibly because of a more intuitive, 'holistic', thinking style. Limitations of the study are considered.

  6. Stakeholder perceptions of Environmental Management Plans as an environmental protection tool for major developments in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Sophie; Kemp, Simon [Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Hudson, Malcolm D., E-mail: mdh@soton.ac.uk [Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Institute for Life Sciences, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    Insufficient implementation and the lack of legislative requirements for follow-up measures following the approval of projects are consistently highlighted as major shortcomings of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Although adopted over 15 years ago by the World Bank, Environmental Management Plans (EMPs) were only semi-formalised in the UK in 2008 and arguably provide a continuous link or ‘bridge’ between the EIA process pre-consent and an Environmental Management System (EMS) post-consent. Drawing on twenty-one semi-structured interviews with stakeholders and thematic analysis of their responses, and a broad-scale practitioner survey, this study aimed to assess the effectiveness of EMPs as an environmental protection tool across the project lifecycle for major developments. The findings revealed a mixed picture of EMP effectiveness in practice, with EMPs only partially fulfilling a bridging role between EIA and EMS. There is no ‘gold standard’ terminology for EMPs, all having slightly different uses, thus presenting different focuses to different stakeholders and further enhancing variation in practice. For many stakeholders, the effectiveness was simply not known, due to the lack of communication and follow-up that still exists. EMP–EMS linkages were shown to be effective from the developer's perspective when a single organisation has involvement across all project phases, though weaknesses occur when multiple parties are involved. Among other stakeholders, knowledge varied significantly; whilst some were in agreement that the linkages worked, many were unaware of the connections and thought of them as two quite separate tools. Stakeholders advocated for the need to make EMPs a legal requirement; for improved communication between stakeholders during EMP implementation and increased documentation of project outcomes; and for EMPs to be consistently written by environmental professionals. Furthermore, weak links in the current process may be

  7. Stakeholder perceptions of Environmental Management Plans as an environmental protection tool for major developments in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Sophie; Kemp, Simon; Hudson, Malcolm D.

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient implementation and the lack of legislative requirements for follow-up measures following the approval of projects are consistently highlighted as major shortcomings of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Although adopted over 15 years ago by the World Bank, Environmental Management Plans (EMPs) were only semi-formalised in the UK in 2008 and arguably provide a continuous link or ‘bridge’ between the EIA process pre-consent and an Environmental Management System (EMS) post-consent. Drawing on twenty-one semi-structured interviews with stakeholders and thematic analysis of their responses, and a broad-scale practitioner survey, this study aimed to assess the effectiveness of EMPs as an environmental protection tool across the project lifecycle for major developments. The findings revealed a mixed picture of EMP effectiveness in practice, with EMPs only partially fulfilling a bridging role between EIA and EMS. There is no ‘gold standard’ terminology for EMPs, all having slightly different uses, thus presenting different focuses to different stakeholders and further enhancing variation in practice. For many stakeholders, the effectiveness was simply not known, due to the lack of communication and follow-up that still exists. EMP–EMS linkages were shown to be effective from the developer's perspective when a single organisation has involvement across all project phases, though weaknesses occur when multiple parties are involved. Among other stakeholders, knowledge varied significantly; whilst some were in agreement that the linkages worked, many were unaware of the connections and thought of them as two quite separate tools. Stakeholders advocated for the need to make EMPs a legal requirement; for improved communication between stakeholders during EMP implementation and increased documentation of project outcomes; and for EMPs to be consistently written by environmental professionals. Furthermore, weak links in the current process may be

  8. The four-meter confrontation visual field test.

    OpenAIRE

    Kodsi, S R; Younge, B R

    1992-01-01

    The 4-m confrontation visual field test has been successfully used at the Mayo Clinic for many years in addition to the standard 0.5-m confrontation visual field test. The 4-m confrontation visual field test is a test of macular function and can identify small central or paracentral scotomas that the examiner may not find when the patient is tested only at 0.5 m. Also, macular sparing in homonymous hemianopias and quadrantanopias may be identified with the 4-m confrontation visual field test....

  9. Perceptions of on-site hunters: Environmental concerns, future land use, and cleanup options at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, J.; Sanchez, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Department of Energy owns land in 34 states, and most of these lands have been off limits to the public for over 50 years. Although some parts of each site are contaminated, most of many sites are not. With the ending of the Cold War, the department is considering alternative land uses. In this article, the perceptions of hunters and fishermen allowed on site for a limited time were examined, about environmental concerns, future land use, and cleanup options. Although loss of jobs was the foremost concern, preserving parts of the site had more support as a future land use than continuing the nuclear mission, and nearly three-quarters of the sample supported cleanup, regardless of cost. On-site employment was a significant indicator of lower concern about safety and environmental issues, less support for designating the site for research, and more concern for maintaining jobs

  10. The Girls on Ice program: Improving perceptions of climate change and environmental stewardship by exploring a glacier landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J. C.; Conner, L.; Pettit, E. C.

    2017-12-01

    Girls on Ice is a unique, free, science and mountaineering experience for underserved girls aged 16 to 18. Each year, two teams of nine girls spend eight days on a remote Alaska or Washington glacier to learn about glaciology, climate change, and alpine ecology (as well as mountaineering, art and leadership). During the program, the girls live on, explore and study a glacier and the visibly climate change-altered landscape that surrounds it, through both instructor-led modules and scientific field studies the girls design themselves. Time spent on the glacier means witnessing rivers of meltwater running off the surface, climbing 300 m uphill to where the glacier last sat 150 years ago, and learning how scientists monitor the glacier's retreat. Previous studies have shown that pro-environmental behavior in youth is strongly influenced by having significant life experiences outdoors, and that engagement of citizens in a climate change-impacted landscape is emerging as a powerful way to connect people to environment and to motivate environmental action. Given the significant life experience provided by our unique wilderness format, and the interactions with a rapidly changing glacier landscape, this study examines how participation in Girls on Ice impacts the 16 to 18 year-old participants' perceptions of climate change, as well as their sense of environmental identity. We use mixed qualitative and quantitative methods, including pre- and post-program questionnaires, an in-program focus group discussion, end-of-program interviews, and early and late in-program concept (node-link) mapping exercises. Preliminary results from qualitative data show a shift in many girls' perceptions of climate change towards being motivated to act to combat it, with particular reference to glaciers as a key component prompting that shift. Ultimately, this study aims to demonstrate the value of tenets of environmental and outdoor education theory, namely significant life experiences and

  11. The essential toxin: The changing perception of selenium in environmental sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenz, M.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2009-01-01

    During the last decades, the perception of selenium has undergone substantial changes. While its toxic effects were recognized causing hair and hoof loss in animals during the 1930s, its essential role in microbial, animal and human metabolism has been recognized later, i.e. with the discovery of

  12. Do "Womanist" Identity Attitudes Influence College Women's Self-Esteem and Perception of Environmental Bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossana, Shelly M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Survey of undergraduate women (n=659) indicated questioning of previously held stereotypical views about gender and dawning awareness of alternative perspectives and active rejection of male supremacist values and beliefs and search for a positive self-affirming definition of womanhood attitudes were inversely related to perceptions of…

  13. Local expert experiences and perceptions of environmentally induced migration from Bangladesh to India

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stojanov, R.; Boas, I.; Kelman, I.; Duží, Barbora

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 3 (2017), s. 347-361 ISSN 1360-7456 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : perception * migration * climate change Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Cultural and economic geography Impact factor: 1.212, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/apv.12156/full

  14. Socratic Confrontation with Athens: an Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Tajik

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Impiety was one of the two charges against Socrates. As a civil religion (within which politics and religion are mutually intertwined was the then-dominated religion in Athens, impiety was regarded as a civil laws violation. Thus, charge of impiety, as a political subversion, might lead Socrates to death. However, in Apology there are some signs of Socrates’ religiousness as swearing and the claim to be at service of the Polis’ formal gods and goddess which lead to the question whether Socrates were an impious person, in addition to the question concerning the reasons why Socrates was sentenced to death, while he has showed his religiousness. In this study, we argued the nature of Socrates’ religiousness and offered an interpretation of Socrates’ silent confrontation with Athenians as is described in the court and his advocacy there. Therefore, introducing the state of religion in Athens, it would be shown that Socrates goes not deep in the inspirations, but intervening personal negative accounts, argues for a private religious experience, while does not offers any substitution for the formal religion.

  15. Composite inflation confronts BICEP2 and PLANCK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwan, Khamphee; Channuie, Phongpichit

    2014-01-01

    We examine observational constraints on single-field inflation in which the inflaton is a composite field stemming from a four-dimensional strongly interacting field theory. We confront the predictions with the Planck and very recent BICEP2 data. In the large non-minimal coupling regions, we discover for the minimal composite inflationary model that the predictions lie well inside the joint 68% CL for the Planck data, but is in tension with the recent BICEP2 observations. In the case of the glueball inflationary model, the predictions satisfy the Planck results. However, this model can produce a large tensor-to-scalar ratio consistent with the recent BICEP2 observations if the number of e-foldings is slightly smaller than the range commonly used. For a super Yang-Mills paradigm, we discover that the predictions satisfy the Planck data, and surprisingly a large tensor-to-scalar ratio consistent with the BICEP2 results can also be produced for an acceptable range of the number of e-foldings and of the confining scale. In the small non-minimal coupling regions, all of the models can satisfy the BICEP2 results. However, the predictions of the glueball and superglueball inflationary models cannot satisfy the observational bound on the amplitude of the curvature perturbation launched by Planck, and the techni-inflaton self-coupling in the minimal composite inflationary model is constrained to be extremely small

  16. Dementia Care: Confronting Myths in Clinical Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitch, Shirley M; Meadows, Charles; Patton-Tackett, Eva; Yingling, Kevin W

    2016-01-01

    Every day, patients with dementia, their families, and their physicians face the enormous challenges of this pervasive life-changing condition. Seeking help, often grasping at straws, victims, and their care providers are confronted with misinformation and myths when they search the internet or other sources. When Persons with Dementia (PWD) and their caregivers believe and/or act on false information, proper treatment may be delayed, and ultimately damage can be done. In this paper, we review commonly misunderstood issues encountered in caring for PWD. Our goal is to equip Primary Care Practitioners (PCPs) with accurate information to share with patients and families, to improve the outcomes of PWD to the greatest extent possible. While there are innumerable myths about dementia and its causes and treatments, we are going to focus on the most common false claims or misunderstandings which we hear in our Internal Medicine practice at Marshall Health. We offer suggestions for busy practitioners approaching some of the more common issues with patients and families in a clinic setting.

  17. Confronting Higgcision with electric dipole moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Kingman [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Division of Quantum Phases and Devices, School of Physics, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Sik [Department of Physics, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju, 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Senaha, Eibun [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Tseng, Po-Yan [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-26

    Current data on the signal strengths and angular spectrum of the 125.5 GeV Higgs boson still allow a CP-mixed state, namely, the pseudoscalar coupling to the top quark can be as sizable as the scalar coupling: C{sub u}{sup S}≈C{sub u}{sup P}=1/2. CP violation can then arise and manifest in sizable electric dipole moments (EDMs). In the framework of two-Higgs-doublet models, we not only update the Higgs precision (Higgcision) study on the couplings with the most updated Higgs signal strength data, but also compute all the Higgs-mediated contributions from the 125.5 GeV Higgs boson to the EDMs, and confront the allowed parameter space against the existing constraints from the EDM measurements of Thallium, neutron, Mercury, and Thorium monoxide. We found that the combined EDM constraints restrict the pseudoscalar coupling to be less than about 10{sup −2}, unless there are contributions from other Higgs bosons, supersymmetric particles, or other exotic particles that delicately cancel the current Higgs-mediated contributions.

  18. A Slippery Slope: Children's Perceptions of Their Role in Environmental Preservation in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Despite international attention and attempts to preserve the environmental diversity of the Amazon, it is an accepted fact that those who inhabit the forest must be the ones who preserve it. This article presents an analysis of how children in small rural riverine communities along the Amazon understand the importance of environmental preservation…

  19. Formal and informal environmental sensing data and integration potential: Perceptions of citizens and experts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Qijun; Bregt, Arnold K.; Kooistra, Lammert

    2018-01-01

    Environmental sensing data provide crucial information for environment-related decision-making. Formal data are provided by official environmental institutes. Beyond those, however, there is a growing body of so-called informal sensing data, which are contributed by citizens using low-cost sensors.

  20. Teacher Candidates' Perception Level of Environmental Pollutant and Their Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztas, Fulya; Kalipci, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the environmental education deals with a wide range of environmental experiences, methods and processes. Teaching the subject of the environment should not be considered as an easy task. It should not only cover pure ecology education; but also include the citizenship responsibilities and the problems that are sourced…

  1. Sustainability or profitability? How communicated motives for environmental policy affect public perceptions of corporate greenwashing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de vries, G; Terwel, B; Ellemers, Naomi|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/086631276; Daamen, D.

    Companies in the energy sector face a dilemma regarding how to communicate their environmental policies to the public. Communicating that environmental policies and activities are motivated by concern for the environment could elicit positive reactions, but may also lead to accusations of corporate

  2. Community Theories of Change: Linking Environmental Justice to Sustainability through Stakeholder Perceptions in Milwaukee (WI, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn Hornik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental justice and sustainability are compatible lenses, yet action toward equity is often missing from urban sustainability initiatives. This study aims to assess the cohesion of these frameworks in practice. To do this, we parse individuals’ theories of change, or how they identify and propose to resolve environmental injustices in the pursuit of sustainability. We posit that these theories of change are comprised of three main components: (1 perceived environmental benefits and burdens; (2 the causal pathways of environmental and social injustice; and (3 visions for positive change. Drawing from 35 stakeholder interviews in Milwaukee (WI, USA we examine individual and institutional perspectives on environmental and social change and their links to the production of injustice. Our findings reveal that participants do not distinguish between environmental and social injustices. Instead, both social and environmental factors are implicated in injustice. Furthermore, we identify two mental maps for how social and economic change reproduce injustice. These findings suggest the need to reorient how urban injustice is considered and make efforts to acknowledge how a diversity of operational theories of change could either be divisive or could bring environmental justice and sustainability initiatives together.

  3. Pre-Service Teachers' Perception toward Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Mohamad Termizi; Ismail, Zurida

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviours exhibited by the pre-service teachers and determined if there was any significant relationship between environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. Method: This descriptive study adopted a quantitative approach using questionnaires to obtain information on…

  4. Confronting Perpetrators of Prejudice: The Inhibitory Effects of Social Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, J. Nicole; Stewart, Rebecca E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the extent to which social costs influence whether or not targets of prejudice confront individuals who behave in a prejudiced manner during interpersonal interactions. Consistent with our predictions, we found that although women believe they will confront perpetrators of prejudice regardless of the…

  5. The Vatican & Population Growth Control: Why an American Confrontation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Stephen D.

    1983-01-01

    The Vatican, because of its position on population growth, threatens the security of all nations. Catholic countries with right-wing dictatorships cannot confront the Vatican on family planning and survive. U.S. Catholics must confront the Vatican on this issue. American lay Catholics must break the American church away from the Vatican control.…

  6. 28 CFR 552.23 - Confrontation avoidance procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confrontation avoidance procedures. 552... MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.23 Confrontation avoidance... information about the inmate and the immediate situation. Based on their assessment of that information, they...

  7. Ventilation system type, classroom environmental quality and pupils' perceptions and symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jie; Wargocki, Pawel; Wang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated indoor climate and window opening behaviour by pupils, as well as their perceptions and symptoms in classrooms with different types of ventilation systems. Four classrooms were selected in the same school in suburban Denmark. Classroom ventilation was achieved either......-heating and heating seasons; CO2 concentration was used to estimate average classroom ventilation rates. At the end of each measuring period, the pupils were asked to report their perceptions of the indoor environment and their acute health-related symptoms. The classroom in which ventilation was achieved by manually...... operable windows had the highest air temperatures and CO2 concentrations during both non-heating and heating season; the estimated average air-change rate was lowest in this classroom. The classroom with mechanical ventilation had the highest estimated average air-change rate. Windows were frequently...

  8. Immersive Virtual Environment Technology to Supplement Environmental Perception, Preference and Behavior Research: A Review with Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jordan W

    2015-09-11

    Immersive virtual environment (IVE) technology offers a wide range of potential benefits to research focused on understanding how individuals perceive and respond to built and natural environments. In an effort to broaden awareness and use of IVE technology in perception, preference and behavior research, this review paper describes how IVE technology can be used to complement more traditional methods commonly applied in public health research. The paper also describes a relatively simple workflow for creating and displaying 360° virtual environments of built and natural settings and presents two freely-available and customizable applications that scientists from a variety of disciplines, including public health, can use to advance their research into human preferences, perceptions and behaviors related to built and natural settings.

  9. Acceptance of new sanitation: The role of end-users' pro-environmental personal norms and risk and benefit perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortvliet, P Marijn; Sanders, Liese; Weijma, Jan; De Vries, Jasper R

    2017-12-18

    Current sanitation systems are inherently limited in their ability to address the new challenges for (waste)water management that arise from the rising demand to restore resource cycles. These challenges include removal of micropollutants, water (re)use, and nutrient recovery. New opportunities to address these challenges arise from new sanitation, a system innovation that combines elements of source separation, local treatment and reuse, and less use of water. New sanitation is applied, but not yet widespread, in several residential areas in Europe. Implementation is hindered by the lack of insight into the general public's willingness to engage in new sanitation, and the resulting uncertainty about this among decision makers and other stakeholders in wastewater management. Using value-belief-norm theory as a conceptual lens, this paper addresses the individual motivations (pro-environmental personal norms) and personal drivers (benefits) and barriers (risks) for acceptance of new sanitation by the Dutch general public. The results of an online survey (N = 338) indicated that both pro-environmental personal norms and risk and benefit perceptions predict consumers' willingness to accept new sanitation. More specifically, they showed that consumer acceptance is driven by perceived risks relating to the housing market and the need to change behavior, but also by environmental benefits. Overall, new sanitation was favorably evaluated by respondents: 64% indicated that they would likely use new sanitation if they were owner-occupiers. The results of this explorative study are discussed in light of the development of novel sanitation systems that are sensitive to perceptions of end-users and other key stakeholders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Does environmental friendliness equal healthiness? Swiss consumers' perception of protein products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarini, Gianna A; Zimmermann, Jasmin; Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Food production and consumption have major impacts on the environment. At the same time, changes in human diets worldwide are increasingly leading to health problems. Both issues are highly influenced by consumers' everyday food choices and could be addressed by reducing consumption of meat and other animal products. To promote sustainable food consumption, we need to know how consumers perceive the environmental friendliness and healthiness of food products, on which criteria they base their evaluations of environmental friendliness and healthiness, and how their estimations relate to life cycle assessments and nutrient profiling. We presented 30 protein products, which varied in provenance, production methods, and processing, to 85 participants from Switzerland. They were asked to sort the products once according to their perceived environmental friendliness and once according to their perceived healthiness. The mean distances between the products were compared to the products' life cycle assessments and nutrient profiles. The results showed that perceived environmental friendliness and healthiness are highly correlated. The main predictors of the products' perceived environmental friendliness were product category, presence of an organic label, and provenance; and for perceived healthiness, these predictors were product category, fat content, processing, and presence of an organic label. Environmental friendliness and healthiness estimations were significantly correlated to the life cycle assessments and the nutrient profiles of the products, respectively. Hence, to promote healthy and environmentally friendly food choices, motivators related to environmental friendliness and healthiness could be used in synergy. Awareness about meat's environmental impact should be increased and better information is needed for consumers to make an accurate environmental impact and healthiness assessments of protein products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The perception of naturalness correlates with low-level visual features of environmental scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc G Berman

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that interacting with natural environments vs. more urban or built environments can have salubrious psychological effects, such as improvements in attention and memory. Even viewing pictures of nature vs. pictures of built environments can produce similar effects. A major question is: What is it about natural environments that produces these benefits? Problematically, there are many differing qualities between natural and urban environments, making it difficult to narrow down the dimensions of nature that may lead to these benefits. In this study, we set out to uncover visual features that related to individuals' perceptions of naturalness in images. We quantified naturalness in two ways: first, implicitly using a multidimensional scaling analysis and second, explicitly with direct naturalness ratings. Features that seemed most related to perceptions of naturalness were related to the density of contrast changes in the scene, the density of straight lines in the scene, the average color saturation in the scene and the average hue diversity in the scene. We then trained a machine-learning algorithm to predict whether a scene was perceived as being natural or not based on these low-level visual features and we could do so with 81% accuracy. As such we were able to reliably predict subjective perceptions of naturalness with objective low-level visual features. Our results can be used in future studies to determine if these features, which are related to naturalness, may also lead to the benefits attained from interacting with nature.

  12. Environmental and Community Stability of a Mountain Destination: An Analysis of Residents’ Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Demirović

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the use of the social-ecological system (SES in tourism of a mountain area. Authors examined residents’ perceptions of tourism impacts on four SES aspects: ecosystems, local knowledge, people and technology and property rights institutions. The aim is to find area that will be a “common ground” for community and area that can be a source of conflict and will require additional work to solve the differences. Second objective was to examine residents’ perception towards future local development tourism policies (winter tourism, seasonality and environment and culture and how those policies can affect natural, socio-economic and cultural aspects of mountain area. Residents’ perceptions of sustainable tourism development potential, perceived tourism impacts, analysis of community attachment and employment sector of stakeholder were involved in this study. The authors applied the Q-methodology, as one SES-allied approach, in a small mountain community of Kopaonik, the Republic of Serbia. The results revealed that residents’ agreement/disagreement is connected with two aspects: ecosystem and property rights and that ecosystem can be significantly influenced by all three development policies. Findings suggest that development of future natural conservation plans and new cultural attractions can have positive effects on all parts of social-ecological system. Some practical implications of those findings for tourism planning and development are also discussed.

  13. An urban survey of paediatric environmental health concerns: Perceptions of parents, guardians and health care professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buka, Irena; Rogers, W Todd; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R; Hoffman, Harold; Pearce, Marni; Li, Yuen Yee

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To conduct a survey in Edmonton, Alberta, to gather information regarding concerns about the influence of environmental factors on children’s health and to use the information to set an agenda for the resources of the Paediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit at Misericordia Hospital (Edmonton, Alberta). METHODS Two questionnaires with 28 closed-ended questions were developed to examine parents’, guardians’ and health care professionals’ concerns. They comprised items about six environmental factors (air, water and food quality; household supplies; radiation; and waste disposal). Health care professionals were also asked four questions about their knowledge of and their needs in Paediatric Environmental Health. Parents and guardians attending the public health centres and nurses working therein received questionnaires. Physicians were surveyed by e-mail. RESULTS After verification, the questionnaire data from 400 parents or guardians and 152 health care professionals were used for analyses. Results from contingency table, Hotelling’s T2 and effect size analyses revealed similarities in the levels of concern in both groups, and the results were combined. The greatest concern of both groups was with environmental tobacco smoke, followed by pesticides in water. Concerns about six additional environmental elements were also expressed. The health care professionals showed a high level of concern about the need for resources, specific training and public education regarding paediatric environmental health. CONCLUSION A significant level of concern was consistently found between the two groups studied, regardless of professional training. The highest level of concern was with a well-documented topic (ie, environmental tobacco smoke). Less concern associated with decreased documentation calls for increasing the knowledge of society, including health care professionals, to address the adverse effects of environmental factors on children. PMID

  14. Confronting Misinformation in Climate Change Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    Among the many challenges faced by climate change educators is the highly politicized nature of the subject matter (e.g. McCright and Dunlap, 2011) and the associated misinformation from key media outlets and websites (e.g. see Oreskes and Conway, 2010). Students typically do not enter the classroom as 'blank slates', but often have already formed some opinion about climate change which may or may not be based on reputable sources. Further, many students have lives outside the classroom and/or off campus, and even those who do live in an isolated bubble of campus life will eventually graduate. Thus, providing students with a level of climate change knowledge and understanding robust enough to cope with misinformation may be an important goal for educators. This paper presents a case study of the direct use of climate change misinformation as a college-level classroom activity. Some research from other fields (notably psychology) has found that directly addressing misconceptions in the classroom can be the most effective means of dispelling them (Kowalski and Taylor, 2009). However, directly confronting misinformation in the classroom carries inherent risks, such as reinforcing misconceptions (e.g. Cook and Lewandowsky, 2011). This paper therefore considers approaches to minimizing those risks while attempting to maximize the possible benefits. This paper argues that use of misinformation as a teaching tool can provide useful exercises in critical thinking, testing of content knowledge, and consideration of the nature of science. Cook, J. and S. Lewandowsky. 2011. The Debunking Handbook. Online publication available www.skepticalscience.com/docs/Debunking_Handbook.pdf. Accessed 7 July 2012. Kowalski, P. and A.K. Taylor. 2009. DOI: 10.1080/00986280902959986. McCright, A., and R.T. Dunlap. 2011. The politicization of climate change and polarization in the American public's views of global warming, 2001-2010. The Sociological Quarterly 52:2, 155-194. Oreskes, N. and E

  15. Lay perceptions of health and environmental inequalities and their associations to mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Maria Luisa; Morais, Rita

    2015-11-01

    Health inequalities are very well documented in epidemiological research: rich people live longer and have fewer diseases than poor people. Recently, a growing amount of evidence from environmental sciences confirms that poor people are also more exposed to pollution and other environmental threats. However, research in the social sciences has shown a broad lack of awareness about health inequalities. In this paper, based on data collected in Portugal, we will analyze the consciousness of both health and environmental injustices and test one hypothesis for this social blindness. The results show, even more clearly than before, that public opinion tends to see rich and poor people as being equally susceptible to health and environmental events. Furthermore, those who have this equal view of the world present lower levels of depression and anxiety. Following cognitive adaptation theory, this "belief in an equal world" can be interpreted as a protective positive illusion about social justice, particularly relevant in one of the most unequal countries in Europe.

  16. Perception of Urban Environmental Risks and the Effects of Urban Green Infrastructures (UGIs) on Human Well-being in Four Public Green Spaces of Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Junya; Wang, Yafei; Fan, Chen; Xia, Beicheng; de Groot, Rudolf

    2018-05-28

    Cities face many challenging environmental problems that affect human well-being. Environmental risks can be reduced by Urban Green Infrastructures (UGIs). The effects of UGIs on the urban environment have been widely studied, but less attention has been given to the public perception of these effects. This paper presents the results of a study in Guangzhou, China, on UGI users' perceptions of these effects and their relationship with sociodemographic variables. A questionnaire survey was conducted in four public green spaces. Descriptive statistics, a binary logistic regression model and cross-tabulation analysis were applied on the data from 396 valid questionnaires. The results show that UGI users were more concerned about poor air quality and high temperature than about flooding events. Their awareness of environmental risks was partly in accordance with official records. Regarding the perception of the impacts of environmental risks on human well-being, elderly and female respondents with higher education levels were the most sensitive to these impacts. The respondents' perceptions of these impacts differed among the different green spaces. The effects of UGIs were well perceived and directly observed by the UGI users, but were not significantly influenced by most sociodemographic variables. Moreover, tourists had a lower perception of the impacts of environmental risks and the effects of UGI than residents did. This study provides strong support for UGIs as an effective tool to mitigate environmental risks. Local governments should consider the role of UGIs in environmental risk mitigation and human well-being with regard to urban planning and policy making.

  17. Children's perceptions of rainforest biodiversity: which animals have the lion's share of environmental awareness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake L Snaddon

    Full Text Available Globally, natural ecosystems are being lost to agricultural land at an unprecedented rate. This land-use often results in significant reductions in abundance and diversity of the flora and fauna as well as alterations in their composition. Despite this, there is little public perception of which taxa are most important in terms of their total biomass, biodiversity or the ecosystem services they perform. Such awareness is important for conservation, as without appreciation of their value and conservation status, species are unlikely to receive adequate conservation protection. We investigated children's perceptions of rainforest biodiversity by asking primary-age children, visiting the University Museum of Zoology, Cambridge to draw their ideal rainforest. By recording the frequency at which children drew different climatic, structural, vegetative and faunal components of the rainforest, we were able to quantify children's understanding of a rainforest environment. We investigated children's perceptions of rainforest biodiversity by comparing the relative numbers of the taxa drawn with the actual contributions made by these taxa to total rainforest biomass and global biodiversity. We found that children have a sophisticated view of the rainforest, incorporating many habitat features and a diverse range of animals. However, some taxa were over-represented (particularly mammals, birds and reptiles and others under-represented (particularly insects and annelids relative to their contribution to total biomass and species richness. Scientists and naturalists must continue to emphasise the diversity and functional importance of lesser-known taxa through public communication and outdoor events to aid invertebrate conservation and to ensure that future generations are inspired to become naturalists themselves.

  18. Understanding tourists’ perceptions of distance: a key to reducing the environmental impacts of tourism mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber; Guiver, Jo W

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to understand how tourists might reduce their travel distances by better understanding their perception and “performance” of distances to destinations. Travel accounts for 75% of tourism's GHG emissions, the majority from flying. Tourist travel distances are growing rapidly...... to scales including cost, time and cultural difference to express relative distances. Some distances were seen as “zonal”, (e.g. “away from home” or “sun and sea” or winter sports destinations), others “ordinal”, having degrees of difference, time or costs to cross. The desire for distance also resulted...

  19. The Responsive Environmental Assessment for Classroom Teaching (REACT): the dimensionality of student perceptions of the instructional environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter M; Demers, Joseph A; Christ, Theodore J

    2014-06-01

    This study details the initial development of the Responsive Environmental Assessment for Classroom Teachers (REACT). REACT was developed as a questionnaire to evaluate student perceptions of the classroom teaching environment. Researchers engaged in an iterative process to develop, field test, and analyze student responses on 100 rating-scale items. Participants included 1,465 middle school students across 48 classrooms in the Midwest. Item analysis, including exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, was used to refine a 27-item scale with a second-order factor structure. Results support the interpretation of a single general dimension of the Classroom Teaching Environment with 6 subscale dimensions: Positive Reinforcement, Instructional Presentation, Goal Setting, Differentiated Instruction, Formative Feedback, and Instructional Enjoyment. Applications of REACT in research and practice are discussed along with implications for future research and the development of classroom environment measures. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Fuel poverty and perception on housing and environmental quality in Belgrade’s informal settlement Kaluđerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Informal development is a specific form of urban sprawl and one of the main challenges for the sustainable development of major cities in Serbia. In this paper we examine this phenomenon with regard to the influence of spatial and urban vulnerabilities of the informal settlements on the housing and environmental deprivation, especially in the context of inhabitants’ vulnerability to fuel poverty. The empirical research was carried out on the example of Belgrade’s suburban settlement Kaluđerica. The statistical analysis of the results has shown that the observed energy characteristics of housing have no relevant influence on households’ financial burden of energy expenditure, but that they considerably influence households’ perception on thermal comfort. The relation between a limited access to public services and the lack of amenities in the settlement and noted high household expenditure on transport has proved to be a particularly important indicator. Based on the perception on overall life commodities, a poor quality of the environment has been recognized as a key factor of deprivation related to housing. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 36035: Spatial, Environmental, Energy and Social Aspects of Developing Settlements and Climate Change - Mutual Impacts, br. III47014: The Role and Implementation of the National Spatial Plan and Regional Development Documents in Renewal of Strategic Research, Thinking and Governance in Serbia and Project Transitioning towards Urban Resilience and The Role and Implementation of the National Spatial Plan and Regional Development Documents in Renewal of Strategic Research, Thinking and Governance in Serbia Sustainability (TURaS”, Contract No. 282834, which is financed within FP7 of the EC on topic ENV.2011.2.1.5-1

  1. Environmental attitudes of stakeholders and their perceptions regarding protected area-community conflicts: a case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Miao, Hong

    2010-11-01

    Large numbers of people living in and around protected areas are highly dependent on the natural resources. However, simply excluding them from the area management has always inevitably resulted in conflicts. We conducted a case study of the Protected Area of Jinyun Mountain (PJM) in China to evaluate social context variables, environmental attitudes, and perceptions regarding protected area-community conflicts. Data were collected through questionnaire surveys administered to four stakeholder groups (i.e. local farmers, government staff, business persons, and tourists). A total of 112 questionnaires were completed in December 2008, after the Sichuan Earthquake. The questionnaire consisted of three parts, social context (gender, race, age, income, and education level), protected area-community conflicts, and environmental attitudes. The New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) scores, which were employed to evaluate environmental attitudes, differed significantly among the stakeholder groups (Pconflict both exist in the PJM, but have different forms among different stakeholders, and seem to be opposite between government staff and local farmers. Among the indexes, tourism primarily contributed to the harmonious aspect, while collection of NTFPs did to the conflicting one. Conflict scores were positively related to age and negatively related to education level. Respondents with higher NEP scores were more partial to the park management. Besides, the respondents with higher annual incomes tended to support the policy of harmonizing the relationship and lessening the harm of local communities to the area. To promote proenvironmental attitudes and alleviate the protected area-community conflicts, we recommend improving environmental education, establishing community co-management, and launching substitute sources of cash for traditional cultivation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Patient perceptions of environmental control units: experiences of Veterans with spinal cord injuries and disorders receiving inpatient VA healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etingen, Bella; Martinez, Rachael N; Vallette, Marissa A; Dendinger, Ryan; Bidassie, Balmatee; Miskevics, Scott; Khan, Hira T; Cozart, Huberta T; Locatelli, Sara M; Weaver, Frances M

    2018-05-01

    To assess patients' perceptions of environmental control units (ECUs) at Veterans Affairs Spinal Cord Injury Centers. A brief questionnaire was conducted with patients in real-time while they were hospitalised ("on-the-spot questionnaire"); a survey was mailed to patients who had recently been discharged from a hospital stay ("discharge survey"). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Seventy on-the-spot questionnaires and 80 discharge surveys were collected. ECU features used most frequently were comparable in responses from both surveys: watching TV/movies (81%, 85%), calling the nurse (68%, 61%), turning lights on/off (63%, 52%), adjusting the bed (53%, 33%), and playing games (39%, 24%). Many on-the-spot questionnaire respondents felt the ECU met their need for independence a great deal (42%). Most respondents to both surveys were satisfied with the ECU (71%, 57%). Areas for improvement included user training, improved functionality of the device and its features, and device design. ECUs were well-accepted by persons with spinal cord injuries/disorders (SCI/D) in the inpatient setting, and increased patients' perceptions of independence. To maximise usability and satisfaction, facilities should ensure that comprehensive training on ECU use and features available is offered to all patients, and resources are available for timely troubleshooting and maintenance. Implications for rehabilitation An environmental control unit (ECU) is a form of assistive technology that allows individuals with disabilities (such as spinal cord injuries and disorders [SCI/D]) to control functional and entertainment-related aspects of their environment. ECU use can increase functioning, independence and psychosocial well-being among individuals with SCI/D, by allowing users to reclaim control over day-to-day activities that are otherwise limited by their disability. Our study results indicate that, among persons with SCI/D, ECUs are well-accepted and increase perceptions of

  3. The influence of sacred beliefs in environmental risk perception and attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonya Sachdeva

    2016-01-01

    Elements of the natural world, such as mountains, rivers, and forests, are often seen as sacred in many cultural traditions. Recent conservation movements have even begun to draw on spiritual and religious beliefs to promote issues of environmental sustainability. The straightforward assumption in these cases is that sacred beliefs (compared with secular ones) will...

  4. Environmental risks of high-speed railway in China: Public participation, perception and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, G.; Mol, A.P.J.; Zhang, L.; Lu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Two decades ago China entered an era with rapid expansion of transport infrastructure. In an ambitious plan on high-speed railway development, China plans to have the longest high-speed railway network by 2020. Social concerns and anxiety with the adverse environmental and social risks and impacts

  5. Measuring Student Engagement, Knowledge, and Perceptions of Climate Change in an Introductory Environmental Geology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, Karen S.; Spry, Jacob M.; Mitra, Ritayan; Tipton, Jamie L.

    2014-01-01

    This research examines a semester-long introductory environmental geology course, which emphasized climate science using an Earth systems approach and employed a multipronged teaching strategy comprising lecture, movie viewing, class dialogues, and journaling. Evidence of student engagement during various pedagogical approaches (e.g., movie…

  6. Science Teachers' and Senior Secondary Schools Students' Perceptions of Earth and Environmental Science Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille; Carson, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an evaluation of a new upper secondary Earth and Environmental Science (EES) course in Western Australia. Twenty-seven EES teachers were interviewed and 243 students were surveyed about the degree of difficulty, relevance and interest of EES topics in the course. The impact of the course on students' views about EES topics…

  7. Lay perceptions of health and environmental inequalities and their associations to mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Lima

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health inequalities are very well documented in epidemiological research: rich people live longer and have fewer diseases than poor people. Recently, a growing amount of evidence from environmental sciences confirms that poor people are also more exposed to pollution and other environmental threats. However, research in the social sciences has shown a broad lack of awareness about health inequalities. In this paper, based on data collected in Portugal, we will analyze the consciousness of both health and environmental injustices and test one hypothesis for this social blindness. The results show, even more clearly than before, that public opinion tends to see rich and poor people as being equally susceptible to health and environmental events. Furthermore, those who have this equal view of the world present lower levels of depression and anxiety. Following cognitive adaptation theory, this “belief in an equal world” can be interpreted as a protective positive illusion about social justice, particularly relevant in one of the most unequal countries in Europe.

  8. Hope in the Face of Climate Change: Associations with Environmental Engagement and Student Perceptions of Teachers' Emotion Communication Style and Future Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojala, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Is hope concerning climate change related to environmental engagement, or is it rather associated with unrealistic optimism and inactivity? This study on Swedish high school students identified two kinds of hope: constructive hope and hope based on denial. Constructive hope was positively associated with engagement and a perception that teachers…

  9. Using Bogner and Wiseman's Model of Ecological Values to Measure the Impact of an Earth Education Programme on Children's Environmental Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce; Manoli, Constantinos C.

    2008-01-01

    Investigating the effects of educational programmes on children's environmental perceptions has been hampered by the lack of good theoretical models and valid instruments. In the present study, Bogner and Wiseman's Model of Ecological Values provided a well-developed theoretical model. A validated instrument based on Bogner's Environmental…

  10. Bringing appraisal theory to environmental risk perception: a review of conceptual approaches of the past 40 years and suggestions for future research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, Carmen; Bostrom, Ann; Kuttschreuter, M.; Savadori, Lucia; Spence, Alexia; White, Mathew

    2012-01-01

    An intensive program of 40 years of research has produced various conceptual cognitive and affective approaches to environmental risk perception. In this short review of the most relevant conceptual approaches, appraisal theory is presented as a useful means of integrating cognitive and affective

  11. Confronting Female Genital Mutilation: The Role of Youth and ICTs ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-14

    Jul 14, 2011 ... Book cover Confronting Female Genital Mutilation: The Role of ... of an innovative research and action project carried out by ENDA Tiers ... Congratulations to the first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows!

  12. Confronting quasi-exponential inflation with WMAP seven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Barun Kumar; Pal, Supratik; Basu, B.

    2012-01-01

    We confront quasi-exponential models of inflation with WMAP seven years dataset using Hamilton Jacobi formalism. With a phenomenological Hubble parameter, representing quasi exponential inflation, we develop the formalism and subject the analysis to confrontation with WMAP seven using the publicly available code CAMB. The observable parameters are found to fair extremely well with WMAP seven. We also obtain a ratio of tensor to scalar amplitudes which may be detectable in PLANCK

  13. The Frontiers of Observational Cosmology and the Confrontation with Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longair, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    The current state of observational cosmology and the confrontation with theory is presented. The review is divided into the following sections: - Basic observations on which the models are based. - Testing the basic assumptions made in the construction of the standard cosmological models. - Structure formation in the standard models; - Observational tests of the standard models - the confrontation with observation; - Basic problems and approaches to their solution; - Future challenges - the ESA EUCLID mission is given as an example.

  14. Public perception of rural environmental quality: Moving towards a multi-pollutant approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantuaria, Manuella Lech; Brandt, Jørgen; Løfstrøm, Per; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria

    2017-12-01

    Most environmental epidemiology studies have examined pollutants individually. Multi-pollutant approaches have been recognized recently, but to the extent of our knowledge, no study to date has specifically investigated exposures to multiple air pollutants in rural environments. In this paper we characterized and quantified residential exposures to air pollutant mixtures in rural populations, provided a better understanding of the relationships between air pollutant mixtures and annoyance responses to environmental stressors, particularly odor, and quantified their predictive abilities. We used validated and highly spatially resolved atmospheric modeling of 14 air pollutants for four rural areas of Denmark, and the annoyance responses considered were annoyance due to odor, noise, dust, smoke and vibrations. We found significant associations between odor annoyance and principal components predominantly described by nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) and NH3, which are usually related to agricultural emission sources. Among these components, NH3 showed the lowest error when comparing observed population data and predicted probabilities. The combination of these compounds in a predictive model resulted in the most accurate model, being able to correctly predict 66% of odor annoyance responses. Furthermore, noise annoyance was found to be significantly associated with traffic-related air pollutants. In general terms, our results suggest that emissions from the agricultural and livestock production sectors are the main contributors to environmental annoyance, but also identify traffic and biomass burning as potential sources of annoyance.

  15. Perception of the environmental impacts of current and alternative modes of pig production by stakeholder groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Jean; van der Werf, Hayo M G

    2003-08-01

    The current industrial pig production model is in crisis, due to its association with environmental pollution, doubtful product quality and lack of animal well-being. In Bretagne (France), a region of intensive pig production, a survey of seven stakeholder groups concerned with pig production was conducted, as part of a research programme dedicated to the assessment of the environmental impact of different modes of pig production. A very large majority of pig producers (93%) and their suppliers (100%) considers pig farms as an asset for the region, whereas a majority of scientists (58%), activists (78%) and consumers (54%) sees it as a handicap. Differences among stakeholder groups are minor with respect to the perceived importance of environmental and social issues. Stakeholders agree on the relative level of responsibility of pig farms with respect to specific problems. For all groups unpleasant odours and water quality come first with respect to responsibility, for most groups soil quality comes second, followed by product safety and air quality. For a future improved mode of pig production, 76% of pig producers and their suppliers prefer to adapt the current model, for all other groups the majority prefers an alternative model. While pig producers and their suppliers prefer a slurry-based housing system, all other groups prefer a straw-based system. Pig producers see the slurry-based system as technically superior and associate the straw-based system with poor working conditions, whereas consumers associate the slurry-based system in the first place with poor water quality and associate the straw-based system with less pollution. These results will be of use in the research programme on the environmental impact of modes of pig production, as they indicate the environmental impacts to be considered and their relative importance. The results will also help in deciding which options should be assessed. It is concluded that the poor image of the current pig

  16. Investigating Public Perception of Occupational Therapy: An Environmental Scan of Three Media Outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Wendy E

    Using a phenomenological approach, this study investigated visibility and perception of the profession of occupational therapy in three media outlets. Content analysis occurred on LexisNexis Academic (LNA), Google Images, and Twitter platforms. Analysis of LNA identified the prevalence of articles about occupational therapy in domestic newspapers and similar media avenues, MaxQDA qualitative software coded Google Images from a search on occupational therapy, and AnalyzeWords evaluated Twitter feeds of four health care professions for presence and tone in a social media context. Results indicate that although occupational therapy is 100 years old, its presence in news and online platforms could be stronger. This study suggests that a clear professional identity for occupational therapy practitioners must be strategically communicated through academic and social platforms. Such advocacy promotes the profession, meets the next iteration of occupational therapy's professional vision, and allows occupational therapy to remain a prominent and formidable stakeholder in today's health care marketplace. Copyright © 2018 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  17. Promoting youth physical activity in rural southern communities: practitioner perceptions of environmental opportunities and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michael B; Theriault, Daniel S; Shores, Kindal A; Melton, Karen M

    2014-01-01

    Research on youth physical activity has focused on urban areas. Rural adolescents are more likely to be physically inactive than urban youth, contributing to higher risk of obesity and chronic diseases. Study objectives were to: (1) identify perceived opportunities and barriers to youth physical activity within a rural area and (2) identify rural community characteristics that facilitate or inhibit efforts to promote youth physical activity. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with expert informants in 2 rural southern US counties. Interviewees were recruited from diverse positions across multiple sectors based on their expert knowledge of community policies and programs for youth physical activity. Informants saw ball fields, natural amenities, and school sports as primary resources for youth physical activity, but they were divided on whether opportunities were abundant or scarce. Physical distance, social isolation, lack of community offerings, and transportation were identified as key barriers. Local social networks facilitated political action and volunteer recruitment to support programs. However, communities often lacked human capital to sustain initiatives. Racial divisions influenced perceptions of opportunities. Despite divisions, there were also examples of pooling resources to create and sustain physical activity opportunities. Developing partnerships and leveraging local resources may be essential to overcoming barriers for physical activity promotion in rural areas. Involvement of church leaders, school officials, health care workers, and cooperative extension is likely needed to establish and sustain youth rural physical activity programs. Allocating resources to existing community personnel and volunteers for continuing education may be valuable. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.

  18. Trends in public perceptions and preferences on energy and environmental policy: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B.C.

    1993-03-01

    This is a summary of a report that presents selected results from a secondary analysis of public opinion surveys, taken at the national and state/local levels, relevant to energy and environmental policy choices. The data base used in the analysis includes about 2,000 items from nearly 600 separate surveys conducted between 1979 and 1992. Answers to word-for-word questions were traced over time, permitting trend analysis. Patterns of response were also identified for findings from similarly worded survey items. The analysis identifies changes in public opinion concerning energy during the past 10 to 15 years.

  19. How do the public and policy makers communicate their perceptions of environmental risk to academics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Jennifer

    2010-05-01

    This paper investigates the ways that the public and policy makers talk about environmental risk to academics. The case study is heavy-metal contamination of food in Zambia, Southern Africa. In several localities in Zambia, urban agriculture is practised using heavy-metal contamination wastewater for irrigation. This leads to contaminated food crops that are subsequently consumed. One case study site where this occurs is Chunga, situated in the northwest of the Zambian capital: Lusaka. For members of the public, six focus groups were carried out at the Chunga, Zambia study site, involving a total of 48 participants. The participants were those involved in urban agriculture through cultivation, selling and consumption of food crops. Urban agriculturalist focus group participants were recruited through key field informants. Focus group discussion starter questions involved pollution awareness, health impacts of pollution in the area and who is responsible for communicating environmental contamination risks to the general population. For policy stakeholders, 39 semi-structured interviews were conducted with individuals from various organisations including government ministries, non-governmental organisations, community based organisations and international institutions. Semi-structured interviews investigated the perceived major health issues in Zambia, food safety, environmental contamination and specifically heavy-metal contamination. Policy stakeholders were identified through policy mapping and organisations mentioned in focus group discussions and other interviews. The results at the Chunga study site show that members of the public perceive: (i) heavy metal pollution is not an issue in Lusaka and for their irrigation practices, (ii) dirty food can cause illness, (iii) heavy metals in foods can cause illness but they are not present at the Chunga site. Amongst urban agriculturalists the quantity of food available is the greatest issue, with some saying that they

  20. Trends in public perceptions and preferences on energy and environmental policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B.C.

    1993-02-01

    This report presents selected results from a secondary analysis of public opinion surveys, taken at the national and state/local levels, relevant to energy and environmental policy choices. The data base used in the analysis includes about 2000 items from nearly 600 separate surveys conducted between 1979 and 1992. Answers to word-for-word questions were traced over time, permitting trend analysis. Patterns of response were also identified for findings from similarly worded survey items. The analysis identifies changes in public opinion concerning energy during the past 10 to 15 years.

  1. Bare Rocks and Fallen Angels: Environmental Change, Climate Perceptions and Ritual Practice in the Peruvian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Paerregaard

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the many dimensions of globalization is climate change that in recent years has caused much concern in the developed world. The aim of this article is to explore how people living on the margins of the global world conceive climate change. Drawing on ethnographic field data from the 1980s and today it examines how the ritual practice and the religious belief of a rural community in the Peruvian Andes has changed during the last 27 years and how the villagers perceive this change. It argues that the villagers traditionally conceive the environment as co-habited by humans and non-humans but that recent environmental change in the Andes has caused a shift in this world-view. Today, many villagers have adopted the global vocabulary on climate change and are concerned with their own impact in the environment. However, the villagers reject the idea that it is human activities in other parts of the world that cause environmental problems in their community and claim that these must be addressed locally. It suggests that even though the villagers’ reluctance to subscribe to the global discourse of climate change makes them look like the companions of climate skeptics in the developed world, their reasons are very different.

  2. Environmental Sound Perception: Metadescription and Modeling Based on Independent Primary Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen McAdams

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to transpose and extend to a set of environmental sounds the notion of sound descriptors usually used for musical sounds. Four separate primary studies dealing with interior car sounds, air-conditioning units, car horns, and closing car doors are considered collectively. The corpus formed by these initial stimuli is submitted to new experimental studies and analyses, both for revealing metacategories and for defining more precisely the limits of each of the resulting categories. In a second step, the new structure is modeled: common and specific dimensions within each category are derived from the initial results and new investigations of audio features are performed. Furthermore, an automatic classifier based on two audio descriptors and a multinomial logistic regression procedure is implemented and validated with the corpus.

  3. Glacier Retreat in the Southern Peruvian Andes: Climate Change, Environmental Impacts, Human Perception and Social Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlove, B.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents results from recent environmental and anthropological research near glacierized areas in the department of Cusco, Peru, home to the well-known Quelccaya Ice Cap and to the peak of Ausangate (6384 m). Glaciers in the region are in negative mass balance, losing volume and area, with upslope movement of the glacier fronts. Somewhat paradoxically, flows in many streams close to the glaciers are reduced, particularly in the dry season, due to a shift in the seasonal distribution of melting, to increased evaporation and to increased percolation into newly-exposed sands and gravels. Associated with this reduction in flow is a desiccation of some anthropogenic and natural wetlands, reducing the availability of dry season forage to wild (vicuna) and domesticated (alpaca, llama) ruminants. Interviews and ethnographic observations with local populations of Quechua-speaking herders at elevations of 4500-5200 meters provide detailed comments on these changes. They have an extensive vocabulary of terms for glacial features associated with retreat. They link this treat with environmental factors (higher temperatures, greater winds that deposit dust on lower portions of glaciers) and with religious factors (divine punishment for human wrong-doing, failure of humans to respect mountain spirits). They describe a variety of economic and extra-economic impacts of this retreat on different spatial, social and temporal scales. Though they face other issues as well (threats of pollution from new mining projects, inadequacy of government services), glacier retreat is their principal concern. Many herders express extreme distress over this unprecedented threat to their livelihoods and communities, though a few propose responses - out-migration, the formation of an association of neighboring communities, development of irrigation works - that could serve as adaptations.

  4. Behavioural stress responses predict environmental perception in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millot, Sandie; Cerqueira, Marco; Castanheira, Maria-Filipa; Overli, Oyvind; Oliveira, Rui F; Martins, Catarina I M

    2014-01-01

    Individual variation in the response to environmental challenges depends partly on innate reaction norms, partly on experience-based cognitive/emotional evaluations that individuals make of the situation. The goal of this study was to investigate whether pre-existing differences in behaviour predict the outcome of such assessment of environmental cues, using a conditioned place preference/avoidance (CPP/CPA) paradigm. A comparative vertebrate model (European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax) was used, and ninety juvenile individuals were initially screened for behavioural reactivity using a net restraining test. Thereafter each individual was tested in a choice tank using net chasing as aversive stimulus or exposure to familiar conspecifics as appetitive stimulus in the preferred or non preferred side respectively (called hereafter stimulation side). Locomotor behaviour (i.e. time spent, distance travelled and swimming speed in each tank side) of each individual was recorded and analysed with video software. The results showed that fish which were previously exposed to appetitive stimulus increased significantly the time spent on the stimulation side, while aversive stimulus led to a strong decrease in time spent on the stimulation side. Moreover, this study showed clearly that proactive fish were characterised by a stronger preference for the social stimulus and when placed in a putative aversive environment showed a lower physiological stress responses than reactive fish. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time in sea bass, that the CPP/CPA paradigm can be used to assess the valence (positive vs. negative) that fish attribute to different stimuli and that individual behavioural traits is predictive of how stimuli are perceived and thus of the magnitude of preference or avoidance behaviour.

  5. Environmental mobile robot based on artificial intelligence and visual perception for weed elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel Kadim Abid AL-SAHIB

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research presents a new editing design for the pioneer p3-dx mobile robot by adding a mechanical gripper for eliminating the weed and a digital camera for capturing the image of the field. Also, a wireless kit that makes control on the motor's gripper is envisaged. This work consists of two parts. The theoretical part contains a program to read the image and discover the weed coordinates which will be sent to the path planning software to discover the locations of weed, green plant and sick plant. These positions are sent then to the mobile robot navigation software. Then the wireless signal is sent to the gripper. The experimental part is represented as a digital camera that takes an image of the agricultural field, and then sends it to the computer for processing. After that the weeds coordinates are sent to the mobile robots by mobile robot navigation software. Next, the wireless signal is sent to the wireless kit controlling the motor gripper by the computer interface program; the first trial on the agricultural field shows that the mobile robot can discriminate the green plant, from weed and sick plant and can take the right decision with respect to treatment or elimination. The experimental work shows that the environmental mobile robot can detect successfully the weed, sick plant and the hale plant. The mobile robot also travels from base to the target point represented by the weed and sick plants in the optimum path. The experimental work also shows that the environmental mobile robot can eliminate the weed and cure the sick plants in a correctly way.

  6. Radiological accidents: education for prevention and confrontation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas Herrera, Juan; Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to train and inform on radiological accidents as a preventive measure to improve the people life quality. Radiological accidents are part of the events of technological origin which are composed of nuclear and radiological accidents. As a notable figure is determined that there have been 423 radiological accidents from 1944 to 2005 and among the causes prevail industrial accidents, by irradiations, medical accidents and of laboratories, among others. Latin American countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Peru are some where most accidents have occurred by radioactivity. The radiological accidents can have sociological, environmental, economic, social and political consequences. In addition, there are scenarios of potential nuclear accidents and in them the potential human consequences. Also, the importance of the organization and planning in a nuclear emergency is highlighted. Finally, the experience that Cuba has lived on the subject of radiological accidents is described [es

  7. Perceptions of general environmental problems, willingness to expend federal funds on these problems, and concerns regarding the Los Alamos national laboratory: Hispanics are more concerned than Whites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Myers, O.; Boring, C.S.; Dixon, C.; Lord, C.; Ramos, R.; Shukla, S.; Gochfeld, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Perceptions about general environmental problems, governmental spending for these problems, and major concerns about the US Department of Energy's Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) were examined by interviewing 356 people attending a gun show in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The hypothesis that there are differences in these three areas as a function of ethnicity was examined. We predicted that if differences existed, they would exist for all three evaluations (general environmental problems, government spending, and environmental concerns about LANL). However, this was not the case; there were fewer ethnic differences concerning LANL. Hispanics rated most general environmental problems higher than Whites and rated their willingness to expend federal funds higher than Whites, although all groups gave a lower score on willingness than on concern. Further, the congruence between these two types of ratings was higher for Hispanics than for others. In general, the concerns expressed by subjects about LANL showed few ethnic differences, and everyone was most concerned about contamination. These data indicate that Hispanics attending a gun show are equally or more concerned than others about environmental problems generally but are not more concerned about LANL. The data can be useful for developing future research and stewardship plans and for understanding general environmental problems and their relationship to concerns about LANL. More generally, they indicate that the attitudes and perceptions of Hispanics deserve increased study in a general population

  8. Public perception of global warming and related environmental issues in Kano city, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliyasu, Z.; Abubakar, I.; Gajida, A.U.

    2010-07-01

    Sub-Saharan African countries are at an increased risk of the effects of global warming. Unfortunately they have the least capacity to adapt to its untoward effects. We studied public awareness of global warming, its perceived causes, effects and prevention in Kano city, northern Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were administered on a cross section of 181 adults in Kano eliciting their awareness of global warming, as well as perceived causes, effects and ways of prevention. Of the 181 respondents, 132 (72.9%) were aware of global warming mainly from electronic media (44.4%), the Internet (20.5%) and schools (18.7%). They mostly attributed it to air pollution (99.2%), use of fossil fuels (97.7%), toxic waste (78.0%) and chlorofluorocarbons (73.5%). Perceived effects of global warming include extremes of ambient temperature (97.7%), increased disease outbreaks (92.4%), floods (68.2%), droughts (51.5%) and loss of species (50.0%). Respondents opined that global warming could be prevented by using renewable sources of energy such as the sun (53.8%), massive tree planting (44.7%) and phasing out of old automobiles (43.2%). A significantly higher proportion of males, younger and educated respondents were aware of global warming. The high awareness about global warming needs to be reinforced through use of media to encourage advocacy and community action towards preventing global warming and ensuring environmental sustainability.

  9. Evaluating Determinants of Environmental Risk Perception for Risk Management in Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janmaimool, Piyapong; Watanabe, Tsunemi

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the differences in the risk judgments of residents of industrial communities potentially provides insights into how to develop appropriate risk communication strategies. This study aimed to explore citizens’ fundamental understanding of risk-related judgments and to identify the factors contributing to perceived risks. An exploratory model was created to investigate the public’s risk judgments. In this model, the relationship between laypeople’s perceived risks and the factors related to the physical nature of risks (such as perceived probability of environmental contamination, probability of receiving impacts, and severity of catastrophic consequences) were examined by means of multiple regression analysis. Psychological factors, such as the ability to control the risks, concerns, experiences, and perceived benefits of industrial development were also included in the analysis. The Maptaphut industrial area in Rayong Province, Thailand was selected as a case study. A survey of 181 residents of communities experiencing different levels of hazardous gas contamination revealed rational risk judgments by inhabitants of high-risk and moderate-risk communities, based on their perceived probability of contamination, probability of receiving impacts, and perceived catastrophic consequences. However, risks assessed by people in low-risk communities could not be rationally explained and were influenced by their collective experiences. PMID:24937530

  10. Endenese Fisheries: Exploratory Findings on Environmental Perceptions, Fish Effort, and Overfishing in Eastern Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria C. Ramenzoni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fishing fleets in South East Asia have recently experienced unprecedented expansion. Consequently, catches and regional diversity have dramatically decreased throughout the Indian Ocean. Regional governments and conservation organizations blame the local fishermen and their use of damaging fishing practices for the present state of resources. However, many of these institutions endorse a narrow perspective on bioeconomic governance and human action (rational action choice that compromises the understanding of resource use and exploitation among small-scale fisheries. Over the last few decades, there is a growing recognized tradition that points to the importance of ecological systems of knowledge, uncertainty representation, and traditional skills, in conceptualizing processes of environmental decision-making and the likelihood of introducing successful sustainability practices. In line with this perspective, this article presents preliminary findings regarding resource use decision-making processes among Endenese fishing villages in central Flores Island, Indonesia. Grounded on 22 months of ethnographic, experimental and ecological research (semistructured interviews, participant observation, visual surveys, probability and uncertainty assessments, and exploring local cognitive representations of marine processes, climate, ichthyology and the role of luck, this article discusses the current economic representations of small-scale fishers as avid maximizers. It concludes by emphasizing the need to further explore the role of mental models and beliefs regarding uncertainty in motivating fishing effort to design adequate conservation and governance programs. 

  11. Children's Perception of Television Commercial in Lagos State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    separating television adverts effect from influence of peers, parents, friends, and others. This constitutes one of the major problems confronting television advertising to ... Key Words: Perception, Television Commercial, Children Consumer

  12. Experiencing Nature through Immersive Virtual Environments: Environmental Perceptions, Physical Engagement, and Affective Responses during a Simulated Nature Walk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Calogiuri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By combining physical activity and exposure to nature, green exercise can provide additional health benefits compared to physical activity alone. Immersive Virtual Environments (IVE have emerged as a potentially valuable supplement to environmental and behavioral research, and might also provide new approaches to green exercise promotion. However, it is unknown to what extent green exercise in IVE can provide psychophysiological responses similar to those experienced in real natural environments. In this study, 26 healthy adults underwent three experimental conditions: nature walk, sitting-IVE, and treadmill-IVE. The nature walk took place on a paved trail along a large river. In the IVE conditions, the participants wore a head-mounted display with headphones reproducing a 360° video and audio of the nature walk, either sitting on a chair or walking on a manually driven treadmill. Measurements included environmental perceptions (presence and perceived environmental restorativeness – PER, physical engagement (walking speed, heart rate, and perceived exertion, and affective responses (enjoyment and affect. Additionally, qualitative information was collected through open-ended questions. The participants rated the IVEs with satisfactory levels of ‘being there’ and ‘sense of reality,’ but also reported discomforts such as ‘flatness,’ ‘movement lag’ and ‘cyber sickness.’ With equivalent heart rate and walking speed, participants reported higher perceived exertion in the IVEs than in the nature walk. The nature walk was associated with high enjoyment and enhanced affect. However, despite equivalent ratings of PER in the nature walk and in the IVEs, the latter were perceived as less enjoyable and gave rise to a poorer affect. Presence and PER did not differ between the two IVEs, although in the treadmill-IVE the negative affective responses had slightly smaller magnitude than in the sitting-IVE. In both the IVEs, the negative

  13. Theorising and testing environmental pathways to behaviour change: natural experimental study of the perception and use of new infrastructure to promote walking and cycling in local communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter, Jenna; Ogilvie, David

    2015-09-03

    Some studies have assessed the effectiveness of environmental interventions to promote physical activity, but few have examined how such interventions work. We investigated the environmental mechanisms linking an infrastructural intervention with behaviour change. Natural experimental study. Three UK municipalities (Southampton, Cardiff and Kenilworth). Adults living within 5 km of new walking and cycling infrastructure. Construction or improvement of walking and cycling routes. Exposure to the intervention was defined in terms of residential proximity. Questionnaires at baseline and 2-year follow-up assessed perceptions of the supportiveness of the environment, use of the new infrastructure, and walking and cycling behaviours. Analysis proceeded via factor analysis of perceptions of the physical environment (step 1) and regression analysis to identify plausible pathways involving physical and social environmental mediators and refine the intervention theory (step 2) to a final path analysis to test the model (step 3). Participants who lived near and used the new routes reported improvements in their perceptions of provision and safety. However, path analysis (step 3, n=967) showed that the effects of the intervention on changes in time spent walking and cycling were largely (90%) explained by a simple causal pathway involving use of the new routes, and other pathways involving changes in environmental cognitions explained only a small proportion of the effect. Physical improvement of the environment itself was the key to the effectiveness of the intervention, and seeking to change people's perceptions may be of limited value. Studies of how interventions lead to population behaviour change should complement those concerned with estimating their effects in supporting valid causal inference. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Risk and safety perception on urban and rural roads: Effects of environmental features, driver age and risk sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jolene A; Beanland, Vanessa; Filtness, Ashleigh J

    2017-10-03

    The ability to detect changing visual information is a vital component of safe driving. In addition to detecting changing visual information, drivers must also interpret its relevance to safety. Environmental changes considered to have high safety relevance will likely demand greater attention and more timely responses than those considered to have lower safety relevance. The aim of this study was to explore factors that are likely to influence perceptions of risk and safety regarding changing visual information in the driving environment. Factors explored were the environment in which the change occurs (i.e., urban vs. rural), the type of object that changes, and the driver's age, experience, and risk sensitivity. Sixty-three licensed drivers aged 18-70 years completed a hazard rating task, which required them to rate the perceived hazardousness of changing specific elements within urban and rural driving environments. Three attributes of potential hazards were systematically manipulated: the environment (urban, rural); the type of object changed (road sign, car, motorcycle, pedestrian, traffic light, animal, tree); and its inherent safety risk (low risk, high risk). Inherent safety risk was manipulated by either varying the object's placement, on/near or away from the road, or altering an infrastructure element that would require a change to driver behavior. Participants also completed two driving-related risk perception tasks, rating their relative crash risk and perceived risk of aberrant driving behaviors. Driver age was not significantly associated with hazard ratings, but individual differences in perceived risk of aberrant driving behaviors predicted hazard ratings, suggesting that general driving-related risk sensitivity plays a strong role in safety perception. In both urban and rural scenes, there were significant associations between hazard ratings and inherent safety risk, with low-risk changes perceived as consistently less hazardous than high

  15. The Sector Players’ Perception on the Influence of Sugarcane Environmental Protocol in Corporate Environmental Management Process: A Study of Industry Managers in the Middle Region of Assis-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenis César Oliveira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian agriculture has undergone an unprecedented environmental crisis. In this scenario, it is the agribusiness and sugarcane suppliers, working in the sugarcane industry, which have had a strong growth, with significant economic, social and environmental impacts. Studies have shown that the inclusion of environmental concerns in corporate management can bring competitiveness gains for organizations, as well as improve their image before their stakeholders. The social demand for a cleaner environment, coupled with increasing environmental regulation, have forced companies in this sector to perform and participate in extensive programmes for prevention and mitigation of environmental impacts. In this design, the Agro-environmental Protocol for the Paulista sugarcane industry has arisen, consisting of a cooperation agreement signed in June 2007 between the government of the State of São Paulo, represented by the Secretaries of State for the Environment; Agriculture and Supply; Industry Union of cane sugar; and the Sugar Cane Growers Organization's South-Central Region. The research presented here aimed to investigate the perception of managers of agribusinesses and suppliers located in the middle region of Assis-SP on the influence of the Agro-environmental Protocol in corporate environmental management process. Nineteen semi-structured interviews with the environmental managers of each signatory organization were applied. The results showed strong influence of the Agro-environmental Protocol in environmental management processes of organizations, especially with the implementation and enforcement actions to meet the directive techniques of the Agro-environmental Protocol, which has contributed to organizations internalize environmental issues and moving towards a more proactive stance.

  16. The importance of confronting a colonial, patriarchal and racist past ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of confronting a colonial, patriarchal and racist past in addressing post-apartheid sexual violence. ... It also needs to redress problems of social and economic inequality that exist in South Africa as hangovers from this country's colonial and apartheid-era past. Keywords: Zuma, rape, Kipling, colonialism, ...

  17. Confrontation and Alienation: Education's Flawed Response to Religious Textbook Objections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Ernest

    Recent controversies over textbooks illustrate objections held by Evangelicals to "secular humanism" in the schools. Educators automatically tend to assume that all religious objections to curricula are clear-cut attempts at censorship. This confrontational attitude on the part of educators can lead to alienation of minority religious…

  18. Challenges confronting health care workers in government's ARV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges confronting health care workers in government's ARV rollout: rights and responsibilities. ... Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad ... Unless the rights of HCWs are recognised and their needs adequately addressed, the best laid plans of government will be at risk.

  19. Challenge, Confrontation, and Exhortation as Intentional Invitations by Professional Helpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, John J.

    1996-01-01

    Examines intentional invitations that challenge, confront, exhort, and persuade people to change their behaviors. Assumes that the sender controls the "intention" and that the receiver determines the degree of "inviting." Suggests that elements of the invitational model serve as a framework to create acceptable inducements in…

  20. Clinical confrontation results of diagnostics and treatment of skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikiryakhodjaev, D.Z.; Sanginov, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter of book authors investigated the clinical confrontation results of diagnostics and treatment of skin cancer. They noted that diagnostic of skin cancer have to foresee the determination morphologic implements and degree of malignancy tumorous process why in general depend prognosis of illness

  1. Confronting quintessence models with recent high-redshift supernovae data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, G. Barro; Maroto, A. L.

    2006-01-01

    We confront the predictions of different quintessence models with recent measurements of the luminosity distance from two sets of supernovae type Ia. In particular, we consider the 157 SNe Ia in the Gold dataset with z M -α and Ω M -w φ planes for the different models and compare their predictions with dark energy models with constant equation of state

  2. Perception of the Environmental Degradation of Gold Mining on Socio-Economic Variables in Eastern Cameroon, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Anselme Kamga

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal mining is associated with a number of environmental impacts, including deforestation and land degradation, open pits which pose animal traps and health hazards, and heavy metals contamination of land (water and soil, dust and noise pollution. The study examines the perception of environmental degradation of gold mining sites in eastern Cameroon. Human-environment interaction and distance decay models are the conceptual framework for this study.  This study employed a survey research design through the use of primary data while a purposive sampling technique was utilized. A total of 440 questionnaires were administered to selected households across the localities in the study area. Frequencies, percentages, chart, cross tabulations and chi-square tests were used for the data analysis. In other to achieve the aim of this study, a comparison between the nearby and far away residents were done. The study revealed that mining exploitations have brought about changes in the colour and taste of water in the active mining sites (41.7%. Malaria is the number one type of disease that has caused more damage in the localities (81.6%. Mining activities have successfully enabled children in the active mining sites to abandoned school for mining (75.0%. Inhabitants of unit 1 directly linked the problems facing their economic activities to inadequate arable land for agriculture (33.8% and inhabitants across the study area correlated the problems facing livestock farming to diseases as a result of mining activities (64.6%. The perceived negative effects of gold mining on different socio-economic variables (such as culture, health, education, economy and livestock vary significantly depending on the proximity from the mining areas (p<0.05. The study concludes that residents living within and far away from the active mining sites were affected by gold mining activities. However, the most worrisome situation concern people working and living within the

  3. Determinants of waterpipe use amongst adolescents in Northern Sweden: a survey of use pattern, risk perception, and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramji, Rathi; Arnetz, Judy; Nilsson, Maria; Jamil, Hikmet; Norström, Fredrik; Maziak, Wasim; Wiklund, Ywonne; Arnetz, Bengt

    2015-09-15

    Determinants of waterpipe use in adolescents are believed to differ from those for other tobacco products, but there is a lack of studies of possible social, cultural, or psychological aspects of waterpipe use in this population. This study applied a socioecological model to explore waterpipe use, and its relationship to other tobacco use in Swedish adolescents. A total of 106 adolescents who attended an urban high-school in northern Sweden responded to an anonymous questionnaire. Prevalence rates for waterpipe use were examined in relation to socio-demographics, peer pressure, sensation seeking behavior, harm perception, environmental factors, and depression. Thirty-three percent reported ever having smoked waterpipe (ever use), with 30% having done so during the last 30 days (current use). Among waterpipe ever users, 60% had ever smoked cigarettes in comparison to 32% of non-waterpipe smokers (95% confidence interval 1.4-7.9). The odds of having ever smoked waterpipe were three times higher among male high school seniors as well as students with lower grades. Waterpipe ever users had three times higher odds of having higher levels of sensation-seeking (95% confidence interval 1.2-9.5) and scored high on the depression scales (95% confidence interval 1.6-6.8) than non-users. The odds of waterpipe ever use were four times higher for those who perceived waterpipe products to have pleasant smell compared to cigarettes (95% confidence interval 1.7-9.8). Waterpipe ever users were twice as likely to have seen waterpipe use on television compared to non-users (95% confidence interval 1.1-5.7). The odds of having friends who smoked regularly was eight times higher for waterpipe ever users than non-users (95% confidence interval 2.1-31.2). The current study reports a high use of waterpipe in a select group of students in northern Sweden. The study adds the importance of looking at socioecological determinants of use, including peer pressure and exposure to media marketing

  4. Issues confronting women participation in the construction industry

    OpenAIRE

    Aulin, Radhlinah; Jingmond, Monika

    2011-01-01

    This paper raises the issues confronting the minority cohort’s participation in the construction industry. Women in construction are seen as the wrong gender to be around for the construction occupations require not only manual dexterity but physical strength. Currently, the industry is employing less than 10% of the female in the workforce with even lower participation in crafts and trade. This paper discussed about the current women participation in construction focusing on the European Uni...

  5. The Lived Experience of Iranian Women Confronting Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Esmat Mehrabi; Sepideh Hajian; Masoomeh Simbar; Mohammad Hoshyari; Farid Zayeri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The populations who survive from breast cancer are growing; nevertheless, they mostly encounter with many cancer related problems in their life, especially after early diagnosis and have to deal with these problems. Except for the disease entity, several socio-cultural factors may affect confronting this challenge among patients and the way they deal with. Present study was carried out to prepare clear understanding of Iranian women's...

  6. Scheme with two large extra dimensions confronted with neutrino physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maalampi, J.; Sipilaeinen, V.; Vilja, I.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate a particle physics model in a six-dimensional spacetime, where two extra dimensions form a torus. Particles with standard model charges are confined by interactions with a scalar field to four four-dimensional branes, two vortices accommodating ordinary type fermions and two antivortices accommodating mirror fermions. We investigate the phenomenological implications of this multibrane structure by confronting the model with neutrino physics data

  7. Confronting Violence, Improving Women's Lives Special Display Opens at NLM | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Confronting Violence, Improving Women's Lives Special Display Opens at NLM ... Medicine Division. Photo Courtesy of Lisa Helfert Confronting Violence, Improving Women's Lives is on display in the ...

  8. Wind Energy in the Backyard of our House?! Environmental Perception of Social and Environmental Impacts in the Installation and Operation of a Plant in the Community of the Site in Cumbe Aracati-CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseilda Nunes Moreira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical and empirical study aimed to understand the perception that local people have about the environmental impacts caused by the installation and operation of an eolic enterprise in the surrounding community. The study of environmental perception is crucial for us to better understand the interrelationships between man and the environment, expectations, desires, satisfactions and dissatisfactions, judgments and behaviors. The spatial area adopted for the study is the community of Cumbe in Aracati / CE for its geomorphologic and climatologic presented sufficient conditions for the installation and use of wind energy in order to change the energy matrix of the municipality. This research is exploratory and descriptive design literature and case study, where to collect the data were collected through interviews with open questions to a group of residents near the eolic enterprise investigated and a prosecutor's Aracati. In the field research, we investigated the environmental impacts caused by the eolic plant, the level of understanding in the community about wind energy and the enterprise's contribution to community development, among other issues.

  9. Vibrotactile Detection, Identification and Directional Perception of signal-Processed Sounds from Environmental Events: A Pilot Field Evaluation in Five Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parivash Ranjbar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Conducting field tests of a vibrotactile aid for deaf/deafblind persons for detection, identification and directional perception of environmental sounds. Methods: Five deaf (3F/2M, 22–36 years individuals tested the aid separately in a home environment (kitchen and in a traffic environment. Their eyes were blindfolded and they wore a headband and holding a vibrator for sound identification. In the headband, three microphones were mounted and two vibrators for signalling direction of the sound source. The sounds originated from events typical for the home environment and traffic. The subjects were inexperienced (events unknown and experienced (events known. They identified the events in a home and traffic environment, but perceived sound source direction only in traffic. Results: The detection scores were higher than 98% both in the home and in the traffic environment. In the home environment, identification scores varied between 25%-58% when the subjects were inexperienced and between 33%-83% when they were experienced. In traffic, identification scores varied between 20%-40% when the subjects were inexperienced and between 22%-56% when they were experienced. The directional perception scores varied between 30%-60% when inexperienced and between 61%-83% when experienced. Discussion: The vibratory aid consistently improved all participants’ detection, identification and directional perception ability.

  10. MANAGERIAL PROBLEMS CONFRONTED BY EXECUTIVE CHEFS IN HOTELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal BIRDIR

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the managerial problems confronted by executive chefs working at 4 and 5-star hotels in Turkey. A survey developed by the researchers was employed as a data collection tool. Answers given by participants were analyzed using “T-test” and “ANOVA” analyses in order to determine whether there are significant differences of opinion on the subject (collated in answers to the survey questionnaire amongst executive chefs, based on answers given by them (expressed as average figures dependent upon such variables as their “Age”, “Gender”, “Educational Status” and “Star status of the hotel within which they worked.” The study results showed that the most important problem confronting executive chefs was “finding educated/trained kitchen personnel.” On the specific problem, “responsibility and authority is not clear within the kitchen,” there was a significant difference of opinion by the gender of the executive chefs. Moreover, there was a significant difference of opinion dependent upon the star status of the hotels within which the chefs worked on the problem of whether or not “the working hours of kitchen personnel were too long.” The findings suggest that there are important problems confronted by executive chefs. Moreover, male and female executive chefs have different opinions on the magnitudes of some specific problems. Whereas there are various reports and similar publications discussing problems faced by executive chefs, the present study is the first one in the literature that solely explore the managerial problems experienced at a kitchen context.

  11. Confronting the Consequences of a Permanent Changing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Ioana Vosloban

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Businesses and governments choose how they wish to deal with change. Whether this change is organizational, technological, political, financial etc or even individual pursuing actions as usual is likely to lead to a downward path. The authors of this paper are giving a set of tools for confronting and understanding the consequences of this era of permanent changes by building strengths and seeking opportunities within organizations (private or public and within family (including friends. The work environment and the personal life of the individual have a common point which is adaptability, coping efficiently with changes, a demanded ability of the 3rd millennium human being.

  12. "The Invisible Staff": A Qualitative Analysis of Environmental Service Workers' Perceptions of the VA Clostridium difficile Prevention Bundle Using a Human Factors Engineering Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanke, Eric; Moriarty, Helene; Carayon, Pascale; Safdar, Nasia

    2018-06-11

    Using a novel human factors engineering approach, the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety model, we evaluated environmental service workers' (ESWs) perceptions of barriers and facilitators influencing adherence to the nationally mandated Department of Veterans Affairs Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) prevention bundle. A focus group of ESWs was conducted. Qualitative analysis was performed employing a visual matrix display to identify barrier/facilitator themes related to Department of Veterans Affairs CDI bundle adherence using the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety work system as a framework. Environmental service workers reported adequate cleaning supplies/equipment and displayed excellent knowledge of CDI hand hygiene requirements. Environmental service workers described current supervisory practices as providing an acceptable amount of time to clean CDI rooms, although other healthcare workers often pressured ESWs to clean rooms more quickly. Environmental service workers reported significant concern for CDI patients' family members as well as suggesting uncertainty regarding the need for family members to follow infection prevention practices. Small and cluttered patient rooms made cleaning tasks more difficult, and ESW cleaning tasks were often interrupted by other healthcare workers. Environmental service workers did not feel comfortable asking physicians for more time to finish cleaning a room nor did ESWs feel comfortable pointing out lapses in physician hand hygiene. Multiple work system components serve as barriers to and facilitators of ESW adherence to the nationally mandated Department of Veterans Affairs CDI bundle. Environmental service workers may represent an underappreciated resource for hospital infection prevention, and further efforts should be made to engage ESWs as members of the health care team.

  13. Perceptions from the public and private sector on trust and cooperation in the field of environmental management in Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Nivine; van der Molen, I.; Nader, M.; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge

    2013-01-01

    This paper positions trust and cooperation in the context of environmental management in Lebanon. Previous studies indicated increasing environmental problems in this area. The effectiveness of the Lebanese government to address these challenges has been reported to be constrained by large varieties

  14. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 15th annual meeting: Abstract book. Ecological risk: Science, policy, law, and perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the ecological risks of toxic chemicals. Presentations covered research in the following areas: environmental transport; monitoring; pollution sources; analysis; remediation; policies; environmental effects; and biological effects. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  15. Consumer perceptions of free will

    OpenAIRE

    Alba, Joseph W.; Vanhouche, Wouter; van Osselaer, Stijn

    2009-01-01

    The topic of free will has a long and distinguished history in philosophy and psychology. Consumer research has implicitly confronted the issue through empirical investigation of psychological processes that speak to the existence of free will; more recently, consumer psychologists have explicitly debated the question and its implications for decision making. The present research takes a different approach by investigating consumers’ perceptions of their free will. Our results suggest that...

  16. Synergetic Paradigm of Geopolitical Confrontation in the Postmodern Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Teplyakov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes current state and mechanisms of geopolitical struggle in postmodern information age that has come. The author judges from assumption that entirely new postmodern society appeared with expansion of information technology, accompanied by cardinal changes in mechanisms of political power. Information technologies have become one of the most important factors contributing to the transformation of modern society from industrial to informational (post-industrial. In modern conditions, ensuring national and global security is a comprehensive process that includes not only measures to ensure information and economic security individually, but also such an integrated component as providing both information and economic security. The author suggests that modem geopolitical confrontation is carried out based on the synergetic paradigm. The main tool is information and energy influence on enemy system weaknesses using information space control, organizing negative information campaigns and applying economic sanctions. If the main focus of geopolitical struggle in modern era was forced expansion of the territory, in information postmodern age control over economic and information space has become priority among forms of geopolitical struggle. Military expansion of modern era becomes substituted by information and economic expansionism of postmodern using synergetic paradigm of geopolitical confrontation in order to control and capture the opponent's political space.

  17. Environmental conflicts and philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugallo, Alicia Irene

    2006-01-01

    In 1998 the Yungas forest of Argentina became the subject of tremendous debates, caused by the construction of the Norandino Gas-pipeline. Apart from technical and financial considerations, the discussion of constructing the duct confronted the different actors in questions of great ethical relevance. Environmental activists assumed positions that not only consider persons, but also the rest of living beings as morally relevant. An untenable strong anthropocentrism, which is a predominant attitude in our developed societies, was questioned. The final implementation of the Yungas Biosphere Reserve showed the conflictive process as a 'witness case' in which the will to dialogue and the wise rationality have predominated, with the application of a new active conservationist, which make it possible to make compatible human development with care of the environment. The incorporation of socio-cultural topics to conservation imply a true conceptual and methodological revolution, taking into account the intangible and not quantifiable elements of action and human spirit, the different perceptions of each population, their development way and life quality, their ambitions, the sense of belonging or of self-realization feeling

  18. Environmental volunteer well-being: Managers’ perception and actual well-being of volunteers [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitte Kragh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmental volunteering can increase well-being, but environmental volunteer well-being has rarely been compared to participant well-being associated with other types of volunteering or nature-based activities. This paper aims to use a multidimensional approach to well-being to explore the immediately experienced and later remembered well-being of environmental volunteers and to compare this to the increased well-being of participants in other types of nature-based activities and volunteering. Furthermore, it aims to compare volunteer managers’ perceptions of their volunteers’ well-being with the self-reported well-being of the volunteers. Methods: Onsite surveys were conducted of practical conservation and biodiversity monitoring volunteers, as well as their control groups (walkers and fieldwork students, respectively, to measure general well-being before their nature-based activity and activity-related well-being immediately after their activity. Online surveys of current, former and potential volunteers and volunteer managers measured remembered volunteering-related well-being and managers’ perceptions of their volunteers’ well-being. Data were analysed based on Seligman’s multidimensional PERMA (‘positive emotion’, ‘engagement’, ‘positive relationship’, ‘meaning’, ‘achievement’ model of well-being. Factor analysis recovered three of the five PERMA elements, ‘engagement’, ‘relationship’ and ‘meaning’, as well as ‘negative emotion’ and ‘health’ as factors. Results: Environmental volunteering significantly improved positive elements and significantly decreased negative elements of participants’ immediate well-being, and it did so more than walking or student fieldwork. Even remembering their volunteering up to six months later, volunteers rated their volunteering-related well-being higher than volunteers rated their well-being generally in life. However, volunteering was not

  19. Body mapping of cutaneous wetness perception across the human torso during thermo-neutral and warm environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filingeri, Davide; Fournet, Damien; Hodder, Simon; Havenith, George

    2014-10-15

    Sensing skin wetness is linked to inputs arising from cutaneous cold-sensitive afferents. As thermosensitivity to cold varies significantly across the torso, we investigated whether similar regional differences in wetness perception exist. We also investigated the regional differences in thermal pleasantness and whether these sensory patterns are influenced by ambient temperature. Sixteen males (20 ± 2 yr) underwent a quantitative sensory test under thermo-neutral [air temperature (Tair) = 22°C; relative humidity (RH) = 50%] and warm conditions (Tair = 33°C; RH = 50%). Twelve regions of the torso were stimulated with a dry thermal probe (25 cm(2)) with a temperature of 15°C below local skin temperature (Tsk). Variations in Tsk, thermal, wetness, and pleasantness sensations were recorded. As a result of the same cold-dry stimulus, the skin-cooling response varied significantly by location (P = 0.003). The lateral chest showed the greatest cooling (-5 ± 0.4°C), whereas the lower back showed the smallest (-1.9 ± 0.4°C). Thermal sensations varied significantly by location and independently from regional variations in skin cooling with colder sensations reported on the lateral abdomen and lower back. Similarly, the frequency of perceived skin wetness was significantly greater on the lateral and lower back as opposed to the medial chest. Overall wetness perception was slightly higher under warm conditions. Significantly more unpleasant sensations were recorded when the lateral abdomen and lateral and lower back were stimulated. We conclude that humans present regional differences in skin wetness perception across the torso, with a pattern similar to the regional differences in thermosensitivity to cold. These findings indicate the presence of a heterogeneous distribution of cold-sensitive thermo-afferent information. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Education for risk perception of environmental pollution by water resources. Your situation in the municipality of Mella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taimé Mayet-Comerón

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The modern scientific and technological development has shown the vulnerability of nature, unsuspected before the damage is recognizable should do. And it is this ability to damage to nature which does consider the importance of prior knowledge, as the precautionary principle against the actions of man This work aims to deepen the features which characterize education for risk perception pollution water resources and the situation in this respect has in the municipality of Mella in the province Santiago de Cuba, all of which serve as a basis to substantiate the need to create a communication strategy that influences positively on the quality of life population.

  1. Environmental perception and use of fauna from a Private Natural Heritage Reserve (RPPN in Brazilian semiarid - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i3.8763

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mycarla Míria Araujo de Lucena

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Environmental Perception about the potential use of wildlife resources by the population surrounding the RPPN Stoessel de Britto. Through open and closed questions, we interviewed 90 residents at Laginhas community (87% of domiciles, which performed 367 citations for 79 species, belonging to 78 genera and 55 families. The interviewees showed the utility of 41 species, for various purposes, the feeding purpose was the most mentioned. The most cited animal (27 was Tolypeutes tricinctus (Linnaeus, 1758, the three-banded armadillo. The knowledge of this community is rich and could be considered and used to define conservation strategies and as subsidies to elaborate the Plan of Management of Conservation Units.

  2. SWOT analysis to evaluate the programme of a joint online/onsite master's degree in environmental education through the students' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Gutierrez, Miguel; Jimenez-Liso, M Rut; Martinez-Chico, Maria

    2016-02-01

    This study shows the use of SWOT to analyse students' perceptions of an environmental education joint master's programme in order to determine if it runs as originally planned. The open answers given by students highlight the inter-university nature of the master's, the technological innovation used as major points, and the weaknesses in the management coordination or the duplicate contents as minor points. The external analysis is closely linked with the students' future jobs, their labour opportunities available to them after graduation. The innovative treatment of the data is exportable to the evaluation of programmes of other degrees because it allows the description linked to its characteristics and its design through the students' point of view. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Confronting hip resurfacing and big femoral head replacement gait analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis K. Karampinas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Improved hip kinematics and bone preservation have been reported after resurfacing total hip replacement (THRS. On the other hand, hip kinematics with standard total hip replacement (THR is optimized with large diameter femoral heads (BFH-THR. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the functional outcomes of THRS and BFH-THR and correlate these results to bone preservation or the large femoral heads. Thirty-one patients were included in the study. Gait speed, postural balance, proprioception and overall performance. Our results demonstrated a non-statistically significant improvement in gait, postural balance and proprioception in the THRS confronting to BFH-THR group. THRS provide identical outcomes to traditional BFH-THR. The THRS choice as bone preserving procedure in younger patients is still to be evaluated.

  4. Confronting the Danish sectors for food and agriculture with 'terroir'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoye, Monica

    2007-01-01

    in e.g. PDO and PGI labelling. In the Roman approach, the superior product can be differentiated from all other products by its special taste, identity and/or integrated cultural elements. This definition of superiority is far from the average understanding of high food quality in a Scandinavian......The notion of ‘terroir' originates from wine production in southern Europe. It denotes a traditional approach to food, agriculture and rurality - an approach, which by some scholars has been summarized as a Roman approach. This Roman approach has exerted great influence on EU policies, resulting...... country like Denmark, where uniform products, high nutritional and hygienic levels and veterinary approval characterise an extremely export oriented food sector. However, Danish small scale food producers, who want to implement the terroir approach in their own production, increasingly confront...

  5. Defense Strategy of Aircraft Confronted with IR Guided Missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesong Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface-type infrared (IR decoy can simulate the IR characteristics of the target aircraft, which is one of the most effective equipment to confront IR guided missile. In the air combat, the IR guided missile poses a serious threat to the aircraft when it comes from the front of target aircraft. In this paper, firstly, the model of aircraft and surface-type IR decoy is established. To ensure their authenticity, the aircraft maneuver and radiation models based on real data of flight and exhaust system radiation in the state of different heights and different speeds are established. Secondly, the most effective avoidance maneuver is simulated when the missile comes from the front of the target aircraft. Lastly, combining maneuver with decoys, the best defense strategy is analysed when the missile comes from the front of aircraft. The result of simulation, which is authentic, is propitious to avoid the missile and improve the survivability of aircraft.

  6. Confronting hybrid inflation in supergravity with CMB data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeannerot, Rachel; Postma, Marieke

    2005-01-01

    F-term GUT inflation coupled to N = 1 supergravity is confronted with CMB data. Corrections to the string mass-per-unit-length away from the Bogomolny limit are taken into account. We find that a superpotential coupling 10 -7 /N∼ -2 /N, with N the dimension of the Higgs-representation, is still compatible with the data. The parameter space is enlarged in warm inflation, as well as in the curvaton and inhomogeneous reheat scenario. F-strings formed at the end of P-term inflation are also considered. Because these strings satisfy the Bogomolny bound the bounds are stronger: the gauge coupling is constrained to the range 10 -7 -4

  7. The latent confrontation: The Korean peninsula’s uncertain future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asier Blas Mendoza

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This article covers the changes that have taken place in inter-Korean relations since the fall of the Soviet regimes. In the first few years following the fall of the iron curtain, the Korean perimeter became a scenario of confrontation that seemed to perpetuate theproblem. However, in the second half of the ‘90s, north-east Asia began to undergo a real change that resulted in public contacts between the two Koreas. The new game that was officially opened by the “Sunshine policy” led to a deep-seated rethinking of foreignpolicy by both states, and opened a new chapter in inter-Korean relations that has clearly demonstrated the important dimension and repercussions of the conflict in the geo-strategic framework of the entire East Asian area, as well as in international politics.

  8. Tobacco Use and Environmental Smoke Exposure among Taiwanese Pregnant Smokers and Recent Quitters: Risk Perception, Attitude, and Avoidance Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ming-Cheng; Chou, Feng-Sha; Yang, Yann-Jy; Wang, Chih-Chien; Lee, Ming-Chang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we conducted an empirical survey of the avoidance behaviors and risk perceptions of active and passive smoking pregnant smokers and recent quitters. We employed an online questionnaire survey by recruiting 166 voluntary participants from an online parenting community in Taiwan. The results of the empirical survey revealed that three-fourths of smokers quit smoking during pregnancy and one-fourth continued smoking. All pregnant women who continued smoking had partners or lived with relatives who smoked. Current smokers and quitters differed significantly in their risk perceptions and attitudes toward smoking during pregnancy. Most pregnant smokers and quitters adopted passive smoking avoidance behaviors at home and in public. Nevertheless, one-fifth of pregnant women chose not to avoid passive smoking. We concluded that most women stop smoking during pregnancy; however, most women continue to be exposed to passive-smoking environments. Perceived fetal health risks and attitudes toward smoking during pregnancy are critical predictors of the anti-smoking behaviors of pregnant women. PMID:24005830

  9. Tobacco Use and Environmental Smoke Exposure among Taiwanese Pregnant Smokers and Recent Quitters: Risk Perception, Attitude, and Avoidance Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chang Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we conducted an empirical survey of the avoidance behaviors and risk perceptions of active and passive smoking pregnant smokers and recent quitters. We employed an online questionnaire survey by recruiting 166 voluntary participants from an online parenting community in Taiwan. The results of the empirical survey revealed that three-fourths of smokers quit smoking during pregnancy and one-fourth continued smoking. All pregnant women who continued smoking had partners or lived with relatives who smoked. Current smokers and quitters differed significantly in their risk perceptions and attitudes toward smoking during pregnancy. Most pregnant smokers and quitters adopted passive smoking avoidance behaviors at home and in public. Nevertheless, one-fifth of pregnant women chose not to avoid passive smoking. We concluded that most women stop smoking during pregnancy; however, most women continue to be exposed to passive-smoking environments. Perceived fetal health risks and attitudes toward smoking during pregnancy are critical predictors of the anti-smoking behaviors of pregnant women.

  10. Monitor, a Vibrotactile Aid for Environmental Perception: A Field Evaluation by Four People with Severe Hearing and Vision Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parivash Ranjbar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitor is a portable vibrotactile aid to improve the ability of people with severe hearing impairment or deafblindness to detect, identify, and recognize the direction of sound-producing events. It transforms and adapts sounds to the frequency sensitivity range of the skin. The aid was evaluated in the field. Four females (44–54 years with Usher Syndrome I (three with tunnel vision and one with only light perception tested the aid at home and in traffic in three different field studies: without Monitor, with Monitor with an omnidirectional microphone, and with Monitor with a directional microphone. The tests were video-documented, and the two field studies with Monitor were initiated after five weeks of training. The detection scores with omnidirectional and directional microphones were 100% for three participants and above 57% for one, both in their home and traffic environments. In the home environment the identification scores with the omnidirectional microphone were 70%–97% and 58%–95% with the directional microphone. The corresponding values in traffic were 29%–100% and 65%–100%, respectively. Their direction perception was improved to some extent by both microphones. Monitor improved the ability of people with deafblindness to detect, identify, and recognize the direction of events producing sounds.

  11. Monitor, a vibrotactile aid for environmental perception: a field evaluation by four people with severe hearing and vision impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Parivash; Stenström, Ingeborg

    2013-01-01

    Monitor is a portable vibrotactile aid to improve the ability of people with severe hearing impairment or deafblindness to detect, identify, and recognize the direction of sound-producing events. It transforms and adapts sounds to the frequency sensitivity range of the skin. The aid was evaluated in the field. Four females (44-54 years) with Usher Syndrome I (three with tunnel vision and one with only light perception) tested the aid at home and in traffic in three different field studies: without Monitor, with Monitor with an omnidirectional microphone, and with Monitor with a directional microphone. The tests were video-documented, and the two field studies with Monitor were initiated after five weeks of training. The detection scores with omnidirectional and directional microphones were 100% for three participants and above 57% for one, both in their home and traffic environments. In the home environment the identification scores with the omnidirectional microphone were 70%-97% and 58%-95% with the directional microphone. The corresponding values in traffic were 29%-100% and 65%-100%, respectively. Their direction perception was improved to some extent by both microphones. Monitor improved the ability of people with deafblindness to detect, identify, and recognize the direction of events producing sounds.

  12. Environmental issues and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitamura, Hisayoshi; Banba, Tsunetaka; Maeda, Toshikatsu; Ishiyama, Takashi

    1999-08-01

    All countries in the world are concerned about environmental issues because of their global effects. Developed industrial nations are also confronted with waste issues accompanied by mass production, mass consumption, and mass dump. We have reviewed books and reports to obtain a preliminary knowledge and to understand the trend of technology development before we start R and D for 'environmental monitoring, and environmental remediation and protection'. We lay great emphasis on municipal and industrial wastes in environmental issues and summarize the history of the earth, innovative environmental approaches in advanced nations, waste issues in Japan, and examples of technology development for environmental remediation and protection. (author)

  13. Energy condition bounds and their confrontation with supernovae data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, M. P.; Vitenti, S.; Reboucas, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    The energy conditions play an important role in the understanding of several properties of the Universe, including the current accelerating expansion phase and the possible existence of the so-called phantom fields. We show that the integrated bounds provided by the energy conditions on cosmological observables such as the distance modulus μ(z) and the lookback time t L (z) are not sufficient (or necessary) to ensure the local fulfillment of the energy conditions, making explicit the limitation of these bounds in the confrontation with observational data. We recast the energy conditions as bounds on the deceleration and normalized Hubble parameters, obtaining new bounds which are necessary and sufficient for the local fulfillment of the energy conditions. A statistical confrontation, with 1σ-3σ confidence levels, between our bounds and supernovae data from the gold and combined samples is made for the recent past. Our analyses indicate, with 3σ confidence levels, the fulfillment of both the weak energy condition (WEC) and dominant energy condition (DEC) for z≤1 and z < or approx. 0.8, respectively. In addition, they suggest a possible recent violation of the null energy condition (NEC) with 3σ, i.e. a very recent phase of superacceleration. Our analyses also show the possibility of violation of the strong energy condition (SEC) with 3σ in the recent past (z≤1), but interestingly the q(z)-best-fit curve crosses the SEC--fulfillment divider at z≅0.67, which is a value very close to the beginning of the epoch of cosmic acceleration predicted by the standard concordance flat ΛCDM scenario.

  14. Public perceptions of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Public perceptions of risk will probably always be unsatisfying to a scientist. Public perceptions are formed by the actions of institutions which have goals other than formation of an informed public opinion, such as the schools, the media, business and the government. In this environment, it seems unrealistic to expect public opinion to reflect scientific realities. The talk will focus on the media as an opinion-former and will discuss several non-nuclear issues as illustrations: plague in New Mexico, Toxic Shock Syndrome, and Injuries as a Public Health Problem. Ultimately however, we are confronted with two wonderfully complex matters: can risk be adequately expressed or measured in universally comprehensible or broadly acceptable terms; and the mysterious movements of the public and collective mind

  15. Pushing the Comfort Zone: Confronting the Perceptions of Teaching and Classroom Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetters, Marcia K.

    Preservice teachers have pre-existing conceptions of teaching that develop throughout many years of being students in the presence of teachers. Teacher educators are faced with the challenge of making the invisible parts of being a teacher visible to their students. This paper presents some of the activities, especially related to videotaped case…

  16. Local perceptions of jaguar conservation and environmental justice in Goiás, Matto Grosso and Roraima states (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yennie K. Bredin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife conservation often leads to various conflicts with other human activities, resulting in concerns about the justice of conservation. Although species' protection – notably of large carnivores – can have negative consequences for economic interests and human well-being, environmental justice issues related to species conservation are rarely explored. In Brazil, jaguars (Panthera onca have become flagships for a series of conservation initiatives. Whereas jaguars' direct impact on cattle farming has been studied, their influence on other rural stakeholders is poorly understood. Here we study local people's views on jaguars and jaguar conservation across the Cerrado savannah and the Amazon rainforest biomes. Using Q-methodology, we identified five distinct narratives regarding jaguar conservation in relation to environmental justice issues. These were shared among fishermen, tourist guides, cattle breeders, crop farmers and jaguar hunters. Interestingly, we did not find any systematic differences in subjective views, across regions, or professions/livelihood forms. However, our results showed a strong desire among the stakeholders for more local empowerment to influence the management of both jaguars and nature where they live. Moreover, we detected a widespread discontent with the lack of consistent implementation and predictable enforcement of environmental laws. Keywords: Jaguar conservation, Environmental justice, Brazil, Q methodology, Local views

  17. A Review of the Literature on the Social and Environmental Factors Which Influence Children (Aged 3-5 Years) to Be Obese/Overweight and the Accuracy of Parental Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Julie; Keeney, Sinead

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This article aims to review the previously published literature on the social and environmental factors which influence children (aged 3-5 years) to be obese/overweight and the accuracy of parental perceptions. Obesity levels are on the increase in today's society and habits are being passed from parents to children, with family…

  18. Integrated approach to the understanding of the degradation of an urban river: local perceptions, environmental parameters and geoprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Carolina A; Almeida Neto, Miguel S de; Aretakis, Gabriela M A; Santos, Rangel E; de Oliveira, Tiago H; Mourão, José S; Severi, William; El-Deir, Ana C A

    2015-09-15

    The use of interdisciplinary approaches such as the proposed report provides a broad understanding of the relationship between people and the environment, revealing reliable aspects not previously considered in the study of this relationship. This study compiled evidence on the environmental degradation of an urbanized river over the past few decades, providing a diagnosis of the consequences of this process for the river, its ichthyofauna, and the local human population. The study was focused on the Beira Rio community on the Capibaribe River in the municipality of São Lourenço da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil. Data were collected using geoprocessing and ethnobiological approaches, as well as environmental parameters. This research was conducted with the most experienced long-term residents in the local community, through interviews and participatory methodologies to recovering information about the river environment, its ichthyofauna and its environmental services for the last decades. According to the GIS analysis, the study area was subject to an accelerated process of urbanization, with the total urban area increasing from 73 565, 98 m(2) in 1974 to 383 363, 6 m(2) in 2005. The informants perceived the urban growth, especially in the late twentieth century, being this period recognized as the phase of greatest negative changes in the river environment. The perceived decline of fish stocks was indicated by the community as one of the effects of river degradation. According to the interviews, the deterioration of the river affected the ecosystem services and the relationship of the adjacent human community with this ecosystem. The environmental data indicated that the river is suffering eutrophization and has fecal coliform concentrations 160 times higher than the maximum level permitted by Brazilian legislation. The interdisciplinary approach used in this research allowed the understanding of the degradation process of an urban river and some negative effects

  19. Confronting as autonomy promotion: Speaking up against discrimination and psychological well-being in racial minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Diana T; Himmelstein, Mary S; Young, Danielle M; Albuja, Analia F; Garcia, Julie A

    2016-09-01

    Few studies have considered confrontation in the context of coping with discriminatory experiences. These studies test for the first time whether confronting racial discrimination is associated with greater psychological well-being and physical health through the promotion of autonomy. In two separate samples of racial minorities who had experienced racial discrimination, confrontation was associated with greater psychological well-being, and this relationship was mediated by autonomy promotion. These findings did not extend to physical health symptoms. These studies provide preliminary evidence that confrontation may aid in the process of regaining autonomy after experiencing discrimination and therefore promote well-being. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. The threat at home: Confronting the toxic legacy of the U.S. Military

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shulman, S.

    1992-01-01

    The environmental problems that confront the military--and the communities where military facilities are located--are as varied and diverse as the military itself. Past waste management and mismanagement practices have led to large-scale contamination of soil and groundwater with toxic or hazardous fuels, solvents, trace metals, pesticides, explosives, and propellants. Nuclear production facilities generate mixed wastes, which contain both radioactive and toxic contaminants. Test sites and proving grounds are known to contain a large number of unexploded munitions buried in the soil, and a number of arsenals and ammunition plants store chemical weapons agents, which are no longer needed, such as mustard gas and nerve agents. The book is divided into three parts--open-quotes The Threatclose quotes, open-quotes Secret Legaciesclose quotes, and open-quotes Facing the Futureclose quotes. Shulman devotes separate chapters to individual facilities and sites, describing the environmental degradation and damage that has occurred. Through interviews with private citizens, the author portrays the anger and suspicion that exist in surrounding communities. The author describes the frustration of Congressional committees as well as military and contract personnel involved in cleanup, who decry the lack of guidance from the Pentagon

  1. The Effect of Social perception of environmental problems and goods on the practice of cost-benefit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunuel, M.; Delgado, M. L.

    2002-07-01

    When revealed, willingness to pay (WTP) is considerably lesser than willingness to accept (WTA), as economists explain. Sociological studies in Spain reveal that citizens assign a high value to the environment (high WTA), but are not ready to pay to preserve it (low WTP)because they think that it is industrial sector and the government's responsibility. This is a new factor, not studied before, that may result in underestimating environmental goods when WTP is used. The gap between WTP and WTA makes cost-benefits analysis difficult, creating the risk of environmental political judgments being replaced by pseudo scientific noise instead of by objective economic analysis.hence, it is sometimes convenient to use alternative methods to cost-benefit analysis: cost-effectiveness analysis trade-off analysis, economic-impact valuation, and risk-benefit analysis. (Author)

  2. Journalists and Communicators' Perceptions of Their Graduate Training in Environmental Reporting: An Application of Knowledge-Based Journalism Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Takahashi; Perry Parks

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the educational and post-graduation experiences of graduates of a master's program with a focus on environmental journalism. The study uses the framework of knowledge-based journalism to qualitatively examine how the competencies of journalistic skills, general and content-specific knowledge, learning communication theory, and developing journalistic values allowed graduates to develop a niche in their professional careers. Results show respondents placed disproportionate ...

  3. Developing and Applying a Participative web-Based GIS for Integration of Public Perceptions in Strategic Environmental Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Ainhoa; Gilmer, Alan; Foley, Ronan; Sweeney, John; Fry, John

    2009-01-01

    The intrinsic spatial nature of development plans poses specific requirements on the analytical tools applied to support Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) processes. Geographic information systems (GIS), with their mapping and analytical potential, can assist and enhance the various stages of SEA. A method has been developed to apply GIS as a support tool to assist SEA of land use plans in the Republic of Ireland. This chapter describes one phase in the development and testing of th...

  4. 187 DISPLACEMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    The national and international communities are confronted with the monumental task of ... displacement and environmental protection present a vicious cycle which today has ... Thus, issues of environmental protection viz-a-viz investment and .... out the conditions for product or process standards, the use of best available ...

  5. Shrinking the food-print: A qualitative study into consumer perceptions, experiences and attitudes towards healthy and environmentally friendly food behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, A C; Pearson, D; James, S W; Lawrence, M A; Friel, S

    2017-01-01

    Internationally, there is increasing recognition of the importance of multilevel policies and actions that address healthy and environmentally friendly food behaviours. However it is not yet clear which actions are most suitable to support consumers to adopt both behaviours concurrently. To this end, we undertook a qualitative study to assess consumer perceptions, experiences and attitudes towards healthy and environmentally friendly foods and four target behaviours: reducing overconsumption of food beyond energy needs, reducing consumption of low-nutrient energy dense foods, eating less animal- and more plant-derived foods, and reducing food waste. Online in-depth interviews were held with 29 Australian food shoppers representing different levels of involvement with health and environment in daily food choices. The results indicate that compared to health, the relationship between food and the environment is rarely considered by consumers. The four target food behaviours were primarily associated and motivated by an impact on health, except for not wasting foods. Participants had the most positive attitude and highest motivation for eating less processed and packaged foods, mostly to avoid excessive packaging and 'chemicals' in foods. This was followed by the behaviours reducing food waste and overconsumption. Conversely, there was a predominantly negative attitude towards, and low motivation for, eating less animal-derived products and more plant based foods. Overall, consumers found a joined concept of healthy and environmentally friendly foods an acceptable idea. We recommend that health should remain the overarching principle for policies and actions concerned with shifting consumer behaviours, as this personal benefit appears to have a greater potential to support behaviour change. Future consumer focused work could pay attention to framing behavioural messages, providing intermediate behavioural goals, and a multiple target approach to change habitual

  6. Confronting uncertainty in wildlife management: performance of grizzly bear management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artelle, Kyle A; Anderson, Sean C; Cooper, Andrew B; Paquet, Paul C; Reynolds, John D; Darimont, Chris T

    2013-01-01

    Scientific management of wildlife requires confronting the complexities of natural and social systems. Uncertainty poses a central problem. Whereas the importance of considering uncertainty has been widely discussed, studies of the effects of unaddressed uncertainty on real management systems have been rare. We examined the effects of outcome uncertainty and components of biological uncertainty on hunt management performance, illustrated with grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in British Columbia, Canada. We found that both forms of uncertainty can have serious impacts on management performance. Outcome uncertainty alone--discrepancy between expected and realized mortality levels--led to excess mortality in 19% of cases (population-years) examined. Accounting for uncertainty around estimated biological parameters (i.e., biological uncertainty) revealed that excess mortality might have occurred in up to 70% of cases. We offer a general method for identifying targets for exploited species that incorporates uncertainty and maintains the probability of exceeding mortality limits below specified thresholds. Setting targets in our focal system using this method at thresholds of 25% and 5% probability of overmortality would require average target mortality reductions of 47% and 81%, respectively. Application of our transparent and generalizable framework to this or other systems could improve management performance in the presence of uncertainty.

  7. Confronting uncertainty in wildlife management: performance of grizzly bear management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle A Artelle

    Full Text Available Scientific management of wildlife requires confronting the complexities of natural and social systems. Uncertainty poses a central problem. Whereas the importance of considering uncertainty has been widely discussed, studies of the effects of unaddressed uncertainty on real management systems have been rare. We examined the effects of outcome uncertainty and components of biological uncertainty on hunt management performance, illustrated with grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis in British Columbia, Canada. We found that both forms of uncertainty can have serious impacts on management performance. Outcome uncertainty alone--discrepancy between expected and realized mortality levels--led to excess mortality in 19% of cases (population-years examined. Accounting for uncertainty around estimated biological parameters (i.e., biological uncertainty revealed that excess mortality might have occurred in up to 70% of cases. We offer a general method for identifying targets for exploited species that incorporates uncertainty and maintains the probability of exceeding mortality limits below specified thresholds. Setting targets in our focal system using this method at thresholds of 25% and 5% probability of overmortality would require average target mortality reductions of 47% and 81%, respectively. Application of our transparent and generalizable framework to this or other systems could improve management performance in the presence of uncertainty.

  8. Some Challenges the Management Confronts with, in the Financial Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu Mihai Treapat

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze some features and components of the management in general, and of the management in the financial area in particular. Special attention is given to how they cope with some risk which could affect their activity. Trying to find from practice what kind of difficulties the management faces in their work, for sure, we get to interesting conclusions and furthermore, to optimum solutions. We already have some data, result of some earlier preoccupations of the specialists (Dănilă and Berea, 2000 pp.39-48 while others can be foreseen as specific elements for the beginning of the 3rd millennium, that started with what the rating agencies seem to admit as the most important economic decline and prolonged recession risk within the post World War II history. We consider an evaluation of the challenges the management confronts with, lately - while subject to pressures and to the need for radical changes that come with an astonishing speed and that are enhanced by the shareholders’ desperate need to protect their capital. Findings reveal that, in any business enterprise the shareholders’ strategy and the management’s objectives are earning new clients, enlarging the market share, creating added value and on these bases, maximizing the gained profits. We consider that the volatile and fluctuant nature of the raw material the banks operate with - namely the money – turn the management in this area into a particular one, depicted by some specific features, which we analyze in the following pages.

  9. Dynamics of confrontation : Tarapur and Indo-US relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerji, Sanjukta

    1981-01-01

    Under the Tarapur Agreement signed in 1963, the United States is under contractual obligations to supply the enriched uranium fuel for the Tarapur Atomic Power Station. However, the supply of fuel has become an issue of confrontation between India and the United States after India conducted the peaceful nuclear explosion test at Pokhran in 1974. India also refused to sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) due to its discriminatory nature. The United States insists on India's signing the NPT under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act passed by the American Congress in 1978. During 1977-79 period, a license for 12 tonnes was cleared after a sort of assurance that no nuclear test would be conducted. India refused to accept the full scope safeguards as stipulated in the U.S. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act. In 1980, a presidential executive order for 40 tonnes of fuel was issued, but only one consignment of 19.6 tonnes was cleared by the American Senate. After Reagan became the U.S. President, the fuel supply completely stopped. Now discussions are taking place to terminate the Tarapur Agreement on mutually acceptable terms. (M.G.B.)

  10. Evaluating Tourist Perception of Environmental Changes as a Contribution to Managing Natural Resources in Glacierized Areas: A Case Study of the Forni Glacier (Stelvio National Park, Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, Valentina; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina; Smiraglia, Claudio; Pasquale, Vera; Pelfini, Manuela

    2012-12-01

    Climate change effects are noticeably evident above the timberline where glacier and permafrost processes and mass movements drive the surface evolution. In particular, the cryosphere shrinkage is deeply changing the features and characteristics of several glacierized mountain areas of the world, and these modifications can also affect the landscape perception of tourists and mountaineers. On the one hand glacier retreat is increasing the interest of tourists and visitors in areas witnessing clear climate change impacts; on the other hand cryosphere shrinkage can impact the touristic appeal of mountain territories which, diminishing their ice and snow coverage, are also losing part of their aesthetic value. Then, to promote glacierized areas in a changing climate and to prepare exhaustive and actual proposals for sustainable tourism, it is important to deepen our knowledge about landscape perception of tourists and mountaineers and their awareness of the ongoing environmental modifications. Here we present the results from a pilot study we performed in summer 2009 on a representative glacierized area of the Alps, the Forni Valley (Stelvio National Park, Lombardy, Italy), a valley shaped by Forni, the largest Italian valley glacier. During the 2009 summer season we asked tourists visiting the Forni Valley to complete a questionnaire. This study was aimed at both describing the features and characteristics of tourists and mountaineers visiting this Alpine zone in summer and evaluating their landscape perception and their ability to recognize climate change impacts and evidence. Our results suggest that the dissemination strategies in a natural protected area have to take into account not only the main landscape features but also the sites where the information will be given. In particular considering the peculiarities of the huts located in the area, such as their different accessibility and the fact that they are included or not in a mountaineering network like that

  11. Fear appeals and confronting information campaigns. [Previously: Fear-based information campaigns.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    Fear appeals or confronting information campaigns confront people in an often hard and sometimes even shocking way with the consequences of risky behaviour. This can have a positive impact on the attitudes and behavioural intentions of the target group, but only if key conditions are met. Those

  12. Perceptions of social and environmental changes in a Mediterranean forest during the last 100 years: the Gavarres Massif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carreras, Roser; Ubeda, Xavier; Outeiro, Luís; Asperó, Francesc

    2014-06-01

    During the last century the landscape of the mid-Mediterranean mountains has undergone major transformations. The precipitous decline in the economic viability of forest products has engendered ever-thickening forests and agricultural lands have reverted to forest land cover. The related exodus of existing inhabitants since 1960 has led to new styles of occupancy: residential and touristic land uses have emerged while the primary and secondary sectors have largely disappeared. The object of the present study is to review how these transformations have developed in a specific area of north-eastern of Catalonia, known as the Gavarres Massif. The study applies a qualitative approach, based on interviews with stakeholders including active members of the local community and others who utilize or visit the area, all of whom are representatives of different social groups with a wide range of interests and points of view with regard to the massif. The information collected from the perspectives and opinions of the participants is coupled with objective data about the area. The result of this investigation is a rich variety of perceptions on landscape and social transformation and its current functional dynamics. Analyzing the information obtained allows us to understand the fact that the disappearance of the rural world is directly related to the collapse of an entire economic system that relied on the environment. In this study, two divergent points of view arise, one which supports recovering past landscapes and another which favours managing changes, conserving the existing landscape. Proposals for the current and future territorial management of Les Gavarres are presented. The diversity of opinions which emerges with regard to managing necessary changes in the massif emphasizes the importance of increased social dialogue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Journalists and Communicators' Perceptions of Their Graduate Training in Environmental Reporting: An Application of Knowledge-Based Journalism Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Takahashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the educational and post-graduation experiences of graduates of a master's program with a focus on environmental journalism. The study uses the framework of knowledge-based journalism to qualitatively examine how the competencies of journalistic skills, general and content-specific knowledge, learning communication theory, and developing journalistic values allowed graduates to develop a niche in their professional careers. Results show respondents placed disproportionate emphasis on the importance of journalistic skills and were ambivalent about the value of theory courses. The responses suggest scholars' idealistic conception of knowledge-based journalism is problematic when applied to the changing realities of journalism and the media industry in the U.S.

  14. Urban Afforestation: Environmental Perception from the Surrounding Residentes of the Seedling Nersey of Teresina North, Piauí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunamita Lima da Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The need of urban afforestation is an evident reality in a tropical country with continental dimensions like Brazil. Due its geographic position. Based on that, this article analysed the afforestation project located in two place of seedling-nurseries distribution in north area through the “Teresina Mais Verde” program. In front of that scene, it aimed to analyze how is the owner view on environmental education. The search was accomplished from qualitative analysis records in two steps: bibliographic review and individual interview with the interested in acquiring the seedlings. The main reached results showed that the initiative is good.  Though the question is not only produce seedlings and delivery them to the population. There was a lack of specific strategy to reach the main aim.

  15. Reflections on a boom: Perceptions of energy development impacts in the Bakken oil patch inform environmental science & policy priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGranahan, Devan Allen; Fernando, Felix N; Kirkwood, Meghan L E

    2017-12-01

    Ecosystems worldwide have been subject to new or intensified energy development facilitated by technologies such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, activity that has generated concern for air, water, biotic, and social resources. Application of these technologies in the development of the Bakken oil patch has made it one of the most productive petroleum plays in North America, causing unprecedented landscape industrialization of otherwise rural, agricultural counties in western North Dakota. The region is isolated, and development impacts have not been well-studied. To identify concerns of citizens of the Bakken and determine how research and policy might support them, we conducted a two-part study: First, we held focus groups with resource management and community leaders in three major oil-producing counties. Second, we used an outline of the major concerns expressed by focus group members as a survey for landowners and farm/ranch operators. We found little relationship between survey respondents' reported categorization of energy impacts and actual land area impacted, suggesting factors such as attitude towards development, degree of compensation, and level of disturbance are relevant. Landowners agreed with focus groups on the nature of relationships between energy companies and locals and development impacts on infrastructure and communities; those reporting greater impacts tended to agree more strongly. But many specific problems described in focus groups were not widely reported in the survey, suggesting energy-community relationships can be improved through state-level public policy and respect from energy companies for locals and their way of life. Consideration of these concerns in future energy policy-both in the Bakken and worldwide-could reduce social tension, lessen environmental impact, and increase overall social, economic, and environmental efficiency in energy development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. US-CUBA RELATIONS: A NEW WAVE OF CONFRONTATION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С Перес Бенитес

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to analyze the role of the changes introduced by the administration of the former president Barack Obama in 2014-2016 into the bilateral US-Cuba relations; and the way in which the new presidential team are to reorganize this direction. The question on the attitude of Donald Trump towards currently existing policies aimed at solving the long-lasting problem with Cuban socialism is especially interesting since new US president has multiple times condemned the old ways practiced by the former establishment, but at the same time has shown readiness to act in a straight-forward and confrontational manner. One of contributors of the paper, Santiago Perez Benitez, deputy director of the Center for International Political Studies in Havana, is attempting to provide his professional expertise in granting an insider view from the Cuban side, evaluating the progress made since the 2014 and interpret the notion of the upcoming policy changes in Washington. The importance of the Cuban issue in the framework of US. policy in the Western hemisphere is explained by the fact that a solution in this sphere could help remake a negative image of Pan-American policies that haunts Washington. Cuban issue has also been long considered a possible key for reestablish-ment of trust between the United States and Latin American countries. For president Trump, quite unpopular judging by the polls, Cuban issue also has a potential to earn support of his own constituents, who strongly support lifting the embargo from Cuba. However now after certain decisions of Donald Trump the future of US-Cuban relations seems to get gloomier by the day.

  17. Citizen-sensor-networks to confront government decision-makers: Two lessons from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, Linda; Ache, Peter

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents one emerging social-technical innovation: The evolution of citizen-sensor-networks where citizens organize themselves from the 'bottom up', for the sake of confronting governance officials with measured information about environmental qualities. We have observed how citizen-sensor-networks have been initiated in the Netherlands in cases where official government monitoring and business organizations leave gaps. The formed citizen-sensor-networks collect information about issues that affect the local community in their quality-of-living. In particular, two community initiatives are described where the sensed environmental information, on noise pollution and gas-extraction induced earthquakes respectively, is published through networked geographic information methods. Both community initiatives pioneered in developing an approach that comprises the combined setting-up of sensor data flows, real-time map portals and community organization. Two particular cases are analyzed to trace the emergence and network operation of such 'networked geo-information tools' in practice: (1) The Groningen earthquake monitor, and (2) The Airplane Monitor Schiphol. In both cases, environmental 'externalities' of spatial-economic activities play an important role, having economic dimensions of national importance (e.g. gas extraction and national airport development) while simultaneously affecting the regional community with environmental consequences. The monitoring systems analyzed in this paper are established bottom-up, by citizens for citizens, to serve as 'information power' in dialogue with government institutions. The goal of this paper is to gain insight in how these citizen-sensor-networks come about: how the idea for establishing a sensor network originated, how their value gets recognized and adopted in the overall 'system of governance'; to what extent they bring countervailing power against vested interests and established discourses to the table and

  18. The future of nuclear power after Sizewell B. 3 v.: v. 1 Economic issues; v. 2 Environmental and safety issues; v. 3 Public perception issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The three days of conference proceedings are published in three separate volumes. The first includes 7 papers relating to economic issues - those presented at the Sizewell-B public inquiry and the changes in the economic situation since the inquiry ended. The electricity demand, how this demand is to be met by nuclear and other fuel sources and how energy conservation might be an economic alternative to simply building more generating capacity are all issues discussed. The possible privatisation of the industry is also touched on. Volume two has 8 papers concerned with environmental and safety issues. These include the influence of the Sizewell-B decision on nuclear licensing and reactor safety, the technical and safety aspects of pressurized water reactors (PWR), the roles of British Nuclear Fuels and the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, and radiation protection and effluent discharge control. The six papers in volume 3 look at public perception issues - not only towards nuclear power but towards the public inquiry process. The local authority view, the Friends of the Earth case against the PWR, and technical expertise in the decision process are also topics covered. All the papers are indexed separately. (UK)

  19. Suicidal ideation among young Afghanistan/Iraq War Veterans and civilians: Individual, social, and environmental risk factors and perception of unmet mental healthcare needs, United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Joseph; Bohnert, Amy; Spies, Erica; Jannausch, Mary

    2016-11-30

    Suicidal Ideation among Afghanistan/Iraq War Veterans remains a health concern. As young Veterans adjust to civilian life, new risk factors might emerge and manifest differently in this group versus those in the general population. We explored these differences. With 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data, we examined differences in risk of past-year suicidal ideation between Veterans of the Afghanistan/Iraq War periods aged 18-34 years (N=328) and age-comparable civilians (N=23,222). We compared groups based on individual and socio-environmental risk factors as well as perceptions of unmet mental healthcare needs. We report adjusted rate ratios (aRRs); interaction terms tested for between-group differences. PY suicidal ideation rates for Veterans and civilians did not differ (52 versus 59 per 1,000, p=0.60) and both groups shared many risk factors. However, drug problems and perceived unmet mental health care needs were vastly stronger risk factors among Veterans versus civilians (interaction terms indicated that the aRRs were 3.8-8.0 times higher for Veterans versus civilians). Other differences were discovered as well. Past-year suicidal ideation rates did not differ by Veteran status among young adults. However, different risk factors per group were detected, which can inform Veteran suicide prevention efforts. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Social ecosystem health: confronting the complexity and emergence of infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina de Albuquerque Possas

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases and their rapid dissemination worldwide are challenging national health systems, particularly in developing countries affected by extreme poverty and environmental degradation. The expectations that new vaccines and drugs and global surveillance would help reverse these trends have been frustrated thus far by the complexity of the epidemiological transition, despite promising prospects for the near future in biomolecular research and genetic engineering. This impasse raises crucial issues concerning conceptual frameworks supporting priority-setting, risk anticipation, and the transfer of science and technology's results to society. This article discusses these issues and the limitations of social and economic sciences on the one hand and ecology on the other as the main theoretical references of the health sciences in confronting the complexity of these issues on their own. The tension between these historically dissociated paradigms is discussed and a transdisciplinary approach is proposed, that of social ecosystem health, incorporating these distinct perspectives into a comprehensive framework.

  1. Perceptions of environmental change and use of traditional knowledge to plan riparian forest restoration with relocated communities in Alcântara, Eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celentano, Danielle; Rousseau, Guillaume Xavier; Engel, Vera Lex; Façanha, Cristiane Lima; Oliveira, Elivaldo Moreira de; Moura, Emanoel Gomes de

    2014-01-27

    Riparian forests provide ecosystem services that are essential for human well-being. The Pepital River is the main water supply for Alcântara (Brazil) and its forests are disappearing. This is affecting water volume and distribution in the region. Promoting forest restoration is imperative. In deprived regions, restoration success depends on the integration of ecology, livelihoods and traditional knowledge (TEK). In this study, an interdisciplinary research framework is proposed to design riparian forest restoration strategies based on ecological data, TEK and social needs. This study takes place in a region presenting a complex history of human relocation and land tenure. Local populations from seven villages were surveyed to document livelihood (including 'free-listing' of agricultural crops and homegarden tree species). Additionally, their perceptions toward environmental changes were explored through semi-structured interviews (n = 79). Ethnobotanical information on forest species and their uses were assessed by local-specialists (n = 19). Remnants of conserved forests were surveyed to access ecological information on tree species (three plots of 1,000 m2). Results included descriptive statistics, frequency and Smith’s index of salience of the free-list results. The local population depends primarily on slash-and-burn subsistence agriculture to meet their needs. Interviewees showed a strong empirical knowledge about the environmental problems of the river, and of their causes, consequences and potential solutions. Twenty-four tree species (dbh > 10 cm) were found at the reference sites. Tree density averaged 510 individuals per hectare (stdv = 91.6); and 12 species were considered the most abundant (density > 10ind/ha). There was a strong consensus among plant-specialists about the most important trees. The species lists from reference sites and plant-specialists presented an important convergence. Slash-and-burn agriculture is the main source of livelihood

  2. [Adolescent confronting cancer and its place in the family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavand, Aurélie; Grandjean, Hélène; Vignes, Michel

    2007-04-01

    Adolescent medicine is expanding in Europe with particular attention being given to cancer of adolescents and its treatment. At a time where specialised units for adolescents are being born, it is essential to collect the current knowledge on the pathological impact of the illness in this age period whose limits themselves are often blurred (13-21 years or 15-25 years). Adolescence is a transition between childhood and adulthood, during which one seeks psychological and emotional development. Cancer, by its direct repercussion on the adolescent and also by the disorganisation of the family, can involve risks impending the process of maturation and can also be a purveyor of psychological after-affects. The occurrence of the illness can isolate the adolescent and leak to a restriction of the psychological investment. The reality of possible death can hinder the ill adolescent from developing his natural opposition to the adults who represent authority such as parents or nurses, thereby hindering access to autonomy, independence and identity construction. One can find oneself locked in a state of trouble, confusion, becoming a stranger to oneself, with an impression of distance waxing between the young patient and others. The parents find themselves weakening and must make calls on their supporters. The siblings see their daily life becoming more unsettled and find themselves confronted by parents less available and reassuring. The impact on the brothers and sisters vary depending on their age and the capacity of the parent's adaptation. From the onset, adolescents struck by cancer necessitate an adaptation of the medical staff. The medical information, the treatment and the aid-care contracts must be approved by the adolescent himself but the parent's involvement remains essential. It is necessary to create an alliance of three. Conflicts and rivalry occur frequently between parents and the medical staff. One must study the possibility of creating a place adapted to

  3. The Heat is On! Confronting Climate Change in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, R.; Atwood-Blaine, D.

    2008-12-01

    This paper discusses a professional development workshop for K-12 science teachers entitled "The Heat is On! Confronting Climate Change in the Classroom." This workshop was conducted by the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS), which has the primary goal to understand and predict the role of polar ice sheets in sea level change. The specific objectives of this summer workshop were two-fold; first, to address the need for advancement in science technology engineering and mathematics (STEM) education and second, to address the need for science teacher training in climate change science. Twenty-eight Kansas teachers completed four pre-workshop assignments online in Moodle and attended a one-week workshop. The workshop included lecture presentations by scientists (both face-to-face and via video-conference) and collaboration between teachers and scientists to create online inquiry-based lessons on the water budget, remote sensing, climate data, and glacial modeling. Follow-up opportunities are communicated via the CReSIS Teachers listserv to maintain and further develop the collegial connections and collaborations established during the workshop. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluation results indicate that this workshop was particularly effective in the following four areas: 1) creating meaningful connections between K-12 teachers and CReSIS scientists; 2) integrating distance-learning technologies to facilitate the social construction of knowledge; 3) increasing teachers' content understanding of climate change and its impacts on the cryosphere and global sea level; and 4) increasing teachers' self-efficacy beliefs about teaching climate science. Evaluation methods included formative content understanding assessments (via "clickers") during each scientist's presentation, a qualitative evaluation survey administered at the end of the workshop, and two quantitative evaluation instruments administered pre- and post- workshop. The first of these

  4. Clarifying values, risk perceptions, and attitudes to resolve or avoid social conflicts in invasive species management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Rodrigo A; Anderson, Christopher B; Pizarro, J Cristobal; Burgman, Mark A

    2015-02-01

    Decision makers and researchers recognize the need to effectively confront the social dimensions and conflicts inherent to invasive species research and management. Yet, despite numerous contentious situations that have arisen, no systematic evaluation of the literature has examined the commonalities in the patterns and types of these emergent social issues. Using social and ecological keywords, we reviewed trends in the social dimensions of invasive species research and management and the sources and potential solutions to problems and conflicts that arise around invasive species. We integrated components of cognitive hierarchy theory and risk perceptions theory to provide a conceptual framework to identify, distinguish, and provide understanding of the driving factors underlying disputes associated with invasive species. In the ISI Web of Science database, we found 15,915 peer-reviewed publications on biological invasions, 124 of which included social dimensions of this phenomenon. Of these 124, 28 studies described specific contentious situations. Social approaches to biological invasions have emerged largely in the last decade and have focused on both environmental social sciences and resource management. Despite being distributed in a range of journals, these 124 articles were concentrated mostly in ecology and conservation-oriented outlets. We found that conflicts surrounding invasive species arose based largely on differences in value systems and to a lesser extent stakeholder and decision maker's risk perceptions. To confront or avoid such situations, we suggest integrating the plurality of environmental values into invasive species research and management via structured decision making techniques, which enhance effective risk communication that promotes trust and confidence between stakeholders and decision makers. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture: Confronting the Livelihood ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The use of urban wastewater in agriculture is a centuries-old practice that is ... and water quality in Mexico, India, Nepal, Jordan, and the United States over the ... over 18 years experience in the planning and management of environmental ...

  6. A confrontation with reality - Proceedings of the 19th Association for Learning Technology Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawkridge, David; Verjans, Steven; Wilson, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Hawkridge, D., Verjans, S., & Wilson, G. (Eds.) (2012). A confrontation with reality - Proceedings of the 19th Association for Learning Technology Conference (ALT-C 2012). September, 11-14, 2012, Manchester, UK.

  7. Fear appeals and confronting information campaigns. [Previously: Fear-based information campaigns.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Fear appeals or confronting information campaigns confront people in an often hard and sometimes even shocking way with the consequences of risky behaviour. This can have a positive impact on the attitudes and behavioural intentions of the target group, but only if key conditions are met. Those conditions are that the information does not only evoke fear, but also informs the target group individuals of their personal risk and provides them with feasible and effective behavioural alternatives...

  8. Perspective on the current realities confronting Canadian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oulton, D.

    1993-01-01

    The importance of the Canadian energy sector is indicated by the large proportion of energy investments in the economy, the significant contribution of energy exports to total exports, the major role of the energy sector in Canada's regional economies, the high per-capita energy consumption, and the high contribution of fossil fuels to Canadian greenhouse gas emissions. The history of Canadian energy policy is characterized by three relatively distinct periods: a period of strong growth and development in the energy sector starting in the late 1940s, a crisis management period starting with the oil crises in the 1970s, and a market orientation in the early 1980s which reduced the role of government in the energy sector. Energy policy has generally focused on two main themes: assuring access to competitively priced energy supplies, and ensuring maximum economic benefit from energy developments. A third theme, environmental responsibility, has emerged since the late 1980s. Current pressures on Canadian energy policies include the increasing integration of energy markets in North America, the influence of international conditions on energy prices, and environmental quality concerns relating to the costs and uncertainties of environmental assessment, climate change, and sustainable development. Further constraints and influences on energy policy come from multilateral agreements with other countries and international agencies, and the need for cooperation among the different levels of Canadian governments. Economic regulation has fallen out of favor with most governments, industry, and the public, and the increased use of regulation to pursue environmental goals in the energy sector seems likely to continue

  9. Environmental Assessment of Zanjan city from the perspective of sustainable development based on SWOT technique

    OpenAIRE

    V. Rabieifar; K. Zayari; G. HaghighatNaeini

    2013-01-01

    Extended abstract1-IntroductionEnvironmental problems are one of the most fundamental problems in modern city and the result of conflict and confrontation with the natural environment. Recently, cities are confronted with numerous environmental problems and the incidence of environmental pollution, resource degradation and loss of natural spaces. Zanjan as one of the most important cities in the North West has many environmental issues such as incomplete sewage disposal system, physical devel...

  10. Confronting dynamics and uncertainty in optimal decision making for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Byron K.; Johnson, Fred A.

    2013-06-01

    The effectiveness of conservation efforts ultimately depends on the recognition that decision making, and the systems that it is designed to affect, are inherently dynamic and characterized by multiple sources of uncertainty. To cope with these challenges, conservation planners are increasingly turning to the tools of decision analysis, especially dynamic optimization methods. Here we provide a general framework for optimal, dynamic conservation and then explore its capacity for coping with various sources and degrees of uncertainty. In broadest terms, the dynamic optimization problem in conservation is choosing among a set of decision options at periodic intervals so as to maximize some conservation objective over the planning horizon. Planners must account for immediate objective returns, as well as the effect of current decisions on future resource conditions and, thus, on future decisions. Undermining the effectiveness of such a planning process are uncertainties concerning extant resource conditions (partial observability), the immediate consequences of decision choices (partial controllability), the outcomes of uncontrolled, environmental drivers (environmental variation), and the processes structuring resource dynamics (structural uncertainty). Where outcomes from these sources of uncertainty can be described in terms of probability distributions, a focus on maximizing the expected objective return, while taking state-specific actions, is an effective mechanism for coping with uncertainty. When such probability distributions are unavailable or deemed unreliable, a focus on maximizing robustness is likely to be the preferred approach. Here the idea is to choose an action (or state-dependent policy) that achieves at least some minimum level of performance regardless of the (uncertain) outcomes. We provide some examples of how the dynamic optimization problem can be framed for problems involving management of habitat for an imperiled species, conservation of a

  11. Confronting dynamics and uncertainty in optimal decision making for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Byron K.; Johnson, Fred A.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of conservation efforts ultimately depends on the recognition that decision making, and the systems that it is designed to affect, are inherently dynamic and characterized by multiple sources of uncertainty. To cope with these challenges, conservation planners are increasingly turning to the tools of decision analysis, especially dynamic optimization methods. Here we provide a general framework for optimal, dynamic conservation and then explore its capacity for coping with various sources and degrees of uncertainty. In broadest terms, the dynamic optimization problem in conservation is choosing among a set of decision options at periodic intervals so as to maximize some conservation objective over the planning horizon. Planners must account for immediate objective returns, as well as the effect of current decisions on future resource conditions and, thus, on future decisions. Undermining the effectiveness of such a planning process are uncertainties concerning extant resource conditions (partial observability), the immediate consequences of decision choices (partial controllability), the outcomes of uncontrolled, environmental drivers (environmental variation), and the processes structuring resource dynamics (structural uncertainty). Where outcomes from these sources of uncertainty can be described in terms of probability distributions, a focus on maximizing the expected objective return, while taking state-specific actions, is an effective mechanism for coping with uncertainty. When such probability distributions are unavailable or deemed unreliable, a focus on maximizing robustness is likely to be the preferred approach. Here the idea is to choose an action (or state-dependent policy) that achieves at least some minimum level of performance regardless of the (uncertain) outcomes. We provide some examples of how the dynamic optimization problem can be framed for problems involving management of habitat for an imperiled species, conservation of a

  12. Confronting dynamics and uncertainty in optimal decision making for conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Byron K; Johnson, Fred A

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of conservation efforts ultimately depends on the recognition that decision making, and the systems that it is designed to affect, are inherently dynamic and characterized by multiple sources of uncertainty. To cope with these challenges, conservation planners are increasingly turning to the tools of decision analysis, especially dynamic optimization methods. Here we provide a general framework for optimal, dynamic conservation and then explore its capacity for coping with various sources and degrees of uncertainty. In broadest terms, the dynamic optimization problem in conservation is choosing among a set of decision options at periodic intervals so as to maximize some conservation objective over the planning horizon. Planners must account for immediate objective returns, as well as the effect of current decisions on future resource conditions and, thus, on future decisions. Undermining the effectiveness of such a planning process are uncertainties concerning extant resource conditions (partial observability), the immediate consequences of decision choices (partial controllability), the outcomes of uncontrolled, environmental drivers (environmental variation), and the processes structuring resource dynamics (structural uncertainty). Where outcomes from these sources of uncertainty can be described in terms of probability distributions, a focus on maximizing the expected objective return, while taking state-specific actions, is an effective mechanism for coping with uncertainty. When such probability distributions are unavailable or deemed unreliable, a focus on maximizing robustness is likely to be the preferred approach. Here the idea is to choose an action (or state-dependent policy) that achieves at least some minimum level of performance regardless of the (uncertain) outcomes. We provide some examples of how the dynamic optimization problem can be framed for problems involving management of habitat for an imperiled species, conservation of a

  13. Eminent radiological safety issues confronting the State of Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    The State of Hawaii currently has over one hundred radioactive material use licenses. Nuclear Regulatory Commission licenses are primarily held by hospitals, industrial radiographers, and academic institutions. Complementing this, the State Department of Health regulates x-ray machines, radium, and has an emergency response role for accidents involving radioactive materials. The existing radiation protection program was created by piecemeal legislation. As a result, regulatory surveillance and actual control vary widely among the agencies. The State Legislature, in 1980, decided that action must be taken to set a clear state policy towards the use and disposal of nuclear materials. It was therefore recommended that the State of Hawaii Radiation Safety Advisory Committee be convened to assist the state in the evaluation of the issues. This report contains issue papers on radiation related topics addressed by the Radiation Safety Advisory Committe. Topics discussed include transportation, environmental monitoring, emergency response, and waste disposal. A survey of various radioactive sources identified medical applications as a category requiring stricter control. Selected chapters of the Hawaii Revised Statutes are also examined

  14. Effect of Tourist Characteristic, Marine Tourism Demand, and Number of Visits to the Value Perceptions and Willingness to Pay to Environmental Marine Tourism in Ambon City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papilaya, Renoldy L.

    2018-02-01

    Development of tourism in this era must balance between supply and demand aspects. The tendency of policy makers pay more attention to aspects of supply than demand aspect will lead to the development of tourist products and services do not get good results. This research examined the relationship between marine tourism demand, characteristics and number of visits to the level of perception and willingness to pay (WTP) for a tourists on a marine tourism destination in Ambon city. Respondents come from overseas tourists, domestic and local, amounting to 140 people. The analysis was performed descriptively and further using SEM analysis Amos 19.00 with path analysis. The analysis shows the close relationship between marine tourism demand variables, characteristics, and the number of tourist visits to the perception of value and WTP for tourists. Variable marine tourism demand when connected directly to the tourists perception and WTP tends to correlate negatively than when using a variable as a variable number of tourist visits as a intervening variables. Instead tourists characteristic variables are positively correlated directly or indirectly with the perception of value and WTP for tourists. It is hoped that with this study will motivate tourism policy makers and local communities to be concerned and studied aspects of perception, WTP, marine tourism demand, the number of tourist visits and the characteristics that turned out to be related to each other.

  15. Confrontation Naming and Reading Abilities at Primary School: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Luoni

    2015-01-01

    naming (i.e., the Boston Naming Test (BNT in a nonclinical sample of Italian primary school children was conducted (n=126, testing them at the end of each school year, to assess nonverbal intelligence, confrontation naming, and reading abilities. Results. Performance on the BNT emerged as a function of IQ and SES. Significant correlations between confrontation naming and reading abilities, especially comprehension, were found; BNT scores correlated better with reading fluency than with reading accuracy. Conclusions. The longitudinal data obtained in this study are discussed with regard to reading abilities, intelligence, age, gender, and socioeconomic status.

  16. Confronting water in an Israeli-Palestinian peace agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, David; Trottier, Julie

    2010-03-01

    quantity and water quality issues and economic and environmental goals in a de-securitised fashion. Though specifically applied to water shared by Israelis and Palestinians, the objectives, principles and institutional structure are relevant to any place in the world where trans-boundary water divides rather than unites two or more peoples.

  17. Mediating equity in shared water between community and industry: The effects of an after school program that addresses adolescents' knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of water science and environmental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Mary Chandler

    This critical ethnography deconstructs how one participant researcher came to understand young adults' changing knowledge about water science and environmental issues in an after school program in Colombia. The program intended to empower self-identified young community leaders by teaching participants to engage community members in discourse related to how environmental factors impact one's level of health and quality of life. The data presented in this study illustrate how student participants responded to long-term teacher engagement and to particular curricular components that included hands-on science teaching and social justice coaching. I assessed how student interest in and knowledge of local water ecology and sanitation infrastructure changed throughout the program. Students' responses to the use of technology and digital media were also included in the analysis. The data demonstrates a dramatic change in student's attitudes and perceptions related to their environment and how they feel about their ability to make positive changes in their community.

  18. How pride and guilt guide pro-environmental behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onwezen, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    The world is currently confronted with environmental problems such as water pollution, loss of biodiversity, and air pollution. A promising way to reduce environmental problems is to encourage consumers towards more sustainable consumption patterns. Pro-environmental consumer choices involve a

  19. Soft power geopolitics: how does the diminishing utility of military power affect the Russia – West confrontation over the “Common Neighbourhood”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasif HUSEYNOV

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the fact that a number of factors, but particularly the restricting utility of military force between great powers, increase the significance of soft power as a tool both for legitimization and expansion in international relations in general, and in the West – Russia confrontation over the “common (or shared neighbourhood” in particular. It explores how this fact affects the policies of the Western powers and Russia within the frame of the confrontation they are in. The paper narrows down its analytical focus on the efforts of the Kremlin to affect the public opinion in its neighbourhood and to counter Western soft power. It is argued that the Ukraine crisis has affected Russia’s perception of soft power, re-constructed its counter-revolutionary agenda, and increased the profile of propaganda in its foreign policy. The paper concludes that the soft power competition between Russia and West and the policies of the two powers to win over the hearts and minds of people in the shared neighbourhood re-define the character of geopolitical games in the Former Soviet Union.

  20. Students' Perceptions on Environmental Management of HEIs and the Role of Social Capital: A Case Study in the University of the Aegean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nikoleta; Roumeliotis, Spiridon; Iosifides, Theodoros; Hatziantoniou, Maria; Sfakianaki, Eleni; Tsigianni, Eleni; Thivaiou, Kalliopi; Biliraki, Athina; Evaggelinos, Kostas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study is to contribute to the discussion introducing the concept of social capital as a significant parameter influencing students' perceptions concerning greening initiatives in HEIs. Design/methodology/approach: A theoretical analysis is presented concerning the possible links of social capital components with…

  1. Sharing skills and knowledge to confront real-world problems | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sharing skills and knowledge to confront real-world problems ... because 1.3 billion people cannot read English, and only 163 million people (a fraction ... childhood obesity in urban areas, caused by increases in junk food and lack of exercise.

  2. The future of Asian feminisms: confronting fundamentalisms, conflicts and neo-liberalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katjasungkana, N.; Wieringa, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    This book on the future of Asian feminisms, confronting fundamentalisms, conflicts, and neo-liberalism is a critical contribution to the rising voices of Asian women’s studies scholars and activists. It is based on the ongoing research and advocacy work of the Kartini Asia Network, founded in 2003

  3. La Grippe and World War I: conflict participation and pandemic confrontation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, B J; Collins, C D

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses whether a nation-state's participation in conflict influences its ability to confront global pandemic or disease. Two alternative hypotheses are proposed. First, increased levels of conflict participation lead to increased abilities of states to confront pandemics. A second and alternative hypothesis is that increased conflict participation decreases the ability of states to confront pandemics. The hypotheses are tested through the ultimate case of war and pandemic: the 1918 Influenza pandemic (Spanish Flu or 'La Grippe') that killed 20-100 million people worldwide. Using simple correlation and case illustrations, we test these hypotheses with special focus upon the ability of the participant countries to confront the pandemic. The findings suggest, in a limited and varied fashion, that while neutral countries enjoyed the lowest levels of pandemic deaths, of the participant countries greater levels of conflict participation correlate with lower levels of pandemic deaths. The paper concludes with some propositions regarding the relationship between the current 'war on terror' and prospective pandemics such as avian flu.

  4. Differentiating between Confrontive and Coercive Kinds of Parental Power-Assertive Disciplinary Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, I differentiate between coercive and confrontive kinds of power assertion to elucidate the significantly different effects on children's well-being of authoritarian and authoritative styles of parental authority. Although both parenting styles (in contrast to the permissive style) are equally demanding, forceful, and…

  5. Post Stereotypes: Deconstructing Racial Assumptions and Biases through Visual Culture and Confrontational Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yuha

    2015-01-01

    The Post Stereotypes project embodies confrontational pedagogy and involves postcard artmaking designed to both solicit expression of and deconstruct students' racial, ethnic, and cultural stereotypes and assumptions. As part of the Cultural Diversity in American Art course, students created postcard art that visually represented their personal…

  6. Educating Women Students in the Academy to Confront Gender Discrimination and Contribute to Equity Afterward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentkowski, Marcia; Rogers, Glen

    2010-01-01

    We argue that (1) faculty and other academic professionals who educate undergraduate women in capabilities such as effective communication, teamwork, and leadership that are integrated with the disciplines (e.g., biology, history, fine arts) and professions (e.g., education, nursing, management) indirectly assist their students to confront gender…

  7. The challenges that head nurses confront on financial management today: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Bai, RN, BA

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: The confusion confronted by head nurses in Changsha include three aspects: managerial roles, managerial training, and managerial tools. Cooperative management model, evidence-based management training, and data-driven tools will contribute to improving the financial management capacity of nurse managers.

  8. Markets, Equality and Democratic Education: Confronting the Neoliberal and Libertarian Reconceptualisations of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Youl-Kwan

    2010-01-01

    The global emergence of market liberalism marks an effort to decouple the link between citizenship and the welfare state and to rearticulate people's identity as homo economicus, as independent citizens having the right to property and the freedom to choose in the marketplace. Confronting this phenomenon, this paper reviews neoliberal and…

  9. Understanding and Confronting Alcohol-Induced Risky Behavior among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornier, Lucien J.; Fauquier, Katharine J.; Field, April R.; Budden, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    Confronting alcohol abuse is a challenge for most higher education institutions. Each year, students are admitted to hospitals for issues arising from the misuse of alcohol. The deaths of some engaged in alcohol related activities is especially worrisome. Factors such as age and financial standing could impact the likelihood of abuse. So-called…

  10. How the integration of fishers' perception on environment in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study are to examine both the significance of fishers' perceptions regarding environmental degradation into their adoption of new behavior and how perceptions themselves are influenced by environmental perception and production. The study is based on data from 200 fishers in the north-east of ...

  11. An (even) broader perspective: Combining environmental processes and natural hazards education in a MSc programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Tobias; Haas, Florian; Trappe, Martin; Cyffka, Bernd; Becht, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Natural hazards are processes occurring in the natural environment that negatively affect human society. In most instances, the definition of natural hazards implies sudden events as different as earthquakes, floods or landslides. In addition, there are other phenomena that occur more subtly or slowly, and nevertheless may have serious adverse effects on the human environment. Hence, a comprehensive study programme in natural hazards has to include not only the conspicuous causes and effects of natural catastrophes, but of environmental processes in general. Geography as a discipline is located at the interface of natural, social and economic sciences; the physical geography programme described here is designed to include the social and economic dimension as well as management issues. Modules strengthening the theoretical background of geomorphic, geological, hydrological and meteorological processes and hazards are complemented by practical work in the field and the laboratory, dealing with measuring and monitoring environmental processes. On this basis, modeling and managing skills are developed. Another thread in the transdisciplinary programme deals with sustainability and environmental policy issues, and environmental psychology (e.g. perception of and reaction to hazards). This will improve the communication and team working skills of students wherever they are part of an interdisciplinary working group. Through the involvement in research programmes, students are confronted ‘hands on' with the different aspects of environmental processes and their consequences; thus, they will be excellently but not exclusively qualified for positions in the ‘natural hazards' sector.

  12. Public Talks and Science Listens: A Community-Based Participatory Approach to Characterizing Environmental Health Risk Perceptions and Assessing Recovery Needs in the Wake of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, J.; Parras, B.; St. Marie, R.; Subra, W.; Petronella, S.; Gorenstein, J.; Fuchs-Young, R.; Santa, R.K.; Chavarria, A.; Ward, J.; Diamond, P.

    2009-01-01

    In response to the human health threats stemming from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, inter-disciplinary working groups representing P30-funded Centers of the National Institute Environmental Health Sciences were created to assess threats posed by mold, harmful alga blooms, chemical toxicants, and various infectious agents at selected sites throughout the hurricane impact zone. Because of proximity to impacted areas, UTMB NIEHS Center in Environmental Toxicology was charged with coordinating direct community outreach efforts, primarily in south Louisiana. In early October 2005, UTMB/NIEHS Center Community Outreach and Education Core, in collaboration with outreach counterparts at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center @ Smithville TX/Center for Research in Environmental Disease sent two groups into southern Louisiana. One group used Lafourche Parish as a base to deliver humanitarian aid and assess local needs for additional supplies during local recovery/reclamation. A second group, ranging through New Iberia, New Orleans, Chalmette, rural Terrebonne, Lafourche and Jefferson Parishes and Baton Rouge met with community environmental leaders, emergency personnel and local citizens to 1) sample public risk perceptions, 2) evaluate the scope and reach of ongoing risk communication efforts, and 3) determine how the NIEHS could best collaborate with local groups in environmental health research and local capacity building efforts. This scoping survey identified specific information gaps limiting efficacy of risk communication, produced a community “wish list” of potential collaborative research projects. The project provided useful heuristics for disaster response and management planning and a platform for future collaborative efforts in environmental health assessment and risk communication with local advocacy groups in south Terrebonne-Lafourche parishes. PMID:20508756

  13. Public Talks and Science Listens: A Community-Based Participatory Approach to Characterizing Environmental Health Risk Perceptions and Assessing Recovery needs in the Wake of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sullivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to the human health threats stemming from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, inter-disciplinary working groups representing P30-funded Centers of the National Institute Environmental Health Sciences were created to assess threats posed by mold, harmful alga blooms, chemical toxicants, and various infectious agents at selected sites throughout the hurricane impact zone. Because of proximity to impacted areas, UTMB NIEHS Center in Environmental Toxicology was charged with coordinating direct community outreach efforts, primarily in south Louisiana. In early October 2005, UTMB/NIEHS Center Community Outreach and Education Core, in collaboration with outreach counterparts at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center @ Smithville TX/Center for Research in Environmental Disease sent two groups into southern Louisiana. One group used Lafourche Parish as a base to deliver humanitarian aid and assess local needs for additional supplies during local recovery/reclamation. A second group, ranging through New Iberia, New Orleans, Chalmette, rural Terrebonne, Lafourche and Jefferson Parishes and Baton Rouge met with community environmental leaders, emergency personnel and local citizens to 1 sample public risk perceptions, 2 evaluate the scope and reach of ongoing risk communication efforts, and 3 determine how the NIEHS could best collaborate with local groups in environmental health research and local capacity building efforts. This scoping survey identified specific information gaps limiting efficacy of risk communication, produced a community “wish list” of potential collaborative research projects. The project provided useful heuristics for disaster response and management planning and a platform for future collaborative efforts in environmental health assessment and risk communication with local advocacy groups in south Terrebonne-Lafourche parishes.

  14. Continuing to Confront COPD International Patient Survey : methods, COPD prevalence, and disease burden in 2012-2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landis, Sarah H.; Muellerova, Hana; Mannino, David M.; Menezes, Ana M.; Han, MeiLan K.; van der Molen, Thys; Ichinose, Masakazu; Aisanov, Zaurbek; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Davis, Kourtney J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The Continuing to Confront COPD International Patient Survey aimed to estimate the prevalence and burden of COPD globally and to update findings from the Confronting COPD International Survey conducted in 1999-2000. Materials and methods: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

  15. Perception of Global Climate Change as a Mediator of the Effects of Major and Religious Affiliation on College Students' Environmentally Responsible Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Emily; Snider, Anthony; Luo, Shanhong

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown a reliable association between environmental education and environmentally responsible behavior (ERB). Research has also shown that aspects of religion were associated with ERB. However, the mechanisms of associations are unclear. This study builds on previous research addressing the relationship between student major,…

  16. [Head masters' perception of school-based hostility in Alicante, Spain: a qualitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Fernández, Carmen; Hernández-Aguado, Ildefonso; Torres Cantero, Alberto M

    2006-01-01

    There is growing social concern about school violence but little is known about how this situation is experienced in the schools. The objective of this study was to know the perception that School's head masters have of the school-based hostility, on their causes, how they value current preventive strategies, and their recommendations to develop future preventive interventions. We conducted an exploratory study with 14 semistructured interviews of School's head masters. Interviews were conducted at the Schools between May and June 2003 in 1 independent school, 9 state comprehensive schools, and 4 other comprehensive schools within the city of Alicante. The perception of the head masters is that the prevalence of violence is low, more verbal than physical and within gender. They identify lack of punctuality, absenteeism and lack of interest as forms of hostility. As causes they identified age, family problems, school environment, society, media (TV and video-games) and poor language skills. Preventive methods in use were, on one hand, extra-lessons and transversal contents foreseen in the Education Law and common to all schools, and, on the other hand, ideological and pedagogical contents which were specific of some centres. Recommendations focused in demands for increased economic support and skilled human resources. School-based violence is not perceived as an alarming school issue, nor by its magnitude neither by the immediate causes and students' characteristics to which it is associated. A heavier emphasis is placed on external and environmental causes perceived as much more difficult to confront.

  17. Coping strategies, stress and risk perception in a natural and industrial catastrophe risk situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Vasquez, E.

    1998-01-01

    People are exposed to different environmental risks, their manifestations harm people according to the magnitude, intensity and the number of people concerned. This subject is very ample, therefore we consider only two kinds of risks: the natural risks (especially earthquakes) that have always threatened humanity, and the industrial risks that characterise our modern society. We are interested in risk perception, stress and coping strategies in these two kinds of extreme situations. We concentrate our study on two Mexican events: an industrial explosion accident in 1984 and 1985 (big earthquake, both devastated big urban zones. The consequences were enormous at all levels: personal, psychological, social, political and economical. Facing risk situations people can have stress reactions when a sign of danger appears. According to Jean RIVOLIER (1994), these situations must not be confounded with banal events of everyday life. Stress in those cases is not the stress we confront everyday, so people have to apply other strategies to face she stress and the incidents of the kind of extreme situations. To tackle our subject we are going to review some concepts used in our study: stress, coping strategies and risk perception. (author)

  18. Risk perception and priority setting for intervention among hepatitis C virus and environmental risks: a cross-sectional survey in the Cairo community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzinger, Michaël; Mohamed, Mostafa K; Gad, Rita R; Dewedar, Sahar; Fontanet, Arnaud; Carrat, Fabrice; Luchini, Stéphane

    2010-12-20

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) recently emerged as a major public health hazard in Egypt. However, dramatic healthcare budget constraints limit access to the costly treatment. We assessed risk perception and priority setting for intervention among HCV, unsafe water, and outdoor air pollution in Cairo city. A survey was conducted in the homes of a representative sample of household heads in Cairo city. Risk perception was assessed using the "psychometric paradigm" where health hazards are evaluated according to several attributes and then summarized by principal component analysis. Priority setting was assessed by individual ranking of interventions reducing health hazards by 50% over five years. The Condorcet method was used to aggregate individual rankings of the three interventions (main study) or two of three interventions (validation study). Explanatory factors of priority setting were explored in multivariate generalized logistic models. HCV was perceived as having the most severe consequences in terms of illness and out-of-pocket costs, while outdoor air pollution was perceived as the most uncontrollable risk. In the main study (n = 2,603), improved water supply received higher priority than both improved outdoor air quality (60.1%, P report of HCV-related diseases in the household, and perception of HCV as the most severe risk were significantly associated to setting HCV treatment as the first priority. The Cairo community prefers to further improving water supply as compared to improved outdoor air quality and screening and treatment of chronic hepatitis C.

  19. Staff and prisoner perceptions of physical and social environmental factors thought to be supportive of bullying: the role of bullying and fear of bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Matthew D; Ireland, Jane L

    2010-01-01

    The current study explored the relationship between social and physical environmental factors supportive of bullying, levels of bullying and fear of bullying. Participants were 261 adult male prisoners. All completed the Direct and Indirect Prisoner Checklist-Scaled Version Revised (DIPC-SCALED-r Ireland, 2007), the Prison Environment Scale (PES Allison, 2007), and a Brief Measure of Fear of Bullying Scale (BMFBS). The PES was explored initially using 100 male prisoners randomly selected from the main sample and 100 prison officers. It was predicted that increased bullying would be associated with increased evidence of environmental factors supportive of bullying; that increased levels of fear of bullying would be associated with increased evidence of environmental factors supportive of bullying; and that actual experience of bullying would represent better predictors of fear levels than the presence of environmental factors supportive of bullying. Those perceiving greater levels of environmental factors reported more fear of bullying and more behaviours indicative of bullying (perpetration and victimisation), with this holding for indirect and direct behaviours indicative of bullying. Bullying behaviours (direct perpetration and indirect victimisation) predicted fear of bullying more than the presence of environmental factors. The environmental factor of rules, regulations and security were found to predict bullying perpetration. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Towards a New Information System for Farm Management: Changing the Accounting System for Better Environmental Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Bremmers, Harry J.

    2002-01-01

    The paper aims at confronting traditional (fiscal) reporting with the administrative requirements in modern farm management. It aims especially at formulating leading indicators for management and control with respect to environmental issues.

  1. Motivational versus confrontational interviewing: a comparison of substance abuse assessment practices at employee assistance programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, R J; Casey, J; Kohn, R

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a quasi-experimental comparison of two employee assistance program (EAP) assessment approaches with substance abusers: confrontational interviewing (CI) and motivational interviewing (MI). A total of 176 EAP clients from 14 study sites met the study criteria, and 89 (51%) agreed to participate in the study. At three and nine months postassessment, both the MI and CI groups showed similar changes in readiness for change, completion of initial treatment plans, and subsequent treatment. Most important, both the MI and CI participants showed significant and comparable improvement on all of the substance abuse baseline measures as well as measures of family-social well-being and effects of drinking/drugging on work performance. The results open the door for EAP counselors to use an empirically supported assessment style that is at least as effective as the traditional confrontational approach.

  2. Risk perception as it applies to nuclear power and nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprecher, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    Disparate perceptions of risk have emerged as one of the critical issues confronting the future of commercial nuclear power. This paper explores the origins and possible ramifications of the public's perception of risks associated with commercial nuclear power and related high-level nuclear waste disposal programs. This paper summarizes the results of numerous psychometric studies and public opinion polls that analyze the relationship of risk to nuclear power and waste management

  3. Impeccable Timing: The Political Efficiency of Prc-U.S. Surveillance Confrontations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    trends highlight festering PRC-U.S. tensions leading up to the 2001 confrontations. 51 “ Semaphore : July 2006, the Western Pacific Naval Symposium...Royal Australian Navy, accessed April 28, 2014, http://www.navy.gov.au/media-room/publications/ semaphore -july-2006. 52 Redden, “Managing Sino-U.S.,” 9...Politics, February 21, 2009. http://www.realclearpolitics.com/articles/2009/02/secretary_clintons_press_confe. html. “ Semaphore : July 2006, the

  4. Assessment of Elderlies Sleep Disorders and Different Confronts Methods Among Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monir Nobahar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Sleep is one of the essential needs for human and every disorder in during of sleep causes psychological problem and decreased person>s ability. Although sleep disorders occur in every of ages. Elderly person usually has very problem for satisfied sleep. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of sleep disorders and confront methods of those in elderly persons in Semnan city. Methods & Materials: This is a descriptive analytical research. 200 elderly residents of Semnan were selected through rundomical sampling. Sleep disorders was assessment with questioner and interviewer that include of sleep disorders (Dissomnia, Parasomnia and confront methods (Behavioral, Cognitive, sleep hygiene and drug therapy. Results: Data indicated that prevalence of dissomnia was 67% and prevalence of insomnia was 61% that the most problem were in all stage of sleep (early, intermittent and end. Prevalence of Parasomnia was 29% that more of those (14% had night terror. In the part of confront methods of sleep disorders, 57% used of behavioral therapy. The most of that (25% were concentration of the limb before the sleep and 95.5% of them comprehension of cognitive methods. The most of that (26% were comprehension of effect of age on sleep. 100% of them orientation of sleep hygiene and the most of that (39% were orientation with 4 choose of sleep hygiene. 20% of them used of drug therapy. Conclusion: Finding above indicate that high prevalence of sleep disorders in elderly in Semnan, need supervised and widespread program for promoting awareness among population about sleep disorders and confront methods of those.

  5. The effects of confrontation and avoidance coping in response to workplace incivility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovis, M Sandy; Cameron, Ann-Frances; Gervais, Loie; Bozeman, Jennifer

    2018-04-01

    Workplace incivility has significant adverse consequences for targets. However, we know remarkably little about how targets of incivility cope and even less about which coping strategies are effective. Drawing on the coping process of the transactional model of stress, we examine confrontation as a form of problem-focused coping and avoidance as a form of emotion-focused coping in response to incivility. We examine the effects of these coping strategies on reoccurrence of incivility, incivility enacted by targets, psychological forgiveness, and emotional exhaustion. Focusing on the target's perspective of a series of uncivil interactions between a target and perpetrator, we conducted a 3-wave study of employees from various occupations. Employing the critical incident technique, participants reported on an incident of workplace incivility, and then answered a series of questions over 3 waves of data collection regarding their interactions with this perpetrator. Our findings suggest that confrontation and avoidance are ineffective in preventing reoccurrence of incivility. Avoidance can additionally lead to increased emotional exhaustion, target-enacted incivility, and lower psychological forgiveness. However, confrontation coping has promise with regards to eliciting positive outcomes such as psychological forgiveness that are beneficial to interpersonal workplace relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Confronting the wildlife trade through public education at zoological institutions in Chengdu, P.R. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Susan; Bexell, Sarah; Ping, Xu; Zhihe, Zhang; Jing, Li Wen; Wei, Chen Hong; Yan, Hu

    2018-03-01

    The wildlife trade poses substantial threats to global biodiversity. China is a significant source of threatened species and also a market for wildlife products. Zoological parks (zoos), which are a popular leisure attraction in China as elsewhere, are increasingly conceptualized as places to educate visitors about both animals and environmental threats more generally. This paper reports on an attempt to inform Chinese zoo visitors about the threats presented by the wildlife trade, and about the opportunity to take personal actions to help protect wildlife. Results from a baseline survey of attitudes among 524 adult visitors to animal exhibits in Chengdu, China showed a high degree of concern about wildlife paired with a lack of confidence about what could be done. A sense of connection to nature, along with a perception of personal efficacy, were the strongest predictors of concern about the wildlife trade. Based in part on these results, an informational exhibit was designed and implemented in two locations in Chengdu. A survey of 533 visitors to assess the impact of the new exhibit showed that connection and perceived efficacy continued to predict concern, and that talking about the exhibit was associated with increased knowledge and concern. Though causality cannot be definitively concluded, results suggest that zoos have the potential to influence attitudes and perceived norms regarding the wildlife trade. By affirming the importance of a feeling of connection, the findings indicate that animal facilities may have an important role in fostering the human relationship to the natural world. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. When do high and low status group members support confrontation? The role of perceived pervasiveness of prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Kimberly Barsamian; Barreto, Manuela; Kaiser, Cheryl R; Rego, Marco Silva

    2016-03-01

    This paper examines how perceived pervasiveness of prejudice differentially affects high and low status group members' support for a low status group member who confronts. In Experiment 1 (N = 228), men and women read a text describing sexism as rare or as pervasive and subsequently indicated their support for a woman who confronted or did not confront a sexist remark. Experiment 2 (N = 324) specified the underlying process using a self-affirmation manipulation. Results show that men were more supportive of confrontation when sexism was perceived to be rare than when it was pervasive. By contrast, women tended to prefer confrontation when sexism was pervasive relative to when it was rare. Personal self-affirmation decreased men's and increased women's support for confrontation when prejudice was rare, suggesting that men's and women's support for confrontation when prejudice is rare is driven by personal impression management considerations. Implications for understanding how members of low and high status groups respond to prejudice are discussed. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Developing methodology and tools for integrated assessment of the risks of global environmental change: Analyzing uncertainty, risk assessment, risk perception, expert judgment, and a case study on sea level rise. Report of collaborative research, July 1991--June 1993: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancaster, J.; Shlyakhter, A.; Wilson, R.

    1993-01-01

    Members of Congress, federal administrators, state regulators, city planners, corporate strategists and private citizens face decisions that may or may not warrant considering the potential impacts of climate change. The extent to which the global warming issue will weigh in these many decisions will be determined by (a) expert scientific judgement about global warming and its potential impacts, (b) public perception of the global warming problem, (c) uncertainties, and (d) other legal and political factors controlling the entry of a large-scale environmental issue into many avenues of decision making. The complexity and uncertainty surrounding the problem of climate change present new challenges to our ability to formulate rational decisions. The authors provide a methodical approach to characterizing the risks of global warming in a way that will be useful to decision makers

  9. Haptic perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappers, A.M.L.; Bergmann Tiest, W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Fueled by novel applications, interest in haptic perception is growing. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art of a number of important aspects of haptic perception. By means of touch we can not only perceive quite different material properties, such as roughness, compliance,

  10. Public perceptions of energy system risks: some policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.; Otway, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; perceptions, beliefs and attitudes; the survey of public perceptions and attitudes towards energy systems; attitudes towards the five energy systems (nuclear, coal, oil, solar and hydro); perceptions of energy systems - the underlying dimensions of belief (economic benefits; environmental risk; psychological and physical risk; indirect risk; technology development); differential analysis of the perceptions of those pro and con nuclear energy; summary of perceptions of energy systems - relevance to the Austrian dilemma; policy implications. (U.K.)

  11. Risk perception and priority setting for intervention among hepatitis C virus and environmental risks: a cross-sectional survey in the Cairo community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewedar Sahar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV recently emerged as a major public health hazard in Egypt. However, dramatic healthcare budget constraints limit access to the costly treatment. We assessed risk perception and priority setting for intervention among HCV, unsafe water, and outdoor air pollution in Cairo city. Methods A survey was conducted in the homes of a representative sample of household heads in Cairo city. Risk perception was assessed using the "psychometric paradigm" where health hazards are evaluated according to several attributes and then summarized by principal component analysis. Priority setting was assessed by individual ranking of interventions reducing health hazards by 50% over five years. The Condorcet method was used to aggregate individual rankings of the three interventions (main study or two of three interventions (validation study. Explanatory factors of priority setting were explored in multivariate generalized logistic models. Results HCV was perceived as having the most severe consequences in terms of illness and out-of-pocket costs, while outdoor air pollution was perceived as the most uncontrollable risk. In the main study (n = 2,603, improved water supply received higher priority than both improved outdoor air quality (60.1%, P P Conclusions The Cairo community prefers to further improving water supply as compared to improved outdoor air quality and screening and treatment of chronic hepatitis C.

  12. Why don’t they walk or cycle? Reflections on active home–school transportation among Portuguese adolescents: the role of environmental perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Loureiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The way adolescents travel to school can be an important health promotion strategy. The main objective of this research was to identify the relationships between the Portuguese adolescents’ perception of their neighbourhood and their option for active transportation (AT. The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 2010 questionnaire, was applied to 3,494 adolescents with an average age of 14.93 (DP ± 1.29, 53.6% of whom were female. The associations were studied by applying χ² tests and multivariate logistic regression models. In this study, 35% of the sample reported walking or cycling to school. AT to school is associated with age, more frequent in the adolescents aged 16 and older (OR = 1.19, p < .05, more frequent in residential areas with good public services (OR = 1.79, p < .05, as well as in beautiful neighbourhoods (OR = 1.76, p < .05, less frequent in neighbourhoods with nightlife entertainment (OR = 0.73, p < .05, and in those characterized by violence and theft (OR = 0.56, p < .05 as well as in isolated areas (OR = 0.66, p < .05. Finally, it was more frequent when the travel time from home to school was lower (OR = 0.57, p < .05. Conclusion: The results show that the adolescents’ perceptions about some of the characteristics of their neighbourhood environments are associated with their options concerning AT when travelling to school.

  13. Geometrical factors in the perception of sacredness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Marco; Bonetti, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Geometrical and environmental factors in the perception of sacredness, dominance, and attractiveness were assessed by 137 participants in five tests. In the first test, a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm was used to test the perception of sacredness, dominance, and attractiveness in geometr......Geometrical and environmental factors in the perception of sacredness, dominance, and attractiveness were assessed by 137 participants in five tests. In the first test, a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm was used to test the perception of sacredness, dominance, and attractiveness...... in geometrical figures differing in shape, verticality, size, and symmetry. Verticality, symmetry, and convexity were found to be important factors in the perception of sacredness. In the second test, participants had to mark the point inside geometrical surfaces that was perceived as most sacred, dominant....... Geometrical factors in the perception of sacredness, dominance, and attractiveness were largely overlapping....

  14. How pride and guilt guide pro-environmental behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Onwezen, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    The world is currently confronted with environmental problems such as water pollution, loss of biodiversity, and air pollution. A promising way to reduce environmental problems is to encourage consumers towards more sustainable consumption patterns. Pro-environmental consumer choices involve a tradeoff between environmental motives and more personally related motives such as healthiness, convenience, and price. In this dissertation we explore how feeling good about oneself influences pro-env...

  15. Book review:- Confronting Managerialism. How The Business Elite And Their Schools Threw Our Lives Out Of Balance.

    OpenAIRE

    English, Rachel A.

    2011-01-01

    This was a book review on:- Confronting Managerialism. How The Business Elite And Their Schools Threw Our Lives Out Of Balance. Author:- Robert R. Locke & J.C. Spender. Publisher:- Zed Books, London & New York.

  16. Examining Public Perceptions about Lead in School Drinking Water: A Mixed-Methods Analysis of Twitter Response to an Environmental Health Hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekenga, Christine C; McElwain, Cora-Ann; Sprague, Nadav

    2018-01-20

    Exposure to lead has long been a community health concern in St. Louis, Missouri. The objective of this study was to examine public response to reports of elevated lead levels in school drinking water in St. Louis, Missouri via Twitter, a microblogging platform with over 320 million active users. We used a mixed-methods design to examine Twitter user status updates, known as "tweets," from 18 August to 31 December 2016. The number of tweets each day was recorded, and Twitter users were classified into five user types (General Public, Journalist/News, Health Professional/Academic, Politician/Government Official, and Non-Governmental Organization). A total of 492 tweets were identified during the study period. The majority of discourse on Twitter occurred during the two-week period after initial media reports and was driven by members of the General Public. Thematic analysis of tweets revealed four themes: Information Sharing, Health Concerns, Sociodemographic Disparities, and Outrage. Twitter users characterized lead in school drinking water as an issue of environmental inequity. The findings of this study provide evidence that social media platforms can be utilized as valuable tools for public health researchers and practitioners to gauge public sentiment about environmental health issues, identify emerging community concerns, and inform future communication and research strategies regarding environmental health hazards.

  17. MOVEMENT OF NATURAL PARENTING AS (AS IF A CONFRONTATION WITH A CONSUMER SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Diomidova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the movement of natural parenting and its confrontational ideology. The authors sought to provide a general understanding of the movement natural parenting and describe its confrontational ideology. Speaking in terms of sociology, sling parents form the imagined community and this particular ideology is the focus of the presents study. The hypothesis of the study lies in the assumption that discourse analysis of natural parenting is to discover traits of propaganda discourse. The subject of the analyzed discourse is set critically in relation to the modern practice of consumption, declares the personal position free from stereotypes and willingness to confront the dictatorial influence of consumer values on the style of parenting. The subject is prone to reflection and the generation of ideological texts. Despite the fact that natural parenting has positioned itself as anti-consumer-orientated, it creates a consumer niche of the “right” products for children. Being against some commodities, natural parenting creates demand for the other ones. Sling clothing for Moms (sling jackets, accessories and the like become the accompanying sling commodities. Natural parenting has positioned itself as focused on the child’s needs. The traditional educational discourse is marked as providing the convenience for a mother who does not love her child. Many of the arguments of the sling discourse are based on fear to fail to meet a child’s needs (or to cause harm to his\\her health, to threaten his\\her life, which relates it with the mainstream advertising discourse.

  18. Security in the Baltic region as a Projection of Global Confrontation between Russia and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Volovoj

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problem of security in the Baltic region, namely, that of Poland and the Baltics. The authors rely on the works of Karl Deutsch, Emanuel Adler, on Michael Barnett’s theory of security communities and Barry Buzan’s re­gional security complex theory, address Steven Mann’s controlled chaos theory and the concept of Intermarium. Their starting assumption is that the situation in the Baltic depends largely on the politics of external powers — Russia and the United States, — being a projection of their global geopolitical confrontation. The US strategy thus becomes a major part of the equation. The authors believe that since the end of the second Iraq war the American elite has been divided along ideological lines into adherents of the chaos theory and traditionalists thinking in terms of sharing control with the other centres of global power. The US strategy in the Baltic region does not seek an open military conflict with Russia. On the contrary, the US strives to preserve the current level of confrontation between Russia and the EU, convincing the latter of the reality of the Russian threat. Countries that traditionally support confrontation with Russia, Poland and the Bal­tics, serve as a conduit for Washington strategy in Europe and a cordon sanitaire. This function is implemented through the Intermarium project meant to separate Russia from the EU. The four countries are rather active in this area, striving to attain the status of the US principal partners in the region and Europe in general. To retaliate, Moscow does everything within its power to ‘separate’ Brussels from Washington, yet the US influence is still very strong in Europe.

  19. History Teaches Us That Confronting Antibiotic Resistance Requires Stronger Global Collective Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolsky, Scott H; Bud, Robert; Gradmann, Christoph; Hobaek, Bård; Kirchhelle, Claas; Mitvedt, Tore; Santesmases, María Jesús; Thoms, Ulrike; Berild, Dag; Kveim Lie, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic development and usage, and antibiotic resistance in particular, are today considered global concerns, simultaneously mandating local and global perspectives and actions. Yet such global considerations have not always been part of antibiotic policy formation, and those who attempt to formulate a globally coordinated response to antibiotic resistance will need to confront a history of heterogeneous, often uncoordinated, and at times conflicting reform efforts, whose legacies remain apparent today. Historical analysis permits us to highlight such entrenched trends and processes, helping to frame contemporary efforts to improve access, conservation and innovation. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  20. Cooperation or confrontation? The Middle East after the nuclear deal. Conference report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Haerlin, Bernhard (ed.)

    2015-07-15

    In the West, views differ to which extent the agreement on the nuclear issue would open up opportunities for future cooperation between Iran and the E3+3. The US continues to play an essential role in diplomacy and security policy in the Middle East. However, it is only partly fulfilling the demands and expectations that come with this role. Even confronted with a massive deterioration in the region's security situation, Iran's and Saudi Arabia's willingness to cooperate would still be very limited.

  1. The African example. The clean development mechanism confronted to the African priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, B.; Thomas, J.Ph.; Tillerson, K.

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto protocol has given the bases of a clean development mechanism devoted to finance actions of a sparing with greenhouse gases emissions development, in the South countries, to receive in exchange credit of emission for the north countries in order to allow to reach their objective of emission reduction. The programming and the start-up of a such mechanism supposes the confrontation of development priorities of concerned countries with these ones of the fight against the greenhouse gases emissions in these same countries. (N.C.)

  2. Use of a Survey to Assess the Environmental Exposure and Family Perception to Lead in Children (<6 Years in Four Valley Cities, Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemeng Sun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the growth of industry, the extensive use of lead, and urban expansion in Northwestern Valley Cities (NVC China, there is probable reason for presuming an increasing risk of lead exposure. However, little is known about the lead exposure of children less than 6 years old in NVC. As a first investigation, this study uses a survey to systematically determine the influences of various risk factors within the family environment, parents’ background, children’s behavior, mother’s behavior during pregnancy, and parental perception about children’s blood lead (CBL. A total of 596 families were recruited from the general population in Urumqi, Lanzhou, Xining and Yan’an. Parents, and their children (<6 years old, were asked about the environment and behaviors which could possibly relate with lead exposure. The results indicated that in the typical NVC of China, children’s environment and behavior, parents’ education level, and mother’s pregnancy behavior, were associated with potential CBL. It was noted that not all parents in NVC China recognized the importance of children’s lead exposure. Therefore, children’s health care and medical screening campaigns need to be designed to improve family’s fundamental knowledge of lead hazards, associated health effects, and prevention in the NVC of China.

  3. Spatial and Social Aspects of Crowding Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Andrew; Davis, Glenn E.

    1976-01-01

    This paper discusses mediation of the crowding experience in architectural interiors by three environmental variables: setting orientation, room color, and visual complexity of the interior. Data indicated interior design does influence space perception and crowding thresholds. (RH)

  4. Sustainability and corporate environmental focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Sinding, Knud; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1997-01-01

    has ranged widely, including different aspects of corporate environmental management, dedicated "green accounting" and "green auditing" and consumer behaviour and "green marketing". Furthermore, this growth has taken place against a background of generally increasing environmental awareness. The paper...... environmental perceptions, driving forces, and corporate responses. The final section discusses the possibility that corporate environmental management, and the many people involved in this area, are less deeply concerned with environmental imperatives than is usually expressed....

  5. Non-technical factors impacting on the decision making processes in environmental remediation. Influences on the decision making process such as cost, planned land use and public perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States with the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, including the legacy of past practices and accidents. In response to this, the IAEA has initiated a comprehensive programme of work covering all aspects of environmental remediation: factors important for formulating a strategy for environmental remediation; site characterisation techniques and strategies; assessment of remediation technologies; assessment of technical options for cleanup of contaminated media; post-restoration compliance monitoring; assessment of the costs of remediation measures; remediation of low-level disperse radioactive contaminations in the environment. While this project mainly focus on technological aspects, non-technical factors will be influencing the decision making process in remediation decisively. Often their influence is only tacitly accepted and not explicitly acknowledged by the responsible decision makers. This makes it difficult to trace the decision making process in the event that it has to be revisited. The present publication attempts to make these factors explicit and to present methods to include them consciously into the decision making process

  6. Teachers' Perspectives on the Human-Nature Relationship: Implications for Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Antonio; Vasconcelos, Clara

    2013-01-01

    This study based on a theoretical framework of three main environmental perspectives in the human-nature relationship (anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism), aimed to identify their incidence in teachers involved with environmental projects when confronted with diverse environmental issues. 60 teachers drawn from four school cycles in…

  7. Three Misconceptions About Radiation — And What We Teachers Can Do to Confront Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Susanne

    2014-09-01

    During the last few years teaching physics, I have noticed that my students are becoming more and more interested in the topic of radiation. Mobile phones, modern game consoles, and WiFi—all of these devices involving some kind of radiation are part of our students' everyday lives. Students are also frequently confronted in the media with debates relating to different types of radiation: What are the effects of nuclear contamination going to be after the Fukushima accident? Can radiation from mobile phones really cause cancer? Should the use of tanning booths be forbidden for teenagers? Although students seem to be very motivated to learn about the topic of radiation, I have encountered several misconceptions about this topic that my students bring into the physics classroom. Some of these misconceptions might be caused by biased media reports, while others can be attributed to a different usage of the word radiation in everyday language (when compared to the scientific usage of this term). In this paper, I would like to present the most common misconceptions about radiation that I have encountered in my physics courses and I would like to give some ideas how to confront these ideas in teaching. A detailed description of these misconceptions discovered through empirical research can be found in one of my research articles.1

  8. Western Audiovisual Stereotypes of Russian Image: the Ideological Confrontation Epoch (1946-1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article included the analysis of the Western audiovisual stereotypes of Russian image from the period of ideological confrontation (1946-1991: ideological and social trends, classification of the contents’ models and genres. The content analysis of the western media texts of the period of the “cold war” (1946-1991 allows to present their main plot diagrams as follows: Soviet spies penetrate into the territory of the USA/Western country to commit diversion and/or to worm out military secrets; the USSR prepares a covert attack on the territory of the USA/Western world, creating secret bases with nuclear weapons; the inhuman Soviet totalitarian regime oppresses its own people or the people of any other country; Nonconformity leaves/attempts to leave the USSR where, in their opinion, democracy and individual freedom are being oppressed; common western people explain to Soviet military/civilian visitors who were mislead by propaganda that the USA/Western country is the stronghold of friendship and world-wide prosperity and peace; obstacles connected with the ideological confrontation between the USSR and the Western world appear on the way of a loving couple.

  9. Portuguese Electoral Debate: Presidentialization and Linguistic Mitigation Strategies in Situations of Political Confrontation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aldina Marques

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In a context of increasing presidentialization of legislative election campaigns, I aim to study mitigation as a feature of the Portuguese electoral political debate, a genre of political discourse marked by the intersection with the television media discourse. It is a discursive genre of confrontation between participants-adversaries, seeking for the adhesion of voters by the proposals that they present and also, if not mainly, by the discredit of the political opponent. However, confrontation is not absolute, as the interlocutors must guarantee basic dimensions of political communication, ensuring by the construction, negotiation and co-management of the interpersonal relationship the preservation of a positive individual image in relation to the electorate. I hypothesize that, in this process, linguistic mitigation constitutes a nuclear strategy, carried out in each moment of the debate according to different linguistic-discursive mechanisms. The electoral debate here analysed was held in May 2011 in RTP between Pedro Passos Coelho, leader of the Social Democratic Party, and future prime minister, and José Sócrates, of the Socialist Party, prime minister in office, at the time.

  10. Public perceptions of radon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainous, A.G. III; Hagen, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1984, a significant amount of media attention has focused on health threats from radon gas exposure. Using a probability telephone survey of adults (n = 685), we studied public perceptions of risk from radon exposure versus other environmental health risks. The results indicated that 92% of those individuals who had heard of radon believe radon to be a health risk, although only 4% believe they are currently exposed to high levels of radon gas. Perception of risk from radon was positively related to other perceptions of environmental risks. Younger and less educated individuals were more likely to perceive radon as a health risk. Women were three-and-one-half times as likely as men to perceive risk from radon. However, there was no significant relationship between perceived risk from radon and cigarette smoking. Media attention has apparently led to public awareness of radon hazards, but further attention is needed to improve smokers' awareness of their special risks from radon

  11. [Meaning of family confrontation for nurses of intensive care units for adult people - Medellín 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya Tamayo, D P; Monsalve Ospina, T P; Forero Pulido, C

    2015-01-01

    To comprehend the meaning nurses give to family confrontation, from their experiences while patients are in adult intensive care units in Medellin 2013. A qualitative research study was carried out using a phenomenological approach and theoretical convenience sampling of subjects was used. Interviews with open questions were conducted with nurses that worked in different intensive care units in the city of Medellin, with more than one year of experience in these units. The information was coded and categorised to perform the analysis, and some concept maps were created for the final report. This study showed that nurses focus their care on the critical patient and not on the patient's family. They considered that there is family confrontation when its members comprehend the processes that are carried out in the intensive care unit, and can contribute to the patient's care, while if families do not have confrontations, it is because they do not understand the process, or feel desperate or are absent. The interventions that nurses consider must be done to help in the family confrontation are: information, interdisciplinary support, visits, and companionship. For the nurses, family confrontation means that family members understand, comprehend, accept, know, bear and go on with the situation; therefore, they can make good decisions regarding the patient's care in the adult intensive care units. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  12. Confronting human papilloma virus/oropharyngeal cancer: a model for interprofessional collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Jacquelyn L

    2014-06-01

    A collaborative practice model related to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) associated oropharyngeal cancer highlights the role of the dental hygienist in addressing this condition. The incidence of HPV associated head and neck cancer is rising. Multiple professionals including the dental hygienist can work collaboratively to confront this growing public health concern. A critical review applies the growth and utilization of interprofessional education (IPE) and interprofessional collaboration (IPC) to multi-disciplinary models addressing the human papilloma virus and oropharyngeal cancers. A model related to HPV associated oropharyngeal cancer addresses an oral systemic condition that supports the inclusion of a dental hygienist on collaborative teams addressing prevention, detection, treatment and cure of OPC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Tobacco Industry vs. the World Health Organization: a historical confrontation between social networks of stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Boeira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present an introduction to the history of the tobacco industry and the confrontation between its social network of stakeholders and the network led by the World Health Organization (WHO, with a focus on the Brazilian context and the role of the Alliance for the Control of Tobacco Use (ACT as the coordinator of multiple stakeholders opposing the tobacco industry strategies in Brazil. The article seeks to describe the problematic relationship between tobacco production and export on the one hand and tobacco control on the other, as exemplified by the approval, in February 2005, of the first international public health treaty (WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control. The text is based on research leading to a PhD thesis in 2000, which has been updated through articles and ongoing research since then, with the aim of monitoring the unfolding of this issue that is central to the public health policies

  14. Alternative Forms of Resilience Confronting Hard Economic Times. A South European Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kousis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this special issue is to contribute to the study of alternative forms of resilience, visible in the economic and noneconomic activities of citizens confronting hard economic times and falling rights in Italy, Spain, Greece and Portugal, since the global financial crisis of 2008. It does so through a set of recent empirical studies which adopt recent theoretical approaches, such as Social Innovation or Sustainable Community Movement Organizations, and offer new evidence on solidarity oriented practices, including their links to social movement activism. The authors of this special issue contribute to the existing recent debates by highlighting key features of alternative forms of resilience, their links to social movements and theoretical orientations influenced by social movement and resilience studies in four Southern European countries and regions.

  15. CONFRONTING THREE-DIMENSIONAL TIME-DEPENDENT JET SIMULATIONS WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staff, Jan E.; Niebergal, Brian P.; Ouyed, Rachid; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Cai, Kai

    2010-01-01

    We perform state-of-the-art, three-dimensional, time-dependent simulations of magnetized disk winds, carried out to simulation scales of 60 AU, in order to confront optical Hubble Space Telescope observations of protostellar jets. We 'observe' the optical forbidden line emission produced by shocks within our simulated jets and compare these with actual observations. Our simulations reproduce the rich structure of time-varying jets, including jet rotation far from the source, an inner (up to 400 km s -1 ) and outer (less than 100 km s -1 ) component of the jet, and jet widths of up to 20 AU in agreement with observed jets. These simulations when compared with the data are able to constrain disk wind models. In particular, models featuring a disk magnetic field with a modest radial spatial variation across the disk are favored.

  16. The Continuous Confrontation of Caregiving as Described in Real-Time Online Group Chat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male, Dana A; Fergus, Karen D; Stephen, Joanne E

    2015-01-01

    To date, our understanding of the caregiver experience has been informed primarily by guided inquiry in the form of interviews and surveys, yielding information that is limited by the scope of researchers questions. The intent of this study was to explore the experience of caring for a loved one with advanced-stage cancer by means of participant-determined communication, using interactive, text-based transcripts from synchronous online support groups. Grounded theory analysis of the group transcripts yielded the core category continuous confrontation, characterized by major challenges (unrelenting assault, a new us, and the costs of caregiving) and minor triumphs (refuelling and living more intentionally). This unique method of data collection allowed for an especially candid, intersubjective group account of what it is to be a caregiver for an ill loved one without compromising the details that caregivers themselves consider important.

  17. Origin of galaxies: a review of recent theoretical developments and their confrontation with observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.J.T.

    1976-01-01

    The subject of galaxy formation has advanced considerably during the past decade. On the theoretical side two theories in particular were developed to the point where confrontation with observation will be possible; these are the ''gravitational instability picture'' and the ''cosmic turbulence theory.'' These theories are discussed at some length, with particular attention to the question of the origin of cosmic angular momentum and the nature of the initial conditions. There is now a considerable body of data on galaxies; the problem is in deciding which kind of observation is most relevant to understanding the origin of galaxies. Throughout the review an attempt is made both to put the present research in its historical perspective and to stress the possibilities for future advances towards the goal of understanding the origin of cosmic structure

  18. Heidegger. The Co-Pertinence of Dasein and Being. A Confrontation with Kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Segura Peraita

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In dialogue and confrontation with Kant, Heidegger discovers elements which allow him to deepen in his understanding of the co-pertinence of Dasein and being. This is a non-transcendental understanding, which arises in the midst of the unending debate with Kant’s transcendental philosophy. Heidegger considered that a transformation had come about in metaphysics of the ὑποκείμενον-οὐσία into the «apophantic subject». This should have reached its culmination with Kant, but in discussion with Kant, Heidegger changed the course, allowing a redefinition of the relationship between subject and object, identifying thinking with being, thus definitively reaffirming his thesis by which being and Dasein are co-pertinent

  19. Perceptions of workplace bullying among athletic trainers in the collegiate setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weuve, Celest; Pitney, William A; Martin, Malissa; Mazerolle, Stephanie M

    2014-01-01

    Bullying has received a vast amount of attention in the recent past. One form of bullying, workplace bullying (WPB), has been a substantial concern explored in many health professions that can negatively influence a health care provider's role in an organization. To date, however, WPB has not been investigated in athletic training contexts. To examine the perceptions of certified athletic trainers who experienced or witnessed WPB during employment in the collegiate setting. Qualitative study. College or university. Fifteen athletic trainers (7 women, 8 men) with an average age of 42 ± 12 years. Data were collected via semistructured, in-depth phone interviews or asynchronous online interviews. Data were analyzed using an inductive content analysis. Trustworthiness was established with member checks and peer debriefing. Four themes emerged from the analysis: (1) antecedents of WPB, (2) consequences of WPB, (3) coping with WPB, and (4) lack of workplace environment training. The antecedents of WPB involved the bully's personality and perceptions of the athletic training profession as well as environmental factors including the pressure to win and a lack of administrative support. The consequences of WPB included increased stress, feelings of inadequacy, and increased distrust. Individuals coped with WPB by relying on emotional resilience and avoidance. A final theme, lack of workplace environment training, revealed that little attention was given to interpersonal issues and WPB in the workplace. Workplace bullying incidents occur when administrators tolerate bullying behaviors from controlling and manipulative individuals who lack respect for the athletic training professional. Several negative outcomes result from bullying interactions, including stress and anxiety; WPB is dealt with by learning to be more emotionally resilient and avoiding confrontations. Workplace training is needed to prepare athletic trainers for such negative experiences.

  20. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter environmental protection in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed. The economics of environmental protection, state budget, Slovak state environmental fund, economic instruments, environmental laws, environmental impact assessment, environmental management systems, and environmental education are presented

  1. Perceived Cross-Orientation Infidelity: Heterosexual Perceptions of Same-Sex Cheating in Exclusive Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Benjamin L; Bowman, Jonathan M

    2017-01-01

    For individuals in exclusive romantic relationships, the dynamics of sexual experimentation are nuanced. Extradyadic behavior outside of a relationship may be perceived as cheating or infidelity, with much of those perceptions driven by the biological sex of the perceiver. This study significantly reframes seminal research on perceptions of cheating with third-party friends by Kruger et al. (2013), to further nuance an evolutionary threat-based model. In doing so, this furthers our understanding of the associated perceptions of individuals in heterosexual relationships when confronted by partners' cheating with their same-sex cross-orientation friends. Results indicate that perceptions of same-sex infidelity vary widely depending on the nature of the behaviors, with decreasing attribution given to sexual and erotic behaviors, close relational behaviors, and casual social interaction behaviors, respectively. Implications are discussed for a variety of sexual communities, as well as the impact of gender and relational status on perceptions of infidelity.

  2. Parameterizing Sound: Design Considerations for an Environmental Sound Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    associated with, or produced by, a physical event or human activity and 2) sound sources that are common in the environment. Reproductions or sound...Rogers S. Confrontation naming of environmental sounds. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology . 2000;22(6):830–864. 14 VanDerveer NJ

  3. Integrative Models in Environmental Planning and Policy Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyler, David Clinton

    1984-01-01

    Discusses conceptual models of thought that have recently emerged to confront the conventional approaches to analysis and solution to complex environmental problems. In addition to a critical attack on the tradition of specialization and reductionism, several models are summarized that originated from ecology, cybernetics, and system theory. (BC)

  4. Radiological protection, environmental implications, health and risk management: forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Topics related to the radioactivity or radiation are presented. The importance of protection and security measures that are required both for public health, occupational health and the medical radiation is analyzed. In addition, it emphasizes the risks faced by professionals who work with radioactivity. Issues that confront the serious environmental implications of such activities are also showed [es

  5. INFORMATIONAL CONFRONTATION BETWEEN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND THE USA DURING THE “TULIP REVOLUTION” IN KYRGYZSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Yuryevna Medovkina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present article the author considers the problem of informational confrontation between the Russian Federation and the USA during the “Tulip Revolution” of 2005 in Kyrgyzstan. Kyrgyzstan became the first post-socialist country in Central Asia where there had been a color revolution. It is noted that in 2004 the US State Department awarded grants to non-governmental organizations of Kyrgyzstan as help for the independent media and for dissemination of propaganda information. Financial and human resources provided by the United States gave the united Kyrgyz opposition enough financial and moral support to have the opportunity to go on the offensive on Russia in the information field. The confrontation in the information field of the Russian Federation and the United States during the “Tulip Revolution” was won by the West and lost by Russia, as their technology of counteraction to information influence were weak. The purpose of the research is the study of information confrontation between the Russian Federation and the USA during the “Tulip Revolution” of 2005 in Kyrgyzstan. Method or methodology of work. Content analysis, methods of organizing and synthesizing of information are used as methodological basis. The methodological approaches are presented by the system analysis of the considered phenomenon. The results of the study can be used as an objective confirmation of application of information confrontation methods in the conflict between states. Scope of application: state information policy.

  6. Exploring Acculturation Experiences and Cultural Dialogues among Iranian Refugees in the Netherlands by Means of the Self-Confrontation Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindert, A. te; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study we explored the most important topics of acculturation experiences among Iranian refugees in the Netherlands, using the Self-Confrontation Method (Hermans & Hermans-Jansen, 1995). We discussed the Dialogical Self Theory reffering to the multiple selves of people who have to deal with

  7. Consumer perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngapo, T. M.; Dransfield, E.; Martin, J. F.

    2004-01-01

    Consumer focus groups in France, England, Sweden and Denmark were used to obtain insights into the decision-making involved in the choice of fresh pork and attitudes towards today's pig production systems. Many positive perceptions of pork meat were evoked. Negative images of the production systems...... that there was no link between the negative images of production methods and their purchase behaviour. The groups were clearly confused and mistrusted the limited information available at the point of purchase. Careful consideration should be given to meat labelling, in particular taking account of the evident consumer...... ethnocentrism, to assure that such information is targeted to enhance consumer confidence....

  8. Sustaining Environmental Pedagogy in Times of Educational Conservatism: A Case Study of Integrated Curriculum Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Erin; Breunig, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Although the global call for environmental education is persistent, on a local or regional level, this call can be confronted by educational policies that drive environmental education out of the curriculum. This paper reports on a qualitative case study of the factors contributing to the sustainability of three teacher-driven integrated…

  9. Confronting diminished epistemic privilege and epistemic injustice in pregnancy by challenging a "panoptics of the womb".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Lauren

    2015-02-01

    This paper demonstrates how the problematic kinds of epistemic power that physicians have can diminish the epistemic privilege that pregnant women have over their bodies and can put them in a state of epistemic powerlessness. This result, I argue, constitutes an epistemic injustice for many pregnant women. A reconsideration of how we understand and care for pregnant women and of the physician-patient relationship can provide us with a valuable context and starting point for helping to alleviate the knowledge/power problems that are symptomatic of the current system and structure of medicine. I suggest that we can begin to confront this kind of injustice if medicine adopts a more phenomenological understanding of bodies and if physicians and patients--in this case, pregnant women--become what I call "epistemic peers." © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Pobreza, "questão social" e seu enfrentamento Poverty, "social issue" and its confrontation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Montaño

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Visamos aqui problematizar as diferentes concepções de pobreza e "questão social" na tradição liberal, e suas formas típicas de enfrentamento, no contexto do liberalismo clássico, no século XIX, do keynesianismo, no século XX, e do neoliberalismo, a partir da atual crise do capital. Com isto, oferecemos uma reflexão sobre aspectos para uma caracterização histórico-crítica de pobreza e "questão social". Finalmente, procuramos problematizar os caminhos para a busca de diminuição da desigualdade social, mediante políticas compensatórias no contexto atual.We aim at questioning the various concepts of poverty and "social issue" in the liberal tradition, and their typical ways of confrontation, in the context of the classical liberalism in the ­nineteenth century, of the keynesianism, in the twentieth century and of the neo-liberalism from the current crisis of the capital. Doing so, we offer a reflection concerning aspects related to a historical and critical characterization of poverty and "social issue". Finally, we question the ways of reducing social inequality, through compensatory policy in the current context.

  11. Bose-Einstein Condensate Dark Matter Halos Confronted with Galactic Rotation Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dwornik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative confrontation of both the Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC and the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW dark halo models with galactic rotation curves. We employ 6 High Surface Brightness (HSB, 6 Low Surface Brightness (LSB, and 7 dwarf galaxies with rotation curves falling into two classes. In the first class rotational velocities increase with radius over the observed range. The BEC and NFW models give comparable fits for HSB and LSB galaxies of this type, while for dwarf galaxies the fit is significantly better with the BEC model. In the second class the rotational velocity of HSB and LSB galaxies exhibits long flat plateaus, resulting in better fit with the NFW model for HSB galaxies and comparable fits for LSB galaxies. We conclude that due to its central density cusp avoidance the BEC model fits better dwarf galaxy dark matter distribution. Nevertheless it suffers from sharp cutoff in larger galaxies, where the NFW model performs better. The investigated galaxy sample obeys the Tully-Fisher relation, including the particular characteristics exhibited by dwarf galaxies. In both models the fitting enforces a relation between dark matter parameters: the characteristic density and the corresponding characteristic distance scale with an inverse power.

  12. Confronting the relaxation mechanism for a large cosmological constant with observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basilakos, Spyros; Bauer, Florian; Solà, Joan

    2012-01-01

    In order to deal with a large cosmological constant a relaxation mechanism based on modified gravity has been proposed recently. By virtue of this mechanism the effect of the vacuum energy density of a given quantum field/string theory (no matter how big is its initial value in the early universe) can be neutralized dynamically, i.e. without fine tuning, and hence a Big Bang-like evolution of the cosmos becomes possible. Remarkably, a large class (F n m ) of models of this kind, namely capable of dynamically adjusting the vacuum energy irrespective of its value and size, has been identified. In this paper, we carefully put them to the experimental test. By performing a joint likelihood analysis we confront these models with the most recent observational data on type Ia supernovae (SNIa), the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) and the high redshift data on the expansion rate, so as to determine which ones are the most favored by observations. We compare the optimal relaxation models F n m found by this method with the standard or concordance ΛCDM model, and find that some of these models may appear as almost indistinguishable from it. Interestingly enough, this shows that it is possible to construct viable solutions to the tough cosmological fine tuning problem with models that display the same basic phenomenological features as the concordance model

  13. Scintigraphy in the diagnosis of liver cancers. Study of 54 observations with anatomical confrontation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labro, R.D.A.

    1976-01-01

    This study attempts to judge the reliability of scintigraphy in the diagnosis of liver cancers. It concerns 54 observations with anatomical confrontation (laparoscopy, biopsy, laparotomy and/or autopsy). Technetium 99m scintigraphy gives a correct diagnosis in 81.5% of the cases, whether cirrhosis is present or not. Scintigraphy is only one stage in the investigation of neoplasic liver disease. This study shows that all too often it is practised alone since of 201 observations only 54 include another examination, and of these only 21 a laparoscopy. The simultaneous use of scintigraphy and laparoscopy eliminates false positives and reduces the percentage of false negatives from 7.5% to 4%. The two methods combined are therefore reliable to 96% (i.e. 96% of successful diagnosis in liver cancer tests. This work was performed with the techniques available in 1973. The quality of the scintigraphic image should be improved by technical progress in the form of new isotopic products, cameras with better definition and computerized data processing. With these new techniques it will certainly be possible to detect very small lacunae and to observe in more detail their diffusion in the liver parenchyma [fr

  14. Sigmund Freud and Otto Rank: debates and confrontations about anxiety and birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro Obaid, Francisco

    2012-06-01

    The publication of Otto Rank's The Trauma of Birth (1924) gave rise to an intense debate within the secret Committee and confronted Freud with one of his most beloved disciples. After analyzing the letters that the Professor exchanged with his closest collaborators and reviewing the works he published during this period, it is clear that anxiety was a crucial element among the topics in dispute. His reflections linked to the signal anxiety concept allowed Freud to refute Rank's thesis that defined birth trauma as the paradigmatic key to understanding neurosis, and, in turn, was a way of confirming the validity of the concepts of Oedipus complex, repression and castration in the conceptualization of anxiety. The reasons for the modifications of anxiety theory in the mid-1920s cannot be reduced, as Freud would affirm officially in his work of 1926, to the detection of internal contradictions in his theory or to the desire to establish a metapsychological version of the problem, for they gain their essential impulse from the debate with Rank. Copyright © 2012 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  15. Teaching Writing to EFL Learners: An Investigation of Challenges Confronted by Indonesian Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuni Hikmah Hidayati

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Teaching English writing skill which involves developing linguistic and communicative competence of learners is considered a challenging task. When teaching writing, therefore, EFL teachers in general and Indonesian teachers in particular encounter many challenges (i.e. difficulties. This study aims to find out Indonesian teachers’ challenges in teaching English writing skill and discuss possible solutions to remove, or at least, minimize, the problems. The data was collected by interviewing 10 English teachers who come from different part of East Java, Indonesia and teach English in either private or public Junior and Senior High Schools. The instrument used was structured interview. The data collected from the interview was, then, analyzed descriptively. The findings show that there are internal and external factors contribute to the challenges that the teachers confront. The internal factors include linguistic competence, native language interference, motivation and reading habits of the learners, while the external ones include the class condition, aids available for teaching writing and the availability of time. The research findings would facilitate the teachers and the concerning authorities to improve the ELT especially in teaching writing.

  16. [Confrontation of knowledge on alcohol concentration in blood and in exhaled air].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Miroslav; Bauerová, Jiřina; Šikuta, Ján; Šidlo, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    The authors of the paper give a brief historical overview of the development of experimental alcohology in the former Czechoslovakia. Enhanced attention is paid to tests of work quality control of toxicological laboratories. Information on results of control tests of blood samples using the method of gas chromatography in Slovakia and within a world-wide study "Eurotox 1990" is presented. There are pointed out the pitfalls related to objective evaluation of the analysis results interpreting alcohol concentration in biological materials and the associated need to eliminate a negative influence of the human factor. The authors recommend performing analyses of alcohol in biological materials only at accredited workplaces and in the case of samples storage to secure a mandatory inhibition of phosphorylation process. There are analysed the reasons of numerical differences of analyses while taking evidence of alcohol in blood and in exhaled air. The authors confirm analysis accuracy using the method of gas chromatography along with breath analysers of exhaled air. They highlight the need for making the analysis results more objective also through confrontation with the results of clinical examination and with examined circumstances. The authors suggest a method of elimination of the human factor, the most frequently responsible for inaccuracy, to a tolerable level (safety factor) and the need of sample analysis by two methods independent of each other or the need of analysis of two biological materials.

  17. Confronting Theoretical Predictions With Experimental Data; Fitting Strategy For Multi-Dimensional Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Przedziński

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After developing a Resonance Chiral Lagrangian (RχL model to describe hadronic τ lepton decays [18], the model was confronted with experimental data. This was accomplished using a fitting framework which was developed to take into account the complexity of the model and to ensure the numerical stability for the algorithms used in the fitting. Since the model used in the fit contained 15 parameters and there were only three 1-dimensional distributions available, we could expect multiple local minima or even whole regions of equal potential to appear. Our methods had to thoroughly explore the whole parameter space and ensure, as well as possible, that the result is a global minimum. This paper is focused on the technical aspects of the fitting strategy used. The first approach was based on re-weighting algorithm published in [17] and produced results in around two weeks. Later approach, with improved theoretical model and simple parallelization algorithm based on Inter-Process Communication (IPC methods of UNIX system, reduced computation time down to 2-3 days. Additional approximations were introduced to the model decreasing time to obtain the preliminary results down to 8 hours. This allowed to better validate the results leading to a more robust analysis published in [12].

  18. Strategies of EU agro-food cooperatives to confront globalization: The case of wine cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sebastián Castillo Valero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to globalization and market integration, the agro-food cooperative sector needs to be more competitive. This generates new challenges for cooperative enterprises in the agro-food sector. In this article the analysis of the wine producing sector is undertaken in the area of greatest world-wide wine production and commercialization, Castilla-La Mancha. EU wineries and cooperatives should propose strategic lines within an economy marked by a globalization process in world markets. The paradigmatic case is analyzed in this paper of the comparison of strategies followed by cooperatives confronting capitalist winery enterprises. Therefore, the degree of suitability is aimed to be elucidated and the success of the foundations of international commercial strategies that cooperative enterprises of the sector have followed, depending on their characteristics. Moreover, an exhaustive diagnosis is offered of the current strategic situation of cooperatives and their probability of gaining access to and/or growing in the international market. The parameters that have resulted significant are used as conclusions and recommendations so that cooperatives will reformulate their strategies and the organizations linked to the agro-food sector will know what factors to foment and support in their internationalization and global competitive positioning.

  19. CONFRONTING CHALLENGES IN IMPLEMENTING E-PORTFOLIO VIA FACEBOOK IN A PHILIPPINE UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Sipacio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: As an alternative assessment, e-Portfolio via Facebook (evFb has been introduced at De La Salle University (DLSU specifically at Department of English and Applied Linguistics (DEAL primarily to respond to the demands of 21st century literacy. However, it was observed that despite the positive impact of evFb on students based on pilot-testing and related studies, there were still innumerable challenges that hindered its implementation. In this paper, these problems were identified, and were addressed using the lens of participatory development framework. Data were taken from interview and feedback forms of participants namely institution (represented by the department chair and project/program committee, implementers/teachers, and students, and were subjected to content analysis.  The results showed three major issues classified as: (1 strong apprehension of students to publish their writing outputs on-line; (2 resistance of teachers towards FB as an educational tool; and, (3 concerns of institution as regards academic honesty and identity theft on-line. To confront these challenges and ensure effective implementation and sustainability of evFb at DEAL, improving participatory mechanisms was suggested and discussed. Finally, some opportunities and implications for policy relevant to evFb were also presented.

  20. A Comparison of I.H.E. Faculty, L.E.A. Faculty, and I.H.E. Student Perceptions of Select Teacher Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszkiewicz, Mark J.; Gabrys, Robert E.

    Noting that a major problem confronting competency based teacher education (CBTE) programs was the development of mutually acceptable perceptions of teacher education among college faculty, school personnel, and prospective teachers, a cluster of competencies developed by the State University College at Oneonta (SUCO), New York, was critiqued by…

  1. Self-management support and eHealth for patients and informal caregivers confronted with advanced cancer : An online focus group study among nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slev, Vina N.; Pasman, H. Roeline W.; Eeltink, Corien M.; Van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F.; Verdonck-De Leeuw, Irma M.; Francke, Anneke L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Self-management by patients and informal caregivers confronted with advanced cancer is not self-evident. Therefore they might need self-management support from nurses. This article reports on nurses' perspectives on self-management support for people confronted with advanced cancer, and

  2. Public perception of rural environmental quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantuaria, Manuella Lech; Brandt, Jørgen; Løfstrøm, Per

    2017-01-01

    of these compounds in a predictive model resulted in the most accurate model, being able to correctly predict 66% of odor annoyance responses. Furthermore, noise annoyance was found to be significantly associated with traffic-related air pollutants. In general terms, our results suggest that emissions from...

  3. perceptions of the environmental education programme

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bility indicator and to pursue the issue in greater depth (see under .... Where aspects of the food chain occurred in films shown to the pupils ... usually found near the water. They are ..... (Ke eng selo sea o tota o rata o go se dira?) 10. How do ...

  4. Spatial versus Dimensional Characteristics Underlying Environmental Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-10-20

    only the immediate sensory stimuli of the situation but also encompasses social and symbolic meanings. Payne and Mansfield (1973) stated the issue more...Review, 1973, 80, 307-336. Ekehamnar, B. Interactionism in personality from a historical perspective. Psychological Bulletin, 1974, 81, 1026-1048. Endler

  5. Reconsidering the Neighborhood Effect: Does Exposure to Residential Unemployment Infuence Voters' Perceptions of the National Economy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Martin; Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2016-01-01

    The state of the national economy often directs voting. But how do citizens form perceptions of a complex and abstract macroeconomy? This study examines whether exposure to unemployment in citizens’ immediate residential surroundings shapes their perceptions of the national economy. Using novel...... data tapping the official proportion of unemployed people residing within radii between 80 and 2,500 meters of an individual’s place of residence, we confront common methodological and theoretical challenges in existing work. Findings show that citizens do rely on cues from their residential...

  6. Continuing to Confront COPD International Patient Survey: Economic Impact of COPD in 12 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Jason; Landis, Sarah H; Maskell, Joe; Oh, Yeon-Mok; van der Molen, Thys; Han, MeiLan K; Mannino, David M; Ichinose, Masakazu; Punekar, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    The Continuing to Confront COPD International Patient Survey estimated the prevalence and burden of COPD across 12 countries. Using data from this survey we evaluated the economic impact of COPD. This cross-sectional, population-based survey questioned 4,343 subjects aged 40 years and older, fulfilling a case definition of COPD based on self-reported physician diagnosis or symptomatology. Direct cost measures were based on exacerbations of COPD (treated and those requiring emergency department visits and/or hospitalisation), contacts with healthcare professionals, and COPD medications. Indirect costs were calculated from work loss values using the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment scale. Combined direct and indirect costs estimated the total societal costs per patient. The annual direct costs of COPD ranged from $504 (South Korea) to $9,981 (USA), with inpatient hospitalisations (5 countries) and home oxygen therapy (3 countries) being the key drivers of direct costs. The proportion of patients completely prevented from working due to their COPD ranged from 6% (Italy) to 52% (USA and UK) with 8 countries reporting this to be ≥20%. Total societal costs per patient varied widely from $1,721 (Russia) to $30,826 (USA) but a consistent pattern across countries showed greater costs among those with increased burden of COPD (symptoms, health status and more severe disease) and a greater number of comorbidities. The economic burden of COPD is considerable across countries, and requires targeted resources to optimise COPD management encompassing the control of symptoms, prevention of exacerbations and effective treatment of comorbidities. Strategies to allow COPD patients to remain in work are important for addressing the substantial wider societal costs.

  7. Emotional Labour of Caregivers Confronted With Aggressive Brain-injured Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, Magali; Dany, Lionel; Apostolidis, Thémistoklis

    2018-06-01

    Aggressive behaviours are common with people who have suffered brain injuries and induce difficult emotions among certified nursing assistants and medical-psychological assistants who take care of them. These caregivers carry out emotional labour whose content and strategies are little known. The study explores the emotional labour of certified nursing assistants and medical-psychological assistants faced with the aggressive behaviours of brain-injured patients. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 37 caregivers. Interviews were analysed via a thematic content analysis. The analysis shows that the emotional labour of caregivers varies in accordance with the state of "consciousness" or "non-consciousness" that they attribute to the brain-injured patient with regard to this aggressive behaviour. This is a deep acting strategy. Moreover, caregivers shut off their emotions in order not to transmit them to the patient. This surface acting has the first objective for the caregiver of maintaining control of the situation and a second objective of protecting the patient emotionally and therefore of being perceived as a "good" caregiver. Emotional labour also meets a need to preserve the professional self-image and professional status negatively affected in the interaction with the aggressive brain-injured patient. Our study specifies the different strategies of the emotional labour of caregivers and their circumstances of use when they are confronted with aggressive behaviour by brain-injured patients. Targeted support for this emotional labour, such as training and practical analysis, is essential for the development of care practices promoting a caring relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Continuing to Confront COPD International Patient Survey: Economic Impact of COPD in 12 Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Foo

    Full Text Available The Continuing to Confront COPD International Patient Survey estimated the prevalence and burden of COPD across 12 countries. Using data from this survey we evaluated the economic impact of COPD.This cross-sectional, population-based survey questioned 4,343 subjects aged 40 years and older, fulfilling a case definition of COPD based on self-reported physician diagnosis or symptomatology. Direct cost measures were based on exacerbations of COPD (treated and those requiring emergency department visits and/or hospitalisation, contacts with healthcare professionals, and COPD medications. Indirect costs were calculated from work loss values using the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment scale. Combined direct and indirect costs estimated the total societal costs per patient.The annual direct costs of COPD ranged from $504 (South Korea to $9,981 (USA, with inpatient hospitalisations (5 countries and home oxygen therapy (3 countries being the key drivers of direct costs. The proportion of patients completely prevented from working due to their COPD ranged from 6% (Italy to 52% (USA and UK with 8 countries reporting this to be ≥20%. Total societal costs per patient varied widely from $1,721 (Russia to $30,826 (USA but a consistent pattern across countries showed greater costs among those with increased burden of COPD (symptoms, health status and more severe disease and a greater number of comorbidities.The economic burden of COPD is considerable across countries, and requires targeted resources to optimise COPD management encompassing the control of symptoms, prevention of exacerbations and effective treatment of comorbidities. Strategies to allow COPD patients to remain in work are important for addressing the substantial wider societal costs.

  9. Confronting Models of Massive Star Evolution and Explosions with Remnant Mass Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raithel, Carolyn A.; Sukhbold, Tuguldur; Özel, Feryal

    2018-03-01

    The mass distribution of compact objects provides a fossil record that can be studied to uncover information on the late stages of massive star evolution, the supernova explosion mechanism, and the dense matter equation of state. Observations of neutron star masses indicate a bimodal Gaussian distribution, while the observed black hole mass distribution decays exponentially for stellar-mass black holes. We use these observed distributions to directly confront the predictions of stellar evolution models and the neutrino-driven supernova simulations of Sukhbold et al. We find strong agreement between the black hole and low-mass neutron star distributions created by these simulations and the observations. We show that a large fraction of the stellar envelope must be ejected, either during the formation of stellar-mass black holes or prior to the implosion through tidal stripping due to a binary companion, in order to reproduce the observed black hole mass distribution. We also determine the origins of the bimodal peaks of the neutron star mass distribution, finding that the low-mass peak (centered at ∼1.4 M ⊙) originates from progenitors with M ZAMS ≈ 9–18 M ⊙. The simulations fail to reproduce the observed peak of high-mass neutron stars (centered at ∼1.8 M ⊙) and we explore several possible explanations. We argue that the close agreement between the observed and predicted black hole and low-mass neutron star mass distributions provides new, promising evidence that these stellar evolution and explosion models capture the majority of relevant stellar, nuclear, and explosion physics involved in the formation of compact objects.

  10. Confronting conflict: addressing institutional conflicts of interest in academic medical centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bryan A; Mackey, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Individual conflicts of interest are rife in healthcare, and substantial attention has been given to address them. Yet a more substantive concern-institutional conflicts of interest ("ICOIs") in academic medical centers ("AMCs") engaged in research and clinical care-have yet to garner sufficient attention, despite their higher stakes for patient safety and welfare. ICOIs are standard in AMCs, are virtually unregulated, and have led to patient deaths. Upon review of ICOIs, we find a clear absence of substantive efforts to confront these conflicts. We also assess the Jesse Gelsinger case, which resulted in the death of a study participant exemplifying a deep-seated culture of institutional indifference and complicity in unmanaged conflicts. Federal policy, particularly the Bayh-Dole Act, also creates and promotes ICOIs. Efforts to address ICOIs are narrow or abstract, and do not provide for a systemic infrastructure with effective enforcement mechanisms. Hence, in this paper, we provide a comprehensive proposal to address ICOIs utilizing a "Centralized System" model that would proactively review, manage, approve, and conduct assessments of conflicts, and would have independent power to evaluate and enforce any violations via sanctions. It would also manage any industry funds and pharmaceutical samples and be a condition of participation in public healthcare reimbursement and federal grant funding. The ICOI policy itself would provide for disclosure requirements, separate management of commercial enterprise units from academic units, voluntary remediation of conflicts, and education on ICOIs. Finally, we propose a new model of medical education-academic detailing-in place of current marketing-focused "education." Using such a system, AMCs can wean themselves from industry reliance and promote a culture of accountability and independence from industry influence. By doing so, clinical research and treatment can return to a focus on patient care, not profits.

  11. Risk perception in planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, S K

    1987-01-01

    The general public's perception of the risks involved with hazardous industries is increasing, especially in countries that high environmental amenity characteristics. This increased public awareness of risk may be an important factor in the future of countries who produce a large quantity of petroleum and chemical products. However, existing decision-making processes for determining safety controls do not take sufficient account of the community perception of risk. Identification of perceived risk levels could contribute to the determination of safe land-use planning policies and practices. The objective of land-use planning for hazardous industries is to reduce the gap between the calculated or technical assessment of risk and the risk as perceived by the community. This also facilitates a balanced approach in the decision making process between meeting industry requirements and community concerns. The comprehensive analysis presented in this study, based on a questionnaire given to residents in each of the three study areas (Australia, Japan and Korea), focused on identifying and measuring the respondent's understanding of the risk posed by nearby hazardous industrial developments.

  12. Confronting structural violence in sex work: lessons from a community-led HIV prevention project in Mysore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argento, Elena; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Lorway, Robert; Jain, Jinendra; Bhagya, M; Fathima, Mary; Sreeram, S V; Hafeezur, Rahman Syed; O'Neil, John

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from community-led HIV prevention projects suggests that structural interventions may result in reduced rates of HIV and STIs. The complex relationship between empowerment and confronting stigma, discrimination and physical abuse necessitates further investigation into the impact that such interventions have on the personal risks for sex workers. This article aims to describe lived experiences of members from a sex worker's collective in Mysore, India and how they have confronted structural violence. The narratives highlight experiences of violence and the development and implementation of strategies that have altered the social, physical, and emotional environment for sex workers. Building an enabling environment was key to reducing personal risks inherent to sex work, emphasizing the importance of community-led structural interventions for sex workers in India.

  13. The plant biotechnology: An alternative for the confrontation to the impacts of the climatic change in Cuba?

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaldo F. Álvarez Brito

    2012-01-01

    The expected impacts of the climatic change on the agricultural and forest sectors in Cuba, derived from the evaluations carried out under the First and the Second National Communication of Cuba to the United Nations Frame Convention on Climatic Change, allowed to value how plant biotechnology can be inserted appropriately in the implementation of the Agrarian Program for Confrontation to the Climatic Change, in order to propitiate the protection of the security and alimentary sovereignty of ...

  14. INFORMATIONAL CONFRONTATION BETWEEN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND THE USA DURING THE “TULIP REVOLUTION” IN KYRGYZSTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Yuryevna Medovkina

    2017-01-01

    In the present article the author considers the problem of informational confrontation between the Russian Federation and the USA during the “Tulip Revolution” of 2005 in Kyrgyzstan. Kyrgyzstan became the first post-socialist country in Central Asia where there had been a color revolution. It is noted that in 2004 the US State Department awarded grants to non-governmental organizations of Kyrgyzstan as help for the independent media and for dissemination of propaganda information. Financial a...

  15. What happens after prejudice is confronted in the workplace? How mindsets affect minorities' and women's outlook on future social relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Aneeta; Dweck, Carol S

    2018-06-01

    Organizations are increasingly concerned with fostering successful diversity. Toward this end, diversity research has focused on trying to reduce prejudice and biased behavior. But what happens when prejudice in the workplace inevitably occurs? Research also needs to focus on whether recovery and repair of social relations after expressions of prejudice are possible. To begin investigating this question, we develop a new framework for understanding reactions to prejudice in the workplace. We hypothesized that when women and minorities choose to confront a prejudiced comment in a workplace interaction (vs. remain silent) and hold a growth (vs. fixed) mindset-the belief that others can change-they remain more positive in their subsequent outlook in the workplace. Studies 1a, 1b, and 2 used hypothetical workplace scenarios to expose participants to someone who expressed bias; Study 3 ensured real-world relevance by eliciting retrospective accounts of workplace bias from African American employees. Across studies, women and minorities who confronted the perpetrator of prejudice exhibited more positive subsequent expectations of that coworker when they held a growth mindset. It is important that these more positive expectations were associated with reports of greater workplace belonging (Study 2), ratings of improved relations with coworkers who had displayed bias (Study 3), and greater workplace satisfaction (Studies 2-3). Thus, a growth mindset contributes to successful workplace diversity by protecting women's and minorities' outlook when they opt to confront expressions of bias. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Environmental Ethics and Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Paulo Rouanet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2015v14n3p382 This paper resumes a previous discussion on Environmental Ethics and Irreversibility, which was presented in 2005. There I first faced the problem. Now I would like to reevaluate the issue. Was my paper “catastrophist”? Or was it, instead, realistic? Which are today the main issues confronting Environmental Ethics? Plainly speaking, what can we really do? These are some of the questions I would like to bring in to the debate with my colleagues and the public. In other words, instead of focusing in the aspect of “irreversibility”, I prefer here to focus on the “responsibility” of agents and institutions. It rescues the so-called “Principle of Responsibility”, by Hans Jonas. There is also some debate with Karl-Otto Appel and Habermas. If, on one hand, there are irreversible damages to nature, as the extinction of species and even of natural locations, as rivers and other natural accidents, there are, on the other hand, many actions that can and must be taken in order to preserve or deter the grave consequences of the environmental degradation. In this paper, I try to discuss some of the problems and propose some solutions, but the more important thing is to call everyone – individuals, groups, or institutions – to responsibility face the Earth, the Human and not-human beings, and mainly the future generations.

  17. Social instigation and repeated aggressive confrontations in male Swiss mice: analysis of plasma corticosterone, CRF and BDNF levels in limbic brain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Madeira Fortes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Agonistic behaviors help to ensure survival, provide advantage in competition, and communicate social status. The resident-intruder paradigm, an animal model based on male intraspecific confrontations, can be an ethologically relevant tool to investigate the neurobiology of aggressive behavior. Objectives: To examine behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of aggressive behavior in male Swiss mice exposed to repeated confrontations in the resident intruder paradigm. Methods: Behavioral analysis was performed in association with measurements of plasma corticosterone of mice repeatedly exposed to a potential rival nearby, but inaccessible (social instigation, or to 10 sessions of social instigation followed by direct aggressive encounters. Moreover, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF were measured in the brain of these animals. Control mice were exposed to neither social instigation nor aggressive confrontations. Results: Mice exposed to aggressive confrontations exhibited a similar pattern of species-typical aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors on the first and the last session. Moreover, in contrast to social instigation only, repeated aggressive confrontations promoted an increase in plasma corticosterone. After 10 aggressive confrontation sessions, mice presented a non-significant trend toward reducing hippocampal levels of CRF, which inversely correlated with plasma corticosterone levels. Conversely, repeated sessions of social instigation or aggressive confrontation did not alter BDNF concentrations at the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Conclusion: Exposure to repeated episodes of aggressive encounters did not promote habituation over time. Additionally, CRF seems to be involved in physiological responses to social stressors.

  18. Development of a new environmentally improved hydroturbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldrop, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    Low concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the discharges of hydro plants represent one of the most significant environmental concerns confronting the hydropower industry. The autoventing turbine (AVT) represents a promising method for solving this concern. The concept of an AVT involves air to be aspirated into the water as it passes through the turbine whenever concentrations of DO are less than desired. An applied research project is being conducted to develop experimental and numerical methods to allow for reliable design and deployment of this new environmentally improved hydroturbine

  19. School and family effects on the ontogeny of children's interests, self-perceptions, and activity choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, J S

    1992-01-01

    In this chapter we have presented two perspectives on the link between social context and the following motivational constructs: self-concept of ability and sense of personal efficacy in specific activity domains; perceptions of the value of skills in various domains; interest in various activities; activity choice; persistence; performance; and general self-esteem. In the first section, we discussed how social-contextual variables in both the family and the home could produce individual differences in the motivational constructs of interest. We presented a general framework for thinking about this issue and summarized our recent empirical work. In the second section, we discussed how systematic changes in the social environments that confront children as they develop could explain age-related changes in the motivational constructs of interest. Again we presented a general framework for thinking about this issue and summarized our empirical work testing the hypotheses generated from this framework. Throughout this section we have argued that optimal development takes place when there is good stage-environment fit between the needs of developing individuals and the opportunities afforded in their social environments. Furthermore, we suggested that the negative changes in motivational variables often associated with early adolescent development result from regressive changes in school and home environments. For example, the transition to junior high school, in particular, often confronts early adolescents with regressive environmental changes such as a decrease in the opportunity to participate in classroom decision making, a decrease in teacher support and teacher efficacy, and an increase in teaching styles and reporting practices likely to induce a focus on relative ability and comparative performance as well as excessive social comparison. Not surprisingly, there is also a decrease in intrinsic motivation and an increase in school misbehavior associated with this

  20. Perception of radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenot, J.

    1992-01-01

    Perception of risks by people depends on many factors, either characterizing the individuals, or specific to the risk sources. The risk concept, which confuses the issue, is precised first. Second, the perception phenomenon is presented as an interactive process involving the individual, the hazard, and the social context. Third, dimensions of perception are listed and used to describe the perception of radiation risks. Finally, the relation between perception and attitude is clarified. (author) 50 refs

  1. Perception, experience and body identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ibor, Juan J; Ortiz, Tomás; López-Ibor, María I

    2011-12-01

    there is a confrontation between the body object and the body subject that has made it possible to investigate how the perception of the own body is and how the brain generates the schema and the body image. The study of the body experience, from the phenomenology and the anthropological psychiatry perspective, has made it possible to go greater in-depth into the knowledge of the alterations of the experience of the own body in different mental diseases, especially in those in which a confrontation between the body and the personal identity arises makes it necessary to consider the process of individual identification and a category of personal identity disorders that would include body dysmorphic disorder, erythrophobia, anorexia nervosa, body integrity identity as well as the gender-type disorders (transsexualism, nonfetishistic transvestism, gender identity disorder during childhood). Key words: Dualism, Monism, Agnosia, Phantom limb, Cenesthesia, Body schema, Body image, Body experience, Personal identity disorders, Body dysmorphic disorder, Anorexia nervosa, Personal integrity identity disorder.

  2. Simple and painless? The limitations of spillover in environmental campaigning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crompton, Tom; Thøgersen, John

    The comfortable perception that global environmental challenges can be met through marginal lifestyle changes no longer bears scrutiny. The cumulative impact of large numbers of individuals making marginal improvements in their environmental impact will be a marginal collective improvement...

  3. Confronting, Representing, and Believing Counterintuitive Concepts: Navigating the Natural and the Supernatural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jonathan D; Harris, Paul L

    2014-03-01

    Recent research shows that even preschoolers are skeptical; they frequently reject claims from other people when the claims conflict with their own perceptions and concepts. Yet, despite their skepticism, both children and adults come to believe in a variety of phenomena that defy their first-hand perceptions and intuitive conceptions of the world. In this review, we explore how children and adults acquire such concepts. We describe how a similar developmental process underlies mental representation of both the natural and the supernatural world, and we detail this process for two prominent supernatural counterintuitive ideas-God and the afterlife. In doing so, we highlight the fact that conceptual development does not always move in the direction of greater empirical truth, as described within naturalistic domains. We consider factors that likely help overcome skepticism and, in doing so, promote belief in counterintuitive phenomena. These factors include qualities of the learners, aspects of the context, qualities of the informants, and qualities of the information. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. 427 knowledge, attitude and perceptions of village residents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-07-04

    Jul 4, 2013 ... This study sought to assess the knowledge, attitude and perceptions of the residents of Kadhodeki village on the ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol. 6 No.4 ..... World Bank Report. Dupler, D.

  5. Time perception mechanisms at central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhailana Fontes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms involved the neurofunctional aspects, theories, executive functions and pathologies that contribute the understanding of temporal perception. Articles form 1980 to 2015 were searched by using the key themes: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, theories, time cells, memory, schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson’s disease combined with the term perception of time. We evaluated 158 articles within the inclusion criteria for the purpose of the study. We conclude that research about the holdings of the frontal cortex, parietal, basal ganglia, cerebellum and hippocampus have provided advances in the understanding of the regions related to the perception of time. In neurological and psychiatric disorders, the understanding of time depends on the severity of the diseases and the type of tasks.

  6. Time Perception Mechanisms at Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Rhailana; Ribeiro, Jéssica; Gupta, Daya S; Machado, Dionis; Lopes-Júnior, Fernando; Magalhães, Francisco; Bastos, Victor Hugo; Rocha, Kaline; Marinho, Victor; Lima, Gildário; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Orsini, Marco; Pessoa, Bruno; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; Teixeira, Silmar

    2016-04-01

    The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms involved the neurofunctional aspects, theories, executive functions and pathologies that contribute the understanding of temporal perception. Articles form 1980 to 2015 were searched by using the key themes: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, theories, time cells, memory, schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson's disease combined with the term perception of time. We evaluated 158 articles within the inclusion criteria for the purpose of the study. We conclude that research about the holdings of the frontal cortex, parietal, basal ganglia, cerebellum and hippocampus have provided advances in the understanding of the regions related to the perception of time. In neurological and psychiatric disorders, the understanding of time depends on the severity of the diseases and the type of tasks.

  7. Transport interests and environmental regimes. The Baltic Sea transit of Russian oil exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, Olav F.

    2010-01-01

    In the environmentally exposed Baltic Sea, a prolonged confrontation has set the transport interests of Russian crude oil against environmental interests, promoted by Russia's neighbours. During the 1990s all the Baltic littoral states - including Russia - collaborated well on marine environmental issues. When Russian oil exports accelerated after 1999, this environmental understanding broke down. Russian interests shifted as its oil income suddenly rose drastically. The confrontation peaked over a proposal to make the entire Baltic Sea into a particularly sensitive sea area (PSSA) under the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The proposal was adopted by the IMO in spite of Russian objections. The article shows how environmental interests trump transport interests in a manner that may not be sustainable. The case illustrates the need for environmental collaboration to be flexible in the face of shifting constellations of competing interests. (author)

  8. Public opinion confronted by the safety problems associated with different energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otway, H J; Thomas, K

    1978-09-01

    Model study of public opinion 'for' and 'against' the various energy sources - oil, coal, solar and nuclear power. Attitudes are examined from four aspects: psychology - economic advantages, sociopolitical problems, environmental problems and safety. The investigation focuses on nuclear energy. (13 refs.) (In French)

  9. Structures of mobilization and resistance: Confronting the oil and gas industries in Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierk, Simone; Tysyachnyouk, M.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on recent developments in the problematic relationship between the oil industry and local communities in the Republic of Komi, we develop a case study of environmental grassroots mobilization in northwest Russia. Using a qualitative methodology comprising semi-structured interviews and

  10. Confronting uncomfortable truths: receptivity and resistance to Aboriginal content in midwifery education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackrah, Rosalie D; Thompson, Sandra C

    2013-12-01

    The emotional responses of students undertaking a new, compulsory unit on Indigenous cultures and health were investigated as part of a broader study looking at culturally secure practice in midwifery education and service provision for Aboriginal women. Classroom observations were conducted on a first year midwifery cohort from July to October 2012 and students completed 'before and after' questionnaires. A spectrum of emotional responses was identified and found to be consistent with studies of medical student exposure to Aboriginal content. While stereotypes were challenged and perceptions altered as a result of the content, issues surrounding racism remained unresolved, with some students expressing dismay at the attitudes of their peers. This study confirmed the need for content on Aboriginal health and cultures to extend beyond one unit in a course. Learning and knowledge must be carefully integrated and developed to maximise understanding and ensure that unresolved issues are addressed.

  11. Risk from environmental chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somers, E [Environmental Health Directorate, Health Protection Branch, Health and Welfare Canada, Ontario

    1982-01-01

    The elements of risk assessment, namely risk identification, risk estimation, risk evaluation and risk management, are described with respect to the control of environmental chemicals. The methodology of risk estimation is outlined and examples given of its application to regulatory decision-making for a number of chemicals in Canada. Finally, the extent and limitations of the process of risk evaluation are considered together with the need to recognize the importance of the public's perception of the level of risk.

  12. Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doni Purnama Alamsyah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consumer behaviors are more important in the study of Green Marketing. This studied aims to examined buying behavior of consumers on organic products which is formed by perception of quality and perception of risk. The research model with three hypotheses to explained the relationship and influenced between the constructs that perception of quality perception of risk and purchase decision. In these empirical studied treated 366 respondents from customer of retail supermarkets in West Java - Indonesia. Results of research founded a significant negative relationship between perception of quality and perception of risk. As well as the behavior of perception of quality and the perception of risk has a significant influenced on purchase decision. Retail self-service needs to improve the perception of quality and reduces the risk perception of the consumers if purchasing behavior of consumers want increase on organic products. This studied was useful in raising awareness of self-service retail and consumers for environmentally friendly products.

  13. Local Perspectives on Environmental Insecurity and Its Influence on Illegal Biodiversity Exploitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith L Gore

    Full Text Available Environmental insecurity is a source and outcome of biodiversity declines and social conflict. One challenge to scaling insecurity reduction policies is that empirical evidence about local attitudes is overwhelmingly missing. We set three objectives: determine how local people rank risk associated with different sources of environmental insecurity; assess perceptions of environmental insecurity, biodiversity exploitation, myths of nature and risk management preferences; and explore relationships between perceptions and biodiversity exploitation. We conducted interviews (N = 88 with residents of Madagascar's Torotorofotsy Protected Area, 2014. Risk perceptions had a moderate effect on perceptions of environmental insecurity. We found no effects of environmental insecurity on biodiversity exploitation. Results offer one if not the first exploration of local perceptions of illegal biodiversity exploitation and environmental security. Local people's perception of risk seriousness associated with illegal biodiversity exploitation such as lemur hunting (low overall may not reflect perceptions of policy-makers (considered to be high. Discord is a key entry point for attention.

  14. Notification: FY 2017 Update of Proposed Key Management Challenges and Internal Control Weaknesses Confronting the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan 5, 2017. The EPA OIG is beginning work to update for fiscal year 2017 its list of proposed key management challenges and internal control weaknesses confronting the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB).

  15. Talk of Mr Jean Syrota, head of the commission of electricity regulation, given at the 'confrontations' colloquium; Intervention de M. Jean Syrota President de la Commission de Regulation de l'Electricite au colloque confrontations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This paper is a reprint of the talk given on November 30, 2001, by J. Syrota, head of the French commission of electricity regulation (CRE), at the 'confrontations' conference about the European energy policy. In his talk, J. Syrota analyses the importance of competition in the development of a European energy market, the role of CRE as independent managing authority in keeping competition alive, and the importance of the development of international interconnections in the creation of a unique (European) energy market. (J.S.)

  16. Soft power geopolitics: how does the diminishing utility of military power affect the Russia – West confrontation over the “Common Neighbourhood”

    OpenAIRE

    Vasif HUSEYNOV

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on the fact that a number of factors, but particularly the restricting utility of military force between great powers, increase the significance of soft power as a tool both for legitimization and expansion in international relations in general, and in the West – Russia confrontation over the “common (or shared) neighbourhood” in particular. It explores how this fact affects the policies of the Western powers and Russia within the frame of the confrontation they are in. Th...

  17. Objective environmental risks - subjective risk perception in the public - an unsolvable discrepancy? Presentation by a comparison of the final disposal of radioactive and chemotoxical wastes, proposals for overcoming this problem, questions of realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, D.

    2005-01-01

    The main results of a BMU research project are presented, comprising comparisons of quantities of radioactive and chemotoxical wastes, of the respective hazardous potentials, of the regulatory requirements and safety standards, of the costs, and of the discrepancy between objective risk and risk perception in the public. (orig.)

  18. Percepciones de los estudiantes de education en Venezuela sobre su preparacion e intervencion en violencia domestica. [Perceptions of Education Students in Venezuela about Their Preparation and Intervention in Domestic Violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Anna P.; Cellitti, Anarella; Perez de Linares, Sonia

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated Venezuelan university students' perceptions regarding domestic violence and possible encounters with domestic violence in programs for young children. Students indicated that they expected to encounter only those situations they were prepared to confront, indicating needs for curriculum changes in teacher-training programs.…

  19. PERSONAL VALUES, BELIEFS, AND ECOLOGICAL RISK PERCEPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mail survey on ecological risk perception was administered in the summer of 2002 to a randomized sample of the lay public and to selected risk professionals at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The ranking of 24 ecological risk items, from global climate change...

  20. The Power of Perceptions. The relation between media images and children and youth’s self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Op de Beeck, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Over the last couple of decades, (digital) media have become more and more prominent in society. As a consequence, media portrayal has become more influential on the images that constitute our shared cognitive structures about (groups of) people, mechanisms and events in daily life. These perceptions are necessary to organize, process and utilize the information we are confronted with on an everyday basis. Through these structures, children and youth – among other social groups – are ascribed...

  1. Reducing Uncertainty and Confronting Ignorance about the Possible Impacts of Weathering Plastic in the Marine Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Jahnke, Annika; Arp, Hans Petter Heinrich; Escher, Beate I.; Gewert, Berit; Gorokhova, Elena; Kühnel, Dana; Ogonowski, Martin; Potthof, Annegret; Rummel, Christophe Daniel; Schmitt-Jansen, Mechtild; Toorman, Erik; MacLeod, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Plastic in the global oceans fulfills two of the three conditions for pollution to pose a planetary boundary threat because it is causing planetary-scale exposure that is not readily reversible. Plastic is a planetary boundary threat if it is having a currently unrecognized disruptive effect on a vital Earth system process. Discovering possible unknown effects is likely to be aided by achieving a fuller understanding of the environmental fate of plastic. Weathering of plastic generates microp...

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN AND ENVIRONMENTALLY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    critique of theoretical approaches towards understanding the formation of environmental attitudes, a model has been developed ... instances, people must have the motivation and know- ... feelings and emotion, and behaviour to behavioural.

  3. Technology development and transfer in environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, J.; Karnovitz, A.; Yarbrough, M.

    1994-01-01

    Federal efforts to develop and employ the innovative technologies needed to clean up contaminated facilities would greatly benefit from a greater degree of interaction and integration with the energies and resources of the private sector. Yet there are numerous institutional, economic, and regulatory obstacles to the transfer and commercialization of environmental restoration and waste management technologies. These obstacles discourage private sector involvement and investment in Federal efforts to develop and use innovative technologies. A further effect is to impede market development even where private sector interest is high. Lowering these market barriers will facilitate the commercialization of innovative environmental cleanup technologies and expedite the cleanup of contaminated Federal and private facilities. This paper identifies the major barriers to transfer and commercialization of innovative technologies and suggests possible strategies to overcome them. Emphasis is placed on issues particularly relevant to the Department of Energy's Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) program, but which are applicable to other Federal agencies confronting complex environmental cleanup problems

  4. Developmental Color Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Rosslyn; Little, Angela C.

    1975-01-01

    A sample of 107 subjects including kindergarteners, fifth graders, high school sophomores, parents of kindergarteners, and master artists were presented with a 108-item color perception test to investigate surface color perception at these age levels. A set of surface color perception rules was generated. (GO)

  5. Empirical study on the influencing factors of pig farmers' environmental risk perception:Based on the survey of 280 scale pig farmers in Hubei Province%养猪户环境风险感知影响因素的实证研究——基于湖北省280个规模养猪户的调研

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张郁; 刘耀东

    2017-01-01

    Based on the survey data on 280 scale farmers in Hubei province,the influencing factors of pig farmers' environmental risk perception are explored to promote the environmental risk prevention and realize the sustainable development of the pig industry.The results show that:1)The overall level of farmers' environmental risk perception is low,among which the environmental fact perception is relatively the highest while the cause perception is the Iowesh2)The individual and operating characteristics,cultivation training number,the proportion of cultivating income,the size of scale,environmental attitude and sense of responsibilityof farmers areimportant inner factors;3) The operating cost of waste disposal facilities and the supervision of the government on the pig pollution are external influencing factors.Therefore,the government should intensify the cultivation training,encourage the farmers to strengthen their professional level,expand the farming scale moderately,broaden the publication of the environmental regulatory policy and the compensation of the waste disposal facilitiesand encourage surrounding farmer's supervision on farm pollution.%为了解和掌握养猪户环境风险感知的影响因素,更好地促进养猪业环境风险的防控,实现养猪业绿色转型,通过对湖北省280个规模养猪户的实地调研,利用多元线性回归模型,对养猪户环境风险感知的影响因素进行了研究.结果表明:1)养猪户环境风险感知整体程度偏低,其中风险事实感知最高,而风险原因感知最低;2)养猪户个体、经营特征中养殖培训数量、养猪收入占总收入的比重、养殖规模以及养猪户的生态环境态度和责任担当是影响其环境风险感知的重要内部因素;3)在外部情境因素上,粪污处理设施运行成本、政府环境监控的力度显著影响其环境风险感知.因此,政府应加强养猪户养殖培训、鼓励其专职养猪、适度扩大养殖规模、加大养

  6. Retaining nurses through conflict resolution. Training staff to confront problems and communicate openly can improve the work climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, A R; Bushardt, S C; Jones, M A

    1993-06-01

    The way nurses resolve conflict may be leading them to quit their jobs or leave the profession altogether. Conflict is inevitable in a dynamic organization. What is important is not to avoid conflict but to seek its resolution in a constructive manner. Organizational conflict is typically resolved through one of five strategies: withdrawal, force, conciliation, compromise, or confrontation. A recent study of nurses in three different hospitals showed that the approach they use most is withdrawal. This might manifest itself in a request to change shifts or assignments and may lead to a job change and, eventually, abandonment of the field altogether. Given this scenario, changing nurses' conflict resolution style may help administrators combat the nursing shortage. Healthcare organizations must examine themselves to determine why nurses so frequently use withdrawal; then they must restructure work relationships as needed. Next, organizations need to increase nurses' awareness of the problem and train them to use a resolution style more conducive to building stable relationships: confrontation. Staff should also be trained in effective communications skills to develop trust and openness in their relationships.

  7. The Significant Role of the Intellect in Confronting Contemporary Global Challenges: The Taught of the Holy Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Naghipour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the Islamic world is confronting constant challenges in terms of physical and spiritual, as a whole. Living in such challenging atmosphere persuades Muslims to develop proper strategies for handling ongoing crises in a way arguably compatible with the Islamic codes and practices, as well as the fast growing universal demands. This paper, based on the taught of the Holy Quran, aimed to finding out a modest approach to handling the contemporary challenges. The Islamic approach towards the historical challenges, such as the way in dealing with unbelievers and intellectuals of other religions, was of special interest in this paper. Deep analysis of selected verses of the Holy Quran reveals that paying full attention to the special requirements for every time and place and having precise understanding of different nations’ haracteristics; their values and way of thinking are among the most important factors of tackling challenges in every time. The Holy Quran teaches us that having rational and intellectual exchanges even with unbelievers are among the most important tools for the Muslims to overcome their challenges. In conclusion, Islam appreciates the role of the intellect and chooses a reasonable and convincing manner in confronting important challenges all over the time.

  8. When confrontational images may be counter productive: reinforcing the case for pre-testing communications in sensitive areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Robert J; Jalleh, Geoffrey; Fielder, Lynda; Ouschan, Robyn

    2008-08-01

    White Ribbon Day is an international campaign that encourages men to speak out about and demonstrate their opposition to violence against women by wearing a white ribbon on 25 November. This study assesses the effectiveness of a graphic confrontational image in the Australian 2006 campaign versus an alternative non-violent image to motivate men to wear a white ribbon on White Ribbon Day. An intercept survey was conducted with a sample of 45 males aged 30-49 years recruited in an inner city suburban shopping strip. Respondents were presented with two alternatives: a graphic 'amputated arm' image and a non-violent 'father-daughter' image. The primary dependent variable was the relative ability of the two alternatives in motivating respondents to wear a white ribbon on White Ribbon Day. The vast majority of respondents nominated the 'father-daughter' as image being more motivating than the 'amputated arm' image to wear a white ribbon on White Ribbon Day: 84% vs 9%. The bland 'father-daughter' image was far more motivating than the macabre/violent 'amputated arm' image in motivating men to wear a white ribbon on White Ribbon Day. This is contrary to the UNIFEM Australia and White Ribbon Day assertion that 'confrontational/provocative' images are necessary to achieve this behaviour.

  9. Protective effects of vitamin E on microcephaly in rats X-irradiated in utero: DNA, lipid peroxide and confronting cisternae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Harumi; Iwasaki, Setsuo; Inomata, Kenichirou; Nasu, Fumio; Nishimura, Shigeru

    1986-06-01

    Fetuses from rats given either water or 0.03% D,L-..cap alpha..-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E) as a drinking fluid and X-irradiated with 100 rad on gestational day 13 were examined on gestational day 21. Mean cerebral weight which was significantly reduced by the X-irradiation was increased by vitamin E supplementation but the level did not reach that in sham-irradiated controls. Administration of vitamin E caused an increase in DNA concentration which was significantly reduced by X-irradiation with water treatment. An increase in the mean level of lipid peroxide formation was observed in the water-treated, X-irradiated group in the sample at zero time but not in the vitamin E-treated, X-irradiated group. In the cytoplasm of fetal cerebral neurons from X-irradiated dams with vitamin E supplementation, confronting cisternae were frequently observed between two nuclear envelopes. Confronting cisternae may be considered as a repair mechanism of vitamin E against X-irradiated neuronal damage in the fetal cerebrum. This study provides evidence of the protection by vitamin E of neuronal development in X-irradiated fetuses, through its antioxidant properties, against attacks by free radicals and/or lipid peroxide. 35 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 table.

  10. Skills of novices early trained or traditionaly trained versus experienced drivers confronted to simulated urban accidents' scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelon, Catherine; Damm, Loïc

    2012-01-01

    In order to prevent the over-representation of young drivers in car crashes, France instated an early driver training from the age of 16, but the positive effects of this opportunity have not yet been proven. Three groups of male drivers (12 subjects each) were confronted with some prototypical accident scenarios introduced in a simulated urban circuit. The first and second groups were composed of young drivers having less than one month of driving licence; twelve have had a traditional learning course, and twelve had followed, in addition to the initial course, an early driver training under the supervision of an adult. The third group was composed of experienced drivers. Strategies of the three groups were analyzed through their response time, speed and maneuvers. No difference appeared across groups regarding obstacle detection. But traditionally-trained drivers' position control was more conservative than the two others groups, which were more likely to involve efficient evasive action. The exposure gained during early training could thus increase the development of visuo-motor coordination and involve better skills in case of difficult situations. Others accidents' scenarios could be used to confront young drivers with difficult situations not commonly encountered in natural driving.

  11. Confronting the effects of smoking and air quality on the development of chronic respiratory diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedrychowski, W; Krzyzanowski, M W; Wojtyniak, B

    1985-08-01

    The main purpose of the paper was to compare the effects of outdoor and indoor air quality on the development of chronic respiratory diseases measured in the prospective study of chronic chest diseases among the inhabitants of Cracow, Poland. The 5-year follow-up study covered a probability sample of 4355 adult inhabitants. Data on respiratory symptoms and lung function in addition to variables related to environmental and socioeconomic factors were included. To assess the separate and joint effects of the chosen environmental factors on chronic chest problems, the multiple logistic regression analysis has been carried out. As expected, smoking habit was the strongest single of the factors related to the persistence of the respiratory symptoms. The effect of smoking was more marked in men than in women and this can be attributed to longer duration of smoking and more cigarettes smoked daily by men. Out of all considered adverse occupational factors only chemicals increased the risk of chronic bronchitis in men while dust increased the risk of exacerbations in women. The data showed a significant decrease in risk of exacerbations among the women who used a gas stove for cooking. The study also confirmed the harmful effect of smoking on lung function. Against this particular background the importance of variable temperature combined with ambient air pollution appeared to have rather strong detrimental biologic impact.

  12. Embracing interactions in ocean acidification research: confronting multiple stressor scenarios and context dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeker, Kristy J; Kordas, Rebecca L; Harley, Christopher D G

    2017-03-01

    Changes in the Earth's environment are now sufficiently complex that our ability to forecast the emergent ecological consequences of ocean acidification (OA) is limited. Such projections are challenging because the effects of OA may be enhanced, reduced or even reversed by other environmental stressors or interactions among species. Despite an increasing emphasis on multifactor and multispecies studies in global change biology, our ability to forecast outcomes at higher levels of organization remains low. Much of our failure lies in a poor mechanistic understanding of nonlinear responses, a lack of specificity regarding the levels of organization at which interactions can arise, and an incomplete appreciation for linkages across these levels. To move forward, we need to fully embrace interactions. Mechanistic studies on physiological processes and individual performance in response to OA must be complemented by work on population and community dynamics. We must also increase our understanding of how linkages and feedback among multiple environmental stressors and levels of organization can generate nonlinear responses to OA. This will not be a simple undertaking, but advances are of the utmost importance as we attempt to mitigate the effects of ongoing global change. © 2017 The Authors.

  13. Towards an Authentic Indian Environmentalism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jenny

    that village forests help ameliorate the problem of global warming. Such understanding can come in due course at the high school level. Perceptions of the affluent. If children and adults have trouble in identifying and defining their real environmental problems, we must look for the influences that are determining their ...

  14. Is Environmental Training Critical to Environmental Sustainability Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OT Aladesanmi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, concern for the environment has increased significantly with evidences of change in perception of people's values and attitudes towards the environment. This study presents the results of a survey carried out among postgraduate students undergoing training in environmental and non-environmental fields with the aim of comparing their environmental sustainable behaviour. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of environmental training on the postgraduate students? awareness, perceptions and behaviours with focus on the attitudes of the respondents towards environmental sustainability, and how these attitudes affect their behaviour. A purposive sampling method was used to obtain data using a semi-structured questionnaire. The respondents comprised of 50 and 47 postgraduate students undergoing training in environmental and non-environmental respectively. The data was subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS. The results of the study revealed that most of the students in environmental fields readily transferred the knowledge acquired in their training to a sustainable behaviour. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11083 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 241-251

  15. Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism Strategies in a Globalised World : alternative perceptiveness of terrorist emergence theory and policing strategies confrontation with human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Kikkas, Margit

    2015-01-01

    Globalisation and development in technology have advanced terrorism to reach a broader target audience. Especially focussing at the international co-operation strategies and combined social networks, terrorist activities have an direct- and indirect effect on private households, international commerce and local governments. Security institutions and state organisations use various combinations of counter- terrorism measures, that are mostly social-, political-, or financial in nature. Neverth...

  16. Energy and Environmental Challenges for the Japanese Automotive Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sperling, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    The turn of the century is proving to be a period of turmoil and uncertainty for the automotive industry. The industry confronts growing worldwide demands for greater environmental quality, but now benefits from an emerging technological revolution that provides them with the tools to respond effectively to those demands. Rapid innovation is occurring in lightweight materials, various ICE powertrain enhancements made possible by computer controls, energy conversion processes, energy storage, ...

  17. Participatory action research, strengthening institutional capacity and governance: Confronting the urban challenge in Kampala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaib Lwasa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban governance presents the most daunting and challenging task for sub-Saharan African countries in this century (Rakodi, 1997: 3; Rakodi, 2001; 5; McGill, 1988; 6. Africa is urbanizing faster than any other region. The level of urbanization stands at 39.1%, with annual rates of growth ranging between 8% and 13%. It is estimated that by 2025 half of the African population will be urban. This demographic shift, particularly in the sub-Saharan region, presents major problems for urban management. Although urban management programs of infrastructure development, financial management, economic development, environmental planning, spatial development mechanisms and social services provision continue to be enhanced, there is a mismatch between the program outcomes and need. Due to this shortfall, alternative strategies have been sought but with little documented evidence of successes, failures and lessons because of limited evaluation. The importance of research-informed policy is underscored by the apparent disconnect between actors in the urban field. These actors include city managers, researchers, political leaders and most important, communities. The latter are often disregarded yet they largely influence the development path and shape the fabric of urban space. Even where communities are engaged, they exert less influence than other actors on urban policies and programs. This paper examines how participatory action research is changing the relationships between researchers, communities and city authorities in a search for alternative approaches to address urban poverty and environmental challenges in Kampala – in particular service delivery, solid waste management and flood control. Based on an action-research and development project conducted in Kampala since 2006, there is evidence that communities can be galvanized not only to design solutions to their problems, but also to engage with city authorities through information sharing

  18. German-Egyptian seminar on environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, H.F.; Nentwich, D.

    1994-01-01

    Industrial development and scientific advancement have opened new frontiers of interest and challenges. Anthropogenic activities are increasingly upsetting the natural environmental balance and are at the same time shifting from local impact to global importance. Science is confronted with the challenge to answer the question of what are the consequences of anthropogenic changes to the environment and to help politics formulate countermeasures for the sake of a sustainable future. Protect results achieved within the Egyptian-German cooperation were presented to the scientific community and to the interested public and discussions on future lines of actions took place. (orig./KW)

  19. The environmental impact of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    Various recent and forthcoming inquiries into the future of nuclear power generation (the House of Lords, the Environment Agency, the Royal Society, the Royal Academy of Engineering, the Royal Commission for Environmental Pollution, the Government commitment to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and to sustainable development) mark an important point in the history of nuclear power. This paper explores what the assumptions might be in the context of the current sustainable development debate. It considers the changes that will be required to achieve a more mature approach to the future and the problems that will have to be confronted and resolved in order to meet those changes. (author)

  20. Environmental Sound Training in Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Kuvadia, Sejal; Gygi, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the effect of a short computer-based environmental sound training regimen on the perception of environmental sounds and speech in experienced cochlear implant (CI) patients. Method: Fourteen CI patients with the average of 5 years of CI experience participated. The protocol consisted of 2 pretests, 1 week apart,…

  1. Linkages between Poverty and Environmental Degradation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study conceptualizes environmental concerns of the poor so as to formulate appropriate policy measures for environmental awareness and sustainable development. It is limited to poverty -environment interrelationships through an overview of the perception of the poor about the environment and their behaviour to the ...

  2. Environmental Concern in School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkus, Amy J.; Musser, Lynn M.

    This study examined the relationship between children's environmental concern and grade, sex, environmental attitudes and behaviors, perceived competencies, and manifest anxiety. A total of 138 children in grades 1, 3, and 5 were interviewed and completed scales that measured childhood concerns, attitudes toward the environment, self perception,…

  3. Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Lindelof, Anja Mølle

    from the perspective of time and liveness as experienced in art on environmental performance discussing how environmental performances frame the temporality of the world. The paper engages with contemporary examples of environmental performances from various disciplines (sound, video, television...

  4. Environmental Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Ekelund, Kathrine

    2015-01-01

    The philosophical subfield environmental aesthetics can contribute to the design of sustainable futures. Environmental aesthetics provides a conceptual framework for understanding the relationship between nature and culture. Current positions in environmental aesthetics are lined out and used...

  5. Enterobacter aerogenes and Enterobacter cloacae; versatile bacterial pathogens confronting antibiotic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davin-Regli, Anne; Pagès, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Enterobacter aerogenes and E. cloacae have been reported as important opportunistic and multiresistant bacterial pathogens for humans during the last three decades in hospital wards. These Gram-negative bacteria have been largely described during several outbreaks of hospital-acquired infections in Europe and particularly in France. The dissemination of Enterobacter sp. is associated with the presence of redundant regulatory cascades that efficiently control the membrane permeability ensuring the bacterial protection and the expression of detoxifying enzymes involved in antibiotic degradation/inactivation. In addition, these bacterial species are able to acquire numerous genetic mobile elements that strongly contribute to antibiotic resistance. Moreover, this particular fitness help them to colonize several environments and hosts and rapidly and efficiently adapt their metabolism and physiology to external conditions and environmental stresses. Enterobacter is a versatile bacterium able to promptly respond to the antibiotic treatment in the colonized patient. The balance of the prevalence, E. aerogenes versus E. cloacae, in the reported hospital infections during the last period, questions about the horizontal transmission of mobile elements containing antibiotic resistance genes, e.g., the efficacy of the exchange of resistance genes Klebsiella pneumoniae to Enterobacter sp. It is also important to mention the possible role of antibiotic use in the treatment of bacterial infectious diseases in this E. aerogenes/E. cloacae evolution. PMID:26042091

  6. Postglacial recolonization at a snail's pace (Trochulus villosus): confronting competing refugia hypotheses using model selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dépraz, A; Cordellier, M; Hausser, J; Pfenninger, M

    2008-05-01

    The localization of Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) refugia is crucial information to understand a species' history and predict its reaction to future climate changes. However, many phylogeographical studies often lack sampling designs intensive enough to precisely localize these refugia. The hairy land snail Trochulus villosus has a small range centred on Switzerland, which could be intensively covered by sampling 455 individuals from 52 populations. Based on mitochondrial DNA sequences (COI and 16S), we identified two divergent lineages with distinct geographical distributions. Bayesian skyline plots suggested that both lineages expanded at the end of the LGM. To find where the origin populations were located, we applied the principles of ancestral character reconstruction and identified a candidate refugium for each mtDNA lineage: the French Jura and Central Switzerland, both ice-free during the LGM. Additional refugia, however, could not be excluded, as suggested by the microsatellite analysis of a population subset. Modelling the LGM niche of T. villosus, we showed that suitable climatic conditions were expected in the inferred refugia, but potentially also in the nunataks of the alpine ice shield. In a model selection approach, we compared several alternative recolonization scenarios by estimating the Akaike information criterion for their respective maximum-likelihood migration rates. The 'two refugia' scenario received by far the best support given the distribution of genetic diversity in T. villosus populations. Provided that fine-scale sampling designs and various analytical approaches are combined, it is possible to refine our necessary understanding of species responses to environmental changes.

  7. Confronting South Africa’s water challenge: A decomposition analysis of water intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Kohler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water is a vital natural resource, demanding careful management. It is essential for life and integral to virtually all economic activities, including energy and food production and the production of industrial outputs. The availability of clean water in sufficient quantities is not only a prerequisite for human health and well-being but the life-blood of freshwater ecosystems and the many services that these provide. Water resource intensity measures the intensity of water use in terms of volume of water per unit of value added. It is an internationally accepted environmental indicator of the pressure of economic activity on a country’s water resources and therefore a reliable indicator of sustainable economic development. The indicator is particularly useful in the allocation of water resources between sectors of the economy since in waterstressed countries like South Africa, there is competition for water among various users, which makes it necessary to allocate water resources to economic activities that are less intensive in their use of water. This study focuses on economy-wide changes in South Africa’s water intensity using both decomposition and empirical estimation techniques in an effort to identify and understand the impact of economic activity on changes in the use of the economy’s water resources. It is hoped that this study will help inform South Africa’s water conservation and resource management policies

  8. Confronting dark energy models mimicking ΛCDM epoch with observational constraints: Future cosmological perturbations decay or future Rip?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astashenok, Artyom V.; Odintsov, Sergei D.

    2013-01-01

    We confront dark energy models which are currently similar to ΛCDM theory with observational data which include the SNe data, matter density perturbations and baryon acoustic oscillations data. DE cosmology under consideration may evolve to Big Rip, type II or type III future singularity, or to Little Rip or Pseudo-Rip universe. It is shown that matter perturbations data define more precisely the possible deviation from ΛCDM model than consideration of SNe data only. The combined data analysis proves that DE models under consideration are as consistent as ΛCDM model. We demonstrate that growth of matter density perturbations may occur at sufficiently small background density but still before the possible disintegration of bound objects (like clusters of galaxies, galaxies, etc.) in Big Rip, type III singularity, Little Rip or Pseudo-Rip universe. This new effect may bring the future universe to chaotic state well before disintegration or Rip.

  9. Environmental Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    Contains information on the National Environmental Policy Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the Endangered Species Act, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability...

  10. “Phase transition” between Confrontation and Dialogue in the Light of the Concept of the Unity Charism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieczorek Krzysztof

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the twenties of the last century the process of building a new type of philosophical culture began, based on the sensitivity towards another person, the recognition of values and dignity of the person and the search for platforms of dialogue and compromise between people. However, it did not gain a broad social resonance. The 20th Century became the scene of the triumph of totalitarianisms, based on the idea of collectivism and marked by the contempt towards the individual, his rights and needs. In the post-war reality environments favouring the humanization of the culture of coexistence earned a voice, but they too did not manage to divert the tendency towards building a bureaucratic and technocratic order. In this kind of system, the person feels reduced to his instrumental functions, and the dialogue submerged in the world of humanistic values becomes a distant and unequalled dream. This text undertakes the problem of the conditions which must be met in order for the tendency towards dialogue and mutual respect to prevail over the hostile, confrontational approach, which characterizes many contemporary social environments. The author suggests that we refer to the analogy with the thermodynamics phenomenon, phase transition, and consider the notion of spiritual energy (the analogue of the physical term enthalpy as an agent regulating the internal disposition of the individual to “freeze” or “thaw” relations with his fellow human beings. The key thesis is that the most important source of energy indispensable to move from confrontation to dialogue lies in the resources of religious experience- the openness to the grace flowing from the transcendental reality, and the guides on the path to discovering this source are the witnesses of faith- among them the spiritual heirs of Chiara Lubich’s charism.

  11. Sartre et sa théorie des émotions : une confrontation avec Erving Goffman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Javeau

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available L’auteur confronte les positions de Jean-Paul Sartre et Erving Goffman. Dans son ouvrage de 1938, Esquisse d’une théorie des émotions, Jean-Paul Sartre propose une approche phénoménologique prenant doublement ses distances avec la psychanalyse et le béhaviourisme, posant l’émotion comme dégradation spontanée et vécue de la conscience en face du monde, le corps n’étant étrangement dans ce contexte rien d’autre que la croyance vécue de la conscience. L’auteur compare cette position avec la définition goffmanienne de la « situation sociale », qui identifie l’émotion comme une perturbation dans l’ordre normal du déroulement des interactions circonscrites dans la situation. L’interactionnisme symbolique est confronté à l’existentialisme sartrien et à sa position d’une structure magique sous-jacente du monde, en faisant de l’une le miroir de l’autre. Bien que s’inscrivant tous deux dans le courant phénoménologique, Jean-Paul Sartre et Erving Goffman sont ici saisis dans leur stratégie d’évitement des théories psychologiques. En conclusion est posée la question du statut heuristique à conférer au concept de « magique » invoqué par Jean-Paul Sartre.Sartre and his theory of emotions: a confrontation with GoffmanThe author confronts the positions of Jean-Paul Sartre and Erving Goffman. In his Esquisse d’une théorie des émotions (1938, Jean-Paul Sartre proposes a phenomenological approach. Taking his distances both with psychoanalysis and behaviourism, he places emotion as a spontaneous and experienced degradation of the conscience confronted with the world; the body thus becoming strangely nothing other than the experienced belief of consciousness. The author compares this position with Goffman’s definition of the “social situation”. Here, emotion is identified as a disturbance intervening in the normal order of the sequence of events delimited by the situation. Symbolic

  12. The Competitive Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, João Tiago

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to define what competitive perception is. Using Dufrenne’s phenomenological analysis of the art spectator’s experience, namely the concept of aesthetic perception, I will claim that it is useful to apply this phenomenological approach to the experience of watching sport events. I will argue that the concepts of uncertainty and auto teleology, being two main features in sport competition, are helpful to define competitive perception.

  13. The current status and problems confronted in delivering precision medicine in Japan and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Hideaki

    Precision medicine has been defined as "a predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory health care service delivery model." Today, developments in next-generation sequencing and information technology have made precision medicine possible, with massive amounts of genetic, "omics," clinical, environmental, and lifestyle data now available. Unfortunately, differences in governmental support and health care regulations have resulted in heterogeneous progress among countries. In Japan, for example, precision cancer screening and treatments are increasingly being promoted, with collaboration among research, governmental, and pharmaceutical agencies taking place in the nationwide SCRUM-Japan cancer genome screening project. The missions of SCRUM-Japan are to deliver the most appropriate therapeutic agents to the most suitable patients, and to play key roles in the development of multiplex diagnostic products and new indications for targeted therapy. Starting in February 2015 and ending in March 2017, the aim is to enroll 4750 patients with cancer (2350 patients with lung cancer and 2400 patients with gastrointestinal tract cancer). Compared with other developed countries, investments in scientific innovation for biomedical and omics research are matched or even surpassed in Europe, but regulatory differences in each countries are a major hurdle to rapid implementation. Although market approval for pharmaceuticals is centralized through the European Medicines Agency, access to health care is heterogeneously regulated at national levels, which undermines the consistency, comparability, and quality of precision medicine for cancer patients in Europe. In this review, we focus on the current progress of precision medicine in Japan and Europe, and clarify the differences in progress and the hurdles faced moving forward. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A percepção ambiental entre os habitantes da região noroeste do estado do Rio de Janeiro La percepción del medio ambiente entre los habitantes de la región noroeste de Rio de Janeiro Environmental perception among inhabitants of northwest region of the State of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Melo Villar

    2008-09-01

    campañas y acciones de recuperación ambiental.A research was developed to evaluate the environmental perception of individuals living in Itaperuna City, located in the northwest region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Between July and October 2005 a total of 243 individuals were interviewed concerning issues such as individual/environmental relation; individual actions in favor to environmental education; individual actions in favor to environmental area; concern about environmental impact and consumption; personal customs and environment. Based on the analysis of the answers of the individuals, a greater environmental perception was observed in elder individuals in relation to children and young adults. This result demonstrate that environmental education programs in this region should be focused on children and adolescents, in order to make these individuals more conscientious adults, since interviewed individuals presented great interest concerning environment issues and willingness to participate in campaigns and actions of environmental recovering.

  15. Perceptions of the Year 2000: Then, Now, and In The Future. Developing the Critical Analysis Skills and Time Reference Perspective of Proactive Action Students in Environmental and Global Education Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Richard Oakes

    An overview of future global environmental concerns and a strategy for teaching action skills to students are presented. Information from "The Global 2000 Report" and quotes from 11 different people provide a variety of perspectives on future problems and solutions concerning world food and hunger, economic growth, population, water,…

  16. Environmental strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabkar, Vesna; Cater, Tomaz; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    perspective, appropriate environmental strategies in compliance with environmental requirements aim at building competitive advantages through sustainable development. There is no universal “green” strategy that would be appropriate for each company, regardless of its market requirements and competitive......Environmental issues and the inclusion of environmental strategies in strategic thinking is an interesting subject of investigation. In general, managerial practices organized along ecologically sound principles contribute to a more environmentally sustainable global economy. From the managerial...

  17. What Factors Influence Wind Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Tatiana

    Over the last decade, wind power has emerged as a possible source of energy and has attracted the attention of homeowners and policy makers worldwide. Many technological hurdles have been overcome in the last few years that make this technology feasible and economical. The United States has added more wind power than any other type of electric generation in 2012. Depending on the location, wind resources have shown to have the potential to offer 20% of the nation's electricity; a single, large wind turbine has the capacity to produce enough electricity to power 350 homes. Throughout the development of wind turbines, however, energy companies have seen significant public opposition towards the tall white structures. The purpose of this research was to measure peoples' perceptions on wind turbine development throughout their growth, from proposal to existing phase. Three hypotheses were developed based on the participant's political affiliation, proximity and knowledge of wind turbines. To validate these hypotheses, participants were asked an array of questions regarding their perception on economic, environmental, and social impacts of wind turbines with an online service called Amazon Mechanical Turk. The responses were from residents living in the United States and required them to provide their zip code for subsequent analysis. The analysis from the data obtained suggests that participants are favorable towards wind turbine development and would be supportive of using the technology in their community. Political affiliation and proximity to the nearest wind turbine in any phase of development (proposal, construction, existing) were also analyzed to determine if they had an effect on a person's overall perception on wind turbines and their technology. From the analysis, political affiliation was seen to be an indirect factor to understanding favorability towards wind turbines; the more liberal you are, the more supportive you will be towards renewable energy use

  18. Music Alters Visual Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolij, Jacob; Meurs, Maaike

    2011-01-01

    Background: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e. g., memory) and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the

  19. Studying Sensory Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerly, Spafford C.

    2001-01-01

    Explains the vestibular organ's role in balancing the body and stabilizing the visual world using the example of a hunter. Describes the relationship between sensory perception and learning. Recommends using optical illusions to illustrate the distinctions between external realities and internal perceptions. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  20. Haptic perception of wetness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kosters, N.D.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2011-01-01

    The sensation of wetness is well-known but barely investigated. There are no specific wetness receptors in the skin, but the sensation is mediated by temperature and pressure perception. In our study, we have measured discrimination thresholds for the haptic perception of wetness of three di erent