WorldWideScience

Sample records for conflict theoretical barriers

  1. Game Theoretic Resolution of Water Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, H.; Gosain, A. K.; Khosa, R.

    2017-12-01

    Water disputes are of multi-disciplinary nature and involve an array of natural, hydrological,social, political and economic issues. Operations Research based decision making methodshave been found to facilitate mathematical analysis of such multifaceted problems thatconsist of multiple stakeholders and their conflicting objectives. Game Theoretic techniqueslike Metagame and Hypergame Analysis can provide a framework for conceptualizing waterconflicts and envisaging their potential solutions. In the present research, firstly a Metagamemodel has been developed to identify range of plausible equilibrium outcomes for resolvingconflicts pertaining to water apportionments in a transboundary watercourse. Further, it hasbeen observed that the contenders often hide their strategies from other players to getfavorable water allocations. Consequently, there are widespread misinterpretations about thetactics of the competitors and contenders have to formulate their strategies entirely based ontheir perception about others. Accordingly, a Hypergame study has also been conducted tomodel the probable misperceptions that may exist amongst the river riparians. Thus, thecurrent study assesses the efficacy of Game Theoretic techniques as possible redressalmechanism for water conflicts.

  2. A Theoretical Explanation of Marital Conflicts by Paradigmatic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    اسماعیل جهانی دولت آباد

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the economic, social and cultural changes in recent decades and consequently alterations in the form and duties of families and expectations of individuals from marriage, the institution of the family and marriage are enormously involved with different challenges and conflicts in comparison to past years. Fragile marital relationships, conflicts and divorce are results of such situations in Iran. Accordingly, the present study, which is designed through meta-analysis and deduction based on the concept analysis and reconceptualization of recent studies, has committed to manifest a proper different paradigm to explain marital conflicts. This paradigm is relying on various theoretical approaches, particularly the theory of symbolic interactionism as the main explanatory mean, and also applying the concept of “Marital Paradigm” as the missing information in previous studies of this field. It explains the marital conflicts between couples as paradigmatic conflicts; and its main idea is that marital conflict is not the result of one or more fixed and specified factors, but it is the production of encountering the opposing (or different paradigms.

  3. Theoretical analysis of the rotational barrier of ethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yirong; Gao, Jiali

    2007-02-01

    The understanding of the ethane rotation barrier is fundamental for structural theory and the conformational analysis of organic molecules and requires a consistent theoretical model to differentiate the steric and hyperconjugation effects. Due to recently renewed controversies over the barrier's origin, we developed a computational approach to probe the rotation barriers of ethane and its congeners in terms of steric repulsion, hyperconjugative interaction, and electronic and geometric relaxations. Our study reinstated that the conventional steric repulsion overwhelmingly dominates the barriers.

  4. Schooling's "Contribution" to Contemporary Violent Conflict: Review of Theoretical Ideas and Case Studies in the Field of Education and Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mitsuko

    2015-01-01

    Some argue that the field of study of "education and conflict" has yet to be solidified since its emergence in the 1990s, partly due to the weak theory base. This article reviews the literature on the "contribution" of schooling in contemporary violent conflict, via three strands of theoretical ideas, to demonstrate the…

  5. Making sense of all the conflict: a theoretical review and critique of conflict-related ERPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Michael J; Clayson, Peter E; Clawson, Ann

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive control theory suggests that goal-directed behavior is governed by a dynamic interplay between areas of the prefrontal cortex. Critical to cognitive control is the detection and resolution of competing stimulus or response representations (i.e., conflict). Event-related potential (ERP) research provides a window into the nature and precise temporal sequence of conflict monitoring. We critically review the research on conflict-related ERPs, including the error-related negativity (ERN), Flanker N2, Stroop N450 and conflict slow potential (conflict SP or negative slow wave [NSW]), and provide an analysis of how these ERPs inform conflict monitoring theory. Overall, there is considerable evidence that amplitude of the ERN is sensitive to the degree of response conflict, consistent with a role in conflict monitoring. It remains unclear, however, to what degree contextual, individual, affective, and motivational factors influence ERN amplitudes and how ERN amplitudes are related to regulative changes in behavior. The Flanker N2, Stroop N450, and conflict SP ERPs represent distinct conflict-monitoring processes that reflect conflict detection (N2, N450) and conflict adjustment or resolution processes (N2, conflict SP). The investigation of conflict adaptation effects (i.e., sequence or sequential trial effects) shows that the N2 and conflict SP reflect post-conflict adjustments in cognitive control, but the N450 generally does not. Conflict-related ERP research provides a promising avenue for understanding the effects of individual differences on cognitive control processes in healthy, neurologic and psychiatric populations. Comparisons between the major conflict-related ERPs and suggestions for future studies to clarify the nature of conflict-related neural processes are provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Conjugal conflict and violence: a review and theoretical paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilkstein, G; Aspy, C B; Quiggins, P A

    1994-02-01

    Conjugal violence has been described as having multiple etiologies. The variables are so numerous that intervention and research protocols are difficult to effect. This paper proposes a paradigm that establishes conjugal conflict and violence as separate entities. According to the paradigm, conjugal conflict is viewed as "an inevitable part of human association," whereas conjugal violence is determined to be a learned behavioral tactic that is employed as a coping strategy when an individual's conflict threshold potential is exceeded. Evidence will be offered that violence is learned from family of origin and from observing what is common or accepted practice in the community. Use of this paradigm would give primacy to community education programs that advance the concept of conflict resolution through rational discourse.

  7. Institutionalization of conflict capability in the management of natural resources : theoretical perspectives and empirical experience in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Yasmi, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: natural resource conflict, conflict capability, impairment, escalation This study concerns natural resource management (NRM) conflict particularly conflict in forestry sector and how such conflict can be addressed effectively. It consists of two major parts. The first deals with the theoretical review of conflict literature. It shows how conflict can conceptualized distinctively and how such distinctive conceptualization can be used as a strong basis for understanding and addressing...

  8. Theoretical Framework of Advanced Training in the Field of Conflict Management in Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilmashkina T.N.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the theoretical framework for creating an advanced training course for professionals working in various organizations whose functional duties include activities aimed at managing conflict situations occurring within the organization. The article also considers such problem concepts as: essence and causes of conflicts, types of conflicts in the organization; organizational, psychological, sociological and cultural ways of managing conflicts in the organization. The proposed theoretical model of advanced professional training is constructed within the framework of the competence approach which, in this case, is based on the notion that a participant in the program should master a certain set of special competencies that include knowledge, skills and abilities necessary for the effective process management of various conflict situations.

  9. The nature of socio-psychological barriers to peaceful conflict resolution and ways to overcome them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bar-Tal

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The many devastating, violent inter-group conflicts raging in different parts of the world are very current and actual. Such conflicts arise from disputes over incompatible goals and interests in different domains that must be addressed in seeking to find a solution. It is well established that these conflicts might be resolved were it not for strong socio-psychological barriers that help to sustain them. These barriers block progress toward peaceful conflict settlement. They pertain to the integrated operation of cognitive, emotional and motivational processes combined with a pre-existing repertoire of rigid supporting beliefs, worldviews and emotions that favor selective, biased and distorted information processing. This paper elaborates on the nature of socio-psychological barriers and proposes ways to overcome them.

  10. Neutrosophic Game Theoretic Approach to Indo-Pak Conflict over Jammu-Kashmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surapati Pramanik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the enduring conflict between India and Pakistan over Jammu and Kashmir since 1947. The ongoing conflict is analyzed as an enduring rivalry; characterized by three major wars (1947-48, 1965, 1971, low intensity military conflict (Siachen, mini war at Kargil (1999, internal insurgency, cross border terrorism. We examine the progress and the status of the dispute, as well as the dynamics of the India Pakistan relationship by considering the influence of USA and China in crisis dynamics. We discuss the possible solutions offered by the various study groups and persons. Most of the studies were done in crisp environment. Pramanik and Roy (S. Pramanik and T.K. Roy, Game theoretic model to the Jammu-Kashmir conflict between India and Pakistan. International Journal of Mathematical Archive (IJMA, 4(8 (2013, 162-170. studied game theoretic model toJammu and Kashmir conflict in crisp environment. In the present study we have extended the concept of the game theoric model of the Jammu and Kashmir conflict in neutrosophic envirorment. We have explored the possibilities and developed arguments for an application of principle of neutrosophic game theory to understand properly of the Jammu and Kashmir conflict in terms of goals and strategy of either side. Standard 2×2 zero-sum game theoretic model used to identify an optimal solution.

  11. The barrier effect of conflict with superiors in the relationship between employee empowerment and organizational commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, O.

    The author proposes the idea that conflict with superiors has a barrier effect in the positive relationship between employee empowerment and organizational commitment. Superiors with higher authority rankings set and pursue organizational goals and values to which employees with lower authority

  12. A Theoretical Discourse on the Mediatisation and Framing of Jos Ethno-Religious Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Naanlang Danaan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the role of journalists in the Jos ethno- religious conflicts are enormous, but none examines this phenomenon through the theoretical lenses of mediatisation and news framing to understand the logic that underpins the construction of conflict narratives. While mediatisation describes media logic in news production, news framing suggests the way the narratives which constitute news are constructed. Both theories explain journalistic practices in many respects. For instance, understanding media logic is the first step in identifying journalists’ role in the Jos conflicts which in turn determines the brand of journalism they adopt.The Jos conflicts involve a ‘settler’ group craving for recognition and legitimacy on the one hand, and a group of ‘indigenes’ that insists the territory is its inheritance on the other. Based on critical analysis, this paper argues that journalists impose media logic on their audiences through news framing and make them to understand reality from their own point of view. This effort is a new thinking towards understanding theoretical dimensions to media and/or journalistic interventions in the Jos violent conflicts so that researchers may build on these frameworks.

  13. Theoretical modeling of transport barriers in helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, S.; Itoh, K.; Ohyabu, N.

    2008-10-01

    A unified transport modelling to explain electron Internal Transport Barriers (e-ITB) in helical plasmas and Internal Diffusion Barriers (IDB) observed in Large Helical Device (LHD) is proposed. The e-ITB can be predicted with the effect of zonal flows to obtain the e-ITB in the low collisional regime when the radial variation of the particle anomalous diffusivity is included. Transport analysis in this article can newly show that the particle fuelling induces the IDB formation when this unified transport modelling is used in the high collisional regime. The density limit for the IDB in helical plasmas is also examined including the effect of the radiation loss. (author)

  14. Sanctions as a tactic used in partner conflicts: theoretical, operational, and preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstok, Zeev; Smadar-Dror, Ronit

    2015-07-01

    Partner sanction in this study is a form/tactic of violence, much like verbal and physical violence, which partners use toward each other during their conflicts. The partner sanction embodies a temporary deprivation of a mutually agreed-on right. The purpose of this study is to develop a theoretical and operational framework of sanctions partners use. The study sampled 74 heterosexual couples from the general population (148 male and female participants). The findings support the validity and reliability of the sanction measurement. Furthermore, findings indicate that the use of sanctions between partners is highly prevalent among men and women in the general population; that the more one partner uses sanctions, the more the other partner uses it; and that sanctions are strongly associated with other violent tactics partners use in their conflict (i.e., verbal and physical). Theoretical and empirical implications of the theoretical framework and the findings are discussed, including the role of sanctions in partner conflicts that escalate to severe forms of violence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Reduced analysis and confirmatory research on co-adaptability theoretical solution to conflicting events in construction engineering projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The co-adaptability theoretical solution to conflicting events in construction engineering projects has three problems. First, the transformation of constraint conditions of theoretical solution is very difficult in practical engineering applications; second, some coefficients are difficult to be determined; third, there are overfull circular arithmetic operations involved in it. To resolve these problems, a new method to reduce the theoretical solution complications is proposed. By analyzing the operating mechanism of theoretical solution model, redundancies in the theoretical solution can be eliminated, and the ISM mapping with the co-adaptability solution can be set up. Based on this approach, a procedure to solve practical conflicting events in construction projects is established by replacing characteristic variables with mathematic variables. The research results show that the procedure can replace the co-adaptability theoretical solution effectively and solve practical conflicting events in construction projects.

  16. Theoretical reflections on the connection between environmental assessment methods and conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Today there is a great variety of methods for evaluating the environmental impact of plans, programs and projects. But which of these methods should planners and managers choose? This theoretical article explores the connection between conflicts, communication and rationality in assessment methods. It focuses on the form (rationality) and substance of communication, i.e. what we should communicate about. The outcome supports the view that environmental assessments should be based on value- and interest-focused thinking, following a teleological ethic, when goals, alternatives and compensations are to be developed and impacts evaluated

  17. The placental barrier in allogenic immune conflict in spontaneous early abortions: immunohistochemical and morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Pavel; Elhayany, Asher; Milovanov, Andrey P; Halperin, Reuvit; Kaganovsky, Ella; Zusman, Itzhak; Ben-Hur, Herzel

    2007-11-01

    Morphologic changes in the placental barrier in spontaneous early abortions under the maternal-embryonic immune conflict, and the role of maternal immunoglobulins (Igs) in these changes. We examined chorionic villi and other tissues obtained from 54 aborts between weeks 3.5 and 8 of pregnancy. Material was divided into two groups. Group 1 (control) contained 15 medically recommended and spontaneous early aborts with no signs of inflammations or pathologic immune processes. Group 2 contained 39 spontaneous early aborts with acute chorionic villitis. Immunohistochemical and morphometric methods were used to study the Igs, different types of immunocompetent cells, and apoptosis-related components of the placental barrier. Acute villitis was found to be characterized by the destruction of all components of the chorionic villi, thrombovasculitis with apoptosis of the endothelium of capillaries and erythroblasts, mucous swelling of the basal membrane, and coagulation of the blood proteins. Due to destruction of the capillaries, the number of avasculate villi increased, and the average number of capillaries per villus decreased. The extremely high number of phagolysosomes with IgG and IgA in the villous monocytes in the group 2 indicates an increase in the phagocytic activity of monocytes against maternal Igs and may reflect the presence of mother-embryo immune conflict. Apoptosis of monocytes and a high number of promonocytes were seen accompanied by a high concentration of p53 protein. A large disturbance in the trophoblast occurred with disappearance of bcl-2 and the appearance of Fas ligand. Massive destruction of maternal Igs in embryonic monocytes and acute villitis in the placental barrier are manifested during the mother-embryo immune conflict, and this may be one of the reasons of spontaneous early abortions.

  18. Aiming at a Moving Target: Theoretical and Methodological Considerations in the Study of Intraindividual Goal Conflict between Personal Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorges, Julia; Grund, Axel

    2017-01-01

    Multiple-goal pursuit and conflict between personal life-defining goals can be considered part of everyday business in most individuals' lives. Given the potentially detrimental effects of goal conflict-for example, impaired well-being or poor performance-the literature on goal conflict is surprisingly scattered due to heterogeneous methodological approaches and technical terms. Little empirical research has addressed the conceptualization of goal conflict against the background of differing understandings from a structure-like and a process-like perspective. In the present article, we outline theoretical foundations of goal conflict from two perspectives: a structure- and a process-like perspective. Based on a comparative analysis and integration of these two perspectives, we systematically review empirical studies on goal conflict over 30 years of research. In doing so, we identify and discuss important conceptual dimensions of goal conflict, namely, goal conflict as a cognitive construct and an experiential instance, a focus on goal interrelations or on specific goal properties, and resource vs. inherent conflict, and the potential of these distinctions to further research on goal conflict. Finally, we present major challenges and pose questions that need to be addressed by future research.

  19. Charge transport mechanisms of graphene/semiconductor Schottky barriers: A theoretical and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Haijian; Liu, Zhenghui; Xu, Gengzhao; Shi, Lin; Fan, Yingmin; Yang, Hui; Xu, Ke; Wang, Jianfeng; Ren, Guoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Graphene has been proposed as a material for semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices. Understanding the charge transport mechanisms of graphene/semiconductor Schottky barriers will be crucial for future applications. Here, we report a theoretical model to describe the transport mechanisms at the interface of graphene and semiconductors based on conventional semiconductor Schottky theory and a floating Fermi level of graphene. The contact barrier heights can be estimated through this model and be close to the values obtained from the experiments, which are lower than those of the metal/semiconductor contacts. A detailed analysis reveals that the barrier heights are as the function of the interface separations and dielectric constants, and are influenced by the interfacial states of semiconductors. Our calculations show how this behavior of lowering barrier heights arises from the Fermi level shift of graphene induced by the charge transfer owing to the unique linear electronic structure

  20. Aiming at a Moving Target: Theoretical and Methodological Considerations in the Study of Intraindividual Goal Conflict between Personal Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Gorges

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-goal pursuit and conflict between personal life-defining goals can be considered part of everyday business in most individuals' lives. Given the potentially detrimental effects of goal conflict—for example, impaired well-being or poor performance—the literature on goal conflict is surprisingly scattered due to heterogeneous methodological approaches and technical terms. Little empirical research has addressed the conceptualization of goal conflict against the background of differing understandings from a structure-like and a process-like perspective. In the present article, we outline theoretical foundations of goal conflict from two perspectives: a structure- and a process-like perspective. Based on a comparative analysis and integration of these two perspectives, we systematically review empirical studies on goal conflict over 30 years of research. In doing so, we identify and discuss important conceptual dimensions of goal conflict, namely, goal conflict as a cognitive construct and an experiential instance, a focus on goal interrelations or on specific goal properties, and resource vs. inherent conflict, and the potential of these distinctions to further research on goal conflict. Finally, we present major challenges and pose questions that need to be addressed by future research.

  1. Genomic Conflicts that Cause Pollen Mortality and Raise Reproductive Barriers in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Matthieu; Durand, Stéphanie; Pluta, Natacha; Gobron, Nicolas; Botran, Lucy; Ricou, Anthony; Camilleri, Christine; Budar, Françoise

    2016-07-01

    Species differentiation and the underlying genetics of reproductive isolation are central topics in evolutionary biology. Hybrid sterility is one kind of reproductive barrier that can lead to differentiation between species. Here, we analyze the complex genetic basis of the intraspecific hybrid male sterility that occurs in the offspring of two distant natural strains of Arabidopsis thaliana, Shahdara and Mr-0, with Shahdara as the female parent. Using both classical and quantitative genetic approaches as well as cytological observation of pollen viability, we demonstrate that this particular hybrid sterility results from two causes of pollen mortality. First, the Shahdara cytoplasm induces gametophytic cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) controlled by several nuclear loci. Second, several segregation distorters leading to allele-specific pollen abortion (pollen killers) operate in hybrids with either cytoplasm. The complete sterility of the hybrid with the Shahdara cytoplasm results from the genetic linkage of the two causes of pollen mortality, i.e., CMS nuclear determinants and pollen killers. Furthermore, natural variation at these loci in A. thaliana is associated with different male-sterility phenotypes in intraspecific hybrids. Our results suggest that the genomic conflicts that underlie segregation distorters and CMS can concurrently lead to reproductive barriers between distant strains within a species. This study provides a new framework for identifying molecular mechanisms and the evolutionary history of loci that contribute to reproductive isolation, and possibly to speciation. It also suggests that two types of genomic conflicts, CMS and segregation distorters, may coevolve in natural populations. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  2. TMX tandem-mirror experiments and thermal-barrier theoretical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonen, T.C.; Baldwin, D.E.; Allen, S.L.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes recent analysis of energy confinement in the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX). TMX data also indicates that warm plasma limits the amplitude of the anisotropy driven Alfven ion cyclotron (AIC) mode. Theoretical calculations show strong AIC stabilization with off-normal beam injection as planned in TMX-U and MFTF-B. This paper reports results of theoretical analysis of hot electrons in thermal barriers including electron heating calculations by Monte Carlo and Fokker-Planck codes and analysis of hot electron MHD and microinstability. Initial results from the TMX-U experiment are presented which show the presence of sloshing ions

  3. ON THE APPLICATION OF PARTIAL BARRIERS FOR SPINNING MACHINE NOISE CONTROL: A THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Monazzam, A. Nezafat

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Noise is one of the most serious challenges in modern community. In some specific industries, according to the nature of process, this challenge is more threatening. This paper describes a means of noise control for spinning machine based on experimental measurements. Also advantages and disadvantages of the control procedure are added. Different factors which may affect the performance of the barrier in this situation are also mentioned. To provide a good estimation of the control measure, a theoretical formula is also described and it is compared with the field data. Good agreement between the results of filed measurements and theoretical presented model was achieved. No obvious noise reduction was seen by partial indoor barriers in low absorbent enclosed spaces, since the reflection from multiple hard surfaces is the main dominated factor in the tested environment. At the end, the situation of the environment and standards, which are necessary in attaining the ideal results, are explained.

  4. A theoretical model of the evolution of maternal effects under parent-offspring conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uller, Tobias; Pen, Ido

    The evolution of maternal effects on offspring phenotype should depend on the extent of parent-offspring conflict and costs and constraints associated with maternal and offspring strategies. Here, we develop a model of maternal effects on offspring dispersal phenotype under parent-offspring conflict

  5. Overcoming barriers in care for the dying: Theoretical analysis of an innovative program model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Cara L

    2016-08-01

    This article explores barriers to end-of-life (EOL) care (including development of a death denying culture, ongoing perceptions about EOL care, poor communication, delayed access, and benefit restrictions) through the theoretical lens of symbolic interactionism (SI), and applies general systems theory (GST) to a promising practice model appropriate for addressing these barriers. The Compassionate Care program is a practice model designed to bridge gaps in care for the dying and is one example of a program offering concurrent care, a recent focus of evaluation though the Affordable Care Act. Concurrent care involves offering curative care alongside palliative or hospice care. Additionally, the program offers comprehensive case management and online resources to enrollees in a national health plan (Spettell et al., 2009).SI and GST are compatible and interrelated theories that provide a relevant picture of barriers to end-of-life care and a practice model that might evoke change among multiple levels of systems. These theories promote insight into current challenges in EOL care, as well as point to areas of needed research and interventions to address them. The article concludes with implications for policy and practice, and discusses the important role of social work in impacting change within EOL care.

  6. Institutionalization of conflict capability in the management of natural resources : theoretical perspectives and empirical experience in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yasmi, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: natural resource conflict, conflict capability, impairment, escalation This study concerns natural resource management (NRM) conflict particularly conflict in forestry sector and how such conflict can be addressed effectively. It consists of two major parts. The first deals with the

  7. Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley T. Kerridge

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the association between deaths owing to terrorism, civil war and one-sided violence from 1994–2000 and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs attributable to diarrheal and related diseases, schistosomiasis, trachoma and the nematode infections (DSTN diseases in 2002 among World Health Organization Member States. Deaths resulting from terrorism, civil war and one-sided violence were significantly related to DSTN DALYs across the majority of sex–age subgroups of the populace, after controlling for baseline levels of improved water/sanitation and a variety of economic measures: overall, a 1.0% increase in deaths owing to terrorism and related violence was associated with an increase of 0.16% in DALYs lost to DSTN diseases. Associations were greatest among 0-to-4-year olds. The results of the present study suggest that DSTN disease control efforts should target conflict-affected populations with particular attention to young children who suffer disproportionately from DSTN diseases in these settings. In view of the evidence that terrorism and related violence may influence DSTN DALYs in the longer term, control strategies should move beyond immediate responses to decrease the incidence and severity of DSTN diseases to seek solutions through bolstering health systems infrastructure development among conflict-affected populations.

  8. High-efficiency dielectric barrier Xe discharge lamp: theoretical and experimental investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beleznai, Sz; Mihajlik, G; Agod, A; Maros, I; Juhasz, R; Nemeth, Zs; Jakab, L; Richter, P

    2006-01-01

    A dielectric barrier Xe discharge lamp producing vacuum-ultraviolet radiation with high efficiency was investigated theoretically and experimentally. The cylindrical glass body of the lamp is equipped with thin strips of metal electrodes applied to diametrically opposite sides of the outer surface. We performed a simulation of discharge plasma properties based on one-dimensional fluid dynamics and also assessed the lamp characteristics experimentally. Simulation and experimental results are analysed and compared in terms of voltage and current characteristics, power input and discharge efficiency. Using the proposed lamp geometry and fast rise-time short square pulses of the driving voltage, an intrinsic discharge efficiency around 56% was predicted by simulation, and more than 60 lm W -1 lamp efficacy (for radiation converted into visible green light by phosphor coating) was demonstrated experimentally

  9. Institutional and structural barriers to HIV testing: elements for a theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Beth; Barnes, Priscilla; Emetu, Roberta; Bailey, Marlon; Ohmit, Anita; Gillespie, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Stigma is a barrier to HIV health seeking, but little is known about institutional and structural expressions of stigma in HIV testing. This study examines evidence of institutional and structural stigma in the HIV testing process. A qualitative, grounded theory study was conducted using secondary data from a 2011 HIV test site evaluation data in a Midwestern, moderate HIV incidence state. Expressions of structural and institutional stigma were found with over half of the testing sites and at three stages of the HIV testing visit. Examples of structural stigma included social geography, organization, and staff behavior at first encounter and reception, and staff behavior when experiencing the actual HIV test. Institutional stigma was socially expressed through staff behavior at entry/reception and when experiencing the HIV test. The emerging elements demonstrate the potential compounding of stigma experiences with deleterious effect. Study findings may inform future development of a theoretical framework. In practice, findings can guide organizations seeking to reduce HIV testing barriers, as they provide a window into how test seekers experience HIV test sites at first encounter, entry/reception, and at testing stages; and can identify how stigma might be intensified by structural and institutional expressions.

  10. A theoretical model of the evolution of maternal effects under parent-offspring conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uller, Tobias; Pen, Ido

    2011-07-01

    The evolution of maternal effects on offspring phenotype should depend on the extent of parent-offspring conflict and costs and constraints associated with maternal and offspring strategies. Here, we develop a model of maternal effects on offspring dispersal phenotype under parent-offspring conflict to evaluate such dependence. In the absence of evolutionary constraints and costs, offspring evolve dispersal rates from different patch types that reflect their own, rather than the maternal, optima. This result also holds true when offspring are unable to assess their own environment because the maternal phenotype provides an additional source of information. Consequently, maternal effects on offspring diapause, dispersal, and other traits that do not necessarily represent costly resource investment are more likely to maximize offspring than maternal fitness. However, when trait expression was costly, the evolutionarily stable dispersal rates tended to deviate from those under both maternal and offspring control. We use our results to (re)interpret some recent work on maternal effects and their adaptive value and provide suggestions for future work. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. HackAttack: Game-Theoretic Analysis of Realistic Cyber Conflicts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferragut, Erik M [ORNL; Brady, Andrew C [Jefferson Middle School, Oak Ridge, TN; Brady, Ethan J [Oak Ridge High School, Oak Ridge, TN; Ferragut, Jacob M [Oak Ridge High School, Oak Ridge, TN; Ferragut, Nathan M [Oak Ridge High School, Oak Ridge, TN; Wildgruber, Max C [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Game theory is appropriate for studying cyber conflict because it allows for an intelligent and goal-driven adversary. Applications of game theory have led to a number of results regarding optimal attack and defense strategies. However, the overwhelming majority of applications explore overly simplistic games, often ones in which each participant s actions are visible to every other participant. These simplifications strip away the fundamental properties of real cyber conflicts: probabilistic alerting, hidden actions, unknown opponent capabilities. In this paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to analyze a more realistic game, one in which different resources have different weaknesses, players have different exploits, and moves occur in secrecy, but they can be detected. Certainly, more advanced and complex games are possible, but the game presented here is more realistic than any other game we know of in the scientific literature. While optimal strategies can be found for simpler games using calculus, case-by-case analysis, or, for stochastic games, Q-learning, our more complex game is more naturally analyzed using the same methods used to study other complex games, such as checkers and chess. We define a simple evaluation function and employ multi-step searches to create strategies. We show that such scenarios can be analyzed, and find that in cases of extreme uncertainty, it is often better to ignore one s opponent s possible moves. Furthermore, we show that a simple evaluation function in a complex game can lead to interesting and nuanced strategies.

  12. Theoretical Compartment Modeling of DCE-MRI Data Based on the Transport across Physiological Barriers in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fanea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological disorders represent major causes of lost years of healthy life and mortality worldwide. Development of their quantitative interdisciplinary in vivo evaluation is required. Compartment modeling (CM of brain data acquired in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging techniques with clinically available contrast agents can be performed to quantitatively assess brain perfusion. Transport of 1H spins in water molecules across physiological compartmental brain barriers in three different pools was mathematically modeled and theoretically evaluated in this paper and the corresponding theoretical compartment modeling of dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI data was analyzed. The pools considered were blood, tissue, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. The blood and CSF data were mathematically modeled assuming continuous flow of the 1H spins in these pools. Tissue data was modeled using three CMs. Results in this paper show that transport across physiological brain barriers such as the blood to brain barrier, the extracellular space to the intracellular space barrier, or the blood to CSF barrier can be evaluated quantitatively. Statistical evaluations of this quantitative information may be performed to assess tissue perfusion, barriers' integrity, and CSF flow in vivo in the normal or disease-affected brain or to assess response to therapy.

  13. Overcoming the barrier of narrative adherence in conflicts through awareness of the psychological bias of naïve realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasie, Meytal; Bar-Tal, Daniel; Pliskin, Ruthie; Nahhas, Eman; Halperin, Eran

    2014-11-01

    One significant socio-psychological barrier for peaceful resolution of conflicts is each party's adherence to its own collective narrative. We hypothesized that raising awareness to the psychological bias of naïve realism and its identification in oneself would provide a path to overcoming this barrier, thus increasing openness to the adversary's narrative. We conducted three experimental studies in the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Studies 1 and 2, conducted among Jewish Israelis and Palestinian Israelis, respectively, revealed that participants with hawkish political ideology reported greater openness to the adversary's narrative when they were made aware of naïve realism bias. Study 3 revealed that hawkish participants at the baseline adhered to the ingroup narrative and resisted the adversary's narrative more than dovish participants. They were also more able to identify the bias in themselves upon learning about it. This identification may explain why the manipulation led to bias correction only among hawkish participants. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  14. Theoretical domains framework to assess barriers to change for planning health care quality interventions: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavianpour, Mirkaber; Sarmast, Hamideh Helen; Kissoon, Niranjan; Collet, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical domains framework (TDF) provides an integrative model for assessing barriers to behavioral changes in order to suggest interventions for improvement in behavior and ultimately outcomes. However, there are other tools that are used to assess barriers. The objective of this study is to determine the degree of concordance between domains and constructs identified in two versions of the TDF including original (2005) and refined version (2012) and independent studies of other tools. We searched six databases for articles that studied barriers to health-related behavior changes of health care professionals or the general public. We reviewed quantitative papers published in English which included their questionnaires in the article. A table including the TDF domains of both original and refined versions and related constructs was developed to serve as a reference to describe the barriers assessed in the independent studies; descriptive statistics were used to express the results. Out of 552 papers retrieved, 50 were eligible to review. The barrier domains explored in these articles belonged to two to eleven domains of the refined TDF. Eighteen articles (36%) used constructs outside of the refined version. The spectrum of barrier constructs of the original TDF was broader and could meet the domains studied in 48 studies (96%). Barriers in domains of "environmental context and resources", "beliefs about consequences", and "social influences" were the most frequently explored in 42 (84%), 37 (74%), and 33 (66%) of the 50 articles, respectively. Both refined and original TDFs cataloged barriers measured by the other studies that did not use TDF as their framework. However, the original version of TDF explored a broader spectrum of barriers than the refined version. From this perspective, the original version of the TDF seems to be a more comprehensive tool for assessing barriers in practice.

  15. Applying the Theoretical Domains Framework to identify barriers and targeted interventions to enhance nurses' use of electronic medication management systems in two Australian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debono, Deborah; Taylor, Natalie; Lipworth, Wendy; Greenfield, David; Travaglia, Joanne; Black, Deborah; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2017-03-27

    Medication errors harm hospitalised patients and increase health care costs. Electronic Medication Management Systems (EMMS) have been shown to reduce medication errors. However, nurses do not always use EMMS as intended, largely because implementation of such patient safety strategies requires clinicians to change their existing practices, routines and behaviour. This study uses the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to identify barriers and targeted interventions to enhance nurses' appropriate use of EMMS in two Australian hospitals. This qualitative study draws on in-depth interviews with 19 acute care nurses who used EMMS. A convenience sampling approach was used. Nurses working on the study units (N = 6) in two hospitals were invited to participate if available during the data collection period. Interviews inductively explored nurses' experiences of using EMMS (step 1). Data were analysed using the TDF to identify theory-derived barriers to nurses' appropriate use of EMMS (step 2). Relevant behaviour change techniques (BCTs) were identified to overcome key barriers to using EMMS (step 3) followed by the identification of potential literature-informed targeted intervention strategies to operationalise the identified BCTs (step 4). Barriers to nurses' use of EMMS in acute care were represented by nine domains of the TDF. Two closely linked domains emerged as major barriers to EMMS use: Environmental Context and Resources (availability and properties of computers on wheels (COWs); technology characteristics; specific contexts; competing demands and time pressure) and Social/Professional Role and Identity (conflict between using EMMS appropriately and executing behaviours critical to nurses' professional role and identity). The study identified three potential BCTs to address the Environmental Context and Resources domain barrier: adding objects to the environment; restructuring the physical environment; and prompts and cues. Seven BCTs to address Social

  16. Social conflict in the execution stage of power generation projects: theoretical elements for a social viability proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Mesén Montenegro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The social effects of power generation projects will be analyzed in this paper, based on the paradigms that conceived such projects and using the theoretical approaches that generate the constructive practices that cover the social world of the communities in the areas of influence and the different persons involved (participants, beneficiaries, affected parties and opponents and the origin of the different social and environmental conflicts. The article also focuses on how, within this juncture, the project is an external agent that enters the social fabric of one or more communities, generating a series of subjective and objective breakdowns, in a symbolic world of meanings, customs, traditions and forms of psychological and social relationships with the natural and human environment, which are part of the variables that favor social change.

  17. Human-wildlife conflict as a barrier to large carnivore management and conservation in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    CHYNOWETH, MARK; ÇOBAN, EMRAH; ALTIN, ÇAĞATAY; ŞEKERCİOĞLU, ÇAĞAN

    2016-01-01

    Large carnivorous mammals are wide-ranging animals and thus frequently come into contact with human settlements in agrarian landscapes. This often generates human-wildlife conflict; carnivores potentially damage livestock, agricultural products, or human well-being. In Turkey, the cooccurrence of eight medium-large carnivore species combined with a burgeoning human population and unsustainable consumption of natural resources increasingly threatens carnivore populations. To better understand ...

  18. Barriers to information seeking in school libraries: conflicts in perceptions and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. Meyers

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper investigates barriers to adolescent information seeking in high school libraries within the framework of Kuhlthau's model of intermediation. Method. In-depth interviews and corroborating observations were conducted at six high schools in the Pacific Northwest over a sixteen-month period. Analysis. The data suggest inconsistencies between teacher-librarians' self-perceptions of their role and their daily interactions with students. Harris and Dewdney's principles of information seeking are employed as an analytic framework to provide a structure for categorizing and examining these inconsistencies. Results. The identified barriers to student information seeking include a lack of collaboration, students' lack of autonomy, limited access to resources, devaluation of interpersonal sharing for academic purposes, lack of affective support, and failure to validate students' previous experience in seeking information. Conclusion. : These findings suggest future direction for pre- and in-service education of teacher-librarians to prepare them to recognize how the unique barriers within school contexts can constrain both their mediational behaviour and students' information seeking opportunities.

  19. Barriers to knowledge sharing in Chinese healthcare referral services: an emergent theoretical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Miguel Baptista

    2016-01-01

    Background This paper reports on a research study that aims to identify and explain barriers to knowledge sharing (KS) in the provision of healthcare referral services in Chinese healthcare organisations. Design An inductive case study approach was employed, in which 24 healthcare professionals and workers from four healthcare organisations in the province of Hubei, Central China, were interviewed using semi-structured scripts. Results Through data analysis, 14 KS barriers emerged in four main themes: interpersonal trust barriers, communication barriers, management and leadership barriers, and inter-institutional barriers. A cause–consequence analysis of the identified barriers revealed that three of them are at the core of the majority of problems, namely, the absence of national and local policies for inter-hospital KS, lack of a specific hospital KS requirement, and lack of mutual acquaintance. Conclusions To resolve KS problems, it is of great importance that healthcare governance agencies, both at the national and regional levels, take leadership in the process of KS implementation by establishing specific and strong policies for inter-institutional KS in the referral process. This paper raises important issues that exceed academic interests and are important to healthcare professionals, hospital managers, and Information communication technology (ICT) managers in hospitals, as well as healthcare politicians and policy makers. PMID:26895146

  20. A theoretical study of resonant tunneling characteristics in triangular double-barrier diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongmei; Xu Huaizhe; Zhang Yafei

    2006-01-01

    Resonant tunneling characteristics of triangular double-barrier diodes have been investigated systematically in this Letter, using Airy function approach to solve time-independent Schroedinger function in triangular double-barrier structures. Originally, the exact analytic expressions of quasi-bound levels and quasi-level lifetime in symmetrical triangular double-barrier structures have been derived within the effective-mass approximation as a function of structure parameters including well width, slope width and barrier height. Based on our derived analytic expressions, numerical results show that quasi-bound levels and quasi-level lifetime vary nearly linearly with the structure parameters except that the second quasi-level lifetime changes parabolically with slope width. Furthermore, according to our improved transmission coefficient of triangular double-barrier structures under external electric field, the current densities of triangular double-barrier diodes with different slope width at 0 K have been calculated numerically. The results show that the N-shaped negative differential resistance behaviors have been observed in current-voltage characteristics and current-voltage characteristics depend on the slope width

  1. A theoretical study of cold nuclear fusion using barrier penetration approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Gupta, R.K.

    1989-06-01

    The cold nuclear fusion process is investigated in terms of barrier penetration calculations by considering both the deuteron-molecule and colliding deuteron-deuteron atoms. Atomic collisions with strongly screened interatomic potential and the resonant state formation can bring agreement with present experimental results. Analysis of the data in terms of the reaction rates is also discussed. (author). 13 refs, 1 tab

  2. Barriers and facilitators to preventing pressure ulcers in nursing home residents: A qualitative analysis informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée, Jacqueline F; Gray, Trish A; Dumville, Jo; Cullum, Nicky

    2018-06-01

    Pressure ulcers are areas of localised damage to the skin and underlying tissue; and can cause pain, immobility, and delay recovery, impacting on health-related quality of life. The individuals who are most at risk of developing a pressure ulcer are those who are seriously ill, elderly, have impaired mobility and/or poor nutrition; thus, many nursing home residents are at risk. To understand the context of pressure ulcer prevention in nursing homes and to explore the potential barriers and facilitators to evidence-informed practices. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nursing home nurses, healthcare assistants and managers, National Health Service community-based wound specialist nurses (known in the UK as tissue viability nurses) and a nurse manager in the North West of England. The interview guide was developed using the Theoretical Domains Framework to explore the barriers and facilitators to pressure ulcer prevention in nursing home residents. Data were analysed using a framework analysis and domains were identified as salient based on their frequency and the potential strength of their impact. 25 participants (nursing home: 2 managers, 7 healthcare assistants, 11 qualified nurses; National Health Service community services: 4 tissue viability nurses, 1 manager) were interviewed. Depending upon the behaviours reported and the context, the same domain could be classified as both a barrier and a facilitator. We identified seven domains as relevant in the prevention of pressure ulcers in nursing home residents mapping to four "barrier" domains and six "facilitator" domains. The four "barrier" domains were knowledge, physical skills, social influences and environmental context and resources and the six "facilitator" domains were interpersonal skills, environmental context and resources, social influences, beliefs about capabilities, beliefs about consequences and social/professional role and identity). Knowledge and insight into these barriers and

  3. A Theoretical Framework Mapping Barriers of Integrating and Adopting Educational Techonology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Buus, Lillian

    2018-01-01

    In the field of educational technology, a decades-long research question is: what barriers exist in integration and adoption of information and communication technology (ICT) in education educational technology? The intensity of integration and the rate of adoption are significantly low and the i......In the field of educational technology, a decades-long research question is: what barriers exist in integration and adoption of information and communication technology (ICT) in education educational technology? The intensity of integration and the rate of adoption are significantly low......) adoption decision. Instead of “system blame” or “individual blame”, an integration and adoption approach should consider national holistic view for careful strategic changes in policies, procedures, and practices at each decision level of the educational system and related external systems....

  4. Barriers and enablers to implementing antenatal magnesium sulphate for fetal neuroprotection guidelines: a study using the theoretical domains framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Emily; Bubner, Tanya; Ashwood, Pat; Van Ryswyk, Emer; Simmonds, Lucy; Reid, Sally; Middleton, Philippa; Crowther, Caroline A

    2015-08-18

    Strong evidence supports administration of magnesium sulphate prior to birth at less than 30 weeks' gestation to prevent very preterm babies dying or developing cerebral palsy. This study was undertaken as part of The WISH (Working to Improve Survival and Health for babies born very preterm) Project, to assess health professionals' self-reported use of antenatal magnesium sulphate, and barriers and enablers to implementation of 2010 Australian and New Zealand clinical practice guidelines. Semi-structured, one-to-one interviews were conducted with obstetric and neonatal consultants and trainees, and midwives in 2011 (n = 24) and 2012-2013 (n = 21) at the Women's and Children's Hospital, South Australia. Transcribed interview data were coded using the Theoretical Domains Framework (describing 14 domains related to behaviour change) for analysis of barriers and enablers. In 2012-13, health professionals more often reported 'routinely' or 'sometimes' administering or advising their colleagues to administer magnesium sulphate for fetal neuroprotection (86% in 2012-13 vs. 46% in 2011). 'Knowledge and skills', 'memory, attention and decision processes', 'environmental context and resources', 'beliefs about consequences' and 'social influences' were key domains identified in the barrier and enabler analysis. Perceived barriers were the complex administration processes, time pressures, and the unpredictability of preterm birth. Enablers included education for staff and women at risk of very preterm birth, reminders and 'prompts', simplified processes for administration, and influential colleagues. This study has provided valuable data on barriers and enablers to implementing magnesium sulphate for fetal neuroprotection, with implications for designing and modifying future behaviour change strategies, to ensure optimal uptake of this neuroprotective therapy for very preterm infants.

  5. Theoretical issues in tokamak confinement: (i) Internal/edge transport barriers and (ii) runaway avalanche confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.W.; Helander, P.; Thyagaraja, A.; Andersson, F.; Fueloep, T.; Eriksson, L.-G.; Romanelli, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarises a number of distinct, but related, pieces of work on key confinement issues for tokamaks, in particular the formation of internal and edge transport barriers, both within turbulent and neoclassical models, and radial diffusion of avalanching runaway electrons. First-principle simulations of tokamak turbulence and transport using the two-fluid, electromagnetic, global code CUTIE are described. The code has demonstrated the spontaneous formation of internal transport barriers near mode rational surfaces, in qualitative agreement with observations on JET and RTP. The theory of neoclassical transport in an impure, toroidal plasma has been extended to allow for steeper pressure and temperature gradients than are usually considered, and is then found to become nonlinear under conditions typical of the tokamak edge. For instance, the particle flux is found to be a nonmonotonic function of the gradients, thus allowing for a bifurcation in the ion particle flux. Finally, it is shown that radial diffusion caused by magnetic fluctuations can effectively suppress avalanches of runaway electrons if the fluctuation amplitude exceeds δB/B∼10 -3 . (author)

  6. Theoretical analysis of ozone generation by pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, L. S.; Zhou, J. H.; Wang, Z. H.; Cen, K. F.

    2007-08-01

    The use of very short high-voltage pulses combined with a dielectric layer results in high-energy electrons that dissociate oxygen molecules into atoms, which are a prerequisite for the subsequent production of ozone by collisions with oxygen molecules and third particles. The production of ozone depends on both the electrical and the physical parameters. For ozone generation by pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in oxygen, a mathematical model, which describes the relation between ozone concentration and these parameters that are of importance in its design, is developed according to dimensional analysis theory. A formula considering the ozone destruction factor is derived for predicting the characteristics of the ozone generation, within the range of the corona inception voltage to the gap breakdown voltage. The trend showing the dependence of the concentration of ozone in oxygen on these parameters generally agrees with the experimental results, thus confirming the validity of the mathematical model.

  7. Degradable self-assembling dendrons for gene delivery: experimental and theoretical insights into the barriers to cellular uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Anna; Posocco, Paola; Pricl, Sabrina; Calderon, Marcelo; Haag, Rainer; Hwang, Mark E; Shum, Victor W T; Pack, Daniel W; Smith, David K

    2011-12-21

    This paper uses a combined experimental and theoretical approach to gain unique insight into gene delivery. We report the synthesis and investigation of a new family of second-generation dendrons with four triamine surface ligands capable of binding to DNA, degradable aliphatic-ester dendritic scaffolds, and hydrophobic units at their focal points. Dendron self-assembly significantly enhances DNA binding as monitored by a range of experimental methods and confirmed by multiscale modeling. Cellular uptake studies indicate that some of these dendrons are highly effective at transporting DNA into cells (ca. 10 times better than poly(ethyleneimine), PEI). However, levels of transgene expression are relatively low (ca. 10% of PEI). This indicates that these dendrons cannot navigate all of the intracellular barriers to gene delivery. The addition of chloroquine indicates that endosomal escape is not the limiting factor in this case, and it is shown, both experimentally and theoretically, that gene delivery can be correlated with the ability of the dendron assemblies to release DNA. Mass spectrometric assays demonstrate that the dendrons, as intended, do degrade under biologically relevant conditions over a period of hours. Multiscale modeling of degraded dendron structures suggests that complete dendron degradation would be required for DNA release. Importantly, in the presence of the lower pH associated with endosomes, or when bound to DNA, complete degradation of these dendrons becomes ineffective on the transfection time scale-we propose this explains the poor transfection performance of these dendrons. As such, this paper demonstrates that taking this kind of multidisciplinary approach can yield a fundamental insight into the way in which dendrons can navigate barriers to cellular uptake. Lessons learned from this work will inform future dendron design for enhanced gene delivery. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  8. Conceptions of Conflict in Organizational Conflict Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima; Clegg, Stewart

    2017-01-01

    . In doing so, we first apply a genealogical approach to study conceptions of conflict, and we find that three distinct and essentially contested conceptions frame studies of conflict at work. Second, we employ two empirical examples of conflict to illustrate how organizational conflict research can benefit......Diverse and often unacknowledged assumptions underlie organizational conflict research. In this essay, we identify distinct ways of conceptualizing conflict in the theoretical domain of organizational conflict with the aim of setting a new critical agenda for reflexivity in conflict research...

  9. Power and Resistance: short theoretical considerations on the role played by humor in public-private conflicts in organizational contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Cristina Salgueiro Marques

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss the role played by humor as a form of resistance in organizations. To reach this intent we systemize a wide range of recent literature produced on the subject in the scope of the critical organizational studies. Our objective is to contribute for the consolidation of a field of research in Brazil that is extremely rich specially when at one hand, it stresses the active tensions of the forces in conflict within the process of opinion formation and, on the other hand the conformation of the social interactions in organizational contexts and their consequences for its cultural and dynamic configurations. Conflict is taken here as a crucial element for setting relations in motion. Therefore it cannot assume the functional and disruptive role as assumed by a functional or structural classic approach. Conflict and resistance represent an important interpretative key on the contemporary public-private tensions.

  10. Exploring EI in Belgium: a New Theoretical and Empirical Way to Deal with Environmental Conflicts in Urban Areas?

    OpenAIRE

    Lejeune, Zoé

    2013-01-01

    Environmental Inequalities (EI) –the unequal distribution of environmental goods and ‘bads’ among space and population– are a field of research at the crossroads of political science, socio-legal studies, and urban research. Unlike US Environmental Justice movement, environmental inequalities are not seen by actors, or studied, as a specific frame for action and collective mobilisation in Belgium in environmental matters. Environmental conflicts are however numerous in urban areas in Belgi...

  11. Exploring Environmental Inequalities in Belgium: a New Theoretical and Empirical Way to Deal with Environmental Conflicts in Urban Areas?

    OpenAIRE

    Lejeune, Zoé

    2013-01-01

    Environmental Inequalities (EI) – the unequal distribution of environmental goods and bads among space and population – are a field of research at the crossroads of political science, environmental studies, and urban studies. Unlike US Environmental Justice movement, EI are not seen by actors or studied as a specific frame for action and collective mobilisation in Belgium in environmental matters. Environmental conflicts are however numerous in urban areas in Belgium where industrial activ...

  12. Theoretical prediction of energy release rate for interface crack initiation by thermal stress in environmental barrier coatings for ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, E; Umeno, Y

    2017-01-01

    As weight reduction of turbines for aircraft engines is demanded to improve fuel consumption and curb emission of carbon dioxide, silicon carbide (SiC) fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites (SiC/SiC) are drawing enormous attention as high-pressure turbine materials. For preventing degradation of SiC/SiC, environmental barrier coatings (EBC) for ceramics are deposited on the composites. The purpose of this study is to establish theoretical guidelines for structural design which ensures the mechanical reliability of EBC. We conducted finite element method (FEM) analysis to calculate energy release rates (ERRs) for interface crack initiation due to thermal stress in EBC consisting of Si-based bond coat, Mullite and Ytterbium (Yb)-silicate layers on a SiC/SiC substrate. In the FEM analysis, the thickness of one EBC layer was changed from 25 μm to 200 μm while the thicknesses of the other layers were fixed at 25 μm, 50 μm and 100 μm. We compared ERRs obtained by the FEM analysis and a simple theory for interface crack in a single-layered structure where ERR is estimated as nominal strain energy in the coating layers multiplied by a constant factor (independent of layer thicknesses). We found that, unlike the case of single-layered structures, the multiplication factor is no longer a constant but is determined by the combination of consisting coating layer thicknesses. (paper)

  13. Theoretical prediction of energy release rate for interface crack initiation by thermal stress in environmental barrier coatings for ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, E.; Umeno, Y.

    2017-05-01

    As weight reduction of turbines for aircraft engines is demanded to improve fuel consumption and curb emission of carbon dioxide, silicon carbide (SiC) fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites (SiC/SiC) are drawing enormous attention as high-pressure turbine materials. For preventing degradation of SiC/SiC, environmental barrier coatings (EBC) for ceramics are deposited on the composites. The purpose of this study is to establish theoretical guidelines for structural design which ensures the mechanical reliability of EBC. We conducted finite element method (FEM) analysis to calculate energy release rates (ERRs) for interface crack initiation due to thermal stress in EBC consisting of Si-based bond coat, Mullite and Ytterbium (Yb)-silicate layers on a SiC/SiC substrate. In the FEM analysis, the thickness of one EBC layer was changed from 25 μm to 200 μm while the thicknesses of the other layers were fixed at 25 μm, 50 μm and 100 μm. We compared ERRs obtained by the FEM analysis and a simple theory for interface crack in a single-layered structure where ERR is estimated as nominal strain energy in the coating layers multiplied by a constant factor (independent of layer thicknesses). We found that, unlike the case of single-layered structures, the multiplication factor is no longer a constant but is determined by the combination of consisting coating layer thicknesses.

  14. Conflict about conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jehn, K.A.; Rispens, S.; Thatcher, S.M.B.; Mannix, E.; Neale, M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – There are a number of ongoing debates in the organizational literature about conflict in groups and teams. We investigate two "conflicts about conflict" (i.e., two meta-conflicts) in the literature: we examine whether and under what conditions conflict in workgroups might be beneficial and

  15. Barriers and facilitators towards implementing the Sepsis Six care bundle (BLISS-1): a mixed methods investigation using the theoretical domains framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Neil; Hooper, Guy; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Storr, Wendell; Spivey, Michael

    2017-09-19

    The 'Sepsis 6', a care bundle of basic, but vital, measures (e.g. intravenous fluid, antibiotics) has been implemented to improve sepsis treatment. However, uptake has been variable. Tools from behavioral sciences, such as the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) may be used to understand and address such implementation issues. This study used a behavioral science approach to identify barriers and facilitators towards Sepsis Six implementation at a case study hospital. Semi-structured interviews based on the TDF were conducted with a sample group of consultants, junior doctors and nurses from Emergency Department, Medical and Surgical Admissions, to explore barriers/facilitators to Sepsis Six performance. Transcripts were analyzed following the combined principles of content and framework analysis. Emerging themes informed a questionnaire to explore generalizability and importance across a sample of 261 stakeholders. Median importance and agreement ratings for each theme were calculated overall and for each role and clinical area. These were used to identify important barriers and important facilitators as targets for performance improvement. No new belief statements were discovered and data saturation was deemed achieved after 10 interviews. 1699 utterances were coded into 64 belief statements, then collated into a 51-item questionnaire. 113 questionnaire responses were obtained (44.3% response rate). Important barriers included insufficient audit and feedback, poor teamwork and communication, concerns about using the Sepsis Six in certain patients, insufficient training, and resource concerns. Facilitators included confidence in knowledge and skills, beliefs in overall benefits of the bundle, beliefs that identification and management of septic patients fell within everyone's role, and that regular use of the bundle made it easier to remember. Some beliefs were applicable for the entire group, others were specific to particular staff groups. A range of barriers

  16. Barriers and Enablers to Implementation of Dietary Guidelines in Early Childhood Education Centers in Australia: Application of the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Alice; Seward, Kirsty; Finch, Meghan; Fielding, Alison; Stacey, Fiona; Jones, Jannah; Wolfenden, Luke; Yoong, Sze Lin

    2018-03-01

    To identify perceived barriers and enablers to implementation of dietary guidelines reported by early childhood education center cooks, and barriers and enablers associated with greater implementation based on assessment of center menu compliance. Cross-sectional telephone interview. Early childhood education centers, New South Wales, Australia. A total of 202 cooks responsible for menu planning; 70 centers provided a menu for review of compliance with dietary guidelines. Barriers and enablers to dietary guideline implementation were determined using a tool assessing constructs of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Higher scores (≥6) for each construct indicated enablers to guideline implementation; lower scores (barriers. Multivariable linear regression identified TDF constructs associated with greater guideline implementation. Scores were lowest for reinforcement (mean, 5.85) and goals (mean, 5.89) domains, and highest for beliefs about consequences (mean, 6.51) and social/professional role and identity (mean, 6.50). The skills domain was positively associated with greater implementation of guidelines based on menu review (P = .01). Cooks perceived social/professional role and identity, and beliefs about consequences to be enablers to dietary guideline implementation; however, only the skills domain was associated with greater implementation. There are opportunities to target the incongruence in perceptions vs reality of the barriers and enablers to implementation. Future research could examine the utility of the TDF to identify barriers and enablers to implementation to inform intervention development and for evaluating interventions to examine intervention mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Heuristics in Conflict Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Drescher, Christian; Gebser, Martin; Kaufmann, Benjamin; Schaub, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    Modern solvers for Boolean Satisfiability (SAT) and Answer Set Programming (ASP) are based on sophisticated Boolean constraint solving techniques. In both areas, conflict-driven learning and related techniques constitute key features whose application is enabled by conflict analysis. Although various conflict analysis schemes have been proposed, implemented, and studied both theoretically and practically in the SAT area, the heuristic aspects involved in conflict analysis have not yet receive...

  18. Ecosystemic Complexity Theory of Conflict: Understanding the Fog of Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Greg; Lassiter, Pamela S.; Hill, Michele B.; Moore, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Counselors often engage in conflict mediation in professional practice. A model for understanding the complex and subtle nature of conflict resolution is presented. The ecosystemic complexity theory of conflict is offered to assist practitioners in navigating the fog of conflict. Theoretical assumptions are discussed with implications for clinical…

  19. Theoretical and Spectroscopic investigations of conformations, rotational barriers and scaled vibrations of 2,3-dimethyl hexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Aboulmouhajir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2,3-dimethyl hexane conformational isomerism has been investigated in detail, based on HF, Post-HF and DFT calculations at different basis set. The effect of size of basis, ZPE, thermal contributions, electronic correlation and optimization methods on the conformational stability was discussed. The rotational barriers from the most stable conformer to the lowest energy secondary conformers and their correspondent inversion barriers at both HF and MP2 methods using 6-31G* basis set have also been approached. A normal mode calculation of the most and less-stable conformers using a scaled ab initio force field in terms of non-redundant local symmetry coordinates have been made to elucidate the conformational dependence of the vibrational spectra.

  20. Enablers and barriers to physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women: an analysis informed by the theoretical domains framework and COM-B model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, C; McHugh, S; Anaba, A E; Clifford, E; O'Riordan, M; Kenny, L C; McAuliffe, F M; Kearney, P M; Byrne, M

    2018-05-21

    Obesity during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and other complications. Physical activity is a modifiable lifestyle factor that may help to prevent these complications but many women reduce their physical activity levels during pregnancy. Interventions targeting physical activity in pregnancy are on-going but few identify the underlying behaviour change mechanisms by which the intervention is expected to work. To enhance intervention effectiveness, recent tools in behavioural science such as the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) and COM-B model (capability, opportunity, motivation and behaviour) have been employed to understand behaviours for intervention development. Using these behaviour change methods, this study aimed to identify the enablers and barriers to physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of overweight and obese women at different stages of pregnancy attending a public antenatal clinic in a large academic maternity hospital in Cork, Ireland. Interviews were recorded and transcribed into NVivo V.10 software. Data analysis followed the framework approach, drawing on the TDF and the COM-B model. Twenty one themes were identified and these mapped directly on to the COM-B model of behaviour change and ten of the TDF domains. Having the social opportunity to engage in physical activity was identified as an enabler; pregnant women suggested being active was easier when supported by their partners. Knowledge was a commonly reported barrier with women lacking information on safe activities during pregnancy and describing the information received from their midwife as 'limited'. Having the physical capability and physical opportunity to carry out physical activity were also identified as barriers; experiencing pain, a lack of time, having other children, and working prevented women from being active. A wide range of barriers

  1. Barriers and facilitators to the implementation of a school-based physical activity policy in Canada: application of the theoretical domains framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherson, Katie A; McKay, Rhyann; Gainforth, Heather L; Jung, Mary E

    2017-10-23

    In British Columbia Canada, a Daily Physical Activity (DPA) policy was mandated that requires elementary school teachers to provide students with opportunities to achieve 30 min of physical activity during the school day. However, the implementation of school-based physical activity policies is influenced by many factors. A theoretical examination of the factors that impede and enhance teachers' implementation of physical activity policies is necessary in order to develop strategies to improve policy practice and achieve desired outcomes. This study used the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to understand teachers' barriers and facilitators to the implementation of the DPA policy in one school district. Additionally, barriers and facilitators were examined and compared according to how the teacher implemented the DPA policy during the instructional school day. Interviews were conducted with thirteen teachers and transcribed verbatim. One researcher performed barrier and facilitator extraction, with double extraction occurring across a third of the interview transcripts by a second researcher. A deductive and inductive analytical approach in a two-stage process was employed whereby barriers and facilitators were deductively coded using TDF domains (content analysis) and analyzed for sub-themes within each domain. Two researchers performed coding. A total of 832 items were extracted from the interview transcripts. Some items were coded into multiple TDF domains, resulting in a total of 1422 observations. The most commonly coded TDF domains accounting for 75% of the total were Environmental context and resources (ECR; n = 250), Beliefs about consequences (n = 225), Social influences (n = 193), Knowledge (n = 100), and Intentions (n = 88). Teachers who implemented DPA during instructional time differed from those who relied on non-instructional time in relation to Goals, Behavioural regulation, Social/professional role and identity, Beliefs about

  2. Barriers and facilitators to the implementation of a school-based physical activity policy in Canada: application of the theoretical domains framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie A. Weatherson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In British Columbia Canada, a Daily Physical Activity (DPA policy was mandated that requires elementary school teachers to provide students with opportunities to achieve 30 min of physical activity during the school day. However, the implementation of school-based physical activity policies is influenced by many factors. A theoretical examination of the factors that impede and enhance teachers’ implementation of physical activity policies is necessary in order to develop strategies to improve policy practice and achieve desired outcomes. This study used the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF to understand teachers’ barriers and facilitators to the implementation of the DPA policy in one school district. Additionally, barriers and facilitators were examined and compared according to how the teacher implemented the DPA policy during the instructional school day. Methods Interviews were conducted with thirteen teachers and transcribed verbatim. One researcher performed barrier and facilitator extraction, with double extraction occurring across a third of the interview transcripts by a second researcher. A deductive and inductive analytical approach in a two-stage process was employed whereby barriers and facilitators were deductively coded using TDF domains (content analysis and analyzed for sub-themes within each domain. Two researchers performed coding. Results A total of 832 items were extracted from the interview transcripts. Some items were coded into multiple TDF domains, resulting in a total of 1422 observations. The most commonly coded TDF domains accounting for 75% of the total were Environmental context and resources (ECR; n = 250, Beliefs about consequences (n = 225, Social influences (n = 193, Knowledge (n = 100, and Intentions (n = 88. Teachers who implemented DPA during instructional time differed from those who relied on non-instructional time in relation to Goals, Behavioural regulation, Social

  3. Barriers and facilitators to healthcare professional behaviour change in clinical trials using the Theoretical Domains Framework: a case study of a trial of individualized temperature-reduced haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presseau, Justin; Mutsaers, Brittany; Al-Jaishi, Ahmed A; Squires, Janet; McIntyre, Christopher W; Garg, Amit X; Sood, Manish M; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2017-05-22

    Implementing the treatment arm of a clinical trial often requires changes to healthcare practices. Barriers to such changes may undermine the delivery of the treatment making it more likely that the trial will demonstrate no treatment effect. The 'Major outcomes with personalized dialysate temperature' (MyTEMP) is a cluster-randomised trial to be conducted in 84 haemodialysis centres across Ontario, Canada to investigate whether there is a difference in major outcomes with an individualized dialysis temperature (IDT) of 0.5 °C below a patient's body temperature measured at the beginning of each haemodialysis session, compared to a standard dialysis temperature of 36.5 °C. To inform how to deploy the IDT across many haemodialysis centres, we assessed haemodialysis physicians' and nurses' perceived barriers and enablers to IDT use. We developed two topic guides using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to assess perceived barriers and enablers to IDT ordering and IDT setting (physician and nurse behaviours, respectively). We recruited a purposive sample of haemodialysis physicians and nurses from across Ontario and conducted in-person or telephone interviews. We used directed content analysis to double-code transcribed utterances into TDF domains, and inductive thematic analysis to develop themes. We interviewed nine physicians and nine nurses from 11 Ontario haemodialysis centres. We identified seven themes of potential barriers and facilitators to implementing IDTs: (1) awareness of clinical guidelines and how IDT fits with local policies (knowledge; goals), (2) benefits and motivation to use IDT (beliefs about consequences; optimism; reinforcement; intention; goals), (3) alignment of IDTs with usual practice and roles (social/professional role and identity; nature of the behaviour; beliefs about capabilities), (4) thermometer availability/accuracy and dialysis machine characteristics (environmental context and resources), (5) impact on workload (beliefs

  4. Mediation of Conflicts – a Viable Solution for Surpassing Communication Barriers. President-Mediator in the Conflict between the Government and the Syndicate’s Organizations from the Education Field

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Maria MARUSCA

    2009-01-01

    The premises of this project are that approximately 90% of the conflicts in the modern society and not only, are based on poor communication. Any type of miscommunication (due to cultural, linguistic, politic or religious differences) can and will generate conflicts of various intensities going from simple quarrels to diplomatic incidents and all the way to wars. The mediator has the role to solve any existing conflict and to help repair the breaches from the communicational system between pa...

  5. Enablers and barriers for women with gestational diabetes mellitus to achieve optimal glycaemic control - a qualitative study using the theoretical domains framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martis, Ruth; Brown, Julie; McAra-Couper, Judith; Crowther, Caroline A

    2018-04-11

    Glycaemic target recommendations vary widely between international professional organisations for women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Some studies have reported women's experiences of having GDM, but little is known how this relates to their glycaemic targets. The aim of this study was to identify enablers and barriers for women with GDM to achieve optimal glycaemic control. Women with GDM were recruited from two large, geographically different, hospitals in New Zealand to participate in a semi-structured interview to explore their views and experiences focusing on enablers and barriers to achieving optimal glycaemic control. Final thematic analysis was performed using the Theoretical Domains Framework. Sixty women participated in the study. Women reported a shift from their initial negative response to accepting their diagnosis but disliked the constant focus on numbers. Enablers and barriers were categorised into ten domains across the three study questions. Enablers included: the ability to attend group teaching sessions with family and hear from women who have had GDM; easy access to a diabetes dietitian with diet recommendations tailored to a woman's context including ethnic food and financial considerations; free capillary blood glucose (CBG) monitoring equipment, health shuttles to take women to appointments; child care when attending clinic appointments; and being taught CBG testing by a community pharmacist. Barriers included: lack of health information, teaching sessions, consultations, and food diaries in a woman's first language; long waiting times at clinic appointments; seeing a different health professional every clinic visit; inconsistent advice; no tailored physical activities assessments; not knowing where to access appropriate information on the internet; unsupportive partners, families, and workplaces; and unavailability of social media or support groups for women with GDM. Perceived judgement by others led some women only to share

  6. Enablers and barriers to physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women: an analysis informed by the theoretical domains framework and COM-B model.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flannery, C

    2018-05-21

    Obesity during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and other complications. Physical activity is a modifiable lifestyle factor that may help to prevent these complications but many women reduce their physical activity levels during pregnancy. Interventions targeting physical activity in pregnancy are on-going but few identify the underlying behaviour change mechanisms by which the intervention is expected to work. To enhance intervention effectiveness, recent tools in behavioural science such as the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) and COM-B model (capability, opportunity, motivation and behaviour) have been employed to understand behaviours for intervention development. Using these behaviour change methods, this study aimed to identify the enablers and barriers to physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women.

  7. Using theory to explore facilitators and barriers to delayed prescribing in Australia: a qualitative study using the Theoretical Domains Framework and the Behaviour Change Wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Lucy; McCullough, Amanda; Del Mar, Chris; Lowe, John

    2017-02-13

    Delayed antibiotic prescribing reduces antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections in trials in general practice, but the uptake in clinical practice is low. The aim of the study was to identify facilitators and barriers to general practitioners' (GPs') use of delayed prescribing and to gain pharmacists' and the public's views about delayed prescribing in Australia. This study used the Theoretical Domains Framework and the Behaviour Change Wheel to explore facilitators and barriers to delayed prescribing in Australia. Forty-three semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with general practitioners, pharmacists and patients were conducted. Responses were coded into domains of the Theoretical Domains Framework, and specific criteria from the Behaviour Change Wheel were used to identify which domains were relevant to increasing the use of delayed prescribing by GPs. The interviews revealed nine key domains that influence GPs' use of delayed prescribing: knowledge; cognitive and interpersonal skills; memory, attention and decision-making processes; optimism; beliefs about consequences; intentions; goals; emotion; and social influences: GPs knew about delayed prescribing; however, they did not use it consistently, preferring to bring patients back for review and only using it with patients in a highly selective way. Pharmacists would support GPs and the public in delayed prescribing but would fill the prescription if people insisted. The public said they would delay taking their antibiotics if asked by their GP and given the right information on managing symptoms and when to take antibiotics. Using a theory-driven approach, we identified nine key domains that influence GPs' willingness to provide a delayed prescription to patients with an acute respiratory infection presenting to general practice. These data can be used to develop a structured intervention to change this behaviour and thus reduce antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections in general practice.

  8. Internal photoemission for photovoltaic using p-type Schottky barrier: Band structure dependence and theoretical efficiency limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ko-Han; Chang, Yin-Jung

    2018-01-01

    Solar energy conversion via internal photoemission (IPE) across a planar p-type Schottky junction is quantified for aluminum (Al) and copper (Cu) in the framework of direct transitions with non-constant matrix elements. Transition probabilities and k-resolved group velocities are obtained based on pseudo-wavefunction expansions and realistic band structures using the pseudopotential method. The k-resolved number of direct transitions, hole photocurrent density, quantum yield (QY), and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) under AM1.5G solar irradiance are subsequently calculated and analyzed. For Al, the parabolic and "parallel-band" effect along the U-W-K path significantly enhances the transition rate with final energies of holes mainly within 1.41 eV below the Fermi energy. For Cu, d-state hot holes mostly generated near the upper edge of 3d bands dominate the hole photocurrent and are weekly (strongly) dependent on the barrier height (metal film thickness). Hot holes produced in the 4s band behave just oppositely to their d-state counterparts. Non-constant matrix elements are shown to be necessary for calculations of transitions due to time-harmonic perturbation in Cu. Compared with Cu, Al-based IPE in p-type Schottky shows the highest PCE (QY) up to about 0.2673% (5.2410%) at ΦB = 0.95 eV (0.5 eV) and a film thickness of 11 nm (20 nm). It is predicted that metals with relatively dispersionless d bands (such as Cu) in most cases do not outperform metals with photon-accessible parallel bands (such as Al) in photon energy conversion using a planar p-type Schottky junction.

  9. Barriers and facilitators for implementing a new screening tool in an emergency department: A qualitative study applying the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Jeanette W; Sivertsen, Ditte M; Petersen, Janne; Nilsen, Per; Petersen, Helle V

    2016-10-01

    The aim was to identify the factors that were perceived as most important as facilitators or barriers to the introduction and intended use of a new tool in the emergency department among nurses and a geriatric team. A high incidence of functional decline after hospitalisation for acute medical illness has been shown in the oldest patients and those who are physically frail. In Denmark, more than 35% of older medical patients acutely admitted to the emergency department are readmitted within 90 days after discharge. A new screening tool for use in the emergency department aiming to identify patients at particularly high risk of functional decline and readmission was developed. Qualitative study based on semistructured interviews with nurses and a geriatric team in the emergency department and semistructured single interviews with their managers. The Theoretical Domains Framework guided data collection and analysis. Content analysis was performed whereby new themes and themes already existing within each domain were described. Six predominant domains were identified: (1) professional role and identity; (2) beliefs about consequences; (3) goals; (4) knowledge; (5) optimism and (6) environmental context and resources. The content analysis identified three themes, each containing two subthemes. The themes were professional role and identity, beliefs about consequences and preconditions for a successful implementation. Two different cultures were identified in the emergency department. These cultures applied to different professional roles and identity, different actions and sense making and identified how barriers and facilitators linked to the new screening tool were perceived. The results show that different cultures exist in the same local context and influence the perception of barriers and facilitators differently. These cultures must be identified and addressed when implementation is planned. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Nursing Published by John

  10. Improving Behavioral Support for Smoking Cessation in Pregnancy: What Are the Barriers to Stopping and Which Behavior Change Techniques Can Influence These? Application of Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Katarzyna A; Fergie, Libby; Coleman-Haynes, Tom; Cooper, Sue; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Ussher, Michael; Dyas, Jane; Coleman, Tim

    2018-02-17

    Behavioral support interventions are used to help pregnant smokers stop; however, of those tested, few are proven effective. Systematic research developing effective pregnancy-specific behavior change techniques (BCTs) is ongoing. This paper reports contributory work identifying potentially-effective BCTs relative to known important barriers and facilitators (B&Fs) to smoking cessation in pregnancy; to detect priority areas for BCTs development. A Nominal Group Technique with cessation experts ( n = 12) elicited an expert consensus on B&Fs most influencing women's smoking cessation and those most modifiable through behavioral support. Effective cessation interventions in randomized trials from a recent Cochrane review were coded into component BCTs using existing taxonomies. B&Fs were categorized using Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) domains. Matrices, mapping BCT taxonomies against TDF domains, were consulted to investigate the extent to which BCTs in existing interventions target key B&Fs. Experts ranked "smoking a social norm" and "quitting not a priority" as most important barriers and "desire to protect baby" an important facilitator to quitting. From 14 trials, 23 potentially-effective BCTs were identified (e.g., information about consequences). Most B&Fs fell into "Social Influences", "Knowledge", "Emotions" and "Intentions" TDF domains; few potentially-effective BCTs mapped onto every TDF domain. B&Fs identified by experts as important to cessation, are not sufficiently targeted by BCT's currently within interventions for smoking cessation in pregnancy.

  11. Managing intercultural conflict effectively

    CERN Document Server

    Ting-Toomey, Stella

    2001-01-01

    In this volume, Ting-Toomey and Oetzel accomplish two objectives: to explain the culture-based situational conflict model, including the relationship among conflict, ethnicity, and culture; and, second, integrate theory and practice in the discussion of interpersonal conflict in culture, ethnic, and gender contexts. While the book is theoretically directed, it is also a down-to-earth practical book that contains ample examples, conflict dialogues, and critical incidents. Managing Intercultural Conflict Effectively helps to illustrate the complexity of intercultural conflict interactions and readers will gain a broad yet integrative perspective in assessing intercultural conflict situations. The book is a multidisciplinary text that draws from the research work of a variety of disciplines such as cross-cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, marital and family studies, international management, and communication.

  12. Reproductive interference and fecundity affect competitive interactions of sibling species with low mating barriers: experimental and theoretical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebiola, M; Kelly, S E; Velten, L; Zug, R; Hammerstein, P; Giorgini, M; Hunter, M S

    2017-12-01

    When allopatric species with incomplete prezygotic isolation come into secondary contact, the outcome of their interaction is not easily predicted. The parasitoid wasp Encarsia suzannae (iES), infected by Cardinium inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), and its sibling species E. gennaroi (EG), not infected by bacterial endosymbionts, may have diverged because of the complementary action of CI and asymmetric hybrid incompatibilities. Whereas postzygotic isolation is now complete because of sterility of F1 hybrid progeny, prezygotic isolation is still incipient. We set up laboratory population cage experiments to evaluate the outcome of the interaction between ES and EG in two pairwise combinations: iES vs EG and cured ES (cES, where Cardinium was removed with antibiotics) vs EG. We also built a theoretical model aimed at exploring the role of life-history differences and asymmetric mating on competitive outcomes. In three of four cages in each treatment, ES dominated the interaction. We found evidence for reproductive interference, driven by asymmetric mating preferences, that gave a competitive edge to ES, the species that better discriminated against heterospecifics. However, we did not find the fecundity cost previously shown to be associated with Cardinium infection in iES. The model largely supported the experimental results. The finding of only a slight competitive edge of ES over EG in population cages suggests that in a more heterogeneous environment the species could coexist. This is supported by evidence that the two species coexist in sympatry, where preliminary data suggest reproductive character displacement may have reinforced postzygotic isolation.

  13. Collaboration and Conflict: Insights regarding Reducing Barriers to Participation through a Survey Study of Parents and School Administrators during Special Education Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Vanessa E.

    2009-01-01

    Parents and school administrators are both stakeholders in the IEP (Individualized Education Plan) process. While the inclusion of parents in the process as full members is mandated by IDEA 2004 there remains a growing problem of conflict within this process. Research has reviewed the process of conflict during the IEP meeting and other…

  14. Improving Behavioral Support for Smoking Cessation in Pregnancy: What Are the Barriers to Stopping and Which Behavior Change Techniques Can Influence Them? Application of Theoretical Domains Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman-Haynes, Tom; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Ussher, Michael; Dyas, Jane; Coleman, Tim

    2018-01-01

    Behavioral support interventions are used to help pregnant smokers stop; however, of those tested, few are proven effective. Systematic research developing effective pregnancy-specific behavior change techniques (BCTs) is ongoing. This paper reports contributory work identifying potentially-effective BCTs relative to known important barriers and facilitators (B&Fs) to smoking cessation in pregnancy; to detect priority areas for BCTs development. A Nominal Group Technique with cessation experts (n = 12) elicited an expert consensus on B&Fs most influencing women’s smoking cessation and those most modifiable through behavioral support. Effective cessation interventions in randomized trials from a recent Cochrane review were coded into component BCTs using existing taxonomies. B&Fs were categorized using Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) domains. Matrices, mapping BCT taxonomies against TDF domains, were consulted to investigate the extent to which BCTs in existing interventions target key B&Fs. Experts ranked ‘smoking a social norm’ and ‘quitting not a priority’ as most important barriers and ‘desire to protect baby’ an important facilitator to quitting. From 14 trials, 23 potentially-effective BCTs were identified (e.g., ‘information about consequences). Most B&Fs fell into ‘Social Influences’, ‘Knowledge’, ‘Emotions’ and ‘Intentions’ TDF domains; few potentially-effective BCTs mapped onto every TDF domain. B&Fs identified by experts as important to cessation, are not sufficiently targeted by BCT’s currently within interventions for smoking cessation in pregnancy. PMID:29462994

  15. Flexible Conflict Management: Conflict Avoidance and Conflict Adjustment in Reactive Cognitive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Kiesel, Andrea; Eder, Andreas B.

    2015-01-01

    Conflict processing is assumed to serve two crucial, yet distinct functions: Regarding task performance, control is adjusted to overcome the conflict. Regarding task choice, control is harnessed to bias decision making away from the source of conflict. Despite recent theoretical progress, until now two lines of research addressed these…

  16. Assessing Psychodynamic Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Joshua; Constantinides, Prometheas; Perry, J Christopher; Drapeau, Martin; Sheptycki, Amanda R

    2015-09-01

    Psychodynamic psychotherapies suggest that symptomatic relief is provided, in part, with the resolution of psychic conflicts. Clinical researchers have used innovative methods to investigate such phenomenon. This article aims to review the literature on quantitative psychodynamic conflict rating scales. An electronic search of the literature was conducted to retrieve quantitative observer-rated scales used to assess conflict noting each measure's theoretical model, information source, and training and clinical experience required. Scales were also examined for levels of reliability and validity. Five quantitative observer-rated conflict scales were identified. Reliability varied from poor to excellent with each measure demonstrating good validity. However a small number of studies and limited links to current conflict theory suggest further clinical research is needed.

  17. Conflict and memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady; Brescó, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue on conflict and memory aims to underscore the importance of memory (whether individual and collective) in relation to intergroup conflicts. We argue that the way in which societies reconstruct and bring the past into the present—especially, the historical past......—is crucial when it comes to the study of intergroup conflict dynamics. In this regard, we also highlight the growing importance of memory studies within the area of social sciences as well as the multiple ways of approaching memory. Drawing from this wide theoretical framework, we introduce the articles...... of this issue, eight articles that tackle the role of memory in different conflicts, whether currently under way, in progress of being resolved, in postwar settings, or in contexts conflicts expected to happen do not arise....

  18. Dialectic and conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højholt, Charlotte; Kousholt, Dorte

    to turn into conflicts and the conflicts have personal and existential meanings to the participant in social practice (related to their possibilities for conducting everyday life) and they are historical and political (related to societal questions about education). We draw on conceptualizations of social......In this paper, we aim to develop a dialectical approach to analyzing social conflicts concerning children’s school life. Public education can be seen as a common cause different parties at the same time are engaged in and conflicting about. We want to discuss this unity between the distribution...... practice as contradictory and developed through its contradictions (Lave, Dreier, Axel). The theoretical discussion will be illustrated through examples from conflicts between children and between parents - in relation to dealing with focus on the tasks of the school as well as flexibility in relation...

  19. Conflict in Cyber Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Karsten; Ringsmose, Jens

    Over the past two decades, a new man-made domain of conflict has materialized. Alongside armed conflict in the domains of land, sea, air, and space, hostilities between different types of political actors are now taking place in cyberspace. This volume addresses the challenges posed by cyberspace...... the different scholarly and political positions associated with various key aspects of cyber conflict and seek to answer the following questions: do existing theories provide sufficient answers to the current challenges posed by conflict in cyberspace, and, if not, could alternative approaches be developed......?; how do states and non-state actors make use of cyber-weapons when pursuing strategic and political aims?; and, how does the advent of conflict in cyberspace challenge our established legal framework? By asking important strategic questions on the theoretical, strategic, ethical and legal implications...

  20. Conflict Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William; Koue, Glen

    1991-01-01

    Discusses general issues involved in conflict management and provides more specific examples of conflict management in libraries. Causes of conflict are considered, including organizational structure, departmentalization, performance appraisal, poor communication, and technological change; and methods of dealing with conflict are described,…

  1. Marital Conflicts and Parent-Adolescent Conflicts: The Mediator Role of Adolescents' Appraisals of Interparental Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ایرج مختارنیا

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mediating role of adolescents' appraisals from interparents conflict on the relationship of marital conflicts and parent-adolescent conflict. The study was descriptive correlational and the population of this study included students of Qods town of Tehran province. Sample size was 700 students that were selected by multistage random sampling. The data were collected by Parent-Adolescent Conflict Questionnaire (PACQ, Marital Conflict Scale (MCS and Children's Appraisals of Interparental Conflict Scale (CPIC. The results of structural equation modeling analysis showed that the theoretical model of the study included in the model was properly fitted with the data. This means that the variable of adolescent's appraisals of interparents’ conflict can be considered as a mediator variable in the relationship of marital conflict and parent-adolescent conflict. Furthermore, in this model all direct and indirect paths to predict parent-adolescent conflict were recognized. Therefore, marital conflict can predict parent-adolescent conflicts through mediating factors. Also, it can be concluded that the model of cognitive-contextual is capable of explaining the parent-adolescent conflicts.

  2. Conflict Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Munteanu

    2016-01-01

    It is advisable to tackle conflicts as part of organizational life. It is necessary to be aware thatan employee brings with itself at different work values, and strategies of the individual workingunder these conditions conflict opportunities are numerous.

  3. Comments on "Precise model measurements versus theoretical prediction of barrier insertion loss in presence of the ground" [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 73, 44–54 (1983)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo

    1983-01-01

    Some of the theoretical curves in the article by J. Nicolas et al. [J. Acoust. soc. Am. 73, 44–54 (1983)] appear to be erroneous.......Some of the theoretical curves in the article by J. Nicolas et al. [J. Acoust. soc. Am. 73, 44–54 (1983)] appear to be erroneous....

  4. Negotiating School Conflicts to Prevent Student Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cecco, John P.; Roberts, John K.

    One of 52 theoretical papers on school crime and its relation to poverty, this chapter presents a model of negotiation as a means to resolve school conflict. The assumption is that school conflict is inevitable, but student delinquency is not. Delinquent behavior results from the way that the school deals with conflict. Students resort to…

  5. Identifying the barriers and enablers for a triage, treatment, and transfer clinical intervention to manage acute stroke patients in the emergency department: a systematic review using the theoretical domains framework (TDF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Louise E; McInnes, Elizabeth; Taylor, Natalie; Grimley, Rohan; Cadilhac, Dominique A; Considine, Julie; Middleton, Sandy

    2016-11-28

    Clinical guidelines recommend that assessment and management of patients with stroke commences early including in emergency departments (ED). To inform the development of an implementation intervention targeted in ED, we conducted a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies to identify relevant barriers and enablers to six key clinical behaviours in acute stroke care: appropriate triage, thrombolysis administration, monitoring and management of temperature, blood glucose levels, and of swallowing difficulties and transfer of stroke patients in ED. Studies of any design, conducted in ED, where barriers or enablers based on primary data were identified for one or more of these six clinical behaviours. Major biomedical databases (CINAHL, OVID SP EMBASE, OVID SP MEDLINE) were searched using comprehensive search strategies. The barriers and enablers were categorised using the theoretical domains framework (TDF). The behaviour change technique (BCT) that best aligned to the strategy each enabler represented was selected for each of the reported enablers using a standard taxonomy. Five qualitative studies and four surveys out of the 44 studies identified met the selection criteria. The majority of barriers reported corresponded with the TDF domains of "environmental, context and resources" (such as stressful working conditions or lack of resources) and "knowledge" (such as lack of guideline awareness or familiarity). The majority of enablers corresponded with the domains of "knowledge" (such as education for physicians on the calculated risk of haemorrhage following intravenous thrombolysis [tPA]) and "skills" (such as providing opportunity to treat stroke cases of varying complexity). The total number of BCTs assigned was 18. The BCTs most frequently assigned to the reported enablers were "focus on past success" and "information about health consequences." Barriers and enablers for the delivery of key evidence-based protocols in an emergency setting have

  6. Conflict: Organizational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clegg, Stewart; Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima; Sewell, Graham

    2015-01-01

    This article examines four contemporary treatments of the problem of organizational conflict: social psychological, anthropological, neo-Darwinian, and neo-Machiavellian. Social psychological treatments of organizational conflict focus on the dyadic relationship between individual disputants....... In contrast, anthropological treatments take a more socially and historically embedded approach to organizational conflict, focusing on how organizational actors establish negotiated orders of understanding. In a break with the social psychological and anthropological approaches, neo-Darwinians explain...... of organizational conflict where members of an organization are seen as politicized actors engaged in power struggles that continually ebb and flow....

  7. Communication Conflicts In NGO: A Theoretical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    JUAN LUIS MARTINEZ

    2002-01-01

    Solidarity is the firm and unshakeable conviction of the need to make an effort for the common good. It arises out of the conviction that all men are equal and although it is clearly the case that an emotional appeal has to exist for supportive action to be brought about, it is not alone enough to turn sporadic aid into a stable line of conduct. We believe that it is necessary for there to be an effective evolution of the communication practices of NGOs, especially in the case of advertising,...

  8. A Contingency Model of Conflict and Team Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jason D.; Zhu, Jing; Duffy, Michelle K.; Scott, Kristin L.; Shih, Hsi-An; Susanto, Ely

    2011-01-01

    The authors develop and test theoretical extensions of the relationships of task conflict, relationship conflict, and 2 dimensions of team effectiveness (performance and team-member satisfaction) among 2 samples of work teams in Taiwan and Indonesia. Findings show that relationship conflict moderates the task conflict-team performance…

  9. Barriers and enablers to the delivery of psychological care in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in China: a qualitative study using the theoretical domains framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Anna; Yang, Hui; Thomas, Shane A; Searle, Kendall; Browning, Colette

    2016-03-29

    China has the largest number of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) cases globally and individuals with T2DM have an increased risk of developing mental health disorders and functional problems. Despite guidelines recommending that psychological care be delivered in conjunction with standard T2DM care; psychological care is not routinely delivered in China. Community Health Centre (CHC) doctors play a key role in the management of patients with T2DM in China. Understanding the behavioural determinants of CHC doctors in the implementation of psychological care recommendations allows for the design of targeted and culturally appropriate interventions. As such, this study aimed to examine barriers and enablers to the delivery of psychological care to patients with T2DM from the perspective of CHC doctors in China. Two focus groups were conducted with 23 CHC doctors from Shenzhen, China. The discussion guide applied the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) that examines current practice and identifies key barriers and enablers perceived to influence practice. Focus groups were conducted with an interpreter, and were digitally recorded and transcribed. Two researchers independently coded transcripts into pre-defined themes using deductive thematic analysis. Barriers and enablers perceived by doctors as being relevant to the delivery of psychological care for patients with T2DM were primarily categorised within eight TDF domains. Key barriers included: CHC doctors' knowledge and skills; time constraints; and absence of financial incentives. Other barriers included: societal perception that treating psychological aspects of health is less important than physical health; lack of opinion leaders; doctors' intentional disregard of psychological care; and doubts regarding the efficacy of psychological care. In contrast, perceived enablers included: training of CHC doctors in psychological skills; identification of afternoon/evening clinic times when recommendations could be

  10. Theoretical study of formic acid: A new look at the origin of the planar Z conformation and C-O rotational barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirao, Hajime

    2008-01-01

    The E and Z rotamers of formic acid (HCOOH) and its barrier to internal rotation about the C-O bond were computationally explored at the HF/6-311 + G**, B3LYP/cc-pVTZ, and CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ levels of theory. All calculations yielded similar results consistent with experimental observations. Subsequent analysis of the interaction between formate ion (HCOO - ) and proton (H + ) within formic acid demonstrated a direct correlation between the changes in fragment interaction energy and the total energy of formic acid upon rotation. To obtain further insights into the interaction, energy decomposition analysis based on the reactive bond orbital (RBO) method was carried out using the 6-311 + G** basis set. The analysis showed the electrostatic effect constitutes a major component that gives rise to the interaction energy variation along the rotation path. Thus, the electrostatic environment of HCOO - can be viewed as the key factor determining the Z ground state and C-O rotational barrier of formic acid. The anisotropic electrostatic environment of formate that favors planar conformations of formic acid may be due to the in-plane distribution of carbonyl lone pairs, and the larger electrostatic attraction in the Z form appears to come from a secondary electrostatic interaction between the proton and the distal oxygen. At the rotational transition state, the O-H bond was not exactly perpendicular to the molecular plane, but slightly tilted toward the E side, which can also be explained by the electrostatic hypothesis. Charge-transfer stabilization was smallest in the Z conformation, but it gradually increased upon rotation to a maximum at the E conformation. Therefore, charge - transfer does not explain the geometry of formic acid. The important role of the electrostatic effect was also observed in in-plane rotation of the O-H bond

  11. Parenting Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Parenting Conflicts Family Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print ...

  12. Evolution of the interpersonal conflict paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep K. Dhami

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Using Brunswik's (1952 lens model framework, Hammond (1965 proposed interpersonal conflict theory to explain the nature, source, and resolution of disagreement or ``cognitive conflict'' between parties performing judgment tasks. An early review by Brehmer (1976 highlighted the potential of this approach in, for example, understanding the structure of cognitive conflicts, and the effect of task and person variables on judgment policy change and conflict resolution. However, our bibliographic and content reviews from 1976 to the present day demonstrate that research on cognitive conflict using the lens model has declined sharply, while research on ``task conflict'' has grown dramatically. There has also been a shift to less theoretical precision and methodological rigor. We discuss possible reasons for these developments, and suggest ways in which lens model research on cognitive conflict can be revitalized by borrowing from recent theoretical and methodological advances in the field of judgment and decision making.

  13. CONFLICTING REASONS

    OpenAIRE

    Parfit, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Sidgwick believed that, when impartial reasons conflict with self-interested reasons, there are no truths about their relative strength. There are such truths, I claim, but these truths are imprecise. Many self-interested reasons are decisively outweighed by conflicting impar-tial moral reasons. But we often have sufficient self-interested reasons to do what would make things go worse, and we sometimes have sufficient self-interested reasons to act wrongly. If we reject Act Consequentialism, ...

  14. Egocentrism drives misunderstanding in conflict and negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambers, J.R.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2014-01-01

    A key barrier to conflict resolution is that parties exaggerate the degree to which the other side's interests oppose their own side's interests. Here we examine egocentrism as a fundamental source of such biased conflict perceptions. We propose that parties rely on their own interests and

  15. Emotional Dynamics in Conflict and Conflict Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poder, Poul; Bramsen, Isabel

    2018-01-01

    Isabel Bramsen & Poul Poder 2018. Emotional Dynamics in Conflict and Conflict Transformation. Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation, Online Edition. Berlin: Berghof Foundation. Conflict and Conflict Transformation. Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation, Online Edition. Berlin: Berghof Foundation.

  16. Considerations Regarding the Conflict Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Manolescu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The conflict has always been present among people. It arises at the level of human relationships and has a specific form of expression, according to its evolutionary stage. Because of the fact that people are part of an organization, they bring the conflict with themselves. Any attempt of efficiently managing an organization without taking into account the fact that organizational conflicts are inevitable are bound to failure. In order to successfully handle conflicting situations, old habits and empirical pieces of knowledge are no longer sufficient. We therefore witness the birth of new theoretical concepts and innovative practices, as well as the coming into being of different strategies and approaches re garding conflict management which are based on a set of clear ideas that we will develop in the following article.

  17. Theoretical study on the mechanism of the reaction of FOX-7 with OH and NO2 radicals: bimolecular reactions with low barrier during the decomposition of FOX-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Dong; Zhang, Li-Li

    2017-12-01

    The decomposition of 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (FOX-7) attracts great interests, while the studies on bimolecular reactions during the decomposition of FOX-7 are scarce. This study for the first time investigated the bimolecular reactions of OH and NO2 radicals, which are pyrolysis products of ammonium perchlorate (an efficient oxidant usually used in solid propellant), with FOX-7 by computational chemistry methods. The molecular geometries and energies were calculated using the (U)B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) method. The rate constants of the reactions were calculated by canonical variational transition state theory. We found three mechanisms (H-abstraction, OH addition to C and N atom) for the reaction of OH + FOX-7 and two mechanisms (O abstraction and H abstraction) for the reaction of NO2 + FOX-7. OH radical can abstract H atom or add to C atom of FOX-7 with barriers near to zero, which means OH radical can effectively degrade FOX-7. The O abstraction channel of the reaction of NO2 + FOX-7 results in the formation of NO3 radical, which has never been detected experimentally during the decomposition of FOX-7.

  18. Resolution of navigational conflict in king penguin chicks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nesterova, A.P.; Flack, A.; van Loon, E.E.; Marescot, Y.; Bonadonna, F.; Biro, D.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts may arise within a moving animal group if its members have different preferred destinations. Many theoretical models suggest that in maintaining group cohesion conflicting preferences can have an overwhelming influence on decision making. However, empirical studies, especially on wild

  19. Conflicts about Conflict of Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Terrence

    2016-07-01

    Pharmaceutical representatives use detailing, gift giving, and the donation of free samples as a means to gain access to and influence over physicians. In biomedical ethics, there has been an ongoing debate as to whether these practices constitute an unethical conflict of interest (COI) on the part of the physician. Underlying this debate are the following antecedent questions: (1) what counts as a conflict of interest, (2) when are such conflicts unethical, and (3) how should the ethical physician respond to conflicts? This article distinguishes between two perspectives that have been developed on these issues: a reliable performance model (PM) and a trustworthiness model (TM). PM advocates argue that a conflict of interest can only be established by demonstrating that a particular influence is undermining the reliability of the physician's judgment, and this requires empirical evidence of negative patient outcomes. TM advocates, on the other hand, argue that because of the fiduciary nature of the patient-physician relationship, physicians have an obligation to develop and be worthy of patient trust. A COI, on this view, is a condition that undermines the warrant for patients to judge a physician as trustworthy. Although there is much that is right in the PM, it is argued that the TM does a better job of responsibly addressing the unique vulnerabilities of the patient. The TM is then applied to the practices of detailing, gift giving, and sample donation. It is concluded that these practices constitute an unethical conflict of interest.

  20. Mutable Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    their everyday life in Denmark, and to single out specific contemporary political events like the publishing of the cartoons of the Prophet Muhammad, local clashes with the Danish police and the Israeli invasion of Gaza. The ethnography discloses that the Palestinian-Israeli conflict is not a chronological...

  1. Celebritizing Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Budabin, Alexandra Cosima

    2016-01-01

    From serving as United Nations ambassadors to appearing as spokespersons for major NGO campaigns, global celebrities have become increasingly important in international development assistance. Acting as “aid celebrities,” they are indelibly linked with humanitarian work and public engagement.2 In......, conflict, and development in Africa....

  2. Flexibility conflict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsen, L.W.M.; Bauer, F.; Groß, H.; Sieglen, G.

    2002-01-01

    The chapter deals with the presupposed conflict of interests between employers and employees resulting from a decoupling of operating hours and working times. It starts from the notion that both long operating hours and flexibility are relative concepts. As there is some discretion, the ultimate

  3. Conflict Resolution in Headquarters-Subsidiary Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Gammelgaard, Jens

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the role of regulatory fit and moral emotions, that is, contempt and anger, in influencing conflict resolution between the headquarters and subsidiary boundary spanners. We develop a theoretical framework, which integrates literature on international business and headquarters......-subsidiary relationships with regulatory focus, moral emotions, and conflict resolution. The chapter outlines the relationships between the regulatory focus of a headquarters’ boundary spanner, and his or her manner of engagement, conflict sensitivity, violation of code, moral emotions, and the way conflicts are resolved...

  4. 3-methylcyclohexanone thiosemicarbazone: determination of E/Z isomerization barrier by dynamic high-performance liquid chromatography, configuration assignment and theoretical study of the mechanisms involved by the spontaneous, acid and base catalyzed processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carradori, Simone; Cirilli, Roberto; Dei Cicchi, Simona; Ferretti, Rosella; Menta, Sergio; Pierini, Marco; Secci, Daniela

    2012-12-21

    Here, we report on the simultaneous direct HPLC diastereo- and enantioseparation of 3-methylcyclohexanone thiosemicarbazone (3-MCET) on a polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phase under normal-phase conditions. The optimized chromatographic system was employed in dynamic HPLC experiments (DHPLC), as well as detection technique in a batch wise approach to determine the rate constants and the corresponding free energy activation barriers of the spontaneous, base- and acid-promoted E/Z diastereomerization of 3-MCET. The stereochemical characterization of four stereoisomers of 3-MCET was fully accomplished by integrating the results obtained by chemical correlation method with those derived by theoretical calculations and experimental investigations of circular dichroism (CD). As a final goal, a deepened analysis of the perturbing effect exercised by the stationary phase on rate constant values measured through DHPLC determinations as a function of the chromatographic separation factor α of the interconverting species was successfully accomplished. This revealed quite small deviations from the equivalent kinetic values obtained by off-column batch wise procedure, and suggested a possible effective correction of rate constants measured by DHPLC approach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Conflict Theory and the Analysis of Religious Experience | Obiefuna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both the experience and the way it is interpreted can, and most of the times, lead to conflict and violence. One of the appropriate theoretical approaches to explaining, understanding, and resolving religious related conflicts and violence is the conflict theory with micro (psycho-spiritual) and macro (socio-cultural) features ...

  6. Effect of Ligand Substitution around the Dy(III) on the SMM Properties of Dual-Luminescent Zn-Dy and Zn-Dy-Zn Complexes with Large Anisotropy Energy Barriers: A Combined Theoretical and Experimental Magnetostructural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, Jean Pierre; Titos-Padilla, Silvia; Oyarzabal, Itziar; Gupta, Tulika; Duhayon, Carine; Rajaraman, Gopalan; Colacio, Enrique

    2016-05-02

    The new dinuclear Zn(II)-Dy(III) and trinuclear Zn(II)-Dy(III)-Zn(II) complexes of formula [(LZnBrDy(ovan) (NO3)(H2O)](H2O)·0.5(MeOH) (1) and [(L(1)ZnBr)2Dy(MeOH)2](ClO4) (3) (L and L(1) are the dideprotonated forms of the N,N'-2,2-dimethylpropylenedi(3-methoxysalicylideneiminato and 2-{(E)-[(3-{[(2E,3E)-3-(hydroxyimino)butan-2-ylidene ]amino}-2,2-dimethylpropyl)imino]methyl}-6-methoxyphenol Schiff base compartmental ligands, respectively) have been prepared and magnetostructurally characterized. The X-ray structure of 1 indicates that the Dy(III) ion exhibits a DyO9 coordination sphere, which is made from four O atoms coming from the compartmental ligand (two methoxy terminal groups and two phenoxido bridging groups connecting Zn(II) and Dy(III) ions), other four atoms belonging to the chelating nitrato and ovanillin ligands, and the last one coming to the coordinated water molecule. The structure of 3 shows the central Dy(III) ion surrounded by two L(1)Zn units, so that the Dy(III) and Zn(II) ions are linked by phenoxido/oximato bridging groups. The Dy ion is eight-coordinated by the six O atoms afforded by two L(1) ligands and two O atoms coming from two methanol molecules. Alternating current (AC) dynamic magnetic measurements of 1, 3, and the previously reported dinuclear [LZnClDy(thd)2] (2) complex (where thd = 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato ligand) indicate single molecule magnet (SMM) behavior for all these complexes with large thermal energy barriers for the reversal of the magnetization and butterfly-shaped hysteresis loops at 2 K. Ab initio calculations on 1-3 show a pure Ising ground state for all of them, which induces almost completely suppressed quantum tunnelling magnetization (QTM), and thermally assisted quantum tunnelling magnetization (TA-QTM) relaxations via the first excited Kramers doublet, leading to large energy barriers, thus supporting the observation of SMM behavior. The comparison between the experimental and theoretical

  7. High Performance Multi Barrier Thermionic Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vashaee, Daryoosh; Shakouri, Ali

    2003-01-01

    Thermoelectric transport perpendicular to layers in multiple barrier superlattice structures is investigated theoretically in two limiting cases of no lateral momentum scattering and strong scattering...

  8. Communication and Conflict Management in Local Public Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela HENER

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Intra-organizational conflict within public institutions represents a topic that, until recently, has been rather ignored in Romania. This article is trying to present the multiple role of communication in solving, controlling and preventing conflicts in local public organizations. The paper presents a set of theoretical models (of conflict and communication in organizations and, based on the data offered by an organizational diagnosis-type research, analyzes the role of communication processes in conflict management and prevention.

  9. Technological risks and social conflicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, J.; Krebsbach-Gnath, C.

    1980-12-01

    This volume of materials is part of the report on 'Technological risks and social conflicts. Political risk strategies in the field of nuclear power'. The interested reader who wants to deepen his knowledge on the results and reasoning of the main report, will here find detailed explanations and brief drafts of subprojects; fundamental aspects of problems are presented in detail, and theoretical-conceptional, methodological and scientific-political points of view are explained. Furthermore it contains general reflections on the application-oriented research by order, a review of the status of risk research, historical considerations on the nuclear energy conflict, and finally explanations are attempted for the nuclear energy conflict. (orig./HSCH) [de

  10. Varieties of Organizational Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondy, Louis R.

    1969-01-01

    The viewpoints and findings of the seven empirical studies of organizational conflict contained in this issue are compared and contrasted. A distinction is made between conflict within a stable organization structure and conflict aimed at changing the organization structure. (Author)

  11. Healthy Conflict Management

    OpenAIRE

    Brower, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    Without healthy conflict management skills, conflict can often escalate or intensify over time. This fact sheet gives tips on utilizing key negotiation skills to help individuals effectively address and cope with conflict and potentially build stronger relationships with others.

  12. Conflict Termination: Every Conflict Must End

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garza, Mario

    1997-01-01

    .... The operational commander and his staff must understand the nature of conflict termination and the post-conflict activities so that they will be able to effectively translate the desired end state...

  13. The reasons for conflict and conflict management

    OpenAIRE

    Ceylan, Adnan; Ergün, Ercan; Alpkan, Lütfihak

    2000-01-01

    This study has been conducted in order to investigate the nature, types, reasons and parties of conflict, and thus to contribute to the conflict management. After defining the concept of conflict as "a struggle in the form of a limited competition" or "disagreement or discord among the parties" , this article has mentioned the fact that conflict is unavoidable and also if managed properly, it can bring to the organization some functional advantage. In this respect, we conducted a question...

  14. A two wave cross-lagged study of work-role conflict, work-family conflict and emotional exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Maria Therese

    2016-12-01

    By using a two-wave panel design, the present study aimed to study causal, reversed, and reciprocal relations among work-role conflict, work-family conflict, and emotional exhaustion. The Conservation of Resources theory was applied as a theoretical framework. The study was conducted in a large Norwegian oil and gas company (n = 1703). The results demonstrated positive cross-lagged effects of work-role conflict and work-family conflict on emotional exhaustion. In addition, emotional exhaustion predicted work-family conflict over time, and work-family conflict predicted work-role conflict over time, indicating the presence of reciprocal effects. The current study adds new knowledge to the positioning of work-family conflict in relation to perceived conflict in the workplace and emotional exhaustion. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Learning About Conflict and Conflict Management Through Drama in Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arveklev, Susanna H; Berg, Linda; Wigert, Helena; Morrison-Helme, Morag; Lepp, Margret

    2018-04-01

    In the health care settings in which nurses work, involvement in some form of conflict is inevitable. The ability to manage conflicts is therefore necessary for nursing students to learn during their education. A qualitative analysis of 43 written group assignments was undertaken using a content analysis approach. Three main categories emerged in the analysis-to approach and integrate with the theoretical content, to step back and get an overview, and to concretize and practice-together with the overall theme, to learn by oscillating between closeness and distance. Learning about conflict and conflict management through drama enables nursing students to form new knowledge by oscillating between closeness and distance, to engage in both the fictional world and the real world at the same time. This helps students to form a personal understanding of theoretical concepts and a readiness about how to manage future conflicts. [J Nurs Educ. 2018;57(4):209-216.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Decentralized Planning for Pre-Conflict and Post-Conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decentralized Planning for Pre-Conflict and Post-Conflict Management in the Bawku Municipal ... institutional arrangements for conflict monitoring and evaluation. Such processes are 'sine qua non' to pre-conflict and post-conflict prevention.

  17. Cultivating conflict and pluralism through dialogical deconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heymann, F.; Wals, A.

    2002-01-01

    The dialectic between divergence of interests, values and worldviews and the need for shared resolutions of natural resource management issues is explored. The conflicts that emerge when trying to resolve natural resource management issues, are prerequisites, rather than barriers, to reaching

  18. Consumer Efficiency in Conflict with GDP Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    , however, devoted to the options for improving overall efficiency by satisfying people’s wants through other means than economic throughput of energy, etc., such as by leisure time. Barriers for implementing efficiency options are discussed, pointing out the inherited conflict in affluent regions between...

  19. Ethnic Conflict: Imperatives for US Military Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lohide, Kurtis D

    1999-01-01

    .... Recent fighting in Bosnia, Central Africa, and Kosovo seems to provide this context. Such outbreaks of internecine fighting present compelling evidence that ethnic warfare will be a major source of conflict in the new millennium. Therefore, if 21st century American military thinkers are to craft a successful strategy, they must address the imperatives of ethnic conflict. This paper discusses the theoretical imperatives, doctrinal imperatives, and force structure imperatives of ethnic warfare.

  20. Conflicts in partnership and experiencing sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Stanič, Anja

    2013-01-01

    The thesis presents how people in partner relationships experience conflicts and sexuality. In the theoretical part I focused on the concepts of infatuation, love, the importance of attraction, and furthermore on partner relationships, developing relationships, and the impact of childhood experiences on partner relationships later in life. I presented conflict in partner relationships, types of arguments, troublesome communication and the importance of conversation between partners. In the...

  1. Automated conflict resolution issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion is presented of how conflicts for Space Network resources should be resolved in the ATDRSS era. The following topics are presented: a description of how resource conflicts are currently resolved; a description of issues associated with automated conflict resolution; present conflict resolution strategies; and topics for further discussion.

  2. Interpersonal Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roark, Albert E.

    1978-01-01

    The difference between constructive and destructive conflicts may be traced to the way in which they are managed. Third-party help is often utilized to achieve constructive conflict management. This article describes two models for conflict management consultation. Five guidelines are given for constructive conflict management. (Author/JEL)

  3. How social impact assessment can contribute to conflict management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prenzel, Paula V., E-mail: p.v.prenzel@student.rug.nl; Vanclay, Frank, E-mail: frank.vanclay@rug.nl

    2014-02-15

    The potential for conflict is omnipresent in all projects, and even in all human interactions, and conflict itself leads to many second-order social impacts. This article examines the contribution of the methodological approach used in social impact assessment (SIA) to conflict management. We view conflict as a process that has its own dynamic, and is to be expected in all situations. By using game theory (prisoner's dilemma), we describe and conceptualize this process and highlight the importance of communication in managing conflict. We demonstrate the potential use of SIA in preventing, managing and resolving conflict. Emphasis is placed on the participatory character of SIA and the role of public media. In contrast to existing literature, our focus is not restricted to the typical fields of study of SIA (e.g. environmental conflicts), but understands conflict itself as a field of application. In this sense, conflict-sensitive SIA can be understood both as an extension to the SIA tool kit and a broadening of the scope of SIA application. -- Highlights: • Conflict is omnipresent and creates both positive and negative social impacts. • Conflict itself represents a possible field of application for SIA. • Conflict escalation is a process that can be modeled in a game-theoretic framework. • There needs to be concerted effort to prevent escalation to avoid harmful outcomes. • Conflict-sensitive SIA can support conflict management and sustainable resolution.

  4. How social impact assessment can contribute to conflict management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenzel, Paula V.; Vanclay, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The potential for conflict is omnipresent in all projects, and even in all human interactions, and conflict itself leads to many second-order social impacts. This article examines the contribution of the methodological approach used in social impact assessment (SIA) to conflict management. We view conflict as a process that has its own dynamic, and is to be expected in all situations. By using game theory (prisoner's dilemma), we describe and conceptualize this process and highlight the importance of communication in managing conflict. We demonstrate the potential use of SIA in preventing, managing and resolving conflict. Emphasis is placed on the participatory character of SIA and the role of public media. In contrast to existing literature, our focus is not restricted to the typical fields of study of SIA (e.g. environmental conflicts), but understands conflict itself as a field of application. In this sense, conflict-sensitive SIA can be understood both as an extension to the SIA tool kit and a broadening of the scope of SIA application. -- Highlights: • Conflict is omnipresent and creates both positive and negative social impacts. • Conflict itself represents a possible field of application for SIA. • Conflict escalation is a process that can be modeled in a game-theoretic framework. • There needs to be concerted effort to prevent escalation to avoid harmful outcomes. • Conflict-sensitive SIA can support conflict management and sustainable resolution

  5. Conflict on interprofessional primary health care teams--can it be resolved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Judith; Lewis, Laura; Ellis, Kathy; Stewart, Moira; Freeman, Thomas R; Kasperski, M Janet

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, primary health care teams (PHCTs) depend on the contributions of multiple professionals. However, conflict is inevitable on teams. This article examines PHCTs members' experiences with conflict and responses to conflict. This phenomenological study was conducted using in-depth interviews with 121 participants from 16 PHCTs (10 urban and 6 rural) including a wide range of health care professionals. An iterative analysis process was used to examine the verbatim transcripts. The analysis revealed three main themes: sources of team conflict; barriers to conflict resolution; and strategies for conflict resolution. Sources of team conflict included: role boundary issues; scope of practice; and accountability. Barriers to conflict resolution were: lack of time and workload; people in less powerful positions; lack of recognition or motivation to address conflict; and avoiding confrontation for fear of causing emotional discomfort. Team strategies for conflict resolution included interventions by team leaders and the development of conflict management protocols. Individual strategies included: open and direct communication; a willingness to find solutions; showing respect; and humility. Conflict is inherent in teamwork. However, understanding the potential barriers to conflict resolution can assist PHCTs in developing strategies to resolve conflict in a timely fashion.

  6. Resolving conflict realistically in today's health care environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S B; Tutor, R S; Phillips, M L

    2001-11-01

    Conflict is a natural part of human interaction, and when properly addressed, results in improved interpersonal relationships and positive organizational culture. Unchecked conflict may escalate to verbal and physical violence. Conflict that is unresolved creates barriers for people, teams, organizational growth, and productivity, leading to cultural disintegration within the establishment. By relying on interdependence and professional collaboration, all parties involved grow and, in turn, benefit the organization and population served. When used in a constructive manner, conflict resolution can help all parties involved see the whole picture, thus allowing freedom for growth and change. Conflict resolution is accomplished best when emotions are controlled before entering into negotiation. Positive confrontation, problem solving, and negotiation are processes used to realistically resolve conflict. Everyone walks away a winner when conflict is resolved in a positive, professional manner (Stone, 1999).

  7. Durability of Peace Education Effects in the Shadow of Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Yigal; Salomon, Gavriel

    2011-01-01

    Value-oriented instructional programs, such as anti-racism, may often face societal barriers. A case in point are peace education programs in conflictual contexts. Close analysis of peace education programs in regions of conflict and tension suggest that they face formidable barriers that would appear to prevent the attainment of their goals of…

  8. Unconsciously triggered conflict adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gaal, Simon; Lamme, Victor A F; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2010-07-09

    In conflict tasks such as the Stroop, the Eriksen flanker or the Simon task, it is generally observed that the detection of conflict in the current trial reduces the impact of conflicting information in the subsequent trial; a phenomenon termed conflict adaptation. This higher-order cognitive control function has been assumed to be restricted to cases where conflict is experienced consciously. In the present experiment we manipulated the awareness of conflict-inducing stimuli in a metacontrast masking paradigm to directly test this assumption. Conflicting response tendencies were elicited either consciously (through primes that were weakly masked) or unconsciously (strongly masked primes). We demonstrate trial-by-trial conflict adaptation effects after conscious as well as unconscious conflict, which could not be explained by direct stimulus/response repetitions. These findings show that unconscious information can have a longer-lasting influence on our behavior than previously thought and further stretch the functional boundaries of unconscious cognition.

  9. Unconsciously triggered conflict adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon van Gaal

    Full Text Available In conflict tasks such as the Stroop, the Eriksen flanker or the Simon task, it is generally observed that the detection of conflict in the current trial reduces the impact of conflicting information in the subsequent trial; a phenomenon termed conflict adaptation. This higher-order cognitive control function has been assumed to be restricted to cases where conflict is experienced consciously. In the present experiment we manipulated the awareness of conflict-inducing stimuli in a metacontrast masking paradigm to directly test this assumption. Conflicting response tendencies were elicited either consciously (through primes that were weakly masked or unconsciously (strongly masked primes. We demonstrate trial-by-trial conflict adaptation effects after conscious as well as unconscious conflict, which could not be explained by direct stimulus/response repetitions. These findings show that unconscious information can have a longer-lasting influence on our behavior than previously thought and further stretch the functional boundaries of unconscious cognition.

  10. Antecedents and consequences of intra-group conflict among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almost, Joan; Doran, Diane M; McGillis Hall, Linda; Spence Laschinger, Heather K

    2010-11-01

    To test a theoretical model linking selected antecedent variables to intra-group conflict among nurses, and subsequently conflict management style, job stress and job satisfaction. A contributing factor to the nursing shortage is job dissatisfaction as a result of conflict among nurses. To develop strategies to reduce conflict, research is needed to understand the causes and outcomes of conflict in nursing work environments. A predictive, non-experimental design was used in a random sample of 277 acute care nurses. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the hypothesised model. Nurses' core self-evaluations, complexity of care and relationships with managers and nursing colleagues influenced their perceived level of conflict. Conflict management style partially mediated the relationship between conflict and job satisfaction. Job stress had a direct effect on job satisfaction and core self-evaluation had a direct effect on job stress. Conflict and its associated outcomes is a complex process, affected by dispositional, contextual and interpersonal factors. How nurses manage conflict may not prevent the negative effects of conflict, however, learning to manage conflict using collaboration and accommodation may help nurses experience greater job satisfaction. Strategies to manage and reduce conflict include building interactional justice practices and positive interpersonal relationships. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Managing Organizational Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali PATHAK

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of conflict, being an outcome of behaviours, is an integral part of human life. Wherever there is a difference of opinion there are chances of conflict. Managing conflict effectively demands multifarious professional abilities and acumen. To resolve and manage conflict, the organisations must understand the causes, theories, approaches and strategies of conflict management. Conflict and stress are interlinked as they are dependent on each other. It is a psychological phenomenon that requires a high level of attention and thorough understanding. It appears that there is a very little margin to remain unaffected from the clutches of stress in contemporary time.

  12. Fulani herdsmen's pastoral activities, conflict and conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LGA) of Oyo state Nigeria had come with some challenges over the years of interacting with their host community. This study was aimed at determining the effects of nomadic farming in the study area attendant conflicts and conflict management ...

  13. Interparental Conflict and Adolescents' Romantic Relationship Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Valerie A.; Furman, Wyndol

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between interparental conflict and adolescents' romantic relationship conflict. High school seniors (N = 183) who lived with married parents completed questionnaires about their parents' marriage and their own romantic relationships. A subset of 88 adolescents was also observed interacting with their romantic…

  14. CONFLICT AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT: A SPRINGBOARD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this paper, which is basically a literature review, the writer undertook a critical analysis of the causes and consequences of organisational conflict. He further ... The relevance and function of conflict in organisations have been an issue of ..... Studies have shown that “too much work can lead to a variety of stress-related.

  15. Can conflict be energizing? a study of task conflict, positive emotions, and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, Gergana; Bear, Julia B; Weingart, Laurie R

    2014-05-01

    Scholars have assumed that the presence of negative emotions during task conflict implies the absence of positive emotions. However, emotions researchers have shown that positive and negative emotions are not 2 ends of a bipolar continuum; rather, they represent 2 separate, orthogonal dimensions. Drawing on affective events theory, we develop and test hypotheses about the effects of task conflict on positive emotions and job satisfaction. To this end, we distinguish among the frequency, intensity, and information gained from task conflict. Using field data from 232 employees in a long-term health care organization, we find that more frequent mild task conflict expression engenders more information acquisition, but more frequent intense task conflict expression hinders it. Because of the information gains from mild task conflict expression, employees feel more active, energized, interested, and excited, and these positive active emotions increase job satisfaction. The information gained during task conflict, however, is not always energizing: It depends on the extent to which the behavioral context involves active learning and whether the conflict is cross-functional. We discuss theoretical implications for conflict, emotions, and job satisfaction in organizations. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Managing Conflict during Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join AAMFT Approved Supervisors My Account Benefits Managing Conflict During Divorce Ending a marriage or a long- ... themselves in the middle of confusing and overwhelming conflict. When children are involved, finding ways to manage ...

  17. The Darfur Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    present Presentation Interactive Media Element This interactive media element provides information related to the Darfur conflict in Sudan such as the locations of attacks, a conflict timeline, etc. NS4311 Contemporary Issues in African Politics

  18. Post-conflict peacebuilding : social reconstruction and reconciliation through dialogue

    OpenAIRE

    Justad, Lars Otto Meinke

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: This thesis explores how sustained dialogue can provide reconciliation in post-conflict societies. First the thesis describes changes in the nature of international conflict that has emerged since the end of the cold war. It then goes on to provide a social psychological theory of how to understand identity groups in conflict in contemporary societies. The paper continues with a discussion, based on the theoretical understanding provided earlier, of sustained dialogue and its ro...

  19. Conflict in workgroups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jehn, K.A.; Rispens, S.; Barlings, J.; Cooper, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    The original research on conflict in organizations suggested that conflict was a negative force, but some of the early theorizing also suggested some positive effects (e.g., idea generation, constructive criticism, creativity). A resurgence of research on workgroup conflict in the past 15 years

  20. The evolution of parent-offspring conflict over mate choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Pieter; Fawcett, Tim W.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Weissing, Franz J.

    2013-01-01

    In human societies, parents often have a strong influence on the mate choice of their offspring. Moreover, empirical studies show that conflict over mate choice between parents and offspring is widespread across human cultures. Here we provide the first theoretical investigation into this conflict,

  1. Power, conflict and consensus building in Africa: Ideology revisited ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper interrogates and rejects the effectiveness of consensus building as a mechanism for conflict resolution in Africa. Drawing from the conflict/consensus theoretical debates of the 1960s, the paper argues that because of the inherent character of power, and considering the nature of the state in Africa which is ...

  2. Theoretical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  3. Energizing and de-motivating effects of norm-conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Rachel I; Fielding, Kelly S; Louis, Winnifred R

    2013-01-01

    Norms have a pervasive influence on behavior, yet previous research has not addressed that people often face conflicting norms from multiple ingroups. The current research addresses this gap in the context of proenvironmental behavior and demonstrates two effects predicted by the novel theoretical position we offer: People can be de-motivated by norm-conflict, or conversely, norm-conflict can encourage people to take action. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that norm-conflict is associated with increased perceived effectiveness for those with positive attitudes to the issue and reduced perceived effectiveness for those with moderate attitudes, and effectiveness perceptions mediated an indirect effect on behavioral intentions. Study 3 found that perceived effectiveness also moderates the effects of norm-conflict such that norm-conflict only influences intentions when perceived effectiveness is high. Norm-conflict is both positively and negatively related to behavioral decision making, suggesting additional considerations in the design of social norms-based interventions.

  4. Development of a Values Conflict Resolution Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnier, Richard T.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the development of a Values Conflict Resolution Assessment (VCRA) and reports on validation and reliability. Items were constructed from theoretical criteria in values clarification and decision making with "ethical-emotional" and "rational-behavioral" components. VCRA scores correlated negatively with…

  5. Conflict resolution in adolescent relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Conflict is an inevitable feature of social relationships. When people interact, disagreements may arise. Especially in close relationships, people sometimes disagree. Although conflict might jeopardize relationships, conflict is not necessarily detrimental. The way conflicts are handled is

  6. Conflicts and social impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Hansen, Anne Merrild; Nielsen, Helle

    2017-01-01

    The transition to renewable energy is currently in many places challenged by conflicts over specific projects. For example siting of onshore wind turbines often causes conflicts with local communities, sometimes leading to abandonment of the project or plan. This paper presents an analysis...... of such conflicts, and the role social impacts play. The paper analyses in depth four cases of renewable energy projects, utilizing a conceptualization of conflict constituted by three elements: Attitude, behavior and contradictions. Through analysis of EIA reports and hearing responses as well as interviews......, the paper digs deeper to nuance what constitutes the conflicts and what role social impacts play....

  7. Conflict management and resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harolds, Jay; Wood, Beverly P

    2006-03-01

    When people work collaboratively, conflict will always arise. Understanding the nature and source of conflict and its progression and stages, resolution, and outcome is a vital aspect of leadership. Causes of conflict include the miscomprehension of communication, emotional issues, personal history, and values. When the difference is understood and the resultant behavior properly addressed, most conflict can be settled in a way that provides needed change in an organization and interrelationships. There are serious consequences of avoiding or mismanaging disagreements. Informed leaders can effectively prevent destructive conflicts.

  8. Enhancing conflict competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Roberta; McKinney, Nicole S

    2014-01-01

    Professional nurses are taking on leadership roles of diverse healthcare teams. Development of conflict competence is essential, yet requires self-awareness and deliberate effort. Heightened awareness of one's preferred conflict style and cognizance of the implications of overuse and/or underuse of these styles is important. DESIGN/METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH: A pre-post survey design (N = 14) used paired sample T-test. Paired sample correlations and an overview of the paired sample test are reported. Students gained self-awareness about their preferred conflict style, recognized that each conflict style has its utility depending on any given situation, and demonstrated a difference in their most frequently used style. Limited data conveys conflict behavior styles among pre-licensure nursing; however, students can influence their own environments (either causing or fueling situations) by their personal conflict-handling styles. Early development of these skills can raise awareness and cultivate ease in the management of conflict within varied settings.

  9. Conflict resolution in adolescent relationships

    OpenAIRE

    van Doorn, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Conflict is an inevitable feature of social relationships. When people interact, disagreements may arise. Especially in close relationships, people sometimes disagree. Although conflict might jeopardize relationships, conflict is not necessarily detrimental. The way conflicts are handled is important in determining whether conflicts are functional or dysfunctional. Moreover, the way conflicts are handled might reveal information about the nature of relationships and their developmental status...

  10. Is the glass half full or half empty? A qualitative exploration on treatment practices and perceived barriers to biomedical care for patients with nodding syndrome in post-conflict northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwaka, Amos Deogratius; Okello, Elialilia S; Abbo, Catherine; Odwong, Francis Okot; Olango, Willy; Etolu, John Wilson; Oriyabuzu, Rachel; Lagoro, David Kitara; Mutamba, Byamah Brian; Idro, Richard; Opar, Bernard Toliva; Aceng, Jane Ruth; Lukwago, Assuman; Neema, Stella

    2015-08-29

    Nodding syndrome has increasingly become an issue of public health concern internationally. The etiology of the disorder is still unknown and there are yet no curative treatments. We explored perceptions about treatment practices and barriers to health seeking for nodding syndrome in Pader and Kitgum districts in northern Uganda in order to provide data necessary for informing policy on treatment adherence and rehabilitations. We used focus group discussions and individual interviews to gain deep insights into help-seeking and treatment practices for nodding syndrome. Purposive sampling was used to identify information-rich participants that included village health teams, community members not directly affected with nodding syndrome, district leaders, healthcare professionals, and caregivers of children affected with nodding syndrome. We used qualitative content analysis to analyze data and presented findings under distinct categories and themes. Caregivers and communities sought care from multiple sources including biomedical facilities, traditional healers, traditional rituals from shrines, and spiritual healing. Nodding syndrome affected children reportedly have showed no enduring improvement with traditional medicines, traditional rituals, and prayers. A substantial minority of participants reported minimal improvements in symptoms of convulsions with use of western medicines. Challenges involved in health seeking included; (1) health system factors e.g. long distances to facilities, frequent unavailability of medicines, few healthcare providers, and long waiting times; (2) contextual and societal challenges e.g. lack of money for transport and medical bills, overburdening nature of the illness that does not allow time for other activities, and practical difficulties involved in transporting the physically deformed and mentally retarded children to the health facilities. Help-seeking for nodding syndrome is pluralistic and include use of traditional and

  11. Theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Joos, Georg

    1986-01-01

    Among the finest, most comprehensive treatments of theoretical physics ever written, this classic volume comprises a superb introduction to the main branches of the discipline and offers solid grounding for further research in a variety of fields. Students will find no better one-volume coverage of so many essential topics; moreover, since its first publication, the book has been substantially revised and updated with additional material on Bessel functions, spherical harmonics, superconductivity, elastomers, and other subjects.The first four chapters review mathematical topics needed by theo

  12. Theoretical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laval, G.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the theoretical Physics Center (Ecole Polytechnique, France), is presented. The research activities are carried out in the fields of the supersymmetry theory, the dynamic systems theory, the statistical mechanics, the plasma physics and the random media. Substantial improvements are obtained on dynamical system investigations. In the field theory, the definition of the Gross-Neveu model is achieved. However the construction of the non-abelian gauge theories and the conformal theories are the main research activities. Concerning Astrophysics, a three-dimensional gravitational code is obtained. The activities of each team, and the list of the published papers, congress communications and thesis are given [fr

  13. Theoretical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The nuclear theory program deals with the properties of nuclei and with the reactions and interactions between nuclei and a variety of projectiles. The main areas of concentration are: heavy-ion direct reactions at nonrelativistic energies; nuclear shell theory and nuclear structure; nuclear matter and nuclear forces;intermediate-energy physics and pion-nucleus interactions; and high-energy collisions of heavy ions. Recent progress and plans for future work in these five main areas of concentration and a summary of other theoretical studies currently in progress or recently completed are presented

  14. Physical Violence between Siblings: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kristi L.; Kiecolt, K. Jill; Edwards, John N.

    2005-01-01

    This study develops and tests a theoretical model to explain sibling violence based on the feminist, conflict, and social learning theoretical perspectives and research in psychology and sociology. A multivariate analysis of data from 651 young adults generally supports hypotheses from all three theoretical perspectives. Males with brothers have…

  15. Theoretical Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöltzner, Michael

    Answering to the double-faced influence of string theory on mathematical practice and rigour, the mathematical physicists Arthur Jaffe and Frank Quinn have contemplated the idea that there exists a `theoretical' mathematics (alongside `theoretical' physics) whose basic structures and results still require independent corroboration by mathematical proof. In this paper, I shall take the Jaffe-Quinn debate mainly as a problem of mathematical ontology and analyse it against the backdrop of two philosophical views that are appreciative towards informal mathematical development and conjectural results: Lakatos's methodology of proofs and refutations and John von Neumann's opportunistic reading of Hilbert's axiomatic method. The comparison of both approaches shows that mitigating Lakatos's falsificationism makes his insights about mathematical quasi-ontology more relevant to 20th century mathematics in which new structures are introduced by axiomatisation and not necessarily motivated by informal ancestors. The final section discusses the consequences of string theorists' claim to finality for the theory's mathematical make-up. I argue that ontological reductionism as advocated by particle physicists and the quest for mathematically deeper axioms do not necessarily lead to identical results.

  16. Theorizing ‘conditions for success’ in military conflict management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    2015-01-01

    Violent conflict and military conflict management are both complex phenomena. Consequently, success in military conflict management is a difficult issue to explain and predict. Because of this complexity it is crucial that such success (or indeed lack thereof) is theorized, so we can draw lessons...... with the need for further theoretical research in this realm and seeks to respond to it. It hopes to contribute to the development of a mid-range theory, which explains the relationship between structure, agency and outcome in military conflict management operations conducted by international organizations...

  17. A Two-Study Examination of Work-Family Conflict, Production Deviance and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Merideth; Carlson, Dawn; Hunter, Emily M.; Whitten, Dwayne

    2012-01-01

    Building on the spillover and crossover literatures of work-family conflict and the theoretical framework of Conservation of Resources Theory (Hobfoll, 1989) we examine the effects of conflict on production deviance. Using a two-study constructive replication and extension design, we examine how partner work-to-family conflict contributes to job…

  18. Conflict in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Smolinski, Remigiusz; Speakman, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this conceptual paper is to apply the insights of recent routine research in the area of conflict and conflict management. As a result, the authors identify four different types of conflict sources that are rooted in routines and the specific difficulties connected with their change......: the repetitive character of routine, disagreement over the “validity” of the existing routines, disagreement concerning the definition of new targets, and resistance towards change processes. Further the authors point to the inherent tendency to routinize conflict management strategies and the risks...... that are associated with this process. As a result, this paper offers new insights into the causes and structure of conflicts triggered by change processes as well as into the management of repetitive conflicts....

  19. Conflict or Consensus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Poulsen, Birgitte

    forms of institutional design of citizen participation processes, less attention has been paid to the role of public administrators, and their role in facilitating processes of citizen participation. Public administrators have to work with diverse groups of citizens with diverging, and often conflicting......, interests. However, many public administrators have not been adequately exposed to the rationales of conflicts and the skills in resolving conflicts. The aim of this paper is to analyse the different types of conflicts that public administrators experience in formal processes of citizen involvement. Whereas...... as drivers for innovation, provided they are carefully managed. However, we claim that more focus on different types of conflicts and the handling of these conflicts is important in public administration and processes of citizen participation. The paper, thus, aims at connecting the knowledge from vast...

  20. The Actions of Teacher-Librarians Minimize or Reinforce Barriers to Adolescent Information Seeking. A Review of: Meyers, Eric M., Lisa P. Nathan, and Matthew L. Saxton. “Barriers to Information Seeking in School Libraries: Conflicts in Perceptions and Practice.” Information Research 12:2 (2007: paper 295.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie McKenna

    2009-06-01

    are described in an appendix to the study. Consistent note-taking, varying of observation times and days of week, use of triangulated methods, comparison of emergent themes with other studies, audio-taping interviews, inter-coder checks, analyzing data for observer effect, and a number of other approaches ensured validity. Kuhlthau’s theory of intermediation and Zone of Intervention was used as a theoretical framework to categorize the teacher-librarians’ perceptions of their roles and their observed activities. Harris and Dewdney’s principles of information seeking behaviour were used as an analytic framework to study the difference between the teacher-librarians’ perceptions of their roles and their observed practices. These five roles are organizer of information; expert in locating material; identifier and instructor of general sources; advisor of search strategy; and mediator in the process of constructing meaning (Kuhlthau.Main Results – The findings were framed in the six principles of information seeking (Harris & Dewdney and were presented through use of narrative captured in both the observations and interviews.Principle 1: Information needs arise from the help-seeker’s situation.The high school students in the library to complete assignments about which the teacher-librarians were not apprised; therefore the teacher-librarians were unable to assist the students in meeting information needs.Principle 2: The decision to seek help or not seek help is affected by many factors.Principle 3: People tend to seek information that is most accessible.Issues of control were the greatest barrier to students’ successful information seeking behaviour. In the environments observed, the greatest balance of power was within the control of the teachers, including when and if the students would have access to the library, and whether the teacher-librarian would be informed of the assignment. Within the library facility, the teacher-librarians demonstrated a high

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICT MEDIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA G. MIHUT

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available At a time of global economic crisis followed by resource crisis, a period in which the world seeks alternative resources through eco-investment, environmental conflicts are inevitable. Romania is among the few countries that do not pay enough attention to environmental conflicts and to the advantages to of solving them through mediation procedure. The present paper deals with areas in which conflicts can be applied in environmental mediation and its benefits.

  2. Resolving conflicts within organization

    OpenAIRE

    Augulytė, Rūta

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between individuals, whether it would be with colleagues, business partners or supervisors, is inevitable in every organisation. Collaborative work and aim for common goals encourages idea, experience and insight exchange. From time to time differences in opinions might arise, which result in value- related or intellectual clash, also known as a conflict. Therefore, it is paramount to know how to manage conflicts. In order to successfully overcome the conflicts, organisations shou...

  3. Three cheers for conflict!

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, D

    1981-01-01

    Conflict is pervasive and an inevitable part of life--at work and elsewhere. But author Dennis King, organizational consultant for The Procter & Gamble Manufacturing Company, adds that it is also a functional part of the social process. Managing conflict on the job involves the ability to identify, seek out, and utilize the functions of conflict and its outcomes. He identifies fifteen functions of conflict in three major categories: maintaining or reinforcing identity and innate strength, increasing operational effectiveness, and dealing with others. For example, conflict can lead to minor clashes that actually strengthen a relationship because they function as safety valves--preventing the buildup of tension to the stage of explosion. (Note, however, that a conflict over the basic foundation of a relationship spells trouble.) Similarly, in the union-management relationship, both negotiations and grievance handling focus on adjusting or eliminating problem elements so that the employer-employee relationship can exist satisfactorily. Recognizing and exploiting the functions of a conflict situation--that is, functional conflict management--can work to our benefit. If we develop a "functional mind-set," looking for the positive aspects of conflict will become natural.

  4. Committees and Conflict: Developing a Conflict Resolution Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Angela

    2002-01-01

    Describes development of conflict-resolution framework to address committee conflict. Describes several conflict-resolution strategies. Matches appropriate strategies with different types of committee conflict. For example, compromise is listed at the appropriate strategy to resolve interpersonal conflict. (Contains 24 references.) (PKP)

  5. Theoretical Physics 1. Theoretical Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreizler, Reiner M.; Luedde, Cora S.

    2010-01-01

    After an introduction to basic concepts of mechanics more advanced topics build the major part of this book. Interspersed is a discussion of selected problems of motion. This is followed by a concise treatment of the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formulation of mechanics, as well as a brief excursion on chaotic motion. The last chapter deals with applications of the Lagrangian formulation to specific systems (coupled oscillators, rotating coordinate systems, rigid bodies). The level of this textbook is advanced undergraduate. The authors combine teaching experience of more than 40 years in all fields of Theoretical Physics and related mathematical disciplines and thorough knowledge in creating advanced eLearning content. The text is accompanied by an extensive collection of online material, in which the possibilities of the electronic medium are fully exploited, e.g. in the form of applets, 2D- and 3D-animations. (orig.)

  6. Theoretical Physics 1. Theoretical Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreizler, Reiner M.; Luedde, Cora S. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2010-07-01

    After an introduction to basic concepts of mechanics more advanced topics build the major part of this book. Interspersed is a discussion of selected problems of motion. This is followed by a concise treatment of the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formulation of mechanics, as well as a brief excursion on chaotic motion. The last chapter deals with applications of the Lagrangian formulation to specific systems (coupled oscillators, rotating coordinate systems, rigid bodies). The level of this textbook is advanced undergraduate. The authors combine teaching experience of more than 40 years in all fields of Theoretical Physics and related mathematical disciplines and thorough knowledge in creating advanced eLearning content. The text is accompanied by an extensive collection of online material, in which the possibilities of the electronic medium are fully exploited, e.g. in the form of applets, 2D- and 3D-animations. (orig.)

  7. Naïve Scientists and Conflict Analysis: Learning through Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, R. Williams

    2016-01-01

    Much of our teaching about conflict relies on theoretical ideas and models that are delivered as finished products. This article explores the supposition that what students need is not already-formed theoretical ideas, but exposure to more real-world cases of conflict from which to build theory. The article presents an experiment in pedagogy:…

  8. Understanding conflict as a (missed) opportunity for social development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    and the parties may learn and grow, or it may be missed--lost in suppression, projections, fear, etc. Conflict is thus seen, not as an outcome of regrettably incompatible goals or activities, but as an active potential for learning and development. Some implications for conflict resolution practice are outlined.......In the literature on conflict management, conflict is usually defined in terms of incompatible goals and activities. In contrast, Thomas (1992), making no reference to such incompatibilities, defines conflict as a process that begins when one party feels negatively affected by another. This paper...... modifies and extends Thomas’ definition thus: One party is in conflict with another when he or she 1. experiences psychological or physical pain, 2. holds the other party to be responsible for this pain, and 3. does not accept this situation. This definition is nested in a theoretical perspective that sees...

  9. Barrier Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heteren, S. van

    2015-01-01

    Barrier-system dynamics are a function of antecedent topography and substrate lithology, Relative sea-level (RSL) changes, sediment availability and type, climate, vegetation type and cover, and various aero- and hydrodynamic processes during fair-weather conditions and extreme events. Global change

  10. A game theoretic approach to assignment problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, F.

    2000-01-01

    Game theory deals with the mathematical modeling and analysis of conflict and cooperation in the interaction of multiple decision makers. This thesis adopts two game theoretic methods to analyze a range of assignment problems that arise in various economic situations. The first method has as

  11. Countermeasures and barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Johannes [Oersted - DTU, Automation, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2005-10-01

    In 1973 Haddon proposed ten strategies for reducing and avoiding damages based on a model of potential harmful energy transfer (Haddon, 1973). The strategies apply to a large variety of unwanted phenomena. Haddon's pioneering work on countermeasures has had a major influence on later thinking about safety. Considering its impact it is remarkable that the literature offers almost no discussions related to the theoretical foundations of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. The present report addresses a number of theoretical issues related to Haddon's countermeasure strategies, which are: 1) A reformulation and formalization of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. 2) An identification and description of some of the problems associated with the term 'barrier'. 3) Suggestions for a more precise terminology based on the causal structure of countermeasures. 4) Extending the scope of countermeasures to include sign-based countermeasures. (au)

  12. Countermeasures and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Johannes

    2005-10-01

    In 1973 Haddon proposed ten strategies for reducing and avoiding damages based on a model of potential harmful energy transfer (Haddon, 1973). The strategies apply to a large variety of unwanted phenomena. Haddon's pioneering work on countermeasures has had a major influence on later thinking about safety. Considering its impact it is remarkable that the literature offers almost no discussions related to the theoretical foundations of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. The present report addresses a number of theoretical issues related to Haddon's countermeasure strategies, which are: 1) A reformulation and formalization of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. 2) An identification and description of some of the problems associated with the term 'barrier'. 3) Suggestions for a more precise terminology based on the causal structure of countermeasures. 4) Extending the scope of countermeasures to include sign-based countermeasures. (au)

  13. Women in conflict and indigenous conflict resolution among the Issa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the role of women in conflict and indigenous conflict resolution, and the participation of women in social ... According to the field work investigation, such kinds of conflicts were ...... Narrative Activity and Performance Report, January through ...

  14. Models of Conflict Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-03

    that participants are fully engaged in the conflict. My task has more to do with classification and detection of conflict. In [ Sina et al., 2014] the...characters. In Ninth Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital En- tertainment Conference. [ Sina et al., 2014] Sina , S., Kraus, S., and Rosenfeld

  15. High-Conflict Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Janet R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews available research studies of high-conflict divorce and its effects on children. Factors believed to contribute to high-conflict divorce are explored, and a model of their interrelationships is proposed. Dispute resolution, intervention, and prevention programs are discussed, and implications for social policy are outlined. (SLD)

  16. Climate shocks and conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaioannou, Kostadis J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a historical micro-level analysis of the impact of climate shocks on the incidence of civil conflict in colonial Nigeria (1912-1945). Primary historical sources on court cases, prisoners and homicides are used to capture conflict. To measure climate shocks we use the deviation

  17. Conflict adaptation in schizophrenia: reviewing past and previewing future efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamse, Elger; Ruitenberg, Marit; Duthoo, Wout; Sabbe, Bernard; Morrens, Manuel; van Dijck, Jean-Philippe

    2016-05-01

    Cognitive control impairments have been suggested to be a critical component in the overall cognitive deficits observed in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Here, we zoom in on a specific function of cognitive control, conflict adaptation. Abnormal neural activity patterns have been observed for patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in core conflict adaptation areas such as anterior cingulate cortex and prefrontal cortex. On the one hand, this strongly indicates that conflict adaptation is affected. On the other hand, however, outcomes at the behavioural level are needed to create a window into a precise interpretation of this abnormal neural activity. We present a narrative review of behavioural work within the context of conflict adaptation in schizophrenia, focusing on various major conflict adaptation markers: congruency sequence effects, proportion congruency effects, and post-error and post-conflict slowing. The review emphasises both methodological and theoretical aspects that are relevant to the understanding of conflict adaptation in schizophrenia. Based on the currently available set of behavioural studies on conflict adaptation, no clear-cut answer can be provided as to the precise conflict adaptation processes that are impaired (and to what extent) in schizophrenia populations. Future work is needed in state-of-the-art designs in order to reach better insight into the specifics of conflict adaptation impairments associated with schizophrenia.

  18. Darfur: rainfall and conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevane, Michael; Gray, Leslie

    2008-07-01

    Data on rainfall patterns only weakly corroborate the claim that climate change explains the Darfur conflict that began in 2003 and has claimed more than 200 000 lives and displaced more than two million persons. Rainfall in Darfur did not decline significantly in the years prior to the eruption of major conflict in 2003; rainfall exhibited a flat trend in the thirty years preceding the conflict (1972 2002). The rainfall evidence suggests instead a break around 1971. Rainfall is basically stationary over the pre- and post-1971 sub-periods. The break is larger for the more northerly rainfall stations, and is less noticeable for En Nahud. Rainfall in Darfur did indeed decline, but the decline happened over 30 years before the conflict erupted. Preliminary analysis suggests little merit to the proposition that a structural break several decades earlier is a reasonable predictor of the outbreak of large-scale civil conflict in Africa.

  19. Darfur: rainfall and conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevane, Michael; Gray, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    Data on rainfall patterns only weakly corroborate the claim that climate change explains the Darfur conflict that began in 2003 and has claimed more than 200 000 lives and displaced more than two million persons. Rainfall in Darfur did not decline significantly in the years prior to the eruption of major conflict in 2003; rainfall exhibited a flat trend in the thirty years preceding the conflict (1972-2002). The rainfall evidence suggests instead a break around 1971. Rainfall is basically stationary over the pre- and post-1971 sub-periods. The break is larger for the more northerly rainfall stations, and is less noticeable for En Nahud. Rainfall in Darfur did indeed decline, but the decline happened over 30 years before the conflict erupted. Preliminary analysis suggests little merit to the proposition that a structural break several decades earlier is a reasonable predictor of the outbreak of large-scale civil conflict in Africa

  20. Theoretical Mechanics Theoretical Physics 1

    CERN Document Server

    Dreizler, Reiner M

    2011-01-01

    After an introduction to basic concepts of mechanics more advanced topics build the major part of this book. Interspersed is a discussion of selected problems of motion. This is followed by a concise treatment of the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formulation of mechanics, as well as a brief excursion on chaotic motion. The last chapter deals with applications of the Lagrangian formulation to specific systems (coupled oscillators, rotating coordinate systems, rigid bodies). The level of this textbook is advanced undergraduate. The authors combine teaching experience of more than 40 years in all fields of Theoretical Physics and related mathematical disciplines and thorough knowledge in creating advanced eLearning content. The text is accompanied by an extensive collection of online material, in which the possibilities of the electronic medium are fully exploited, e.g. in the form of applets, 2D- and 3D-animations. - A collection of 74 problems with detailed step-by-step guidance towards the solutions. - A col...

  1. Information barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.L.; Wolford, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: An information barrier (IB) consists of procedures and technology that prevent the release of sensitive information during a joint inspection of a sensitive nuclear item, and provides confidence that the measurement system into which it has been integrated functions exactly as designed and constructed. Work in the U.S. on radiation detection system information barriers dates back at least to 1990, even though the terminology is more recent. In January 1999 the Joint DoD-DOE Information Barrier Working Group was formed in the United States to help coordinate technical efforts related to information barrier R and D. This paper presents an overview of the efforts of this group, by its Chairs, as well as recommendations for further information barrier R and D. Progress on the demonstration of monitoring systems containing IBs is also provided. From the U.S. perspective, the basic, top-level functional requirements for the information barrier portion of an integrated radiation signature-information barrier inspection system are twofold: The host must be assured that his classified information is protected from disclosure to the inspecting party; and The inspecting party must be confident that the integrated inspection system measures, processes, and presents the radiation-signature-based measurement conclusion in an accurate and reproducible manner. It is the position of the United States that in the absence of any agreement to share classified nuclear weapons design information in the conduct of an inspection regime, the requirement to protect host country classified warhead design information is paramount and admits no tradeoff versus the confidence provided to the inspecting party in the accuracy and reproducibility of the measurements. The U.S. has reached an internal consensus on several critical design elements that define a general standard for radiation signature information barrier design. These criteria have stood the test of time under intense

  2. Conflicts about nuclear power safety: a decision theoretic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterfeldt, D.V.; Rios, M.

    1980-01-01

    A series of psychological studies indicate that people's judgements of risks from energy production in general and nuclear power plants in particular deviate from technical and statistical estimates because social and psychological variables influence people's risk perception. After reviewing these studies a decision analytic methodology is outlined which incorporates such social and psychological variables in a formal analysis of the risks and benefits of nuclear energy production. The methodology is intended to identify groups with differing risk-benefit perceptions and to elicit and quantify their values and concerns. Such group and value structures are presented for the problem of choosing between a nuclear plant, a coal plant, and a conservation strategy

  3. Floating barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-05-06

    This floating barrier consists of relatively long elements which can be connected to form a practically continuous assembly. Each element consists of an inflatable tube with an apron of certain height, made of impregnated fabric which is resistant to ocean water and also to hydrocarbons. Means for connecting one element to the following one, and means for attaching ballast to the apron are also provided.

  4. Phasic valence and arousal do not influence post-conflict adjustments in the Simon task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Janczyk, Markus; Eder, Andreas B

    2017-03-01

    According to theoretical accounts of cognitive control, conflict between competing responses is monitored and triggers post conflict behavioural adjustments. Some models proposed that conflict is detected as an affective signal. While the conflict monitoring theory assumed that conflict is registered as a negative valence signal, the adaptation by binding model hypothesized that conflict provides a high arousal signal. The present research induced phasic affect in a Simon task with presentations of pleasant and unpleasant pictures that were high or low in arousal. If conflict is registered as an affective signal, the presentation of a corresponding affective signal should potentiate post conflict adjustments. Results did not support the hypothesis, and Bayesian analyses corroborated the conclusion that phasic affects do not influence post conflict behavioural adjustments in the Simon task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The NPD team conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Tanev, Stoyan

    2012-01-01

    elaborates on the role of culture diversity and geographical dispersion in NPD team conflict. A simulation is conducted where organizations may be regarded as complex systems to affect the team conflict with a variety of influences. The results firstly indicate that there are two dimensions of NPD team...... conflict: stable and unstable dimensions with four elements: task characteristics, group members’ relationship, cultural diversity and geographical dispersion; secondly, there are two phenomena whereby the geographical dispersion influences the NPD team interaction, and the influence between cultural...

  6. Smart parking barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.

    2016-01-01

    positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking

  7. Parent-Adolescent Conflicts, Conflict Resolution Types, and Adolescent Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branje, Susan J. T.; van Doorn, Muriel; van der Valk, Inge; Meeus, Wim

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the moderating role of conflict resolution on the association between parent-adolescent conflicts and adolescent problematic adjustment. Participants were 1313 Dutch early and middle adolescents who completed measures on conflict frequency, conflict resolution with parents, and internalizing and externalizing adjustment…

  8. Playing With Conflict: Teaching Conflict Resolution through Simulations and Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Richard B.; Kirkpatrick, Kat

    2013-01-01

    Playing With Conflict is a weekend course for graduate students in Portland State University's Conflict Resolution program and undergraduates in all majors. Students participate in simulations, games, and experiential exercises to learn and practice conflict resolution skills. Graduate students create a guided role-play of a conflict. In addition…

  9. Approaches to Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Toddler Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Nicole; Neilsen-Hewett, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    The importance of conflict and its resolution for children's short- and long-term adjustment has been well established within the research literature. Conflict and conflict resolution differs according to a number of constructs, including age, gender and relationship status. The purpose of this study was to explore conflict origins, resolution…

  10. Managing Conflict during Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the underlying emotional issues that may be fueling conflict and keeping them from negotiating an agreement. The “strategic mediation” model is a practical problem-solving approach that focuses on addressing hidden dimensions of ...

  11. Dialectic and conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højholt, Charlotte; Kousholt, Dorte

    In this paper, we aim to develop a dialectical approach to analyzing social conflicts concerning children’s school life. Public education can be seen as a common cause different parties at the same time are engaged in and conflicting about. We want to discuss this unity between the distribution...... are at one hand historical, and they demand situated handling and coordination in concrete situations to make things work. The involved experience the contradictions from different positions, types of responsibilities and with insight from different locations. In this way contradictions have potential...... to turn into conflicts and the conflicts have personal and existential meanings to the participant in social practice (related to their possibilities for conducting everyday life) and they are historical and political (related to societal questions about education). We draw on conceptualizations of social...

  12. Resolving Marital Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islami Hatixhe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Couple relations are characterized as relations of an intimate nature dominated by constant interaction or strong interdependence and mutual influence of intense feelings between spouses. In marriages where there is conflict, there are typical examples of interaction, which result in high proportion of negative communicative acts that affect the quality of marital relationships such as: loss of confidence, the emergence of frustration, feelings of anxiety, discomfort, leading to escalation of marital conflicts. Communication as a variable has a large impact on the resolution of marital conflicts. The obtained results of our research indicate that the choice of different strategies of behavior in conflict situations among our respondents primarily depend on: the degree of persistence in the pursuit of its own interests and level of cooperation in addressing the interests of others.

  13. Conflict, Memory, and Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brescó, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to bring the dialogical and multivoiced dimension of conflict to the fore in the study of how people remember a particular event in the past. Drawing from different case studies, it contains analyses of how subjects identifying with different political actors in the Basque...... conflict adopted their respective positions, and interpretation of the conflict, and how, in light of same, they reconstruct the failed peace process that took place in 2006 between the terrorist group ETA (Euzkadi ta Azcatasuna, or Basque Country and Freedom in English) and the Spanish government. Results...... show that the positioning adopted by participants gives rise to a certain form of interpreting the conflict, which, in turn, affects how the peace process is remembered. This occurs within a particular argumentative context in which each version constitutes an implicit response to a competing...

  14. Sexual conflict in plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    other sex, usually through direct reproductive interactions. This leads ... Most of the interaction is through .... clearly indicating parental conflict over offspring provision- ing. ... Ba˜nuelos M. J. and Obeso J. R. 2003 Maternal provisioning, sibling.

  15. Preventing Deadly Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    34an ounce of type-A botulinal toxin, properly dis- persed, could kill every man, woman , and child in North America. . . just eight ounces of the...attend to the short-term humanitarian needs generated by conflict, frequently a good deal of "wheel- spinning " occurs; little headway is made in...Empire’s millet system, for exam- ple, where the religious leaders of Judaism and several Christian churches were entrusted with arbitrating conflicts

  16. Religious fundamentalism and conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Muzaffer Ercan Yılmaz

    2006-01-01

    This study provides an analytical discussion for the issue of religious fundamentalism and itsrelevance to conflict, in its broader sense. It is stressed that religious fundamentalism manifests itself in twoways: nonviolent intolerance and violent intolerance. The sources of both types of intolerance and theirconnection to conflict are addressed and discussed in detail. Further research is also suggested on conditionsconnecting religion to nonviolent intolerance so as to cope with the problem...

  17. Conflict, Space and Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Schoonderbeek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Footprint 19 focuses on the more recent roles of architecture in the contemporary spaces of conflict. Departing from a spatial understanding of geopolitical, climatological and economical conflicts, the various contributions highlight the large scale and phenomenal transitions in the physical world and in society by extrapolating, through examples, the abundance of relations that can be traced between conflict, territory and architecture. Conflict areas often prove to be fertile grounds for innovation and for the emergence of new spatial forms. The issue reports on the state of perpetual global unrest in architecture through a series of articles and case studies that highlight the consequences of conflicts in the places and spaces that we inhabit. In the introduction, these are discussed as an interlinked global reality rather than as isolated incidents. In doing so, the contemporary spaces of conflict are positioned in the context of emerging global trends, conditions, and discourses in the attempt to address their indicative symptoms while reflecting on their underlying causes.

  18. Sexual violence in post-conflict Sierra Leone: Obstacles to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a qualitative research approach, this study examines gender norms and pressures that shape gender roles, rights, responsibilities and sexual relationships in post-conflict situations. Evidence on the nature and extent of sexual violence and challenges and barriers to prevention responses were elicited through the ...

  19. Resolving social conflict among females without overt aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Cant, M. A.; Young, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Members of animal societies compete over resources and reproduction, but the extent to which such conflicts of interest are resolved peacefully (without recourse to costly or wasteful acts of aggression) varies widely. Here, we describe two theoretical mechanisms that can help to understand variation in the incidence of overt behavioural conflict: (i) destruction competition and (ii) the use of threats. The two mechanisms make different assumptions about the degree to which competitors are so...

  20. Cyber Operations Between Russia and Ukraine During Ukrainian Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Pavlíková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available When the Ukraine crisis started in 2013, discussions about possible cyber warfare appeared. Debates about the usage of cyber tools in war conflicts have already been considered for the last few years and conflicts where actors possess these capacities emphasize the importance to analyze this phenomenon. This article examines cyber warfare between Russia and Ukraine during the Ukraine crisis and aims to analyze incidents in the cyber domain with considerations cyber war on a theoretical background.

  1. Democracy, Autocracy and the Likelihood of International Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Tangerås, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This is a game-theoretic analysis of the link between regime type and international conflict. The democratic electorate can credibly punish the leader for bad conflict outcomes, whereas the autocratic selectorate cannot. For the fear of being thrown out of office, democratic leaders are (i) more selective about the wars they initiate and (ii) on average win more of the wars they start. Foreign policy behaviour is found to display strategic complementarities. The likelihood of interstate war, ...

  2. Automating the conflict resolution process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to initiate a discussion of how the conflict resolution process at the Network Control Center can be made more efficient. Described here are how resource conflicts are currently resolved as well as the impacts of automating conflict resolution in the ATDRSS era. A variety of conflict resolution strategies are presented.

  3. Elicitive Conflict Transformation and New Media: In Search for a Common Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Suetzl

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Advocates of elicitive conflict transformation (ECT maintain that the parties to a conflict are the most important resource in efforts to render that conflict less violent. According to them, the transformation of the conflict is immanent to the conflict itself. The claim of ECT theorists is that classical conflict resolution has mostly aimed at overcoming a conflict by means of neutral mediation, while conflict transformation is not primarily concerned with terminating a conflict and considers the conflict worker as part of the conflict system. Although ECT is a communication-based model of conflict management and relies on human media, its media-theoretical aspects are not made explicit, raising the question of what role technological media play in the communicative processes that make up ECT techniques. Through an examination of the claimed differences between conflict resolution and conflict transformation, and focusing on the common roots of new media and the elicitive model in systems and cybernetic theory, this paper asks whether any peacebuilding potential of new media could be found in a specific anti-propagandistic quality of distributed technological media. It concludes by looking at any such potential in social media.

  4. Taxonomy of interstate conflicts: is South America a peaceful region?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tássio Franchi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article revisits theoretical efforts to classify interstate conflicts. It analyses South America and discuss the adequacy of influential interpretations about the intensity of interstate conflicts in the region as compared to global or other regions ones. The literature takes for granted that South America is a peaceful region. Such interpretation results from the indicators adopted. We argue that traditional indicators do not fully capture latent tensions and the actual level of conflicts in the region. The article suggests an alternative taxonomy that better fits the South America context and argues that a research agenda on the extent and nature of interstate conflics is needed.

  5. How Team-Level and Individual-Level Conflict Influences Team Commitment: A Multilevel Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghyun; Kwon, Seungwoo; Shin, Shung J.; Kim, MinSoo; Park, In-Jo

    2018-01-01

    We investigate how two different types of conflict (task conflict and relationship conflict) at two different levels (individual-level and team-level) influence individual team commitment. The analysis was conducted using data we collected from 193 employees in 31 branch offices of a Korean commercial bank. The relationships at multiple levels were tested using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). The results showed that individual-level relationship conflict was negatively related to team commitment while individual-level task conflict was not. In addition, both team-level task and relationship conflict were negatively associated with team commitment. Finally, only team-level relationship conflict significantly moderated the relationship between individual-level relationship conflict and team commitment. We further derive theoretical implications of these findings. PMID:29387033

  6. How Team-Level and Individual-Level Conflict Influences Team Commitment: A Multilevel Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghyun Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate how two different types of conflict (task conflict and relationship conflict at two different levels (individual-level and team-level influence individual team commitment. The analysis was conducted using data we collected from 193 employees in 31 branch offices of a Korean commercial bank. The relationships at multiple levels were tested using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM. The results showed that individual-level relationship conflict was negatively related to team commitment while individual-level task conflict was not. In addition, both team-level task and relationship conflict were negatively associated with team commitment. Finally, only team-level relationship conflict significantly moderated the relationship between individual-level relationship conflict and team commitment. We further derive theoretical implications of these findings.

  7. Unpacking the Meaning of Conflict in Organizational Conflict Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima; Clegg, Steward

    2018-01-01

    In this conceptual essay, we review the field of organizational conflict to unpack how it has been constructed genealogically and with what consequences by investigating three major shifts in theorization that have occurred over the past six decades. First, a move away from viewing conflict...... as dysfunctional to viewing it as constructive. Second, a shift from normative prescriptions to descriptions of what disputants do in conflict. Third, a shift from psychological functional analyses to studying conflict as an organizational phenomenon. We find that three distinct and essentially contested...... conceptions frame studies of conflict at work: conflict as a distinct behavioral phenomenon, conflict as an instrumental means of achieving something else, and conflict as a social construction contingent on how reality is perceived. This conceptual essay adds to current thinking in organizational conflict...

  8. Conflicts and communication between high-achieving Chinese American adolescents and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Desiree Baolian; Chang, Tzu-Fen; Han, Eun-Jin; Chee, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on in-depth interview data collected on 18 high-achieving Chinese American students, the authors examine domains of acculturation-based conflicts, parent and child internal conflicts, and conflict resolution in their families. Their analyses show that well-established negative communication patterns in educational expectations, divergent attitudes toward other races and country of origin, and cultural and language barriers contributed to parent-child conflicts. Their findings also illustrate important internal conflicts both adolescents and parents had along the cultural tightrope of autonomy and relatedness. Finally, the vertical in-group conflict resolution style that was evidenced in youths' accounts raises questions about cultural differences in constructive versus destructive conflict resolution styles. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  9. Intercultural conflict styles: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batkhina A.A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Analytical review of foreign psychological research on the international conflict styles is presented in this article. Intercultural conflict is understood as an interpersonal conflict between representatives of different cultures. The main models describing the intercultural conflict styles are analyzed: the dual concern model, the intercultural conflict styles inventory model, the face negotiation model. The publication provides a brief review of modern studies’ results of behavior predictors in the intercultural conflict; special attention is paid to the analysis of the influence of culture and intercultural communication apprehension on the choice of conflict styles. The importance of assessing the conflict styles effectiveness used in the situation of intercultural interaction is noted. In conclusion, unresolved problems and actual trends in the study of behavior in the intercultural conflict are designated.

  10. GENDER CONFLICTS OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Moskalyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Actuality of work. Student age has the most favourable conditions for psychological, biological and social development; however, there are reasons why such natural advantages over other social groups can be completely or partially levelled. One of them is the presence of conflicts in the life of a student, a special group, among which there are women. The causes of the emergence of gender conflicts in individual social groups and the strategies for their solution have not been sufficiently explored and require further study and, therefore, are relevant. Purpose of the article is to investigate the causes of gender conflicts among students as a separate social group and to develop measures to address them and prevent them. Methodology. The research conducted in the work is based on the analysis and generalization of the causes of the emergence of gender conflicts among students, the identification of the main sources of information that form the consciousness of children and adolescents, and also influence their attitude to gender equality. Originality. The nature of gender conflicts has been quite effectively studied for a long time. However, the scope of research is limited to the most numerous social groups, such as the family, labour collective, political and public organizations, etc. Being a dynamic and socio-demographic formation, the students perform an important function in society – it takes a direct part in the transformation of all spheres of the life activity of the society. Based on the study of the objective conditions of the social environment with certain models of socialization that form the consciousness of students from early childhood, a three-component system of influence was first proposed, which is aimed at overcoming gender inequality and preventing gender conflicts among students. At the same time, the interaction of the components of the system will allow to minimize the gender inequality index in our country

  11. Negotiating through conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormick, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    There are several major causes of conflict over the nuclear waste disposal siting process but conflict should not be ended or avoided merely to have peace. A number of issues are listed that should be addressed to ensure that negotiations can be performed in a manner that will result in agreements. During the negotiation process, participants should not reveal all secrets, but must not appear to be holding things back. The agreements reached as a result of negotiations should be spelled out clearly, in writing. The agreement should tell how to implement the decision and state how all parties will be involved. The agreement should also contain provisions for continued interaction among parties

  12. Environmental Systems Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipel, K. W.

    2017-12-01

    The Graph Model for Conflict Resolution (GMCR) is applied to a real-life groundwater contamination dispute to demonstrate how one can realistically model and analyze the controversy in order to obtain an enhanced understanding and strategic insights for permitting one to make informed decisions. This highly divisive conflict is utilized to explain a rich range of inherent capabilities of GMCR, as well as worthwhile avenues for extensions, which make GMCR a truly powerful decision technology for addressing challenging conflict situations. For instance, a flexible preference elicitation method called option prioritization can be employed to obtain the relative preferences of each decision maker (DM) in the dispute over the states or scenarios which can occur, based upon preference statements regarding the options or courses of actions available to the DMs. Solution concepts, reflecting the way a chess player thinks in terms of moves and counter-moves, are defined to mirror the ways humans may behave under conflict, varying from short to long term thinking. After ascertaining the best outcome that a DM can achieve on his or her own in a conflict, coalition analysis algorithms are available to check if a DM can fare even better via cooperating with others. The ability of GMCR to take into account emotions, strength of preference, attitudes, misunderstandings (referred to as hypergames), and uncertain preferences (unknown, fuzzy, grey and probabilistic) greatly broadens its scope of applicability. Techniques for tracing how a conflict can evolve over time from a status quo state to a final specified outcome, as well as how to handle hierarchical structures, such as when a central government interacts with its provinces or states, further enforces the comprehensive nature of GMCR. Within ongoing conflict research mimicking how physical systems are analyzed, methods for inverse engineering of preferences are explained for determining the preferences required by one or

  13. Moving beyond relationship and task conflict: toward a process-state perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeChurch, Leslie A; Mesmer-Magnus, Jessica R; Doty, Dan

    2013-07-01

    Teams are formed to benefit from an expanded pool of expertise and experience, yet 2 aspects of the conflict stemming from those core differences will ultimately play a large role in determining team viability and productivity: conflict states and conflict processes. The current study theoretically reorganizes the literature on team conflict--distinguishing conflict states from conflict processes--and details the effects of each on team effectiveness. Findings from a meta-analytic cumulation of 45 independent studies (total number of teams = 3,218) suggest states and processes are distinct and important predictors of team performance and affective outcomes. Controlling for conflict states (i.e., task and relationship conflict), conflict processes explain an additional 13% of the variance in both team performance and team affective outcomes. Furthermore, findings reveal particular conflict processes that are beneficial and others detrimental to teams. The truth about team conflict: conflict processes, that is, how teams interact regarding their differences, are at least as important as conflict states, that is, the source and intensity of their perceived incompatibilities. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Grin and Bear It?: Employees' Use of Surface Acting During Co-worker Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Ashley E; Bruk-Lee, Valentina; Spector, Paul E

    2017-04-01

    Using survey data from 459 employed individuals, the conditional indirect effects of three types of interpersonal conflict at work on strains and performance through surface acting were tested. Results indicated that task, relationship and non-task organizational conflict were positively related to depressive and physical symptoms and negatively related to performance. Task conflict had a significantly weaker association with employee outcomes than either relationship or non-task organizational conflict. Surface acting negatively related to all types of conflict, although it had a weaker association with relationship conflict than task or non-task organizational conflict. Support was found for moderated mediation relationships whereby surface acting mediated the associations between all types of conflict with depressive symptoms, as well as the association between relationship and non-task organizational conflict with physical symptoms, when conflict was infrequent. Surface acting also mediated the associations between all types of conflict and performance when conflict was frequent. Future research directions are discussed that can advance our theoretical understanding of how emotional labour and interpersonal conflict interact to affect employees, as well as further our ability to improve employee well-being and organizational functioning. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. [Types of conflicts and conflict management among Hungarian healthcare workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csupor, Éva; Kuna, Ágnes; Pintér, Judit Nóra; Kaló, Zsuzsa; Csabai, Márta

    2017-04-01

    Efficient communication, conflict management and cooperation are the key factors of a successful patient care. This study is part of an international comparative research. The aim of this study is to unfold conflicts among healthcare workers. 73 healthcare workers were interviewed using a standardized interview protocol. The in-person interviews used the critical incident method. 30 interviews (15 doctors, 15 nurses) were analysed with the Atlas.ti 7 content analysis software. The sources, types, effects of conflicts and conflict management strategies were investigated. The content analysis unfolded the specificities of conflicts in healthcare based on personal experiences. Organizational hierarchy was a substantial source of conflict, especially among physicians, which originates from implicit rules. As a result of the avoiding conflict management the conflicts remain partly unresolved which has negative individual and group effect. Our conceptual framework helps to develop a proper intervention specific to healthcare. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(16), 625-632.

  16. Identities in Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    When Danish soldiers wage war abroad and far from home, family relations are strained. Both during the mission and after return, the soldier experiences civil life as unorderly and conflicting with the warrior mindset with its clear demarcations of friend/foe, peace and war, battletime and the time...

  17. Derailing Intragroup Management Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, John; Vaughn, Glen

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of management conflict highlights differing job perceptions held by middle managers. The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Assessment Program is described, and a management structure that requires members of each group to experience job perceptions and tasks of the other group is recommended for performance improvement. (Contains three…

  18. Leading through Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzon, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This article talks about leading significant learning opportunities through conflict of ideas in a school system. Catalyzing school change can turn emotional differences of opinion into learning opportunities. Leaders who want to deal effectively with these challenging, often tense situations need to be more than good managers. They need to be…

  19. The conflict zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Ana Maria Ribeiro de

    2006-01-01

    The chapter gives an overview on the beginning of the nuclear energy in the world passing through the conflicts at United Nations - UN, the new political order, the revision of MacMahon Law, the nuclear control, the fear peace and searching for the equilibrium

  20. Constructive conflict at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vliert, Evert; Nauta, Aukje; Giebels, Ellen; Janssen, Onne

    1999-01-01

    Two field studies of interpersonal conflict in organizations and a simulated dyadic negotiation show that problem solving and forcing are frequently combined simultaneously and sequentially. As a robust finding, conglomerations of problem solving and forcing appear to enhance the parties' joint

  1. Intralocus sexual conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, G. Sander; Schlichting, CD; Mousseau, TA

    2009-01-01

    Intralocus sexual conflict arises when there are sex-specific optima for a trait that is expressed in both sexes and when the constraint of a shared gene pool prevents males and females from reaching their optima independently. This situation may result in a negative intersexual correlation for

  2. Spousal Conflicts of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Shana R.

    2005-01-01

    Romantic relationships bud and sometimes bloom in the school district workplace. When those relationships involve a sitting member of a school board or an administrator with responsibility for managing other employees, questions about a conflict of interest will be raised. Most states have laws prohibiting a public official from taking official…

  3. Constructive conflict at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, E.; Nauta, A.; Giebels, E.; Janssen, O.

    Two field studies of interpersonal conflict in organizations and a simulated dyadic negotiation show that problem solving and forcing are frequently combined simultaneously and sequentially. As a robust finding, conglomerations of problem solving and forcing appear to enhance the parties' joint

  4. Conflict and Tao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Lyall

    What can philosophical Taoism teach us about interpersonal conflict and effective approaches for dealing with it? Examination of selected portions of the R. Hendricks translation of the "Lao-Tzu" or "Te-Tao Ching," and experiences recorded in fieldnotes while a member of a Taoist commune suggest a four-point protocol for…

  5. Sprache als Barriere (Language as a Barrier)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheier, Klaus

    1974-01-01

    The concept of language barrier has its derivations in the fields of dialectology, sociology and psychology. In contemporary usage however, the concept has two meanings i.e. regional-cultural barrier and socio-cultural barrier. (Text is in German.) (DS)

  6. Decentralized Planning for Pre-Conflict and Post-Conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-02

    Oct 2, 2012 ... Such processes are 'sine qua non' to pre-conflict and post-conflict prevention. .... A Basic Approach to Pre-Conflict Management Planning ... and also factor in an evaluation of perception variables that help us to understand ...

  7. Conflict management, Part 1. Conflict management checklist: a diagnostic tool for assessing conflict in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siders, C T; Aschenbrener, C A

    1999-01-01

    Complex interpersonal conflicts are inevitable in the high speed, high stakes, pressured work of health care. Poorly managed, conflict saps productivity, erodes trust, and spawns additional disputes. Well managed, conflict can enhance the self-confidence and self-esteem of the parties, build relationships, and engender creative solutions beyond expectations. Just as thoughtful differential diagnosis precedes optimum treatment in the doctor-patient relationship, management of conflict is greatly enhanced when preceded by careful assessment. In the first of two articles, the authors present a diagnostic approach, the Conflict Management Checklist, to increase self-awareness and decrease anxiety around conflict.

  8. Decisional conflict among women considering antidepressant medication use in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Georgia D; Ross, Lori E; Stewart, Donna E; Grigoriadis, Sophie; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Vigod, Simone

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine decision-making among women considering antidepressant medication use in pregnancy. Decisional conflict was assessed using the Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS) among pregnant women considering antidepressant medication treatment (N = 40). Overall DCS and subscale scores were compared between women who were antidepressant users and non-users. Semi-structured interviews (N = 10) explored barriers and facilitators of decision-making. Twenty-one women (52 %) had moderate or high decisional conflict (DCS ≥ 25). Overall DCS scores did not differ between groups, but antidepressant use was associated with feeling more adequately informed (subscale mean 17.5, SD 17.9 vs. 42.1, SD 23.8, p = 0.001) and clear about values (subscale mean 16.7, SD 15.1 vs. 29.8, SD 24.0, p = 0.043). Barriers to decision-making were (1) difficulty weighing maternal versus infant health, (2) lack of high quality information, (3) negative external influences, and (4) emotional reactions to decision-making. Facilitators were (1) interpersonal supports, (2) accessible subspecialty care, and (3) severe depressive symptoms. Many pregnant women facing decisions regarding antidepressant medication use experience decisional conflict. Interventions that provide accurate information, assistance with weighing risks and benefits of treatment, management of problematic external influences, and emotional support may reduce decisional conflict and facilitate the decision-making process.

  9. Military Strategy in Ethnic Conflicts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nesbitt, Wanda L

    1997-01-01

    .... It is therefor ironic to find so many of today's observers of the international scene arguing that the Cold War kept a lid on ethnic conflict and that with its passing this type of conflict is likely to proliferate...

  10. Constructive Conflict in Academic Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Robert

    1980-01-01

    Collective bargaining is seen as a process of shared authority used in some institutions to manage conflict. Some ways in which parties to bargaining can significantly alter their relationships to promote constructive and creative outcomes of conflict are suggested. (MLW)

  11. Armed conflict and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict has a major impact on child health throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark contrast to the effect on children, the international arms trade results in huge profits for the large corporations involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions. Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important health issue that should be prevented.

  12. Conflict prevention, conflict mitigation, and manifestations of conflict during emergency department consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Teresa; Bakewell, Francis; Orlich, Donika; Sherbino, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    The objective was to determine the causes of and mitigating factors for conflict between emergency physicians and other colleagues during consultations. From March to September 2010, a total of 61 physicians (31 residents and 30 attendings from emergency medicine [EM], internal medicine, and general surgery) were interviewed about how junior learners should be taught about emergency department (ED) consultations. During these interviews, they were asked if and how conflict manifests during the ED consultation process. Two investigators reviewed the transcripts independently to generate themes related to conflict until saturation was reached. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. The trustworthiness of the analysis was ensured by generating an audit trail, which was subsequently audited by an investigator not involved with the initial analysis. This analysis was compared to previously proposed models of trust and conflict from the sociology and business literature. All participants recalled some manifestation of conflict. There were 12 negative conflict-producing themes and 10 protective conflict-mitigating themes. When comparing these themes to a previously developed model of the domains of trust, each theme mapped to domains of the model. Conflict affects the ED consultation process. Areas that lead to conflict are identified that map to previous models of trust and conflict. This work extends the current understanding about intradisciplinary conflict in the clinical realm. These new findings may improve the understanding of the nature of conflicts that occur and form the foundation for interventions that may decrease conflict during ED consultations. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  13. Family conflicts and conflict resolution regarding food choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria; Brunsø, Karen

    2011-01-01

    with food‐related conflicts, conflict resolutions or specific influence techniques with a focus on parents and tweens in family decision‐making. This article focuses on parents and tweens’ joint decision processes in evaluation and choice of food, specifically conflicts and conflict resolution. Assumptions......Previous studies on family decision‐making show that not only parents but also children participate actively in and achieve influence on the decision process, for instance during food buying. When decision‐making includes several active participants, conflicts may occur, but not much research deals...

  14. Digital Images and Globalized Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette; Mortensen, Mette; Neumayer, Christina

    2017-01-01

    As the number of digital images of globalized conflicts online grow, critical examination of their impact and consequence is timely. This editorial provides an overview of digital images and globalized conflict as a field of study by discussing regimes of visibility and invisibility, proximity...... of conflict-related images raise issues of knowledge production and research....

  15. Monitoring Financial Conflict of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickson, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Conflict of interest is heavily intertwined with research. The purpose of this study was to examine the literature and regulations in order to describe efforts required to properly monitor and disclose conflict of interest as researchers become steadily involved in innovation and discovery. The public assumes that when a conflict is disclosed, it…

  16. 76 FR 6110 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ...-10] RIN 3235-AK84 Conflict Minerals AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule...'') and would require any such issuer for which conflict minerals are necessary to the functionality or... body of its annual report whether its conflict minerals originated in the Democratic Republic of the...

  17. Recognizing and Managing Interpersonal Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Nancy; Hovland, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Practical advice is offered, to managers and supervisors at any level, on recognizing and analyzing interpersonal conflicts, managing such conflicts and making them productive, and ensuring that performance reviews result in progress for both supervisor and employee. Conflict is seen as inevitable, an opportunity to take action, and manageable.…

  18. Introduction: Negotiation in intergroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demoulin, S.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2010-01-01

    Although conflicts most often occur between groups, research and theory on conflict management and negotiation have largely focused on the interpersonal system and ignored how groups negotiate a solution to their intergroup conflict. Thus we have a thorough understanding of the motivational,

  19. Managing conflicts in systems development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, E

    1997-05-01

    Conflict in systems development is nothing new. It can vary in intensity, but there will always be two possible outcomes--one constructive and the other destructive. The common approach to conflict management is to draw the battle lines and apply brute force. However, there are other ways to deal with conflict that are more effective and more people oriented.

  20. Intentions for cooperative conflict resolution in groups : An application of the theory of planned behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodoiu, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to test to what extent a cooperative conflict management style can be related to attitudes, norms and perceived volitional control. Second, because conflict resolution is an activity that unfolds at the team level, the validity of the theoretical

  1. Cognitive conflict without explicit conflict monitoring in a dynamical agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Robert; Ward, Ronnie

    2006-11-01

    We examine mechanisms for resolving cognitive conflict in an embodied, situated, and dynamic agent, developed through an evolutionary learning process. The agent was required to solve problems of response conflict in a dual-target "catching" task, focusing response on one of the targets while ignoring the other. Conflict in the agent was revealed at the behavioral level in terms of increased latencies to the second target. This behavioral interference was correlated to peak violations of the network's stable state equation. At the level of the agent's neural network, peak violations were also correlated to periods of disagreement in source inputs to the agent's motor effectors. Despite observing conflict at these numerous levels, we did not find any explicit conflict monitoring mechanisms within the agent. We instead found evidence of a distributed conflict management system, characterized by competitive sources within the network. In contrast to the conflict monitoring hypothesis [Botvinick, M. M., Braver, T. S., Barch, D. M., Carter, C. S., & Cohen, J. D. (2001). Conflict monitoring and cognitive control. Psychological Review, 108(3), 624-652], this agent demonstrates that resolution of cognitive conflict does not require explicit conflict monitoring. We consider the implications of our results for the conflict monitoring hypothesis.

  2. Mental models at work: cognitive causes and consequences of conflict in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, Nir; Cohen, Taya R; Chou, Eileen Y; Katz, James J; Panter, A T

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the reciprocal relationship between mental models of conflict and various forms of dysfunctional social relations in organizations, including experiences of task and relationship conflicts, interpersonal hostility, workplace ostracism, and abusive supervision. We conceptualize individual differences in conflict construals as reflecting variation in people's belief structures about conflict and explore how different elements in people's associative networks-in particular, their beliefs about their best and worst strategy in conflict-relate to their personality, shape their experiences of workplace conflict, and influence others' behavioral intentions toward them. Five studies using a variety of methods (including cross-sectional surveys, a 12-week longitudinal diary study, and an experiment) show that the best strategy beliefs relate in theoretically meaningful ways to individuals' personality, shape social interactions and relationships significantly more than the worst strategy beliefs, and are updated over time as a result of individuals' ongoing experiences of conflict.

  3. The main reasons of conflicts between adolescents in the multicultural class and their prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuhlaeva O.V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The conflict interaction in the adolescent environment, mainly in the context of intercultural interaction, is considered in the article on the basis of theoretical analysis. The relationship between conflict in adolescence and the overcoming of adolescent crisis is described, as well as the conflict was correlated with other age characteristics. A special emphasis is placed on intergroup conflicts. An additional specificity of conflicts in school classes with mixed cultural composition is discussed. An analysis of the specifics of the conflict interaction in connection with the measurement of cultures by G. Hofstede was carried out (individualism-collectivism, power distance, masculinity-femininity and avoidance of uncertainty. The conclusion about the greater urgency of potential contradictions is being made if there are teenagers belonging to widely differing cultures in the school class. The role of laughter culture as manifestations of antipodes in game form for the prevention and correction of conflicts in a adolescent multicultural environment is shown.

  4. Mozambique's peace decades since the end of the conflict: Inclusive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article traces the trajectory of democratisation under the auspices of a liberal peace theoretical framework which was agreed upon in the General Peace Agreement ending the conflict in 1992. Secondary quantitative data were made available from leading International Organisations such as the World Bank and the Mo ...

  5. Linking Mechanisms of Work-Family Conflict and Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Jesse S.; Hargis, Michael B.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the abundance of work and family research, few studies have compared the linking mechanisms specified in theoretical models of work-family conflict and segmentation. Accordingly, the current study provides a greater degree of empirical clarity concerning the interplay of work and family by directly examining the indirect effects of…

  6. Reproductive conflicts in social animals : who has power?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, M; Komdeur, J; Ratnieks, FLW; Ratnieks, Francis L.W.

    Theoretical models are often used to analyze reproductive conflicts in animal societies; for example, by determining the different sex-allocation optima of queen and workers. But who is in control (queen or workers, dominant or subordinate) is normally an implicit or explicit assumption of the

  7. Development and initial validation of a measure of work, family, and school conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Kristine J

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the development and initial validation of a theoretically based measure of conflict between work, family, and college student roles. The measure was developed through the assessment of construct definitions and an assessment of measurement items by subject matter experts. Then, the measurement items were assessed with data from 500 college students who were engaged in work and family responsibilities. The results indicate that conflict between work, family, and school are effectively measured by 12 factors assessing the direction of conflict (e.g., work-to-school conflict, and school-to-work conflict) as well as the form of conflict (i.e., time, strain, and behavior based conflict). Sets of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that the 12 factors of the new measure are distinct from the 6 factors of the Carlson, Kacmar, and Williams (2000) work-family conflict measure. Criterion validity of the measure was established through a series of regression analyses testing hypothesized relationships between antecedent and outcome variables with role conflict. Results indicate that role demand was a robust predictor of role conflict. To extend the literature, core self-evaluations and emotional stability were established as predictors of role conflict. Further, work, family, and school role satisfaction were significantly impacted with the presence of role conflict between work, family, and school. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Barriers and facilitators to disease-modifying antirheumatic drug use in patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases: a qualitative theory-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voshaar, Marieke; Vriezekolk, Johanna; van Dulmen, Sandra; van den Bemt, Bart; van de Laar, Mart

    2016-10-21

    Although disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are the cornerstone of treatment for inflammatory rheumatic diseases, medication adherence to DMARDs is often suboptimal. Effective interventions to improve adherence to DMARDs are lacking, and new targets are needed to improve adherence. The aim of the present study was to explore patients' barriers and facilitators of optimal DMARD use. These factors might be used as targets for adherence interventions. In a mixed method study design, patients (n = 120) with inflammatory arthritis (IA) completed a questionnaire based on an existing adapted Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to identify facilitators and barriers of DMARD use. A subgroup of these patients (n = 21) participated in focus groups to provide insights into their facilitators and barriers. The answers to the questionnaires and responses of the focus groups were thematically coded by three researchers independently and subsequently categorized. The barriers and facilitators that were reported by IA patients presented large inter-individual variations. The identified barriers and facilitators could be captured in the following domains based on an adapted TDF: (i) knowledge, (ii) emotions, (iii) attention, memory, and decision processes, (iv) social influences, (v) beliefs about capability, (vi) beliefs about consequences, (vii) motivation and goals, (viii) goal conflict, (ix) environmental context and resources, and (x) skills. Patients with IA have a variety of barriers and facilitators with regard to their DMARD use. All of these barriers and facilitators could be categorized into adapted domains of the TDF. Interventions that address individual facilitators and barriers, based on capability, opportunity, and motivation, are needed to develop strategies for medication adherence that are tailored to individual patient needs.

  9. Conflict in schools: student nurses' conflict management styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantek, Filiz; Gezer, Nurdan

    2009-01-01

    Unless conflicts between the students and the instructors can be successfully managed, they will certainly result in negative outcomes for the students. The conflict management styles of the students should be recognized in detail in order to attain positive outcomes in regard to the conflict management styles. The purpose of this study was to examine the conflict management styles used by nursing students in conflict with faculty members and the differences in use of style from the aspect of some variables. This study was conducted with 151 students in a public university nursing school. Data were collected using a personal information form and the Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory II (ROCI II). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Tukey test, Kruskal Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U test and Cronbach alpha coefficient analyses. The students were found to use integrating (X=3.82) and obliging (X=3.81) styles the most, and dominating style (X=3.02) the least. In addition there were differences determined in management style between classes, frequency of experiencing conflict, and feeling of success in the conflict (pstyles were used more by those who evaluated themselves as successful in conflict management, but the avoiding and compromising styles were used more by students who evaluated themselves as unsuccessful. It was determined that the students preferred to use styles that produced positive results in conflict resolution and that the frequency of experiencing conflict and the feeling of success in conflict had an effect on choice of style. It will be helpful to analyze the relationship between the causes of conflict between the student and the instructor in the practice field and the uses of conflict management styles.

  10. Review of EU Conflict Management in DRC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict......The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict...

  11. Theories and Diagnostic Methods of Land Use Conflicts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongfang; YANG; Lianqi; ZHU

    2013-01-01

    With social and economic development, the land resources are becoming increasingly scarce, and the land use conflicts are getting more frequent, deeper, more diversified and more severe. Besides, the factors that induce land use conflicts are more and more complicated. Therefore, the key to solve many difficult problems in regional sustainable land use lies in the research of land use conflicts, scientific evaluation of the intensity of regional land use conflicts, and the further reveal of external forms as well as intrinsic mechanisms of land use conflicts. Based on the review of both domestic and foreign literatures, this paper has completed the theoretical framework as well as the contents of land use conflicts research, established the diagnostic models and methods of land use conflicts intensity and proposed the key research areas of future studies. The purpose is to promote the evolution of spatial structure of China’s land resources to the positive direction and achieve integrated and coordinated management of land use through improving spatial allocation efficiency of land factors and buffering the pressure on land resources.

  12. Armed Conflict in the Chechen Republic in the French Historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay N. Malishevskiy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of historiography of the armed conflict in the Chechen Republic. The active phase of the military operations of the armed conflict in Chechnya was completed in 2001. At that time, historians, analysts and journalists created a wide range of theoretical works concerning the conflict. A number of common features on the use of basic resources are discussed in these publications. The degree of accessibility of the sources which focus on the description of the conflict and its socio-political assessment is of great importance for researchers and their objectives. The author analyzes the European (French historiography of the armed conflict in the Chechen Republic, considers publications and specialized monographs by French authors on the given subject. The author reveals the ideas about the consequences of the armed conflict in the Chechen Republic, articulated in the works of the European researchers. For the first time within the study of the Western historiography of the war in Chechnya the author analyzes these consequences for both the Russian and Chechen sides. Being one of the most influential historical traditions, French historiography dedicated to the armed conflict in Chechnya is in the stage of development and is characterized by a number of qualitative changes and conceptual approaches.

  13. Conflict field energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebsbach-Gnath, C.

    1981-01-01

    Violent social controversies characterize the treatment of the energy problem. Solutions of this conflict decisively depend on the knowledge and evaluation of the causes and the possible development. How is it possible to explain the opinions, views, and the attitude of the population to different kinds of energy. Which factors are decisive for the explosive effect and the stability of the conflict in the field of nulcear energy. What will happen when there arises a possible lack of energy. Which socio-political effects will such a lack have. Are there new proposals for solving problems in the nulcear-energy debate. The contributions of this book are results of scientific and empiric works. They provide perceptive approaches and analyses to the problems and by discussing them are useful in giving an orientation for political action. (orig.) [de

  14. Conflict engagement: workplace dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Debra

    2015-04-01

    This article is one in a series on conflict. It is part of an ongoing series on leadership coordinated by the American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE), highlighting topics of interest to nurse managers and emerging nurse leaders. The AONE provides leadership, professional development, advocacy, and research to advance nursing practice and patient care, promote nursing leadership excellence, and shape public policy for health care.

  15. Islam: Ideology and Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    brands ’ (‘ popular fronts’ and ‘liberation fronts’). The difference was that the ‘fronts’ often had real state backers while the current VEOs do not...assuming the al Qaeda brand name. This underscores the essential role of local conflicts and rivalries.5 To a significant degree, this paper argues...under poor leadership it was disas- trous. The Abbasids did not have that luxury . They were far more dependent on political power centers that

  16. Solicitors' conflicts of interest

    OpenAIRE

    Bamford, Colin

    2003-01-01

    Brief overview of the need for the Law Society of England and Wales to formulate new rules to address conflicts of interest situations and accommodate modern practices which have followed from the merger of firms of solicitors resulting for example in requests to act in a dispute with a former client or to represent several parties in the same commercial or financial transaction. Published in Amicus Curiae – Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal ...

  17. Institutional conflicts in Jungian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisold, K

    2001-04-01

    This paper explores how the institutional life of analytical psychology has been beset by its historical and continuing conflictual relationship with psychoanalysis. Stemming from a division in Jung's identity, that of the spiritual seeker and that of a mental health practitioner, the organizations of analytical psychology have repeatedly enacted that division, resulting in an unclear mission and considerable conflict. In England those conflicts have led to schisms; in America they have played out in internal conflicts within training institutes. Examples of areas of conflict are provided, along with suggestions for addressing these conflicts by recognizing them more openly.

  18. Conflict: an imperative for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, F J

    1986-04-01

    Conflict in organizations of any type is inevitable. Medical institutions, particularly multispecialty clinics, are no exception. This paper presents an examination of the anatomy of conflict in group practice settings. Several case studies, including the "Hunterdon Experiment," are presented to illustrate the outcome of conflict situations where management was unable to direct its energy to productive ends. Recommendations are made for identifying, considering, and resolving conflicts in a proactive fashion. The conflict management role of the top management of the organization is described, with particular emphasis on the pivotal position of the Medical Director.

  19. Timing of cyber conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Robert; Iliev, Rumen

    2014-01-28

    Nations are accumulating cyber resources in the form of stockpiles of zero-day exploits as well as other novel methods of engaging in future cyber conflict against selected targets. This paper analyzes the optimal timing for the use of such cyber resources. A simple mathematical model is offered to clarify how the timing of such a choice can depend on the stakes involved in the present situation, as well as the characteristics of the resource for exploitation. The model deals with the question of when the resource should be used given that its use today may well prevent it from being available for use later. The analysis provides concepts, theory, applications, and distinctions to promote the understanding strategy aspects of cyber conflict. Case studies include the Stuxnet attack on Iran's nuclear program, the Iranian cyber attack on the energy firm Saudi Aramco, the persistent cyber espionage carried out by the Chinese military, and an analogous case of economic coercion by China in a dispute with Japan. The effects of the rapidly expanding market for zero-day exploits are also analyzed. The goal of the paper is to promote the understanding of this domain of cyber conflict to mitigate the harm it can do, and harness the capabilities it can provide.

  20. Preventing Interstate Armed Conflict : whose responsibility?

    OpenAIRE

    Otunba, Ganiyu

    2010-01-01

    This is a study of interstate armed conflict prevention. The concept of conflict, armed conflict and conflict prevention is defined and explained in order to be able to investigate if there is any single institution saddled with the responsibility of preventing interstate armed conflict and also to verify if adequate efforts are been put in this area which is of importance to mankind. The relationship between conflict prevention, conflict management and conflict resolution is also discussed s...

  1. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  2. When Task Conflict Becomes Personal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenter, Hannes; van Emmerik, Hetty; Schreurs, Bert; Kuypers, Tom; van Iterson, Ad; Notelaers, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Although potentially beneficial, task conflict may threaten teams because it often leads to relationship conflict. Prior research has identified a set of interpersonal factors (e.g., team communication, team trust) that help attenuate this association. The purpose of this article is to provide an alternative perspective that focuses on the moderating role of performance-related factors (i.e., perceived team performance). Using social identity theory, we build a model that predicts how task conflict associates with growth in relationship conflict and how perceived team performance influences this association. We test a three-wave longitudinal model by means of random coefficient growth modeling, using data from 60 ongoing teams working in a health care organization. Results provide partial support for our hypotheses. Only when perceived team performance is low, do task conflicts relate with growth in relationship conflict. We conclude that perceived team performance seems to enable teams to uncouple task from relationship conflict. PMID:28190944

  3. Functional imaging of decision conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochon, Jean-Baptiste; Riis, Jason; Sanfey, Alan G; Nystrom, Leigh E; Cohen, Jonathan D

    2008-03-26

    Decision conflict occurs when people feel uncertain as to which option to choose from a set of similarly attractive (or unattractive) options, with many studies demonstrating that this conflict can lead to suboptimal decision making. In this article, we investigate the neurobiological underpinnings of decision conflict, in particular, the involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Previous studies have implicated the ACC in conflict monitoring during perceptual tasks, but there is considerable controversy as to whether the ACC actually indexes conflict related to choice, or merely conflict related to selection of competing motor responses. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we dissociate the decision and response phases of a decision task, and show that the ACC does indeed index conflict at the decision stage. Furthermore, we show that it does so for a complex decision task, one that requires the integration of beliefs and preferences and not just perceptual judgments.

  4. Conflict management: importance and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Laurie

    2017-01-26

    Conflict is a consistent and unavoidable issue within healthcare teams. Despite training of nurse leaders and managers around areas of conflict resolution, the problem of staff relations, stress, sickness and retention remain. Conflict arises from issues with interpersonal relationships, change and poor leadership. New members of staff entering an already established healthcare team should be supported and integrated, to encourage mutual role respect between all team members and establish positive working relationships, in order to maximise patient care. This paper explores the concept of conflict, the importance of addressing causes of conflict, effective management, and the relevance of positive approaches to conflict resolution. Good leadership, nurturing positive team dynamics and communication, encourages shared problem solving and acceptance of change. Furthermore mutual respect fosters a more positive working environment for those in healthcare teams. As conflict has direct implications for patients, positive resolution is essential, to promote safe and effective delivery of care, whilst encouraging therapeutic relationships between colleagues and managers.

  5. Employing Collaborative Learning Strategies in Online Conflict Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir A. El Seoud

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Although some critics may argue that conflictresolution cannot be carried out appropriately by virtualeducation, the basic elements of conflict present themselveswithin distance education courses, which can provide richenvironments to practice mediation and resolution. Newcommunication technologies and Internet tools maketraining persons from all over the world possible, thuspermitting conflict resolution tools to cascade withindifferent pluralistic organizations or groups of persons fromdifferent backgrounds that must interact in order to achievea common goal. Conflict resolution, in short, adds to thepositive socio-emotional atmosphere of an organization andleads to greater trust, a vital component in anyorganization. The innovative use of technology and Internettools provides a new medium for conflict resolution thatrepresents an interesting and important area of research.The methodology we propose permits participants to notonly coexist within a distance education course, but toactually overcome barriers to cooperation, includinginterpersonal, cultural, ethnic, religious, and organizationaldifferences, to name a few. Conflict is a naturalphenomenon that occurs as a consequence of humaninteraction. The goal of our research is to provide a spacefor individuals to master the skills necessary to minimizethe negative consequences that can result when the sourcesof conflicts are not quickly identified, confronted andresolved in a fair and amicable atmosphere of mutualcaring and respect.

  6. When conflicts are good: nonconscious goal conflicts reduce confirmatory thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Tali; Hassin, Ran R

    2013-09-01

    In this article, we argue that nonconscious goal conflicts are accompanied by a mindset that has wide-ranging implications for reasoning and thinking in content areas that are not part of the conflict itself. Specifically, we propose that nonconscious goal conflicts induce a mode of processing information that increases the likelihood of approaching an issue from opposing perspectives. This hypothesis is examined by investigating the effects of nonconscious goal conflicts on confirmatory thinking, that is, a way of thinking that narrowly focuses on confirmation rather than on broader examination of information. In 5 experiments, we show that nonconscious goal conflicts significantly reduce confirmatory hypothesis testing (Experiments 1 through 3) and anchoring (Experiments 4 and 5). We further show that these effects result from a goal conflict by rejecting explanations based on priming of semantic opposites, and priming of multiple goals that do not conflict (Experiments 2 and 3), and by examining decision times as a conflict process variable (Experiment 5). Using various probes, we show that these changes in confirmatory judgments are not accompanied by changes in conflict phenomenology. Together, these results suggest that nonconscious goal conflicts attenuate the robust confirmatory thinking strategy that characterizes human thinking in numerous domains.

  7. Exploring how Conflict Management Training Changes Workplace Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima

    2012-01-01

    While many organisations offer conflict management training to both staff and management, there has been little research investigating the changes resulting from such training. Using an interpretive framework of analysis, a qualitative case study was conducted to understand how 'sensemakings' about...... conflicts change when enacted from the perspective of staff and management in a non-profit organisation that participated in conflict management training. The case study was constructed as a longitudinal investigation with ethnographic fieldwork as the primary method of inquiry. The training worked...... as a catalyst for the development of new sensemakings about workplace conflicts. These included increasing acknowledgement of workplace conflicts, recognition of interdependent and context embedded relationships in interpersonal conflicts, and enactment of active resistance in a subordinated occupational group...

  8. Religious Values and Conflict of Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Tonolo

    2016-02-01

    Abstract: The wide evolution of private international law is currently recalling attention to the general aspects of the discipline. Europeanization and globalisation of sources of private international law do not preclude the chance that conflict of laws should also deal with individual identities. To the extent that the European systems have hitherto offered to the application of foreign laws, we are faced with the problem of survival in Europe of an idea of the personality of laws. In fact it’s generally accepted that conflict of laws faces the individual identities of people involved in international relations. Cultural identity may be considered collective and individual at the same time, because each member of the group has an identity of its own. Religious values ontribute to defining the cultural identity of individuals: be it in Europe or other countries, cultures, values, civilization, religion, are never absent from the solutions of personal status. Stepping back from the analysis of some cases where religious values are relevant, this Article aims at a theoretical analysis of the subject, involving the contrast between value pluralism, conflict of laws and fundamental rights.

  9. Rethinking the concept of intercultural conflict: Italian returnees’ attitudes towards others during a cultural conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Baiutti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to rethink the concept of intercultural conflict. Specifically, I argue that the use of the adjective “intercultural” within ‘intercultural conflict’ is usually an expression of rhetorical discourse or is not appropriate. Following a semantic analysis I show that a cultural conflict, here conceptualized as incompatibility of cultural values between a minimum of two people belonging to different cultural backgrounds, might be described as an intercultural conflict. This is possible if the interactants, rather than focussing on solutions, adopt an ‘intercultural attitude’ (comity, ethical relativism, critical self-reflection, openness toward a potential change, suspending judgment, reframing meanings, curiosity, respect, and self-decentralization between them. Existing theoretical concepts are explored through qualitative research examining supposedly interculturally competent high school students’ (after one scholastic year abroad attitudes towards others during a cultural conflict. The study shows that curiosity and respect towards others might be considered as preconditions for a true dialogue. Two main attitudes emerge from the analysis: the multicultural one and the intercultural one. The former corresponds to respect for the different ideas of others. The second is exemplified by true interaction between interactants who seek a deep understanding of what is behind the point of view held by themselves and others. Adopting an intercultural attitude, they make all possible efforts to truly encounter each other’s otherness. 

  10. Smart parking barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.

    2016-05-06

    Various methods and systems are provided for smart parking barriers. In one example, among others, a smart parking barrier system includes a movable parking barrier located at one end of a parking space, a barrier drive configured to control positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking space and a second position that allows access to the parking space. The parking controller can initiate movement of the movable parking barrier in response to a positive identification of an individual allowed to use the parking space. The parking controller can identify the individual through, e.g., a RFID tag, a mobile device (e.g., a remote control, smartphone, tablet, etc.), an access card, biometric information, or other appropriate identifier.

  11. Communication Barriers between teachers and pupils in secondary education

    OpenAIRE

    Gašparínová, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Annotation: The research of communication barriers, which appear at students of the secondary school, is the topic of my thesis. The work is divided into two parts - theoretical and practical. The theoretical part is devoted to communication, emphatically to educational communication, communication barriers and at the end also to communication apprehension, which can be one of the communication difficulties. The empirical part contents the conclusions of the research, which was provided at th...

  12. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT. SOME PROSPECTS ON THE LABOR CONFLICTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Bădoi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Managers wish for harmony within their organizations, that the satisfied employees to work in well balanced teams in order to achieve the institutional goals without taking into account the individual and cultural differences, personal or group interests. Conflicts can be classified according to several criteria. This study aims to present the particularities of conflict resolution within labor relations. Starting from the analysis of the conflict concept viewed from several perspectives, including legal term, this paper aims to reveal the sources of labor disputes through statistical tools, to explain the development of the conflict and to propose solutions to reduce / solve conflicts. From the traditionalist perspective all conflicts are bad, being subsumed to terms of violence, anarchy, destruction, chaos, requiring major reality changes. Conflicts are seen as natural, normal, and cyclical from the human relations point of view. Moreover, inter-actionist perspective suggests encouraging for triggering conflicts because a group that is too long peaceful may become inert, listless and noncreative. This theory proposes to the leaders to maintain a level of conflict within institutions so that to be in the presence of a dynamic group, the manifestation of critical thinking, innovation and improvement of the human relationships’ quality.

  13. Conflicts in Public Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Lindskog

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last couple of years, there has been a tendency to include more and more political goals into public procurements, such as environmental and societal considerations. This can result in higher prices paid by the public sector compared with similar procurements in the private sector. The decision makers at local level are elected and should represent the interest of their communities and voters, which includes promoting regional/local companies and economic development. This task can sometimes get into conflict with public procurement law or the political goals of a central government. (original abstract

  14. Integrating impact assessment and conflict management in urban planning: Experiences from Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltonen, Lasse; Sairinen, Rauno

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the interlinkages between recent developments in conflict management and impact assessment procedures in the context of urban planning in Finland. It sets out by introducing the fields of impact assessment and conflict mediation. It then proceeds to discuss the development of impact assessment practices and the status of conflict mediation in Finnish land use planning. The case of Korteniitty infill development plan in Jyvaeskylae is used to demonstrate how the Finnish planning system operates in conflict situations - and how social impact assessment can contribute to managing planning conflicts. The authors ask how the processes of impact assessment contribute to conflict management. Based on the Finnish experience, it is argued that social impact assessment of land use plans can contribute to conflict management, especially in the absence of institutionalised conflict mediation processes. In addition, SIA may acquire features of conflict mediation, depending on extent and intensity of stakeholder participation in the process, and the quality of linkages it between knowledge production and decision-making. Simultaneously, conflict mediation practices and theoretical insights can inform the application of SIA to help it address land use conflicts more consciously.

  15. Cognitive conflicts in major depression: Between desired change and personal coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feixas, Guillem; Montesano, Adrián; Compañ, Victoria; Salla, Marta; Dada, Gloria; Pucurull, Olga; Trujillo, Adriana; Paz, Clara; Muñoz, Dámaris; Gasol, Miquel; Saúl, Luis Ángel; Lana, Fernando; Bros, Ignasi; Ribeiro, Eugenia; Winter, David; Carrera-Fernández, María Jesús; Guàrdia, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The notion of intrapsychic conflict has been present in psychopathology for more than a century within different theoretical orientations. However, internal conflicts have not received enough empirical attention, nor has their importance in depression been fully elaborated. This study is based on the notion of cognitive conflict, understood as implicative dilemma (ID), and on a new way of identifying these conflicts by means of the Repertory Grid Technique. Our aim was to explore the relevance of cognitive conflicts among depressive patients. Design Comparison between persons with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder and community controls. Methods A total of 161 patients with major depression and 110 non-depressed participants were assessed for presence of IDs and level of symptom severity. The content of these cognitive conflicts was also analysed. Results Repertory grid analysis indicated conflict (presence of ID/s) in a greater proportion of depressive patients than in controls. Taking only those grids with conflict, the average number of IDs per person was higher in the depression group. In addition, participants with cognitive conflicts displayed higher symptom severity. Within the clinical sample, patients with IDs presented lower levels of global functioning and a more frequent history of suicide attempts. Conclusions Cognitive conflicts were more prevalent in depressive patients and were associated with clinical severity. Conflict assessment at pre-therapy could aid in treatment planning to fit patient characteristics. Practitioner points Internal conflicts have been postulated in clinical psychology for a long time but there is little evidence about its relevance due to the lack of methods to measure them. We developed a method for identifying conflicts using the Repertory Grid Technique. Depressive patients have higher presence and number of conflicts than controls. Conflicts (implicative dilemmas) can be a new target for intervention in

  16. Sustainable prevention of resource conflicts. Conflict risks for access and use of raw materials (report 1); Rohstoffkonflikte nachhaltig vermeiden. Konfliktrisiken bei Zugang und Nutzung von Rohstoffen (Teilbericht 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taenzler, Dennis; Westerkamp, Meike [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Ritthoff, Michael; Bleischwitz, Raimund [Wuppertal Institut fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Inequalities of resources ownership and the consequences of the exploitation of non-renewable resources have always caused violent conflicts of varying intensity. The resulting interdependence between conflicts on the one hand and resources on the other hand - discussed here under the term of conflict-resources nexus - is complex and requires a detailed theoretical and conceptional assessment. The risks of conflict vary as a function of the constellations of actors and the existing political, economic and social boundary conditions. These risks are often globally linked and reflect the flow of resources between consumer countries, transit countries, and producer countries. Conflicts in producer countries may endanger the supply of raw materials to consumer countries. Whether the raw material is an energetic resource like natural gas, petroleum, or coal, or a non-energetic resource like coltane or copper: There are many who demand that Germany should adapt to stronger competition and shorter supply and should also be aware of the possibility of conflicts about raw materials. This part-report of the project 'Sustainable Prevention of Resource Conflicts' presents important theoretical and conceptional considerations on the risk of conflict in the raw materials sector. On this basis, further reports will present case studies, scenarios, and preventive strategies. (orig./RHM)

  17. The cerebellum mediates conflict resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Tom A; Oriet, Chris; Meiran, Nachshon; Alexander, Michael P; Cusimano, Michael; Stuss, Donald T

    2007-12-01

    Regions within the frontal and parietal cortex have been implicated as important neural correlates for cognitive control during conflict resolution. Despite the extensive reciprocal connectivity between the cerebellum and these putatively critical cortical areas, a role for the cerebellum in conflict resolution has never been identified. We used a task-switching paradigm that separates processes related to task-set switching and the management of response conflict independent of motor processing. Eleven patients with chronic, focal lesions to the cerebellum and 11 healthy controls were compared. Patients were slower and less accurate in conditions involving conflict resolution. In the absence of response conflict, however, tasks-witching abilities were not impaired in our patients. The cerebellum may play an important role in coordinating with other areas of cortex to modulate active response states. These results are the first demonstration of impaired conflict resolution following cerebellar lesions in the presence of an intact prefrontal cortex.

  18. Conflict Elaboration and Cognitive Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Buchs, Céline; Butera, Fabrizio; Mugny, Gabriel; Darnon, Céline

    2004-01-01

    This article presents advice for teachers about using sociocognitive conflicts to promote academic learning. In doing so, the conditions under which sociocognitive conflicts are constructive or disruptive are examined and the relevant research is reviewed on social development, cooperative learning, and social influence. Two types of conflict elaboration—epistemic and relational—are identified. Epistemic elaborations focus students on task resolution leading to positive cognitive outcomes, an...

  19. Information system conflicts: causes and types

    OpenAIRE

    Boonstra, Albert; de Vries, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts are an inherent part of organizational life and managers deal with confrontations and conflicts on an almost daily basis. Information Systems (IS) implementations are a type of change that often leads to open or hidden conflicts. Managers and others involved can only deal with such conflicts effectively if they understand the nature and causes of information system conflicts (IS conflicts). To contribute to such an understanding, this study focuses on the analysis of IS conflicts. I...

  20. An Analysis of Communication Barriers in Five Methods of Teaching Business Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golen, Steven; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes communication barriers in teaching methods such as lectures, prepared and live case studies, experiential exercises, and computer simulations. Concludes that the most serious barriers were the instructors' and students' tendency not to listen, instructors' hostile attitudes, personality conflicts between instructors and students, and an…

  1. Interdisciplinary conflict and organizational complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, M E

    1986-01-01

    Most people think that conflict among the professional staff is inevitable and results from each profession's unique set of values. Each profession then defends itself by claiming its own turf. This article demonstrates that organizational complexity, not professional territorialism, influences the amount of intraorganizational conflict. In a comparison of two psychiatric hospitals, this study shows that there is not necessarily greater conflict across professions than within professions. However, there is a significantly greater amount of conflict among staff at a structurally more complex hospital than at a less-complex hospital, regardless of profession. Implications for management are discussed.

  2. Armed conflict and child health

    OpenAIRE

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict has a major impact on child health\\ud throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives\\ud in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely\\ud to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark\\ud contrast to the effect on children, the international arms\\ud trade results in huge profits for the large corporations\\ud involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions.\\ud Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important\\ud health issue that should be...

  3. The cultural contagion of conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele; Shteynberg, Garriy; Lee, Tiane; Lun, Janetta; Lyons, Sarah; Bell, Chris; Chiao, Joan Y.; Bruss, C. Bayan; Al Dabbagh, May; Aycan, Zeynep; Abdel-Latif, Abdel-Hamid; Dagher, Munqith; Khashan, Hilal; Soomro, Nazar

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence abounds that conflicts between two individuals can spread across networks to involve a multitude of others. We advance a cultural transmission model of intergroup conflict where conflict contagion is seen as a consequence of universal human traits (ingroup preference, outgroup hostility; i.e. parochial altruism) which give their strongest expression in particular cultural contexts. Qualitative interviews conducted in the Middle East, USA and Canada suggest that parochial altruism processes vary across cultural groups and are most likely to occur in collectivistic cultural contexts that have high ingroup loyalty. Implications for future neuroscience and computational research needed to understand the emergence of intergroup conflict are discussed. PMID:22271785

  4. Factors Influencing of Social Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwandi Sumartias

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Social conflicts that occur in several areas in Indonesia lately, one of them is caused by the weakness of law certainty. This is feared to threaten the integration of the Republic of Indonesia. This study aims to determine the factors that affect social conflict in Manis Lor village in Kuningan district. The method used the explanatory quantitative methods, the statistical test Path Analysis. The study population was a formal and informal community leaders (village chief, clergy, and youth, and the people who involved in a conflict in Manis Lor village Kuningan regency. The result shows a There is no significant influence between social identity factors with social conflict anarchist. b There is significant influence between socio-economic factors with social conflict anarchists. c There is no significant influence between the credibility factor anarchist leaders with social conflict. d There is no significant influence between the motive factor with anarchist social conflict. e There is significant influence between personality factors/beliefs with anarchist social conflict. f There is significant influence of behavioral factors anarchist communication with social conflict.

  5. PHENOMENOLOGY AND MECHANISMS OF THE SOLUTION OF EXISTENTIAL INTRAPERSONAL CONFLICTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasilnikov Igor Aleksandrovich

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article sights of founders of existential psychology at phenomenology and psychological mechanisms of intrapersonal conflicts are considered. It is underlined, that the basic internal conflict is connected with existential anxiety, human life-death. Experience of the existence in the modern social world often has tragical character for the person. The solution of existential intrapersonal conflicts is defined by how the person could realize in itself deep «Me» connected with feeling of finding of internal and external freedom, creative and spontaneity. It is emphasized, that freedom is the main quality of social human life, but the way to it demands from the person of the responsibility, courage and honesty. The authorship of own destiny, personal identity are a source of the solution of existential intrapersonal conflicts. Not each person is capable to keep authenticity in the life. Integrity «Me» cannot be restored, ignoring cultural mental-moral values. Purpose. To study phenomenology and psychological mechanisms of the solution of existential intrapersonal conflicts. Methodology. The qualitative theoretical analysis and synthesis of literary data. Results. In the article general concepts of leading scientists-psychologists of existential orientation to phenomenology and mechanisms of the solution of intrapersonal conflicts are presented. The significant attention is given R. Meya's to sights, as one of the main representatives of existential psychotherapy. Practical implications. Preparation of psychologists in the field of psychotherapeutic consultation.

  6. Metatheory Building in the Conflict Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Fathi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Extended Abstract in English Given the increasingly complex nature of conflicts, a corresponding increase of new methods can be observed in Peace and Conflict Studies. At this juncture, metatheories aimed at integrating this labyrinth of diverse methods is becoming necessary. This paper will draft a conceptual proposal, discussing two well-known holistic approaches of mediative conflict management in an integrative context: – The Conflict Management Approach by Prof. Dr. Friedrich Glasl (2004. – The Conflict Transformation Approach (The Transcend Method by Prof. Dr. Johan Galtung (2000. The theoretical assumptions of this paper are based on the integral approach by Ken Wilber (2001 – a highly discussed “Theory of Everything“ that has thus far remained widely ignored in Peace and Conflict Studies, yet. Therefore, it is also of interest to scrutinise the integral approach with regard to its contribution for an integrated Peace and Conflict Studies. The analysis was conducted as follows: 1. Introduction of two holistic Peace and Conflict Studies approaches: a. The Conflict Management Approach by Glasl implies a number of categories and entry points (Ansatzmomente resulting in a complex intervention spectrum. In this regard, the consideration of escalation levels is highly important, integrating perception-oriented (low escalation, emotion-oriented (medium escalation and behaviour-oriented (high escalation measures. The spectrum may be combined with other categories such as conflict type (hot or cold or criteria of conflict analysis (issues, conflict trends etc.. b. The Conflict Transformation Approach by Galtung is characterised by a three-fold schematic, enabling a complex understanding of violence (direct, cultural, structural, conflict (behaviour, assumptions, contradictions and peace (non-violence, empathy, creativity. Moreover, Galtung’s model implies three conflict phases (before, during, after violence as well as five styles of

  7. Causes of Conflict and Conflict Resolution Styles among Bahir Dar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the causes of conflict and conflict resolution styles among university students. The participants were 390 (49 female and 341 male) sophomore (87.7%), junior (5.6%), and senior (6.7%) university students. Students identified themselves as Amhara, Oromo, Tigre, and as belonging to other ethnic groups ...

  8. "Conflict management" and "conflict resolution" are not synonymous terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, S P

    1978-01-01

    Robbins sees functional conflict as an absolute necessity within organizations and explicitly encourages it. He explains: "Survival can result only when an organization is able to adapt to constant changes in the environment. Adaption is possible only through change, and change is stimulated by conflict." Robbins cites evidence indicating that conflict can be related to increased productivity and that critical thinking encourages well-developed decisions. He admits, however, that not all conflicts are good for the organization. Their functional or dysfunctional nature is determined by the impact of the conflict on the objectives of the organization. The author identifies several factors underlying the need for conflict stimulation: (1) managers who are surrounded by "yes men"; (2) subordinates who are afraid to admit ignorance or uncertainty; (3) decision-makers' excessive concern about hurting the feelings of others; or (4) an environment where new ideas are slow in coming forth. He suggests techniques for stimulating conflict; manipulating the communication channels (i.e., repression of information); changing the organizational structure (i.e., changes in size or position); and altering personal behavior factors (i.e., role incongruence). Robbins stresses that the actual method to be used in either resolving or stimulating conflict must be appropriate to the situation.

  9. Collaborative Learning: Theoretical Foundations and Applicable Strategies to University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, Nestor D.

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative learning is a construct that identifies a current strong field, both in face-to-face and virtual education. Firstly, three converging theoretical sources are analyzed: socio-cognitive conflict theory, intersubjectivity theory and distributed cognition theory. Secondly, a model of strategies that can be implemented by teachers to…

  10. Multiple stakeholders in road pricing: A game theoretic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohazulike, Anthony; Still, Georg J.; Kern, Walter; van Berkum, Eric C.; Hausken, Kjell; Zhuang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a game theoretic approach as an alternative to the standard multi-objective optimization models for road pricing. Assuming that various, partly conflicting traffic externalities (congestion, air pollution, noise, safety, etcetera) are represented by corresponding players acting on a

  11. Perspective Intercultural Bioethics and Human Rights: the search for instruments for resolving ethical conflicts culturally based.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline ALBUQUERQUE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to contribute to a deeper reflection on intercultural conflicts within the bioethics scope, and to point out the problem of using human rights as a theoretical normative mediator of the conflicts in bioethics that bear elements of interculturalism. The methodological steps adopted in this inquiry were: analysis of the concept of intercultural conflict in bioethics, from the perception developed by Colectivo Amani; study of human rights as tools of the culture of human beings, based on Bauman’s and Beauchamp’s theories; investigation of the toolsthat human rights offer so as to solve intercultural conflicts in bioethics. It was concluded that intercultural bioethics must incorporate to its prescriptive and descriptive tasks norms and institutions of human rights that ensure the participation and social integration of the individuals from communities that are in cultural conflict. Such measure will act as instrumentsfor the solution of intercultural conflicts.

  12. Reaping the benefits of task conflict in teams: the critical role of team psychological safety climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Bret H; Postlethwaite, Bennett E; Klotz, Anthony C; Hamdani, Maria R; Brown, Kenneth G

    2012-01-01

    Past research suggests that task conflict may improve team performance under certain conditions; however, we know little about these specific conditions. On the basis of prior theory and research on conflict in teams, we argue that a climate of psychological safety is one specific context under which task conflict will improve team performance. Using evidence from 117 project teams, the present research found that psychological safety climate moderates the relationship between task conflict and performance. Specifically, task conflict and team performance were positively associated under conditions of high psychological safety. The results support the conclusion that psychological safety facilitates the performance benefits of task conflict in teams. Theoretical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  13. Conflicting Perspectives in Trade and Environmental Negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchner, B.K.; Roson, R.

    2002-09-01

    International trade negotiations have recently tackled the issue of possible free trade restrictions, justified - among others - on the basis of environmental concerns. Also, some analyses of international environmental agreements (especially in the field of climate change) have highlighted the key role played by changes in the terms of trade in determining the cost of environmental policies. Yet, secondary effects of international trade remain disregarded in many environmental policies, whereas the introduction of environmental trade barriers has been resisted, arguing that this may hide a Trojan horse of a renewed protectionism. This paper reviews the debate on trade and the environment in the two fields of environmental and trade negotiations, highlighting the different and somewhat conflicting approach adopted in the two cases. A numerical general equilibrium model is used to illustrate how different 'perceptions' (translated in terms of alternative model closures) affect the use of instruments, the distributional impact of the various policies, and the strategic interplay between negotiators in international agreements

  14. How Important is Conflict Detection to the Conflict Resolution Task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Joey; Gabets, Cynthia; Gomez, Ashley; Edwards, Tamsyn; Bienert, Nancy; Claudatos, Lauren; Homola, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the capabilities and limitations of human operators and automation in separation assurance roles, the second of three Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) part-task studies investigates air traffic controllers ability to detect and resolve conflicts under varying task sets, traffic densities, and run lengths. Operations remained within a single sector, staffed by a single controller, and explored, among other things, the controllers conflict resolution performance in conditions with or without their involvement in the conflict detection task. Whereas comparisons of conflict resolution performance between these two conditions are available in a prior publication, this paper explores whether or not other subjective measures display a relationship to that data. Analyses of controller workload and situation awareness measures attempt to quantify their contribution to controllers ability to resolve traffic conflicts.

  15. Barrier cell sheath formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesner, J.

    1980-04-01

    The solution for electrostatic potential within a simply modeled tandem mirror thermal barrier is seen to exhibit a sheath at each edge of the cell. The formation of the sheath requires ion collisionality and the analysis assmes that the collisional trapping rate into the barrier is considerably slower than the barrier pump rate

  16. The Effects of Racial Conflict on Organizational Performance: A Search for Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Marilyn Y.

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the effect of racial conflict on organizational performance as an issue that needs theoretical support in the foundational theories of human resource development (HRD). While the field of HRD recognizes theories from multiple disciplines, the field lacks a theoretical framework to inform leadership in managing racial…

  17. Shakeoff Ionization near the Coulomb Barrier Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prashant; Nandi, T.

    2017-11-01

    We measure the projectile K x-ray spectra as a function of the beam energies around the Coulomb barrier in different collision systems. The energy is scanned in small steps around the barrier aiming to explore the nuclear effects on the elastically scattered projectile ions. The variation of the projectile x-ray energy with the ion-beam energies exhibits an unusual increase in between the interaction barrier and fusion barrier energies. This additional contribution to the projectile ionization can be attributed to the shakeoff of outer-shell electrons of the projectile ions due to the sudden nuclear recoil (˜10-21 sec ) caused by the attractive nuclear potential, which gets switched on near the interaction barrier energy. In the sudden approximation limit, the theoretical shakeoff probability calculation due to the nuclear recoil explains the observed data well. In addition to its fundamental interest, such processes can play a significant role in dark matter detection through the possible mechanism of x-ray emissions, where the weakly interacting massive particle-nucleus elastic scattering can lead to the nuclear-recoil-induced inner-shell vacancy creations. Furthermore, the present work may provide new prospects for atomic physics research at barrier energies as well as provide a novel technique to perform barrier distribution studies for two-body systems.

  18. Starting and Stopping Spontaneous Family Conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuchinich, Samuel

    1987-01-01

    Examined how 52 nondistressed families managed spontaneous verbal conflicts during family dinners. Found conflict initiation to be evenly distributed across family roles. Extension of conflict was constrained by constant probability of a next conflict move occurring. Most conflicts ended with no resolution. Mothers were most active in closing…

  19. Theoretical solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research activities at ORNL in theoretical solid state physics are described. Topics covered include: surface studies; particle-solid interactions; electronic and magnetic properties; and lattice dynamics

  20. Social networks and intergroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takács, Károly

    2002-01-01

    Conflicts between groups are among the most challenging problems of mankind. They arise as groups compete for the possession of certain scarce resources. Under what conditions does such competition lead to conflict or to a peaceful coexistence? Why do individual group members, despite the likelihood

  1. Climate Change, Conflict, and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akresh, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We have good reason to predict that a warming climate will produce more conflict and violence. A growing contingent of researchers has been examining the relationship in recent years, and they've found that hotter temperatures and reduced rainfall are linked to increases in conflict at all scales, from interpersonal violence to war. Children are…

  2. Managing conflict in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weygman, L

    1986-08-01

    Conflict is inevitable in the workplace. Mounting pressures to reduce staffing levels and improve productivity will almost certainly increase the level of conflict in the hospital setting in the coming months and years. The most effective managers will be those who can handle it constructively.

  3. The Logic of Animal Conflict

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is not surprising that ani- mals are often in conflict because they compete for limited resources. What is surprising however is that such conflict is often re- solved by a trial of strength, followed by the weaker ani- mal surrendering resources to the stronger rival, with- out an injurious fight until. A sparring match between male ...

  4. Auditory Conflict Processing in ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, Rosa; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Konig, Claudia; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    Background: Impaired cognitive control has been implicated as an important developmental pathway to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Cognitive control is crucial to suppress interference resulting from conflicting information and can be measured by Stroop-like tasks. This study was conducted to gain insight into conflict processing…

  5. Conflict Elaboration and Cognitive Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchs, Celine; Butera, Fabrizio; Mugny, Gabriel; Darnon, Celine

    2004-01-01

    This article presents advice for teachers about using sociocognitive conflicts to promote academic learning. In doing so, the conditions under which sociocognitive conflicts are constructive or disruptive are examined and the relevant research is reviewed on social development, cooperative learning, and social influence. Two types of conflict…

  6. Conflict management in online relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kumi

    2010-08-01

    With the diffusion of networked technology, personal relationships can be easily formed and maintained online today. Similar to a face-to-face situation, conflict is also seen in these online relationships. Early theories suggested that computer-mediated communication (CMC) tends to increase conflicts because of the lack of social-context cues, and CMC is not rich enough to manage conflict. As CMC has become part of our daily life, we often face conflict online, and thus we need to understand how people manage conflict online. This study explored how online users manage interpersonal conflict. Self-report survey data from 159 university students were analyzed to examine their conflict-management styles in association with the perceived closeness of the online relationship and a future intention toward the relationship. The results indicated that online users select cooperative management styles to handle conflict in their close relationships. In addition, online users avoid less cooperative styles when they want to continue the relationship.

  7. Functional imaging of decision conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pochon, J.B.; Riis, J.; Sanfey, A.G.; Nystrom, L.E.; Cohen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Decision conflict occurs when people feel uncertain as to which option to choose from a set of similarly attractive ( or unattractive) options, with many studies demonstrating that this conflict can lead to suboptimal decision making. In this article, we investigate the neurobiological underpinnings

  8. Worldview conflict in daily life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, M.J.; Crawford, Jarret; van Tongeren, D.R.

    2018-01-01

    Building on laboratory- and survey-based research probing the psychology of ideology and the experience of worldview conflict, we examined the association between worldview conflict and emotional reactions, psychological well-being, humanity esteem, and political ideology in everyday life using

  9. Barriers to fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriman, A.C.; Butt, R.D.; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D.J.; Morton, C.R.; Newton, J.O.

    1999-01-01

    The fusion barrier is formed by the combination of the repulsive Coulomb and attractive nuclear forces. Recent research at the Australian National University has shown that when heavy nuclei collide, instead of a single fusion barrier, there is a set of fusion barriers. These arise due to intrinsic properties of the interacting nuclei such deformation, rotations and vibrations. Thus the range of barrier energies depends on the properties of both nuclei. The transfer of matter between nuclei, forming a neck, can also affect the fusion process. High precision data have been used to determine fusion barrier distributions for many nuclear reactions, leading to new insights into the fusion process

  10. Extremal surface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Wall, Aron C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a generic condition for Lorentzian manifolds to have a barrier that limits the reach of boundary-anchored extremal surfaces of arbitrary dimension. We show that any surface with nonpositive extrinsic curvature is a barrier, in the sense that extremal surfaces cannot be continuously deformed past it. Furthermore, the outermost barrier surface has nonnegative extrinsic curvature. Under certain conditions, we show that the existence of trapped surfaces implies a barrier, and conversely. In the context of AdS/CFT, these barriers imply that it is impossible to reconstruct the entire bulk using extremal surfaces. We comment on the implications for the firewall controversy

  11. Safety- barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2008-01-01

    Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called 'bow-tie' diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation of safety-barrier diagrams to other methods such as fault...... trees and Bayesian networks is discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk analysis with operational safety management....

  12. Safety-barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2007-01-01

    Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called "bow-tie" diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation with other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian networks...... are discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed, including situations where safety barriers depend on shared common elements. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk...... analysis with operational safety management....

  13. Email Adaptation for Conflict Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Joyce Yi‐Hui; Panteli, Niki; Bülow, Anne Marie

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the context of email‐based communication in anestablished but fragile, inter‐organisational partnership, which wasoften overlain with conflict. Drawing upon adaptation theory, thisstudy explores how participants adapt to the use of email to handleconflict. Extensive data were...... obtained during a 6‐month field studyof a case of cross‐border inter‐organisational collaboration in EastAsia. We observed that the individuals involved in the cross‐borderpartnership used email as a lean form of communication to stopcovert conflict from explicitly emerging. In contrast to prior researchon...... the leanness of email in managing conflict, we found that underthe described conflict situation the very leanness of emailwas appreciated and thus, exploited by those concerned tomanage the conflict situation. Specifically, we identified 4 keyconflict‐triggered adaptation strategies, namely...

  14. The high cost of conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forté, P S

    1997-01-01

    Conflict is inevitable, especially in highly stressed environments. Clinical environments marked by nurse-physician conflict (and nurse withdrawal related to conflict avoidance) have been proven to be counterproductive to patients. Clinical environments with nurse-physician professional collegiality and respectful communication show decreased patient morbidity and mortality, thus enhancing outcomes. The growth of managed care, and the organizational turmoil associated with rapid change, makes it imperative to structure the health care environment so that conflict can be dealt with in a safe and healthy manner. Professional health care education programs and employers have a responsibility to provide interactive opportunities for multidisciplinary audiences through which conflict management skills can be learned and truly change the interpersonal environment. Professionals must be free to focus their energy on the needs of the patient, not on staff difficulties.

  15. Creating constructive outcomes in conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, B

    1998-06-01

    1. Conflict and disagreement are a fact of business life. Effort toward optomizing differences rather than minimizing them is a value added activity--leading to greater creativity, increasing levels of respect in relationships, and better solutions. 2. Proactively looking at potential conflict--where diasgreeing parties are often inherent and/or predictable--can save energy, relationships, and costly mistakes. Diagnosing or "reading" a situation and planning an approach is wise. 3. Several options or responses are available when facing conflict. Knowing when to use a given response is an important interpersonal skill. Relying on learned, habitual, and exclusive approaches to conflict may be limiting. 4. Implementation of effective conflict resolution is a function of attitude, initiative, and flexibility. An exploratory posture and a willingness to learn are constructive in attempting to reach agreements with optimum short and long term effect.

  16. Understanding and managing conservation conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redpath, Steve M; Young, Juliette; Evely, Anna; Adams, William M; Sutherland, William J; Whitehouse, Andrew; Amar, Arjun; Lambert, Robert A; Linnell, John D C; Watt, Allan; Gutiérrez, R J

    2013-02-01

    Conservation conflicts are increasing and need to be managed to minimise negative impacts on biodiversity, human livelihoods, and human well-being. Here, we explore strategies and case studies that highlight the long-term, dynamic nature of conflicts and the challenges to their management. Conflict management requires parties to recognise problems as shared ones, and engage with clear goals, a transparent evidence base, and an awareness of trade-offs. We hypothesise that conservation outcomes will be less durable when conservationists assert their interests to the detriment of others. Effective conflict management and long-term conservation benefit will be enhanced by better integration of the underpinning social context with the material impacts and evaluation of the efficacy of alternative conflict management approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mismatch and conflict: neurophysiological and behavioral evidence for conflict priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Ralph; Meuth, Sven G; Kräuchi, Kurt; Schmidlin, Maria; Müller-Spahn, Franz; Falkenstein, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Conflict-related cognitive processes are critical for adapting to sudden environmental changes that confront the individual with inconsistent or ambiguous information. Thus, these processes play a crucial role to cope with daily life. Generally, conflicts tend to accumulate especially in complex and threatening situations. Therefore, the question arises how conflict-related cognitive processes are modulated by the close succession of conflicts. In the present study, we investigated the effect of interactions between different types of conflict on performance as well as on electrophysiological parameters. A task-irrelevant auditory stimulus and a task-relevant visual stimulus were presented successively. The auditory stimulus consisted of a standard or deviant tone, followed by a congruent or incongruent Stroop stimulus. After standard prestimuli, performance deteriorated for incongruent compared to congruent Stroop stimuli, which were accompanied by a widespread negativity for incongruent versus congruent stimuli in the event-related potentials (ERPs). However, after deviant prestimuli, performance was better for incongruent than for congruent Stroop stimuli and an additional early negativity in the ERP emerged with a fronto-central maximum. Our data show that deviant auditory prestimuli facilitate specifically the processing of stimulus-related conflict, providing evidence for a conflict-priming effect.

  18. CONFLICT PERSONALITY AS A PARTICIPANT OF CONFLICT DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyranyan Margarita Yuryevna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The conflict discourse as a communicative event reveals the characteristics of its participants as linguistic personalities. In this respect, this study enables us to reveal and describe their personal and social features. Undoubtedly, the individual characteristics of participants, their cultural and ideological differences and similarities have a great impact on the interaction process in general and on the use of linguistic means in particular. To better understand the nature of conflict discourse, its causes and consequences, one should take into account that adverse behaviour depends on the personality type and the role the speaker plays in different situations. Conflict personality is referred to as an archetype, transcendental phenomenon common to everybody. The research revealed such key characteristics typical of conflict personality as: verbal (use of language units with "conflict" connotation, the "manipulation" of speech means that convey negative, conflict meaning in particular contexts and non-verbal (communicative aim, communication medium, pre- and post-supposition of the speaker and the listener, mode of behaviour. It also proved that conflict patterns of behavior may lead to confrontation and/or transfer of collaborative interaction into an adverse one.

  19. Local Political Conflict and Pela Gandong Amidst the Religious Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonny SB Hoedodo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pela Gandong which is believed by Ambonese for its propitiational value is in fact failed to prevent horizontal conflict that victimized a big number of life and financial damages. However, Wayame villagem is found to survive from those conflicts, and the community of this village, comprising of Islam and Christian religious group, succeeds to maintain harmonious relation. The research aims at, first, describing the perception of Wayamae village community to Pela Gandong in the post-conflict period; second, analyzing the cultural competence of pela Gandong in conflict resolution in the era of technology. This research employed qualitative method, involving in-field data gathering based on official report, digging out information from the resource persons who were directly witnessing the conflict when it occured and other references obtained through Forum Group Discussion (FGD. An analysis was performed to seek answer concerning on how the community of Wayame village viewed Pela Gandong in post-conflict period, how it is – as a local wisdom – maintained in the middle of changing and how Pela Gandong was revitalized. Research showed that Pela Gandong was maintained by involving all elements such as customary community and the government. Pela Gandong grew as the icon of Ambonese society in settling conflicts by raising awareness that they are Eastern people, collectivistic in nature, and place kinship into priority.

  20. The no conclusion intervention for couples in conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migerode, Lieven

    2014-07-01

    Dealing with difference is central to all couple therapy. This article presents an intervention designed to assist couples in handling conflict. Central to this approach is the acceptance that most conflicts cannot be solved. Couples are in need of a different understanding of couples conflict. This understanding is found in the analysis of love in context and in relational dialectics. Couples are guided through different steps: deciding on the valence of the issue as individuals, helping them decide which differences can be resolved and which issues demand new ways of living with the inevitable, and the introduction in the suggested no conclusion dialogue. This article briefly describes the five day intensive couple therapy program, in which the no intervention is embedded. The theoretical foundation of the intervention, followed by the step by step description of the intervention forms the major part of the article. A case vignette illustrates this approach. © 2012 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  1. Advanced communication skills: conflict management and persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Marigene

    2002-11-01

    principles used in persuasion. Each student had the opportunity to make a five-to-ten-minute persuasive speech, the topic to be applicable to the student's specialty, which was reviewed by his peers. Feedback was tailored specifically to the different principles of persuasion. The curriculum was judged to be effective in changing confidence and attitudes as evidenced by pre- and post-course evaluations that students filled out during the last session of the class. Six things contributed to its success: (1) the class was offered as a fourth-year seminar; students could see its relevance and therefore were motivated to learn. (2) Activities were designed to build on learning in ways that graduated from passive to active. In such a way the theoretical was made practical. (3) Feedback was immediate and congruent. For example, the evaluators and patient-actors were all trained in the conflict management principles taught. (4) Feedback done by peer review allowed students to internalize strategies. (5) Concrete steps were given for behavioral change. (6) Small-group sessions invited camaraderie and allowed for individualized attention. Future activities include integrating this curriculum into residency teaching; the course is a continuation of a first-year course on interviewing skills taken by every student.

  2. Is consciousness necessary for conflict detection and conflict resolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ling; Wang, Baoxi; Zhang, Qinglin

    2013-06-15

    Is conflict control dependent on consciousness? To answer this question, we used high temporal resolution event-related potentials (ERPs) to separate conflict detection from conflict resolution in a masked prime Stroop task. Although behavioral interference effect was present in both the masked and unmasked conditions, the electrophysiological findings revealed more complex patterns. ERP analyses showed that N450 was greater for incongruent trials than for congruent trials and that it was located in the ACC and nearby motor cortex, regardless of whether the primes were masked or unmasked; however, the effects were smaller for the masked than unmasked condition. These results suggest that consciousness of conflict information may not be necessary for detecting conflict, but that it may modulate conflict detection. The analysis of slow potential (SP) amplitude showed that it distinguished incongruent trials from congruent trials, and that this modulation effects was reduced to a greater extent for the masked condition than for the unmasked condition. Moreover, the prefrontal-parietal control network was activated under the unmasked but not under the masked condition. These results suggest that the consciousness of conflict information may be a necessary boundary condition for the subsequent initiation of control operations in the more extended PFC-parietal control network. However, considering that the conflict interference effect was significantly reduced in the masked condition, it may be that, with larger unconscious conflict effects, more extensive cognitive control networks would have been activated. These findings have important implications for theories on the relationship between consciousness and cognitive control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of Conflict Resolution Training on Conflict Handling Styles of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waithaka, Abel Gitimu; Moore-Austin, Shante'; Gitimu, Priscilla N.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of conflict resolution skills training on conflict handling styles, and conflict orientation of college students. Conflict handling styles was measured by the Thomas-Kilmann MODE instrument, while Conflict orientation was measured by conflict orientation survey instrument. A sample of 135…

  4. Theoretical Physics Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a survey of the studies done in the Theoretical Physics Division of the Nuclear Physics Institute; the subjects studied in theoretical nuclear physics were the few-nucleon problem, nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, weak interactions, intermediate energy and high energy physics. In this last field, the subjects studied were field theory, group theory, symmetry and strong interactions [fr

  5. How is environmental conflict addressed by SIA?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    The fields of Environmental Conflict Management (ECM), Environmental Conflict Resolution (ECR), and Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) have become well established; however, as yet there has not been much use of Social Impact Assessment (SIA) to manage environmental conflicts. ECM, ECR and PCIA are mainly undertaken when problems are advanced or, more likely, have run their course (post-conflict). This paper examines how conflict is addressed by SIA and whether there is potential to develop it for more proactive assessment of conflicts (pre-conflict or while things develop). SIA has the potential to identify and clarify the cause(s) of environmental and natural resources conflicts, and could possibly enable some avoidance or early mitigation. A promising approach may be for 'conflict-aware' SIA to watch for critical conflict stages or thresholds and to monitor stakeholders. Effective conflict-aware SIA might also significantly contribute to efforts to achieve sustainable development.

  6. Management of Conflicts within Beer Drinking Settings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    toshiba

    2017-10-07

    Oct 7, 2017 ... Key words: conflict resolution, conflict management, public sphere, beer, conflict ... Alcohol is any beverage planned for consumption having least possible .... dropping out of school due to lack of good food and tuition fees ...

  7. Intergenerational Conflicts among Latinos in Early Adulthood: Separating Values Conflicts with Parents from Acculturation Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Jessica; Basanez, Tatiana; Farahmand, Anahita

    2010-01-01

    An investigation of Latino and non-Latino college students sought to examine the ways in which perceived intergenerational conflicts with parents are related to acculturation, family dynamics, and psychosocial functioning. Participants reported the extent to which they experienced two types of intergenerational conflicts with parents:…

  8. Resonant tunneling via spin-polarized barrier states in a magnetic tunnel junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.; Lodder, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Resonant tunneling through states in the barrier of a magnetic tunnel junction has been analyzed theoretically for the case of a spin-polarized density of barrier states. It is shown that for highly spin-polarized barrier states, the magnetoresistance due to resonant tunneling is enhanced compared

  9. Task conflict and relationship conflict in top management teams: the pivotal role of intragroup trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, T L; Peterson, R S

    2000-02-01

    Task conflict is usually associated with effective decisions, and relationship conflict is associated with poor decisions. The 2 conflict types are typically correlated in ongoing groups, however, which creates a prescriptive dilemma. Three explanations might account for this relationship--misattribution of task conflict as relationship conflict, harsh task conflict tactics triggering relationship conflict, and misattribution of relationship conflict as task conflict. The authors found that intragroup trust moderates the relationship between task conflict and relationship conflict in 70 top management teams. This result supports the "misattribution of task conflict" explanation. The authors also found a weak effect that is consistent with the argument that tactical choices drive the association between the 2 conflict types. We infer that trust is a key to gaining the benefits of task conflict without suffering the costs of relationship conflict.

  10. Linking Work-Family Conflict to Career Commitment: The Moderating Effects of Gender and Mentoring among Nigerian Civil Servants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okurame, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Little research attention has been given to the linkage between work-family conflict and career commitment. Likewise, although, theoretical arguments about the moderator effects of mentoring on the relationship between work-family conflict and career attitudes have been made in the literature, no research has investigated this assumption. This…

  11. Climate change, conflict and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Devin C; Butler, Colin D; Morisetti, Neil

    2015-10-01

    Future climate change is predicted to diminish essential natural resource availability in many regions and perhaps globally. The resulting scarcity of water, food and livelihoods could lead to increasingly desperate populations that challenge governments, enhancing the risk of intra- and interstate conflict. Defence establishments and some political scientists view climate change as a potential threat to peace. While the medical literature increasingly recognises climate change as a fundamental health risk, the dimension of climate change-associated conflict has so far received little attention, despite its profound health implications. Many analysts link climate change with a heightened risk of conflict via causal pathways which involve diminishing or changing resource availability. Plausible consequences include: increased frequency of civil conflict in developing countries; terrorism, asymmetric warfare, state failure; and major regional conflicts. The medical understanding of these threats is inadequate, given the scale of health implications. The medical and public health communities have often been reluctant to interpret conflict as a health issue. However, at times, medical workers have proven powerful and effective peace advocates, most notably with regard to nuclear disarmament. The public is more motivated to mitigate climate change when it is framed as a health issue. Improved medical understanding of the association between climate change and conflict could strengthen mitigation efforts and increase cooperation to cope with the climate change that is now inevitable. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  12. Conflict and Ambiguity: Implementing Evolutionary Acquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sylvester, Richard

    2003-01-01

    .... Organizational conflict is inevitable but not necessarily counterproductive. In fact the original policy can be improved as the organization undergoes an iterative process of interpretation conflict and refinement.

  13. Conflict with less distress: promoting team effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, V I; Bennett, J A; Birdsall, C

    1993-01-01

    As nurses increasingly turn to teamwork as a viable option for accomplishing a myriad of duties and responsibilities, they are discovering that teamwork can also be a source of conflict and stress. This article suggests that conflict is both inevitable and necessary within a team. A model of conflict is presented that aims not at reducing conflict, but at making it less distressing and thus more effective. The authors trace the influence of pre-conflict conditions and perspective-taking on conflict and ultimately team effectiveness. Finally, to apply the conflict model to practice, two examples are presented demonstrating both an ineffective and an effective use of conflict.

  14. Conflict and human African trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang-Ford, Lea; Lundine, Jamie; Breau, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) has reemerged in sub-Saharan Africa as a disease of major public health importance. The success of HAT elimination in sub-Saharan Africa is subject to the feasibility of controlling, eliminating, or mitigating the determinants of incidence in affected countries. Conflict has been widely recognized and cited as a contributing factor to the resurgence of HAT in many countries, as well as to continuing HAT incidence in politically unstable and resource-poor regions. Despite extensive anecdotal and qualitative recognition of the role of conflict, there has been no quantitative research of this topic at the population level in affected African countries. We characterize the qualitative and quantitative associations between HAT incidence and conflict-related processes in HAT-affected African countries over the past 30 years. HAT and conflict-related data were collected for 35 affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa for the years 1976-2004. Descriptive and univariate inferential statistics, as well as negative binomial regression modeling, are used to assess the associations between HAT and conflict. A space-time scan statistic is used to identify significant incidence clusters. Clusters of HAT incidence over the past 30 years have predominantly coincided with periods of conflict or socio-political instability. HAT cases occurred significantly more often in countries and during years with conflict, high political terror, and internationalized civil war. The results indicate a lag period between the start of conflict events and a peak in incidence of approximately 10 years. We recommend explicit consideration and quantification of socio-political measures such as conflict and terror indices in GIS (Geographic Information Systems)-based risk assessments for HAT policy and intervention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Correlates and Predictors of Conflict at the End of Life Among Families Enrolled in Hospice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Betty J; Boelk, Amy Z

    2015-08-01

    Despite the palliative care mandate to view family as the unit of care, and the high prevalence and detrimental consequences of conflict at the end of life, little research has been conducted with hospice families to understand what contributes to family conflict. Using a recently generated explanatory matrix of family conflict at the end of life, this study sought to identify the correlates and predictors of family conflict. As part of a larger mixed methods cross-sectional study, a 100-item survey was administered to 161 hospice family caregivers enrolled in a Medicare/Medicaid certified non-profit hospice organization located in the Midwest U.S. Although overall levels of conflict were relatively low, 57% of hospice caregivers reported experiencing some family conflict at the end of life. Contextual variables associated with family conflict included a history of family conflict, female gender, younger caregiver age, presence of children in the home, and less advance care planning discussions. Significant main effects in the prediction of family conflict in the final hierarchical multiple regression model included prior family conflict, caregiver age, caregiver gender, advance care planning discussions, family "coming out of the woodwork," communication constraints, and family members asserting control. The model explained 59% of the variance in family conflict. Results support the multidimensional theoretical model of family conflict specifying the importance of the family context, key conditions that set the stage for conflict, and essential contributing factors. Implications for routine assessment and screening to identify families at risk and recommendations for future research are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Decision Model Assessing the Owner and Contractor’s Conflict Behaviors in Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangdong Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the effects of the contractor’s conflict behaviors on the project benefit, a decision model between the owner and contractor’s conflict behaviors in construction projects was constructed using the principal-agent theory and game theory. The model was analyzed under nonconflicting and conflicting conditions, and a numerical simulation and example analysis were proposed to verify the constructed model’s conclusion. The results showed that the effort levels of the owner and contractor not only relate to benefit-sharing coefficient and effort outcome coefficient but also depend on the contractor’s ability of converting the conflict into benefit and the loss caused by conflict behaviors. A higher ability of converting conflicts into benefits and lower levels of the loss caused by conflict behaviors for the contractor lead to lower levels of the net benefit of the owner, conversely higher levels of the net benefit of the contractor. Balancing the contractor’s ability of converting conflicts into benefits and the loss caused by conflict behaviors lead to a more reasonable risk allocation between the owner and contractor, improving the effort level and net benefit. To add value to the construction project, the owner should establish an impartial and reasonable benefit-sharing mechanism, optimize the owner and contractor’s resource arrangement, maximize the positive effect of conflict on project benefits, and avoid the negative effect of conflict. Few studies to date have investigated the effects of conflict behaviors on project benefits in terms of modeling and simulation in construction projects. As such, this study bridges this gap and contributes significant theoretical and practical insights about managing conflict behaviors in an interorganizational context, thus enhancing performance in construction projects.

  17. Prevention and management of conflicts in the field of municipal services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lobyzenkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, it is difficult to imagine the existence of people, organizations, societies without conflicts. By themselves, these differences and contradictions can be a positive factor in the development of relations between people and those groups and organizations to which they are united. However, becoming sharp, they can interfere with the successful collaboration and lead to conflict. As many volume categories, the concept of conflict has many definitions and interpretations. One of them defines conflict as a lack of agreement between two or more parties that may be specific individuals or groups. Others invest in the conflict procedure, activity be suitable, considering the conflict active actions of each party sharing of their goals. A colored strong emotional feelings. Summarizing the different points of view, the authors referred to have conflict as a way to interact in the presence of contradictions and incompatible views, positions and interests, as a confrontation between interconnected, but following their purpose two or more parties. Exploring the theoretical side of the conflict, the article notes that it is a meaningful way to determine the object and subject of the conflict. In this regard reveals the content of the object, the subject of the conflict, the issues concerning the process of conflict management in the sphere of municipal service. Based on the analysis of law enforcement practice considers ways to manage and resolve conflicts, noted their negative influence in the power structures, which reduces credibility and confidence in the institution of public service as a whole by society. To improve the efficiency of state and municipal employees, the authors covered technology and ways of conflict management, methods of their overcoming and solutions.

  18. Decreasing barriers for nurse practitioner social entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Dayle B; Monsivais, Diane

    2014-10-01

    To describe difficulties associated with the business-related aspects of practice in role transition of rural nurse practitioners (NPs), and to give practice implications. This focused ethnographic study derived data from semi-structured interviews. Participants provided information about rural NP practice ownership and barriers. The sample consisted of 24 rural NPs living throughout the United States. The majority were 51-60 years of age (45%) and females (93%) who had been in rural practice for 1 to over 20 years. NP social entrepreneurs experience difficulties related to scope of practice, business skills, and role conflict. To decrease barriers for NP clinic ownership and management, NPs need to receive education related to financing a rural practice, legal/regulatory practices, strategic planning, leadership, and clinic management. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  19. Fire barrier problems-part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verna, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    This article deals with problems associated with a thermal barrier material called Thermo-Lag 330. Typically in nuclear applications this material is used to provide either 1 hour (1/2 inch thick) or 3 hour (1 inch thick) barriers to prevent the spread of fires between redundant safety systems, and to protect cable trays and conduit. The article reviews concerns within the nuclear industry as to the proper handling of the material, how to interpret the data available on the material, the apparant conflicting assessments of the material when tested by different groups, etc. Research is ongoing on the suitability of the material, but the article points out that the manufacturer feels it should be installed by properly trained installers, the joints sealed with a grouting material, properly bundled to maintain its integrity, have a complete stress skin, and not be walked on after installation in order to function properly

  20. Conflict and conflict resolution in Africa: Engaging the colonial factor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maintaining colonial-style approaches to African conflicts at the expense of a ... Educational Leadership at the College of Education and Human Services, University of .... Colonial rule was the antithesis of democracy, because it was premised.

  1. Environmental conflicts and philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugallo, Alicia Irene

    2006-01-01

    In 1998 the Yungas forest of Argentina became the subject of tremendous debates, caused by the construction of the Norandino Gas-pipeline. Apart from technical and financial considerations, the discussion of constructing the duct confronted the different actors in questions of great ethical relevance. Environmental activists assumed positions that not only consider persons, but also the rest of living beings as morally relevant. An untenable strong anthropocentrism, which is a predominant attitude in our developed societies, was questioned. The final implementation of the Yungas Biosphere Reserve showed the conflictive process as a 'witness case' in which the will to dialogue and the wise rationality have predominated, with the application of a new active conservationist, which make it possible to make compatible human development with care of the environment. The incorporation of socio-cultural topics to conservation imply a true conceptual and methodological revolution, taking into account the intangible and not quantifiable elements of action and human spirit, the different perceptions of each population, their development way and life quality, their ambitions, the sense of belonging or of self-realization feeling

  2. Resolving conflicting safety cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slider, J.E.; Patterson, M.

    1993-01-01

    Several nuclear power plant sites have been wounded in the crossfire between two distinct corporate cultures. The traditional utility culture lies on one side and that of the nuclear navy on the other. The two corporate cultures lead to different perceptions of open-quotes safety culture.close quotes This clash of safety cultures obscures a very important point about nuclear plant operations: Safety depends on organizational learning. Organizational learning provides the foundation for a perception of safety culture that transcends the conflict between utility and nuclear navy cultures. Corporate culture may be defined as the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs shared by employees of a given company. Safety culture is the part of corporate culture concerning shared attitudes and beliefs affecting individual or public safety. If the safety culture promotes behaviors that lead to greater safety, employees will tend to open-quotes do the right thingclose quotes even when circumstances and formal guidance alone do not ensure that actions will be correct. Safety culture has become particularly important to nuclear plant owners and regulators as they have sought to establish and maintain a high level of safety in today's plants

  3. Types of conflict, types of relationships and preferred conflict resolution strategies: Implications for constructive conflict resolution programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Danijela S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Constructive conflict resolution programmes are based on the idea that children and youth do no have sufficient knowledge of the procedures and skills for conflict resolution, which is why the conflicts they take part in soon become destructive. Notwithstanding the indubitable practical significance of the constructive conflict resolution programmes, it can be objected that they are not sufficiently based on empirical findings about the characteristics of conflicts in childhood and adolescence. Hence, this paper explores different types of conflict with peers and friends with the aim of determining the preferred conflict resolution strategies and using the obtained results to consider the implications for the improvement of constructive conflict resolution programmes. The research was conducted on the sample of 286 adolescents. The method of hypothetical conflict situations was used for studying the preferred conflict resolution strategies. The key results, which should be taken into account when developing constructive conflict resolution programmes, indicate that the preference for a conflict resolution strategy varies depending on conflict type (problem solving is mostly used in conflicts occurring due to opinion differences and disrespect of agreement, unlike the conflicts arising due to provocations, stubbornness and dishonesty and relationship types (in conflicts with friends, adolescents prefer problem solving, while in peer conflicts they more frequently opt for competition. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018: Identifikacija, merenje i razvoj kognitivnih i emocionalnih kompetencija važnih društvu orijentisanom na evropske integracije

  4. Digital Images and Globalized Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette; Mortensen, Mette; Neumayer, Christina

    2017-01-01

    As the number of digital images of globalized conflicts online grow, critical examination of their impact and consequence is timely. This editorial provides an overview of digital images and globalized conflict as a field of study by discussing regimes of visibility and invisibility, proximity...... and distance, and the multiplicity of images. It engages critically with these interlinking themes as they are addressed in the contributing articles to the Special Issue as well as beyond, asking how genres and tropes are reproduced, how power plays a role in access to images, and how the sheer quantity...... of conflict-related images raise issues of knowledge production and research....

  5. Assessing bear-human conflicts in the Yukon Territory

    OpenAIRE

    Lukie, Raechel Dawn

    2010-01-01

    Managing conflicts between bears and humans is vital for human safety and for the conservation of bears. This study investigated black bear (Ursus americanus) and grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) interactions with humans in 18 major communities of the Yukon Territory. I used an information theoretic approach to generate predictive models of the relative potential of bear-human interaction for the 9 conservation officer management regions in the Yukon Territory. I independently modeled interactions...

  6. Multilayer moisture barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, Joel W; Jorgensen, Gary J; Terwilliger, Kent M; Glick, Stephen H; Isomaki, Nora; Harkonen, Kari; Turkulainen, Tommy

    2015-04-21

    A moisture barrier, device or product having a moisture barrier or a method of fabricating a moisture barrier having at least a polymer layer, and interfacial layer, and a barrier layer. The polymer layer may be fabricated from any suitable polymer including, but not limited to, fluoropolymers such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), or ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). The interfacial layer may be formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In embodiments featuring an ALD interfacial layer, the deposited interfacial substance may be, but is not limited to, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, AlSiO.sub.x, TiO.sub.2, and an Al.sub.2O.sub.3/TiO.sub.2 laminate. The barrier layer associated with the interfacial layer may be deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The barrier layer may be a SiO.sub.xN.sub.y film.

  7. Theoretical nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Blatt, John M

    1979-01-01

    A classic work by two leading physicists and scientific educators endures as an uncommonly clear and cogent investigation and correlation of key aspects of theoretical nuclear physics. It is probably the most widely adopted book on the subject. The authors approach the subject as ""the theoretical concepts, methods, and considerations which have been devised in order to interpret the experimental material and to advance our ability to predict and control nuclear phenomena.""The present volume does not pretend to cover all aspects of theoretical nuclear physics. Its coverage is restricted to

  8. Human mesostriatal response tracks motivational tendencies under naturalistic goal conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Tal; Soreq, Eyal; Eldar, Eran; Ben-Simon, Eti; Raz, Gal; Hendler, Talma

    2016-06-01

    Goal conflict situations, involving the simultaneous presence of reward and punishment, occur commonly in real life, and reflect well-known individual differences in the behavioral tendency to approach or avoid. However, despite accumulating neural depiction of motivational processing, the investigation of naturalistic approach behavior and its interplay with individual tendencies is remarkably lacking. We developed a novel ecological interactive scenario which triggers motivational behavior under high or low goal conflict conditions. Fifty-five healthy subjects played the game during a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. A machine-learning approach was applied to classify approach/avoidance behaviors during the game. To achieve an independent measure of individual tendencies, an integrative profile was composed from three established theoretical models. Results demonstrated that approach under high relative to low conflict involved increased activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), peri-aquaductal gray, ventral striatum (VS) and precuneus. Notably, only VS and VTA activations during high conflict discriminated between approach/avoidance personality profiles, suggesting that the relationship between individual personality and naturalistic motivational tendencies is uniquely associated with the mesostriatal pathway. VTA-VS further demonstrated stronger coupling during high vs low conflict. These findings are the first to unravel the multilevel relationship among personality profile, approach tendencies in naturalistic set-up and their underlying neural manifestation, thus enabling new avenues for investigating approach-related psychopathologies. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. ARMED CONFLICT IN CHECHNYA IN EUROPEAN (NON ENGLISH HISTORIOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Николай Николаевич Малишевский

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of historiography of the armed conflict in the Chechen Republic. The activephase of themilitary operationsofthe armed conflictin Chechnyawas completedin2001. At that timehistorians, analysts andjournalists created awide range of theoretical worksconcerningthe conflict.Inthese publications there were discussed a number of commonfeaturesofthe use ofbasicresources. The degree ofaccessibilityof the sourceswhichfocus onthe descriptionof the conflictand itssocio-political assessment is of great importance for researchersand their objectives. The author analyzes Western (European historiography of the armed conflict in the Chechen Republic. It considers the publications and specialized monographs of European (French, German and Polish authors on the subjects under research. There areput forward the ideas of the consequences of the armed conflict in the Chechen Republic, articulated in the works of European researchers.For the first time within the study of the Western historiography of the war in Chechnya the author analyzes the main blocks of the supposed and factual consequences of the conflict for both the Russian and Chechen sides. The European historiography, dedicated tothe armed conflictin Chechnya, is just being developedand thestate ofitsdocumentarycomplexis characterized bya number ofqualitative changes.

  10. Resolving social conflict among females without overt aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cant, Michael A; Young, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    Members of animal societies compete over resources and reproduction, but the extent to which such conflicts of interest are resolved peacefully (without recourse to costly or wasteful acts of aggression) varies widely. Here, we describe two theoretical mechanisms that can help to understand variation in the incidence of overt behavioural conflict: (i) destruction competition and (ii) the use of threats. The two mechanisms make different assumptions about the degree to which competitors are socially sensitive (responsive to real-time changes in the behaviour of their social partners). In each case, we discuss how the model assumptions relate to biological reality and highlight the genetic, ecological and informational factors that are likely to promote peaceful conflict resolution, drawing on empirical examples. We suggest that, relative to males, reproductive conflict among females may be more frequently resolved peacefully through threats of punishment, rather than overt acts of punishment, because (i) offspring are more costly to produce for females and (ii) reproduction is more difficult to conceal. The main need now is for empirical work to test whether the mechanisms described here can indeed explain how social conflict can be resolved without overt aggression.

  11. Human mesostriatal response tracks motivational tendencies under naturalistic goal conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Tal; Soreq, Eyal; Eldar, Eran; Ben-Simon, Eti; Raz, Gal

    2016-01-01

    Goal conflict situations, involving the simultaneous presence of reward and punishment, occur commonly in real life, and reflect well-known individual differences in the behavioral tendency to approach or avoid. However, despite accumulating neural depiction of motivational processing, the investigation of naturalistic approach behavior and its interplay with individual tendencies is remarkably lacking. We developed a novel ecological interactive scenario which triggers motivational behavior under high or low goal conflict conditions. Fifty-five healthy subjects played the game during a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. A machine-learning approach was applied to classify approach/avoidance behaviors during the game. To achieve an independent measure of individual tendencies, an integrative profile was composed from three established theoretical models. Results demonstrated that approach under high relative to low conflict involved increased activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), peri-aquaductal gray, ventral striatum (VS) and precuneus. Notably, only VS and VTA activations during high conflict discriminated between approach/avoidance personality profiles, suggesting that the relationship between individual personality and naturalistic motivational tendencies is uniquely associated with the mesostriatal pathway. VTA–VS further demonstrated stronger coupling during high vs low conflict. These findings are the first to unravel the multilevel relationship among personality profile, approach tendencies in naturalistic set-up and their underlying neural manifestation, thus enabling new avenues for investigating approach-related psychopathologies. PMID:26833917

  12. Perceived threat and perceived neglect: Couples' underlying concerns during conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Keith

    2010-06-01

    The Couples Underlying Concern Inventory assesses 2 fundamental types of distress that couples experience during interpersonal conflict. Perceived threat involves a perception that one's partner is blaming and controlling the self. Perceived neglect involves a perception that one's partner is failing to make desired contributions or investments. Scales measuring these 2 underlying concerns were developed in Study 1, where a sample of 1,224 married people rated a pool of 57 words describing oneself and perceptions of a partner during a specific episode of conflict. Factor analysis identified 2 dimensions, and 2 brief 8-item scales were created. In Study 2, a sample of 2,315 married people completed the resulting 16-item inventory along with 10 self-report scales measuring types of emotion, cognition, and behavior during conflict. A 2-dimensional factor structure was confirmed, and measurement invariance was demonstrated across 4 racial/ethnic groups. Both perceived threat and perceived neglect correlated with relationship satisfaction and conflict communication. More importantly, each concern was associated with a different, and theoretically expected, set of variables regarding self emotion, emotion perceived in a partner, and cognition during conflict.

  13. A geostatistical analysis of the association between armed conflicts and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Africa, 1997-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedda, Luigi; Qi, Qiuyin; Tatem, Andrew J

    2015-12-16

    The absence of conflict in a country has been cited as a crucial factor affecting the operational feasibility of achieving malaria control and elimination, yet mixed evidence exists on the influence that conflicts have had on malaria transmission. Over the past two decades, Africa has seen substantial numbers of armed conflicts of varying length and scale, creating conditions that can disrupt control efforts and impact malaria transmission. However, very few studies have quantitatively assessed the associations between conflicts and malaria transmission, particularly in a consistent way across multiple countries. In this analysis an explicit geostatistical, autoregressive, mixed model is employed to quantitatively assess the association between conflicts and variations in Plasmodium falciparum parasite prevalence across a 13-year period in sub-Saharan Africa. Analyses of geolocated, malaria prevalence survey variations against armed conflict data in general showed a wide, but short-lived impact of conflict events geographically. The number of countries with decreased P. falciparum parasite prevalence (17) is larger than the number of countries with increased transmission (12), and notably, some of the countries with the highest transmission pre-conflict were still found with lower transmission post-conflict. For four countries, there were no significant changes in parasite prevalence. Finally, distance from conflicts, duration of conflicts, violence of conflict, and number of conflicts were significant components in the model explaining the changes in P. falciparum parasite rate. The results suggest that the maintenance of intervention coverage and provision of healthcare in conflict situations to protect vulnerable populations can maintain gains in even the most difficult of circumstances, and that conflict does not represent a substantial barrier to elimination goals.

  14. Barrier penetration database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainberg, A.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1978-11-01

    This document is intended to supply the NRC and nuclear power plant licensees with basic data on the times required to penetrate forcibly the types of barriers commonly found in nuclear plants. These times are necessary for design and evaluation of the physical protection system required under 10CFR73.55. Each barrier listed is described in detail. Minor variations in basic barrier construction that result in the same penetration time, are also described

  15. Individual differences in conflict detection during reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Darren; Johnson, Eric D; De Neys, Wim

    2018-05-01

    Decades of reasoning and decision-making research have established that human judgment is often biased by intuitive heuristics. Recent "error" or bias detection studies have focused on reasoners' abilities to detect whether their heuristic answer conflicts with logical or probabilistic principles. A key open question is whether there are individual differences in this bias detection efficiency. Here we present three studies in which co-registration of different error detection measures (confidence, response time and confidence response time) allowed us to assess bias detection sensitivity at the individual participant level in a range of reasoning tasks. The results indicate that although most individuals show robust bias detection, as indexed by increased latencies and decreased confidence, there is a subgroup of reasoners who consistently fail to do so. We discuss theoretical and practical implications for the field.

  16. Transport barriers in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, I L; Szezech, J D Jr; Kroetz, T; Marcus, F A; Roberto, M; Viana, R L; Lopes, S R

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the creation of transport barriers in magnetically confined plasmas with non monotonic equilibrium radial profiles. These barriers reduce the transport in the shearless region (i.e., where the twist condition does not hold). For the chaotic motion of particles in an equilibrium electric field with a nonmonotonic radial profile, perturbed by electrostatic waves, we show that a nontwist transport barrier can be created in the plasma by modifying the electric field radial profile. We also show non twist barriers in chaotic magnetic field line transport in the plasma near to the tokamak wall with resonant modes due to electric currents in external coils.

  17. Information system conflicts: causes and types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Boonstra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts are an inherent part of organizational life and managers deal with confrontations and conflicts on an almost daily basis. Information Systems (IS implementations are a type of change that often leads to open or hidden conflicts. Managers and others involved can only deal with such conflicts effectively if they understand the nature and causes of information system conflicts (IS conflicts. To contribute to such an understanding, this study focuses on the analysis of IS conflicts. In so doing, it aims to identify various types of IS conflicts and to develop a framework that can be helpful in assessing these conflicts. To this end, we have conducted a meta-ethnographic study – that is, we synthesized earlier case studies in which IS conflicts are described. We purposefully selected 11 descriptions of IS conflicts and we analyzed the topics, contexts, and processes of these conflicts. Based on this analysis, we propose a two-dimensional framework of IS conflicts that leads to a categorization involving four IS conflict types: task; implementation process; structure; and value conflicts. Based on the conflicts that were studied, this paper also reveals that, in reality, many IS conflicts have a hybrid form and develop from one type to another over time.

  18. Theoretical Computer Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    The proceedings contains 8 papers from the Conference on Theoretical Computer Science. Topics discussed include: query by committee, linear separation and random walks; hardness results for neural network approximation problems; a geometric approach to leveraging weak learners; mind change...

  19. Summary on Theoretical Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Soffer, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    During the five days of this conference a very dense scientific program has enlighted our research fields, with the presentation of large number of interesting lectures. I will try to summarize the theoretical aspects of some of these new results.

  20. Theoretical physics division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    The studies in 1977 are reviewed. In theoretical nuclear physics: nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, intermediate energy physics; in elementary particle physics: field theory, strong interactions dynamics, nucleon-nucleon interactions, new particles, current algebra, symmetries and quarks are studied [fr

  1. Theoretical physics division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Research activities of the theoretical physics division for 1979 are described. Short summaries are given of specific research work in the following fields: nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, intermediate energy physics, elementary particles [fr

  2. A Theoretical Approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    L-rhamnose and L-fucose: A Theoretical Approach ... L-ramnose and L-fucose, by means of the Monte Carlo conformational search method. The energy of the conformers ..... which indicates an increased probability for the occurrence of.

  3. Conflicts of the Global State

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubec, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2016), s. 378-392 ISSN 2159-8282 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : global state * global * conflicts * critical theory * recognition Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  4. Revisiting peace and conflict studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    dominant geopolitics it initially set out to criticise. Secondly, I will map – undoubtedly in cursory and incomplete fashion – the scholarly communities and literatures dealing with questions of peace and conflict. Rather than a literature review or an attempt at synthesis, my purpose is to highlight...... the broad variety of existing units of analysis, motivations, theories and methodologies of peace and conflict studies. Thirdly, I will propose a number of suggestions for a research attitude that, in absence of a better word, I subsume under the heading of ‘critical peace and conflict research’, striving...... to understand peace and conflict as concomitantly subjective and objective, as critique and hegemony, as normative and value-free, as local and global....

  5. Neurovascular conflict in oculomotor imbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Agafonovna Totolyan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article, based on the data of Russian and foreign literature, considers modern approaches to the understanding of neurovascular conflict (NVC term, different causes of its development and realization mechanisms; statistical data are presented on its occurrence in different medical specialties; modern approaches to early diagnosis of neurovascular conflicts are covered. Special attention is drawn to oculomotor imbalances being one of neurovascular conflict manifestations. Based on global experience, approaches to most exact and early diagnosis are described, differences in notion terminology of neurovascular contact and neurovascular conflict are shown. As most effective method for NVC diagnosis, the use of neurovisualization method, that is high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI (high field MRI, is positioned.

  6. Conflict Resolution for Contrasting Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Clifford C.; Lipp, G. Douglas

    1998-01-01

    A seven-step process can help people from different cultures understand each other's intentions and perceptions so they can work together harmoniously: problem identification, problem clarification, cultural exploration, organizational exploration, conflict resolution, impact assessment, and organizational integration. (JOW)

  7. Conflict in medical teams: opportunity or danger?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Lindred L; Saygi, Ozum; Aaldering, Hillie; de Dreu, Carsten K W

    2012-10-01

      Intragroup conflicts often occur when people are called upon to collaborate in the accomplishment of a task. For example, when surgeons and nurses work together during an operation, conflicts may emerge because of differences in functional understanding. Whether these conflicts are beneficial or detrimental to team outcomes has been the source of much debate. From one perspective, a conflict that stems from differences in members' functional understanding may enhance team members' understanding and performance of the task at hand. By contrast, such a conflict may cause hostility, emotionality and distraction from actual task accomplishment.   This study reviews findings on the relationships between intragroup conflict and team outcomes, discusses potential conflict resolution strategies for intragroup conflicts and explores how these link to the field of medical education.   Three primary types of conflict have been distinguished, involving, respectively, task-, process- and relationship-associated conflict. Both process conflict, or conflict about the logistics of task accomplishment, and relationship conflict, or conflict about interpersonal incompatibilities, have been shown to detract from effective team functioning. Task conflict, or conflict about the content of the task itself, is also generally negative for team functioning, but under certain conditions its negative effects may be minimised. For example, when teams can clearly separate task issues from relationship issues, task conflicts are less destructive for team outcomes. However, achieving such a separation in practice, and thereby realising the benefits of task conflict, is quite difficult to achieve.   Intragroup conflicts pose a challenge to effective team functioning. In the education of medical professionals, effective training in conflict management skills and their application to specific team conflict dynamics, such as with reference to how to resolve task as opposed to relationship

  8. Distribution Channels Conflict and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran, Dr Vasanth; Majumdar, Dr Mousumi; Kishore, Dr Krishna

    2012-01-01

    Relationships in distribution channels tend to be long-term oriented and members of the channel rely on each other to jointly realize their goals by serving buyers. Despite the channels focus on serving buyers, conflicts often arise between channel members because of each members self-interest. When conflicts arise, the perceptions of a channel member based on normative, rational/instrumental, or emotional reasoning will influence relational norms like trust and commitment that characterize t...

  9. [Conflict of interest and bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemelmajer De Carlucci, Aida

    2014-06-01

    "Conflicts of interests" is a multi-meaning expression. To give a juridical concept is not easy because this concept is applied in public and private law. Maybe this is the reason of not having a law giving a valid definition in any case In health area, a conflict of interests is present many times, i.e. at the beginning of a research, when informing its results, etc. This conflict of interests may affect different aspects of the research work, economic or not; sometimes totally or partially. The economic resources is one of the most common reasons of the conflict of interests. The mass media often cause conflicts of interests informing the general public about new scientific discovery in a simple way to be understood but without been quite assertive. Other times, great enterprises hide information about new and better medicines due to the fact that they have many old medicines that should be sold before introducing in the market the new ones. From the academic point of view, conflicts may arise when the public funds are wrongly used to support unworthy researches.

  10. Genomic Signatures of Sexual Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimatis, Katja R; Nelson, Thomas C; Phillips, Patrick C

    2017-10-30

    Sexual conflict is a specific class of intergenomic conflict that describes the reciprocal sex-specific fitness costs generated by antagonistic reproductive interactions. The potential for sexual conflict is an inherent property of having a shared genome between the sexes and, therefore, is an extreme form of an environment-dependent fitness effect. In this way, many of the predictions from environment-dependent selection can be used to formulate expected patterns of genome evolution under sexual conflict. However, the pleiotropic and transmission constraints inherent to having alleles move across sex-specific backgrounds from generation to generation further modulate the anticipated signatures of selection. We outline methods for detecting candidate sexual conflict loci both across and within populations. Additionally, we consider the ability of genome scans to identify sexually antagonistic loci by modeling allele frequency changes within males and females due to a single generation of selection. In particular, we highlight the need to integrate genotype, phenotype, and functional information to truly distinguish sexual conflict from other forms of sexual differentiation. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Emotional conflict in interpersonal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruz, María; Tudela, Pío

    2011-01-15

    Facial displays of emotions can help to infer the mental states of other individuals. However, the expectations we generate on the basis of people's emotions can mismatch their actual behaviour in certain circumstances, which generates conflict. In the present study, we explored the neural mechanisms of emotional conflict during interpersonal interactions. Participants had to accept or reject economic offers made by several partners who displayed emotional expressions. On every trial, a cue informed participants of whether they could trust the emotion of their partner or not. Trustworthy (low-conflict) partners with happy facial expressions were cooperative and those with angry expressions did not cooperate. Untrustworthy (high-conflict) partners, on the other hand, cooperated when their expression was angry and did not cooperate when they displayed a happy emotion. Behavioural responses were faster for trustworthy than for untrustworty partners. High-conflict partners activated the anterior cingulate and the anterior insula. In turn, trustworthy partners were associated with activations in the left precuneus. Our results suggest that the emotion displayed by another person affects our decision-making in social contexts. When emotional expressions are linked to their natural consequences, they engage ToM processes. In contrast, untrustworthy emotional expressions engage conflict-related brain regions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental changes and violent conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernauer, Thomas; Böhmelt, Tobias; Koubi, Vally

    2012-01-01

    This letter reviews the scientific literature on whether and how environmental changes affect the risk of violent conflict. The available evidence from qualitative case studies indicates that environmental stress can contribute to violent conflict in some specific cases. Results from quantitative large-N studies, however, strongly suggest that we should be careful in drawing general conclusions. Those large-N studies that we regard as the most sophisticated ones obtain results that are not robust to alternative model specifications and, thus, have been debated. This suggests that environmental changes may, under specific circumstances, increase the risk of violent conflict, but not necessarily in a systematic way and unconditionally. Hence there is, to date, no scientific consensus on the impact of environmental changes on violent conflict. This letter also highlights the most important challenges for further research on the subject. One of the key issues is that the effects of environmental changes on violent conflict are likely to be contingent on a set of economic and political conditions that determine adaptation capacity. In the authors' view, the most important indirect effects are likely to lead from environmental changes via economic performance and migration to violent conflict. (letter)

  13. Phonon tunneling through a double barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas, Diosdado; León-Pérez, Fernando de; Pérez-Álvarez, R.; Arriaga, J.

    2015-01-01

    The tunneling of optical and acoustic phonons at normal incidence on a double-barrier is studied in this paper. Transmission coefficients and resonance conditions are derived theoretically under the assumption that the long-wavelength approximation is valid. It is shown that the behavior of the transmission coefficients for the symmetric double barrier has a Lorentzian form close to resonant frequencies and that Breit–Wigner's formula have a general validity in one-dimensional phonon tunneling. Authors also study the so-called generalized Hartman effect in the tunneling of long-wavelength phonons and show that this effect is a numerical artifact resulting from taking the opaque limit before exploring the variation with a finite barrier width. This study could be useful for the design of acoustic devices

  14. Phonon tunneling through a double barrier system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villegas, Diosdado [Departamento de Física, Universidad Central “Marta Abreu” de Las Villas, CP 54830, Santa Clara, Villa Clara (Cuba); Instituto de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 18 Sur y San Claudio, Edif. 110A, Ciudad Universitaria, 72570 Puebla (Mexico); León-Pérez, Fernando de [Centro Universitario de la Defensa de Zaragoza, Ctra. de Huesca s/n, E-50090 Zaragoza (Spain); Pérez-Álvarez, R. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca (Mexico); Arriaga, J., E-mail: arriaga@ifuap.buap.mx [Instituto de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 18 Sur y San Claudio, Edif. 110A, Ciudad Universitaria, 72570 Puebla (Mexico)

    2015-04-15

    The tunneling of optical and acoustic phonons at normal incidence on a double-barrier is studied in this paper. Transmission coefficients and resonance conditions are derived theoretically under the assumption that the long-wavelength approximation is valid. It is shown that the behavior of the transmission coefficients for the symmetric double barrier has a Lorentzian form close to resonant frequencies and that Breit–Wigner's formula have a general validity in one-dimensional phonon tunneling. Authors also study the so-called generalized Hartman effect in the tunneling of long-wavelength phonons and show that this effect is a numerical artifact resulting from taking the opaque limit before exploring the variation with a finite barrier width. This study could be useful for the design of acoustic devices.

  15. The environmental impact of civil conflict The deforestation effect of paramilitary expansion in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Leopoldo Fergussony Dario Romeroz Juan F. Vargas

    2013-01-01

    Despite a growing body of literature on how environmental degradation can fuel civil war, the reverse effect, namely that of conflict on environmental outcomes, is relatively understudied. From a theoretical point of view, this effect is ambiguous, with some forces pointing to pressures for environmental degradation and some pointing in the opposite direction. Hence, the overall effect of conflict on the environment is an empirical question. We study this relationship in the case of Colombia....

  16. The environmental impact of civil conflict : the deforestation effect of paramilitary expansion in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Fergusson Talero, Leopoldo; Mendoza Romero, Dario; Vargas, Juan Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Despite a growing body of literature on how environmental degradation can fuel civil war, the reverse effect, namely that of conflict on environmental outcomes, is relatively understudied. From a theoretical point of view this effect is ambiguous, with some forces pointing to pressures for environmental degradation and some pointing in the opposite direction. Hence, the overall effect of conflict on the environment is an empirical question. We study this relationship in the case of Colombia. ...

  17. On the Conflict Mitigating Effects of Trade: The India-Pakistan Case

    OpenAIRE

    Mamoon, Dawood; S. Mansoob, Murshed

    2008-01-01

    We examine whether greater inter-state trade, democracy and reduced military spending lower belligerence between India and Pakistan. We begin with theoretical models covering the opportunity costs of conflict in terms of trade losses and security spending, as well as the costs of making concessions to rivals. Conflict between the two nations can be best understood in a multivariate framework where variables such as economic performance, integration with rest of the world, bilateral trade, mil...

  18. Nuclear proliferation: the U.S.-Indian conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chellaney, Brahma.

    1993-01-01

    The history of the present conflicting positions of U.S. and India on the issue of nuclear proliferation is narrated and various aspects of this U.S. India controversy are studied. These aspects are: U.S.-India cooperation in the nuclear field in the fifties and sixties; India's peaceful nuclear explosion (PNE) in 1974 and U.S. policy of containment through denial of nuclear fuel and spare parts supply for Tarapur Atomic Power Station; and the political, technical and legal aspects of the nuclear conflict between U.S. and India. Since India's PNE in 1974, U.S. has made India a target of its non-proliferation strategy and is coordinating multinational efforts in erecting barriers in the flow of dual-use sensitive technologies to India. The recent instance is U.S. pressure on Russia to cancel the contract with India to sell cryogenic rocket engine technology required for India's civilian space programme. Even though apparently the conflict is over nuclear proliferation issue, in essence it is a conflict between U.S. determination to restrict high-technology transfer to India on one hand and India's resolve to maintain its nuclear independence on the other hand. The study is based on primary sources in the form of U.S. and Indian government documents. Texts of important government documents are given in appendices and bibliographies of primary and secondary sources used in the study are included. (M.G.B.)

  19. Sub-barrier fusion: An experimental review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper contains a review of the current status of the experimental study of heavy-ion fusion at sub-barrier energies. Emphasis is placed on the comparison of the experimentally observed quantities with theoretical expectations. Results of measurements of the spin distributions of the composite systems formed following fusion are critically examined with a view to understanding the large discrepancies between theory and experiment which exist for some systems. 20 refs., 14 figs

  20. Types of conflict, types of relationships and preferred conflict resolution strategies: Implications for constructive conflict resolution programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Danijela S.; Vučetić Milica

    2012-01-01

    Constructive conflict resolution programmes are based on the idea that children and youth do no have sufficient knowledge of the procedures and skills for conflict resolution, which is why the conflicts they take part in soon become destructive. Notwithstanding the indubitable practical significance of the constructive conflict resolution programmes, it can be objected that they are not sufficiently based on empirical findings about the characteristics of conflicts in childhood and adol...

  1. Preparing Students for Early Work Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Laura L.; Larson, R. Sam

    2005-01-01

    To improve college students' skills in resolving workplace conflict, the authors studied the types of workplace conflicts that students encounter with peers or supervisors in part-time or seasonal work and with whom they discuss these conflicts. The authors found that most students report conflicts that are process or relational in nature, with…

  2. 32 CFR 776.6 - Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conflict. 776.6 Section 776.6 National Defense... Conflict. To the extent that a conflict exists between this part and the rules of other jurisdictions that... conflict between the rules contained in subpart B of this part and the rules of other jurisdictions shall...

  3. Evaluation conflicts in the enterprises activities

    OpenAIRE

    Podolchak, N.; Kovalchuk, G.

    2015-01-01

    It has been elaborated the method for quantitative evaluation of level and structure of the interpersonal management conflicts that prevail over the other conflicts in the machine-building enterprises functioning. According to the reasons of appearance investigated interpersonal management conflicts were divided into the following types: informational, behavioral, structural, conflicts of relationships and values.

  4. Information system conflicts : causes and types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, Albert; de Vries, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts are an inherent part of organizational life and managers deal with confrontations and conflicts on an almost daily basis. IS implementations are a type of change that often leads to open or hidden conflicts. Managers and others involved can only deal with such conflicts effectively if they

  5. 76 FR 61046 - TARP Conflicts of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... conflict may depend on a variety of factors, including the type of conflict, the scope of work under the... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 31 CFR Part 31 RIN 1505-AC05 TARP Conflicts of Interest AGENCY... interim rule that provided guidance on conflicts of interest pursuant to Section 108 of the Emergency...

  6. Conflict Management at School: An Unavoidable Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondesio, Mike J.

    Conflict management has become an integral part of a headmaster's tasks. Headmasters are not required to suppress or resolve conflict, but to manage it. Since 1976, conflict in black schools has increased, and headmasters have had to manage serious and dangerous situations. Unfortunately, there has been little research in conflict management in…

  7. Managing Conflict with Effective Communication Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Dick B.

    Conflict is a basic social process; there is no conceivable way of removing all conflict from an organization. Interpersonal conflict, often created by interdependency of people and tasks within an organization, lowers staff morale and employee productivity and drives people away. Difficult employees who foster conflicts fall into five distinct…

  8. IDENTIFYING THE CRITICAL CAUSES OF CONFLICT IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Completing construction projects entails inputs from various professional disciplines; this makes projects prone to conflicts. It has been acknowledged that management of conflict is crucial to improving project performance. Thus, understanding the causes of conflicts in construction project will ease the process of conflict ...

  9. Searching for climate-conflict links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Cullen S.

    2018-03-01

    Environmental scarcity caused by climate change has been implicated as a driver of violent conflict. Now, research shows significant bias in the regions analysed for climate-conflict links. This may limit understanding of the socioeconomic and political conditions in which such conflict occurs, and how these conflicts could be prevented.

  10. Constructive Management of Conflict in Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rex C.; Mitchell, Rie R.

    1984-01-01

    Provides a concise overview of important conflict management concepts and strategies for those working in group settings. Presents a brief conceptual basis for understanding conflict and group memebers' behavior when in conflict, followed by specific recommendations for managing and making use of conflict in groups. (JAC)

  11. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system. Specifically, we prove converse barrier certificate theorems for a class of structurally stable dynamical systems. Other authors have developed a related result by assuming that the dynamical system has neither...

  12. Nuclear Weapons in Russia's approach to conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Dave

    2016-11-01

    President Putin has moved nuclear weapons to the foreground of the European security landscape. New risks and dangers arise from the apparent coupling of nuclear weapons capabilities with Moscow's revanchist and irredentist foreign and defence policies toward its neighbours. Nuclear weapons are the central feature and capstone capability in Russia's evolving concept of strategic deterrence and are important tools for achieving Russia's geopolitical aims. Russian thinking on the role and place of nuclear weapons in upholding national security and in achieving strategic aims is reflected in military policy, force structure and posture, and exercises and operations. Russia's political and military leaders are not only re-conceptualising the role of nuclear weapons. They are also building the military capabilities that can credibly threaten the calibrated employment of nuclear weapons for deterrence, de-escalation and war-fighting from the regional to large-scale and global levels of conflict. New and still developing concepts for the employment of conventional long-range precision weapons in tandem with nuclear weapons for regional deterrence and containment of local and regional conflicts add volatility to the regional tensions and uncertainties created by recent Russian aggression. Russia's reliance upon integrated conventional and nuclear capabilities in reasserting its influence in its perceived sphere of special interest, intended to contain conflicts at a manageable level, could actually increase the risk of the potential employment of nuclear weapons. NATO nations collectively, and the three NATO nuclear powers (Great Britain, France, and the United States) individually, have recognized this new reality and have begun to adapt to it. In that context, the aim of this paper is to elaborate a clearer understanding of the place and role of nuclear weapons in Russia's approach to conflict, based on nuclear-related policy statements and military-theoretical writing

  13. Skin barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Renowned experts present the latest knowledge Although a very fragile structure, the skin barrier is probably one of the most important organs of the body. Inward/out it is responsible for body integrity and outward/in for keeping microbes, chemicals, and allergens from penetrating the skin. Since...... the role of barrier integrity in atopic dermatitis and the relationship to filaggrin mutations was discovered a decade ago, research focus has been on the skin barrier, and numerous new publications have become available. This book is an interdisciplinary update offering a wide range of information...... on the subject. It covers new basic research on skin markers, including results on filaggrin and on methods for the assessment of the barrier function. Biological variation and aspects of skin barrier function restoration are discussed as well. Further sections are dedicated to clinical implications of skin...

  14. Barriers to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, C T

    1986-09-01

    Opportunities for the British coal industry seem vast yet there are still barriers to progress. Seven areas are identified and discussed: mining mobility (for example, longwall mining systems are rigid and inflexible compared with American stall and pillar working); mine structure (many mines are more suitable to pit ponies than to large pieces of equipment); financial barriers (Government requires the industry to break even in 1987/88); personnel barriers (less specialization, better use of skills); safety barriers (increased use of remote control, ergonomics and robotics to protect workers); microelectronic management (nationalization has cushioned management from the market place; there is a need for a more multidisciplinary approach to the industry); and legal barriers (most legislation in the past has been in response to accidents; legislation external to the industry but affecting it is more fundamental).

  15. ANALYSIS ON CONFLICTS OF CHINA’S COAL TAX REFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the conflicts which are resulted from coal tax reform in China from economic and public policy perspectives. An analytical framework involving actors, values, interests and institution has been applied. China’s central government eagers to achieve fiscal revenue increase, environmental protection and energy conversation goals by a good governance of coal system. As a traditional and feasible policy instrument, taxation is regarded for dealing with energy issues in politics and governance. However, coal tax reform proposal has induced many controversies in China. The causes of that include value conflicts of all actors, competing interests of all parties and institutional barriers of economic, politics and legislation. Therefore, the government cannot regulate coal issues only through taxation. The case reveals that good governance on coal cannot be achieved only by economic tools as coal system contains so high stake and involves so many players.

  16. What Klein’s semantic gradient does and does not really show: decomposing Stroop interference into task and informational conflict components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia eLevin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study suggests that the idea that Stroop interference originates from multiple components may gain theoretically from integrating two independent frameworks. The first framework is represented by the well-known notion of semantic gradient of interference and the second one is the distinction between two types of conflict – the task and the informational conflict – giving rise to the interference (Goldfarb & Henik, 2007; McLeod & MacDonald, 2000. The proposed integration led to the conclusion that two (i.e., orthographic and lexical components of the four theoretically distinct components represent task conflict, and the other two (i.e., indirect and direct informational conflict components represent informational conflict. The four components were independently estimated in a series of experiments. The results confirmed the contribution of task conflict (estimated by a robust orthographic component and of informational conflict (estimated by a strong direct informational conflict component to Stroop interference. However, the performed critical review of the relevant literature (see General Discussion, as well as the results of the experiments reported, showed that the other two components expressing each type of conflict (i.e., the lexical component of task conflict and the indirect informational conflict were small, and unstable. The present analysis refines our knowledge of the origins of Stroop interference by providing evidence that each type of conflict has its major and minor contributions. The implications for cognitive control of an automatic reading process are also discussed.

  17. Gender differences in human interpersonal conflicts: A reply to Ingram et al. (2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnka, Radek

    2013-07-27

    In the article, I comment on the study results of Ingram et al. (2012). Feelings of anger were hypothesized to be reported more often in the descriptions of past conflicts of boys than in the descriptions of past conflicts of girls. However, the authors found that boys were no more likely than girls to describe feelings of anger ensuing from a conflict. An explanation of this interesting finding is not provided in the discussion section. The present study provides possible theoretical explanations for this finding, also using the results of our studies published in the past.

  18. Fighting over forest : toward a shared analysis of livelihood conflicts and conflict management in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkyi, M.A.A.; Ros-Tonen, M.A.F.; Kyereh, B.; Dietz, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts undermine forest-based livelihoods for the rural poor. Conflict management is key to preventing such conflicts. This article analyzes actor perceptions of forest- and tree-related conflicts and conflict management in Ghana's high forest zone. It also assesses a phased methodology that

  19. Fighting over forest: toward a shared analysis of livelihood conflicts and conflict management in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkyi, M.A.A.; Ros-Tonen, M.A.F.; Kyereh, B.; Dietz, T.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts undermine forest-based livelihoods for the rural poor. Conflict management is key to preventing such conflicts. This article analyzes actor perceptions of forest- and tree-related conflicts and conflict management in Ghana's high forest zone. It also assesses a phased methodology that

  20. Experimental evaluation of optimization method for developing ultraviolet barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonome, Hiroki; Okajima, Junnosuke; Komiya, Atsuki; Maruyama, Shigenao

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) barrier coatings can be used to protect many industrial products from UV attack. This study introduces a method of optimizing UV barrier coatings using pigment particles. The radiative properties of the pigment particles were evaluated theoretically, and the optimum particle size was decided from the absorption efficiency and the back-scattering efficiency. UV barrier coatings were prepared with zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2). The transmittance of the UV barrier coating was calculated theoretically. The radiative transfer in the UV barrier coating was modeled using the radiation element method by ray emission model (REM2). In order to validate the calculated results, the transmittances of these coatings were measured by a spectrophotometer. A UV barrier coating with a low UV transmittance and high VIS transmittance could be achieved. The calculated transmittance showed a similar spectral tendency with the measured one. The use of appropriate particles with optimum size, coating thickness and volume fraction will result in effective UV barrier coatings. UV barrier coatings can be achieved by the application of optical engineering.

  1. Conflict Resolution in Organization through Strategic Management

    OpenAIRE

    F. Zafar; H. Ashfaq; Muhammad Ahmad Ali; M. Imran

    2014-01-01

    This study reveals the conflict Resolution in organization through Strategic management. There are different causes of conflicts within Organization and impact of conflicts on organization performance. The past decade researches identify the negative relation of conflict with employee performance. The research methodology was case study approach of different National and Multinational companies. The aim of study is to alleviate conflicts in organization through strategic management for enhanc...

  2. Role of conflict in decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellman, H.S.

    1986-01-01

    In the siting process for a low-level waste disposal facility, there is a place for conflict, negotiation, arbitration, and public involvement. Contrary to popular belief, conflict is good. It signals pluralism and demonstrates a distribution of power. Conflict should not be eliminated because it is a dynamic method of decision-making. Conflict causes negotiation, which leads to compromise. Conflict is the product of the legitimacy of dissent

  3. The conciliation of collective labour conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Iulia Badoi

    2013-01-01

    The present article envisages presenting the conciliation as a resolution procedure for the conflicts of interests/collective labour conflicts. The conciliation was stipulated as a resolution procedure for the conflicts of interests/collective labour conflicts even from the first acts that regulated this domain, being foreseen as a mandatory phase within the process of solving this type of conflicts. The subject of conciliation was approached before within the doctrine, from this juridical in...

  4. Interpersonal conflict: strategies and guidelines for resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, D E; Bushardt, S C

    1985-02-01

    Historically, management theorists have recommended the avoidance or suppression of conflict. Modern management theorists recognize interpersonal conflict as an inevitable byproduct of growth and change. The issue is no longer avoidance of conflict but the strategy by which conflict is resolved. Various strategies of conflict resolution and the consequences of each are discussed in this article, along with guidelines for the effective use of confrontation strategy.

  5. Overcoming Barriers in Unhealthy Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Lemke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the phenomenon of sustained health-supportive behaviors among long-haul commercial truck drivers, who belong to an occupational segment with extreme health disparities. With a focus on setting-level factors, this study sought to discover ways in which individuals exhibit resiliency while immersed in endemically obesogenic environments, as well as understand setting-level barriers to engaging in health-supportive behaviors. Using a transcendental phenomenological research design, 12 long-haul truck drivers who met screening criteria were selected using purposeful maximum sampling. Seven broad themes were identified: access to health resources, barriers to health behaviors, recommended alternative settings, constituents of health behavior, motivation for health behaviors, attitude toward health behaviors, and trucking culture. We suggest applying ecological theories of health behavior and settings approaches to improve driver health. We also propose the Integrative and Dynamic Healthy Commercial Driving (IDHCD paradigm, grounded in complexity science, as a new theoretical framework for improving driver health outcomes.

  6. Nuclear power and political conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitschelt, H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper is limited to the first phase of conflict up to 1977. The various forms of controversy on the issue of nuclear energy are examined. The conflict is explained as being the result of relevant research and (energy) infrastructure policies. The first task of such an investigation is to analyse the depoliticization of nuclear energy policy which took place over a period of nearly 20 years (1955-1973/4). This depoliticization and non-decisionmaking on the social consequences of nuclear energy have laid the foundations for the development of the conflict which occured in the first cycle of the nuclear energy conflict. The second task is to highlight the social structure of the opposition movement, its forms of struggle, and the response of the state apparatus, The crisis of the nuclear power policy has led to a more or less distinct paralysis of the state apparatus because the political and industrial decisionmaking processes in this area were not designed to cope with social conflicts. In fact, their very structure had excluded the possibility of political opposition to a specific technology. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Vehicle barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper

  8. CONFLICT BETWEEN LEGAL OPINIONS OF ECHR AND NATIONAL CONSTITUTIONAL COURTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Nadtochey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of research is a relationship between ECHR and constitutional courts in various jurisdictions.The main aim of this article is to research the conflict between opinions of ECHR and national Constitutional courts, and also to find the root of this conflict.The methodology of this research consists of universal methods (such as analysis, synthesis, comparison and jurisprudence-specific methods.In the course of research, the author used various theoretical sources, ECHR case-law and decisions of various national Constitutional Courts.Results. At this point of time, there are many theories that try to explain the relationship between international and national law. But their functioning can be observed only in practice. Many jurisdictions adhere to the concept of Dualism.National Constitutional courts may perceive legal opinions in two different ways: adhere to the legal opinion of ECHR or reach a different conclusion, different to that of ECHR.Because national Constitutional courts and ECHR employ different systems for establishing whether rights of the claimant were violated or not, courts may give more weight to the different factors.In the article, the author focuses attention on such reason of the conflict as justification for limitation of one's rights.Conclusions. Conflict of legal opinions of ECHR and national Constitutional courts is of axiological nature. Conflict per se does not imply that a given national government decided to breach its international obligations. Because of subsidiary nature of ECHR protection, conflicts is rather an exception that could be dealt with than a rule.

  9. The Work-Family Conflict Scale (WAFCS): development and initial validation of a self-report measure of work-family conflict for use with parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Divna; Filus, Ania; Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew R; Fletcher, Renee

    2015-06-01

    This paper outlines the development and validation of the Work-Family Conflict Scale (WAFCS) designed to measure work-to-family conflict (WFC) and family-to-work conflict (FWC) for use with parents of young children. An expert informant and consumer feedback approach was utilised to develop and refine 20 items, which were subjected to a rigorous validation process using two separate samples of parents of 2-12 year old children (n = 305 and n = 264). As a result of statistical analyses several items were dropped resulting in a brief 10-item scale comprising two subscales assessing theoretically distinct but related constructs: FWC (five items) and WFC (five items). Analyses revealed both subscales have good internal consistency, construct validity as well as concurrent and predictive validity. The results indicate the WAFCS is a promising brief measure for the assessment of work-family conflict in parents. Benefits of the measure as well as potential uses are discussed.

  10. Towards A Theoretical Biology: Reminiscences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    engaged in since the start of my career at the University of Chicago. Theoretical biology was ... research on theoretical problems in biology. Waddington, an ... aimed at stimulating the development of such a theoretical biology. The role the ...

  11. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a converse barrier certificate theorem for a generic dynamical system.We show that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system defined on a compact manifold. Other authors have developed a related result, by assuming that the dynamical system has no singular...... points in the considered subset of the state space. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with generic dynamical systems with multiple singularities. Afterwards, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorem and illustrate the differences between ours and previous work...

  12. Identifying the barriers and enablers in the implementation of the New Zealand and Australian Antenatal Corticosteroid Clinical Practice Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Mc Goldrick

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ineffective implementation of evidence based practice guidelines can mean that the best health outcomes are not achieved. This study examined the barriers and enablers to the uptake and implementation of the new bi-national (Australia and New Zealand antenatal corticosteroid clinical practice guidelines among health professionals, using the Theoretical Domains Framework. Methods Semi-structured interviews or online questionnaires were conducted across four health professional groups and three district health boards in Auckland, New Zealand. The questions were constructed to reflect the 14 behavioural domains from the Theoretical Domains Framework. Relevant domains were identified by the presence of conflicting beliefs within a domain; the frequency of beliefs; and the likely strength of the impact of a belief on the behaviour using thematic analysis. The influence of health professional group and organisation on the different barriers and enablers identified were explored. Results Seventy-three health professionals completed either a semi-structured interview (n = 35 or on-line questionnaire (n = 38. Seven behavioural domains were identified as overarching enablers: belief about consequences; knowledge; social influences; environmental context and resource; belief about capabilities; social professional role and identity; and behavioural regulation. Five behavioural domains were identified as overarching barriers: environmental context and resources; knowledge; social influences; belief about consequences; and social professional role and identity. Differences in beliefs between individual health professional groups were identified within the domains: belief about consequences; social professional role and identity; and emotion. Organisational differences were identified within the domains: belief about consequences; social influences; and belief about capabilities. Conclusion This study has identified some of the

  13. Surmounting elusive barriers: the case for bioethics mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Edward J

    2013-01-01

    This article describes, analyzes, and advocates for management of clinical healthcare conflict by a process commonly referred to as bioethics mediation. Section I provides a brief introduction to classical mediation outside the realm of clinical healthcare. Section II highlights certain distinguishing characteristics of bioethics mediation. Section III chronicles the history of bioethics mediation and references a number of seminal writings on the subject. Finally, Section IV analyzes barriers that have, thus far, limited the widespread implementation of bioethics mediation.

  14. Fusion and quasi-elastic processes near the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abriola, D.

    1987-01-01

    An overview of the fusion phenomenon below Coulomb barrier is presented. The current theoretical descriptions, emphasizing the relations with direct reactions are discussed. The definition and systematic behaviour of the fusion enhancement below the Coulomb barrier are also presented. The role of coupling to surface degrees of freedom, namely permanent deformations of nuclei, inelastic and transfer channels is shown. The importance of studies describing simultaneously quase-elastic processes and fusion are also shown. (M.C.K.) [pt

  15. Regional conflicts and nuclear fears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subrahmanyam, K.

    1984-01-01

    The real danger of nuclear weapons in the Third World is not that developing countries will acquire them, but that advanced countries will intervene in Third World affairs with them. Nuclear weapons can play a part in Third World conflicts in two ways: a recognized nuclear weapon power can threaten to use the weapon in the conflict situation or a clandestine nuclear power may do so. In noting that most conflicts in the Third World can be sustained only through support from the developing countries, the author complains that the Non-Proliferation Treaty is pernicious because it legitimizes the use of nuclear weapons by a few weapon powers. He urges a two-step effort to pressure the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the United Nations to make nuclear weapons illegal. 17 references

  16. Local Water Conflict and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Hooper, Catherine; Munk Ravnborg, Helle

    2011-01-01

    in the five countries and discuss its implications. The present paper synthesizes possible ‘blind spots’ in the national policy, legal or administrative water governance frameworks with reference to the identified types of water-related conflictive and cooperative situations identified during the inventories.......In 2007 the Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) launched the research programme “Competing for Water: Understanding conflict and cooperation in local water governance”. Along with partners in five developing countries (Bolivia, Mali, Nicaragua, Vietnam and Zambia), the programme aims...... to contribute to “sustainable local water governance in support of the rural poor and otherwise disadvantaged groups in developing countries by improving the knowledge among researchers and practitioners of the nature, extent and intensity of local water conflict and cooperation and their social, economic...

  17. Automatic Conflict Detection on Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenech, Stephen; Pace, Gordon J.; Schneider, Gerardo

    Many software applications are based on collaborating, yet competing, agents or virtual organisations exchanging services. Contracts, expressing obligations, permissions and prohibitions of the different actors, can be used to protect the interests of the organisations engaged in such service exchange. However, the potentially dynamic composition of services with different contracts, and the combination of service contracts with local contracts can give rise to unexpected conflicts, exposing the need for automatic techniques for contract analysis. In this paper we look at automatic analysis techniques for contracts written in the contract language mathcal{CL}. We present a trace semantics of mathcal{CL} suitable for conflict analysis, and a decision procedure for detecting conflicts (together with its proof of soundness, completeness and termination). We also discuss its implementation and look into the applications of the contract analysis approach we present. These techniques are applied to a small case study of an airline check-in desk.

  18. Impact of Conflict and Displacement on Risk Behaviours Amongst People Who Inject Drugs in Kabul, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Catherine S.; Nasir, Abdul; Stanekzai, Mohammad Raza; Fiekert, Katja; Sipsma, Heather L.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Vlahov, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Theoretical work posits that drug-related risk behaviour increases during armed conflict; however, few studies have been conducted in conflict settings. The objective of this analysis is to determine whether conflict or local displacement impact risk behaviours among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Kabul, Afghanistan. Methods Consenting PWIDs aged ≥18 years completed interviews at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months of follow-up. Quarters with peak conflict or local displacement exposure were defined and associations with injecting drug use and sexual risk behaviours analysed with generalized estimating equations. Results Of 483 PWID enrolled, 385 completed ≥1 follow-up visit (483.8 person-years) between 2007 and 2009. All participants were male, with 35% initiating injecting as a refugee. Sharing syringes (Odds Ratio (OR))=8.53, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.58 – 28.2) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms (OR=1.72, 95% CI: 1.00 – 2.96) increased significantly during peak conflict quarters, while odds of STI symptoms (OR=0.06, 95% CI: 0.02 – 0.20) and arrest (OR=0.61, 95% CI: 0.40 – 0.93) were significantly lower during periods of displacement. Conclusion Syringe sharing significantly increased during peak conflict periods amongst PWID in Kabul. Programming should include instruction for coping with conflict and prepare clients for harm reduction needs during conflict. PMID:26303577

  19. Specificity of peer conflicts in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Danijela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the survey conducted on the sample of 530 adolescents are presented in this paper. The sample included two age groups (13 and 16 years. The research was realized in 11 town and 26 schools. The method of the retrospection of the conflict contents, with one week retrospection interval, was used to research the perception of the conflict characteristics. The distinctive characteristics and the effects of the peer conflicts in adolescence have been identified by comparing them to the conflicts with friends, romantic partners, siblings and teachers. According to the results peer conflicts have certain specificity. Although less frequent than conflicts with parents and siblings, the peer conflicts in adolescence are widen phenomenon - on average, the adolescents get in conflict with their peers more than 13 times in a week, almost twice in a day. The most frequent causes are teasing and inappropriate jokes, deliberate provoking, gossips, insults and not respecting the differences in opinion. Peers follow the teachers as the least important persons in the conflict. Compared to the conflicts in other types of the social relations, the conflicts with peers are the least uncomfortable. Yielding is the least, competition the most present resolution strategy in peer conflicts. As well as the most conflicts in this age conflicts with peers are short time episode.

  20. Affective and substantive conflicts and interpersonal conflict management styles in the Turkish organizational context

    OpenAIRE

    Eruzun, Ayşegül; Eruzun, Aysegul

    2004-01-01

    Previous literature on affective and substantive workplace conflicts has been dominated by studies on intragroup efficiency and effectiveness with little attention paid to the relationship between these types of conflicts and interpersonal conflict management styles. To improve understanding of how different types of conflicts are managed by employees this thesis has explored the relationship between affective and substantive types of conflicts and interpersonal conflict management styles in ...

  1. Behavioral Responses to Interpersonal Conflict in Decision Making Teams: A Clarification of the Conflict Phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Felice Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Interpersonal conflict in organizations plays an important role in performance, but the exact nature of that role remains unclear. Among conflict researchers a shift has occurred from believing that all conflict is debilitating for organizational performance to the realization that there are both positive and negative aspects of conflict. Contemporary research adopts a distinction between task conflict and relationship conflict. Conceptually, a positive relationship has been proposed between ...

  2. Organizational-professional conflict of I/O psychologists, job satisfaction and work engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Branko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available organizational-professional conflict occurs among employees in situations when organizational expectations and demands are opposed to the professional principles and standards. The results of studies have shown that this conflict negatively affects employees' attitude towards the job and affective-motivational state of fulfilment with work role. The purpose of this research was to examine exposure to organizational-professional conflict among I/O psychologists in Serbia, to find out whether there is a correlation between the exposure to organizational-professional conflict, job satisfaction and work engagement, and to determine the main factors of exposure to organizational-professional conflict. Our sample consisted of 96 I/O psychologists. Results have shown that there was significant high negative correlation between the exposure to organizational-professional conflict and job satisfaction, as well as significant moderate negative correlation between the exposure to organizational-professional conflict and work engagement. The highest correlations were with social dimensions of job satisfaction. The exposure to organizational-professional conflict was lower among I/O psychologists with longer work experience and those at higher positions in organizational hierarchy. The exposure to organizational-professional conflict was higher among I/O psychologists who were working in privately owned companies and among those who were fixed-term employees. There was no significant correlation between the exposure to organizational-professional conflict and the size of the organization or business field. Our study showed that organizational-professional conflict should be considered as an important theoretical and research topic, as well as a relevant professional and career issue.

  3. Armed Conflict in Colombia : Different Resources Different Conflicts ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Most research on armed conflict in Colombia has focused on the narcotics trade. Little attention has been ... From “gender as usual” to “gender as transformative” ... IDRC invites applications for the IDRC Doctoral Research Awards. IDRC is ...

  4. Information barriers and authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; Wolford, J.K.

    2001-01-01

    Acceptance of nuclear materials into a monitoring regime is complicated if the materials are in classified shapes or have classified composition. An attribute measurement system with an information barrier can be emplo,yed to generate an unclassified display from classified measurements. This information barrier must meet two criteria: (1) classified information cannot be released to the monitoring party, and (2) the monitoring party must be convinced that the unclassified output accurately represents the classified input. Criterion 1 is critical to the host country to protect the classified information. Criterion 2 is critical to the monitoring party and is often termed the 'authentication problem.' Thus, the necessity for authentication of a measurement system with an information barrier stems directly from the description of a useful information barrier. Authentication issues must be continually addressed during the entire development lifecycle of the measurement system as opposed to being applied only after the system is built.

  5. Barrier Infrared Detector (BIRD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in MWIR detector design, has resulted in a high operating temperature (HOT) barrier infrared detector (BIRD) that is capable of spectral...

  6. Protective barrier development: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, N.R.; Gee, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    Protective barrier and warning marker systems are being developed to isolate wastes disposed of near the earth's surface at the Hanford Site. The barrier is designed to function in an arid to semiarid climate, to limit infiltration and percolation of water through the waste zone to near-zero, to be maintenance free, and to last up to 10,000 yr. Natural materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, clay, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity and to create an integrated structure with redundant features. These materials isolate wastes by limiting water drainage; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling emission of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion. Westinghouse Hanford Company and Pacific Northwest Laboratory efforts to assess the performance of various barrier and marker designs will be discussed

  7. Engineered barriers: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, A.; Marsh, G.P.

    1988-01-01

    This report summarises the current state of research relevant to assessing the performance of engineered barriers made of steel and concrete in radioactive waste repositories. The objective of these barriers is to contain the radionuclides within them by providing both physical and chemical impediment to their release. The physical barriers are of most value for highly soluble isotopes with relatively short half-lives (eg 137 Cs), since they can provide containment until a large fraction of the activity has decayed. In addition they can facilitate retrievability for some period after disposal. The chemical barriers operate by beneficial conditioning of the near field groundwater and providing sites for sorption of radionuclides. Both of these reduce the aqueous concentration of radionuclides in the near field. (author)

  8. Flatness of the universe - Reconciling theoretical prejudices with observational data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M. S.; Steigman, G.; Krauss, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical prejudices argue strongly for a flat universe; however, observations do not support this view. It is pointed out that this apparent conflict could be resolved if the mass density of the universe today were dominated by (1) relativistic particles produced by the recent decay of massive, relic particle species, or by (2) a relic cosmological constant. Scenario (1) has several advantages in the context of galaxy formation, but must confront the problem of a young universe.

  9. Diagnosing a Strong-Fault Model by Conflict and Consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis method for a weak-fault model with only normal behaviors of each component has evolved over decades. However, many systems now demand a strong-fault models, the fault modes of which have specific behaviors as well. It is difficult to diagnose a strong-fault model due to its non-monotonicity. Currently, diagnosis methods usually employ conflicts to isolate possible fault and the process can be expedited when some observed output is consistent with the model’s prediction where the consistency indicates probably normal components. This paper solves the problem of efficiently diagnosing a strong-fault model by proposing a novel Logic-based Truth Maintenance System (LTMS with two search approaches based on conflict and consistency. At the beginning, the original a strong-fault model is encoded by Boolean variables and converted into Conjunctive Normal Form (CNF. Then the proposed LTMS is employed to reason over CNF and find multiple minimal conflicts and maximal consistencies when there exists fault. The search approaches offer the best candidate efficiency based on the reasoning result until the diagnosis results are obtained. The completeness, coverage, correctness and complexity of the proposals are analyzed theoretically to show their strength and weakness. Finally, the proposed approaches are demonstrated by applying them to a real-world domain—the heat control unit of a spacecraft—where the proposed methods are significantly better than best first and conflict directly with A* search methods.

  10. Diagnosing a Strong-Fault Model by Conflict and Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenfeng; Zhao, Qi; Zhao, Hongbo; Zhou, Gan; Feng, Wenquan

    2018-03-29

    The diagnosis method for a weak-fault model with only normal behaviors of each component has evolved over decades. However, many systems now demand a strong-fault models, the fault modes of which have specific behaviors as well. It is difficult to diagnose a strong-fault model due to its non-monotonicity. Currently, diagnosis methods usually employ conflicts to isolate possible fault and the process can be expedited when some observed output is consistent with the model's prediction where the consistency indicates probably normal components. This paper solves the problem of efficiently diagnosing a strong-fault model by proposing a novel Logic-based Truth Maintenance System (LTMS) with two search approaches based on conflict and consistency. At the beginning, the original a strong-fault model is encoded by Boolean variables and converted into Conjunctive Normal Form (CNF). Then the proposed LTMS is employed to reason over CNF and find multiple minimal conflicts and maximal consistencies when there exists fault. The search approaches offer the best candidate efficiency based on the reasoning result until the diagnosis results are obtained. The completeness, coverage, correctness and complexity of the proposals are analyzed theoretically to show their strength and weakness. Finally, the proposed approaches are demonstrated by applying them to a real-world domain-the heat control unit of a spacecraft-where the proposed methods are significantly better than best first and conflict directly with A* search methods.

  11. Collective Labour Conflicts in Companies and Public Institutions: Some Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca DIMITRIU

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Participation of the employees and of the public servants in collective labor conflicts constitutes a significant chapter regarding the concrete way in which the Romanian legislator implements the concept of flexicurity and re-defines labor relations. Indeed, the entire Romanian legislation on labor relations and dispute resolution has been tremendously changed in May 2011, and the impact of these changes is about to be very intense. The new law on collective labor conflicts, currently at crossroads, is rather susceptible to discourage the initiation of such conflicts and even to limit the freedom of strike. The legislator adopted a unified regulation, applicable to both employees and public servants; as such individuals who work under an employment contract are governed by the same dispute resolution norms as those individuals who perform their professional activity under an administrative act. Beyond the theoretical aspects that the new view of the Romanian laws on the labor conflict resolution raises, there are many direct, practical consequences, as well as difficulties that courts face since the entering into force of the new legislation. This study aims to analyze some of these practical consequences.

  12. Skin barrier composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osburn, F.G.

    1985-01-01

    A skin barrier composition comprises a mixture of a copolymer resin of ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA), and a water-insoluble dry tack-providing elastomer such as polyisobutylene. The composition after mixing and molding, is subjected to ionizing irradiation to form cross-linked polymer networks of the EVA. The compositions have exceptional properties for use as barrier sheets, rings, or strips in ostomy, wound drainage, and incontinence devices. (author)

  13. Skin barrier composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osburn, F G

    1985-06-12

    A skin barrier composition comprises a mixture of a copolymer resin of ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA), and a water-insoluble dry tack-providing elastomer such as polyisobutylene. The composition after mixing and molding, is subjected to ionizing irradiation to form cross-linked polymer networks of the EVA. The compositions have exceptional properties for use as barrier sheets, rings, or strips in ostomy, wound drainage, and incontinence devices.

  14. Fundamentals of the double-humped fission barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brack, M.

    1980-01-01

    We review the development of the theory of the fission barrier over the past forty years. Special emphasis is put on the shell-correction method of Strutinsky and its foundation and numerical verification from microscopical Hartree-Fock calculations. The different practical realisations of the method and its applications to the calculation of deformation energy surfaces are reviewed. The influence of the different shape degrees of freedom of the nucleus on the form of the fission barrier is discussed. Finally, we summarize some more recent developments concerning both experimental and theoretical aspects of the double-humped fission barrier. (author)

  15. Single-electron tunneling in double-barrier nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, V.J.; Su, B.; Cunningham, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors review experimental study of charge transport in nanometer double-barrier resonant tunneling devices. Heterostructure material is asymmetric: one barrier is substantially less transparent than the other. Resonant tunneling through size-quantized well states and single-electron charging of the well are thus largely separated in the two bias polarities. When the emitter barrier is more transparent than the collector barrier, electrons accumulate in the well; incremental electron occupation of the well is accompanied by Coulomb blockade leading to sharp steps of the tunneling current. When the emitter barrier is less transparent, the current reflects resonant tunneling of just one electron at a time through size-quantized well states; the current peaks and/or steps (depending on experimental parameters) appear in current-voltage characteristics. Magnetic field and temperature effects are also reviewed. Good agreement is achieved in comparison of many features of experimental data with simple theoretical models

  16. Conflicting Perspectives in Trade and Environmental Negotiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchner, B.K. [Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei FEEM, Milan (Italy); Roson, R. [Economics Department, Ca' Foscari University, Venice (Italy)

    2002-09-01

    International trade negotiations have recently tackled the issue of possible free trade restrictions, justified - among others - on the basis of environmental concerns. Also, some analyses of international environmental agreements (especially in the field of climate change) have highlighted the key role played by changes in the terms of trade in determining the cost of environmental policies. Yet, secondary effects of international trade remain disregarded in many environmental policies, whereas the introduction of environmental trade barriers has been resisted, arguing that this may hide a Trojan horse of a renewed protectionism. This paper reviews the debate on trade and the environment in the two fields of environmental and trade negotiations, highlighting the different and somewhat conflicting approach adopted in the two cases. A numerical general equilibrium model is used to illustrate how different 'perceptions' (translated in terms of alternative model closures) affect the use of instruments, the distributional impact of the various policies, and the strategic interplay between negotiators in international agreements.

  17. Compendium of theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter, Armin

    2006-01-01

    Mechanics, Electrodynamics, Quantum Mechanics, and Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics comprise the canonical undergraduate curriculum of theoretical physics. In Compendium of Theoretical Physics, Armin Wachter and Henning Hoeber offer a concise, rigorous and structured overview that will be invaluable for students preparing for their qualifying examinations, readers needing a supplement to standard textbooks, and research or industrial physicists seeking a bridge between extensive textbooks and formula books. The authors take an axiomatic-deductive approach to each topic, starting the discussion of each theory with its fundamental equations. By subsequently deriving the various physical relationships and laws in logical rather than chronological order, and by using a consistent presentation and notation throughout, they emphasize the connections between the individual theories. The reader’s understanding is then reinforced with exercises, solutions and topic summaries. Unique Features: Every topic is ...

  18. Concluding theoretical remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1986-01-01

    My task in this talk is to review the happenings of this workshop from a theoretical perspective, and to emphasize lines for possible future research. My remarks are organized into a theoretical overview of the what, why, (mainly the hierarchy problem) how, (supersymmetry must be broken: softly or spontaneously, and if the latter, by means of a new U tilde(1) gauge group or through the chiral superfields) when (how heavy are supersymmetric partner particles in different types of theories) and where (can one find evidence for) supersymmetry. In the last part are discussed various ongoing and future searches for photinos γ tilde, gravitinos G tilde, the U vector boson, shiggses H tilde, squarks q tilde and sleptons l tilde, gluinos g tilde, winos W tilde and other gauginos, as well as hunts for indirect effects of supersymmetry, such as for example in baryon decay. Finally there is a little message of encouragement to our experimental colleagues, based on historical precedent. (orig.)

  19. Theoretical atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Harald

    2017-01-01

    This expanded and updated well-established textbook contains an advanced presentation of quantum mechanics adapted to the requirements of modern atomic physics. It includes topics of current interest such as semiclassical theory, chaos, atom optics and Bose-Einstein condensation in atomic gases. In order to facilitate the consolidation of the material covered, various problems are included, together with complete solutions. The emphasis on theory enables the reader to appreciate the fundamental assumptions underlying standard theoretical constructs and to embark on independent research projects. The fourth edition of Theoretical Atomic Physics contains an updated treatment of the sections involving scattering theory and near-threshold phenomena manifest in the behaviour of cold atoms (and molecules). Special attention is given to the quantization of weakly bound states just below the continuum threshold and to low-energy scattering and quantum reflection just above. Particular emphasis is laid on the fundamen...

  20. Why mutual helping in most natural systems is neither conflict-free nor based on maximal conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bshary, Redouan; Zuberbühler, Klaus; van Schaik, Carel P

    2016-02-05

    Mutual helping for direct benefits can be explained by various game theoretical models, which differ mainly in terms of the underlying conflict of interest between two partners. Conflict is minimal if helping is self-serving and the partner benefits as a by-product. In contrast, conflict is maximal if partners are in a prisoner's dilemma with both having the pay-off-dominant option of not returning the other's investment. Here, we provide evolutionary and ecological arguments for why these two extremes are often unstable under natural conditions and propose that interactions with intermediate levels of conflict are frequent evolutionary endpoints. We argue that by-product helping is prone to becoming an asymmetric investment game since even small variation in by-product benefits will lead to the evolution of partner choice, leading to investments by the chosen class. Second, iterated prisoner's dilemmas tend to take place in stable social groups where the fitness of partners is interdependent, with the effect that a certain level of helping is self-serving. In sum, intermediate levels of mutual helping are expected in nature, while efficient partner monitoring may allow reaching higher levels. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Silicene: Recent theoretical advances

    KAUST Repository

    Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Zhu, Jiajie; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Silicene is a two-dimensional allotrope of silicon with a puckered hexagonal structure closely related to the structure of graphene and that has been predicted to be stable. To date, it has been successfully grown in solution (functionalized) and on substrates. The goal of this review is to provide a summary of recent theoretical advances in the properties of both free-standing silicene as well as in interaction with molecules and substrates, and of proposed device applications.

  2. Silicene: Recent theoretical advances

    KAUST Repository

    Lew Yan Voon, L. C.

    2016-04-14

    Silicene is a two-dimensional allotrope of silicon with a puckered hexagonal structure closely related to the structure of graphene and that has been predicted to be stable. To date, it has been successfully grown in solution (functionalized) and on substrates. The goal of this review is to provide a summary of recent theoretical advances in the properties of both free-standing silicene as well as in interaction with molecules and substrates, and of proposed device applications.

  3. MARKETING MIX THEORETICAL ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Išoraitė

    2016-01-01

    Aim of article is to analyze marketing mix theoretical aspects. The article discusses that marketing mix is one of the main objectives of the marketing mix elements for setting objectives and marketing budget measures. The importance of each element depends not only on the company and its activities, but also on the competition and time. All marketing elements are interrelated and should be seen in the whole of their actions. Some items may have greater importance than others; it depends main...

  4. Robustness - theoretical framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Rizzuto, Enrico; Faber, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    More frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure combined with increased requirements to efficiency in design and execution followed by increased risk of human errors has made the need of requirements to robustness of new struct...... of this fact sheet is to describe a theoretical and risk based framework to form the basis for quantification of robustness and for pre-normative guidelines....

  5. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1990-05-01

    This report discusses progress on theoretical high energy physics at Columbia University in New York City. Some of the topics covered are: Chern-Simons gauge field theories; dynamical fermion QCD calculations; lattice gauge theory; the standard model of weak and electromagnetic interactions; Boson-fermion model of cuprate superconductors; S-channel theory of superconductivity and axial anomaly and its relation to spin in the parton model

  6. 3. Theoretical Physics Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the period September 1980 - Aug 1981, the studies in theoretical physics divisions have been compiled under the following headings: in nuclear physics, nuclear structure, nuclear reactions and intermediate energies; in particle physics, NN and NantiN interactions, dual topological unitarization, quark model and quantum chromodynamics, classical and quantum field theories, non linear integrable equations and topological preons and Grand unified theories. A list of publications, lectures and meetings is included [fr

  7. Conflict Avoidance and University Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliacozzo, Daisy M.

    The conditions that intensify conflict avoidance by the central administration in making strategic decisions, and the consequences of such avoidance for the management of college affairs, are discussed. The implication of an emerging decision-making style for adapting the organization to changing environments is also considered. Some of the…

  8. African Journal on Conflict Resolution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal on Conflict Resolution (AJCR) publishes the writings of a wide range of African and international authors in the field, but emphasis has deliberately been kept on African writers and the thinking emerging from African universities, colleges and organisations. Other websites assiciated with this Journal: ...

  9. The semiosis of family conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter; Brinkmann, Svend

    2011-01-01

    by family members in attempts to break a cycle of conflict—violence but they also exacerbate negative emotions, which we see in the case of conflict. The article develops a critique of the practice of punishment and reward. By analyzing psychotherapy as signs and technologies of the self impacting family...

  10. Interactive behavior in conflict situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quant, M.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis deals with interactive behavior in conflict situations. The first chapters consider several issues in relation to bankruptcy theory. Thereafter, several operations research problems are modeled within the framework of cooperative game theory. The main focus is on what is optimal for a

  11. Sexual conflict and life histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedell, N.; Kvarnemo, C.; Lessells, C.M.; Tregenza, T.

    2006-01-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the costs of mating and in how this leads to sex differences in the optimal mating rate. Here, we attempt to look beyond an exclusive focus on matings to examine the fundamental conflicts that arise out of the fact that sexual reproduction involves investment in

  12. Distinguishing targets in armed conflict

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main object of international humanitarian law (IHL) is the amelioration of the effect of armed conflict on the populace. It seeks to accomplish this by establishing rules that ensure that objects the destruction of which will not give military advantage e are protected; thus, such objects are not to be targeted or destroyed.

  13. Peace and conflict in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many interpretations of peace and conflict in Africa are too simplistic. The book under review, therefore, seeks to deviate from those interpretations and provide a more detailed perspective. A collection of essays edited by David J. Francis, the book is touted as an introduction text to key themes with regard to peace and.

  14. Conflict resolution in Western Sahara

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for the North African region vis-à-vis their Realpolitik conflict containment approach towards the ... Sahara (MINURSO) effectively monitors the ceasefire and the region remains relatively stable. ...... Nación Árabe, 47, pp. 33–39. Mcelroy, D.

  15. Intragroup Conflict during Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodycott, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Co-national groups of individuals from the same country can provide members with psychological and sociocultural support when coping with the stresses of studying abroad. This article examines intragroup task and relationship conflict that occurred in one co-national group during a 14-week short-term study abroad program. Findings reveal the…

  16. The paradox of intragroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, Franciscus Remendus Cornelis de

    2013-01-01

    During group decision making, people often experience disagreements in which they need to choose between their own viewpoint and the viewpoint of another group member, for example, when cabinet members disagree about the best decision to tackle a crisis. These intragroup conflicts often pose a

  17. Games, the Socialization of Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton-Smith, Brian

    The function of games in a society is discussed in this paper. An earlier definition of games as a concretistic way of processing information of cultural antitheses is enlarged to include a more bio-adaptive definition: the game is also a socialization of conflict. This view is compared and contrasted with those of Sigmund Freud and G. H. Mead.…

  18. Conflicting Pressures in Postsecondary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Robert H.

    Papers were presented on these subcategories of the theme of conflicting pressures in postsecondary education: privacy and confidentiality; program analysis, goals, and outcomes; planning, research, and modeling; financing and resource allocation; faculty; and students. Individual topics addressed include: student-faculty interaction; student…

  19. Auditory conflict processing in ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mourik, R.; Sergeant, J.A.; Helsenfeld, D.; Konig, C.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Impaired cognitive control has been implicated as an important developmental pathway to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Cognitive control is crucial to suppress interference resulting from conflicting information and can be measured by Stroop-like tasks. This study was

  20. Internal Conflicts in Muslim Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiq Ali Shah

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of psychological theories and the social dynamics of the society help identify salient attributes and processes relevant to conflict among Muslims. The psychodynamic concept of personality and frustration-aggression hypothesis account for the socialization practices in the Muslim societies, emotional instability, unfavorable evaluation of those holding a different viewpoint and venting out one's aggression on the weaker. The tendency of the Muslims to praise their sect/tribe/religious group leads to a groupthink situation that polarizes intergroup relationships. The acts of categorization in group and out group, as postulated by the social identity theory, contribute towards the distorted perception of each other. The Islamic notions of brotherhood, unity and ethnic identity as means of personal identification and social interaction seems to have been forgotten by the Muslims. Though the Western social-psychological constructs are helpful in understanding the causes of conflict among Muslims, they are not germane to Muslim societies. The group belongingness and group favouritism is not necessarily a tool of discrimination and conflict but is an essential component of one's survival in a collectivist society. The Western theories also do not address the economic and political circumstances responsible for the multitude of conflicts among Muslims.

  1. Theoretical developments in SUSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shifman, M.

    2009-01-01

    I am proud that I was personally acquainted with Julius Wess. We first met in 1999 when I was working on the Yuri Golfand Memorial Volume (The Many Faces of the Superworld, World Scientific, Singapore, 2000). I invited him to contribute, and he accepted this invitation with enthusiasm. After that, we met many times, mostly at various conferences in Germany and elsewhere. I was lucky to discuss with Julius questions of theoretical physics, and hear his recollections on how supersymmetry was born. In physics Julius was a visionary, who paved the way to generations of followers. In everyday life he was a kind and modest person, always ready to extend a helping hand to people who were in need of his help. I remember him telling me how concerned he was about the fate of theoretical physicists in Eastern Europe after the demise of communism. His ties with Israeli physicists bore a special character. I am honored by the opportunity to contribute an article to the Julius Wess Memorial Volume. I review theoretical developments of the recent years in non-perturbative supersymmetry. (orig.)

  2. Theoretical developments in SUSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shifman, M. [University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2009-01-15

    I am proud that I was personally acquainted with Julius Wess. We first met in 1999 when I was working on the Yuri Golfand Memorial Volume (The Many Faces of the Superworld, World Scientific, Singapore, 2000). I invited him to contribute, and he accepted this invitation with enthusiasm. After that, we met many times, mostly at various conferences in Germany and elsewhere. I was lucky to discuss with Julius questions of theoretical physics, and hear his recollections on how supersymmetry was born. In physics Julius was a visionary, who paved the way to generations of followers. In everyday life he was a kind and modest person, always ready to extend a helping hand to people who were in need of his help. I remember him telling me how concerned he was about the fate of theoretical physicists in Eastern Europe after the demise of communism. His ties with Israeli physicists bore a special character. I am honored by the opportunity to contribute an article to the Julius Wess Memorial Volume. I review theoretical developments of the recent years in non-perturbative supersymmetry. (orig.)

  3. Theoretical Developments in SUSY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifman, M.

    2009-01-01

    I am proud that I was personally acquainted with Julius Wess. We first met in 1999 when I was working on the Yuri Golfand Memorial Volume (The Many Faces of the Superworld, World Scientific, Singapore, 2000). I invited him to contribute, and he accepted this invitation with enthusiasm. After that, we met many times, mostly at various conferences in Germany and elsewhere. I was lucky to discuss with Julius questions of theoretical physics, and hear his recollections on how supersymmetry was born. In physics Julius was a visionary, who paved the way to generations of followers. In everyday life he was a kind and modest person, always ready to extend a helping hand to people who were in need of his help. I remember him telling me how concerned he was about the fate of theoretical physicists in Eastern Europe after the demise of communism. His ties with Israeli physicists bore a special character. I am honored by the opportunity to contribute an article to the Julius Wess Memorial Volume. I will review theoretical developments of the recent years in non-perturbative supersymmetry.

  4. Quantum theoretical physics is statistical and relativistic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, C.

    1980-01-01

    A new theoretical framework for the quantum mechanism is presented. It is based on a strict deterministic behavior of single systems. The conventional QM equation, however, is found to describe statistical results of many classical systems. It will be seen, moreover, that a rigorous synthesis of our theory requires relativistic kinematics. So, QM is not only a classical statistical theory, it is, of necessity, a relativistic theory. The equation of the theory does not just duplicate QM, it indicates an inherent nonlinearity in QM which is subject to experimental verification. It is shown, therefore, that conventional QM is a corollary of classical deterministic principles. It is suggested that this concept of nature conflicts with that prevalent in modern physics. (author)

  5. EVELOPMENT OF EDUCATIONAL SPECIALIST’S CREATIVITY IN THE PROCESS OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya N. Sergeeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present creativity in the process of pedagogical conflict resolution. The results of psychological research conducted among secondary school teachers are given. The article summarizes the results of the study of personality and creativity highlighted its main components. Methods. The methods involve theoretical analysis of the problem and the subject of investigation, philosophical, psychological, pedagogical, sociological literature research; empirical methods (school teacher’s psychological testing by means of hand-picked procedures; methods stimulating educational specialists to take initiative in the process of conflict situations› constructive resolution (training methods group discussion, role-playing and business games, specific situations analysis; quantitative and qualitative analysis of empirical results (computer data processing, data design in the form of tables, schemes, illustrations, diagrams, bar charts, methods of mathematical statistics (The Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient, φ-Fisher. Data processing procedure is actualized by means of MS Excel package and statistical manipulation program «Statistica 8.0». Results and scientific novelty. The scientific belief of the following concepts content is concretized: «educational specialist’s creativity in the process of conflict resolution», «pedagogical conflict»; psycho-pedagogical conditions of creativity development in the process of conflict resolution are determined. Personal and behavioral features of various creativity level pedagogues are elicited. The correlation of educational specialist’s creativity with peculiarities of their behavior in conflict situations is revealed. It is stated that creativity appears to be one of the determinant of individual’s action, which is oriented on constructive conflict resolution. The program schemed by us promoted the extension of the teachers creative potential, which, in return

  6. Is work-family balance more than conflict and enrichment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Dawn S; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Zivnuska, Suzanne

    2009-10-01

    This study deepens our theoretical and practical understanding of work-family balance, defined as the 'accomplishment of role-related expectations that are negotiated and shared between an individual and his/her role-related partners in the work and family domains' (Grzywacz & Carlson, 2007: 458). We develop a new measure of work-family balance and establish discriminant validity between it, work-family conflict, and work-family enrichment. Further, we examine the relationship of work-family balance with six key work and family outcomes. Results suggest that balance explains variance beyond that explained by traditional measures of conflict and enrichment for five of six outcomes tested: job satisfaction, organizational commitment, family satisfaction, family performance, and family functioning. We conclude with a discussion of the applications of our work.

  7. Indigenous Approaches to Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the developing countries are a manifestation of a people's quest for self-identity, ... cultures, there exist pathways in the ethnic wisdom for managing conflicts. .... study of war focuses on attempts to explain armed conflicts as a universal feature.

  8. Post-Conflict Strategic Requirements Workshop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Menk, Peter

    2001-01-01

    ... nations and the United Nations. The purpose of the Post-Conflict Strategic Requirements Workshop was to examine the United States military ground forces role in the post-conflict phase of operations...

  9. Conflict Prevention and Resolution Center (CPRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Conflict Prevention and Resolution Center is EPA's primary resource for services and expertise in the areas of consensus-building, collaborative problem solving, alternative dispute resolution, and environmental collaboration and conflict resolution.

  10. Conflict in organizations : Beyond effectiveness and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Beersma, Bianca

    Conflict theory and research has traditionally focused on conflict management strategies, in relation to individual and work-team effectiveness and productivity. Far less attention has been devoted to "soft" outcomes including job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intentions, and

  11. Low-intensity conflict in multinational corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Andersen, Poul Houman; Storgaard, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    in four Danish MNCs. Findings: They describe consequences of low-intensity conflict and identify three types of actions by headquarters’ representatives that could lead to the development of low-intensity conflicts, namely, ignoring, bypassing and educating. Originality/value: Very few studies have dealt......Purpose: This paper aims to identify antecedents for, and consequences of, low-intensity inter-unit conflict in multinational corporations (MNCs). Inter-unit conflict in MNCs is an important and well-researched theme. However, while most studies have focused on open conflict acknowledged by both...... parties, much less research has dealt with low-intensity conflicts. Still, low-intensity conflicts can be highly damaging – not least because they are rarely resolved. Design/methodology/approach: The authors used a qualitative approach to understanding low-intensity conflict relying on 170 interviews...

  12. Environmental Degradation, Livelihood and Conflicts the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    able exploitation by man. One notable .... action of any of the parties in the quest to realise or secure those values. The struggle ... ethnic conflicts when they move to new areas, while decreases in ..... and Responses to International Conflict.

  13. Temporality of couple conflict and relationship perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew D; Horne, Rebecca M; Hardy, Nathan R; Anderson, Jared R

    2018-05-03

    Using 5 waves of longitudinal survey data gathered from 3,405 couples, the present study investigates the temporal associations between self-reported couple conflict (frequency and each partner's constructive and withdrawing behaviors) and relationship perceptions (satisfaction and perceived instability). Autoregressive cross-lagged model results revealed couple conflict consistently predicted future relationship perceptions: More frequent conflict and withdrawing behaviors and fewer constructive behaviors foretold reduced satisfaction and conflict frequency and withdrawal heightened perceived instability. Relationship perceptions also shaped future conflict, but in surprising ways: Perceptions of instability were linked with less frequent conflict, and male partner instability predicted fewer withdrawing behaviors for female partners. Higher satisfaction from male partners also predicted more frequent and less constructive conflict behavior in the future. These findings illustrate complex bidirectional linkages between relationship perceptions and couple conflict behaviors in the development of couple relations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Conflicting health information: a critical research need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Delesha M; Geryk, Lorie L; Chen, Annie T; Nagler, Rebekah H; Dieckmann, Nathan F; Han, Paul K J

    2016-12-01

    Conflicting health information is increasing in amount and visibility, as evidenced most recently by the controversy surrounding the risks and benefits of childhood vaccinations. The mechanisms through which conflicting information affects individuals are poorly understood; thus, we are unprepared to help people process conflicting information when making important health decisions. In this viewpoint article, we describe this problem, summarize insights from the existing literature on the prevalence and effects of conflicting health information, and identify important knowledge gaps. We propose a working definition of conflicting health information and describe a conceptual typology to guide future research in this area. The typology classifies conflicting information according to four fundamental dimensions: the substantive issue under conflict, the number of conflicting sources (multiplicity), the degree of evidence heterogeneity and the degree of temporal inconsistency. © 2015 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Conflict interaction management as a cultural phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е L Ryabova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the definition for the concept of conflict interaction culture, reveals its functions as well as the structure of its elements and components. Conflict interactions are also examined in the paper.

  16. Links between Conflict Management Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roloff, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explicates the implications of my research on conflict management for self improvement and for practitioners who work to improve the conflict management of others. I also note how my experiences with practitioners have informed my research.

  17. Barriers for recess physical activity: a gender specific qualitative focus group exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper

    Background: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... (53 boys) from fourth grade, with a mean age of 10.4 years. The focus groups included an open group discussion, go-along group interviews, and a gender segregated post-it note activity. A content analysis of the post-it notes was used to prioritize the children´s perceived barriers. This was verified...... barriers, there were both inter- and intra-gender differences in the children´s perceptions of these barriers. Weather was a barrier for all children, apart from the most active boys. Conflicts were perceived as a barrier particularly for those boys who played ballgames. Girls said they would like to have...

  18. Conflict Management Strategies for Rangeland Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    Metadata only record Numerous strategies have been developed to cope with conflicts. Collaborative processes are one group of conflict management strategies used. When successful these processes have several common features: they are voluntary, build trust, develop a shared vision, and use consensus. These techniques have often led to false expectations because the source of the conflict was ignored or adequately trained facilitators were not used. The source of the conflict (lack of infor...

  19. Army Officers’ Attitudes of Conflict Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-11

    The purpose of this study was to measure the attitudes of the middle level career Army officers relative to the concepts of conflict management . The...the literature concerning conflict management and its related fields of study, an exploratory analysis employing Hierarchical Clustering Schemes, and... conflict management . (2) No difference exists in the attitudes of conflict management according to the sample’s three branch groups: combat arms

  20. Conflict Management Styles of Turkish Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkalp, Enver; Sungur, Zerrin; Ozdemir, Aytul Ayse

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine Turkish managers conflict styles in different sectors, namely durable consumer goods, aviation, automotive and banking. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 130 managers conflict management styles were assessed by applying the Rahim's 1983 Organizational Conflict Inventory-II. Findings: First,…

  1. University Students' Perceptions of Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, James F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the perceptions of American and international students on conflict resolution, and to determine if the students were willing to participate in conflict resolution. A survey was given to 226 students at an eastern university that asked them to identify a major international conflict and whether they felt…

  2. Conflict: How to Beat the Odds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Patricia L.

    1993-01-01

    Conflict between people can arise over breakdowns in communication, work policies and practices, adversarial management, and personality conflict. A conflict-resolution plan involves defining the problem, collecting the facts and opinions, considering all solutions proposed, implementing the solutions, and evaluating the situation. (MLF)

  3. Conflict Resolution Practices of Arctic Aboriginal Peoples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gendron, R.; Hille, C.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the conflict resolution practices of indigenous populations in the Arctic. Among the aboriginal groups discussed are the Inuit, the Aleut, and the Saami. Having presented the conflict resolution methods, the authors discuss the types of conflicts that are

  4. Conflict Resolution between Friends during Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anupama

    2008-01-01

    The author interviewed 74 children (ages 8.5-11.5 years) in an exploratory study of interpersonal conflict resolution between children. Results suggest that children (a) most frequently used assertion and discussion as conflict resolution strategies, (b) used more than one strategy in a single conflict, and (c) used a strategy that corresponded to…

  5. Sibling Conflict Resolution Skills: Assessment and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brett W.; Roberts, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Sibling conflict can rise to the level of a clinical problem. In Phase 1 a lengthy behavioral role-play analog sampling child reactions to normal sibling conflicts was successfully shortened. In Phase 2 normal children who lacked sibling conflict resolution skills were randomly assigned to a Training or Measurement Only condition. Training…

  6. Coping with Conflict in Educational Circles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebgen, Mary K.

    1979-01-01

    The author presents ideas on what the school administrator should know in order to successfully manage conflict situations so that the conflict does not impede school functioning, and suggests that proper handling of the inevitable conflict situations that arise can bring about group cohesiveness and unity. (KC)

  7. Conflict management strategies for effective performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community conflicts are becoming regular feature of social life in many developing countries since the 1960(s). This study proposes for the inclusion of conflict resolution strategies in agricultural extension programs as farmers and farm lands are the most affected. It also examines the various conflict survival strategies ...

  8. Cross-Cultural Conflicts within Sports Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stura, Claudia; Johnston, Linda M.

    2018-01-01

    Since sports are increasingly used a way to bring formerly conflicting parties together post-conflict, more work needs to be done to ensure that sports are actually conducted in a way that promotes peace rather than exacerbates the conflict. Since many sports-for-peace programs cross cultural boundaries, this exploratory study was conducted to…

  9. Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czech, Bryan

    2012-01-09

    The conflict between economic growth and environmental protection may not be reconciled via technological progress. The fundamentality of the conflict ultimately boils down to laws of thermodynamics. Physicists and other scholars from the physical sciences are urgently needed for helping the public and policy makers grasp the conflict between growth and environmental protection.

  10. Conflict in medical teams: opportunity or danger?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greer, L.L.; Saygi, O.; Aaldering, H.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives  Intragroup conflicts often occur when people are called upon to collaborate in the accomplishment of a task. For example, when surgeons and nurses work together during an operation, conflicts may emerge because of differences in functional understanding. Whether these conflicts are

  11. Energizing Learning: The Instructional Power of Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.

    2009-01-01

    Although intellectual conflict may be an important instructional tool (because of its potential constructive outcomes), conflict is rarely structured in instructional situations (because of its potential destructive outcomes). Many educators may be apprehensive about instigating intellectual conflict among students because of the lack of…

  12. The African Union and Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-02

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT THE AFRICAN UNION AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT by Lieutenant Colonel Flemming Mathiasen Royal Danish Army Colonel Patrick...AUTHOR: Lieutenant Colonel Flemming Mathiasen TITLE: The African Union and Conflict Management FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 2 March 2006...WORD COUNT: 5850 PAGES: 28 KEY TERMS: African Union, Africa, Conflict Management , Capabilities CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified Africa is a continent with a

  13. Conflict management: difficult conversations with difficult people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Amy R; Lowry, Ann C

    2013-12-01

    Conflict occurs frequently in any workplace; health care is not an exception. The negative consequences include dysfunctional team work, decreased patient satisfaction, and increased employee turnover. Research demonstrates that training in conflict resolution skills can result in improved teamwork, productivity, and patient and employee satisfaction. Strategies to address a disruptive physician, a particularly difficult conflict situation in healthcare, are addressed.

  14. Conflict Management: Difficult Conversations with Difficult People

    OpenAIRE

    Overton, Amy R.; Lowry, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    Conflict occurs frequently in any workplace; health care is not an exception. The negative consequences include dysfunctional team work, decreased patient satisfaction, and increased employee turnover. Research demonstrates that training in conflict resolution skills can result in improved teamwork, productivity, and patient and employee satisfaction. Strategies to address a disruptive physician, a particularly difficult conflict situation in healthcare, are addressed.

  15. Intra-Organizational Conflict in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Richard

    There is no abundance of research on intra-organizational conflict, and there are no simple answers to the tricky business of managing organizational conflicts. This paper states some propositions about conflict and suggests some management stratagems that can be used in sustaining constructive organizational characteristics. The propositions are…

  16. Marital Conflict, Depressive Symptoms, and Functional Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heejeong; Marks, Nadine F

    2008-01-01

    Guided by a stress process perspective, we investigated (a) whether marital conflict might directly lead to changes in depression and functional impairment, (b) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in functional impairment via depression, and (c) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in depression via…

  17. A Case Study in Conflict Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Lawrence J.; Smith, Val R.

    This paper presents a model for a message-centered theory of human conflict based on the assumption that conflict will result from the pairing of any two functional messages that share a common antecedent but contain different consequences with oppositely signed affect. The paper first shows how to represent conflict situations diagrammatically…

  18. Orwellian risks in European conflict prevention discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wilde, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Conflict prevention has been the nomenclature of a non-military type of security policy, but that is changing. During the Cold War, the OSCE was a forum for conflict prevention at an interstate level. After the Cold War, OSCE conflict prevention turned to domestic affairs, comparable to NGO

  19. Look Inside for Conflicts of Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakewell, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses conflicts of interest in higher education, offering rules of thumb for judging individual situations, tools to help board members address such conflicts, and possible standards to apply when considering conflicts of interest. Also touches on the need to be realistic and the importance of collegiality and trust. (EV)

  20. The Impact of Perceptions on Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longaretti, Lynette; Wilson, Jeni

    2006-01-01

    This article describes research that explored student and teacher perceptions and management of conflict within the primary school context. It was found that both teachers and students shared similarities in their views of conflict and in their management of interpersonal problems at school. Conflict was generally perceived to be a negative…