WorldWideScience

Sample records for confiscation

  1. 9 CFR 2.129 - Confiscation and destruction of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confiscation and destruction of animals. 2.129 Section 2.129 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.129 Confiscation and destruction of...

  2. Comparative review of the investigation and confiscation of criminal assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajić Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In introduction author points to the necessity of adopting the institute of confiscation of criminal assets, supported by international experience, primarily due to the weakness of previously known institute confiscation of the proceeds of crime (for which the offender is being tried, showed in front of the phenomenon of organized crime. In doing so, he analyzes the modalities of confiscation of criminal origin present in modern legal systems and emphasizes the required standard of proof, as one of the key factors of their particularity. The following is a comparative review of the system for investigating and confiscation of criminal assets in Italy, Great Britain, Ireland, the Netherlands, Germany, France and the United States. There are emphasized the normative elements which affect to scope of application of this institute, especially in light of its connection to the criminal proceedings, as well as jurisdiction to realization of the investigation process and procedure of confiscation. In the final part, the author concludes that appropriate social and institutional responses are very important for the effective fight against crime, every time if there is a suspicion about illegally acquired wealth. In doing so, particular attention arouses organized crime, particularly in the light of contemporary global trends, which, unfortunately, significantly affect the possibility of the development of organized crime, and development and/or covering up its financial component. In this sense, the author emphasizes that the basic characteristics of the system for investigation and confiscation of criminal assets connected to the criminal proceedings, which are used in developed European countries and the United States: (1 changed the rules of evidence, which means less convenient role of suspects, (2 the application of this mechanism to a limited number of crimes, which often includes drug trafficking and other serious crimes or organized crime, and

  3. Economic effects of detecting and confiscating illicitly trafficked radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montmayeul, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Development smuggling and confiscation of illicit radioactive materials demands taking into account its financial implications. The real beneficiaries of smuggling are often difficult to identify. Generally the violation cases are impossible to solve. Who would pay? How the costs of detection, analysis and decontamination could be covered. One of the primary solutions could be better charge of different parties (prisoners). It could as well be the responsibility of involved parties (transporters, enterprises, etc.). Another possibility would be to apply the principle of responsibility for payment by the party responsible for contamination

  4. Orangutan trade, confiscations, and lack of prosecutions in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, Vincent

    2017-11-01

    Prosecuting and sentencing law breakers punishes the offender and acts as a deterrent for future law breakers. With thousands of Sumatran and Bornean orangutans (Pongo abelii and P. pygmaeus) having entered private and government rescue centers and facilities, I evaluate the role of successful prosecution in orangutan conservation in Indonesia. Orangutans have been protected in Indonesian since 1931 and they are not allowed to be traded or to be kept as pets. In the period 1993-2016 at least 440 orangutans were formally confiscated, and many more were "donated" to law enforcement agencies. This resulted in seven (7) successful prosecutions by six different courts. Sentencing was lenient (median fine US$ 442 out of a possible US$ 7,600, median prison sentence 8 months out of a possible 5 years) and certainly too low to act as a deterrent. A paradigm shift within government authorities, conservation organizations, the judiciary, and by the general public is needed where trade in orangutans is no longer seen as a crime against an individual animal but as an economic crime that negatively affects society as a whole. Prosecuting offenders for tax evasion, corruption, endangering public health, animal cruelty, and smuggling, in addition to violating protected species laws, would allow for an increase in sentencing, resulting in a stronger deterrent, and greater public support. Conservation and welfare NGOs have a duty to become more proactive in a drive to increase enforcement; rescuing orangutans always has to coincide with prosecuting offenders and failures, and successes of these prosecutions have to be vigorously publicized. Despite numerous commitments made by Indonesia to orangutan conservation, and clear failures to deliver on almost all components, international donors have increased their funding year on year; it is time that this changes to a system where not failure is rewarded but success. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Optimizing Confiscation of Assets in Accelerating the Eradication of Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwi Danil

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, corruption is still the most and biggest problem facing by Indonesian, due to its impacts on the nation. It caused huge loss to the state finance and even to the democratic life in this country. Various efforts have been resorted to fight corruption, but the results are unfruitful. Until recently, Indonesia is still the third most corrupt country in Asia according to the survey of Transparency International Indonesia (TII in 2015, with the Corruption Perceptions Index of 36 points. The fight in eradicating corruption cannot be separated from the effort to deter the criminals through severe punishment. However, ICW’s most recent data shows otherwise. During the first half of 2014, there were 261 accused of corruption, with 242 of them were convicted guilty by the Corruption Courts. Among them, 193 were sentenced lenient (between 1-4 years imprisonment, 44 moderate (4-10 years, and only 4 with over 10 years imprisonment. The average length of sentence is therefore 2,9 years. The lenient sentence can also be found in criminal restitution. Only in 87 of the total cases state compensation is imposed, amounting 87.04 billion rupiahs in total. The amount is only 0.022% of the total financial loss of 3.863 trillion rupiahs. The weak penalty triggered then the idea of impoverishing corruptors as a strategic step to accelerate the eradication of corruption while restoring the loss to the state. In contrast to the criminal restitution, which is restricted only to the state loss caused by the perpetrators, criminal confiscation of assets has no limit in amount.

  6. Molecular tracing of confiscated pangolin scales for conservation and illegal trade monitoring in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huarong; Miller, Mark P.; Yang, Feng; Chan, Hon Ki; Gaubert, Philippe; Ades, Gary; Fischer, Gunter A

    2015-01-01

    Despite being protected by both international and national regulations, pangolins are threatened by illegal trade. Here we report mitochondrial DNA identification and haplotype richness estimation, using 239 pangolin scale samples from two confiscations in Hong Kong. We found a total of 13 genetically distinct cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) haplotypes in two confiscations (13 and ten haplotypes respectively, with ten shared haplotypes between confiscations). These haplotypes clustered in two distinct clades with one clade representing the Sunda pangolin (Manisjavanica). The other clade did not match with any known Asian pangolin sequences, and likely represented a cryptic pangolin lineage in Asia. By fitting sample coverage and rarefaction/regression models to our sample data, we predicted that the total number of COI haplotypes in two confiscations were 14.86 and 11.06 respectively, suggesting that our sampling caught the majority of haplotypes and that we had adequately characterized each confiscation. We detected substantial sequence divergence among the seized scales, likely evidencing that the Sunda pangolins were harvested over wide geographical areas across Southeast Asia. Our study illustrates the value of applying DNA forensics for illegal wildlife trade monitoring.

  7. Molecular tracing of confiscated pangolin scales for conservation and illegal trade monitoring in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huarong Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite being protected by both international and national regulations, pangolins are threatened by illegal trade. Here we report mitochondrial DNA identification and haplotype richness estimation, using 239 pangolin scale samples from two confiscations in Hong Kong. We found a total of 13 genetically distinct cytochrome c oxidase I (COI haplotypes in two confiscations (13 and ten haplotypes respectively, with ten shared haplotypes between confiscations. These haplotypes clustered in two distinct clades with one clade representing the Sunda pangolin (Manisjavanica. The other clade did not match with any known Asian pangolin sequences, and likely represented a cryptic pangolin lineage in Asia. By fitting sample coverage and rarefaction/regression models to our sample data, we predicted that the total number of COI haplotypes in two confiscations were 14.86 and 11.06 respectively, suggesting that our sampling caught the majority of haplotypes and that we had adequately characterized each confiscation. We detected substantial sequence divergence among the seized scales, likely evidencing that the Sunda pangolins were harvested over wide geographical areas across Southeast Asia. Our study illustrates the value of applying DNA forensics for illegal wildlife trade monitoring.

  8. Les mesures de gel et de confiscation en vertu de la Loi sur les embargos

    OpenAIRE

    Schnyder, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Etude du mécanisme d'adoption des mesures de gel et de confiscation en vertu de la Loi sur les embargos et leurs conséquences tant sur la personne principalement touchée par ces mesures que sur les tiers.

  9. Potency trends of delta9-THC and other cannabinoids in confiscated marijuana from 1980-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElSohly, M A; Ross, S A; Mehmedic, Z; Arafat, R; Yi, B; Banahan, B F

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of 35,312 cannabis preparations confiscated in the USA over a period of 18 years for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) and other major cannabinoids is reported. Samples were identified as cannabis, hashish, or hash oil. Cannabis samples were further subdivided into marijuana (loose material, kilobricks and buds), sinsemilla, Thai sticks and ditchweed. The data showed that more than 82% of all confiscated samples were in the marijuana category for every year except 1980 (61%) and 1981 (75%). The potency (concentration of delta9-THC) of marijuana samples rose from less than 1.5% in 1980 to approximately 3.3% in 1983 and 1984, then fluctuated around 3% till 1992. Since 1992, the potency of confiscated marijuana samples has continuously risen, going from 3.1% in 1992 to 4.2% in 1997. The average concentration of delta9-THC in all cannabis samples showed a gradual rise from 3% in 1991 to 4.47% in 1997. Hashish and hash oil, on the other hand, showed no specific potency trends. Other major cannabinoids [cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), and cannabichromene (CBC)] showed no significant change in their concentration over the years.

  10. Implementing Domestic Violence Gun Confiscation Policy in Rural and Urban Communities: Assessing the Perceived Risk, Benefits, and Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Kellie R; Logan, T K

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of why communities differing in culture and resources are willing and able to implement gun confiscation as part of a protective order in the absence of a uniform statewide gun law. Specifically, the perceived risk of intimate partner homicide and gun violence, effectiveness of implementing gun confiscation, and the barriers to implementing gun confiscation were assessed. Interviews were conducted with key community professionals ( N = 133) who worked in victim services and the justice system in one urban community and four rural, under-resourced communities. Analyses revealed that professionals in the rural communities viewed the risk of intimate partner homicide and gun violence as lower, and the process of implementing gun confiscation as less effective than professionals in the urban community. In addition, urban justice system professionals, in comparison with all other professionals, reported fewer barriers to enforcing the gun confiscation police and were more likely to downplay law enforcement limitations in the community. The results have implications for developing more effective regional strategies in states that lack domestic violence gun laws as a means to increase a community's ability to enforce gun policies and initiatives.

  11. Syringe confiscation as an HIV risk factor: the public health implications of arbitrary policing in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beletsky, Leo; Lozada, Remedios; Gaines, Tommi; Abramovitz, Daniela; Staines, Hugo; Vera, Alicia; Rangel, Gudelia; Arredondo, Jaime; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-04-01

    Female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) face elevated risk for HIV/STIs and constitute a key population for public health prevention. Through direct and indirect pathways including human rights violations, policing practices like syringe confiscation can compound FSW-IDU health risk and facilitate the spread of disease. We studied correlates of experiencing syringe confiscation among FSW-IDUs in northern Mexico, where formal policy allows for syringes to be available over the counter without a prescription, but police practices are often at odds with the law. FSW-IDUs reporting recent syringe sharing and unprotected sex with clients in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez were administered surveys and HIV/STI testing. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of syringe confiscation. Among 624 respondent FSW-IDUs, prevalence of syringe confiscation in the last 6 months was 48%. The following factors were positively associated with syringe confiscation: testing positive for HIV (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-5.80), reporting sexual abuse by police (aOR = 12.76, 95% CI = 6.58-24.72), engaging in groin injection (aOR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.15-2.93), injecting in public (aOR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.14-2.36), and obtaining syringes from pharmacies (aOR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.06-2.23). Higher education level was negatively associated with syringe confiscation (aOR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.87-0.98) as was frequent injection with clients within the last month (aOR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.44-0.94). This analysis adds to the body of evidence linking unauthorized law enforcement actions targeting high-risk groups with HIV and other adverse health outcomes. Using a public health lens to conceptualize abuse as a structural risk factor, we advocate for multi-prong prevention, systematic monitoring, and evidence-based intervention response to deleterious police practices.

  12. Is there any alternative to the confiscation of criminal assets, which is implemented in a criminal proceeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajić Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to confiscation of proceeds of crime in the criminal or its associate procedure, as exists in national law, the author suggests the existence of other models in the seizure of property whose legal origin is suspected, represented in foreign legal systems. Recognizing this fact, the central part of his work is about the civil law confiscation or seizure of proceeds of crime in the administrative proceedings and taxing criminal profit, as alternative or corrective forms of action present in comparative legal systems. Briefly has been given an overview of basic principles on which they are based, and pointed out the problems faced by entities engaged in the field of their practical application. After a brief presentation and analysis of these systems the author raises a rhetorical question: whether the use of civil law or administrative proceedings legitimate tool in the fight against crime or a shortcut that states use to mitigate the lack of efficiency of the instruments used in crime fighting? In doing so, he reminds that confiscation and forfeiture and the criminal or its associated procedure is exactly the kind of civil law Institute (prohibiting unjust used in the realization of the goals of the criminal law. Essentially, it is a desirable tool, which can help to achieve (partial restorative justice. However, putting discussed aspects of confiscation in the view of the domestic law, the author concludes that the decision which has been opted by domestic legislator is currently the best way for the practical implementation of the principle of prohibition of unlawful enrichment.

  13. “The Principles of Patrimony Due Process of Law: The Punitive Confiscation and the Protection of Third Parties Misrelated to the Crime”

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    Dr.Sc. Mario Antinucci

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available main motive for cross-border organised crime, including mafia-type criminal organisations, is financial gain. As a consequence, competent authorities should be given the means to trace, freeze, manage and confiscate the proceeds of such crime. However, the effective prevention of and fight against organised crime should be achieved by neutralising the proceeds of crime and should be extended, in certain cases, to any property derived from activities of a criminal nature. Organised criminal groups operate without borders and increasingly acquire assets in Member States other than those in which they are based. There is an increasing need for effective international cooperation on asset recovery and mutual legal assistance. Among the most effective means of combating organised crime is providing for severe legal consequences for committing such crime, as well as the effective detection and the confiscation of the instrumentalities and proceeds of crime. Although existing statistics are limited, the amounts recovered from proceeds of crime in the Unionseem insufficient compared to the estimated proceeds. Studies have shown that, although regulated by Unionand national law, confiscation procedures remain underused. The adoption of minimum rules will approximate the Member States' freezing and confiscation regimes, thus facilitating mutual trust and effective cross-border cooperation. The Stockholm Programme and the Justice and Home Affairs Council Conclusions on confiscation and asset recovery, adopted in June 2010, emphasise the importance of a more effective identification, confiscation and re-use of criminal assets. In this article, we will focus on the recent Directive of the EU Parliament and of the Council on freezing and confiscation of proceeds of crime in the EU (3 April 2014.

  14. Presumption of lawful acquirement of property and confiscation of unlawfully acquired property in the case-law of the Romanian Constitutional Court. The reference constitutional framework for regulating of the extended confiscation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta SAFTA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines - from a dual perspective - historical and teleological, the constitutional provisions that enshrine the presumption of lawful acquirement of assets, including the development and interpretation thereof in the case-law of the Constitutional Court, in order to create a framework for analysis of Law no. 63/2012 amending and supplementing the Criminal Code and Law no. 286/2009 on the Criminal Code, a law that establishes the measure of extended confiscation, expression of international regulatory concerns in this area.

  15. Inspection report of unauthorized possession and use of unsealed americium-241 and subsequent confiscation, J.C. Haynes Company, Newark, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This US Nuclear Regulatory Commission report documents the circumstances surrounding the March 26, 1985, confiscation and subsequent decontamination activities related to the use of unauthorized quantities of americium-241 at the John C. Haynes Company (licensee) of Newark, Ohio. It focuses on the period from early February to July 26, 1985. The incident started when NRC Region III recieved information that John C. Haynes possessed unauthorized quantities of americium-241 and was conducting unauthorized activities (diamond irradiation). By July 26, 1985, the decontamination activities at the licensee's laboratory were concluded. The licensee's actions with diamond irradiation resulted in contamination in restricted and unrestricted areas of the facility. The confiscation and decontamination activities required the combined efforts of NRC, Federal Bureau of Investigation, US Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, the State of Ohio, and the US Environmental Protection Agency. The report describes the factual information and significant findings associated with the confiscation and decontamination activities

  16. Foods confiscated from non-EU flights as a neglected route of potential methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; Ariza-Miguel, Jaime; Diez-Valcarce, Marta; Fernández-Natal, Isabel; Hernández, Marta; Rovira, Jordi

    2015-09-16

    The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in food-producing animals has provoked a great concern in the presence of MRSA in associated foodstuff. In this study, we have assessed for the first time the presence of MRSA in food confiscated from non-EU flights. We performed a search for MRSA among 195 food samples confiscated from passengers on flights from twenty-one non-EU countries in 2012 and 2013. One hundred and seventeen meat samples of diverse animal origin (including antelope, beef, chicken, duck, guinea pig, pork, rodents, and turkey), 75 dairy products (74 cheeses and 1 butter) and 3 eggs were analyzed. All S. aureus were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. MRSA isolates were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), SCCmec typing, and tested for the presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) virulence factors. Overall, 66 food samples were positive for S. aureus (33.9%). Six S. aureus strains were MRSA (9.1%), all of them in flights from Bolivia (and 5 from the same passenger). Among methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) (60 out of 66S. aureus strains), 44.1% were resistant to penicillin, 10.2% to tetracycline, 8.5% were resistant to aminoglycosides (amikacin and tobramycin) and 3.4% exhibited the M phenotype. MRSA isolates were sensitive to all non-β-lactam antibiotics tested. SmaI-PFGE analysis provided 40 genotypes among the S. aureus isolates (three genotypes among the six MRSA). Five MRSA isolates belonged to ST8 and harboured SCCmec type IVc as well as PVL genes. One isolate belonged to ST1649, harboured SCCmec type IVc and tested negative for the presence of the PVL genes. In conclusion, in this study, we report for the first time the presence of CA-MRSA in food confiscated from non-EU flights: ST8/ST1649-MRSA-IV. These results confirm the illegal entrance of food as a neglected route of transmission as well as the dissemination of successful CA

  17. The Recovered Treasure. The Inventory of the Property of Sicilian queens confiscated by Manfredi Alagona in 1393

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoro, Daniela

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Beginning from the discovery, in the “Archivio di Stato” of Palermo, of an inventory containing the belongings confiscated from Manfredi Alagona in 1393, this work reconstructs the story of the treasure of the Sicilian queens (Costanza of Aragon and Maria of Sicily, that had been confiscated from the powerful Alagona family, originally from Aragon, who moved to Sicily. A detailed study of the inventoried movables allows the analysis of several aspects connected to customs and society at the end of the XIVth century, from clothing to utensils, from taste and fashion to care of appearance, from the love of jewels to the workship of relics.



    Partendo dal ritrovamento, presso l’Archivio di Stato di Palermo, di un inventario di beni confiscati a Manfredi Alagona nel 1393, il lavoro ricostruisce il percorso del tesoro delle regine siciliane (Costanza d’Aragona, Maria di Sicilia che era stato incamerato dagli Alagona, potente famiglia di origine aragonese trapiantata in Sicilia. Uno studio dettagliato degli oggetti inventariati permette l’analisi di vari aspetti legati al costume e alla società sul finire del XIV secolo, dall’abbigliamento alla tavola, dal gusto e la moda del tempo alla cura della persona, dalla passione per i gioielli al culto per le reliquie.

  18. Detection and Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus in Foods Confiscated in EU Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rodríguez-Lázaro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential role of the illegal entry of food in UE in the Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA spread. We studied the prevalence and characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA isolated from foods of animal origin confiscated from passengers on flights from 45 non-EU countries from 2012 to 2015 by the Border Authorities at Bilbao International Airport (Spain and Vienna International Airport (Austria, as well as foods from open markets close to EU land borders. Of 868 food samples tested (diverse meat samples including antelope, duck, guinea pig, pork, rodents, turkey, dairy products, and eggs, 136 (15.7% were positive for S. aureus and 26 (3.0% for MRSA. All MRSA strains were mecA-positive. The prevalence of S. aureus-positive dairy samples among food confiscated at Bilbao International Airport was 64.6%, and this airport also had the highest value (11.8% for MRSA-positive samples. The predominant sequence type was ST5 (30.8%, followed by ST8, ST1649, ST1, and other lineages were found to a lesser extent (ST7, ST22, ST72, ST97, and ST398. Six isolates tested positive for luk-PVL genes (SCCmec IV subtypes IVc and IVe. Enterotoxin profiling revealed that 19 MRSA strains were enterotoxigenic, harboring one or more se genes. The MRSA isolates positive for luk-PVL genes were not enterotoxigenic, and none of the isolates tested positive for enterotoxin E. We found 14 resistance profiles, and more than 69% of the MRSA isolates were resistant to three or more types of antimicrobial agents. This finding reveals both the wide diversity of the antimicrobial resistance found in the strains and the capacity to resist not only to beta-lactam drugs. One MRSA strain showed unusual characteristics: it was oxacillin-susceptible, harbored SCCmec V, and was positive for sed, seg, and sej but negative for PVL virulence factors. This study shows the presence of enterotoxigenic HA-, CA-, and LA-MRSA in foods illegally

  19. Microbial and chemical analysis of illicit drugs samples confiscated from different areas of PakistanMicrobial and chemical analysis of illicit drugs samples confiscated from different areas of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shahzad; Khattak, Zainab; Mahmood, Sidra; Malik, Farnaz; Riaz, Humayun; Raza, Syed Atif; Khan, Samiullah

    2016-09-01

    The microbial and chemical analysis of illicit drug samples from different areas of Pakistan i.e. Quetta, Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad was conducted in a cross-sectional study at National Institute of Health, Islamabad. The drug samples were confiscated by Anti Narcotics Force (ANF), Pakistan. Microbial analysis was done by estimating bioburden which revealed the presence of gram negative and positive bacteria's, fungus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus species. Trypton soya agar was used for total aerobic count, MacConkey agar for gram-negative bacteria, Sabouraud dextrose agar for fungus and Vogel-Johnson agar for Streptococcus and Staphylococcus species. Colour tests were applied to identify the drug samples. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of suspected samples of Heroin, morphine, cocaine and acetic anhydride was made by employing different chromatographic techniques i.e. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The samples were found to be adulterated with paracetamol, diazepam and Dextromethorphen. Acetic anhydride was adulterated with hydrochloric acid (HCl). There is lack of information providing structured advice on responses to the consequences of illicit drug adulteration. Robust and rehearsed interventions and communication strategies would provide a basis for response for a wide variety of organisations. Research into the usefulness of media warnings about adulteration of illicit drugs is required.

  20. Welfare impacts of the illegal wildlife trade in a cohort of confiscated greater slow lorises, Nycticebus coucang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Grace; Eggen, Wilhelmina Frederica; Wirdateti, Wirdateti; Nekaris, K A I

    2018-01-01

    Illegal harvesting and trade are major forces behind population declines of wild slow lorises (genus Nycticebus). The impacts of the wildlife trade on individual slow lorises have not been as well described. In this article, we describe quantitatively the consequences of the wildlife trade for 77 greater slow lorises, N. coucang, who were confiscated en masse and brought to Cikananga Wildlife Center in Indonesia. Medical records indicated that in total, 28.6% of the slow lorises died within the first 6 months, mostly due to traumatic injury, and all the infants died. The greatest sources of morbidity were external wounds (33.1% of 166 total medical events) and dental problems (19.3%). Of the surviving individuals, 25.4% displayed abnormal behavior. Behavioral observations indicated that healthy adults (n = 3) spent 48.2% of their active period performing stereotypies. These data illustrate the physical and behavioral impacts of the illegal wildlife trade on the welfare of slow lorises. We suggest that sharing these individual stories may help generate empathy and educate the public about the impacts of the exotic companion-animal (pet) trade on nonhuman animal welfare.

  1. Confiscated black market products and nutritional supplements with non-approved ingredients analyzed in the Cologne Doping Control Laboratory 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Maxie; Thomas, Andreas; Geyer, Hans; Petrou, Michael; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Doping control laboratories are frequently confronted with new substances that may be misused by athletes. Besides new pharmaceuticals, where method development for their detection is dependent on the availability of the substance and corresponding administration studies, some professional and amateur athletes are using illicit 'black market' products, which either differ from known pharmaceuticals but cause similar effects or still are undergoing clinical trials and are therefore rarely available to doping control laboratories. In the Cologne Doping Control Laboratory, different confiscated products and legally obtained nutritional supplements were analyzed in 2009, and various findings were reported including GH-labelled injection vials without any pharmacologically active content; combinations of products indicating the attempt to mask growth hormone abuse; unpurified long-R(3) -IGF-1; nutritional supplements containing the growth hormone releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2); and ampoules containing the selective androgen receptor modulator Andarine (S-4). This review provides an overview on the substances that were analyzed in 2009. Ingredients relevant for doping control were identified by means of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry methods. The awareness of new products on the black market and in nutritional supplements is of utmost importance for laboratories to develop detection methods accordingly and screen for new substances as early as possible. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. The Impact of the Confiscation of the Turkish Dreadnoughts and of the Transfer of Goeben and Breslau to Constantinople upon the Turkish Entry into WWI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Richter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When Winston Churchill then First Sealord of the Royal Navy had the two Dreanoughts, ordered and paid for by the Ottoman Empire before World War I, confiscated he created the preconditions for the Goeben-and Breslau-affair and the entry of Turkey into the war. This “act of piracy” (B. Tuchman shifted the weight from the so far stronger neutralists to the bellicists with in the Turkish Government towards war minister Enver. Without this mistake Goeben and Breslau would never have sought shelter in Turkey. And these two men of war were the reason for Turkey’s entry into the war when they bombarded Russian harbours in the Black Sea.

  3. Variasi Genetik Trenggiling Sitaan di Sumatra, Jawa, dan Kalimantan Berdasarkan Control Region DNA Mitokndria (GENETIC VARIATION ON CONFISCATED PANGOLIN OF SUMATRA, JAWA, AND KALIMANTAN BASED ON CONTROL REGION MITOCHONDRIAL DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirdateti Wirdateti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High levels of illegal trading on Java pangolin (Manis javanica, Desmarest. 1822 for the basic ingredient of Traditional Chinese Medicine have caused sharp decline in its wild population. The purposes of this study were to assess the level of quality and genetic diversity, and to identify the origin of the confiscated individuals by molecular analysis. The original species used as a control were obtained from known areas in Java, Kalimantan, and Sumatera. Molecular analysis was carried out using non-coding region control region (D-loop of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. The results of phylogenic tree analysis showed that 44 confiscated pangolins were from Kalimantan (24 individuals, from Sumatra (seven individuals, and from Java (13 individuals. As many as 19 haplotypes were found on the basis of their base substitutions consisting of nine from Kalimantan, seven from Java and three from Sumatra. Average genetic distance (d between those from Kalimantan-Java was d = 0.0121 ± 0.0031; those from Borneo-Sumatra was d =0.0123 ± 0.0038 and those from Sumatra-Java was d = 0.0075 ± 0.038, respectively. Overall genetic distance between populations was d = 0.0148 ± 0.0035, with the nucleotide diversity (ð of 0.0146. These results indicate that over 50% of pangolins seized came from Kaimantan, and Kalimantan populations show a separate group with Java and Sumatra with boostrap 98%. ABSTRAK Tingginya tingkat perburuan trenggiling (Manis javanica; Desmarest 1822 Indonesia untuk diperdagangkan secara illegal sebagai bahan dasar obat terutama di China, menyebabkan terjadinya penurunan populasi di alam. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk melihat tingkat kualitas dan keragaman genetik trenggiling serta mengetahui asal usul satwa sitaan berdasarkan analisis molekuler. Sebagai kontrol asal usul trenggiling sitaan digunakan sampel alam berdasarkan sebaran populasi yang diketahui pasti yang berasal dari Jawa, Kalimantan, dan Sumatera. Analisis molekuler menggunakan

  4. 31 CFR 515.336 - Confiscated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... other seizure by the Cuban Government of ownership or control of property, on or after January 1, 1959... after January 1, 1959: (1) A debt of any enterprise which has been nationalized, expropriated, or otherwise taken by the Cuban Government; (2) A debt which is a charge on property nationalized, expropriated...

  5. Les objets sous contrainte. Gages, saisies, confiscation, vol, pillage, recel…

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Feller

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cette table ronde s’inscrit dans le cadre d’une réflexion menée sur la valeur des choses au Moyen Âge, c’est-à-dire sur les conditions empiriques et théoriques de l’évaluation ; un groupe de travail conjoint du LAMOP (UMR 8589, Paris 1-CNRS et du CSIC de Madrid organise une série de tables rondes. La première s’est tenue à Madrid en novembre 2008 et a eu comme thème : « Circulation et remploi des objets au Moyen Âge ».Les objets circulent parfois malgré la volonté de leurs propriétaires, en ...

  6. From Confiscation to Contingency Contracting: Property Acquisition on or Near the Battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    particularly as to food and medical supplies.31 This can severely limit the items which can be legally seized or requisitioned, and may even require that...Systems Analysis Office, Acquisition Policies During Mobilization 3 [hereinafter cited as DOD Mobilization study] (draft, March 1987) (The " Food and...aee" mach fandings halal be as Nseao adt toedeed pnas to tee effeta- dateado ltalimatlas may be taoi..e" at my a-speant mian. (hi le tic -0oa that ca

  7. 32 CFR 552.130 - Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .../unattended on the installation, will be immediately turned over to the military police, U.S. Army Criminal... military police, USACIDC, or other law enforcement or judicial agencies, the items will be disposed of....130 Section 552.130 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY...

  8. 32 CFR 552.104 - Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the military police, U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Command (USACIDC), or the Federal Bureau of... investigation or evidence is no longer required by military police, USACIDC, or other law enforcement or....104 Section 552.104 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY...

  9. 50 CFR 23.78 - What happens to confiscated wildlife and plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-export and other relevant governmental and nongovernmental experts before making a decision on the... THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND..., CBP, and FWS Law Enforcement in holding seized specimens as evidence pending any legal decisions. (2...

  10. Histopathology of gallbladder lesions of confiscated livers from cattle slaughtered in urmia abattoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    amir amniattalab

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During one month carcasses of 323 cattle (213 bulls and 110 cow were inspected by referring to Urmia slaughter-house. Livers and gallbladders of 47 cattle had macroscopic changes. Histopathologic sections were prepared from injured tissues and for bacteriology, contents of injured and normal gallbladders were cultured. Major macroscopic changes that were observed in damaged livers and gallbladders were: increasing of gallbladder thickness, petechiae, choleliths in gallbladder, hepatolithiasis, hepatic fascioliasis and presence of dicrocoelium in gall bladder. Histological sections were stained by hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid schiff and masson’s trichrome staining methods. Cholecystitis, hyperplasia of seromucosal glands’ congestion, hemorrhage, fat necrosis and increased thickness of gallbladder layers were observed. Also Escherichia coli was isolated from 4 gallbladders. In females, the incidence of microscopic changes including cholecystitis, increasing of mucosal layer thickness, hyperplasia of seromucosal glands, hemorrhage in layers except the mucosal layer and presence of bacteria in culture of gallbladder contents was more than males (p

  11. Examination of personality traits and social problem-solving skills of individuals whose driving licenses have been confiscated due to drunk driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taymur, Ibrahim; Budak, Ersin; Duyan, Veli; Kanat, Bilgen Biçer; Önen, Sinay

    2017-01-02

    Drunk driving is one of the major behavioral issues connected with problematic alcohol consumption. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between personality traits and social problem-solving skills of individuals who drive while intoxicated. One hundred forty-four individuals apprehended twice while driving drunk and sent to a driver behavior training program (9 females and 135 males) participated in our study. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised-Abbreviated (EPQ-RA) composed of 4 subscales (Extroversion, Neuroticism, Psychoticism, and Lying) and the Social Problem Solving Inventory (SPSI) composed of 7 subscales (Cognitive, Emotion, Behavior, Problem Definition and Formulation, Creating Solution Options, Solution Implementation and Verification, and Decision Making) were used to evaluate the participants. A positive relationship was found between the Extroversion subscale of the EPQ-RA and the Cognition subscale (P .05). Drinking and driving behaviors appear to be negative or maladaptive behaviors closely related to personality traits and may represent an effort to avoid negative emotions. Evaluation of negative emotions may have an important place in training programs intended to change drunk driving behavior.

  12. Penalties in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Traffic offenders are penalized in various ways: fines, (temporary) driving licence suspensions, confiscation of their vehicles, penalty points, mandatory participation in rehabilitation programmes, prison sentences or community service. The aim of penalties is to punish offenders, to protect

  13. Odhalit a ukázat. Jak se zabavoval komunistický majetek a pátralo po konfidentech

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suk, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 11 (2011), s. 33-36 ISSN 0418-5129 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80630520 Keywords : velvet revolution * confiscation of the communist property * secret police Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  14. Labor Tax Avoidance and its Determinants: The Case of Mafia Firms in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Ravenda, Diego; Argilés Bosch, Josep M.; Valencia Silva, Maika

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops two new measures of labor tax avoidance (LTAV) based on social contribution expenses reported in financial statements and tests them and their determinants within a sample of 224 Italian firms defined as legally registered Mafia firms (LMFs) due to having been confiscated at some point by judicial authorities, in relation to alleged connections with Italian organized crime. Overall, our results reveal that before confiscation LMFs engage more in LTAV than lawful firms do, ...

  15. Policing behaviors, safe injection self-efficacy, and intervening on injection risks: Moderated mediation results from a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Patterson, Thomas L; Abramovitz, Daniela; Vera, Alicia; Martinez, Gustavo; Staines, Hugo; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2016-01-01

    We aim to use conditional or moderated mediation to simultaneously test how and for whom an injection risk intervention was efficacious at reducing receptive needle sharing among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSWs-IDUs) in Mexico. Secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial. A total of 300 FSW-IDUs participated in Mujer Mas Segura in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, and were randomized to an interactive injection risk intervention or a didactic injection risk intervention. We measured safe injection self-efficacy as the hypothesized mediator and policing behaviors (being arrested and syringe confiscation) as hypothesized moderators. In total, 213 women provided complete data for the current analyses. Conditional (moderated) mediation showed that the intervention affected receptive needle sharing through safe injection self-efficacy among women who experienced syringe confiscation. On average, police syringe confiscation was associated with lower safe injection self-efficacy (p = .04). Among those who experienced syringe confiscation, those who received the interactive (vs. didactic) intervention reported higher self-efficacy, which in turn predicted lower receptive needle sharing (p = .04). Whereas syringe confiscation by the police negatively affected safe injection self-efficacy and ultimately injection risk behavior, our interactive intervention helped to "buffer" this negative impact of police behavior on risky injection practices. The theory-based, active skills building elements included in the interactive condition, which were absent from the didactic condition, helped participants' self-efficacy for safer injection in the face of syringe confiscation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Evaluating the use of plastic bags to prevent escape of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) from firewood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Tina M. Ciaramitaro; Deepa S. Pureswaran; Andrea Diss-Torrance

    2008-01-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a highly destructive exotic pest of ash (Fraxinus) in North America. Human movement of infested logs, primarily pieces of firewood, is a major pathway for long distance spread of the beetle. Firewood may be confiscated at campgrounds, rest-areas, and...

  17. War and exploitation. The economic exploitation of Western Europe, 1940-1945 [Oorlog en exploitatie. Te economische exploitatie van West-Europa, 1940-1945

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A.M. Klemann (Hein)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractDuring the occupation of Western Europe, the Germans seemed to hesitate between confiscating either the output of the economies or the factors of production - labour, raw materials and machinery. The occupier could plunder and destroy the economies, or make the production capacity of

  18. SOFIR: Securely Outsourced Forensic Image Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bösch, C.T.; Peter, Andreas; Hartel, Pieter H.; Jonker, Willem

    Forensic image recognition tools are used by law enforcement agencies all over the world to automatically detect illegal images on confiscated equipment. This detection is commonly done with the help of a strictly confidential database consisting of hash values of known illegal images. To detect and

  19. Utility of Army Design Methodology in U.S. Coast Guard Counter Narcotic Interdiction Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    including suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations...or functionality of the strategy itself. It is important to note, the interrogative process of FAS generally takes place after risk has been evaluated...confiscated 52 these fully submersible vessels in mid construction, however credible data suggests fully submersible vessels are in operation and

  20. De-colonising Exile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabih, Joshua

    . My paper shall focus on the representation of the Moroccan Jew in both Moroccan and “Jewish” cinemas in the last two decades in order to show how transnational Moroccan cinema and post-Zionist Mizrahi films actually engage Moroccans – Jews and Muslims – to tell their confiscated memories...

  1. 31 CFR 515.208 - Restrictions on loans, credits and other financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... other financing. 515.208 Section 515.208 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 515.208 Restrictions on loans, credits and other financing. No United States... provide other financing for the purpose of financing transactions involving confiscated property the claim...

  2. Československé knihovnictví v letech 1939-1959: vybrané problémy historického vývoje

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Večeřová, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 2 (2017), s. 20-36 ISSN 1801-3252 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015059 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : libraries * history of libraries and librarianship * cultural politics * censorship * confiscations of books * seized books depositories * readers services * reading groups * socialist librarianship Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision OBOR OECD: Specific literatures

  3. The Film Collector, the FBI, and the Copyright Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevins, Francis M., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Current developments in both the civil and criminal law as they relate to the hobby of film collecting are analyzed. The first-sale doctrine, court cases involving copyrights of films, and the role of the Federal Bureau of Investigation in confiscating films on behalf of the Film Security Office of the Motion Picture Association of America are…

  4. Denmark's neighbours are even worse when it comes to refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    According to recent reports, Denmark’s notorious “jewellery bill” – which allows immigration authorities to confiscate valuables from refugees in order to cover the cost of their accommodation – has yet to actually bring in any cash and the exercise is looking more and more like an expensive PR d...... disaster for the Danish government...

  5. Dynamics of conflict in participatory forest management in Benin : a framing perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idrissou Aboubacary, L.

    2012-01-01

    Benin’s protected areas were created during the colonial period between 1940 and 1960. The colonial administration established them by confiscating rural land and putting it under government control without the consent of the local communities, who considered that their land had been

  6. The constitutional rights of children and the Prevention of Organised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Prevention of Organised Crime Act 121 of 1998 [POCA] embodies a serious attempt by the South African government to effectively police and curb organised crime, money laundering and criminal gang activities in South Africa. The Act provides inter alia for a range of crippling fines and for orders such as confiscation ...

  7. The Nexus of Extremism and Trafficking: Scourge of the World or So Much Hype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Laden from the Homeland Security Digital Library. Bottom Left: Drug money confiscated by the Federal Bureau of Investiga- tions (FBI) is stacked on...with Tuareg nomads , AQIM charges protection fees to those moving this favored commodity across the unpoliced desert region.208 Cigarettes are moved

  8. Tawhiao's Unstated Heteroglossia: Conversations with Bakhtin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Carl Te Hira; Tiakiwai, Sarah-Jane

    2017-01-01

    In the face of land confiscations and other forms of imperialism characteristic of the 19th century in Aotearoa/New Zealand, the second Maori King Tawhiao devised a number of sayings that seem at first glance to be entirely mythical. Highly metaphorical and poetic, they appear to refer, as Bakhtin would have it in his discussion of the epic, to a…

  9. Southeast Asia Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-19

    ments, including drama sketches and ä daily update of one of the prisoners, were confiscated from Sotero Huinda, Judith Pagunsan and Alicia Bade...the bodies of the Diaz brothers, Leonardo, 32, and Roland 28 were found June 28 in the corner of Torres and Lapulapu Sts one day after they were

  10. Possible conservation units of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) in Sarawak based on variation of mtDNA control region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Manabu; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Ohtaishi, Noriyuki

    2006-11-01

    The mitochondrial DNA control region of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) was sequenced using 21 DNA samples collected from confiscated sun bears to identify conservation units, such as evolutionarily significant units and management units, in Sarawak, Borneo Island. A total of 10 haplotypes were observed, indicating the presence of at least two lineages in the sun bear population in Sarawak. Presumably, these two lineages could represent evolutionarily significant units. However, the geographical distributions of the two lineages remained unknown due to the lack of information regarding the exact capture locations of the confiscated sun bears. It is essential to elucidate the geographical distributions of these lineages in order to create a proper conservation plan for the sun bears in Sarawak. Therefore, further studies examining the haplotype distributions using DNA samples from known localities are essential.

  11. Educazione alla legalità, alla responsabilità sociale e all’inclusione. Una ricerca sui temi dell’antimafia sociale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Corazza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research is part of an agreement with the regional government. The study focused on education for democratic lawfulness and civic responsibility by observing educational courses run by Libera on property confiscated from organized crime. The first outcome consisted of setting out pedagogical paradigms for education on democratic lawfulness and anti-mafia education. In order to do this, volunteers from schools were observed over a number of weeks while they lived in properties confiscated from mafia and worked on the land, which had been entrusted to co-operatives as part of an anti-mafia social training Program. Three Italian regions were involved: Piemonte, Emilia Romagna and Puglia. The second outcome was the production of multimedia materials for teaching, and specific courses, which were held in local secondary schools.

  12. INTERCEPTION OF ANIMAL-ORIGIN PRODUCTS AT LAND BORDERS IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Janice Eidt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Infectious agents and veterinary diseases can be disseminated across borders and contribute to change the country sanitary status. The aim of this study was to identify the main animal products intercepted and seized by the agricultural surveillance units. This paper studied three Agricultural Surveillance Units located at land borders in the North region of Brazil: Assis Brasil and Epitaciolândia (Acre State and Pacaraima (Roraima State, respectively borders with Peru, Bolivia and Venezuela. The main animal products confiscated were dairy products, fish, meat, sausage, veterinary products (drugs, animal food (pet foods and apiculture products. Given the clandestine nature of animal transit and its products in these borders, the possibilities of introduction of infectious agents and diseases must be better evaluated, considering the type of products confiscated, as well as the sanitary status of the countries of origin.

  13. Gli strumenti di contrasto all'economia mafiosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Romanò

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo analizza i risultati di una ricerca empirica sulle misure di prevenzione patrimoniale applicate dal Tribunale di Milano negli ultimi quindici anni (2000-2015 nei confronti delle persone indiziate di appartenere a organizzazioni mafiose. Accanto agli aspetti quantitativi della ricerca, viene approfondito il versante qualitativo delle misure di contrasto alla ricchezza mafiosa attraverso lo studio dei casi più significativi. Parole chiave: misure di prevenzione patrimoniale; confisca; amministrazione giudiziaria; economia mafiosa The essay analyzes the results of an empirical research on preventive measures imposed by the Court of Milan in the last fifteen years (2000-2015 on persons suspected of being members of Mafia-type organizations. Alongside quantitative aspects, it has been carried out a qualitative analysis of confiscation measures against organized crime, through a study of the most significant cases. Keywords: preventive measures; confiscation; organized crime

  14. Guernsey; Report on Observance of Standards and Codes-FATF Recommendations for Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    Bailiwick of Guernsey has a Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism (AML/CFT) legal framework that provides the basis for an AML/CFT regime. It has a program to review and enhance AML/CFT legislation and monitor effectiveness of compliance with the AML/CFT regime. Assessors found that confiscation and provisional measures within Bailiwick are robust. They also found that previous designation mechanisms had a negative impact on the effectiveness of the mutual legal assis...

  15. The Tatmadaw and Human Rights: Changing a Military Mindset

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES A paper submitted to the Naval War College faculty in partial satisfaction of the requirements of the Joint Military...partial satisfaction of the requirements of the Department of Joint Military Operations. The contents of this paper reflect my own personal views...soldiers continued to conduct “large-scale abuses such as land confiscation, informal taxation, and forced labour .” 26 However, in the current

  16. Nuclear forensic analysis of thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, K.J.; Grant, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive radiochemical isolation procedure and data analysis/interpretation method for the nuclear forensic investigation of Th has been developed. The protocol includes sample dissolution, chemical separation, nuclear counting techniques, consideration of isotopic parent-daughter equilibria, and data interpretation tactics. Practical application of the technology was demonstrated by analyses of a questioned specimen confiscated at an illegal drug synthesis laboratory by law enforcement authorities. (author)

  17. I beni immobili confiscati alla criminalità organizzata in Lombardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Maestri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo compie una ricognizione della presenza e della distribuzione geografica dei beni immobili confiscati alla criminalità organizzata in Lombardia. Ne propone un’analisi quantitativa, utilizzando i dati messi a disposizione da ANBSC (Agenzia Nazionale dei Beni Sequestrati e Confiscati e da Libera Lombardia. E integra questa prospettiva con una analisi qualitativa condotta sul campo che permette di evidenziare significativi esempi di best practices nel riutilizzo sociale degli stessi beni. Nell’ambito di questa sezione della ricerca vengono anche considerati alcuni fondamentali indicatori: le caratteristiche strutturali del bene immobile, il suo rapporto con la memoria collettiva, la sua notorietà pubblica e le funzioni e le attività che vi vengono svolte. Ne emerge un modello lombardo del riuso sociale contrassegnato da alcune interessanti criticità. The paper analyzes the presence and the geographical distribution of real estate confiscated assets from organized crime. Using data made available by The National Agency of Confiscated Property and Libera association, it provides a quantitative analysis integrated with a qualitative approach on the field with the purpose to highlight examples of best practices in the social re-use of these confiscated assets. In this qualitative analysis are also taken into account some key indicators: the asset’s structural features, its relationship with memory, its public reputation and the activities made inside it. Finally, it emerges a Lombard model of social reuse marked by some interesting criticalities. Key words: Confiscated property, Lombardy, Social business, Best practices, Memory

  18. Translations on Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, Number 288

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-10

    activities, especially the scope of their drug sales and distribution activities. The Interpol agents also confiscated two pickup trucks, one Izuzu l...Barnett Va- lenzuela, and Eduardo Esquer Alvarado, 35-years old, resident of 79 Educacion Street of this city. Barnett Valenzuela owns the drugs and... especially of the urban lower classes, of a broad and concrete discussion on the problems of the use and abuse of alco- hol, hallucinogens and narcotics

  19. Analysis of six Vietnamese trophy skulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledzik, P S; Ousley, S

    1991-03-01

    This report presents morphologic, metric, and contextual information on six documented trophy skull specimens confiscated from U.S. servicemen during the Vietnam War. Additional information on the history and occurrence of trophy skull collecting is provided. This sample, consisting mostly of young Vietnamese males, exhibits graffiti, painting, and other evidence of postmortem decorative modification. Identification of trophy skulls is important to medicolegal and anthropological researchers in distinguishing trophy remains from archaeological and forensic specimens.

  20. The Homeland Security Ecosystem: An Analysis of Hierarchical and Ecosystem Models and Their Influence on Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    ALPR Automated License Plate Readers DHS Department of Homeland Security DOJ Department of Justice EOA Ecosystem-Oriented Architectures FEMA...through the use of technology, including the use of automated license plate readers ( ALPR ), ballistics evidence from crime scenes and confiscated...interest, their associates, and the use of ALPR technology to track criminal suspects and their routes of travel. Other recommendations included: the

  1. Cultural practice of the Midzichenda at cross roads:

    OpenAIRE

    Tinga, Kaingu Kalume

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the conflicts between some cultural practices of the Midzichenda (i. e. divination, healing and witchcraft) and the Kenyan Law. For decades, diviners and healers have been misconceived and condemned wholesale as `witchdoctors´, `wizards´ or `witches´. This misconception has seen many innocent diviners and healers mercilessly arrested, hurriedly arraigned in court, heavily fined and (or) eventually imprisoned, and their paraphernalia confiscated and finally destroyed by th...

  2. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-18

    Be Followed in Transferring Confiscated Kulak Farms to the Kolkhozes" Decree No. 654, dated 30 August 1947, "On Taxation of Farmsteads in the ESSR... taxation system. The ID proposes, taking into account the amendments to the Popular Front program outlined above, to work up a unified democratic movement...and disarmament, and against nuclear war. But under the law they cannot practise charity, which is professed by practically all religions. Why? Y.R

  3. Jihadi Discourse in the Wake of the Arab Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    down But I can still use it to tan his skin like the hide of cattle they brand So that when, through a decisive blow, his time has come And from...nature of nationalism that divides people with artificial borders. In his second statement, also released during February 2011, ‘Atiyya adopts a...December 2010 the young vendor Muhammad Bouazizi, whose fruit and vegetable cart was arbitrarily confiscated by the police, set himself on fire outside his

  4. Managing the Navy’s Infectious Medical Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-04

    pasteur pipetes, broken glass, scalpel blades) which have come into contact with infectious agents during use in patient care or in medical , research...concerned patients with a responsible method of disposal of their syringes. 4.8 Proposed Federal Legislation On June 22, 1992, American Medical News reported...disposal point for non- medically related wastes which required special handling. These wastes included such items as confiscated marijuana , sensitive

  5. Latin America Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-22

    Hungarian Medicines 56 Milk Production Project 57 New Ambassador to Switzerland 58 French Cameraman Reports Confiscation Mirage Loses Missile in...months ago has unfairly tarnished the state’s prestige. Chihuahua has been tainted by marihuana . No one wants to succeed Ornelas," said a labor...Aug 85 P 8] 9907- HUNGARIAN MEDICINES — The vice minister for technical provisions from MINSA [Ministry of Health], Pablo Coca, received a

  6. Penanggulangan Kejahatan Trafficking Melalui Undang-Undang Pencegahan Dan Pemberantasan Tindak Pidana Pencucian Uang

    OpenAIRE

    Girsang, Hotlarisda

    2011-01-01

    Setting money laundering as criminal act is the base for the law enforcement to expropriate the proceeds of crime during this common law can not confiscate the proceeds of crime because of the difficulty to track the presence of the crime or even the proceeds of crime has been transferred to third countries. Money laundering activities can do through to the stages of placement, transfer, and using property (integration). The principles of tracing proceeds of crime in order to obtain the c...

  7. Range Riders and Game Wardens: A Brief History of Fort Bragg’s Forest Ranger Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Estelle Rowland and Evelyn Ellington. Infor- mal interviews were conducted with family members of former rangers, Myra Mort Hanni , Elizabeth McPherson, Dun...worked under the command of the sergeant whose family resided in the main house. As Myra Mott Hanni , daughter of 1920s ranger Sergeant John Sidney Mott...above as well as by Myra Mott Hanni who retains a photograph of her father standing next to a confiscated still. Wilson recalls finding stills on the

  8. Qualitative assessment of take-home naloxone program participant and law enforcement interactions in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonarine, Andrew; Amlani, Ashraf; Ambrose, Graham; Buxton, Jane A

    2016-05-21

    The British Columbia take-home naloxone (BCTHN) program has been in operation since 2012 and has resulted in the successful reversal of over 581 opioid overdoses. The study aims to explore BCTHN program participant perspectives about the program, barriers to participants contacting emergency services (calling "911") during an overdose, and perspectives of law enforcement officials on naloxone administration by police officers. Two focus groups and four individual interviews were conducted with BCTHN program participants; interviews with two law enforcement officials were also conducted. Qualitative analysis of all transcripts was performed. Positive themes about the BCTHN program from participants included easy to understand training, correcting misperceptions in the community, and positive interactions with emergency services. Potential barriers to contacting emergency services during an overdose include concerns about being arrested for outstanding warrants or for other illegal activities (such as drug possession) and confiscation of kits. Law enforcement officials noted that warrants were complex situational issues, kits would normally not be confiscated, and admitted arrests for drug possession or other activities may not serve the public good in an overdose situation. Law enforcement officials were concerned about legal liability and jurisdictional/authorization issues if naloxone administration privileges were expanded to police. Program participants and law enforcement officials expressed differing perspectives about warrants, kit confiscation, and arrests. Facilitating communication between BCTHN program participants and other stakeholders may address some of the confusion and remove potential barriers to further improving program outcomes. Naloxone administration by law enforcement would require policies to address jurisdiction/authorization and liability issues.

  9. Detection of sibutramine in adulterated dietary supplements using attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Cauwenbergh, T; Bothy, J L; Custers, D; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O

    2014-11-01

    Sibutramine is one of the most occurring adulterants encountered in dietary supplements with slimming as indication. These adulterated dietary supplements often contain a herbal matrix. When customs intercept these kind of supplements it is almost impossible to discriminate between the legal products and the adulterated ones, due to misleading packaging. Therefore in most cases these products are confiscated and send to laboratories for analysis. This results inherently in the confiscation of legal, non-adulterated products. Therefore there is a need for easy to use equipment and techniques to perform an initial screening of samples. Attenuated total reflectance-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy was evaluated for the detection of sibutramine in adulterated dietary supplements. Data interpretation was performed using different basic chemometric techniques. It was found that the use of ATR-IR combined with the k-Nearest Neighbours (k-NN) was able to detect all adulterated dietary supplements in an external test set and this with a minimum of false positive results. This means that a small amount of legal products will still be confiscated and analyzed in a laboratory to be found negative, but no adulterated samples will pass the initial ATR-IR screening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. South American camelid illegal traffic detection by means of molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rocco, F; Posik, D M; Ripoli, M V; Díaz, S; Maté, M L; Giovambattista, G; Vidal-Rioja, L

    2011-11-01

    South American camelids comprise the wild species guanaco and vicuña and their respective domestic relatives llama and alpaca. The aim of the present study was to determine by DNA analysis to which of these species belong a herd of camelids confiscated from a llama breeder but alleged to be alpacas by the prosecution, and to evaluate the usefulness of mitochondrial and autosomal DNA markers to solve judicial cases involving camelid taxa. Cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I mitochondrial genes and 7 STR were analyzed in 25 confiscated samples. Mitochondrial results were inconclusive because 18 of the sequestered samples presented haplotypes that corresponded to the guanaco haplogroup and the remaining seven belonged to a vicuña linage. Microsatellite data of casework samples and llama reference samples revealed different genetic profiles by the presence of private alleles at two microsatellites suggesting that the confiscated animals could be alpaca, or at least alpaca hybrids instead of pure llama. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pedro de Valencia, Francisco de Gurmendi and the Plomos de Granada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnier, Grace

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The Inquisition in 1618 seized all the papers of Pedro de Valencia, renowned humanist, biblical scholar and chronicler of Philip III. The papers of other members of his circle were also confiscated. In this article I examine the two most important texts: Sobre el pergamino y láminas de Granada of Valencia and a Libelo Segundo of Francisco de Gurmendi, interpreter of Oriental languages for Philip III. The article is structured around Gurmendi's response to a memorial published in 1617 by Archbishop Pedro de Castro in defence of one of his translators. Gurmendi, working from his translation of the first two Lead Books, shows how these contain heretical ideas on the Trinity and how the memorialista has mistranslated many passages.

    En 1618 la Inquisición confiscó todos los papeles de Pedro de Valencia, humanista insigne, exegeta bíblico y cronista del reino y de las Indias de Felipe III. También confiscó los papeles de otros miembros de su círculo. En este artículo examino los dos textos más importantes: Sobre el pergamino y láminas de Granada de Valencia y un Libelo segundo de Francisco de Gurmendi, intérprete en lenguas orientales del rey. El artículo se centra en la respuesta de Gurmendi a un memorial del Arzobispo Pedro de Castro en el que se defiende a uno de sus traductores. Partiendo de su traducción de los dos primeros libros plúmbeos, Gurmendi muestra las herejías trinitarias que éstos contienen y cómo el memorialista ha traducido mal muchos pasajes.

  12. Destruction of illegal things and devices to contrast the counterfeiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Mario Antinucci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The movement of goods illegal and counterfeit in the circuit of the economy and the labor market, has put in place of criminal policy internal supranational and a primary need of confiscation and destruction in relation to safety issues transnational linked to all forms of counterfeiting, piracy agro-food to fraud in industrial brands of high fashion et similia: from here the major node of the procedure of destruction of goods illegal and counterfeit subject to seizure and confiscation and respect of guarantees communities of the criminal process, especially in the light of the amendment of art. 260, co. 3 bis and ter, c.p.p. with the d.l. 23-5-2008, n. 92 and subsequent amendments (so-called Safety Package. In line with the criminal policy of ''security'', in l. 23-7-2009, n. 99, the so-called Decree Development, between the ''darrangements for the development and the internationalization of enterprises, as well as in the field of energy'' and  wanted to redesign, with analytical provisions of particular edge, the perimeter of the criminal-law protection ''Dei property rights industrial'' through the introduction of four new hypothesis of offenses of counterfeiting (artt. 473, 474, 474 b and c, 517 b and c, c.p. and related hypothesis of obligatory confiscation (art. 474 bis and 517 ter c.p., with implications concerning the regime differentiated penitentiary (art. 4 bis, co. 1 ter, ord. penit. in relation to the cases of belonging to criminal association aimed to commit new offenses referred to in articles 473-474 c.p. (arts. 416 bis, 6º Co., c.p. and 51, co. 3 bis, c.p.p., as well as the regulatory body containing the so-called ''responsability of administrative entities'', within the meaning of art. 19, d.lg. 8-6-2001, n. 231.

  13. Filling in the blanks. An estimation of illicit cannabis growers' profits in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhove, Wouter; Surmont, Tim; Van Damme, Patrick; De Ruyver, Brice

    2014-05-01

    As a result of increased pressure on cannabis cultivation in The Netherlands, the number of confiscated indoor cannabis plantations in Belgium is rising. Although increases are reported for all plantations sizes, half of the seized plantations contain less than 50 plants. In this study, factors and variables that influence costs and benefits of indoor cannabis cultivation are investigated as well as how these costs and benefits vary between different cannabis grower types. Real-situation data of four growers were used to perform financial analyses. Costs included fixed and variable material costs, as well as opportunity costs. Gross revenue per grow cycle was calculated based on most recent forensic findings for illicit Belgian cannabis plantations and was adjusted for the risk of getting caught. Finally, gross revenues and return on costs (ROC) were calculated over 1 year (4 cycles). Financial analysis shows that in all cases gross revenues as well as ROC are considerable, even after a single growth cycle. Highest profitability was found for large-scale (600 plants, ROC=6.8) and mid-scale plantations (150 plants, ROC=6.0). However, industrial plantations (23,000 plants, ROC=1.4) and micro-scale plantations (5 plants, ROC=2.8) are also highly remunerative. Shift of police focus away from micro-scale growers, least likely to be involved in criminal gangs, to large-scale and industrial scale plantations would influence costs as a result of changing risks of getting caught. However, sensitivity analysis shows that this does not significantly influence the conclusions on profitability of different types of indoor cannabis growers. Seizure and confiscation of profits are important elements in the integral and integrated policy approach required for tackling illicit indoor cannabis plantations. The large return of costs evidenced in the present study, underpin the policy relevance of confiscating those illicit profits as part of enforcement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B

  14. Radiochronology in nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamelu, D.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear forensics corresponds to the forensic analysis of nuclear materials. The samples analysed may either be those that are confiscated during any act of smuggling or that is retrieved from a postexplosion debris. The characterisation of the material is based on the isotopic composition, physical and chemical compositions, age and history of the material which are determined by suitable analytical techniques. The interpretation of the analytical results is necessary to understand the details of the material such as its provenance, the industrial history of the material as well as the implications of the probable use of the material

  15. Sanctioning Large-Scale Domestic Cannabis Production - Potency, Yield and Professionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kim; Lindholst, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Domestically cultivated cannabis, referred to as sinsemilla, constitutes a growing share of the illicit drug markets in the Scandinavian countries. In this study we present forensic evidence of THC content in sinsemilla and resin confiscated by the Danish police from 2008 to 2012. The purpose...... that courts do not apply a yield-percentage estimate. The specificities of domestic cannabis cultivation also relate to the sanction criteria „professionalism”. Firstly, the number of plants found can provide for calculation of an aggregate quantum. Secondly, this can be related to the formal quantum......-scale cannabis cases would improve by applying a 1:1 potency level between sinsemilla and resin....

  16. Illicit trafficking of radioactive material in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golder, I.

    1996-01-01

    Hungary, due to its geographical location is a convenient region for illegal transit of nuclear material between source and target countries. In recent years nine cases have became known and altogether 21.7 kg depleted, 4.6 kg natural, and 2.5 kg low enriched uranium have been confiscated. A brief summary is given of possible origin of the illicitly transported radioactive material. The most important elements of the security of sources including the national and accounting system of radioactive material and the intervention plans are discussed. (author)

  17. The financial implications of certain types of cross-border pollution: The polluter-pays principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montmayeul, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Favorable Paris Convention regulations: absolute liability, exclusive liability, channeling of liability to the operator in case of nuclear damage, financial security, limited maximum liability, single legal forum, ten-year time limit. Difficulties of application for certain types of cross-border pollution not covered by the Paris Convention: so-called orphan sources (stolen, lost, or abandoned sealed sources or confiscated contaminated metallurgical scrap). Benefits of the polluter-pays principle: identification of the polluter, identification of the holder of the polluted materials, responsible parties held accountable, financial reparations. Analysis of the polluter-pays principle already recognized in numerous international texts on environmental law. (author)

  18. The “Non-Aligned Status” of French Emigrés and Refugees in Philadelphia, 1793-1798

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Potofsky

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The key pieces of anti-émigré legislation, passed by the Convention on 28 March 1793 defined seven categories of émigrés but made little distinction between the intentions of nearly 150,000 French men and women that fled war, Terror, and political upheaval during the Revolution. All were deemed “traitors” and “unpatriotic” (impatriotes and faced the death penalty upon return to France as well as the confiscation of their property along with other penalties borne by their families. Added to t...

  19. External parasites of raptors (Falconiformes and Strigiformes): identification in an ex situ population from Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, JaquelineB; Santos, Tiziano; Vaughan, Christopher; Santiago, Heber

    2011-01-01

    Raptorial birds harbor a variety of ectoparasites and the mayority of them are host specific. The aim of this study was to identify the ectoparasites of captive birds of prey from Mexico, as well as to verify their impact in the health of infested birds. Raptorial birds were confiscated and kept in captivity at the Centro de Investigación y Conservación de Vida Silvestre (CIVS) in Los Reyes La Paz, Mexico State. Seventy-four birds of prey (66 Falconiformes and eigth Strigiformes) of 15 specie...

  20. Translations on Narcotics and Dangerous Drug No. 289.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-16

    the crime on the morning of 10 February, she guar - antees: "I had never before seen the individuals who killed my husband." She also claims that she...Confiscated goods included 126 kilograms of gum , 101 tons of mari- huana, 26 kilograms of processed drugs and 20 airplanes. Also 693 national drug...represented a value of some DM4 million—DM10-15 million calculated at black market prices. The powder was 5 kg of pure cocaine, of higher quality than

  1. IAEA coordinated research project on improvement of technical measures to detect and respond to illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedin-Zadeh, R.; Abou-Zahra, A.; Weiss, B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Monitoring to detect the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials includes screening vehicles, cargo and individuals at borders to 1) detect smuggling of these materials; 2) locate, measure and characterize the source of radiation; and 3) fully characterize any confiscated material. Currently available instruments used for the field measurements are not optimized for this purpose and may not detect shielded plutonium and highly enriched uranium. Confiscated radioactive materials need to be characterized with macro- and microanalysis techniques to fully understand the significance of the material and to provide credible evidence in the event of prosecution of the traffickers. Although most States have national laboratories capable to determine the basic characteristics of such material, only a few member States have the sophisticated analytical capability necessary to perform proper forensics analysis. The coordinated research project on 'Improvement of Technical Measures to Detect and Respond to Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear and other Radioactive Materials' has been established to: Improve the detection capability and performance of hand-held and portable isotope measurement devices, including the technical and functional specifications for such devices; standardize procedures to examine suspicious packages and to assess the hazard of confiscated material; and develop recommendations and guidelines for establishing a system to provide nuclear forensics support to member States for the characterization of seized nuclear material. Related to the nuclear forensics support, it should be noted that with the inception of the Agency's nuclear security programme in 1995, the IAEA has offered the services of its laboratories in Seibersdorf and associated laboratories to assist States in analysing confiscated nuclear materials. Since 1993 the IAEA has received reports of over 300 cases of smuggling of nuclear and other radioactive materials

  2. Analysis of the documents about the core envelopment of nuclear reactor at the Laguna Verde U-1 power plant; Analisis de documentos de los materiales de la envolvente del nucleo del reactor nuclear de la CLV U-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora R, L.; Medina F, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The degradation of internal components at BWR type reactors is an important subject to consider in the performance availability of the power plant. The Wuergassen nuclear reactor license was confiscated due to the presence of cracking in the core envelopment. In consequence it is necessary carrying out a detailed study with the purpose to avoid these problems in the future. This report presents a review and analysis of documents and technical information referring to the core envelopment of a BWR/5/6 and the Laguna Verde Unit 1 nuclear reactor in Mexico. In this document are presented design data, documents about fabrication processes, and manufacturing of core envelopment. (Author)

  3. Analysis of the documents about the core envelopment of nuclear reactor at the Laguna Verde U-1 power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora R, L.; Medina F, A.

    1999-01-01

    The degradation of internal components at BWR type reactors is an important subject to consider in the performance availability of the power plant. The Wuergassen nuclear reactor license was confiscated due to the presence of cracking in the core envelopment. In consequence it is necessary carrying out a detailed study with the purpose to avoid these problems in the future. This report presents a review and analysis of documents and technical information referring to the core envelopment of a BWR/5/6 and the Laguna Verde Unit 1 nuclear reactor in Mexico. In this document are presented design data, documents about fabrication processes, and manufacturing of core envelopment. (Author)

  4. Qualitative and Semiquantitative Analysis of Doping Products Seized at the Swiss Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Christina; Krug, Oliver; Kamber, Matthias; Thevis, Mario

    2017-05-12

    Substances developed for therapeutic use are also known to be misused by athletes as doping agents and, outside of regulated sport, for image-enhancement. This has generated a market for counterfeit doping substances. Counterfeit doping agents may be of poor pharmaceutical quality and therefore constitute health risks to consumers. This study aims to investigate the pharmaceutical quality of 1,190 doping products seized at the Swiss border. Swiss customs authorities seize incoming shipments potentially containing doping agents. Qualitative and semiquantitative analyses were performed in order to test for prohibited doping substances. The main analytical methods utilized for characterizing confiscated compounds were liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with subsequent in-gel tryptic digestion and identification of peptidic compounds using nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and electrochemiluminescence immuno assay. For 889 (75%) of the analyzed products, the label suggested the content of anabolic agents, for 146 samples (12%) peptide hormones or growth factors, and for 113 items (9%) antiestrogens, aromatase inhibitors or other metabolic modulators. For the majority of the investigated products, the pharmaceutical quality was an unsatisfactory standard: nonapproved substances were detected and less than 20% of the products contained the claimed substance in the respective amount. A comprehensive sample of confiscated doping products was analyzed, allowing for monitoring of developments regarding the use of doping substances in Switzerland and for anticipating future trends and challenges in sports drug testing. An alarming number of tested products was of substandard pharmaceutical quality.

  5. Design and implementation of land reservation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yurong; Gao, Qingqiang

    2009-10-01

    Land reservation is defined as a land management policy for insuring the government to control primary land market. It requires the government to obtain the land first, according to plan, by purchase, confiscation and exchanging, and then exploit and consolidate the land for reservation. Underlying this policy, it is possible for the government to satisfy and manipulate the needs of land for urban development. The author designs and develops "Land Reservation System for Eastern Lake Development District" (LRSELDD), which deals with the realistic land requirement problems in Wuhan Eastern Lake Development Districts. The LRSELDD utilizes modern technologies and solutions of computer science and GIS to process multiple source data related with land. Based on experiments on the system, this paper will first analyze workflow land reservation system and design the system structure based on its principles, then illustrate the approach of organization and management of spatial data, describe the system functions according to the characteristics of land reservation and consolidation finally. The system is running to serve for current work in Eastern Lake Development Districts. It is able to scientifically manage both current and planning land information, as well as the information about land supplying. We use the LRSELDD in our routine work, and with such information, decisions on land confiscation and allocation will be made wisely and scientifically.

  6. MONEY LAUNDERING OR LAUNDERING OF THE PROCEEDS OF CRIME?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA ALINA DUMITRACHE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyses which of the phrases money laundering or laundering the proceeds of crime is more appropriate to describe the crime provided by art. 23 of Law no. 656/2002 on prevention and sanctioning money laundering, as well as for setting up some measures for prevention and combating terrorism financing. In this respect, the article includes a survey of the important international documents in this matters ratified by Romania - United Nations Vienna Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (the Vienna Convention, the Council of Europe Convention on Laundering, Search, Seizure and Confiscation of the Proceeds of Crime, The United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime,Council of Europe Convention on Laundering, Search, Seizure and Confiscation of the Proceeds from Crime and on the Financing of Terrorism. To remove any ambiguities arising from the approach of the money laundering concept and to reach a conclusion, there are also presented the controversial views regarding the use of the expression money laundering in both Title and content of Law, views expressed in specialized literature.

  7. [The portrait of medicine and Gustav Klimt (1862-1918)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Bárbara C; Bruetman, Julio E; Young, Pablo

    2013-12-01

    Gustav Klimt was an Austrian Symbolist painter and one of the most important representatives of the modernist movement of the Viennese Secession. The most notable works carried out at his golden age were the "Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I" and "The kiss". In 1901 he paints "Medicine" where he returns to the entanglement of floating bodies -the lifetime- among which appears the skeleton of death; a female figure stands out from the column to represent freedom from pain. The figure of Hygeia or Hygieia, daughter of Aesculapius, who personifies medicine, is shown in the foreground. In 1911, thanks to "The life and death", a picture related to medicine, he was awarded the first prize at the Universal Exhibition of Rome. A number of his artworks were confiscated by the Nazi dictatorship. During the advance of enemy troops, and fearing that these works would become spoils of war, it was decided to burn the castle where they remained confiscated. Therefore, countless artworks were lost. The progressive development of symbolic or abstract motifs already emphasized the freedom of spirit that permeated all the avant-garde of early twentieth century.

  8. Independent instances of "souvenir" Asian skulls from the Tampa Bay area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienker, C W; Wood, J E; Diggs, C A

    1990-05-01

    In the summer of 1984, police in Pinellas County, Florida, confiscated six identically colored imported Asian skulls (in a shipping case) from a private citizen. In May 1988, in nearby Hillsborough County, police confiscated a very similar skull from another private citizen, who allegedly had found it in an abandoned house. Aside from slight color differences between the six found in Pinellas County and the one found in Hillsborough County, the skulls are virtually identical in their osteological characteristics and condition and in the vital statistics derived from each. Each skull is as clean and dry as those typically sold by commercial scientific supply outlets in the United States. Each is edentulous (primarily premortem), between approximately 20 and 60 years of age at death, and morphologically Asian. Five of the seven are morphologically male, one is morphologically female, and one is a mosaic with respect to gender-related features. Police, medical examiners, coroners, and forensic anthropologists should be aware of such "souvenir" specimens, in the event that they encounter similar skulls. Discriminant function analyses for race and sex yield considerably conflicting results, which underscores the need for using extreme caution when interpreting forensic science estimates based on such techniques.

  9. Screening experiments of ecstasy street samples using near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondermann, N; Kovar, K A

    1999-12-20

    Twelve different sets of confiscated ecstasy samples were analysed applying both near infrared spectroscopy in reflectance mode (1100-2500 nm) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The sets showed a large variance in composition. A calibration data set was generated based on the theory of factorial designs. It contained 221 N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA) samples, 167 N-ethyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDE), 111 amphetamine and 106 samples without a controlled substance, which will be called placebo samples thereafter. From this data set, PLS-1 models were calculated and were successfully applied for validation of various external laboratory test sets. The transferability of these results to confiscated tablets is demonstrated here. It is shown that differentiation into placebo, amphetamine and ecstasy samples is possible. Analysis of intact tablets is practicable. However, more reliable results are obtained from pulverised samples. This is due to ill-defined production procedures. The use of mathematically pretreated spectra improves the prediction quality of all the PLS-1 models studied. It is possible to improve discrimination between MDE and MDMA with the help of a second model based on raw spectra. Alternative strategies are briefly discussed.

  10. [Practical problems in criminal laws of prevention of cruelty to animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iburg, U

    2000-03-01

    1. To ascertain serious pains and sufferings in the meaning of section 17 no. 2 b law of prevention of cruelty to animals you cannot do without the help of an expert witness for taking possession of evidence--apart from simple cases. Except the clarifying of fundamental questions concerning prevention of cruelty to animals a professional statement of the administrative veterinary surgeon will be as a rule sufficient. 2. For the actual seizure of animals for the purpose of confiscation and compulsory disposal the criminal justice is extremely dependent on the support of the authorities of administration. Therefore a trouble-free cooperation of criminal justice, veterinary authorities, animal homes and--concerning the protection of species--authorities for protection of endangered nature is imperative. 3. The main problems with the application of the regulation concerning the interdiction of keeping animals according to sections 20 and 20 a law of prevention of cruelty to animals are justified in the legal prerequisites. It is unsatisfactory that an interdiction of keeping animals cannot be imposed by summary punishment order and that a confiscation of animals is not possible by criminal proceedings in case of offence against sections 20 subsection 3, 20 a subsection 3 law of prevention of cruelty to animals. Therefore an admission of the sections as mentioned above to section 19 law of prevention of cruelty to animals seems to be convenient.

  11. DEFICIENCIES IN THE FISCAL CONTROL OF THE NATURAL PERSON FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRESCU SERJU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we tried to identify the legislation adopted on the correlation of the sources of income for individuals with assets owned by the same individual. We thought it appropriate to present indirect methods for determining the adjusted taxable base and considerations about the adoption, in September 2013, of OMPF nr.1504/2013, on the declaration of assets and income of the individual investigated at the request of the tax authority. In our opinion, the "weakness" of the instrument above is that in the wording of statement it is not explicitly stated where and whether you should declare the cash in lei or foreign currency, and we refer here to the cash held both at the beginning of the period under examination and the end of it. By identifying the "weak point" of the Romanian instrument, we have tried to present the regulation according to which Moldova modified the Tax Code and imposed to the individuals who carry out economic activities, to submit to the fiscal organ a statement showing the amounts held in cash. In the second part of the paper we made a presentation and interpretation of the legal previsions on confiscation incidence from Romania by presenting the conditions that can be applied in the case of the confiscation of goods.

  12. The Law and Practice of Criminal Asset Forfeiture in South African Criminal Procedure: A Constitutional Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinesh Basdeo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The deprivation of the proceeds of crime has been a feature of criminal law for many years. The original rationale for the confiscation of criminal assets at international level was the fight against organised crime, a feature of society described by the European Court of Human Rights as a "scourge" so that the draconian powers which are a feature of confiscation regimes around the world have been approved in circumstances which otherwise might have caused governments considerable difficulties before the international human rights tribunals. The primary objective of this article is to determine if the asset forfeiture measures employed in the South African criminal justice system are in need of any reform and/or augmentation in accordance with the "spirit, purport and object" of the South African Constitution. This article attempts to answer three questions. Firstly, why is criminal asset forfeiture important to law enforcement? Secondly, in which circumstances can property be forfeited and what types of property are subject to forfeiture? Thirdly, how is forfeiture accomplished, and what are its constitutional ramifications?

  13. Morbidity and mortality of invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals at a major exotic companion animal wholesaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Shawn; Brown, Susan; Ledford, Joel; Martin, Janet; Nash, Ann-Elizabeth; Terry, Amanda; Tristan, Tim; Warwick, Clifford

    2014-01-01

    The authors formally investigated a major international wildlife wholesaler and subsequently confiscated more than 26,400 nonhuman animals of 171 species and types. Approximately 80% of the nonhuman animals were identified as grossly sick, injured, or dead, with the remaining in suspected suboptimal condition. Almost 3,500 deceased or moribund animals (12% of stock), mostly reptiles, were being discarded on a weekly basis. Mortality during the 6-week "stock turnover" period was determined to be 72%. During a 10-day period after confiscation, mortality rates (including euthanasia for humane reasons) for the various taxa were 18% for invertebrates, 44.5% for amphibians, 41.6% for reptiles, and 5.5% for mammals. Causes of morbidity and mortality included cannibalism, crushing, dehydration, emaciation, hypothermic stress, infection, parasite infestation, starvation, overcrowding, stress/injuries, euthanasia on compassionate grounds, and undetermined causes. Contributing factors for disease and injury included poor hygiene; inadequate, unreliable, or inappropriate provision of food, water, heat, and humidity; presumed high levels of stress due to inappropriate housing leading to intraspecific aggression; absent or minimal environmental enrichment; and crowding. Risks for introduction of invasive species through escapes and/or spread of pathogens to naive populations also were identified.

  14. Forensic identification of Indian snakeroot (Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. ex Kurz) using DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eurlings, Marcel C M; Lens, Frederic; Pakusza, Csilla; Peelen, Tamara; Wieringa, Jan J; Gravendeel, Barbara

    2013-05-01

    Indian snakeroot (Rauvolfia serpentina) is a valuable forest product, root extracts of which are used as an antihypertensive drug. Increasing demand led to overharvesting in the wild. Control of international trade is hampered by the inability to identify root samples to the species level. We therefore evaluated the potential of molecular identification by searching for species-specific DNA polymorphisms. We found two species-specific indels in the rps16 intron region for R. serpentina. Our DNA barcoding method was tested for its specificity, reproducibility, sensitivity and stability. We included samples of various tissues and ages, which had been treated differently for preservation. DNA extractions were tested in a range of amplification settings and dilutions. Species-specific rps16 intron sequences were obtained from 79 herbarium accessions and one confiscated root, encompassing 39 different species. Our results demonstrate that molecular analysis provides new perspectives for forensic identification of Indian snakeroot. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Control of physical fitness of athletes specializing in combat sambo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Tron

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Confiscation of informative educational tests to assess motor qualities of skilled athletes. The survey was attended by 94 athletes (18 to 30 years. This group of tests includes: running too far on the bridge (second coups in space (second; perform 100 punches on the punching bag (second, perform 50 kicks on the punching bag (second. It was found that the highest correlation between the result and the qualifications of athletes seen in tests involving the use of wrestling skills (rushing on the bridge and from the place of revolutions. It is shown that in the groups of athletes of medium and heavy weight categories in tests measuring the speed of the application of various attacks on the punching bag have a weak relationship with the level of sportsmanship. The trend is strengthening correlation sports training and exercise, describing the power of athletes of different skills to increase their weight classes.

  16. Ministerial Order of 24 April 1964 on the approval of types of devices containing radioactive substances, made in implementation of Section 3.1 d/2 of the Royal Order of 28 February 1963 embodying the General Regulations for the Protection of the Population and Workers against the Hazards of Ionizing Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    This Order lays down that approval of devices containing radioactive substances and referred to in the Royal Order of 28 February 1963 embodying the General Regulations on Protection of the Population and Workers against the Hazards of Ionizing Radiations will only be granted if the total quantity of radioisotopes contained therein does not exceed certain values laid down by the 1963 Royal Order, and the radioactive substances are adequately shielded. It also lays down the procedure to be complied with for obtaining such approval and the conditions the applicant must meet to obtain the certificate of approval, which is valid for six years and may be renewed. The Ministry of Employment and Labour, Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, and the Ministry of Public Health and the Family are the competent authorities in respect of applications for a certificate of approval. Finally, suspension or withdrawal of the certificate or confiscation of the radioactive substances or devices do not give rise to compensation. (NEA) [fr

  17. Neutron activation analysis in forensic investigations. Trace elements characterization of cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordani, L.; Rizzio, E.; Brandone, A.

    2005-01-01

    Police investigations of the Italian Ministry of Treasury Police involving the illicit sale of tobacco lead to the confiscation of large quantities of smuggled cigarettes. Thousands of tons of cigarettes of different manufacturers are sequestrated yearly in many regions of Italy and different criminal organizations have been identified as unlawful importers. In order to verify whether the recovered smuggled lots of cigarettes come from the official manufacturers, or they have produced illicitly, usually chemical analysis are carried out. By the determination of trace elements content, specific information can be obtained by comparing different brands of cigarettes and different batches of tobacco. Samples of tobacco of cigarettes manufactured by the Italian State Monopoly, taken as 'reference samples', have been compared with those of illicit origin. Elements such as Co, Br, Cr and Sc have been found to be useful for the selective characterization. The results, submitted to statistical elaboration, provided important information on the origin of smuggled cigarettes. (author)

  18. [Narcotic abuse in Jylland. A study based on narcotics and deaths of addicts examined at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Aarhus during the period 1981-1988. 1. Narcotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaa, E

    1990-04-09

    On the basis of analysis of 1,879 samples of narcotics confiscated in Jutland and Funen during the period 1981-1988, the individual types of drugs are described as regards occurrence and quality. Cannabis and heroin were found in the illegal market during the entire period. Amphetamine was rarely observed prior to 1985 but comprised half of the illegal drugs examined in 1988. Cocaine was encountered in only 1% of the samples. Designer drugs were not seen. Heroin occurred relatively most frequently in Aarhus, Odense and Esbjerg while amphetamine and cannabis were found in all parts of Jutland and Funen. The samples of heroin and amphetamine varied greatly as regards strength and the types and quantities of cutting agents. The majority of the samples were adulterated and/or diluted with substances such as caffeine and phenazone and the sugars, glucose and lactose.

  19. Three Nematode Species Recovered from Terrestrial Snakes in Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Seongjun; Lim, Junsik; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Youngjun; Kim, Heejong; Lee, Dongmin; Park, Hansol; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Eom, Keeseon S

    2016-04-01

    The majority of parasitological studies of terrestrial snakes in Korea have focused on zoonotic parasites. However, in the present study, we describe 3 unrecorded nematode species recovered from 5 species of snakes (n=6) in Korea. The examined snakes, all confiscated from illegal hunters, were donated by the Chungnam Wild Animal Rescue Center and Korean Broadcasting System in July 2014 and February 2015. Light and scanning electron microscopies on the shapes of spicules that are either bent or straight (kalicephalids) and the presence of the intestinal cecum (ophidascarids) figured out 3 nematodes; Kalicephalus brachycephalus Maplestone, 1931, Kalicephalus sinensis Hsü, 1934, and Ophidascaris excavata Hsü and Hoeppli, 1934. These 3 species of nematode faunas are recorded for the first time in Korea.

  20. Radiocarbon dating of seized ivory confirms rapid decline in African elephant populations and provides insight into illegal trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Gobush, Kathleen S.; Uno, Kevin T.; Wasser, Samuel K.; Xu, Xiaomei

    2016-11-01

    Carbon-14 measurements on 231 elephant ivory specimens from 14 large ivory seizures (≥0.5 ton) made between 2002 and 2014 show that most ivory (ca. 90%) was derived from animals that had died less than 3 y before ivory was confiscated. This indicates that the assumption of recent elephant death for mortality estimates of African elephants is correct: Very little “old” ivory is included in large ivory shipments from Africa. We found only one specimen of the 231 analyzed to have a lag time longer than 6 y. Patterns of trade differ by regions: East African ivory, based on genetic assignments of geographic origin, has a much higher fraction of “rapid” transit than ivory originating in the Tridom region of Cameroon-Gabon-Congo. Carbon-14 is an important tool in understanding patterns of movement of illegal wildlife products.

  1. In kind restitution in Serbia: Gestation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžić Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available On the sixth day of the tenth month of the eleventh year of the twenty first century, sixty six years after the first confiscation of property after the Second World War, a new law on general restitution of property came to light in Serbia. This play with numbers and words, as the article itself, aims at drawing the attention of legal scholars to the problems surrounding restitution in Serbia within the limits set by the law. Our intention was to point out to the incompleteness and shallowness of the Law by offering a systematic analysis, supported by arguments, of legislation on which the Law on Restitution rests and to propose suggestions that would help overcome difficulties in interpreting certain provisions of the Law, ultimately stating what the law ought to be (de lege ferenda.

  2. Outside the Limits of the Ego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia León-López

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Freud never ceases to inquire into the gap between religion and psychoanalysis. The last lines he wrote illustrate his insistence on the question: “Mysticism is the dark self perception of the realm outside the ego, the realm of the id”. By tracking this gap through the equivalence Freud establishes between Kant's categorical imperative, taboo, and the restrictions of obsessive neurosis, we can see how religion captures the subject's possibility of accepting its subjective division. On the basis of Lacan and resorting to a proposition set forth by Agamben, we argue that psychoanalysis invites human beings to profane, to recover the relationship with the cause of their desire, which has been confiscated by religion

  3. Determination of cocaine in Real banknotes circulating at the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, V G K; Cassella, R J; Pacheco, W F

    2015-06-01

    This paper shows the result of a study on the extent of cocaine contamination in Real banknotes in circulation in the state of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). A study of the percentage of contaminated banknotes was made, as well as a study on the contamination of banknotes based on different values, and a study of contamination depending on the region where the banknote was collected. The idea of this last study was to verify if the peculiar characteristics of the region of study (in particular, the city of Rio de Janeiro) influence the amount of cocaine in the banknotes. Some regions have higher consumption/drug trafficking of cocaine than others. Also, some contaminated banknotes confiscated directly from drug dealers and users were analyzed. Also, is showed in this paper all the optimization of the available analytical techniques for making the measurements possible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Harms caused by China's 1906-17 opium suppression intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, James

    2013-09-01

    Between 1906 and 1917 China (under the Imperial and then Republican regimes) enacted a highly effective intervention to suppress the production of opium. Evidence from British Foreign Office records suggest that the intervention was centred, in many areas, upon a highly repressive incarnation of law enforcement in which rural populations had their property destroyed, their land confiscated and/or were publically tortured, humiliated and executed. Crops were forcefully eradicated and resistance was often brutally suppressed by the military. As few farmers received compensation or support for alternative livelihood creation the intervention pushed many deeper into poverty. Importantly, the repressive nature of the opium ban appears to have been a contributing factor to the fragmentation of China, highlighting the counter-productivity of repressive interventions to reduce drug crop production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. When color fails: illicit blue tablets containing anabolic androgen steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favretto, Donata; Castagna, Franca; Maietti, Sergio; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2013-09-01

    The necessity of specific, confirmatory tests in the identification of seized illicit products was highlighted by the analysis of eighteen heart shaped, blue tablets confiscated by Police at a street control in the North East of Italy. The tablets responded as amphetamines to a preliminary color test (Marquis); a subsequent, confirmatory assay by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of two anabolic androgen steroids (AAS), methandienone and methyltestosterone, in concentration of 1.7 and 1.5mg respectively per tablet; no trace of amphetamine-like or nitrogen containing compounds was found. The observed orange coloration was due to the reaction of concentrated sulphuric acid, contained in the Marquis reagent, with the Δ(4) C-3 keto group of steroids. The two AAS, banned under the world antidoping code, are not considered as psychoactive drugs of abuse in most countries, although their trafficking may entangle severe public health concerns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. CITES Under the Lens of the IUCN Red List

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouvet, Lionel; Conde, Dalia Amor; Stärk, Johanna

    The illegal international wildlife trade is a major threat to biodiversity by directly diminishing populations numbers. Additional threats are the potential introduction of invasive species and the spread of diseases, either due to intentional or accidental releases of confiscated animals...... of species under CITES is mainly based on the species extinction risk, on which export quotas are determined. Here we analyzed which species listed in CITES overlap with those listed as threated by human extraction under the IUCN Red List. Additionally, we assessed for how many species it is possible......, which can flag CITES and IUCN Specialist Groups (SSC) of possible important overlaps to consider. Moreover, with the connection to animal life history databases, and experts from the SSC it will be possible to obtain better data to estimate quotas. These will certainly promote a closer collaboration...

  7. Wildlife DNA forensics against crime: resolution of a case of tortoise theft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucci, Nadia; Mengoni, Chiara; Randi, Ettore

    2014-01-01

    A paternity test was used to investigate a robbery case involving captive individuals of Greek tortoise (Testudo graeca). Six tortoises were allegedly stolen from a private breeder and offered for sale on the web by the supposed thief. The stolen tortoises were confiscated by the rangers of the State Forestry Corps (CFS). A panel of 14 autosomal microsatellite loci was used to genotype the seized tortoises and ten individuals assumed to be legally owned by the breeder. Kinship analyses reliably reconstructed the tortoise pedigree, demonstrating parent-offspring relationships among the owned and the stolen tortoises. As correctly declared by the breeder, four of the six stolen individuals belonged to the same family group of the ten legally owned tortoises. Results indicate that genetic identification procedures can provide valuable evidence and give useful support against illegal wildlife traffic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Repensando a Romanização: a expansão romana na Itália a partir das fontes historiográficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Scopacasa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Between the fourth and second centuries BC, Rome conquered practically all of peninsular Italy, and founded numerous colonies in lands that were confiscated from Italian communities. Roman historical writers provide detailed accounts of the wars and battles fought during this period, but say little about the political, legal and socio-economic arrangements made between Rome and Italian communities after the wars. This article discusses some of the social interactions that developed as a result of the Roman expansion in Italy between the fourth and second centuries BC, by identifying key historical agents that participated in this process and how they interacted. I argue that knowledge of these social interactions can provide a deeper understanding of how Roman hegemony impacted on the daily lives of conquered peoples. Ultimately, this discussion can contribute towards a new framework for understanding the effects of Roman hegemony in the Mediterranean world.

  9. [The scale of border trade, tax-free import and tobacco smuggling to Norway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Karl Erik

    2004-01-08

    There are no studies of the relative significance in Norway of registered sales, tax-free import, border trade or smuggling of tobacco. The estimated registered sales of tobacco are based on data from the Norwegian customs and excise authorities. The border trade and tax-free import estimates were based on nation-wide, representative surveys of daily smokers aged 16-74 carried out by Statistics Norway for the years 1990-1993 and 1997-2001. There are no detailed data on the scale of smuggling other than confiscation statistics compiled by the customs and excise authorities. It is assumed that confiscations amount to about a tenth of the total amount smuggled into the country. The unregistered consumption of cigarettes and tobacco has been on the rise since the early 1990s; in the years 1997-2001 it accounted for about a quarter of total consumption. Broken down, the figures are as follows: 11% was purchased in Sweden, 5% in Denmark, 9% in other foreign countries; 1% was smuggled into the country. The rise in unregistered tobacco consumption is putting further pressure on the high Norwegian taxes on tobacco. But if taxes were cut, domestic demand would rise, and hence have little or even negative impact on revenue flowing to the government from the legal tobacco market and probably little impact on the levels of imported tobacco through tax-free arrangements or cross-border trade. Hence, although the price gap between Norway and neighbouring countries narrows, we must assume that the motivation to acquire tobacco will remain unaffected while Norwegians continue to travel to Sweden to stock up on inexpensive meat produce.

  10. Stable Isotope Mapping of Alaskan Grasses and Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, A. L.; Wooller, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    The spatial variation of isotope signatures in organic material is a useful forensic tool, particularly when applied to the task of tracking the production and distribution of plant-derived illicit drugs. In order to identify the likely grow-locations of drugs such as marijuana from unknown locations (i.e., confiscated during trafficking), base isotope maps are needed that include measurements of plants from known grow-locations. This task is logistically challenging in remote, large regions such as Alaska. We are therefore investigating the potential of supplementing our base (marijuana) isotope maps with data derived from other plants from known locations and with greater spatial coverage in Alaska. These currently include >150 samples of modern C3 grasses (Poaceae) as well as marijuana samples (n = 18) from known grow-locations across the state. We conducted oxygen, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses of marijuana and grasses (Poaceae). Poaceae samples were obtained from the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) Museum of the North herbarium collection, originally collected by field botanists from around Alaska. Results indicate that the oxygen isotopic composition of these grasses range from 10‰ to 30‰, and broadly mirror the spatial pattern of water isotopes in Alaska. Our marijuana samples were confiscated around the state of Alaska and supplied to us by the UAF Police Department. δ13C, δ15N and δ18O values exhibit geographic patterns similar to the modern grasses, but carbon and nitrogen isotopes of some marijuana plants appear to be influenced by additional factors related to indoor growing conditions (supplementary CO2 sources and the application of organic fertilizer). As well as providing a potential forensic resource, our Poaceae isotope maps could serve additional value by providing resources for studying ecosystem nutrient cycling, for tracing natural ecological processes (i.e., animal migration and food web dynamics) and providing

  11. Déferlante d’enclosures au Pérou : une nouvelle vague d’altération du lien social et des rapports Nature-Cultures Breaking Enclosures in Peru: A new Wave of Change in the Social Bond and in the Relationship of Nature and Cultures Olas de enclosure en el Perú: una nueva onda de alteración del vínculo social y de las relationes Naturaleza-Culturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Merveille

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available La nation péruvienne vit depuis le début de la décennie une nouvelle vague de confiscation de ses biens communs. Loin de s’être achevé le processus de déprédation des ressources ne cesse de se complexifier et radicaliser. La présente contribution, formulée d’après la métaphore du jeu de Monopoly, propose une lecture contemporaine des dynamiques territoriales et tente d’expliciter le profil des joueurs, leurs tactiques de jeu et évaluer les nouveaux défis qu’affrontent le Pérou.For a decade, the Peruvian nation has witnessed a new wave of confiscation of common assets.  Far from ending, the process of resource predation continues to become more complex and embedded.  The present contribution, formulated around the metaphor of the game Monopoly, offers a contemporary reading of these territorial dynamics, attempting to clarify the nature of the players and their gaming tactics, as well as offering an assessment of the new challenges Peru now faces.  La nación peruana vive desde el inicio de la década una nueva ola de confiscación de sus bienes comunes. Lejos de ser acabado, el proceso de depredación de los recursos se hace más complejo y se radicaliza. La presente contribución, formulada desde la metáfora del juego de Monopolio, propone una lectura contemporánea de las dinámicas territoriales y trata explicar el perfil de los jugadores, sus tácticas de juego y evaluar los nuevos desafíos que afrontan el Perú.

  12. Regime of preventing, detecting and responding to unauthorized actions in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (M-V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomoll, L.; Gegusch, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) the ensuring of safety for the population is at first the task of the countries. It also imposes to minimize the radiation risk to the public. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern is a country in northeast of the FRG with coast length of 1470 km and 78 km boundary of European Community. M-V is a sparsely populated area with nearly 2 million people in 23,500 km 2 . Concurrent with law ordinances and regulations by the Federal Government in M-V a system for preventing, detecting and responding to unauthorized actions with radioactive materials is prescribed by ordinance. This regime of preventing, detecting and responding to unlawful uses of radioactive material exists independent of the national system for the accountability, control and security of the materials. 1. Responsibility - The authorities of defence - police and fire service - have to secure the place where the radioactive material is found or laid down together with a bomb. The authorities for atomic supervision are responsible for the clearing and elimination of the radioactive material, to combat illicit situation. 2. To be reachable - In cases of finding, recognizing or blackmailing of/in connection with radioactive material, the information arrives on civil way the police centre in the Internal Ministry. There upon the working staff of defence and the staff of atomic supervision/measurement group being on standby duty on call are mobilized. 3. Equipment - The policemen and firemen have dosimeter for self-safety. The measurement group of the atomic supervision uses instruments and analyser for all different radiation situations. In this kind also there is worth mentioning the connection with remote handling systems of the defuser of munitions. Last kind can be important in cases of blackmailing. 4. Whereabouts of unauthorized material - Unauthorized radioactive material with unknown owners must be storied under separate conditions. Confiscated material, which isn

  13. Prevalence and correlates of needle-stick injuries among active duty police officers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, María Luisa; Beletsky, Leo; Patiño, Efraín; Abramovitz, Daniela; Rocha, Teresita; Arredondo, Jaime; Bañuelos, Arnulfo; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2016-01-01

    Police officers are at an elevated risk for needle-stick injuries (NSI), which pose a serious and costly occupational health risk for HIV and viral hepatitis. However, research on NSIs among police officers is limited, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Despite the legality of syringe possession in Mexico, half of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana report extrajudicial syringe-related arrests and confiscation by police, which has been associated with needle-sharing and HIV infection. We assessed the prevalence and correlates of NSIs among Tijuana police officers to inform efforts to improve occupational safety and simultaneously reduce HIV risks among police and PWID. Tijuana's Department of Municipal Public Safety (SSPM) is among Mexico's largest. Our binational, multi-sectoral team analyzed de-identified data from SSPM's 2014 anonymous self-administered occupational health survey. The prevalence of NSI and syringe disposal practices was determined. Logistic regression with robust variance estimation via generalized estimating equations identified factors associated with ever having an occupational NSI. Approximately one-quarter of the Tijuana police force was given the occupational health survey (N=503). Respondents were predominantly male (86.5%) and ≤35 years old (42.6%). Nearly one in six officers reported ever having a NSI while working at SSPM (15.3%), of whom 14.3% reported a NSI within the past year. Most participants reported encountering needles/syringes while on duty (n=473, 94%); factors independently associated with elevated odds of NSIs included frequently finding syringes that contain drugs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.98; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.56-5.67) and breaking used needles (AOR: 2.25; 95% CI: 1.29-3.91), while protective factors included being willing to contact emergency services in case of NSIs (AOR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.22-0.69), and wearing needle-stick resistant gloves (AOR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.19-0.91). Tijuana

  14. Identification of black market products and potential doping agents in Germany 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Oliver; Thomas, Andreas; Walpurgis, Katja; Piper, Thomas; Sigmund, Gerd; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Laussmann, Tim; Thevis, Mario

    2014-11-01

    The desire to increase the athletic performance, to 'optimize' an individual's appearance, and to complement but also to arguably substitute exercise by means of drugs and drug candidates has generated a considerable (illicit) market for compounds such as anabolic-androgenic steroids, stimulants, growth promoting peptide hormones, and so on. Genuinely developed for therapeutic use, their abuse/misuse generates enormous health risks, which has necessitated comprehensive controls of compound trafficking by customs and anti-doping authorities. From 2012 to 2013, the Bureau of Customs Investigation confiscated products containing anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS; 259 kg), stimulants (13 kg), selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs; 24 kg), and human growth hormone (hGH; 3500 ampules). In cooperation with the Bureau and under the umbrella of the European Monitoring Center for Emerging Doping Agents (EuMoCEDA), the Cologne Anti-Doping Laboratory analyzed an additional 337 (black market) products between 2010 and 2013, allowing to monitor developments in drug use and, hence, the anticipation of new challenges in sports drug testing. Main tools utilized in characterizing confiscated materials were liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS), gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS), and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) with subsequent bottom-up identification of peptidic compounds using nano liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS). Among the 337 substances analyzed in the doping control laboratory in Cologne, 67 active ingredients were found, 49 of which being categorized as doping agents by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). A total of 83.7 % accounted for steroidal substances (predominantly testosterone, trenbolone, and nandrolone and corresponding esters), 12.8 % accounted for peptide hormones and growth factors (predominantly hGH and growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRPs)), 3.2 % of

  15. Morbidity, outcomes and cost-benefit analysis of wildlife rehabilitation in Catalonia (Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Angel Molina-López

    Full Text Available There are few studies of careful examination of wildlife casualties in Wildlife Rehabilitation Centers. These studies are essential for detecting menaces to wild species and providing objective criteria about cost-benefit of treatments in those centers. The release rate is considered the main outcome indicator, but other parameters such as length of stay at the center and a cost-benefit index expressed as number of released animals per euro and day, could be used as reliable estimators of the rehabilitation costs.A retrospective study based on 54772 admissions recorded from 1995-2013 in the database of the Wildlife Rehabilitation Center of Torreferrussa (Catalonia, NW Spain assessed the morbidity, outcomes and cost-benefits of the rehabilitation practices.Three hundred and two species were included: 232 birds (n = 48633, 37 mammals (n = 3293, 20 reptiles (n = 2705 and 13 amphibians (n = 141. The most frequent causes of admission were: 39.8% confiscation of protected species (89.4% passerines, 31.8% orphaned young animals (35.3% swifts, 21.7% diurnal raptors and owls and 17.4% trauma casualties (46.7% raptors and owls. The highest proportion of releases was found in the captivity confiscation category [87.4% passerines (median time of stay: 12 days], followed by the orphaned category [78% owls (66 days, 76.5% diurnal birds of prey (43 days, 75.6% hedgehogs (49 days, 52.7% swifts (19 days and 52% bats (55 days]. For the trauma group, 46.8% of releases were hedgehogs (44 days and 25.6% owls (103 days. As regards the cost-benefit index, the trauma casualties and infectious diseases had the worse values with 1.3 and 1.4 released animals/euro/day respectively, and were particularly low in raptors, waders, marine birds and chiroptera. On the contrary, captivity (4.6 and misplacement (4.1 had the best index, particulary in amphibian, reptiles and passerines.Cost-benefit studies including the release rate, the time of stay at the center and the cost

  16. Giambattista Bodoni’s Oratio Dominica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentino Romani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Giambattista Bodoni is certainly one of the most influential character of the late eighteenth century. His skill as a printer played a crucial role in his reputation among some of the most important and influential European politicians, diplomats, and scholars. He also granted glory and fame to the city of Parma thanks to his ducal printing house. His skill as a printer was particularly improved during his stay in Rome, between 1758 and 1766, under the supervision of Costantino Ruggeri in the printing house of Propaganda Fide. In 1805, on the spur of Pius VII, Bodoni undertook one of his most famous enterprise, the Oratio Dominica CL linguis versa, et propriis cuiusque linguae characteribus plerumque expressa. The work was conceived as a reaction to Pater Poliglotto, published in the French Imperial typography directed by Jean-Joseph Marcel and offered to the Pope in January of the same year. This French version was made in large part thanks to punches and matrix confiscated precisely at the Typography of Propaganda Fide, and carried to Paris in 1798. The result of Bodoni’s work was extraordinary; the Oratio Dominica, dedicated to Eugene de Beauharnais and Augusta Amelia, was even acknowledged at the Paris Industrial Exposition in 1806.

  17. Detection of smuggling of nuclear material covered by a legal transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safar, J.; Zsigrai, J.; Tam, N.C.; Lakosi, L.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: One of the worst scenarios for detection of illicit trafficking of nuclear material is when a legal transport of radioactive material is used to cover the radiation of the smuggled uranium. Feasibility study was performed in the Institute of Isotopes and Surface Chemistry of the Chemical Research Centre of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (hereinafter: Institute) in order to study the possible on site measurement techniques and approaches applicable in such cases. As the type A and type B packages always incorporate a feature such as a seal, in a realistic scenario the confiscated nuclear material is expected to be placed outside the package. The passive neutron emission of the uranium is negligible for a reasonable isotopic abundance therefore the feasibility study was concentrating on non-destructive, passive gamma- spectrometric methods. Possible application of Nal (diameter 40x40 mm 3 , large planar (15x15x3 mm 3 ) and a hemispheric CdZnTe (500 mm 3 , and high purity Germanium detectors was investigated. During the on site measurements portable electronics, mini multichannel analyzer, palmtop and/or notebook computer were used. The shielding material of the packages was lead or depleted uranium. The smuggled material was simulated by a package of reactor fuel pellets containing low enriched or natural uranium (materials confiscated in earlier cases) and standards containing low enriched uranium. During the supposed scenario the portal monitor provides an indication of an elevated level of the environmental radioactivity. Then the responsible (e.g. customs) officer investigate the vehicle by a hand-held survey meter in order to search for peaks in dose rates. If a peak was localized, which is different from the position of the legally transported package(s) the officer requests for the expertise of the designated institutes. The following model cases provided the basic conclusion: 1. The legal transport of the radioactive material was simulated by a

  18. Mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene for forensic identification of crocodile species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naga Jogayya, K; Meganathan, P R; Dubey, Bhawna; Haque, I

    2013-05-01

    All crocodilians are under various threats due to over exploitation and these species have been listed in Appendix I or II of CITES. Lack of molecular techniques for the forensic identification of confiscated samples makes it difficult to enforce the law. Therefore, we herein present a molecular method developed on the basis on 16S rRNA gene of mitochondrial DNA for identification of crocodile species. We have developed a set of 16S rRNA primers for PCR based identification of crocodilian species. These novel primers amplify partial 16S rRNA sequences of six crocodile species which can be later combined to obtain a larger region (1290 bp) of 16S rRNA gene. This 16S rRNA gene could be used as an effective tool for forensic authentication of crocodiles. The described primers hold great promise in forensic identification of crocodile species, which can aid in the effective enforcement of law and conservation of these species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. Penetrating chest trauma caused by a blank cartridge actuated rubber ball projectile: case presentation and ballistic investigation of an uncommon weapon type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Matthias; Peters, Dieter; Klemm, Wolfram; Grossjohann, Rico; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Bockholdt, Britta; Seifert, Julia

    2017-09-01

    Recently, an increasing number of an uncommon weapon type based on a caliber 6-mm Flobert blank cartridge actuated revolver which discharges 10-mm-diameter rubber ball projectiles has been confiscated by police authorities following criminal offenses. A recent trauma case presenting with a penetrating chest injury occasioned an investigation into the basic ballistic parameters of this type of weapon. Kinetic energy E of the test projectiles was calculated between 5.8 and 12.5 J. Energy density ED of the test projectiles was close to or higher than the threshold energy density of human skin. It can be concluded that penetrating skin injuries due to free-flying rubber ball projectiles discharged at close range cannot be ruled out. However, in case of a contact shot, the main injury potential of this weapon type must be attributed to the high energy density of the muzzle gas jet which may, similar to well-known gas or alarm weapons, cause life-threatening or even lethal injuries.

  20. PERILAKU AGRESIF YANG DIALAMI KORBAN KEKERASAN DALAM PACARAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anik Nur Khaninah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the forms of aggressive behavior that received by victims of courtship violence and the factors that causes violence in long term courtship. The method used in this study is a qualitative research method with a phenomenological approach using data collection techniques by observing and interviewing. The sampling technique used in this study is snowball technique. Data analysis techniques follow this stages: analyzing all the data, categorizing data, preparing the psychological dynamics, connecting with the theoretical basis and drawing conclusions. Based on the results of the study, it shows the forms of aggressive behavior that received by victims of violence in courtship is verbal or symbolic aggression behavior, such as harsh words, words that is not worth to listen, mocking/scolding, threatening, insisting, and limiting intercommunication. In case of violation of property rights, is the property of the subjects used at one’s pleasure by their mate without permission. Physical assault is in the form of forced asking or confiscated subject as well as hitting or knocking head. While the reason for the victims to survive is feeling shy because everyone already knows their courtship relationship.Besides, the victim thinks and hopes theirmatewould be better and their relationshipwould be improved.

  1. Evidence for spawning aggregations of the endangered Atlantic goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, L S; Bertoncini, A A; Koenig, C C; Coleman, F C; Freitas, M O; Leite, J R; De Souza, T F; Hostim-Silva, M

    2016-07-01

    In this study, seasonal numerical abundance of the critically endangered Atlantic goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara was estimated by conducting scuba dive surveys and calculating sightings-per-unit-effort (SPUE) at three sites in southern Brazil. Seasonal differences in size and reproductive condition of captured or confiscated specimens were compared. The SPUE differed significantly with season, increasing in late spring and peaking during the austral summer months. A significant effect was observed in the number of fish relative to the lunar cycle. All females sampled during the summer were spawning capable, while all those sampled during other seasons were either regressing or regenerating. What these data strongly infer is that the E. itajara spawning aggregation sites have been located in the southern state of Paraná and the northern state of Santa Catarina and summer is the most likely spawning season. Size frequency distributions, abundance and reproductive state were estimated and correlated with environmental variables. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. Decreasing Deforestation in the Southern Brazilian Amazon—The Role of Administrative Sanctions in Mato Grosso State

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    Paulo Queiroz Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest conservation efforts through regulatory enforcement routinely failed to prevent large scale deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. However, a turning point occurred in 2005, when a combination of unfavorable economic conditions and an unprecedented coordinated effort between governmental institutions resulted in a gradual slowdown in deforestation. The continuation of this deforestation slowdown in an environment of economic recovery and expansion after 2009 suggests that regulatory enforcement achieved a measure of success not experienced before. In this study, the impact of fines, embargoes on rural private properties, and confiscation of means of production and produce on deforestation in the Southern Amazon state of Mato Grosso was considered through regression and GIS-based analyses. It was found that while all three sanctions were negatively correlated with deforestation, there were important differences in their level of enforcement. Embargoes were effectively implemented and showed high deforestation deterrence effectiveness, but the actual collection of the values of fines issued was extremely low, which casts doubts on their actual effectiveness as a deforestation deterrence mechanism. The results suggest that while sanctions for illegal deforestation have played an important role in the slowdown in deforestation, measures to increase the collection of fines issued are urgently needed.

  3. Svakodnevica prvih meseci okupacije 1941. u člancima beogradskih Opštinskih novina

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    Rade Ristanović

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Municipality Newspapers, as historical source, in our historiography are not being used enough, so the impression of lack of literary works subjected to daily life under occupation are the facts that motivated the author to try to analyze daily life of Belgrade citizens in accordance with the newspaper’s content in chronological frame from April 24th when the first number was issued until Jun 19th when the last number was confiscated. Newspapers, as a source, almost always reflects official stance of the authorities, so there is no doubt the stance is reflected on articles of the Municipality Newspapers, but despite this fact, we support the possibility of making the review regarding daily life of Belgrade citizens in the first months after the occupation started through the writings of newspaper’s journalists. Shortly, it was a life in the occupied city affected by bombing operation under the Nazi regime which ideology oppugned to some citizens the right to life, the city in which waiting in a line and lack of basic rations was everyday event, but also the city which, despite all problems it faced, offered going to theatre or to the beach etc. Listed factors formed one new picture of daily life in Belgrade, which was different in many aspects from the one from period of peace, so the one which is going to be in power until the end of occupation.

  4. A preliminary investigations on infective parasites in King rat snakes(Elaphe carinata and Red-banded wolf snakes(Dinodon rufozonatum in Shanghai

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    WU Youling

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the infective status of parasites in snakes from Shanghai,19 snakes from 2 species ( 9 Dinodon rufozonatum and 10 Elaphe carinata confiscated from the market were dissected.The viscera (body,subcutaneous,muscles,heart,lungs,liver,stomach,intestinal organs and blood smears of the snakes were examined.The parasites from these viscera were collected and observed by microscope.The results showed nematodes,tapeworms and Hepatozoon were found,but no ectoparasites,trematodes and acanthocephalan.The parasitic infection rate of snakes checked was 100%.The infection rate of nematodes,tapeworms and Hepatozoon were 77.88%,100%,0 in Dinodon rufozonatum and 100%,100%,100% in Elaphe carinata, respectively.A total of 192 nematodes and 1236 tapeworms were collected in 19 snakes,and 69.79% of nematodes and 86.55% of tapeworms were from Elaphe carinata.According to the viscera,93.20% of tapeworms were found in subcutaneous and 65.63% of nematodes in stomach.The results indicated the parasitic infection rate and intensity of snakes from Shanghai market were very high.Sparganum mansoni found in this investigation was zoonotic parasite,and it is easy to infect humans through eating snake skin,meat and gall.Therefore,protecting wild animals like snakes is also to protect human themselves.

  5. Illegal trade of regulated and protected aquatic species in the Philippines detected by DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asis, Angelli Marie Jacynth M; Lacsamana, Joanne Krisha M; Santos, Mudjekeewis D

    2016-01-01

    Illegal trade has greatly affected marine fish stocks, decreasing fish populations worldwide. Despite having a number of aquatic species being regulated, illegal trade still persists through the transport of dried or processed products and juvenile species trafficking. In this regard, accurate species identification of illegally traded marine fish stocks by DNA barcoding is deemed to be a more efficient method in regulating and monitoring trade than by morphological means which is very difficult due to the absence of key morphological characters in juveniles and processed products. Here, live juvenile eels (elvers) and dried products of sharks and rays confiscated for illegal trade were identified. Twenty out of 23 (87%) randomly selected "elvers" were identified as Anguilla bicolor pacifica and 3 (13%) samples as Anguilla marmorata. On the other hand, 4 out of 11 (36%) of the randomly selected dried samples of sharks and rays were Manta birostris. The rest of the samples were identified as Alopias pelagicus, Taeniura meyeni, Carcharhinus falciformis, Himantura fai and Mobula japonica. These results confirm that wild juvenile eels and species of manta rays are still being caught in the country regardless of its protected status under Philippine and international laws. It is evident that the illegal trade of protected aquatic species is happening in the guise of dried or processed products thus the need to put emphasis on strengthening conservation measures. This study aims to underscore the importance of accurate species identification in such cases of illegal trade and the effectivity of DNA barcoding as a tool to do this.

  6. Incautaciones: aportaciones documentales para un informe del patrimonio eclesiástico en el siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Gómez, M. Dolores

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available At this article are studied and published the two reports sent in 1869 and 1870 for the confiscation of archives, libraries and objects of art of the clergy. Besides the dispositions of the government, this documentation shows the value of the manuscripts that are preserved in the majority of the Spanish provinces, although their validity are connected with the preparation and the ability of local informants and the facilities they have to accede to the resources.

    En el presente artículo se estudian y publican los dos informes remitidos en 1869 y 1870 para la incautación de archivos bibliotecas y objetos de arte del clero. Además de las disposiciones del gobierno, esta documentación lo que nos permite conocer es el valor de los manuscritos que se conservan en la mayor parte de las provincias españolas, aunque su validez va a estar en función de la preparación y la capacidad de los informantes locales y las facilidades que tienen para acceder a los fondos.

  7. Evaluation of microsatellite markers for populations studies and forensic identification of African lions (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Susan M; Harper, Cindy K; Bloomer, Paulette; Hofmeyr, Jennifer; Funston, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    The South African lion (Panthera leo) population is highly fragmented. One-third of its wild lions occur in small (lions were reintroduced from other areas of the species' historical range. Management practices on these reserves have not prioritized genetic provenance or heterozygosity. These trends potentially constrain the conservation value of these lions. To ensure the best management and long-term survival of these subpopulations as a viable collective population, the provenance and current genetic diversity must be described. Concurrently, poaching of lions to supply a growing market for lion bones in Asia may become a serious conservation challenge in the future. Having a standardized, validated method for matching confiscated lion parts with carcasses will be a key tool in investigating these crimes. We evaluated 28 microsatellites in the African lion using samples from 18 small reserves and 1 captive facility in South Africa, two conservancies in Zimbabwe, and Kruger National and Kgalagadi Transfrontier Parks to determine the loci most suited for population management and forensic genetic applications. Twelve microsatellite loci with a match probability of 1.1×10(-5) between siblings were identified for forensics. A further 10 could be added for population genetics studies. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Early detection of emerging street drugs by near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risoluti, R; Materazzi, S; Gregori, A; Ripani, L

    2016-06-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRs) is spreading as the tool of choice for fast and non-destructive analysis and detection of different compounds in complex matrices. This paper investigated the feasibility of using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled to chemometrics calibration to detect new psychoactive substances in street samples. The capabilities of this approach in forensic chemistry were assessed in the determination of new molecules appeared in the illicit market and often claimed to contain "non-illegal" compounds, although exhibiting important psychoactive effects. The study focused on synthetic molecules belonging to the classes of synthetic cannabinoids and phenethylamines. The approach was validated comparing results with officials methods and has been successfully applied for "in site" determination of illicit drugs in confiscated real samples, in cooperation with the Scientific Investigation Department (Carabinieri-RIS) of Rome. The achieved results allow to consider NIR spectroscopy analysis followed by chemometrics as a fast, cost-effective and useful tool for the preliminary determination of new psychoactive substances in forensic science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification and differentiation of methcathinone analogs by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujikawa, Kenji; Mikuma, Toshiyasu; Kuwayama, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko T; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2013-08-01

    To overcome a number of challenges involved in analyzing methcathinone (MC) analogues, we performed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, including sample preparation, of nine MC analogues - 4-methylmethcathinone, three positional isomers of fluoromethcathinones, 4-methoxymethcathinone, N-ethylcathinone, N,N-dimethylcathinone, buphedrone, and pentedrone. The MC analogues underwent dehydrogenation when the free bases were analyzed using splitless injection. Most of this thermal degradation was prevented using split injection. This indicated that a shorter residence time in the hot injector prevented decomposition. Uniquely, 2-fluoromethcathinone degraded to another product in a process that could not be prevented by the split injection. Replacing the liner with a new, clean one was also effective in preventing thermal degradation. Most of the analytes showed a substantial loss (>30%) when the free base solution in ethyl acetate was evaporated under a nitrogen stream. Adding a small amount of dimethylformamide as a solvent keeper had a noticeable effect, but it did not completely prevent the loss. Three positional isomers of fluoromethcathinones were separated with baseline resolution by heptafluorobutyrylation with a slow column heating rate (8 °C/min) using a non-polar DB-5 ms capillary column. These results will be useful for the forensic analysis of MC analogues in confiscated materials. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Isolation and characterization of avian influenza viruses from raw poultry products illegally imported to Japan by international flight passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, A; Hiono, T; Fukuhara, H; Sumiyoshi, R; Ohkawara, A; Matsuno, K; Okamatsu, M; Osaka, H; Sakoda, Y

    2018-04-01

    The transportation of poultry and related products for international trade contributes to transboundary pathogen spread and disease outbreaks worldwide. To prevent pathogen incursion through poultry products, many countries have regulations about animal health and poultry product quarantine. However, in Japan, animal products have been illegally introduced into the country in baggage and confiscated at the airport. Lately, the number of illegally imported poultry and the incursion risk of transboundary pathogens through poultry products have been increasing. In this study, we isolated avian influenza viruses (AIVs) from raw poultry products illegally imported to Japan by international passengers. Highly (H5N1 and H5N6) and low (H9N2 and H1N2) pathogenic AIVs were isolated from raw chicken and duck products carried by flight passengers. H5 and H9 isolates were phylogenetically closely related to viruses isolated from poultry in China, and haemagglutinin genes of H5N1 and H5N6 isolates belonged to clades 2.3.2.1c and 2.3.4.4, respectively. Experimental infections of H5 and H9 isolates in chickens and ducks demonstrated pathogenicity and tissue tropism to skeletal muscles. To prevent virus incursion by poultry products, it is important to encourage the phased cleaning based on the disease control and eradication and promote the reduction in contamination risk in animal products. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. RÉGLEMENTATIONS INTERNATIONALES CONCERNANT LE BLANCHIMENT DE L’ARGENT

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    Ana Alina ŞOOŞ

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The total of the sums involved in money laundering is huge and stands in the way of the economic development of many countries.The globalizing era has produced an explosion in the volume of illegitimate commercial and financial transactions.“Dirty money” is money that is illegally earned, illegally transferred or illegally utilized. If it breaks laws in its origin, movement or use, then it qualifies for the label.On the European level the coordination of efforts in the “dirty” money laundering was represented in the “Convention on money laundering, discovering, arrest and confiscation of discovered means received in a criminal way” adopted by the Council of Europe (Strasburg, 08.01.90; further – the Convention, and also in the directive approved by the Council of the EU as of February 14, 1991, No.91/308/CEE as for preventing use of finance system for money laundering. The directive of the EU assigned spread of the provisions concerning combating laundering not only on profits from drugs business and also on terrorism and other kinds of organized crime.

  12. Anti-leptospiral agglutinins in marmosets (Saguinus oedipus and Saguinus leucopus from illegal trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Gonzalez-Astudillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Determine the infection status with pathogenic Leptospira of one Saguinus oedipus and nine Saguinus leucopus at the Cali Zoo that had been confiscated in Colombia from illegal trade. Materials and methods. A full physical examination, blood work, urinalysis were conducted in all individuals during the reception health check-up, in addition to running the microagglutination test with a pool of 19 serovars, with a starting dilution of 1:50. Results. A high positive titer (≥1:3200 to Leptospira alexanderi serovar manhao in an asymptomatic S. oedipus was detected. All S. leucopus tested negative or less than 1:50. Conclusions. Captive locations have been documented to artificially enhance opportunities to come into contact with contaminated bodily fluids from peridomestic rodents. However, infectious diseases acquired during the illegal transport of wildlife to major metropolitan centers are rarely considered a wildlife conservation or public health threat. Infection with zoonotic pathogens should also be considered an additional threat to endangered wild primates involved in illegal trade, which could hamper reintroduction efforts or other population management procedures for primate species with restricted and fragmented distributions.

  13. PROGRESSIVE LAW ENFORCEMENT TOWARDS HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATION IN KOTA KUPANG

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    Joni Efraim Liunima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Copyright is creator intellectual wealth so it needs to be protected by the State as a form of responsibility. Responding that problem comes into the world Law Number 28 Year 2014 concerning Copyrights and all violations in UUHC is formulated as delict complaint. Consequence of delict complaint is not all of copyright violations can be asked for the responsibility because law agencies are passive and limited by space and time. Answering that jurisdictional problem then researcher used empirical law research method. The result showed that civil servants investigator (PPNS Kanwil Kemenkumham NTT and also Kupang Kota Police Resort have done progressive step such as appealing, warning, calling, making statement, stocktaking and confiscation whereas the obstacle factor of progressive law enforcement is knowledge, mindset and in the formula of UUHC there is no section which formulate what the step can be done if criminal matters happen so the suggestions given is law enforcement agencies need an explanation about progressive law enforcement and it is better if in UUHC need to be formulated a step which will be taken if criminal matters happen

  14. Impaired social decision making in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-Jun; Sun, Delin; Lee, Tatia M C

    2012-07-01

    Research on how depression influences social decision making has been scarce. This study investigated how people with depression make decisions in an interpersonal trust-reciprocity game. Fifty female patients diagnosed with major depressive disorders (MDDs) and 49 healthy women participated in this study. The experiment was conducted on a one-to-one basis. Participants were asked to play the role of a trustee responsible for investing money given to them by an anonymous female investor playing on another computer station. In each trial, the investor would send to a participant (the trustee) a request for a certain percentage of the appreciated investment (repayment proportion). Since only the participant knew the exact amount of the appreciated investment, she could decide to pay more (altruistic act), the same, or less (deceptive act) than the requested amount. The participant's money acquired in the trial would be confiscated if her deceptive act was caught. The frequency of deceptive or altruistic decisions and relative monetary gain in each decision choice were examined. People with depression made fewer deceptive and fewer altruistic responses than healthy controls in all conditions. Moreover, the specific behavioral pattern presented by people with depression was modulated by the task factors, including the risk of deception detection and others' intentions (benevolence vs. malevolence). Findings of this study contribute to furthering our understanding of the specific pattern of social behavioral changes associated with depression.

  15. Metabolic modulators of the exercise response: doping control analysis of an agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (GW501516) and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrywka, A; Cholbinski, P; Kaliszewski, P; Kowalczyk, K; Konczak, D; Zembron-Lacny, A

    2014-08-01

    In 2008, the team of Ronald Evans, a professor at the Salk Institute Gene Expression Laboratory, published an article about the effects of two metabolic modulators branded as GW501516 and AICAR on physical endurance of laboratory animals. Both substances, also called 'exercise pills' or 'exercise mimetics', showed the ability to cause multidirectional changes in muscle metabolism. In particular, they stimulated fatty acid oxidation and promoted muscle remodelling. These compounds were regarded as very promising drug candidates for the treatment of diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. GW501516 and AICAR have received considerable attention in doping control due to assumed performance-enhancing properties and recent confiscations of illicitly distributed drugs containing AICAR. Therefore, the World Anti-Doping Agency added GW501516 and AICAR to the Prohibited List in 2009. This review covers the cellular and systemic effects of the metabolic modulators' administration with special emphasis on their role in exercise metabolism. It also presents the advancements in development of methodologies for the detection of their abuse by athletes.

  16. PEMISKINAN TERHADAP PELAKU TINDAK PIDANA KORUPSI DALAM PERSPEKTIF HUKUM PIDANA POSITIF DAN HUKUM PIDANA ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfitra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Impoverishment of Corruption Crime in the Perspective of Positive Criminal Law and Islamic Law. Dealing with corruption issue is a tough task of any country in achieving good governance. In Indonesia since reformation era began, there was an increase in the number of corruption crime This paper attempts to provide solution pertaining to sanctions to impoverish corruption crime, both in the perspectives of Islamic positive criminal law and Islamic penal law. According to the author, the impoverishment of corruption crime in the sense of sanction that causes the suspect in the state of poverty due to the fact that their property and asset prescribed in the precedent of the decisions of judges who confiscate criminals. In the Islamic perspective, the impoverishment of the corruption crime as punishment is not in line with a form of punishment named ‘uqûbah or impose sanctions for a defendant. Nevertheless, as a form of punishment in the form of fines as ta’zîr, an amount of money demanded by the public prosecutor against a convicted cases of corruption, perceived to be feaseable to be applied.

  17. [The Expulsion of the Jesuits (1767) and its impact on Chilean medicine in colonial times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Coke, R

    1992-09-01

    In the mid XVIII century medical education was started in Chile with the foundation of the University of San Felipe. However, King Charles the Third expelled the Jesuits from the Spanish Empire in 1767 resulting in clear deterioration of medical development. Jesuits concentrated the cultural elite of the country and had the best professionals and libraries. A restrictive intervention from the Spanish government led to the establishment of a "Protomedicato" whose first director was Dr Jose Antonio Rios who remained in office for 40 years. At the end of the Colonial period, only 4 latin physicians and 3 bachelors in Medicine had graduated from the Universidad San Felipe, from an initial enrollment of 38 students in half a century. Only 5 among 25 doctors practicing in Chile in the first half on the XIXth century had been born in this country. This shortage was a severe handicap in the fight against smallpox and other plagues. Only the foundation of 2 hospitals (San Borja and Valparaíso) can be mentioned as positive actions coming from the Spanish government, and this was possible by using funds confiscated from the Jesuits. It was only after the establishment of the Republic and the foundation of the University of Chile, that medical development could again flourish in this country.

  18. Heroin impurity profiling: trends throughout a decade of experimenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dams, R; Benijts, T; Lambert, W E; Massart, D L; De Leenheer, A P

    2001-12-01

    Heroin is still one of the most frequently abused drugs of today. All over the world, law enforcement agencies try to eradicate the illicit production and trafficking of this potent and highly addictive narcotic. To this aim, important information is provided by physical and chemical toxicological analysis of confiscated samples, with special attention for the identification and the quantification of minor components, such as the impurities related to the origin and manufacturing. By combining these data complex characterisations, i.e. impurity profiles, chemical signatures or fingerprints, can be obtained and used for comparative analysis. This review focuses on heroin impurity profiling during the 1990s, proclaimed by the United Nations as the 'Decade for Eradicating Drug Abuse'. Special attention will be given to the new trends in analytical techniques as well as in data handling strategies, so called chemometrics, to produce these profiles. The latter can be used in comparative analysis of seized heroin samples for tactical (batch-to-batch comparison) and strategic (origin determination) intelligence purposes.

  19. Measures against illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials in the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezak, S.

    2001-01-01

    follows when preventive measures have been broken (either inside of state or in neighbor countries). Its purpose is to detect illegally owned material and return it back to a legal owner or its safe disposal. After first few trafficking incidents on the territory of the Slovak Republic a group of experts from involved ministries elaborated a system of measures on how to cope with this phenomena. This system covers: detection of illegally transferred radioactive material at the border or inside of the territory of the Slovak Republic; handling and processing of confiscated material; radiation protection of involved persons; improvement of analytical instrumentation in laboratories of the Ministry of Interior and Ministry of Health. The measures were applied in two steps. Within the first step some detectors were installed at the border with Ukraine, some police and custom officers were equipped with handheld and personal dosimeters. As the second step detectors have been installed at all border crossings with Ukraine and two border crossings with Poland. Police and customs officers were equipped with handheld and personal dosimeters at all border crossings. After detection by customs or police officers a special group of the Civil Defense is addressed which carries out the basic identification of the material and together with the officers applies necessary radiation protection measures. Confiscated material is transported by a specialized group of the Slovak Power Plants (SE) to its facility specialized in decommissioning, radwaste treatment and spent fuel handling (SE VYZ) where the material is stored and prepared for disposal. According to real experience the effective combating could be done only in co-operation of all involved state authorities: the customs authorities and the police co-operate on investigation of the event; the civil defense co-operates with the UJD SR (nuclear materials) and the Ministry of Health (other radioactive materials) on identification of

  20. Husbandry protocols for the Band-tailed pigeon, Patagioenas fasciata albilinea, at the WCS, Bronx Zoo for future conservation management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, David A; Novak, Ben J; Schmid, Susan C; Huth, Ken J; Totha, Aniko I; Audhya, Tapan

    2018-01-01

    From 2015 to 2016 we determined the husbandry protocols involved in the captive rearing of the Band-tailed Pigeon (BTPI), Patagioenas fascinate albilinea, for use as a tool in the future management of like extant and extinct avian taxa. Current and historical ex-situ conservation management of BTPIs and the closely related Passenger Pigeon, Ectopistes migratorius, is limited in scope and required further examination. Focus on the BTPI within zoos and private aviculture facilities is currently lacking. New pressures on the wild populations and future examination of the parameters involved in the possible restoration of the Passenger Pigeon may rely on a complete understanding of these conservation management techniques. Here we report on the establishment of a colony of BTPIs, at the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), and detail the progress attained. A confiscated group of BTPIs was presented to WCS and allowed us to set up the colony, document the husbandry involved, and monitor neonatal development and the factors that influence that development. The information has provided a better understanding of the BTPI and has implications for the future conservation management of this and like species. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Functional Villa Tugendhat and its Geological Subsoil - Design of a New Geotourism Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraj, Miloš; Cheng, Xianfeng; Niemiec, Dominik; Arencibia Montero, Orlando; Durďák, Jan

    2017-10-01

    Functionalist villa Tugendhat deserves to be one of the UNESCO heritage sites. The author of this building was a prominent German architect, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, who accepted the contract from Greta and Fritz Tugendhat. From today’s perspective, this building is one of the most important pre-war works of this architect. The 1928 architectural design was subsequently very quickly completed and the construction was completed in 1930. The Tugendhat family lived in a villa until 1938. During World War II it was confiscated by German occupation forces. At the end of the war, it was used by the Red Army and later served for the state. During this period, this building did not avoid warfare or later destruction of both the building and parts of the facility. The importance of this building was recognized in 1969, when the villa was placed on the State List of Cultural Monuments. In the 80’s was the first major renovation of the building, which is often criticized. The second, last reconstruction took place in the years 2010 - 2012. During these reconnaissance works there were also old, temporarily calming landslides, which were subsequently solved. For this reason, the site is suitable for geotourism as an example of architectural monuments versus geological subsoil.

  2. An Improved and Secure Biometric Authentication Scheme for Telecare Medicine Information Systems Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Shehzad Ashraf; Mahmood, Khalid; Naqvi, Husnain; Khan, Muhammad Khurram

    2015-11-01

    Telecare medicine information system (TMIS) offers the patients convenient and expedite healthcare services remotely anywhere. Patient security and privacy has emerged as key issues during remote access because of underlying open architecture. An authentication scheme can verify patient's as well as TMIS server's legitimacy during remote healthcare services. To achieve security and privacy a number of authentication schemes have been proposed. Very recently Lu et al. (J. Med. Syst. 39(3):1-8, 2015) proposed a biometric based three factor authentication scheme for TMIS to confiscate the vulnerabilities of Arshad et al.'s (J. Med. Syst. 38(12):136, 2014) scheme. Further, they emphasized the robustness of their scheme against several attacks. However, in this paper we establish that Lu et al.'s scheme is vulnerable to numerous attacks including (1) Patient anonymity violation attack, (2) Patient impersonation attack, and (3) TMIS server impersonation attack. Furthermore, their scheme does not provide patient untraceability. We then, propose an improvement of Lu et al.'s scheme. We have analyzed the security of improved scheme using popular automated tool ProVerif. The proposed scheme while retaining the plusses of Lu et al.'s scheme is also robust against known attacks.

  3. Chlamydia psittaci in Psitacines Birds in Two Zoological Parks of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Rodriguez Leo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The determination of Chlamydia psittaci (Cp in psittacida birds in zoological parks in Venezuela represents a strategy of conservation and preservation for this group of birds, where multiple species are threatened with extinction and others have lost their capacity of reincorporation to their natural habitat. Through the nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR the 16S subunit of Cp DNAr was amplified in 50 cloacal swab samples from psittacine birds, reporting a frequency of 62 %. The work was carried out in the Zoo Park  Las Delicias (PZD 8% and the Aquarium of Valencia (AV 54%.  The high frequency was associated with a genotype of low concentration and virulence due to the absence of clinical signs of avian chlamydiosis.  These results demonstrate the need to promote the detection of Cp, mainly for the AV that acts as a center of reception of specimens of confiscation, and, like the PZD, have other species vulnerable to extinction with risk of infection to Cp.

  4. Chlamydia psittaci en aves en cautiverio del aquarium de Valencia, Venezuela | Chlamydia psittaci in captive birds of the aquarium of Valencia, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodríguez-Leo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia psittaci (Cp is an obligate intracellular bacterium, capable of invading birds and mammals. The prevalence of Cp in adult free-living birds is less than 5%, however in captivity the frequency is very variable (5 - 90%. Cp infections represent a health problem for birds living in captive centers, since in some cases it can be fatal thus generating more concern in threatened species. Therefore, the purpose of this study was the detection of Cp through the nested PCR in birds in captivity and its association to some specific taxonomic order. During 2015-2016, 44 cloacal swabs from six orders of birds were collected from the Valencia Aquarium (VA. The frequency of positives was as high as 77.3% and there was no association between the presence of Cp and a specific bird order. The results were associated with overcrowding conditions in which birds survive, absence of timely diagnosis of Cp in birds entering the VA and possible elevated levels of avian stress. It was confirmed that the state of captivity favors infection by Cp. These results demonstrate the need to promote the adaptation of conditions in captive bird habitats and the timely detection of Cp through molecular methods, mainly for spaces that act as centers for reception of specimens from confiscation, whose goal be their reintroduction to their natural habitat, as part of environmental conservation programs.

  5. Changes in Cannabis Potency Over the Last 2 Decades (1995-2014): Analysis of Current Data in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Mehmedic, Zlatko; Foster, Susan; Gon, Chandrani; Chandra, Suman; Church, James C

    2016-04-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug in the United States and all over the world. Reports indicate that the potency of cannabis preparation has been increasing. This report examines the concentration of cannabinoids in illicit cannabis products seized by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration over the last 2 decades, with particular emphasis on Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. Samples in this report were received over time from materials confiscated by the Drug Enforcement Administration and processed for analysis using a validated gas chromatography with flame ionization detector method. Between January 1, 1995, and December 31, 2014, 38,681 samples of cannabis preparations were received and analyzed. The data showed that although the number of marijuana samples seized over the last 4 years has declined, the number of sinsemilla samples has increased. Overall, the potency of illicit cannabis plant material has consistently increased over time since 1995 from ~4% in 1995 to ~12% in 2014. The cannabidiol content has decreased on average from ~.28% in 2001 to cannabis plant material from regular marijuana to sinsemilla. This increase in potency poses higher risk of cannabis use, particularly among adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. CCD imaging technology and the war on crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Glenn E.

    1992-08-01

    Linear array based CCD technology has been successfully used in the development of an Automatic Currency Reader/Comparator (ACR/C) system. The ACR/C system is designed to provide a method for tracking US currency in the organized crime and drug trafficking environments where large amounts of cash are involved in illegal transactions and money laundering activities. United States currency notes can be uniquely identified by the combination of the denomination serial number and series year. The ACR/C system processes notes at five notes per second using a custom transport a stationary linear array and optical character recognition (OCR) techniques to make such identifications. In this way large sums of money can be " marked" (using the system to read and store their identifiers) and then circulated within various crime networks. The system can later be used to read and compare confiscated notes to the known sets of identifiers from the " marked" set to document a trail of criminal activities. With the ACR/C law enforcement agencies can efficiently identify currency without actually marking it. This provides an undetectable means for making each note individually traceable and facilitates record keeping for providing evidence in a court of law. In addition when multiple systems are used in conjunction with a central data base the system can be used to track currency geographically. 1.

  7. Morphology and conservation of the mesoamerican slider (Trachemys venusta, Emydidae) from the Atrato River Basin, Colombia; Morfologia y conservacion de la tortuga Hicotea Mesoamericana (Trachemys venusta, Emydidae) del Rio Atrato, Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceballos, Claudia P; Brand, William A

    2014-07-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the mesoamerican slider, Trachemys venusta that inhabits the Atrato River Basin of Colombia have been controversial as three different names have been proposed during the last 12 years: T. v. venusta, T. v. uhrigi, and T. ornate venusta. Using a group of sliders that was confiscated by the regional authority we compared the morphology of T venusta distributed in the Atrato River with the morphology of the subspecies putatively distributed in Colombia. We found that the Colombian mesoamerican slider has an overall smaller size, different plastral inter-scute seam formula, and different head, carapace and plastron coloration patterns. In addition, we also report the poor health condition of these individuals that have endured this illegal trade. We underscore an urgent need for further studies of individuals indigenous to Colombia to better understand the phylogenetic relationships of T. venusta throughout its distributional range, along with a more effective control of the illegal turtle trade in the Uraba Region of Colombia.

  8. Morphology and conservation of the mesoamerican slider (Trachemys venusta, Emydidae) from the Atrato River Basin, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceballos, Claudia P; Brand, William A

    2014-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the mesoamerican slider, Trachemys venusta that inhabits the Atrato River Basin of Colombia have been controversial as three different names have been proposed during the last 12 years: T. v. venusta, T. v. uhrigi, and T. ornate venusta. Using a group of sliders that was confiscated by the regional authority we compared the morphology of T venusta distributed in the Atrato River with the morphology of the subspecies putatively distributed in Colombia. We found that the Colombian mesoamerican slider has an overall smaller size, different plastral inter-scute seam formula, and different head, carapace and plastron coloration patterns. In addition, we also report the poor health condition of these individuals that have endured this illegal trade. We underscore an urgent need for further studies of individuals indigenous to Colombia to better understand the phylogenetic relationships of T. venusta throughout its distributional range, along with a more effective control of the illegal turtle trade in the Uraba Region of Colombia.

  9. The general plan for recultivation of the concern of the Severoceske brown coal mining enterprises for 1981 to 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stys, S; Moucka, V

    1983-01-01

    A description is given of the general plan for recultivation in the Severoceske brown coal basin for 1981 to 1990, in which the systems for using the territory of the basin and the plans for mining operations are considered. The general plans for recultivation of the Severoceske brown coal basin in the form of medium range plans have been developed since 1960. The described general plan is represented by an explanatory note, tables and drawings. It includes data on the confiscation of agricultural sectors, the selective warehousing of soil, loess, systems for new recultivation and plans for final recultivation measures, as well as the basic econmic data. Recultivation of a territory with a total area of 2,804 hectares will begin in the basin between 1981 to 1990 and will be completed in a territory with a total area of 2,779 hectares. Expenditures on recultivation in these years will be 2.287 billion Czech korunas. Experience in recultivation operations over the previous 20 years showed that the technical method for solving a system of recultivation is effective and is an expedient method for integration and systems accomplishment of recultivation with consideration of the complex of ecological and socioeconomic activity in the territory of the basin. In order to optimize the system for recultivation, a problem is formulated for developing a territorial prediction of the recultivation on the basis of predictions of the mining of all coal reserves and the use of lands in the entire basin.

  10. Leadership Factor in National Socio-Economic Development and Building: A Biblical and Contemporary Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekundayo Lawrence Olabode

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The thrust of this paper is on theological concept of leadership.  It enunciates the leadership adroitness of Joseph and the acuity of Moses in Jewish nation-building.  The aim and objective of the paper is to contextualize leadership astuteness of these biblical icons (Joseph and Moses with the contemporary leadership in Nigeria in relation to nation-building.  The focus of the paper was to assess the performances of Nigerian leaders in socio-economic development of the nation from her independence in 1960 to 2013.  The work, having employed historical and contextualization methodologies, discovered that Nigeria is backward and at the verge of collapse due to the selfishness and nonchalance of its leaders to rise to the responsibility of the hallmarks of true leadership.  To avert disintegration and collapse of the nation and to build an enviable prosperous nation, the paper recommended that Nigerian leaders must respect, uphold and obey the law of the land, the nation must execute corruption revolution that will force all Nigerians irrespective of their status to declare their assets, all ill-gotten wealth must be   confiscated to remove the culture of corruption, the inequality in income distribution must be rectified to alleviate poverty.  Servant-leadership exemplified by Joseph and Moses must be imbibed in Nigerian culture of leadership.

  11. Private pensions. A less taxing alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalkle, B L; Dyrhaug, K J

    1992-07-01

    The results of the Joneses' coordinated retirement income and estate planning strategies are as follows: 1. The Joneses maximized their estate assets by converting an inefficient estate asset (the qualified retirement plan) into an efficient estate asset (the income-tax-free death benefit) without jeopardizing their current or future standard of living or the value passed on to their heirs. This allows them to satisfy their conflicting objectives. 2. They added flexibility to their future family gifting plans by providing themselves a secure income for the rest of their lives. 3. They fulfilled their desire to protect their family against government confiscation of retirement plan assets in the event they both die before using all their qualified retirement assets. This private pension plan strategy is obviously not available to everyone, nor is it appropriate for everyone. This solution worked well for this client, but everyone's situation is unique. Before creating such a plan, it is important to review all the factors in an individual's financial picture, including financial and retirement objectives and investment risk tolerance. Although this is an innovative idea that may solve a pension dilemma, it should not be used in place of qualified retirement plans but, rather, used in conjunction with such a plan. The private pension plan does not work with all insurance products or all insurance companies. Choosing the right company and product for each client requires care and expertise.

  12. [The portrayal of tuberculosis in the motion picture "Robert Koch--Bekämpfer des Todes". How do movies shape knowledge about diseases in urology and medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, F H; Görgen, A; Krischel, M; Fangerau, H

    2011-11-01

    Popular media have an immediate effect on an audience of millions. They are the base of social learning through the times. Therefore they deserve greater attention from professionals. The Nazi propaganda for example created an elaborate system, which made use of new technologies of the twentieth century, especially radio broadcasting and the movies. Escapism should be produced. Up to now those movies are shown on TV or in the cinema often without reference to their origin and intention which were later on regarded as harmless. As a consequence, "propaganda" is maintained in a very distinguished way. In 1945, the Allies first banned the showing of films made during the Nazi era and confiscated important documents. Those films regarded as "harmless" were soon released to the public again, but in the 1950s some 250 politically dubious films were still under lock and key. Interestingly, they often can be received via the Internet from other countries especially the USA. It only became clear over time that the propagandistic aims that found expression in some 1,100 films needed to be examined more carefully.

  13. The prevention of illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive material in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguygen, N.T.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: I Introduction - Vietnam has signed the Safeguard Agreement under NPT in 1989 and is preparing to join the Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials. To enhance the fulfillment of commitment, at the beginning of 1993 a joint group of experts from VAEC, Ministry of Defense and Ministry of Security was set up to: Search the current situation of illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive material; and Prevent the illicit trafficking. Activities were carried out during four years with modest resources and results achieved are remarkable, no case of illicit trafficking has been detected from 1997 until now. II Searching the illicit trafficking situation - The objectives of searching are the following: What is material in the illicit trafficking?; What is the motivation of illicit trafficking?; What is the illicit trafficking ploy? 1. Material in the illicit trafficking - At the end of the seventies and during the eighties, there were rumors of black trade of precious and mysterious metal with unbelievable high prices, higher many times than the gold price. Rumors said the name of the metal was uranium, black copper or osmium . We have collected all material confiscated during that time and during our activities, and the study shows: 516.56 kg of confiscated material is depleted uranium with U-235 mass content ranging from 0.2% to 0.32%, uranium mass content (U-235+U-238) ranging from 80% to 99%; Mostly pieces have a mark Made in USA. The masses of pieces range from 0.3 kg to 150 kg. By geometry and structure there are some mechanical parts of still unidentified machines; All pieces can be considered as radioactive material, the radioactive dose rate at their surface ranges from 10μSv/h to 100μSv/h. (Background: 0.2μSv/h); 268.65 kg confiscated material is false uranium made of lead. Its mark is written in very bad English trying to imitate the mark of real pieces. One false osmium body is made of silver. 2. Motivation of illicit

  14. Confiscatory equalization : the intriguing case of Saskatchewan's vanishing energy revenues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courchene, T.J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examined fiscal policies and factors that affect economic growth. In particular, it examined Saskatchewan's equalization entitlements for energy revenues and how Canada's equalization program confiscated the province's energy revenues for the fiscal year 2000-2001. It included an equalization primer that familiarized readers with the theory and practice of equalization. Several equations and tables relating to the mechanics of equalization were included along with a summary of equalization and tax-back rates that address the nature of tax-back rates that accompany the equalization formula. The author proposed alternative ways to reduce tax-backs such as the generic solution that applies to offshore energy revenues in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. He also suggested ways in which some important fiscal inequities can be redressed. A remedy that can be applied immediately involves an equitable approach which allows the province to retain at least 30 per cent of its energy revenues. A long term remedy would require the implementation of comprehensive reform such as restoring equalization to its national average standard (NAS) roots, but where only 25 per cent of resource revenues would be eligible for equalization. It was suggested that the maximum equalization tax-back rate for each of Saskatchewan's energy revenue categories should not exceed 70 per cent. refs., tabs., figs

  15. Social and structural factors associated with HIV infection among female sex workers who inject drugs in the Mexico-US border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lozada, Remedios; Martinez, Gustavo; Vera, Alicia; Rusch, Melanie; Nguyen, Lucie; Pollini, Robin A; Uribe-Salas, Felipe; Beletsky, Leo; Patterson, Thomas L

    2011-04-25

    FSWs who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) can acquire HIV through high risk sexual and injection behaviors. We studied correlates of HIV infection among FSW-IDUs in northern Mexico, where sex work is quasi-legal and syringes can be legally obtained without a prescription. FSW-IDUs>18 years old who reported injecting drugs and recent unprotected sex with clients in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez underwent surveys and HIV/STI testing. Logistic regression identified correlates of HIV infection. Of 620 FSW-IDUs, prevalence of HIV, gonorrhea, Chlamydia, trichomonas, syphilis titers ≥1:8, or any of these infections was 5.3%, 4%, 13%, 35%, 10% and 72%, respectively. Compared to other FSW-IDUs, HIV-positive women were more likely to: have syphilis titers ≥1:8 (36% vs. 9%, psocial environment (i.e., injecting drugs with clients) and policy environment (i.e., having syringes confiscated by police, attending NEPs) predominated as factors associated with risk of HIV infection, rather than individual-level risk behaviors. Interventions should target unjustified policing practices, clients' risk behaviors and HIV/STI prevention through NEPs.

  16. Forecasting Organized Crime Homicides: Risk Terrain Modeling of Camorra Violence in Naples, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugato, Marco; Calderoni, Francesco; Berlusconi, Giulia

    2017-06-01

    Mafia homicides are usually committed for retaliation, economic profit, or rivalry among groups. The variety of possible reasons suggests the inefficacy of a preventive approach. However, like most violent crimes, mafia homicides concentrate in space due to place-specific social and environmental features. Starting from the existing literature, this study applies the Risk Terrain Modeling approach to forecast the Camorra homicides in Naples, Italy. This approach is based on the identification and evaluation of the underlying risk factors able to affect the risk of a homicide. This information is then used to predict the most likely location of future events. The findings of this study demonstrate that past homicides, drug dealing, confiscated assets, and rivalries among groups make it possible to predict up to 85% of 2012 mafia homicides, identifying 11% of city areas at highest risk. By contrast, variables controlling for the socio-economic conditions of areas are not significantly related to the risk of homicide. Moreover, this study shows that, even in a restricted space, the same risk factors may combine in different ways, giving rise to areas of equal risk but requiring targeted remedies. These results provide an effective basis for short- and long-term targeted policing strategies against organized crime- and gang-related violence. A similar approach may also provide practitioners, policy makers, and local administrators in other countries with significant support in understanding and counteracting also other forms of violent behavior by gangs or organized crime groups.

  17. Seizures of doping substances at the Swiss Border--a descriptive investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Christina; Kamber, Matthias; Lentillon-Kaestner, Vanessa; Krug, Oliver; Thevis, Mario

    2015-12-01

    This retrospective study evaluates the content, the destination and the source of 960 postal items seized by the Swiss customs authorities at the Swiss border between 2013 and 2014. The packages were seized because they contained at least one prohibited doping product as identified by the Swiss law on encouraging sports and physical activity. A total number of 1825 different doping products were confiscated from these parcels, accounting for an average of 1.9 doping products per seized item. In 74% of the cases, where seizures were made, anabolic androgenic steroids, mostly testosterone esters, were discovered. An obvious trading channel for doping products was identified in this study. The seized compounds were predominately manufactured in Asian countries, but sent to Switzerland mostly via South Eastern Europe countries. Due to the unique collaboration between the Swiss customs authorities and the national anti-doping agency, this study uncovered an alarming trend of illegal doping product trafficked to Switzerland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Raptor Sanctuary: a Collaboration Scheme for Raptor Conservation in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Gunawan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To support efforts on raptors conservation, it is necessary to activate multi-approach programs. Some approaches can be developed to raise public awareness. Raptor rehabilitation and release programs, environmental education and ecotourism are also important in this way. The establishment of Raptor Sanctuary (Suaka Elang was the result of the collaboration between governmental organizations, NGOs, and companies. The Raptor Sanctuary is expected to contribute actively in the raptor conservation strategies and efforts inIndonesia, particularly onJavaIsland. Since its establishment in November 2008, the Raptor Sanctuary focused on activities and programs such as rescue and rehabilitation for the release of confiscated raptors, developing conservation-based environmental education, and enhancing public and stakeholders’ capacities through participation in training courses and seminars. The Raptor Sanctuary had unique effective approaches to implement its activities to be handled directly by the Raptor Sanctuary or each partner. It is suggested that the Raptor Sanctuary can be introduced as an example of how to implement the effective strategy for raptor conservation.

  19. Identification and Characterization of T5-Like Bacteriophages Representing Two Novel Subgroups from Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domonkos Sváb

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available During recent years, interest in the use of bacteriophages as biocontrol agents against foodborne pathogens has increased, particularly for members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, with pathogenic Escherichia coli, Shigella, and Salmonella strains among them. Here, we report the isolation and characterisation of 12 novel T5-like bacteriophages from confiscated food samples. All bacterophages effectively lysed E. coli K-12 strains and were able to infect pathogenic E. coli strains representing enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC, enteropathogenic (EPEC, enterotoxigenic (ETEC, and enteroinvasive (EIEC pathotypes, Shigella dysenteriae, S. sonnei strains, as well as multidrug-resistant (MDR E. coli and multiple strains representing different Salmonella enterica serovars. All the bacteriophages exhibited Siphoviridae morphology. Whole genome sequencing of the novel T5-like bacteriophages showed that they represent two distinct groups, with the genome-based grouping correlating to the different host spectra. As these bacteriophages are of food origin, their stability and lack of any virulence genes, as well as their broad and mutually complementary host spectrum makes these new T5-like bacteriophages valuable candidates for use as biocontrol agents against foodborne pathogenic enterobacteria.

  20. Statistical Study of Corruption in the Region (on the Example of the Rostov Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill A. Belokrylov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper proves the effectiveness of the using of statistical methods for evaluation of the corruption level as a result of its, on the one hand, latency, concealment of official statistical accounting, and on the other - the scale of corruption in Russia. The comparative analysis of the substantial characteristics of the nature of corruption by Russian and foreign scientists, as well as their reflection in the law has allowed to develop a questionnaire to adequately assess the levels, causes and the effectiveness of implementation of the policy on the fight against corruption as the most important social indicator of inefficient institutions. Analysis of the results of the economic and sociological survey of the population of the Rostov region revealed a shift of corruption performance in the region in the direction of the education system as a result of the dominance in the selection of students, but it led to the conclusion about the need to tighten legislation on the fight against corruption (72% of respondents, including the confiscation of the property (79,1%, the dismissal of corrupt officials, the ban on public office. The necessity of further in-depth statistical studies of corruption on the development of more effective measures is improved to combat it as a tool for removal of the Russian economy from the crisis and ensure that it is more sustainable growth than projected in the 2020s (the lost decade 1,5% positive GDP dynamics.

  1. Lodz Families Help Directions During WW I in the Light of „Godzina Polski” Journal’s Reports [Główne kierunki pomocy łódzkim rodzinom w latach pierwszej wojny światowej w świetle doniesień dziennika „Godzina Polski”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz MICHALSKI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During World War I in Lodz, being occupied by Germans, life conditions of Lodz residents became tragically bad. Plunder of industrial property – machinery, reserves of resources, goods already manufactured – caused capital losses and a lack of means to reestablish appropriate production. Food confiscation, mainly grain and potatoes resulted in serious problems with food supplementary and alimentation. The German administration’s demands – impossible to meet – if not fulfilled had let to high money penalties. As a result of those actions a slow decline of the city was observed. All could experience common unemployment, extremely high prices, hunger, poverty, and prevalent diseases. Labour deportations to Germany and economic migration reduced the number of inhabitants by about 40%. At the beginning of those processes many organizations tried to help the people of Lodz. First it was Komitet Niesienia Pomocy Biednym (Poor Helping Committee. Later other institutions, like Okręgowa Rada Opiekuńcza (District Care Commettee, the Catholic Church, the Evangelical Church of Augsburg Confession, the Jewish community, and some factory-owners engaged themselves in social care. The journal „Godzina Polski” issued between 1915–1918 systematically presented their charitable activities. Thanks to this press information it has been possible to find out all of the initiatives aimed to help and ease families in their everyday existential battles.

  2. Founded: Genetic Reconstruction of Lineage Diversity and Kinship Informs Ex situ Conservation of Cuban Amazon Parrots (Amazona leucocephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milián-García, Yoamel; Jensen, Evelyn L; Madsen, Jeanette; Álvarez Alonso, Suleiky; Serrano Rodríguez, Aryamne; Espinosa López, Georgina; Russello, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Captive breeding is a widespread conservation strategy, yet such programs rarely include empirical genetic data for assessing management assumptions and meeting conservation goals. Cuban Amazon parrots (Amazona leucocephala) are considered vulnerable, and multiple on-island captive populations have been established from wild-caught and confiscated individuals of unknown ancestry. Here, we used mitochondrial haplotypic and nuclear genotypic data at 9 microsatellite loci to quantify the extent and distribution of genetic variation within and among captive populations in Zapata Swamp and Managua, Cuba, and to estimate kinship among breeders (n = 88). Using Bayesian clustering analysis, we detected 2 distinct clusters within the Zapata population, one of which was shared with Managua. Individuals from the cluster unique to Zapata possessed mitochondrial haplotypes with affinities to Cuban subspecies (A. l. leucocephala, A. l. palmarum); the shared cluster was similar, but also included haplotypes closely related to the subspecies restricted to Cayman Brac (A. l. hesterna). Overall mean kinship was low within each captive population (-0.026 to -0.012), with 19 and 11 recommended breeding pairs in Zapata and Managua, respectively, ranked according to mean kinship and informed by molecular sexing. Our results highlight the importance of understanding population history within ex situ management programs, while providing genetic information to directly inform Cuban parrot conservation. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Medical marijuana: California update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1996-08-23

    The Cannabis Buyers' Club in San Francisco remains closed after it was raided by the office of California Attorney General Dan Lungren. Many individuals with serious illnesses such as AIDS and cancer are without safe access to medical marijuana to relieve the symptoms of their diseases. The need for access to medicinal marijuana, the return of the confiscated confidential medical records held at the buyers' club, and the passage of California Proposition 215 in the November election, which allows for the legitimate use of marijuana for medical purposes are of immediate concern. Since the raid, the Cannabis Buyers' Club has denied charges that it sold marijuana to teenagers, saying the drug was sold to a teen's mother, an undercover narcotics officer. However, the club admitted to sales to non-medical individuals who used fraudulent documents in order to obtain the drug and acknowledges the need to tighten procedures. Individuals may be able to obtain marijuana at other buyers' clubs if they have documentation of a medical need. While literature on the medical use of marijuana is lacking, the Federal government continues to block any efforts toward medical research on this issue. A list of other cannabis buyers' clubs in California is included, as well as a list of organizations working for Proposition 215.

  4. Tracing the geographic origin of traded leopard body parts in the indian subcontinent with DNA-based assignment tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondol, Samrat; Sridhar, Vanjulavalli; Yadav, Prasanjeet; Gubbi, Sanjay; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2015-04-01

    Illicit trade in wildlife products is rapidly decimating many species across the globe. Such trade is often underestimated for wide-ranging species until it is too late for the survival of their remaining populations. Policing this trade could be vastly improved if one could reliably determine geographic origins of illegal wildlife products and identify areas where greater enforcement is needed. Using DNA-based assignment tests (i.e., samples are assigned to geographic locations), we addressed these factors for leopards (Panthera pardus) on the Indian subcontinent. We created geography-specific allele frequencies from a genetic reference database of 173 leopards across India to infer geographic origins of DNA samples from 40 seized leopard skins. Sensitivity analyses of samples of known geographic origins and assignments of seized skins demonstrated robust assignments for Indian leopards. We found that confiscated pelts seized in small numbers were not necessarily from local leopards. The geographic footprint of large seizures appeared to be bigger than the cumulative footprint of several smaller seizures, indicating widespread leopard poaching across the subcontinent. Our seized samples had male-biased sex ratios, especially the large seizures. From multiple seized sample assignments, we identified central India as a poaching hotspot for leopards. The techniques we applied can be used to identify origins of seized illegal wildlife products and trade routes at the subcontinent scale and beyond. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Application of multiplex PCR approaches for shark molecular identification: feasibility and applications for fisheries management and conservation in the Eastern Tropical Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, S; Cardeñosa, D; Soler, G; Hyde, J

    2012-03-01

    Here we describe the application of new and existing multiplex PCR methodologies for shark species molecular identification. Four multiplex systems (group ID, thresher sharks, hammerhead sharks and miscellaneous shark) were employed with primers previously described and some designed in this study, which allow for species identification after running PCR products through an agarose gel. This system was implemented for samples (bodies and fins) collected from unidentified sharks landed in the port of Buenaventura and from confiscated tissues obtained from illegal fishing around the Malpelo Island Marine Protected Area, Pacific Coast of Colombia. This method has allowed reliable identification, to date, of 407 samples to the genus and/or species levels, most of them (380) identified as the pelagic thresher shark (Alopias pelagicus). Another seven samples were identified as scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini). This is an easy-to-implement and reliable identification method that could even be used locally to monitor shark captures in the main fishing ports of developed and developing countries. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. LESSONS FROM A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF A 5-YR PERIOD OF QUARANTINE AT SAN DIEGO ZOO: A RISK-BASED APPROACH TO QUARANTINE ISOLATION AND TESTING MAY BENEFIT ANIMAL WELFARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Chelsea; Marinkovich, Matt; Morris, Pat J; Rideout, Bruce; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2016-03-01

    Quarantine is designed primarily to prevent the introduction of transmissible diseases to zoological collections. Improvements in preventive medicine, disease eradication, and comprehensive pathology programs call into question current industry quarantine standards. Disease risk analysis was used at the San Diego Zoo (SDZ) and the SDZ Safari Park to eliminate quarantine isolation and transmissible disease testing for animals transferred between the two institutions. To determine if a risk-based approach might be valid between other institutions and SDZ, we reviewed quarantine data for animals arriving at SDZ from 81 Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA)-accredited and 124 other sources (e.g., non-AZA-accredited institutions, private breeders, private dealers, governmental bodies) over a 5-yr period (2009-2013). No mammal or herptile failed quarantine due to transmissible diseases of concern. Approximately 2.5% of incoming birds failed quarantine due to transmissible disease; however, all 14 failed individuals were obtained from three nonaccredited sources (private breeders, confiscation). The results of our study suggest that a risk-based approach could be used to minimize or eliminate quarantine for the transfer of animals from institutions with comprehensive disease surveillance programs and/or preshipment testing practices. Quarantine isolation with testing remains an essential defense against introducing transmissible diseases of concern when there is a lack of health knowledge about the animals being received.

  7. Judeo-Conversos en la audiencia del Nuevo Reino de Granada. Siglos XVI y XVII.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Navarrete.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A large number of Portuguese “New Christians” (Jewish converts to Catholicism constituted one of the most important components of the white population of the Indies during the 16th and 17th centuries. They settled in various cities within the jurisdiction of the High Court of Justice of the New Kingdom of Granada, especially in Cartagena, where they occupied themselves in the slave trade and commerce in general. They extended their trade networks to and from the Viceroyalty of Peru and other provinces to the south of the New Kingdom. The Inquisition used its power to persecute them and to confiscate their property as a way to protect the purity of the faith and to sustain the institution economically. The New Christians were accused of secretly practicing the Jewish religion and of not being true Christians. Many of them were crypto-Jews who observed the Sabbath and Queen Esther’s feast day, observed Jewish fasting and dietary practices, and attended synagogue meetings. The most respected men among them acted as rabbis and orally transmitted their prayers and the few traditions remaining extant among them. As a result of both persecution by the Inquisition and the independence of Portugal in 1640, some of them returned to that country, while others scattered throughout the Caribbean and still others blended into the traditional Christian population.

  8. Understanding Urban Regeneration in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candas, E.; Flacke, J.; Yomralioglu, T.

    2016-06-01

    In Turkey, rapid population growth, informal settlements, and buildings and infrastructures vulnerable to natural hazards are seen as the most important problems of cities. Particularly disaster risk cannot be disregarded, as large parts of various cities are facing risks from earthquakes, floods and landslides and have experienced loss of lives in the recent past. Urban regeneration is an important planning tool implemented by local and central governments in order to reduce to disaster risk and to design livable environments for the citizens. The Law on the Regeneration of Areas under Disaster Risk, commonly known as the Urban Regeneration Law, was enacted in 2012 (Law No.6306, May 2012). The regulation on Implementation of Law No. 6306 explains the fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process. The relevant institutions furnished with various authorities such as expropriation, confiscation and changing the type and place of your property which makes urban regeneration projects very important in terms of property rights. Therefore, urban regeneration projects have to be transparent, comprehensible and acceptable for all actors in the projects. In order to understand the urban regeneration process, the legislation and projects of different municipalities in Istanbul have been analyzed. While some steps of it are spatial data demanding, others relate to land values. In this paper an overview of the urban regeneration history and activities in Turkey is given. Fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process are defined, and particularly spatial-data demanding steps are identified.

  9. Pemisahan Pertanggungjawaban Perampasan Barang dalam Penguasaan Pihak Ketiga yang Beritikad Baik dalam Putusan Tindak Pidana Korupsi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda Sahputra Umara

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering the development of modus operandi on crime of corruption, the quality of law enforcement in eradicating corruption needs to be increased. Many people are violated his rights over the lack of the duty and the responsibility of law enforcer. As in the verdict no. 42 / Pid.B / TPK / 2012 / PN.JKT.PST. Whereas in this verdict the judge shall also impose a crime in the form of the appropriation of certain goods against a good faithful third party, whereas confiscation is an additional criminal sanction under Article 10 of the Criminal Code and Article 18 of Law Number 31 Year 1999 jo. Law Number 20 Year 2001 on the Eradication of Corruption. In the criminal law conception criminal liability can only be charged to a person who has previously committed a crime. that in this Decision, according to the judge, the author has mistakenly applied the law to a good third party. should the seizure of a third party in this decision not be imposed through the criminal justice system but with other legal mechanisms outside the penal law both civil and administrative, because in principle the accountability in criminal law is based on in personam mechanism, therefore need to be separated from the concept of responsibility in the seizure of goods in the possession of a well-intentioned third party.

  10. Violence and the perceived risks of taking antiretroviral therapy in US jails and prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, Gabriel J

    2014-01-01

    About one in five men living with HIV in the USA passes through a correctional center annually. Jails and prisons are seen therefore as key intervention sites to promote HIV treatment as prevention. Almost no research, however, has examined inmates' perspectives on HIV treatment or their strategies for retaining access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) during incarceration. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of an exploratory study examining men's perceptions of and experiences with HIV care and ART during incarceration. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 HIV positive male and male-to-female transgendered persons recently released from male correctional centers in Illinois, USA. Interpersonal violence, a lack of safety, and perceived threats to privacy were frequently cited barriers to one's willingness and ability to access and adhere to treatment. Over 60 percent of study participants reported missed doses or sustained treatment interruption (greater than two weeks) because of failure to disclose their HIV status, delayed prescribing, intermittent dosing and out-of-stock medications, confiscation of medications, and medication strikes. Substantial improvements in ART access and adherence are likely to follow organizational changes that make incarcerated men feel safer, facilitate HIV status disclosure, and better protect the confidentiality of inmates receiving ART. This study identified novel causes of ART non-adherence among prisoners and provides first-hand information about how violence, stigma, and the pursuit of social support influence prisoner's decisions to disclose their HIV status or accept ART during incarceration.

  11. Trading on extinction: An open-access deterrence model for the South African abalone fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas J. Crookes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available South African rhinoceros (e.g.Diceros bicornis and abalone (Haliotis midae have in common that they both are harvested under open-access conditions, are high-value commodities and are traded illegally. The difference is that a legal market for abalone already exists. An open-access deterrence model was developed for South African abalone, using Table Mountain National Park as a case study. It was found that illegal poaching spiked following the closure of the recreational fishery. The resource custodian's objective is to maximise returns from confiscations. This study showed that a legal trade results in a trading on extinction resource trap, with a race for profits, an increase in the probability of detection after a poaching event and the depletion of populations. In contrast with HS Gordon's seminal article (J Polit Econ 1954;62:124-142, profit maximisation does not automatically improve the sustainability of the resource. Under certain conditions (e.g. a legal trade with costly enforcement, profit maximisation may actually deplete abalone populations. The article also has implications for rhino populations, as a legal trade is currently proposed.

  12. Subjektiwiteit en vroulike liggaamlikheid in enkele tekste van Riana Scheepers en Antjie Krog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Visagie

    1999-04-01

    Both Die ding in die vuur by Riana Scheepers and Gedigte 1989-1995 by Antjie Krog are characterized by a profound interest in women in relation to their bodies. As Luce Irigaray (1981:100 and Héléne Cixous (1981:256 have indicated, it is essential to approach the debate about female subjectivity from the discourse of the body. Irigaray believes that women will accede to subjectivity from an experience of their bodies as multiple and diverse. In the short stories of Riana Scheepers the bodies of women are depicted as confiscated and destroyed by the discourses of both African and Western patriarchy. However, the writing of Scheepers does not mobilize the constructive potential of the female body to create a new subjectivity. In her poetry Antjie Krog engages the female body in a transitory exploration of the masculine other. An analysis of “ek staan op 'n moerse rots langs the see by Paternoster" leads to the conclusion that the female speaker in this poem by Krog emerges from her non-appropriating journey through the masculine other within sight o f a feminine subjectivity based on the liberating potential of the female body.

  13. Examining the spatial distribution of law enforcement encounters among people who inject drugs after implementation of Mexico's drug policy reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Tommi L; Beletsky, Leo; Arredondo, Jaime; Werb, Daniel; Rangel, Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Brouwer, Kimberly

    2015-04-01

    In 2009, Mexico decriminalized the possession of small amounts of illicit drugs for personal use in order to refocus law enforcement resources on drug dealers and traffickers. This study examines the spatial distribution of law enforcement encounters reported by people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico to identify concentrated areas of policing activity after implementation of the new drug policy. Mapping the physical location of law enforcement encounters provided by PWID (n = 461) recruited through targeted sampling, we identified hotspots of extra-judicial encounters (e.g., physical/sexual abuse, syringe confiscation, and money extortion by law enforcement) and routine authorized encounters (e.g., being arrested or stopped but not arrested) using point density maps and the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic calculated at the neighborhood-level. Approximately half of the participants encountered law enforcement more than once in a calendar year and nearly one third of these encounters did not result in arrest but involved harassment or abuse by law enforcement. Statistically significant hotspots of law enforcement encounters were identified in a limited number of neighborhoods located in areas with known drug markets. At the local-level, law enforcement activities continue to target drug users despite a national drug policy that emphasizes drug treatment diversion rather than punitive enforcement. There is a need for law enforcement training and improved monitoring of policing tactics to better align policing with public health goals.

  14. La mirada del otro en los dispositivos de formación de lenguas extranjeras. Isomorfismos de la política lingüística y la mediación. A look at the other devices in the Foreign Language Training: Isomorphisms of Language Policy and the Mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Yurén

    2006-10-01

    the treatment of the cultural distances, which in turn rebounds in the appropriation of the foreign language, the configuration of the professional ethos and the acquisition of competences for self-formation. Qualitative data were obtained by means of interviews, observations and collection of documents and the work was done by combining structural analysis, representation analysis, analysis of identity, genealogy and political discourse analysis. As epistemological focus, the reconstruction of the formation device was adopted, highlighting the ethical-political dimension. After analyzing the representations of the teachers on their task and their activity as mediators, as well as their social and cultural identifications, five mediation types and four treatment forms of alterity were identified: the plotted alterity, the confiscated alterity, the aculturing opening and the polyvalent opening. It was found that these forms of looking at the other are also present in the field of educational and cultural cooperation between the countries involved, as well as in the strategies and policies of use and dissemination of the language deployed in the history of said countries. The conclusion is that only a non-confiscating look with polyvalent opening can contribute to the appropriation of the target language, the conformation of an autonomous professional ethos and the acquisition of dispositions for self-formation.

  15. A snapshot on NPS in Italy: Distribution of drugs in seized materials analysed in an Italian forensic laboratory in the period 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoardi, Sara; Romolo, Francesco Saverio; Strano-Rossi, Sabina

    2016-08-01

    The diffusion of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) in the illicit drug market is a worldwide problem. The aim of the study is to describe the qualitative distribution of drugs of abuse in seized materials confiscated in the Italian territory over the last two years. Between 2013 and 2015 162 seizures of substances purchased through the Internet and confiscated by police authorities were analyzed: 35 seizures (22%) were crystals of 3-methylmethcathinone (3-MMC). Although 3-MMC is subject to the relevant legislation in Italy, it is not controlled in other countries such as the Netherlands, from which the shipments originated. 33 seizures (20%) were crystals of 4-methylethcathinone (4-MEC), 19 seizures (12%) were powders containing methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). N,N-diallyl-5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeO-DALT) was identified in 5 powders, whereas ethylphenidate in six and pyrrolidinophenones in fourteen seized powders: 6 α-PVP (alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone), 6 α-PHP (alpha-pyrrolidinohexiophenone) and 1 α-PVT (alpha-pyrrolidinopentiothiophenone). Other substances identified were cathinones such as pentedrone, methylone, buthylone, ethylone, methedrone, 3-CMC (3-chloromethcathinone), 3,4-dimethylmethcathinone (3,4-DMMC), flephedrone (4-fluoromethcathinone or 4-FMC), 2-FMC and 3-FMC (2- and 3-fluoromethcathinone), MPPP (4-methyl-alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone), bk-2C-B (2-amino-1-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethan-1-one). Other compounds were NM2AI (N-methyl-2-aminoindane), MPA (1-(thiophen-2-yl)-2-methylaminopropane), MTTA (mephtetramine), 4-APB and 6-APB (4- and 6- (2-aminopropyl)benzofuran), 2-fluoromethamphetamine, 1mCPP (1-meta-chlorophenylpiperazine) and diphenidine, detected for the first time in Europe. Only three seizures contained synthetic cannabinoids, consisting of herbal blends soaked in N-(1-adamantyl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (AKB48), or a mixture of 5-F-AKB48 and BB-22 (1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-8-quinolinyl ester-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid

  16. Development of measures to deal with illicit trafficking of nuclear materials in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schandorf, C.; Amoako, J.K.; Asiamah, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The world has now become a global village as such no country can isolate itself from global trends. Reported cases of illicit trafficking in nuclear materials have focused international attention on ways to combat an emerging phenomenon of the 1990's. Of the 324 confirmed cases of illicit trafficking nearly 130 involved individuals trying to illegally sell radioactive materials used in medicine or industry whose unauthorized use or movement poses a danger to public health. Some other cases have involved samples of weapons-grade materials confiscated from individuals. These incidents have raised public and governmental concerns. This has prompted stronger efforts to prevent illicit nuclear trafficking by state authorities, including collaboration and co-operation with international organizational such as the IAEA. The IAEA has established the Illicit Trafficking Database Programme and is encouraging all Member States to participate and to report all incidents of illicit trafficking in nuclear materials and other radioactive materials and other radioactive sources that come to their notice. From the data available from the Regulatory Authority Information System (RAIS), Ghana, there are 344 highly enriched uranium fuel elements (998.2g) in use in the 30kW Research Reactor, (GHARR-1) and 80 radioactive materials in use in medicine, history, research and teaching. The reactor has been subjected to safeguards inspections by IAEA on regular basis. Additionally there have been on the average about nine authorized imports of radioactive into the country in the past seven years. Unlawful use of nuclear materials, through criminal or terrorist activities, may pose a proliferation treat, while unlawful use of radiation poses risks to the public. Ghana has therefore decided to established an effective counter measure against illicit trafficking in nuclear and other materials which might pose both proliferation threat as well as radiological risk to the public and

  17. Bomb-curve radiocarbon measurement of recent biologic tissues and applications to wildlife forensics and stable isotope (paleo)ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Kevin T.; Quade, Jay; Fisher, Daniel C.; Wittemyer, George; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Andanje, Samuel; Omondi, Patrick; Litoroh, Moses; Cerling, Thure E.

    2013-07-01

    Above-ground thermonuclear weapons testing from 1952 through 1962 nearly doubled the concentration of radiocarbon (14C) in the atmosphere. As a result, organic material formed during or after this period may be radiocarbon-dated using the abrupt rise and steady fall of the atmospheric 14C concentration known as the bomb-curve. We test the accuracy of accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of 29 herbivore and plant tissues collected on known dates between 1905 and 2008 in East Africa. Herbivore samples include teeth, tusks, soft tissue, hair, and horn. Tissues formed after 1955 are dated to within 0.3-1.3 y of formation, depending on the tissue type, whereas tissues older than ca. 1955 have high age uncertainties (>17 y) due to the Suess effect. 14C dating of tissues has applications to stable isotope (paleo)ecology and wildlife forensics. We use data from 41 additional samples to determine growth rates of tusks, molars, and hair, which improve interpretations of serial stable isotope data for (paleo)ecological studies. 14C dating can also be used to calculate the time interval represented in periodic histological structures in dental tissues (i.e., perikymata), which in turn may be used as chronometers in fossil teeth. Bomb-curve 14C dating of confiscated animal tissues (e.g., ivory statues) can be used to determine whether trade of the item is legal, because many Convention of International Trade of Endangered Species restrictions are based on the age of the tissue, and thus can serve as a powerful forensic tool to combat illegal trade in animal parts.

  18. Simultaneous quantification of delta-9-THC, THC-acid A, CBN and CBD in seized drugs using HPLC-DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambach, Lars; Penitschka, Franziska; Broillet, Alain; König, Stefan; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Bernhard, Werner

    2014-10-01

    An HPLC-DAD method for the quantitative analysis of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (THCA-A), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabinol (CBN) in confiscated cannabis products has been developed, fully validated and applied to analyse seized cannabis products. For determination of the THC content of plant material, this method combines quantitation of THCA-A, which is the inactive precursor of THC, and free THC. Plant material was dried, homogenized and extracted with methanol by ultrasonication. Chromatographic separation was achieved with a Waters Alliance 2695 HPLC equipped with a Merck LiChrospher 60 RP-Select B (5μm) precolumn and a Merck LiChroCart 125-4 LiChrospher 60 RP-Select B (5μm) analytical column. Analytes were detected and quantified using a Waters 2996 photo diode array detector. This method has been accepted by the public authorities of Switzerland (Bundesamt für Gesundheit, Federal Office of Public Health), and has been used to analyse 9092 samples since 2000. Since no thermal decarboxylation of THCA-A occurs, the method is highly reproducible for different cannabis materials. Two calibration ranges are used, a lower one for THC, CBN and CBD, and a higher one for THCA-A, due to its dominant presence in fresh plant material. As provider of the Swiss proficiency test, the robustness of this method has been tested over several years, and homogeneity tests even in the low calibration range (1%) show high precision (RSD≤4.3%, except CBD) and accuracy (bias≤4.1%, except CBN). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES ANALYSIS IN BUCHAREST CITY USING CORONA, SPOT HRV AND IKONOS IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Noaje

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bucharest, capital of Romania, deals with serious difficulties as a result of urban politics: influx of people due to industrialization and development of dormitory areas, lack of a modern infrastructure, absence of coherent and long term urban development politics, continuous depletion of environment. This paper presents a multisensor study relying on multiple data sets, both analogical and digital: satellite images (Corona – 1964 panchromatic, SPOT HRV – 1994 multispctral and panchromatic, IKONOS – 2007 multispectral, aerial photographs – 1994, complementary products (topographic and thematic maps. Georeferenced basis needs to be generated to highlight changes detection. The digital elevation model is generated from aerial photography 1:5,000 scaled, acquired in 1994. First a height correction is required followed by an affine transformation to the ground control points identified both in aerial photographs and IKONOS image. SPOT-HRV pansharpened satellite image has been rectified on georeferenced IKONOS image, by an affine transformation method. The Corona panoramic negative film was scanned and rubber sheeting method is used for rectification. The first 25 years of the study period (1964–1989 are characterized by growth of industrial areas, high density apartment buildings residential areas and leisure green areas by demolition of cultural heritage areas (hundred years old churches and architectural monuments. Changes between the imagery were determined partially through visual interpretation, using elements such as location, size, shape, shadow, tone, texture, and pattern (Corona image, partially using unsupervised classification (SPOT HRV and IKONOS. The second period of 18 years (1989–2007 highlighted considerable growth of residential areas in the city neighborhood, simultaneously with the diminish of green areas and massive deforestation in confiscated areas before and returned to the original owners.

  20. D’un continent a l’autre : la littérature comme une arme du combat féminin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aïssata SOUMANA KINDO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although they may be the produce of different context and environment, Calixthe Beyala et Lalita Tademy, two famous black women novelists, respectively from Africa and USA, join in the same fight beyond continents through the themes they develop, the characters they present and their styles (writings, which is almost contrary.For African women writers, literature is not only an act of recovering women’s speech, for so long confiscated, but also a way to face, in many ways, male power and male society. The literary protagonists of African feminism just wish to keep distant from family, where young girls’ alienation and domestication have occurred for centuries. They break the myth of the admirable mother, celebrated by the Négritude movement, for it perpetuates alienating practices, among which excision. They condemn patriarchal order which deny their existence, stand for the right of selfmanagement. Afro-American women writers, on the on hand, have pointed out slavery and its consequences, then Afro-American life conditions in general and Afro-American women in particular in racism context. Nowadays, Afro-American women writers bring new narrative trends, namely as far as slavery history is concerned. They speak about new places, new city neighbourhoods, new schools, new friends, new working places, and describe new experiences which are clearly illustrated in the novels by Terry Mc Millan, Andrea Lee, Connie Porter or Tonni Morrison. In order to consider better this women struggle, we propose to study two of theses writers’ works that exemplify this new tendency in women’s literature in Africa and USA: Seul le DIABLE le savait by Calixthe Beyala and Au bord de la rivière Cane by Lalita Tademy.

  1. Uranium isotope separation from 1941 to the present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier-Komor, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Uranium isotope separation was the key development for the preparation of highly enriched isotopes in general and thus became the seed for target development and preparation for nuclear and applied physics. In 1941 (year of birth of the author) large-scale development for uranium isotope separation was started after the US authorities were warned that NAZI Germany had started its program for enrichment of uranium and might have confiscated all uranium and uranium mines in their sphere of influence. Within the framework of the Manhattan Projects the first electromagnetic mass separators (Calutrons) were installed and further developed for high throughput. The military aim of the Navy Department was to develop nuclear propulsion for submarines with practically unlimited range. Parallel to this the army worked on the development of the atomic bomb. Also in 1941 plutonium was discovered and the production of 239 Pu was included into the atomic bomb program. 235 U enrichment starting with natural uranium was performed in two steps with different techniques of mass separation in Oak Ridge. The first step was gas diffusion which was limited to low enrichment. The second step for high enrichment was performed with electromagnetic mass spectrometers (Calutrons). The theory for the much more effective enrichment with centrifugal separation was developed also during the Second World War, but technical problems e.g. development of high speed ball and needle bearings could not be solved before the end of the war. Spying accelerated the development of uranium separation in the Soviet Union, but also later in China, India, Pakistan, Iran and Iraq. In this paper, the physical and chemical procedures are outlined which lead to the success of the project. Some security aspects and Non-Proliferation measures are discussed.

  2. Uranium isotope separation from 1941 to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier-Komor, Peter, E-mail: Peter@Maier-Komor.d [Retired from Physik-Department E12, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85747 Garching (Germany)

    2010-02-11

    Uranium isotope separation was the key development for the preparation of highly enriched isotopes in general and thus became the seed for target development and preparation for nuclear and applied physics. In 1941 (year of birth of the author) large-scale development for uranium isotope separation was started after the US authorities were warned that NAZI Germany had started its program for enrichment of uranium and might have confiscated all uranium and uranium mines in their sphere of influence. Within the framework of the Manhattan Projects the first electromagnetic mass separators (Calutrons) were installed and further developed for high throughput. The military aim of the Navy Department was to develop nuclear propulsion for submarines with practically unlimited range. Parallel to this the army worked on the development of the atomic bomb. Also in 1941 plutonium was discovered and the production of {sup 239}Pu was included into the atomic bomb program. {sup 235}U enrichment starting with natural uranium was performed in two steps with different techniques of mass separation in Oak Ridge. The first step was gas diffusion which was limited to low enrichment. The second step for high enrichment was performed with electromagnetic mass spectrometers (Calutrons). The theory for the much more effective enrichment with centrifugal separation was developed also during the Second World War, but technical problems e.g. development of high speed ball and needle bearings could not be solved before the end of the war. Spying accelerated the development of uranium separation in the Soviet Union, but also later in China, India, Pakistan, Iran and Iraq. In this paper, the physical and chemical procedures are outlined which lead to the success of the project. Some security aspects and Non-Proliferation measures are discussed.

  3. Large-Scale Trade in Legally Protected Marine Mollusc Shells from Java and Bali, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, Vincent; Spaan, Denise; Nekaris, K. Anne-Isola

    2015-01-01

    Background Tropical marine molluscs are traded globally. Larger species with slow life histories are under threat from over-exploitation. We report on the trade in protected marine mollusc shells in and from Java and Bali, Indonesia. Since 1987 twelve species of marine molluscs are protected under Indonesian law to shield them from overexploitation. Despite this protection they are traded openly in large volumes. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected data on species composition, origins, volumes and prices at two large open markets (2013), collected data from wholesale traders (2013), and compiled seizure data by the Indonesian authorities (2008–2013). All twelve protected species were observed in trade. Smaller species were traded for trade involves networks stretching hundreds of kilometres throughout Indonesia. Wholesale traders offer protected marine mollusc shells for the export market by the container or by the metric ton. Data from 20 confiscated shipments show an on-going trade in these molluscs. Over 42,000 shells were seized over a 5-year period, with a retail value of USD700,000 within Indonesia; horned helmet (Cassis cornuta) (>32,000 shells valued at USD500,000), chambered nautilus (Nautilus pompilius) (>3,000 shells, USD60,000) and giant clams (Tridacna spp.) (>2,000 shells, USD45,000) were traded in largest volumes. Two-thirds of this trade was destined for international markets, including in the USA and Asia-Pacific region. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrated that the trade in protected marine mollusc shells in Indonesia is not controlled nor monitored, that it involves large volumes, and that networks of shell collectors, traders, middlemen and exporters span the globe. This impedes protection of these species on the ground and calls into question the effectiveness of protected species management in Indonesia; solutions are unlikely to be found only in Indonesia and must involve the cooperation of importing countries. PMID:26717021

  4. Israel’s Associated Regime: Exceptionalism, Human Rights and Alternative Legality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica D’Alessandra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the context of Israel’s declared permanent state of exception, this article focuses on the legal protection awarded to the Palestinian populations under Israeli control. To broaden the discussion over Palestinian people’s rights, which generally focuses on the confiscation of land and the right to return, the author consciously focuses on anti-terrorism and security measures, which contribute to the creation of what the International Court of Justice has defined as an ‘associated regime’ of occupation. The article is divided into three parts. In the first part, the author discusses Israel’s domestic obligations towards Palestinians (arguing the case of both Palestinian citizens of Israel, and Palestinian residents and their de jure and de facto discrimination. The second part discusses the applicability of humanitarian law, specifically the applicability of the Fourth Geneva Convention. This section discusses the applicability of the Convention to both territories and people under Israeli control. The third part discusses the applicability of international human rights law to all territories under Israeli control and delves into the issue of the mutual relationship between the two international legal regimes in the territories under occupation. The article posits that Israel’s rationale for the non-applicability of such legislation to the Palestinian territories and populations it controls constitutes a form of ‘alternative legality’. The article concludes that Israel’s disproportionate application of security practices and anti-terrorism measures to the Palestinian segment of its population violates Palestinian rights protected under Israel’s domestic and international legal obligations.

  5. HEALTH ASSESSMENT OF CAPTIVE PSITTACINE SPECIES IN PRERELEASE PROGRAMS AT COSTA RICAN RESCUE CENTERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Chavarría, Esteban; Umaña-Castro, Rodolfo; Abou-Madi, Noha; Solano-González, Stefany; Retamosa-Izaguirre, Mónica; Jiménez-Soto, Mauricio; Blanco-Peña, Kinndle

    2017-12-01

    With stricter laws regulating the capture and possession of wild animals in Costa Rica, local wildlife-rescue centers have been overwhelmed by an influx of confiscated or relinquished illegal pets, specifically of psittacine species. As part of a nationwide health-assessment program targeting these centers, 122 birds representing five psittacine species ( Ara macao, Amazona autumnalis, Amazona auropalliata, Amazona farinosa, Aratinga finschi) and one hybrid macaw ( Ara macao × Ara ambiguus) were examined and tested between January 2011 and October 2012. Physical examination, hematology, and serum biochemical analyses were performed. Blood and feathers were tested for psittacine beak and feather disease virus (PBFDV) and avian polyomavirus (APV) via PCR. A DNA-based prevalence and sequence analysis characterized the strains of PBFDV and APV isolated. Physical abnormalities observed in 36% of the 122 birds examined were limited to thin body condition and poor feather quality. None of the feather abnormalities were characteristic of disease caused by either PBFDV or APV. Results of hematological and biochemical analyses were within normal limits except for five birds with leukocytosis and heterophilia, three birds with uric acid values above 16 mg/dl, and two additional birds with AST values above 400 IU/L. No hemoparasites were detected during blood smear examination. Overall prevalences of 9.8% (12/122) for PBFDV and 3.3% (4/122) for APV were documented, with only one bird testing positive for both PBFDV and APV. Birds from two of the eight centers were negative for both viruses. Findings from this study constitute the beginning of a standardized surveillance program for Costa Rican rescue centers, targeting the management of avian species enrolled in propagation and reintroduction programs and expanding of the spectrum of pathogen surveillance and husbandry recommendations in prerelease centers.

  6. Large-Scale Trade in Legally Protected Marine Mollusc Shells from Java and Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, Vincent; Spaan, Denise; Nekaris, K Anne-Isola

    2015-01-01

    Tropical marine molluscs are traded globally. Larger species with slow life histories are under threat from over-exploitation. We report on the trade in protected marine mollusc shells in and from Java and Bali, Indonesia. Since 1987 twelve species of marine molluscs are protected under Indonesian law to shield them from overexploitation. Despite this protection they are traded openly in large volumes. We collected data on species composition, origins, volumes and prices at two large open markets (2013), collected data from wholesale traders (2013), and compiled seizure data by the Indonesian authorities (2008-2013). All twelve protected species were observed in trade. Smaller species were traded for Java and Bali, but the trade involves networks stretching hundreds of kilometres throughout Indonesia. Wholesale traders offer protected marine mollusc shells for the export market by the container or by the metric ton. Data from 20 confiscated shipments show an on-going trade in these molluscs. Over 42,000 shells were seized over a 5-year period, with a retail value of USD700,000 within Indonesia; horned helmet (Cassis cornuta) (>32,000 shells valued at USD500,000), chambered nautilus (Nautilus pompilius) (>3,000 shells, USD60,000) and giant clams (Tridacna spp.) (>2,000 shells, USD45,000) were traded in largest volumes. Two-thirds of this trade was destined for international markets, including in the USA and Asia-Pacific region. We demonstrated that the trade in protected marine mollusc shells in Indonesia is not controlled nor monitored, that it involves large volumes, and that networks of shell collectors, traders, middlemen and exporters span the globe. This impedes protection of these species on the ground and calls into question the effectiveness of protected species management in Indonesia; solutions are unlikely to be found only in Indonesia and must involve the cooperation of importing countries.

  7. Misuse of Novel Synthetic Opioids: A Deadly New Trend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prekupec, Matthew P.; Mansky, Peter A.; Baumann, Michael H.

    2017-01-01

    Novel synthetic opioids (NSOs) include various analogs of fentanyl and newly emerging non-fentanyl compounds. Together with illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF), these drugs have caused a recent spike in overdose deaths, whereas deaths from prescription opioids have stabilized. NSOs are used as stand-alone products, as adulterants in heroin, or as constituents of counterfeit prescription medications. During 2015 alone, there were 9580 deaths from synthetic opioids other than methadone. Most of these fatalities were associated with IMF rather than diverted pharmaceutical fentanyl. In opioid overdose cases, where the presence of fentanyl analogs was examined, analogs were implicated in 17% of fatalities. Recent data from law enforcement sources show increasing confiscation of acetylfentanyl, butyrylfentanyl, and furanylfentanyl, in addition to non-fentanyl compounds such as U-47700. Since 2013, deaths from NSOs in the United States were 52 for acetylfentanyl, 40 for butyrylfentanyl, 128 for furanylfentanyl, and 46 for U-47700. All of these substances induce a classic opioid toxidrome, which can be reversed with the competitive antagonist naloxone. However, due to the putative high potency of NSOs and their growing prevalence, it is recommended to forgo the 0.4 mg initial dose of naloxone and start with 2 mg. Because NSOs offer enormous profit potential, and there is strong demand for their use, these drugs are being trafficked by organized crime. NSOs present major challenges for medical professionals, law enforcement agencies, and policymakers. Resources must be distributed equitably to enhance harm reduction though public education, medication-assisted therapies, and improved access to naloxone. PMID:28590391

  8. High Rates of Police Detention Among Recently Released HIV-infected Prisoners in Ukraine: Implications for Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenberg, Jacob M.; Bachireddy, Chethan; Soule, Michael; Kiryazova, Tetiana; Dvoryak, Sergey; Altice, Frederick L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Ukraine’s HIV epidemic, primarily affecting people who inject drugs (PWID), is expanding and transitioning despite free opioid substitution therapy (OST) and antiretroviral therapy (ART), two effective ways to reduce HIV transmission. Police detention not resulting in imprisonment, defined as police harassment, of PWID is common, but its prevalence and impact on health is not known. Method HIV-infected individuals (N=97) released from prison within one year were recruited and surveyed in two HIV-endemic Ukrainian cities about post-release police detention experiences. Data on the frequency of police detention, related adverse events, and impact on OST and ART continuity were collected, and correlates of detention were examined using logistic regression. Results Detention responses were available for 94 (96.9%) participants, of which 55 (58.5%) reported police detentions (mean=9.4 per person-year). For those detained while prescribed OST (N=28) and ART (N=27), medication interruption was common (67.9% and 70.4%, respectively); 23 of 27 participants prescribed OST (85.2%) were detained en route to/from OST treatment. Significant independent correlates of detention without charges included post-release ART prescription (AOR 4.98, p=0.021), current high-risk injection practices (AOR 5.03, p=0.011), male gender (AOR 10.88, p=0.010), and lower lifetime months of imprisonment (AOR 0.99, p=0.031). Conclusions HIV-infected individuals recently released from prison in Ukraine experience frequent police detentions, resulting in withdrawal symptoms, confiscation of syringes, and interruptions of essential medications, including ART and OST. Structural changes are urgently needed to reduce police detentions in order to control HIV transmission and improve both individual and public health. PMID:23769160

  9. Logging Activity in the Trinational Amazonian Region of Pando/Bolivia, Acre and Rond“nia/Brazil, and Madre de Dios/Peru: Analysis of Existing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, E.; Brilhante, S. H.; Brown, I.; Peralta, R.; Rivero, S.; Melendez, N.

    2002-12-01

    Logging activity in the trinational southwestern Amazonia will grow in importance as a driver of regional land-use change as expanding road access facilitates both timber extraction and transport to international markets. Official data on current activity in this ~50 million ha region are limited and inconsistent with differences as much as twenty-fold between official estimates; nevertheless, they serve as guides for understanding the relative magnitude of logging activities. For 2000, an estimated 5 million m3 of timber were commercialized in Rondonia, 400,000 m3 in Acre, Brazil, and 200,000 m3 for the combined departments of Pando, Bolivia and Madre de Dios, Peru. About 70% of this timber originates from clear cutting done for pasture and agriculture activities, nearly a third from unregulated selective logging, and only 2% from managed selective logging. Eight timber species are preferentially extracted. The total area for timber concessions in Acre, Pando and Madre de Dios extends to about 4 million ha for a potential timber supply of 65 million m3. About 150,000 m3/yr of illegal timber is confiscated by federal and state agencies in Acre, Pando and Madre de Dios. Problems of enforcement in the region are due principally to the lack of trained personnel and little cooperation among agencies of the three countries. Proposed development plans indicate a 3- to >10-fold increase in logging activity in the Acre and Pando regions during the coming decade. More detailed studies are urgently needed to guide sustainable development of this resource in southwestern Amazonia.

  10. «Indispensable for the Work in Terms of the Decree of Separation of Church and State»: documentary portrait of M.V. Galkin (1885–1948

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    Mihail Yu. Krapivin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to reconstruct the life journey of one of the most prominent functionaries of the "Union of Soviet Atheists" M.V. Galkin (1885-1948. He was the author of the working draft of the decree on the separation of church and state and school, published in December 1917 within the pages of the party semi-official newspaper ‘Pravda’. Being employed as a full-time «expert» of VIII («Church» department of the People's Commissariat of Justice, Galkin (member of the Bolshevik Party since 1919 took a distinct position of militant atheism. He was among the most active participants in the campaign of the opening of graves with the remains of Orthodox Saints (1919-1920s and of the confiscation of church values from churches and monasteries (1921-1922s. The State Political Directorate engaged Galkin in the preparation and organization of the split in the Orthodox Church. The authorities made extensive use of pre-revolutionary publishing experience of Galkin when editing antireligious periodicals: magazines ‘Revolyutsiya I Tserkov’ ("Revolution and the Church", ‘Nauka I Religiya’ ("Science and Religion", ‘Bezbozhnik’ ("Atheist". Until 1926 Galkin was a member of management of the so-called "atheistic" movement. But after the conflict with Em. Yaroslavsky he lost all his administrative posts (at the national level and all his political clout (in the governing party and government circles. Under these conditions, Galkin decided to shift his permanent residence for Ukraine. His residency away from the capital seems to be so invisibly that Moscow and Leningrad аntireligionists wrongly believed that the life of the former priest passed away, aged 45. In 1930 he supposedly went to Ukraine to give a set of atheistic lectures and disappeared there under mysterious circumstances without a trace.

  11. Albania’s Transformation since 1997: Successes and Failures

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    Jusufi Islam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1997 Albania experienced a collapse of order and widespread violence, which resulted in a situation where the government was overthrown and some 2,000 people were killed. The 1997 disorder came as a result of the collapse of fraudulent financial pyramid schemes that had all the features of a war-like economic structure. During the 1997 events, large-scale confiscation and stealing of state assets occurred. Albania’s transitional period from communism to democracy, which began in 1990, led to the establishment of new structures for profiting from the country’s resources. Some of these political and economic structures, in the aftermath of the 1997 events, disappeared and others, including their structural effects, persist and have had an impact on the country’s political stability and economic progress. Today, both the successes and failures of the country are assessed based on the progress that the country has made since the 1997 events. The paper analyses the 1997 events and the transformation of Albania’s political and economic structures between 1997 and 2016, considering both achievements and failures. It looks at how the country has dealt with the post-1997 peace-building and development agenda from the perspective of it being a success. It looks at the factors that led to state failure in 1997 and at the factors that continue and have generated a path dependency to the current political context of the country. Although a lot has been written concerning the 1997 events, very little analysis has been conducted concerning what it means from the perspective of research on state failure. In this context, the proposed paper seeks to offer Albania as a case study example of a transformation process, from the uprising to the current situation, which is characterized as a mixture of successes and failures. The belief is that the proposed paper will point to some lessons learned for the strategies directed at the transformation processes.

  12. Analysis of Cannabis Seizures in NSW, Australia: Cannabis Potency and Cannabinoid Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kong M.; Arnold, Jonathon C.; McGregor, Iain S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent analysis of the cannabinoid content of cannabis plants suggests a shift towards use of high potency plant material with high levels of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and low levels of other phytocannabinoids, particularly cannabidiol (CBD). Use of this type of cannabis is thought by some to predispose to greater adverse outcomes on mental health and fewer therapeutic benefits. Australia has one of the highest per capita rates of cannabis use in the world yet there has been no previous systematic analysis of the cannabis being used. In the present study we examined the cannabinoid content of 206 cannabis samples that had been confiscated by police from recreational users holding 15 g of cannabis or less, under the New South Wales “Cannabis Cautioning” scheme. A further 26 “Known Provenance” samples were analysed that had been seized by police from larger indoor or outdoor cultivation sites rather than from street level users. An HPLC method was used to determine the content of 9 cannabinoids: THC, CBD, cannabigerol (CBG), and their plant-based carboxylic acid precursors THC-A, CBD-A and CBG-A, as well as cannabichromene (CBC), cannabinol (CBN) and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THC-V). The “Cannabis Cautioning” samples showed high mean THC content (THC+THC-A = 14.88%) and low mean CBD content (CBD+CBD-A = 0.14%). A modest level of CBG was detected (CBG+CBG-A = 1.18%) and very low levels of CBC, CBN and THC-V (cannabis with very low CBD content. The implications for public health outcomes and harm reduction strategies are discussed. PMID:23894589

  13. Analysis of cannabis seizures in NSW, Australia: cannabis potency and cannabinoid profile.

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    Wendy Swift

    Full Text Available Recent analysis of the cannabinoid content of cannabis plants suggests a shift towards use of high potency plant material with high levels of Δ(9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC and low levels of other phytocannabinoids, particularly cannabidiol (CBD. Use of this type of cannabis is thought by some to predispose to greater adverse outcomes on mental health and fewer therapeutic benefits. Australia has one of the highest per capita rates of cannabis use in the world yet there has been no previous systematic analysis of the cannabis being used. In the present study we examined the cannabinoid content of 206 cannabis samples that had been confiscated by police from recreational users holding 15 g of cannabis or less, under the New South Wales "Cannabis Cautioning" scheme. A further 26 "Known Provenance" samples were analysed that had been seized by police from larger indoor or outdoor cultivation sites rather than from street level users. An HPLC method was used to determine the content of 9 cannabinoids: THC, CBD, cannabigerol (CBG, and their plant-based carboxylic acid precursors THC-A, CBD-A and CBG-A, as well as cannabichromene (CBC, cannabinol (CBN and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THC-V. The "Cannabis Cautioning" samples showed high mean THC content (THC+THC-A = 14.88% and low mean CBD content (CBD+CBD-A = 0.14%. A modest level of CBG was detected (CBG+CBG-A = 1.18% and very low levels of CBC, CBN and THC-V (<0.1%. "Known Provenance" samples showed no significant differences in THC content between those seized from indoor versus outdoor cultivation sites. The present analysis echoes trends reported in other countries towards the use of high potency cannabis with very low CBD content. The implications for public health outcomes and harm reduction strategies are discussed.

  14. Malnutrition in South Asia-A Critical Reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Saeed

    2016-10-25

    Malnutrition continues to be a major public health challenge especially in South Asian developing countries. The aim of the present review is to spotlight the magnitude of the prevalence of malnutrition and its dynamics in South Asian region and to suggest potential approaches for the prevention and control of this issue of public health significance. An extensive review of literature, covering malnutrition and its determinants, health and economic consequences and pragmatic preventive strategies was performed on computer based bibliographic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Medline and Sciencedirect.com ) to retrieve abstracts and full texts for India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal. All relevant titles and abstracts were examined and evaluated for malnutrition and its prevalence in South Asia. The results revealed malnutrition to be a major public health problem and a potential cause of high disease burden and mortality in South Asia. Compelling evidence suggests malnutrition to be the leading cause of stunting, wasting and underweight with drastic economic consequences among vulnerable populations. Reduced cognitive performance and low productivity have also been associated with micronutrients malnutrition. Suboptimal breastfeeding, inadequate food supply, micronutrient deficiencies, low household income, poor health care system, increased healthcare costs, illiteracy, unhygienic and substandard living, inappropriate child's care and the caregiver, food insecurity and on top of that vicious cycle of poverty, have been recognized as principal indicators for growing malnutrition prevalence in South Asia. Global organizations, local governments, program managers, NGOs, academia, industry in particular and the society at large need to take up the challenge to completely confiscate malnutrition from the region for economic prosperity and a healthier future.

  15. On the relation between the concepts of self and ego in Kohut's psychology of the self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treurniet, N

    1980-01-01

    The concept of self is connected with its counterpart in the concepts of objective, subjective and transitional reality. The potential space of the Self is shown to be restricted rather than enhanced by an overemphasis on the role of empathy. This overemphasis is then related to narcissistic problems in the analyst himself. Self-psychology turns back the clock as it splits instead of integrates its relation with psychoanalysis, reducing so-called "classical analysis" to rigid conflict psychology as opposed to self-psychology, which claims the most central functions of the ego thereby confiscating the third episode in the development of the ego concept in Freud's work. Kohut's description of the transitional process in the psychoanalytic situation predominantly in terms of only one of its constituents, the empathic immersion, is considered to be related to his position vis-à-vis the drives. Using only experiential, as opposed to observational, categories he cannot but arrive at the conclusion that drive intensity is not the cause of central pathology but its result. This creates an imbalance in the clinical view that not only narcissistic mortification indeed produces drive manifestations but on the other hand intensive drive impulses also may produce a severe narcissistic mortification. An attempt is made to find theoretical conceptualizations preserving drive psychology as well as self-psychology by differentiating between a function and its content, i.e. the product of that function, the representation. The interdependence in the "working relation" of self and ego, of subjective experiencing and objective functioning, of our sense of freedom and our conviction of determinism is clarified. The seeming contradictions and conceptual confusion might also be related to an insufficient distinction between our two basic modes of perceiving the world, diacritic and coenaesthetic perception.

  16. Ashes of history: colum mccann’s zoli

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    Eluned Summers-Brenner

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available My essay reads Colum McCann’s novel Zoli as an elaboration of the ethical work of poetry. In the novel the Slovakian poet Zoli Novotna, based on the life and work of the Polish Romani balladeer Papusza (Bronislawa Wajs, is irreversibly disowned by her people upon publishing poetry that is used, as is her image, to represent the enaction of Law 74, or the Big Halt, in the 1950s and 1960s. Disastrously, this process caused Eastern European Gypsies to lose their sense of belonging and livelihood through the confiscation of caravans, their being forced into apartment blocks in towns, and consequent opposition to traditional Gypsy skills, most of which were lost. McCann’s novel extends Papusza’s story beyond her exclusion from her people, having Zoli bear performative witness to the mistaken work her poetry once did. In walking roads from which Roma have been banished, and in taking on the bare remains of her lost identity, a mishmash of gadzi perceptions, Zoli makes the nothingness for which she stands into the means of travel and future hope for others. In my reading, the novel elaborates a claim that justice is not served by forcing everyone to have the same degree and kind of pleasures, but by allowing forms of chosen deprivation. The ashes of Zoli’s burned poems become the ashes of a reconstituted identity around a space that holds nothing, equivalent to the nothing that gadzos are willing to know about Romani world-making and belonging, and with which Zoli has become unwittingly, yet not, as the novel shows, unredemptively, involved.

  17. Lessons learned from a textbook outbreak: EHEC-O157:H7 infections associated with the consumption of raw meat products, June 2012, Limburg, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeye, Toon; Denayer, Sarah; De Rauw, Klara; Forier, Anmarie; Verluyten, Jurgen; Fourie, Ludo; Dierick, Katelijne; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Quoilin, Sophie; Cosse, Pascale; Noyen, Jeannine; Pierard, Denis

    2014-01-01

    On 5 June 2012 several enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, EHEC, O157:H7 infections were reported to the public health authorities of Limburg. We performed a case-control study, a trace back/forward investigation and compared strains isolated from human cases and food samples. A case was defined as anyone with a laboratory-confirmed E. coli O157:H7-infection in North-East Limburg from May 30 2012 till July 15 2012. Family members with bloody diarrhea were also included as cases. E. coli O157 was isolated by culture and the presence of the virulence genes was verified using (q)PCR. Isolates were genotyped and compared by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and insertion sequence 629-printing (IS629-printing). The outbreak involved 24 cases, of which 17 were laboratory-confirmed. Five cases developed Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) and fifteen were hospitalized. Cases reported a significantly higher consumption of "steak tartare", a raw meat product (OR 48.12; 95% CI; 5.62- 416.01). Cases were also more likely to buy meat-products at certain butcheries (OR 11.67; 95% CI; 1.41 - 96.49). PFGE and IS629-printing demonstrated that the vtx1a vtx2a eae ehxA positive EHEC O157:H7 strains isolated from three meat products and all seventeen human stool samples were identical. In a slaughterhouse, identified by the trace-back investigation, a carcass infected with a different EHEC strain was found and confiscated. We present a well described and effectively investigated foodborne outbreak associated with meat products. Our main recommendations are the facilitation and acceleration of the outbreak detection and the development of a communication plan to reaches all persons at risk. Foodborne diseases, Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli, Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Meat products, Case control studies, Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field.

  18. The Civil War in Castile and León: a dress rehearsal for the Franco Dictatorship | La Guerra Civil en Castilla y León: ensayo general para la dictadura franquista

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    Severiano Delgado Cruz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article gives a brief description of the evolution of the Spanish Civil War in Castile and León, characterized by the rapid seizure of power by the rebel military forces, the formation of improvised armed columns focused on the conquest of Madrid, and the violent repression against the social support of Republican-Socialist reform, through physical extermination and mass imprisonment. A third form of repression was of an economic nature, consisting of confiscations, requisitions, fines and compulsory fees. Patriotic subscriptions and special taxes were added to fund the war effort. At the same time, from Valladolid, Salamanca and Burgos, the first steps were taken to build the institutional and ideological framework of the Francoist “New State”. | En este artículo se hace una somera descripción del desarrollo de la Guerra Civil en Castilla y León, caracterizado por la rápida toma del poder por parte de los militares sublevados, la formación de columnas armadas improvisadas con el objetivo de conquistar Madrid y una virulenta represión dirigida contra las bases sociales del reformismo republicano-socialista, tanto por medio del exterminio físico como del encarcelamiento masivo. La tercera forma de represión fue la económica, mediante incautaciones, requisas, multas y cuotas contributivas, a lo que se unieron las suscripciones patrióticas e impuestos especiales para financiar el esfuerzo bélico. Al mismo tiempo, desde Valladolid, Salamanca y Burgos se daban los primeros pasos del entramado institucional e ideológico del Nuevo Estado franquista.

  19. Development of the fast, simple and fully validated high performance liquid chromatographic method with diode array detector for quantification of testosterone esters in an oil-based injectable dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlik, Petr; Tircova, Barbora

    2016-11-01

    Counterfeit steroids are available on the black market, ultimately to consumers who believe they are buying a legitimate pharmaceutical item from the labeled company. In many cases, counterfeit steroids can contain lower doses or some products can be overdosed. This can unwittingly expose users to a significant health risks. The mixture of testosterone propionate, phenylpropionate, isocaproate and decanoate in an oil-based injectable dosage form belongs to the one of the most misused illicit drugs by a variety of athletes. This study developed a new, fast, simple and reliable HPLC method combined with a simple sample preparation step to determine testosterone propionate, phenylpropionate, isocaproate and decanoate in an oil-based injectable dosage form without the use of sophisticated and expensive instrumentation. The developed analytical procedure provides high throughput of samples where LC analysis takes only 6min and sample preparation of oil matrix in one step takes approximately 10min with precision ranging from 1.03 to 3.38% (RSD), and accuracy (relative error %) within ±2.01%. This method was found to be precise, linear, accurate, sensitive, selective and robust for routine application in screening of commercial pharmaceutical products based on content of mentioned testosterone esters in their oil-based injectable dosage form for counterfeit drugs. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of nine samples of commercial testosterone mixtures purchased from various sources and will be further used as an effective screening method for determination of previously mentioned testosterone esters in samples confiscated by Institute of Forensic Science (Slovakia) during the illegal trade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cultural Resilience of Social-ecological Systems in the Nenets and Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs, Russia: A Focus on Reindeer Nomads of the Tundra

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    Bruce C. Forbes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Empirical data on resilience in social-ecological systems (SESs are reviewed from local and regional scale case studies among full-time nomads in the neighboring Nenets and Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs, Russia. The focus is on critical cultural factors contributing to SES resilience. In particular, this work presents an integrated view of people situated in specific tundra landscapes that face significantly different prospects for adaptation depending on existing or planned infrastructure associated with oil and gas development. Factors contributing to general resilience are compared to those that are adapted to certain spatial and temporal contexts. Environmental factors include ample space and an abundance of resources, such as fish and game (e.g., geese, to augment the diet of not only the migratory herders, but also residents from coastal settlements. In contrast to other regions, such as the Nenets Okrug, Yamal Nenets households consist of intact nuclear families with high retention among youth in the nomadic tundra population. Accepting attitudes toward exogenous drivers such as climate change and industrial development appear to play a significant role in how people react to both extreme weather events and piecemeal confiscation or degradation of territory. Consciousness of their role as responsible stewards of the territories they occupy has likely been a factor in maintaining viable wildlife populations over centuries. Institutions administering reindeer herding have remained flexible, especially on Yamal, and so accommodate decision-making that is sensitive to herders' needs and timetables. This affects factors such as herd demography, mobility and energetics. Resilience is further facilitated within the existing governance regimes by herders' own agency, most recently in the post-Soviet shift to smaller, privately managed herds that can better utilize available pastures in a highly dynamic environment experiencing rapid socio

  1. A expulsão dos jesuítas da Bahia: aspectos econômicos The banishment of Jesuits from Bahia: economic aspects

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    Fabricio Lyrio Santos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo aborda a expulsão dos jesuítas da Bahia, enfocando o confisco do seu patrimônio e a venda de suas principais propriedades entre os anos de 1758 e 1763. Em meio à crise enfrentada pela Companhia de Jesus em Portugal na década de 1750, a questão de seu expressivo patrimônio e de sua suposta riqueza mostrou-se fundamental. Ela não se dissocia, no entanto, do amplo conjunto de medidas que configuraram uma verdadeira reforma política do Estado português na segunda metade do século XVIII, a partir da qual as ordens religiosas e a Igreja foram levadas a assumir um novo papel na esfera pública e no corpo político do reino.This article analyzes the expulsion of Jesuits from Bahia, focusing mainly upon the confiscation of their patrimony and the sale of their main properties between 1758 and 1763. Because of the crisis faced by the Society of Jesus in Portugal during the 1750's, the question of its expressive patrimony and supposed richness proved to be a key issue. However, the matter was not dissociated from the ample spectrum of measures that configured a true political reform of the Portuguese state in the second half of the 18th century. From that time on, the religious orders and the Church assumed a new role in the public sphere and in the political body of the reign.

  2. Police Victimization Among Persons Who Inject Drugs Along the U.S.-Mexico Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, Miguel; Burgos, Jose Luis; Zuniga, Maria Luisa; Perez, Ramona; Macera, Caroline A; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2015-09-01

    Problematic policing practices are an important driver of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in the U.S.-Mexico border region. This study identifies factors associated with recent (i.e., past 6 months) police victimization (e.g., extortion, physical and sexual violence) in the border city of Tijuana, Mexico. From 2011 to 2013, 733 PWID (62% male) were recruited in Tijuana and completed a structured questionnaire. Eligible participants were age 18 years or older, injected illicit drugs within the past month, and spoke Spanish or English. Multivariable logistic regression analyses identified correlates of recent experiences of police victimization (e.g., bribes, unlawful confiscation, physical and sexual violence). Overall, 56% of PWID reported a recent police victimization experience in Tijuana. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, factors independently associated with recent police victimization included recent injection of methamphetamine (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.62; 95% CI [1.18, 2.21]) and recently received injection assistance by a "hit doctor" (AOR = 1.56; 95% CI [1.03, 2.36]). Increased years lived in Tijuana (AOR = 0.98 per year; 95% CI [0.97, 0.99]) and initiating drug use at a later age (AOR = 0.96 per year; 95% CI [0.92, 0.99]) were inversely associated with recent police victimization. Physical drugusing markers may increase PWID susceptibility to police targeting and contribute to experiences of victimization. Interventions aimed at reducing police victimization events in the U.S.-Mexico border region should consider PWID's drug-using behaviors. Reducing problematic policing practices may be a crucial public health strategy to reduce HIV risk among PWID in this region.

  3. Cultural Resilience of Nenets Social-Ecological Systems in Arctic Russia: A Focus on Reindeer Nomads of the Tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, B. C.

    2013-12-01

    Empirical data on resilience in social-ecological systems (SESs) are reviewed from local and regional scale case studies among full-time nomads in the neighbouring Nenets and Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs, Russia. The focus is on critical cultural factors contributing to SES resilience. In particular, this work presents an integrated view of people situated in specific tundra landscapes that face significantly different prospects for adaptation depending on existing or planned infrastructure associated with oil and gas development. Factors contributing to general resilience are compared to those that are adapted to certain spatial and temporal contexts. Environmental factors include ample space and an abundance of resources, such as fish and game (e.g. geese), to augment the diet of not only the migratory herders, but also residents from coastal settlements. In contrast to other regions, such as the Nenets Okrug, Yamal Nenets households consist of intact nuclear families with high retention among youth in the nomadic tundra population. Accepting attitudes toward exogenous drivers such as climate change and industrial development appear to play a significant role in how people react to both extreme weather events and piecemeal confiscation or degradation of territory. Consciousness of their role as responsible stewards of the territories they occupy has likely been a factor in maintaining viable wildlife populations over centuries. Institutions administering reindeer herding have remained flexible, especially on Yamal, and so accommodate decision-making that is sensitive to herders' needs and timetables. This affects factors such as herd demography, mobility and energetics. Resilience is further facilitated within the existing governance regimes by herders' own agency, most recently in the post-Soviet shift to smaller, privately managed herds that can better utilize available pastures in a highly dynamic environment experiencing rapid socio-economic, climate and

  4. External parasites of raptors (Falconiformes and Strigiformes: identification in an ex situ population from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JaquelineB de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Raptorial birds harbor a variety of ectoparasites and the mayority of them are host specific. The aim of this study was to identify the ectoparasites of captive birds of prey from Mexico, as well as to verify their impact in the health of infested birds. Raptorial birds were confiscated and kept in captivity at the Centro de Investigación y Conservación de Vida Silvestre (CIVS in Los Reyes La Paz, Mexico State. Seventy-four birds of prey (66 Falconiformes and eigth Strigiformes of 15 species were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. We examined both juvenile and adult birds from both sexes. The overall prevalence was 16.2%; 66.7% of raptors were infested with a single type of external parasite. Lice were the most prevalent ectoparasites (91.7%, followed by feather mites and fleas (8.3%. Degeeriella fulva (72.7%, Craspedorrhynchus sp. (45.4% and Strigiphilus aitkeni (9.1% (Ischnocera, Philopteridae were recovered from wings, head and neck regions of red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis, Swainson’s hawk (B. swainsoni, Harris’s hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus and Barn owl (Tyto alba. Low lice infestation level was observed. Nymphs and females of feather mites Kramerella sp. (Pterolichoidea, Kramerellidae were recovered solely from Barn owl (T. alba; while one Caracara (Caracara cheriway was infested by the sticktight flea Echidnophaga gallinacea (Siphonaptera, Pulicidae. No clinical signs were observed in any infested bird. Probably the periodic use of organophosphorates was responsible of the low prevalence and lice infestation levels. The diversity of external parasites illustrates the importance of detailed revision of incoming and long-term captive raptors as part of responsible captive management. Five new hosts and geographic records are presented. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1257-1264. Epub 2011 September 01.

  5. A molecular genetic approach to roebuck individual identification in the case of poaching in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of the molecular genetic methods in forensic cases dealing with wild animals has significantly increased recently. These techniques are practically used in order to help solving four key problems : determination of kind of the wild animal, geographic origin, kinship ties and individual identification. In this work the first case of introducing the examination of polimorphism of microsatelite genetic markers within forensic analysis in the cases of poaching in Serbia is presented. The objectives of this forensic analysis was to determine if the meat confiscated during house search of the suspect comes from roebuck origin (Capreolus capreolus, which remains had been found by a game warden in the field during closed season, where the suspect denied the offense, claiming that the meat comes from other roebuck that had been shot during the previous hunting season. DNK was isolated from the skin and fur samples taken from the roebuck corpse found in the woods, as well as from the frozen meat found in the suspect’s house. Both amplification and polimorphism examination of the eight microsatelite markers (ROE01, NVHRT21, NVHRT24, NVHRT48, NVHRT73, RT7 AND RT27 were carried out. In all the examined samples, the same pattern of variability of the tested microsatelites was determined, that is it was proved that DNK profiles of the samples taken from roebuck corpse were identical to DNK profile of the meat sample found in the suspect’s house. This result clearly indicates that all the examined biological samples originate from the same animal, and consequently represents forensically valid evidence in the case of roebuck poaching. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46002

  6. Salmonella infection and carriage in reptiles in a zoological collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Meredith M; Davis, Meghan; Valitutto, Marc T; Nelson, Kenrad; Sykes, John M

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify important subspecies and serovars of Salmonella enterica in a captive reptile population and clinically relevant risk factors for and signs of illness in Salmonella-positive reptiles. DESIGN Retrospective cross-sectional study. ANIMALS 11 crocodilians (4 samples), 78 snakes (91 samples), 59 lizards (57 samples), and 34 chelonians (23 samples) at the Bronx Zoo from 2000 through 2012. PROCEDURES Data pertaining to various types of biological samples obtained from reptiles with positive Salmonella culture results and the reptiles themselves were analyzed to determine period prevalence of and risk factors for various Salmonella-related outcomes. RESULTS Serovar distribution differences were identified for sample type, reptile phylogenetic family, and reptile origin and health. Salmonella enterica subsp enterica was the most common subspecies in Salmonella cultures (78/175 [45%]), identified across all reptilian taxa. Salmonella enterica subsp diarizonae was also common (42/175 [24%]) and was recovered almost exclusively from snakes (n = 33), many of which had been clinically ill (17). Clinically ill reptiles provided 37% (64) of Salmonella cultures. Factors associated with an increased risk of illness in reptiles with a positive culture result were carnivorous diet and prior confiscation. Snakes had a higher risk of illness than other reptile groups, whereas lizards had a lower risk. Bony changes, dermatitis, and anorexia were the most common clinical signs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This study provided new information on Salmonella infection or carriage and associated clinical disease in reptiles. Associations identified between serovars or subspecies and reptile groups or clinical disease can guide management of Salmonella-positive captive reptiles.

  7. Suicide, guns, and buyback programs: An epidemiologic analysis of firearm-related deaths in Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Laura; Clinton, Heather; Berntsson, Rob; Williams, Susan S; Rovella, James C; Shapiro, David; Thaker, Shefali; Borrup, Kevin; Lapidus, Garry; Campbell, Brendan T

    2017-12-01

    Gun buyback programs aim to remove unwanted firearms from the community with the goal of preventing firearm injury and death. Buyback programs are held in many communities, but evidence demonstrating their effectiveness is lacking. The purpose of this study is to compare firearms collected at buyback events to crime guns and firearms used in homicides and suicides. Detailed firearm and case data were obtained from the Hartford Police Department and the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner from January through December of 2015. Information was reviewed for guns collected at buyback events, crime guns confiscated by police, and for weapons associated with firearm fatalities. Detailed firearm data included type, manufacturer, model, and caliber (small, ≤ 0.32 caliber; medium, 0.357 caliber to 9 mm; large, ≥ 0.40 caliber). χ analyses were used for comparisons between groups. In 2015, 224 crime guns were seized by the Hartford Police, 169 guns were collected at four community buyback events, and there were 187 firearm-related deaths statewide (105 suicides, 81 homicides, 1 legal intervention). Comparisons between buyback, crime, and fatality-related firearms are shown in the table below. Medium caliber handguns account for the majority of crime guns and fatalities, and buyback programs collected smaller caliber handguns. The demographics of individuals who turn in guns at buyback events and commit suicide are similar: age (buyback, 63 ± 11; suicide, 52 ± 18; homicide, 34 ± 12 years), sex (buyback, 81%; suicide, 91%; homicide, 84% men), and race (buyback, 80%; suicide, 97%; homicide, 47% white). Handguns account for the majority of crime guns and firearm-related fatalities in Connecticut. Buyback programs are both an opportunity to remove unwanted handguns from the community and to remove firearms from the homes of individuals at increased risk of suicide. Epidemiologic/therapeutic study, level IV.

  8. Nuclear forensic analysis of uranium oxide powders interdicted in Victoria, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristo, Michael Joseph [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Keegan, Elizabeth; Colella, Michael [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Kirrawee, NSW (Australia); and others

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear forensic analysis was conducted on two uranium samples confiscated during a police investigation in Victoria, Australia. The first sample, designated NSR-F-270409-1, was a depleted uranium powder of moderate purity (∝ 1000 μg/g total elemental impurities). The chemical form of the uranium was a compound similar to K{sub 2}(UO{sub 2}){sub 3}O{sub 4} . 4H{sub 2}O. While aliquoting NSR-F-270409-1 for analysis, the body and head of a Tineid moth was discovered in the sample. The second sample, designated NSR-F-270409-2, was also a depleted uranium powder. It was of reasonably high purity (∝ 380 μg/g total elemental impurities). The chemical form of the uranium was primarily UO{sub 3} . 2H{sub 2}O, with minor phases of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and UO{sub 2}. While aliquoting NSR-F-270409-2 for analysis, a metal staple of unknown origin was discovered in the sample. The presence of {sup 236}U and {sup 232}U in both samples indicates that the uranium feed stocks for these samples experienced a neutron flux at some point in their history. The reactor burn-up calculated from the isotopic composition of the uranium is consistent with that of spent fuel from natural uranium (NU) fueled Pu production. These nuclear forensic conclusions allow us to categorically exclude Australia as the origin of the material and greatly reduce the number of candidate sources.

  9. A Review of African Swine Fever and the Potential for Introduction into the United States and the Possibility of Subsequent Establishment in Feral Swine and Native Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Vienna R; Bevins, Sarah N

    2018-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), which can cause substantial morbidity and mortality events in swine. The virus can be transmitted via direct and indirect contacts with infected swine, their products, or competent vector species, especially Ornithodoros ticks. Africa and much of Eastern Europe are endemic for ASF; a viral introduction to countries that are currently ASF free could have severe economic consequences due to the loss of production from infected animals and the trade restrictions that would likely be imposed as a result of an outbreak. We identified vulnerabilities that could lead to ASFV introduction or persistence in the United States or other ASF-free regions. Both legal and illegal movements of live animals, as well as the importation of animal products, byproducts, and animal feed, pose a risk of virus introduction. Each route is described, and current regulations designed to prevent ASFV and other pathogens from entering the United States are outlined. Furthermore, existing ASFV research gaps are highlighted. Laboratory experiments to evaluate multiple species of Ornithodoros ticks that have yet to be characterized would be useful to understand vector competence, host preferences, and distribution of competent soft tick vectors in relation to high pig production areas as well as regions with high feral swine (wild boar or similar) densities. Knowledge relative to antigenic viral proteins that contribute to host response and determination of immune mechanisms that lead to protection are foundational in the quest for a vaccine. Finally, sampling of illegally imported and confiscated wild suid products for ASFV could shed light on the types of products being imported and provide a more informed perspective relative to the risk of ASFV importation.

  10. Benten v. Kessler: the RU 486 import case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, R N

    1992-01-01

    On July 1, 1992, the case of Benten v. Kessler was filed in the US District Court in New York. The case arose out of an attempt by abortion rights activist Lawrence Lader to call public attention to the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) ban on importation of the abortifacient drug mifepristone known as RU-486. The ban expresses the anti abortion stance of the Reagan and Bush administrations and creates a hostile climate for the development of new drugs related to reproductive health and reproductive choice. Plaintiffs in the Benten case sought public accountability by the FDA for its adoption of a ban of a safe and effective drug for unwanted pregnancy. Although the case did not succeed in retrieving the confiscated RU-486 pills for Leona Benten, in its opinion issued on July 14, 1992, the New York district court judge concluded that the import ban did not appear to be based on concern with the safety or effectiveness of RU-486, describing the FDA's process of adopting the import ban as a sink of illegality. On July 17, 1992, 7 Justices of the Supreme Court, with justices Blackmun and Stevens dissenting, joined in a per curiam opinion denying the application and foreclosing further personal relief for Leona Benten. This was the best result possible short of an all out victory for Leona Benten. The Court ruled against plaintiffs in their argument that notice and comment were required, but left entirely open plaintiffs' claims that the import ban is arbitrary and capricious under the Administrative Procedure Act and that the ban is unconstitutional in that it unduly burdens the right to terminate pregnancy. This backdrop creates a healthy skepticism about the prospects for the introduction of RU-486 into the US in the near future as well as about the fairness of government processes in areas of concern to women. Public health considerations, not politics, should determine access to health care.

  11. The effect of experience on the hunting success of newly emerged spiderlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse

    2000-12-01

    Initial interactions with prey may affect a predator's subsequent foraging success. With experience, second-instar Misumena vatia spiderlings (Thomisidae) that had recently emerged from their egg sacs oriented faster to fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) than näive individuals. Orientation time of these spiderlings decreased rapidly for the first two to three runs (every third day) in a simple laboratory setting, and then remained low and relatively constant. Time to capture a fly also declined initially, but subsequently became extremely variable, increasing prior to moult. Increase in capture time and the failure to capture prey appeared associated with impending moult, rather than satiation. Spiderlings oriented to prey more rapidly at the beginning of the third instar than at the start of the second instar, suggesting that experience still enhanced performance after a moult cycle. Overall capture times at the beginning of the third instar decreased from those at the end of the second instar, but did not differ significantly from the beginning of the second instar, although spiderlings gaining the most biomass had the shortest mean capture times. In a second experiment, time to orient and time to capture prey did not differ in näive, second-instar siblings run 1 and 3 days after emergence from their egg sacs. However, 3-day individuals that had captured prey each day (confiscated before they could feed) oriented faster than näive 3-day-old siblings, but did not differ in the time taken to capture prey. Experience, rather than age or energetic condition, best explains these changes in performance. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  12. A Conversation with Adam Heller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Adam; Cairns, Elton J

    2015-01-01

    Adam Heller, Ernest Cockrell Sr. Chair in Engineering Emeritus of the John J. McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin, recalls his childhood in the Holocaust and his contributions to science and technology that earned him the US National Medal of Technology and Innovation in a conversation with Elton J. Cairns, Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Heller, born in 1933, describes the enslavement of his father by Hungarians in 1942; the confiscation of his family's home, business, and all its belongings in 1944; and his incarceration in a brick factory with 18,000 Jews who were shipped by the Hungarians to be gassed by Germans in Auschwitz. Dr. Heller and his immediate family survived the Holocaust and arrived in Israel in 1945. He studied under Ernst David Bergmann at the Hebrew University, and then worked at Bell Laboratories and GTE Laboratories, where he headed Bell Lab's Electronic Materials Research Department. At GTE Laboratories, he built in 1966 the first neodymium liquid lasers and in 1973 with Jim Auborn conceived and engineered the lithium thionyl chloride battery, one of the first to be manufactured lithium batteries, which is still in use. After joining the faculty of engineering of The University of Texas at Austin, he cofounded with his son Ephraim Heller TheraSense, now a major part of Abbott Diabetes Care, which produced a microcoulometer that made the monitoring of glucose painless by accurately measuring the blood glucose concentration in 300 nL of blood. He also describes the electrical wiring of enzymes, the basis for Abbott's state-of-the-art continuous glucose monitoring system. He discusses his perspective of reducing the risk of catastrophic global warming in a wealth-accumulating, more-energy-consuming world and provides advice for students entering careers in science or engineering.

  13. Uranium isotope separation from 1941 to the present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier-Komor, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Uranium isotope separation was the key development for the preparation of highly enriched isotopes in general and thus became the seed for target development and preparation for nuclear and applied physics. In 1941 (year of birth of the author) large-scale development for uranium isotope separation was started after the US authorities were warned that NAZI Germany had started its program for enrichment of uranium and might have confiscated all uranium and uranium mines in their sphere of influence. Within the framework of the Manhattan Projects the first electromagnetic mass separators (Calutrons) were installed and further developed for high throughput. The military aim of the Navy Department was to develop nuclear propulsion for submarines with practically unlimited range. Parallel to this the army worked on the development of the atomic bomb. Also in 1941 plutonium was discovered and the production of 239Pu was included into the atomic bomb program. 235U enrichment starting with natural uranium was performed in two steps with different techniques of mass separation in Oak Ridge. The first step was gas diffusion which was limited to low enrichment. The second step for high enrichment was performed with electromagnetic mass spectrometers (Calutrons). The theory for the much more effective enrichment with centrifugal separation was developed also during the Second World War, but technical problems e.g. development of high speed ball and needle bearings could not be solved before the end of the war. Spying accelerated the development of uranium separation in the Soviet Union, but also later in China, India, Pakistan, Iran and Iraq. In this paper, the physical and chemical procedures are outlined which lead to the success of the project. Some security aspects and Non-Proliferation measures are discussed.

  14. HA TRAÍDO HASTA NOSOTROS DESDE TERRITORIO ENEMIGO, EL ALUD DE LA GUERRA: CONFISCACIÓN DE MAQUINARIAS Y APROPIACIÓN DE BIENES CULTURALES DURANTE LA OCUPACIÓN DE LIMA, 1881-1883

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Godoy Orellana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la confiscación de maquinarias y la apropiación de bienes culturales durante la ocupación chilena de Lima. Ambos temas en la producción historiográfica de la Guerra del Pacífico no han sido trabajados en profundidad, siendo negados o soslayados, aun considerando la evidencia documental existente en Chile. Basándose principalmente en estos repositorios documentales, los temas señalados son el motivo central del presente artículo, analizando la situación peruana, la participación de oficiales y representantes del Estado chileno durante la ocupación y la respuesta en Chile frente a la llegada de los barcos con bienes culturales -libros, estatuas u ornamentos para espacios públicos-, que varió desde el encubrimiento mediante el eufemismo, hasta la crítica de la prensa nacional y el rotundo rechazo por parte de la Cámara de Diputados de Chile.This article analyzes the confiscation of machinery and the appropriation of cultural goods during the occupation of Lima. Both themes have not been explored in depth by the War of the Pacific historiography, being neglected or ignored even considering the documented evidence that exists in Chile. Based mainly on those documents the article analyzes the Peruvian situation, the participation of Chilean officials and State representatives during the occupation, the answer in Chile facing the arrival of ships with cultural goods -books, statutes and ornaments for public spaces- that varied from the covering up through euphemism, to the critique from the national press and the categorical rejection on the part of the Chilean House of Representatives.

  15. Diagnostic overview of the illegal trade in primates and law enforcement in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanee, Noga; Mendoza, A Patricia; Shanee, Sam

    2017-11-01

    Peru has one of the richest primate faunas of any country. The illegal trade in wild primates is one of the largest threats to this fauna in Peru. We characterize the illegal trade in primates through empirical and ethnographic data. We collected data from traffic routes and centers throughout Peru and evaluate current efforts to combat this traffic. Based on our findings from 2,070 instances of wildlife crime involving 6,872 primates, we estimate the domestic trade in primates for pets and bushmeat in Peru in the hundreds of thousands per year, with the larger bodied Atelidae facing the highest direct consequences. We found that government authorities lack sufficient staff, capacity, resources, infrastructure, and protocols to efficiently combat illegal trade in primates. Also, the complicated legal framework and lack of cooperation and antagonism with the public further limit these efforts. Wildlife authorities in Peru are able to confiscate only a fraction of primates traded and mostly intervene in cases of private pet owners rather than traffickers. We estimate that the current rate of illegal trade in primates is comparable to levels of trade prior to the 1973 ban on primates' exportation. The combination of direct observations on primate trade and ethnographic data allows a comprehensive look at primate trade in Peru. We call upon decision makers and international funders to channel their efforts toward "on the ground" actions such as increasing the ability of the authorities to act, giving them "in action" training in law enforcement and establishing strict control measures against corruption. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22516, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Patterns of abuse amongst Sri Lankan women returning home after working as domestic maids in the Middle East: An exploratory study of medico-legal referrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramage, Kolitha; De Silva, Malintha; Peiris, Sharika

    2017-01-01

    Migrant worker abuse is well recognised, but poorly characterised within the scientific literature. This study aimed to explore patterns of abuse amongst Sri Lankan women returning home after working as domestic maids. Sri Lanka has over 2 million of its citizens employed overseas as international labor migrants. A cross-sectional study was conducted on Sri Lankan female domestic maids returning from the Middle East region who were referred for medico-legal opinion. A total of 20 women were included in the study. Average length of their employment overseas was 14 months. Complaints of physical violence directed mainly through their employers were made by 60% of women. Upon physical examination, two-thirds had evidence of injuries, with a third being subjected to repetitive/systematic violence. Eighty percent suffered some form of psychological trauma. Personal identity papers and travel documents had been confiscated by the employer in 85% of cases, with two thirds indicating they were prevented and/or restricted from leaving their place of work/residence. Our study demonstrates that female domestic maid abuse manifests through multiple pathways. Violence against such workers span the full spectrum of physical, financial, verbal, emotional abuse and neglect, as defined by the World Health Organization. Findings from this exploratory study cannot be generalized to the large volume of migrant worker outflows. Further research is needed to determine incidence and define patterns in other migrant worker categories such as low-skilled male workers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  17. External parasites of raptors (Falconiformes and Strigiformes): identification in an ex situ population from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Jaqueline B; Santos, Tiziano; Vaughan, Christopher; Santiago, Heber

    2011-09-01

    Raptorial birds harbor a variety of ectoparasites and the mayority of them are host specific. The aim of this study was to identify the ectoparasites of captive birds of prey from Mexico, as well as to verify their impact in the health of infested birds. Raptorial birds were confiscated and kept in captivity at the Centro de Investigación y Conservación de Vida Silvestre (CIVS) in Los Reyes La Paz, Mexico State. Seventy-four birds of prey (66 Falconiformes and eigth Strigiformes) of 15 species were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. We examined both juvenile and adult birds from both sexes. The overall prevalence was 16.2%; 66.7% of raptors were infested with a single type of external parasite. Lice were the most prevalent ectoparasites (91.7%), followed by feather mites and fleas (8.3%). Degeeriella fulva (72.7%), Craspedorrhynchus sp. (45.4%) and Strigiphilus aitkeni (9.1%) (Ischnocera, Philopteridae) were recovered from wings, head and neck regions of red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Swainson's hawk (B. swainsoni), Harris's hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus) and Barn owl (Tyto alba). Low lice infestation level was observed. Nymphs and females of feather mites Kramerella sp. (Pterolichoidea, Kramerellidae) were recovered solely from Barn owl (T. alba); while one Caracara (Caracara cheriway) was infested by the sticktight flea Echidnophaga gallinacea (Siphonaptera, Pulicidae). No clinical signs were observed in any infested bird. Probably the periodic use of organophosphorates was responsible of the low prevalence and lice infestation levels. The diversity of external parasites illustrates the importance of detailed revision of incoming and long-term captive raptors as part of responsible captive management. Five new hosts and geographic records are presented.

  18. The Right to a Fair Trial and International Cooperation in Criminal Matters: Article 6 ECHR and the Recovery of Assets in Grand Corruption Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Dawn Ivory

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Are fair trial rights general principles of transnational criminal law (TCL? If so, how do they protect individuals who are affected by transnational proceedings? Posing these questions in the context of international cooperation efforts aimed at ‘asset recovery’, this contribution asks whether State Parties to the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR are likely to violate the right to a fair trial in Article 6 ECHR when they directly enforce confiscation orders that are issued abroad with respect to the proceeds, objects or instrumentalities of high-value, high-level political corruption offences or substitute assets. The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR considers that ECHR State Parties might exceptionally violate Article 6 ECHR in cooperative cases if the alleged victim ‘has suffered or risks suffering a flagrant denial of a fair trial in the requesting country’. Surveying its case law, I argue that the ‘flagrant denial of justice’ standard greatly attenuates the right to a fair trial in cases of international cooperation in criminal matters. In practice, the Court appears unwilling to find violations of Article 6 ECHR in such cases when the foreign proceedings do not involve allegations of treatment contrary to Articles 2 or 3 ECHR. This, it is submitted, reflects the difficulty of assessing ‘fairness’ in globalised law enforcement situations, a factor that also complicates efforts to deduce a general principle of a right to a fair trial from ‘justice’ as an objective of TCL. If those principles are formulated inductively and comparatively, the ECtHR’s case law nevertheless goes some way towards showing that a weak transnational fair trial right may be a general principle of TCL within the ‘legal space’ of the ECHR.

  19. Using Poaching Levels and Elephant Distribution to Assess the Conservation Efficacy of Private, Communal and Government Land in Northern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihwagi, Festus W; Wang, Tiejun; Wittemyer, George; Skidmore, Andrew K; Toxopeus, Albertus G; Ngene, Shadrack; King, Juliet; Worden, Jeffrey; Omondi, Patrick; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to curb elephant poaching have focused on reducing demand, confiscating ivory and boosting security patrols in elephant range. Where land is under multiple uses and ownership, determining the local poaching dynamics is important for identifying successful conservation models. Using 2,403 verified elephant, Loxodonta africana, mortality records collected from 2002 to 2012 and the results of aerial total counts of elephants conducted in 2002, 2008 and 2012 for the Laikipia-Samburu ecosystem of northern Kenya, we sought to determine the influence of land ownership and use on diurnal elephant distribution and on poaching levels. We show that the annual proportions of illegally killed (i.e., poached) elephants increased over the 11 years of the study, peaking at 70% of all recorded deaths in 2012. The type of land use was more strongly related to levels of poaching than was the type of ownership. Private ranches, comprising only 13% of land area, hosted almost half of the elephant population and had significantly lower levels of poaching than other land use types except for the officially designated national reserves (covering only 1.6% of elephant range in the ecosystem). Communal grazing lands hosted significantly fewer elephants than expected, but community areas set aside for wildlife demonstrated significantly higher numbers of elephants and lower illegal killing levels relative to non-designated community lands. While private lands had lower illegal killing levels than community conservancies, the success of the latter relative to other community-held lands shows the importance of this model of land use for conservation. This work highlights the relationship between illegal killing and various land ownership and use models, which can help focus anti-poaching activities.

  20. [The history of heroin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosztafi, S

    2001-08-01

    The discovery of heroin and the development of heroin abuse are introduced. Heroin, the hydrochloride of diacetylmorphine, was discovered by acetylation of morphine. Heroin, in pharmacological studies, proved to be more effective than morphine or codeine. The Bayer Company started the production of heroin in 1898 on a commercial scale. The first clinical results were so promising that heroin was considered a wonder drug. Indeed, heroin was more effective than codeine in respiratory diseases. It has turned out, however, that repeated administration of heroin results in the development of tolerance and the patients become heroin-addicts soon. In the early 1910s morphine addicts "discovered" the euphorising properties of heroin and this effect was enhanced by intravenous administration. Heroin became a narcotic drug and its abuse began to spread quickly. Restrictions on its production, use and distribution were regulated by international treties. The total ban on heroin production was also proposed. As a result of the strict regulations the production and cosumption of heroin showed a significant decrease after 1931. At the same time the underworld recognized the shortage of heroin and started the illicit production and trafficking. The quantity of heroin seized by law enforcement agencies in the past decades rose gradually. As an indicator of the worldwide heroin market, the quantity of confiscated heroin underwent a tenfold increase since 1970. The paper surveys the most important heroin-producing and trafficking countries. Heroin, prepared in clandestine ("kitchen" or "jungle") laboratories, is diluted ("cut") by every member of the illegal heroin distributing chain, i.e. smugglers, traffickers, dealers and vendors.

  1. A Review of African Swine Fever and the Potential for Introduction into the United States and the Possibility of Subsequent Establishment in Feral Swine and Native Ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vienna R. Brown

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV, which can cause substantial morbidity and mortality events in swine. The virus can be transmitted via direct and indirect contacts with infected swine, their products, or competent vector species, especially Ornithodoros ticks. Africa and much of Eastern Europe are endemic for ASF; a viral introduction to countries that are currently ASF free could have severe economic consequences due to the loss of production from infected animals and the trade restrictions that would likely be imposed as a result of an outbreak. We identified vulnerabilities that could lead to ASFV introduction or persistence in the United States or other ASF-free regions. Both legal and illegal movements of live animals, as well as the importation of animal products, byproducts, and animal feed, pose a risk of virus introduction. Each route is described, and current regulations designed to prevent ASFV and other pathogens from entering the United States are outlined. Furthermore, existing ASFV research gaps are highlighted. Laboratory experiments to evaluate multiple species of Ornithodoros ticks that have yet to be characterized would be useful to understand vector competence, host preferences, and distribution of competent soft tick vectors in relation to high pig production areas as well as regions with high feral swine (wild boar or similar densities. Knowledge relative to antigenic viral proteins that contribute to host response and determination of immune mechanisms that lead to protection are foundational in the quest for a vaccine. Finally, sampling of illegally imported and confiscated wild suid products for ASFV could shed light on the types of products being imported and provide a more informed perspective relative to the risk of ASFV importation.

  2. Usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting recidivism of drunk-driving among previously convicted drunk-driving offenders: results from the recidivism of alcohol-impaired driving (ROAD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenhout, Thomas M; Poll, Anneleen; Vermassen, Tijl; De Buyzere, Marc L; Delanghe, Joris R

    2014-01-01

    In several European countries, drivers under the influence (DUI), suspected of chronic alcohol abuse are referred for medical and psychological examination. This study (the ROAD study, or Recidivism Of Alcohol-impaired Driving) investigated the usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting drunk-driving recidivism in previously convicted drunk-driving offenders. The ROAD study is a prospective study (2009-13) that was performed on 517 randomly selected drivers in Belgium. They were convicted for drunk-driving for which their licence was confiscated. The initial post-arrest blood samples were collected and analysed for percentage carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT), transaminsase activities [alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST)], gamma-glutamyltransferase (γGT) and red cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV). The observation time for each driver was 3 years and dynamic. A logistic regression analysis revealed that ln(%CDT) (P drunk-driving. The ROAD index (which includes ln(%CDT), ln(γGT), -ln(ALT) and the sex of the driver) was calculated and had a significantly higher area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (0.71) than the individual biomarkers for drunk-driving recidivism. Drivers with a high risk of recidivating (ROAD index ≥ 25%; third tertile) could be distinguished from drivers with an intermediate risk (16% ≤ ROAD index drunk-driving. The association with gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine amino transferase and the sex of the driver could have additional value for identifying drunk-drivers at intermediate risk of recidivism. Non-specific indirect alcohol markers, such as alanine amino transferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate amino transferase and red cell mean corpuscular volume have minimal added value to % carbohydrate-deficient transferrin for distinguishing drunk drivers with a low or high risk of recidivism. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Bomb-curve radiocarbon measurement of recent biologic tissues and applications to wildlife forensics and stable isotope (paleo)ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Kevin T.; Quade, Jay; Fisher, Daniel C.; Wittemyer, George; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Andanje, Samuel; Omondi, Patrick; Litoroh, Moses; Cerling, Thure E.

    2013-01-01

    Above-ground thermonuclear weapons testing from 1952 through 1962 nearly doubled the concentration of radiocarbon (14C) in the atmosphere. As a result, organic material formed during or after this period may be radiocarbon-dated using the abrupt rise and steady fall of the atmospheric 14C concentration known as the bomb-curve. We test the accuracy of accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of 29 herbivore and plant tissues collected on known dates between 1905 and 2008 in East Africa. Herbivore samples include teeth, tusks, soft tissue, hair, and horn. Tissues formed after 1955 are dated to within 0.3–1.3 y of formation, depending on the tissue type, whereas tissues older than ca. 1955 have high age uncertainties (>17 y) due to the Suess effect. 14C dating of tissues has applications to stable isotope (paleo)ecology and wildlife forensics. We use data from 41 additional samples to determine growth rates of tusks, molars, and hair, which improve interpretations of serial stable isotope data for (paleo)ecological studies. 14C dating can also be used to calculate the time interval represented in periodic histological structures in dental tissues (i.e., perikymata), which in turn may be used as chronometers in fossil teeth. Bomb-curve 14C dating of confiscated animal tissues (e.g., ivory statues) can be used to determine whether trade of the item is legal, because many Convention of International Trade of Endangered Species restrictions are based on the age of the tissue, and thus can serve as a powerful forensic tool to combat illegal trade in animal parts. PMID:23818577

  4. Police crackdowns, structural violence and impact on the well-being of street cannabis users in a Nigerian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ediomo-Ubong

    2018-04-01

    There is abundant literature on the impact of law enforcement on cannabis markets, but scant literature on the effects of law enforcement on cannabis users. This study undertook a qualitative exploration of police crackdowns as a form of structural violence and examined their impact on the well-being of street cannabis users in a Nigerian city. The study was qualitative and descriptive. It was carried out in Uyo, southern Nigeria. Ninety-seven (97) frequent cannabis users (78 males and 19 females) took part. They were aged between 21 and 34 years and recruited from 11 cannabis hot-points in the city. Data were collected through in-depth, individual interviews, conducted over six-months. Data analysis was thematic and data-driven, involving identifying themes, assigning codes, revising codes and verification by independent qualitative methodology experts. Police crackdowns are commonly experienced by street cannabis users. These do not reduce cannabis use, but displace cannabis markets. Crackdowns are associated with police brutality, confiscation of funds, drugs and belongings, stigma and discrimination, arrest and incarceration, which impacts negatively on the health, livelihoods and well-being of cannabis users. Cannabis users try to escape arrest by running from police, disposing of cannabis, disguising themselves and, when caught, bribing officers to secure release. Crackdowns constitute a form of structural violence in the everyday life of cannabis users, and have negative effects on their health and social and economic well-being. Cannabis use should be decriminalized de facto and arrested users directed to treatment and skills training programmes. Treatment and social services for users should be expanded and legal aid interventions should be mounted to support users in addressing discriminatory practices and human rights violations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Behavioural ecology and group cohesion of juvenile western lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla during rehabilitation in the Batéké Plateaux National Park, Gabon.

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    Guillaume Le Flohic

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of animals followed by reintroduction into the wild can benefit conservation by supplementing depleted wild populations or reintroducing a species in an area where it has been extirpated or become extinct. The western lowland gorilla (WLG, Gorilla g. gorilla is persistently poached; infants are often illegally traded and used as pets. Some are confiscated and rehabilitated, then kept in sanctuaries or reintroduced into the wild. Prior to reintroduction, the ability of the orphans to survive independently in their environment needs to be assessed. Here, we performed a multivariate analysis, including diet composition, activity-budget, and pattern of strata using of a group of five juvenile WLG in the process of rehabilitation and distinguished three sub-periods of ecological significance: the high furgivory period, the Dialium fruits consumption period, and the high folivory period. The consequences of these variations on their well-being (play behaviour and the group cohesion (spatial proximity and social interactions were examined. Like wild WLGs, diets shifted seasonally from frugivorous to folivorous, while the same staple foods were consumed and large amounts of Dialium fruits were seasonally gathered high in trees. When succulent fruit intake was the highest, thus providing high energy from sugar, juveniles spent less time feeding, more time playing and group cohesion was the highest. Conversely, the cohesion decreased with increasing folivory, individuals spent more time feeding and less time playing together. Nonetheless, the group cohesion also decreased after the death of one highly social, wild-born orphan. This may underscore the importance of skilled individuals in the cohesion and well-being of the entire group and, ultimately, to rehabilitation success. This study evaluates the rehabilitation success with regards to the methods used and highlights the need to consider a set of individual and environmental factors for

  6. Behavioural ecology and group cohesion of juvenile western lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla) during rehabilitation in the Batéké Plateaux National Park, Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Flohic, Guillaume; Motsch, Peggy; DeNys, Hélène; Childs, Simon; Courage, Amos; King, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Rehabilitation of animals followed by reintroduction into the wild can benefit conservation by supplementing depleted wild populations or reintroducing a species in an area where it has been extirpated or become extinct. The western lowland gorilla (WLG, Gorilla g. gorilla) is persistently poached; infants are often illegally traded and used as pets. Some are confiscated and rehabilitated, then kept in sanctuaries or reintroduced into the wild. Prior to reintroduction, the ability of the orphans to survive independently in their environment needs to be assessed. Here, we performed a multivariate analysis, including diet composition, activity-budget, and pattern of strata using of a group of five juvenile WLG in the process of rehabilitation and distinguished three sub-periods of ecological significance: the high furgivory period, the Dialium fruits consumption period, and the high folivory period. The consequences of these variations on their well-being (play behaviour) and the group cohesion (spatial proximity and social interactions) were examined. Like wild WLGs, diets shifted seasonally from frugivorous to folivorous, while the same staple foods were consumed and large amounts of Dialium fruits were seasonally gathered high in trees. When succulent fruit intake was the highest, thus providing high energy from sugar, juveniles spent less time feeding, more time playing and group cohesion was the highest. Conversely, the cohesion decreased with increasing folivory, individuals spent more time feeding and less time playing together. Nonetheless, the group cohesion also decreased after the death of one highly social, wild-born orphan. This may underscore the importance of skilled individuals in the cohesion and well-being of the entire group and, ultimately, to rehabilitation success. This study evaluates the rehabilitation success with regards to the methods used and highlights the need to consider a set of individual and environmental factors for enhancing

  7. Chang Kai-shek's “Humanitarian Bombs” and the Mirage Known as the “Manchurian-Mongolian Problem”: New Japanese-Language Perspectives on the Transnational History of Modern East Asia

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    Kyu Hyun Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available On May 20, 1938, two American-made Chinese airplanes—Martin B-10 monoplane bombers—took off from Ningbo, Fujian province, in the direction of southwestern Japan. Instead of dropping bombs, they released propaganda materials produced by the Nationalist Party (Guomindang, pleading with the industrial workers, farmers, and petty bourgeois citizens of Japan to stop fighting China and resist their militarist government. This “humanitarian bombardment,” masterminded by Chiang Kai-shek, is little known today—perhaps deservedly so, for it had its embarrassing features. For one, the planes never reached the strategically important areas and merely flew over sparsely populated regions of Kumamoto and Miyazaki prefectures. Further, the propaganda materials were either voluntarily turned over to or confiscated by the Japanese authorities almost as soon as they hit the ground. As far as we can tell, the operation had little impact on the Japanese attitude toward China or on the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945... Iechika Ryōko 家近亮子,Shō Kaiseki no gaikō senryaku to Nitchū sensō 蒋介石の外交戦略と日中戦争[Chiang Kai-shek's diplomatic strategies and the Sino-Japanese War]. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 2012. ISBN: 978-4-00-025865-4. Nakami Tatsuo 中見立夫, 'Manmō mondai' no rekishiteki kōzu 満蒙問題の歴史的構図 [The historical composition of the “Manchurian-Mongolian problem”]. Tokyo: Daigaku Shuppankai, 2013. ISBN: 978-4-86-337131-6.

  8. Detection and identification of multiple adulterants in plant food supplements using attenuated total reflectance-Infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Aouadi, C; Bothy, J L; Courselle, P

    2018-04-15

    Due to the rising popularity of dietary supplements, especially plant food supplements, and alternative herbal medicines, a whole market developed and these products became freely available through internet. Though several searches revealed that at least a part of these products, especially the ones obtained from websites disclosing their physical identity, are aldulterated with pharmaceutical compounds. This causes a threat for public health, since these compounds are not declared and therefore adverse effects will not immediately be related to the product. The more the adulterants can interfere with other medicinal treatments. Since the present active pharmaceutical ingredients are not declared on the package and the products are sold as 100% natural or herbal in nature, it is very difficult for custom personnel to discriminate between products to be confiscated or not. Therefore easy to apply analytical approaches to discriminate between adulterated and non-adulterated products are necessary. This paper presents an approach based on infrared spectroscopy combined with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and partial least squares- discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to easily differentiate between adulterated and non- adulterated plant food supplements and to get a first idea of the nature of the adulterant present. The performance of PLS-DA models based on Mid-IR and NIR data were compared as well as models based on the combined data. Further three preprocessing strategies were compared. The best performance was obtained for a PLS-DA model using Mid-IR data with the second derivative as preprocessing method. This model showed a correct classification rate of 98.3% for an external test set. Also eight real samples were screened using the model and for seven of these samples a correct classification was obtained. Generally it could be concluded that the obtained model and the presented approach could be used at customs to discriminate between adulterated and non

  9. NEGARA ADIL MAKMUR DALAM PERSPEKTIF FOUNDING FATHERS NEGARA INDONESIA DAN FILOSOF MUSLIM

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    Abu Tholib Khalik

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article elaborates on the concept of a fair and prosperous among the Indonesian founding fathers with the Muslim philosophers. Basic concepts of the founding fathers is Pancasila in which there is the word ‘fair’. The word ‘fair’ is also a very serious discussion among Muslim philosophers. The Muslim philosophers underlined that fair is one of the basics of leadership exemplified by the Prophet Muhammad while leading the people of Madina multi-ethnic and multi-religious, and this of course is relevant to the context of Indonesia's multi-religious, multi-ethnic and multi-class. For founding fathers, desire to create a fair society and a prosperous lofty ideals and key for the Indonesian nation. Therefore, they feel how much suffering people of Indonesia as a nation occupied by foreign interchangeably. In the occupation of Indonesia was treated unfairly, and natural wealth confiscated. This goal was already thought by the Muslim philosophers. Therefore, in comparing the two is where the significance of the concept of a just and prosperous one. Abstrak: Artikel ini akan mengelaborasi konsep negara adil dan makmur antara founding fathers (Para Pendiri Bangsa Indonesia dengan para para filosof Muslim. Asas konsep founding fathers adalah Pancasila yang di dalamnya terdapat kata adil. Kata adil juga menjadi pembahasan yang sangat serius di kalangan filosof Muslim. Para filosof Muslim menggarisbawahi bahwa adil merupakan salah satu asas kepemimpinan yang diteladankan oleh Nabi Muhammad saat memimpin masyarakat Madinah yang multi-agama, dan ini tentu saja relevan dengan konteks Indonesia yang multiagama, multi-etnik, dan multi-golongan. Bagi founding fathers, keinginan mewujudkan masyarakat yang adil dan makmur merupakan cita-cita luhur dan utama bagi bangsa Indonesia. Sebab, mereka merasakan betapa menderitanya bangsa Indonesia ketika dijajah oleh bangsa asing yang silih berganti. Dalam penjajahan itu bangsa Indonesia diperlakukan

  10. Demographics and economic burden of un-owned cats and dogs in the UK: results of a 2010 census

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    Stavisky Jenny

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The population of dogs and cats passing through rescue shelters may be subject to compromised welfare and increased susceptibility to disease. Little information exists to describe this population, its dynamics and associated management practices. The aim of this study was to carry out a census of un-owned cats and dogs in the UK in 2010, and to document the origins, destinations, husbandry and costs associated with the care of these animals. Results A sampling frame was constructed by searching the databases of publicly registered charities for England, Scotland and Wales, registers of breed rescues, and by internet searches of animal welfare websites. Overall, 2,352 contacts for 1,380 organisations were identified. All were sent a postal questionnaire asking for data on the number of dogs and cats housed, their origins and eventual outcomes, and details of husbandry between January 1st and December 31st 2010. For those which were registered charities (595, financial records were also obtained. A response rate of 38.8% was obtained. Overall, in 2010, 89,571 dogs and 156,826 cats entered the care of the participating organisations. Approximately half of these animals were relinquished by their owners. Other origins included being found as strays or confiscated for welfare purposes. Seventy-five per cent of dogs and 77.1% of cats were rehomed. The next most common outcome was euthanasia, accounting for 10.4% of dogs and 13.2% cats. For dogs and cats, 44.3% and 62% of participants respectively reported having a waiting list, which frequently exceeded the actual capacity of the facility. Over 19,000 people were involved in the care of these animals, on a paid or voluntary basis. Financial records were available for 519/595 (87.2% of the registered charities, and their total expenditure in 2010 was £340 million. Conclusions This study showed that a large number of animals become un-owned each year, which could have considerable

  11. Community-based assessment of human rights in a complex humanitarian emergency: the Emergency Assistance Teams-Burma and Cyclone Nargis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanvanichkij, Voravit; Murakami, Noriyuki; Lee, Catherine I; Leigh, Jen; Wirtz, Andrea L; Daniels, Brock; Mahn, Mahn; Maung, Cynthia; Beyrer, Chris

    2010-04-19

    Cyclone Nargis hit Burma on May 2, 2008, killing over 138,000 and affecting at least 2.4 million people. The Burmese military junta, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), initially blocked international aid to storm victims, forcing community-based organizations such as the Emergency Assistance Teams-Burma (EAT) to fill the void, helping with cyclone relief and long-term reconstruction. Recognizing the need for independent monitoring of the human rights situation in cyclone-affected areas, particularly given censorship over storm relief coverage, EAT initiated such documentation efforts. A human rights investigation was conducted to document selected human rights abuses that had initially been reported to volunteers providing relief services in cyclone affected areas. Using participatory research methods and qualitative, semi-structured interviews, EAT volunteers collected 103 testimonies from August 2008 to June 2009; 42 from relief workers and 61 from storm survivors. One year after the storm, basic necessities such as food, potable water, and shelter remained insufficient for many, a situation exacerbated by lack of support to help rebuild livelihoods and worsening household debt. This precluded many survivors from being able to access healthcare services, which were inadequate even before Cyclone Nargis. Aid efforts continued to be met with government restrictions and harassment, and relief workers continued to face threats and fear of arrest. Abuses, including land confiscation and misappropriation of aid, were reported during reconstruction, and tight government control over communication and information exchange continued. Basic needs of many cyclone survivors in the Irrawaddy Delta remained unmet over a year following Cyclone Nargis. Official impediments to delivery of aid to storm survivors continued, including human rights abrogations experienced by civilians during reconstruction efforts. Such issues remain unaddressed in official assessments

  12. An analytical approach to the forensic identification of different classes of new psychoactive substances (NPSs) in seized materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano Rossi, Sabina; Odoardi, Sara; Gregori, Adolfo; Peluso, Giuseppe; Ripani, Luigi; Ortar, Giorgio; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Romolo, Francesco Saverio

    2014-09-15

    New psychoactive substances (NPSs) are rapidly spreading worldwide, and forensic laboratories are often requested to identify new substances for which no reference standards or analytical data are available. This article describes an analytical approach that was adopted in Italy by a few collaborative centres of the Italian Early Warning System for Drugs, which has contributed many alerts for the identification of different classes of NPSs in the last 24 months. Seized crystals and powders were initially analysed via single quadrupole gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), followed by liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC/HRMS) in the positive electrospray ionisation (ESI) mode at 100,000 full width at half maximum resolution (FWHM) without fragmentation to elucidate the elemental compositions of unknown molecules. Different fragmentation voltages during LC/HRMS were applied to study the accurate masses of the obtained characteristic fragments. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses were performed to identify specific isomers when necessary. Some interesting examples of unknown NPSs from seizures later identified in our laboratories are reported, with special focus on those cases where analytical standards were not available during analyses. These cases include cathinones, such as 3-methylmethcathinone (3-MMC), methylone, bk-MBDB (butylone), 4-methylethcathinone (4-MEC), flephedrone, methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and pentedrone, methoxetamine, apinaca or AKB48, benzydamine, meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP), 5-MeO-N,N-dialkyl tryptamines, such as 5-MeO-DALT and 5-MeOMIPT, benzofurans, such as 6-APB and 4-APB, and diphenidine (identified for the first time in Europe). The identification of NPSs in confiscated materials was successfully achieved via GC/MS coupled with LC/HRMS and, in a few cases, NMR analyses. The availability of GC/MS libraries is of great assistance in the identification of new drugs. Alternatively, the study

  13. Health of an ex situ population of raptors (Falconiformes and Strigiformes in Mexico: diagnosis of internal parasites

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    Tiziano Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Successful programs for ex situ and in situ conservation and management of raptors require detailed knowledge about their pathogens. The purpose of this study was to identify the internal parasites of some captive raptors in Mexico, as well as to verify their impact in the health status of infected birds. Birds of prey were confiscated and kept in captivity at the Centro de Investigación y Conservación de Vida Silvestre (CIVS in Los Reyes La Paz, Mexico State. For this, fecal and blood samples from 74 birds of prey (66 Falconiformes and eight Strigiformes of 15 species, juveniles and adults from both sexes (39 males and 35 female, were examined for the presence of gastrointestinal and blood parasites. Besides, the oropharyngeal cavity was macroscopically examined for the presence of lesions compatible with trichomoniasis. Among our results we found that lesions compatible with Trichomonas gallinae infection were detected only in two Red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis (2.7%; nevertheless, infected birds were in good physical condition. Overall, gastrointestinal parasites were found in 10 (13.5% raptors: nine falconiforms (13.6% and one strigiform (12.5%, which mainly presented a single type of gastrointestinal parasite (90%. Eimeria spp. was detected in Harris’s hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus, Swainson’s hawk (Buteo swainsoni, Red-tailed hawk (B. jamaicensis and Great horned owl (Bubo virginianus; whereas trematodes eggs were found in Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus and Swainson’s hawk (B. swainsoni. Furthermore, eggs of Capillaria spp. were found in one Swainson’s hawk (B. swainsoni, which was also infected by trematodes. Hemoprotozoarian were detected in five (6.7% falconiforms: Haemoproteus spp. in American kestrel (F. sparverius and Leucocytozoon spp. in Red-tailed hawk (B. jamaicencis. Despite this, no clinical signs referable to gastrointestinal or blood parasite infection were observed in any birds. All parasites identified were

  14. Evidence on unusual way of cocaine smuggling: cocaine-polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) solid solution--study of clandestine laboratory samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostic, T; Klemenc, S

    2007-07-04

    An abandoned clandestine laboratory was seized in Slovenia. All confiscated exhibits were analysed in a forensic laboratory, where the following analytical methods were applied: capillary gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined also by solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) and pyrolysis (Py) technique, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray detector (SEM-EDX). The most interesting analytical findings can be summarised as follows: at the crime scene some plastic pieces, which contained cocaine dissolved (as solid solution) in polymethyl methacrylate-plexiglass (PMMA), were found. The highest cocaine concentration measured in the plastic sample was about 15% by weight. Two larger lumps of material (12 and 3 kg) were composed mainly of PMMA and CaCO3 and contained only 0.4 and 0.5% of cocaine, respectively. As for the low cocaine concentration, we assume that those two lumps of material represent discarded waste product--residue after the isolation of cocaine from plastic. Higher quantities of pure solvents (41 l) and solvent mixtures (87 l) were seized. We identified three types of pure solvents (acetone, gasoline and benzine) and two different types of solvent mixtures (benzine/acetone and gasoline/acetone). The total seized volume (87 l) of solvent mixtures holds approximately 395 g of solid residue formed mainly of PMMA and cocaine. Obviously solvent mixtures were used for isolation of cocaine from the plastic. Small quantities of relatively pure cocaine base were identified on different objects. There were two cotton sheets, most probably used for filtration. One sheet had traces of cocaine base (76% purity) on the surface, while cocaine in hydrochloride form (96%) was identified on the other sheet. GC-MS analyses of micro traces isolated from analytical balances showed the presence of cocaine and some common adulterants: phenacetine, lidocaine and procaine. A cocaine

  15. Retrospective of the human rights situation in Croatia through legislation and judicial practice, with emphasis on minority rights

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    Lončar Semina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the establishment of new states of former Yugoslavia, the Republic of Croatia led discriminatory legislative and judicial policies towards minorities, politically 'unsuitable' and families of mixed ethnic structure, with the aim of creating ethnically pure Croatian. For this purpose, brought a series of racist and discriminatory laws, some of which had a retroactive effect and apply, all to existing state: deportation of over 350,000 citizens, the confiscation of over 30,000 apartments, the suspension of payments of pensions over 33,000 users, mining and destruction of over 78,000 residential and farm buildings in private ownership, and other damages... caused solely due to ethnicity - legalized. In addition to the illegal seizure of property, are members of minority status and the laws reduced civil rights, and which further worsened their position in Croatia. The legislative policy is followed synchromesh and jurisprudence, so that damaged and disenfranchised people are not even legal way was able to obtain their material status and rights were before the war, as well as Croatian citizens, and had made in Croatia. Unfortunately, the institutions of the European Court of Human Rights, which many believed, proved a failure, because it is generally rejected all claims for refund compensation or restoration - not believing that the Croatian courts violate any law, or that the damage caused prior to November 1997th, ie, until the signing of the Convention, Croatia is not responsible. Since Croatian independence until today, discrimination against minorities (mostly by Serbian, although under pressure from the international community an improved law - in practice, remained present in almost all spheres of life. In addition to Serbian, has problems and the Albanian minority, which Croatia is denied issuance of work permits, and thus the right to stay, and deportation orders from the economic crisis, the structure of human rights extended to all

  16. Los libros de los moriscos y los eruditos orientales

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    Rodríguez Mediano, Fernando

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show how the Orientalist scholarship of Christian Arabs who had come to Spain from the Middle East (via Italy adressed the literature of the Moriscos, to examine how it was understood by such scholars and what they used it for. We show that these scholars, from among whom we have chosen the examples of Marcus Dobelius and Miguel Casiri, could not carry out their Orientalist work using the Arabic manuscripts of the El Escorial library without confronting the Morisco problem in the form of Morisco texts held in several collections confiscated by the Inquisition. The knowledge and activities of these Moriscos served to trace the broad outlines of an intellectual history of the Arabic language in Europe, in which Morisco activity was interppreted in relation to its linguistic and doctrinal variables. This was achieved by means of the construction of a scholarly discipline (Orientalism at a time of religious polemic between the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation, i.e. during the period of the development of religious dissidence and skepticism in early modern Europe.Pretendemos, en este trabajo, mostrar cómo la erudición orientalista de árabes cristianos venidos a España desde Oriente (a través de Italia se aproximó a la literatura de los moriscos, cómo la entendió y para qué la utilizó. Mostramos que estos eruditos, de entre los que elegimos los casos de Marcos Dobelio y Miguel Casiri, no pudieron realizar su trabajo orientalista, que se basa en una fuerte vinculación con los manuscritos árabes de la Biblioteca de El Escorial, sin evitar el problema morisco en forma de su producción escrita aparecida en diversos fondos requisados por la Inquisición. Sus saberes y su actividad sirven para trazar los contornos amplios de una historia intelectual de la lengua árabe en Europa, en la que el hecho morisco es interpretado en función de sus variables lingüsticas y doctrinales, a partir de la constitución de

  17. Criminal sanctions for legal enties: An instrument of crime control

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    Jovašević Dragan

    2016-01-01

    's own conduct embodied either in the commission of a criminal offence or in the omission to act. Therefore, contemporary criminal laws have determined special types of criminal sanctions, such as: punishment, security measures, conditional (suspended sentence and confiscation of material gain obtained by comitting the criminal offence, as well as the instruments, proceedings and conditions under which they may be imposed. Within the framework of the forthcoming reform of the entire penal legislation in the Republic of Serbia, the Serbian legislator may use the legal solutions envisaged in the analyzed documents and criminal legislations as a solid model for implementing the international standards in the field of criminal liability of legal entities. Hence, this paper discusses the particularities governing the application of criminal sanctions for legal entities in the Republic of Serbia, particularly as an instrument of crime control.

  18. Rosneft, Gazprom and the Government: the Decision-Making Triangle on Russia's Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baev, Pavel

    2014-03-01

    Russia finds itself exposed to many risks in the fast-moving global revolution in energy affairs, and cannot avail of its opportunities despite its unique combination of natural resources and experience in their exploitation. It has entered the phase of economic stagnation, and the under-performance of the energy sector is one of the key determinants of the durability of this trend. Energy export can no longer be wielded as a heavy-impact instrument of foreign policy, and the squabbles for shrinking oil and gas revenues form a key driver of the evolving crisis of the petro-authoritarian regime built by President Vladimir Putin. Escalating problems in the Russian energy sector are caused by the system of decision-making on oil and gas matters, in which Putin acts as a supreme arbiter in the flexible triangle formed by the government and two super-large state companies-Gazprom and Rosneft. It is the imperative of checking the decline of budget revenues that determines the priority in government policy of greater confiscation of profits and heavier taxation of the energy business. This squeeze on the interests of energy 'oligarchs' provokes them to appeal to Putin for tax breaks, which he is increasingly reluctant to grant, given the need to pursue an active social policy. The constant flow of insoluble issues makes Putin irritable and generally less engaged with the energy business than he used to be. Gazprom's notorious inefficiency in its core business emboldens competitors to capture greater shares of the domestic market and to demand exemptions from its export monopoly. Putin is loath to carry this political liability but remains reluctant to contemplate reforms that would amount to un-bundling of this conglomerate. Rosneft under the control of Igor Sechin has become the champion of the Russian oil industry, executing a series of acquisitions and signing a series of deals with Western 'majors'. Putin's benevolence is the key to the

  19. La lucha por la supervivencia de la embriología en una institución privada en la España del siglo XX: las crisis del Institut Biològic de Sarrià

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    Velasco Morgado, Raúl

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During the first third of the twentieth century, the catalan jesuit Jaime Pujiula Dilmé (1869-1958 dominated with an almost classical authority the cultivation of embryology in Spain. The great success of his personal project, the “Institut Biològic de Sarrià”, suffered a first setback in the II Republic with the arrival of Azaña’s government to power. The Society of Jesus was dissolved, and their property confiscated. Pujiula, however, was able to overcome this crisis with an agreement with the Societat Medicofarmacèutica dels Sants Cosme i Damiá, in whose offices he remounted his institute. More difficult was to survive the crisis experienced during the Francoist dictatorship. The age of the director and his tough personality, authoritarian and personalistic, hindered the creation of a school around him. The thrive of one of his aides, Father Joan Puiggrós Sala (1899-¿?, meant the phasing of embryology in the center and the occupation of it niche by his specialty, applied bacteriology, more economically profitable in those troubled times.Durante el primer tercio del siglo XX, el jesuita Jaime Pujiula Dilmé (1869-1958 dominó con una autoridad casi clásica el cultivo de la embriología en nuestro país. El gran éxito de su proyecto personal, el Institut Biològic de Sarrià, sufrió un primer revés durante la II República con la llegada del gobierno de Azaña al poder. La Compañía de Jesús fue disuelta y sus bienes confiscados. El religioso, no obstante, fue capaz de solventar esta crisis mediante un acuerdo con la Societat Medicofarmacèutica dels Sants Cosme i Damiá, en cuyas dependencias volvió a montar su instituto. Más difícil resultó sobrevivir a la crisis vivida durante la Dictadura Franquista. La edad del Padre y su fuerte personalidad, autoritaria y personalista, dificultó la creación de una escuela a su alrededor. El medro de uno de sus colaboradores, el Padre Joan Puiggrós Sala (1899-¿?, significó la

  20. Prevalence and structural correlates of gender based violence among a prospective cohort of female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Kate; Kerr, T; Strathdee, S A; Shoveller, J; Montaner, J S; Tyndall, M W

    2009-08-11

    To examine the prevalence and structural correlates of gender based violence against female sex workers in an environment of criminalised prostitution. Prospective observational study. Vancouver, Canada during 2006-8. Female sex workers 14 years of age or older (inclusive of transgender women) who used illicit drugs (excluding marijuana) and engaged in street level sex work. Self reported gender based violence. Of 267 female sex workers invited to participate, 251 women returned to the study office and consented to participate (response rate of 94%). Analyses were based on 237 female sex workers who completed a baseline visit and at least one follow-up visit. Of these 237 female sex workers, 57% experienced gender based violence over an 18 month follow-up period. In multivariate models adjusted for individual and interpersonal risk practices, the following structural factors were independently correlated with violence against female sex workers: homelessness (adjusted odds ratio for physical violence (aOR(physicalviolence)) 2.14, 95% confidence interval 1.34 to 3.43; adjusted odds ratio for rape (aOR(rape)) 1.73, 1.09 to 3.12); inability to access drug treatment (adjusted odds ratio for client violence (aOR(clientviolence)) 2.13, 1.26 to 3.62; aOR(physicalviolence) 1.96, 1.03 to 3.43); servicing clients in cars or public spaces (aOR(clientviolence) 1.50, 1.08 to 2.57); prior assault by police (aOR(clientviolence) 3.45, 1.98 to 6.02; aOR(rape) 2.61, 1.32 to 5.16); confiscation of drug use paraphernalia by police without arrest (aOR(physicalviolence) 1.50, 1.02 to 2.41); and moving working areas away from main streets owing to policing (aOR(clientviolence) 2.13, 1.26 to 3.62). Our results demonstrate an alarming prevalence of gender based violence against female sex workers. The structural factors of criminalisation, homelessness, and poor availability of drug treatment independently correlated with gender based violence against street based female sex workers. Socio

  1. Demographics and economic burden of un-owned cats and dogs in the UK: results of a 2010 census

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The population of dogs and cats passing through rescue shelters may be subject to compromised welfare and increased susceptibility to disease. Little information exists to describe this population, its dynamics and associated management practices. The aim of this study was to carry out a census of un-owned cats and dogs in the UK in 2010, and to document the origins, destinations, husbandry and costs associated with the care of these animals. Results A sampling frame was constructed by searching the databases of publicly registered charities for England, Scotland and Wales, registers of breed rescues, and by internet searches of animal welfare websites. Overall, 2,352 contacts for 1,380 organisations were identified. All were sent a postal questionnaire asking for data on the number of dogs and cats housed, their origins and eventual outcomes, and details of husbandry between January 1st and December 31st 2010. For those which were registered charities (595), financial records were also obtained. A response rate of 38.8% was obtained. Overall, in 2010, 89,571 dogs and 156,826 cats entered the care of the participating organisations. Approximately half of these animals were relinquished by their owners. Other origins included being found as strays or confiscated for welfare purposes. Seventy-five per cent of dogs and 77.1% of cats were rehomed. The next most common outcome was euthanasia, accounting for 10.4% of dogs and 13.2% cats. For dogs and cats, 44.3% and 62% of participants respectively reported having a waiting list, which frequently exceeded the actual capacity of the facility. Over 19,000 people were involved in the care of these animals, on a paid or voluntary basis. Financial records were available for 519/595 (87.2%) of the registered charities, and their total expenditure in 2010 was £340 million. Conclusions This study showed that a large number of animals become un-owned each year, which could have considerable implications for their

  2. Rapid identification of capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris through allele-specific PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Henrique-Silva

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The capybara is the largest rodent in the world and is widely distributed throughout Central and South America.  It is an animal of economic interest due to the pleasant flavor of its meat and higher protein content in comparison  to beef and pork meat.  The hide, hair and fat also have economic advantages. Thus,  as an animal with such high economic potential, it is the target of hunters, even though  hunting capybara is prohibited by law in Brazil.   Due to their  similarities,  capybara meat  is easily confused with  pork  meat.   This  occurs  upon  the apprehension of the  meat  from hunters, as well as in some restaurants that serve capybara meat that was slaughtered clandestinely. In both cases, when the meat is confiscated, those responsible for the crimes claim it is pork meat,  hindering  the enforcement of the law. A practical  course was ministered  to undergraduate biology students enrolled in the elective course Introduction to Genetic  Engineering  at Federal  University  of Sao Carlos (UFSCar, Sao Paulo  State, Brazil.  The  objective  of the  course was to establish  and  apply  a Polymerase  Chain  Reaction  (PCR assay to identify capybara meat and discriminate it in relation  to other types of meat,  including pork. Primers  were designed based  on 12S rRNA,  transthyretin and  growth  hormone  receptor  genes.  The primers generated  capybara specific fragments  of approximately 220, 290 and 330 bp for transthyretin,12S rRNA  and  growth  hormone  receptor,  respectively.   The  duplexes  developed  in the  present work can be used effectively to discriminate capybara meat  from other  animals,  contributing to combating predatory capybara hunting. The results were extensively discussed and the students have contributed to written a paper  to be submitted to a publication.

  3. Health of an ex situ population of raptors (Falconiformes and Strigiformes) in Mexico: diagnosis of internal parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Tiziano; de Oliveira, Jaqueline B; Vaughan, Christopher; Santiago, Heber

    2011-09-01

    Successful programs for ex situ and in situ conservation and management of raptors require detailed knowledge about their pathogens. The purpose of this study was to identify the internal parasites of some captive raptors in Mexico, as well as to verify their impact in the health status of infected birds. Birds of prey were confiscated and kept in captivity at the Centro de Investigación y Conservación de Vida Silvestre (CIVS) in Los Reyes La Paz, Mexico State. For this, fecal and blood samples from 74 birds of prey (66 Falconiformes and eight Strigiformes) of 15 species, juveniles and adults from both sexes (39 males and 35 female), were examined for the presence of gastrointestinal and blood parasites. Besides, the oropharyngeal cavity was macroscopically examined for the presence of lesions compatible with trichomoniasis. Among our results we found that lesions compatible with Trichomonas gallinae infection were detected only in two Red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) (2.7%); nevertheless, infected birds were in good physical condition. Overall, gastrointestinal parasites were found in 10 (13.5%) raptors: nine falconiforms (13.6%) and one strigiform (12.5%), which mainly presented a single type of gastrointestinal parasite (90%). Eimeria spp. was detected in Harris's hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus), Swainson's hawk (Buteo swainsoni), Red-tailed hawk (B. jamaicensis) and Great horned owl (Bubo virginianus); whereas trematodes eggs were found in Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) and Swainson's hawk (B. swainsoni). Furthermore, eggs of Capillaria spp. were found in one Swainson's hawk (B. swainsoni), which was also infected by trematodes. Hemoprotozoarian were detected in five (6.7%) falconiforms: Haemoproteus spp. in American kestrel (F. sparverius) and Leucocytozoon spp. in Red-tailed hawk (B. jamaicencis). Despite this, no clinical signs referable to gastrointestinal or blood parasite infection were observed in any birds. All parasites identified were recorded

  4. Aportaciones a la arquitectura y la historia del monasterio de Sancti Spiritus de Ávila = Contributions to the Architecture and History of the Monastery of Sancti Spiritus in Ávila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Moreno Blanco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se aborda, mediante fuentes documentales inéditas, el estudio directo de los últimos restos conservados y la bibliografía publicada, la historia y arquitectura del monasterio premonstratense de Sancti Spiritus de Ávila. Hoy prácticamente desaparecido, sus últimos restos se conservan descontextualizados, insertos entre construcciones de nueva planta e incluso reaprovechados en fincas a kilómetros de su emplazamiento original. Ante tal situación, resulta de especial interés la publicación de un estudio de conjunto en que se aportan noticias sobre sus diseminados bienes e interpretan sus restos a la luz de las últimas novedades documentales. Para ello se ha realizado un recorrido a través de su historia desde el momento de su fundación en el último tercio del siglo XII hasta su desamortización en el XIX, que sirve como marco a las sucesivas campañas constructivas.In this article is discussed by unpublished documentary sources, the direct study of the last remnants preserved and published literature, history and architecture of the Premonstratensian monastery of Sancti Spiritus in Avila. Today virtually disappeared, their last remains are preserved decontextualized, inserts between new constructions and even reused on farms kilometers ago from its original site. In this situation, it is of special interest the publication of a joint study that news of their goods are given and interpreted scattered his remains in the light of the latest developments documentary. For this we have made a journey through history from the time of its founding in the last third of the twelfth century until its confiscation in the nineteenth, which serves as a framework for constructive successive campaigns.

  5. Community-based assessment of human rights in a complex humanitarian emergency: the Emergency Assistance Teams-Burma and Cyclone Nargis

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    Mahn Mahn

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cyclone Nargis hit Burma on May 2, 2008, killing over 138,000 and affecting at least 2.4 million people. The Burmese military junta, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC, initially blocked international aid to storm victims, forcing community-based organizations such as the Emergency Assistance Teams-Burma (EAT to fill the void, helping with cyclone relief and long-term reconstruction. Recognizing the need for independent monitoring of the human rights situation in cyclone-affected areas, particularly given censorship over storm relief coverage, EAT initiated such documentation efforts. Methods A human rights investigation was conducted to document selected human rights abuses that had initially been reported to volunteers providing relief services in cyclone affected areas. Using participatory research methods and qualitative, semi-structured interviews, EAT volunteers collected 103 testimonies from August 2008 to June 2009; 42 from relief workers and 61 from storm survivors. Results One year after the storm, basic necessities such as food, potable water, and shelter remained insufficient for many, a situation exacerbated by lack of support to help rebuild livelihoods and worsening household debt. This precluded many survivors from being able to access healthcare services, which were inadequate even before Cyclone Nargis. Aid efforts continued to be met with government restrictions and harassment, and relief workers continued to face threats and fear of arrest. Abuses, including land confiscation and misappropriation of aid, were reported during reconstruction, and tight government control over communication and information exchange continued. Conclusions Basic needs of many cyclone survivors in the Irrawaddy Delta remained unmet over a year following Cyclone Nargis. Official impediments to delivery of aid to storm survivors continued, including human rights abrogations experienced by civilians during

  6. KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN RENCANA RELOKASI KWPLH BERUANG MADU DI KOTA BALIKPAPAN-PROVINSI KALIMANTAN TIMUR (Environmental Study of Sun Bear KWPLH Relocation Plan in Balikpapan-East Kalimantan

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    Sri Ngabekti

    2015-11-01

    used in this study is a direct survey method with observation and measurement of environmental conditions ( physical / abiotic, biotic, and socio-cultural on the location KWPLH sun bear (Km 23 and relocation plan at Km 10, complemented by interviews and document analysis. Based on the results of measurement, observation, and analysis of those three environmental aspects , it can be concluded that the Km 10 can be used to relocate bears. However, to minimize the social impact, it is recommended that sun bears at Km 23 are not relocated, and another sun bear enclosure is made at Km 10 to treat the other of confiscated bears.

  7. De la conspiración austracista a la integración a la Nueva Planta : la familia Durán, máximo exponente de la burguesía mercantil en el siglo XVIII

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    Gemma García Fuertes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La Guerra de Sucesión constituye uno de los episodios que más han marcado la historia de Cataluña. Sin embargo, este interés aún no ha desvelado todos los interrogantes que suscita el giro dinástico de Cataluña en el año 1705. Entre los muchos puntos oscuros, es preciso avanzar en un mejor conocimiento de las causas que llevaron a los diferentes grupos de la sociedad catalana a su posición política. Así surgió la idea de un estudio monográfico sobre la familia Duran, la dinastía más importante de hombres de negocios de la Barcelona del siglo xviii, no sólo por su posición austracista en la guerra de Sucesión, lo que les acarreó la confiscación de bienes por la autoridad felipista, sino por la rápida integración de la nueva coyuntura generada por los Borbones. En efecto, el camalecnismo político de esta familia perteneciente a la burguesía mercantil, por otro lado nada excepcional, puede resultar ilustrativo para entender la posición de importantes sectores de la sociedad catalana durante la Guerra de Sucesión.The War of Succession is one of the events that most deeply marked the history of Catalonia. However, this interest has not yet revealed all the questions concerning the dinastic shift of Catalonia in 1705. Among other oscure aspects, it is necessary to reach a better knowledge about the reasons that led the different groups of Catalan society to their political position. In this context, the idea arouse to study the Duran familly, the most important dinasty of businessmen in eighteenthcentury Catalonia, not only by his Austracist position in the War of Succession —what brought them the confiscation of all their properties by Philip V's authorities—, but also by their quick integration in the new situation created by the Bourbon Monarchy. In fact, the chamaleon-like political behaviour of this merchant family —otherwise not unusual— can illustrate the political position of important groups of Catalan

  8. Ashes of history: colum mccann’s zoli Ashes of history: colum mccann’s zoli

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    Eluned Summers-Brenner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    My essay reads Colum McCann’s novel Zoli as an elaboration of the ethical work of poetry. In the novel the Slovakian poet Zoli Novotna, based on the life and work of the Polish Romani balladeer Papusza (Bronislawa Wajs, is irreversibly disowned by her people upon publishing poetry that is used, as is her image, to represent the enaction of Law 74, or the Big Halt, in the 1950s and 1960s. Disastrously, this process caused Eastern European Gypsies to lose their sense of belonging and livelihood through the confiscation of caravans, their being forced into apartment blocks in towns, and consequent opposition to traditional Gypsy skills, most of which were lost. McCann’s novel extends Papusza’s story beyond her exclusion from her people, having Zoli bear performative witness to the mistaken work her poetry once did. In walking roads from which Roma have been banished, and in taking on the bare remains of her lost identity, a mishmash of gadzi perceptions, Zoli makes the nothingness for which she stands into the means of travel and future hope for others. In my reading, the novel elaborates a claim that justice is not served by forcing everyone to have the same degree and kind of pleasures, but by allowing forms of chosen deprivation. The ashes of Zoli’s burned poems become the ashes of a reconstituted identity around a space that holds nothing, equivalent to the nothing that gadzos are willing to know about Romani world-making and belonging

  9. OBSERVAŢII REFERITOARE LA AMENDAMENTELE OPERATE ÎN CODUL PENAL PRIN LEGEA NR.60/2016

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    Vitalie STATI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Obiectul prezentului studiu îl constituie modificările şi completările operate în Codul penal prin Legea nr.60/2016. Acestea vizează: persoana juridică în calitate de subiect al infracţiunii; confiscarea specială; spălarea banilor; actul terorist; finanţarea terorismului; abuzul de putere sau abuzul de serviciu. În procesul analizei, sunt examinate proiectul care se află la baza Legii nr.60/2016, Nota informativă la acest proiect şi alte asemenea acte preparatorii. De asemenea, se face referire la Convenţia privind spălarea, descoperirea, sechestrarea şi confiscarea produselor infracţiunii şi finan­ţarea terorismului, adoptată la Varşovia la 16.05.2005, precum şi la raportul explicativ la această Convenţie. Scopul prezentului studiu constă în stabilirea efectelor pozitive şi a celor negative ale adoptării modificărilor şi completărilor operate în Codul penal prin Legea nr.60/2016. În rezultatul investigaţiei efectuate se ajunge la concluzia că nu toate amendamentele operate prin legea amintită au tangenţă cu domeniile ce ţin de prevenirea şi combaterea spălării banilor şi a finanţării terorismului. Nu toate aceste amendamente pot asigura armonizarea legislaţiei naţionale penale cu stan­dardele stabilite de Curtea Europeană pentru Drepturile Omului. Unele din aceste amendamente sunt îndoielnice sub aspectul calităţii lor tehnico-legislative şi/sau în ce priveşte aportul lor în planul eficientizării apărării ordinii de drept. Impresia de ansamblu este că nu preocuparea pentru interesul social a constituit scopul principal al adoptării Legii nr.60/2016.SOME REMARKS ON THE AMENDMENTS OPERATED TO THE PENAL CODE BY LAW No.60/2016The object of this study is formed by the modifications and additions operated to the Penal Code by Law No.60/2016. The content of the respective initiatives addresses the following elements: the legal person as the subject of the offence; special confiscation

  10. Vicisitudes de la documentación medieval del monasterio cisterciense de Fitero

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    Ostolaza Elizondo, Mª Isabel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the history of the archives of the Cistercian monastery at Fitero (Navarre in the Middle Ages, comparing the documentation available with references to it in a number of archive inventories of the modern age. A total of 135 mediaeval documents dated after 1210 have been conserved (the year in wich the Cartulary of Fitero was completed, of which 65 are originals and the rest copies of important privileges that were conserved in the monastery´s archives, using later versions in their place when it was necessary to demonstrate the monastery´s rigths. Others were obtained from the 16th century onwards as a result of claims presented by the monastery in defence of its interest before the courts of law of Navarre, and to a lesser extent those of Spain. The comparison of the documentation with the archive inventories of the 17th and 18th centuries has enabled us to determine that the loss of some important original documents had been detected at the time, and great care was taken to preserve the remaining items. From this it can be deduced that the negative effects on the conservation of the documentary patrimony, due to the Desamortización (confiscation of church property of Mendizábal among other things, became a non-corroborated cliché to a certain extent in the case of the archive at Fitero, which has fortunately conserved most of its mediaeval documentation.

    El artículo estudia la historia del archivo del monasterio cisterciense de Fitero (Navarra en la Edad Media, contrastando la documentación existente con las referencias de la misma en diversos inventarios archivísticos de la edad moderna. Se han conservado un total de 135 documenrtos medievales posteriores a 1210 (fecha en que se terminó el Cartulario de Fitero, de los que 65 son originales y el resto copias de privilegios importantes que se querían preservar en el archivo monástico, utilizando en su lugar versiones

  11. HUBUNGAN ETNIK DI MALAYSIA DARI PERSPEKTIF ISLAM (ETHNIC RELATIONS IN MALAYSIA FROM AN ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE

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    Ahmad Hidayat Buang

    2011-01-01

    but also between Muslims and non-Muslims. Non-Muslims have certain rights and are protected for as long as they are not against Islam. In regard to relations among Muslims and non-Muslims, Islam outlines specific regulations such as the ones found in Chapter al-Hujurat verse 13 that recognises ethnic diversity as a norm and that diversity is meant for people to know one another better, and not to cause conflict. Therefore, this article discusses the Islamic viewpoint on ethnicity from the perspectives of the al-Quran, prophetic traditions and Muslim scholars. Also discussed is the principle of justice and equality in Islam in relation to Malaysia particularly related to the special position of Malays in Article 153 of the Federal Constitution. The findings show that the special position of Malays does not contradict the principle of justice and equality in Islam based on four arguments: First, the Malays receive their special position as enshrined in the Federal Constitution without incurring any acts of confiscating the wealth of the non-Muslims, but instead gained from the growing economy as a whole. Second, the special position of Malays is not employed at the expense of the economic and political wellbeing of the non-Malays. Third, the special position of Malays was established long before independence and was later reinstated when the Federal Constitution was formulated. Fourth, the Malays' special position was attained through a consensus achieved by the various ethnic groups in the country.

  12. External parasites of raptors (Falconiformes and Strigiformes: identification in an ex situ population from Mexico

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    JaquelineB de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Raptorial birds harbor a variety of ectoparasites and the mayority of them are host specific. The aim of this study was to identify the ectoparasites of captive birds of prey from Mexico, as well as to verify their impact in the health of infested birds. Raptorial birds were confiscated and kept in captivity at the Centro de Investigación y Conservación de Vida Silvestre (CIVS in Los Reyes La Paz, Mexico State. Seventy-four birds of prey (66 Falconiformes and eigth Strigiformes of 15 species were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. We examined both juvenile and adult birds from both sexes. The overall prevalence was 16.2%; 66.7% of raptors were infested with a single type of external parasite. Lice were the most prevalent ectoparasites (91.7%, followed by feather mites and fleas (8.3%. Degeeriella fulva (72.7%, Craspedorrhynchus sp. (45.4% and Strigiphilus aitkeni (9.1% (Ischnocera, Philopteridae were recovered from wings, head and neck regions of red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis, Swainson’s hawk (B. swainsoni, Harris’s hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus and Barn owl (Tyto alba. Low lice infestation level was observed. Nymphs and females of feather mites Kramerella sp. (Pterolichoidea, Kramerellidae were recovered solely from Barn owl (T. alba; while one Caracara (Caracara cheriway was infested by the sticktight flea Echidnophaga gallinacea (Siphonaptera, Pulicidae. No clinical signs were observed in any infested bird. Probably the periodic use of organophosphorates was responsible of the low prevalence and lice infestation levels. The diversity of external parasites illustrates the importance of detailed revision of incoming and long-term captive raptors as part of responsible captive management. Five new hosts and geographic records are presented. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1257-1264. Epub 2011 September 01.Las aves rapaces albergan una gran variedad de ectoparásitos y la mayoría de ellos son específicos de acogida. El objetivo de este

  13. Application of nuclear and allied techniques for the characterisation of forensic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudersanan, M.; Kayasth, S.R.; Pant, D.R.; Chattopadhyay, N.; Bhattacharyya, C.N.

    2002-01-01

    studies were carried out for the care of unknown materials for the possible presence of uranium in the case of materials confiscated by police or customs officials. Such analysis is also of importance in view of the possible dumping of toxic waste from advanced countries to third world countries. Detection of a case of gold smuggling was also possible by the use of XRF and NAA even though an innovative approach was made in the smuggling to convert gold to colourless gold cyanide complex to prevent its easy detection. Analysis of commercial pharmaceutical or medicinal preparations for toxic metals is also becoming important in view of the illegal use of materials like heroin. Analysis was carried out on the characterization of acetic anhydride obtained from various commercial sources by both nuclear and non-nuclear techniques to help in the possible source correspondence. The increasing volume of illegal and criminal activities requires a judicious application of both nuclear and non-nuclear techniques. Some of the recent forensic samples analysed in our laboratories will also be discussed in this presentation. (author)

  14. La Biblioteca del Monasterio de Fitero a fines del Renacimiento e inicio del Barroco

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    Ostolaza Elizondo, Maria Isabel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the time of the creation of library of the Cistercian monastery of Fitero (Navarre. Over the years it became one of the most important in the kingdom, until its decline trougth secularisations and confiscations of property suffered by the convent in the 19th century. The data on its initial phase come from the books of the abbots Fray Marcos de Villalva and Fray Ignacio Fermín de Ibero, both originally from Castile, who were appointed abbots vy virtue of the righ to royal patronage exercised by King Philip II. Although most of the books belong, as could be expected to an ecclesiastical library, a surprising case inthat of Abbot Ibero for the wide range of subjets he covers and the high quality of the editions, often accompanied by engravings and musical notes. Through these books, which are either identified through the exlibris or references ot notarial list, one can perceive the important ecclesiastical issues of the day: the reform of the monasteries and the practice of Orthodox Catholicism, and also secular issues that came to the knowledge of the monastery related to the two great powers of the Catholic world, the monarchy and the papacy.El artículo recoge los momentos de la creación de la biblioteca del monasterio cisterciense de Fitero (Navarra, que sería con el tiempo una de las más importantes de ese reino, hasta su mengua por causa de las distintas exclaustraciones y desamortizaciones que sufrió el convento en el s. XIX. Los datos de estos primeros tiempos corresponden a las librerías de fray Marcos de Villalva y fray Ignacio Fermín de Ibero, ambos procedentes de Castilla y nombrados abades fiterenses en virtud del derecho de patronato real ejercido por Felipe II. Aunque la mayoría de los libros corresponden a lo que se entendería como lógico en una biblioteca eclesiástica, sorprende en el caso de la del abad Ibero la amplitud de la temática y la calidad de las ediciones, en muchos casos con grabados

  15. Pisada como pano de chão: experiência de violência hospitalar no Nordeste Brasileiro "Stepped-on like a floor-mat": human experience of hospital violence in the Northeast of Brazil

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    Annatália Meneses de Amorim Gomes

    2008-03-01

    located in Fortaleza, capital city of the state of Ceará, in the Northeast of Brazil. A qualitative method, "The Patient's Pathway," was created and utilized. It blends ethnographic interviews, patient's narrative collected prospectively during the entire hospitalization - from admittance to discharge - and participant observation. The pathway of 13 key-informant patients was followed. Results reveal that our patients narrated 225 distinct hospitalization experiences. The majority (83.6% was interpreted by patients as "degrading" and "humiliating" their sense of personhood; only 16.4% were seen as "caring" for the patient, contributing to the recovery of their health. A progressive demoralization of the "suspect patient" is revealed, beginning with his/her reception by uniformed guards and confiscation of personal belongings. Hospitalization is characterized as abandonment, loneliness and imprisonment, due to the imposition of norms, rules and procedures which ignore patients' autonomy, subjectivity and personal conditions. Despite the oppressive hospital structure, patients manage to resist, drawing upon multiple strategies: personal traits, creative imagination, social solidarity and religious faith. Humanizing public hospitalization in the Northeast of Brazil requires including the patient's voice and experience while removing harmful stigmas.

  16. Provenance of granites used to build the Santa Maria de Valdeiglesias Monastery, Pelayos de la Presa (Madrid, Spain), and conservation state of the monumental complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, R.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Vazquez-Calvo, C.; Perez-Monserrat, E. M.; Varas-Muriel, M. J.; Lopez-Arce, P.

    2012-04-01

    The construction of the Cistercian Monastery began at 1180, in an initial Late Romanesque style in which the Church was erected; later on, in 1258, the church underwent a severe fire, only the apse stood standing. The church was reconstructed at the end of the 13th century in Mudejar style. Gothic style was used later on, in the 16th century, for the reconstruction of the funerary chapel, and Renaissance style for the Plateresque door in between the church and the sacristy. At the end of the 16th century, the main door to access the church was built in Baroque style. In 1836, the Ecclesiastical Confiscations resulted on transfer the Monastery into particular owners. This fact favoured its abandon and ruin state until 1979, when architect Mariano Garcia Benito purchased the property and started the conservation and consolidation of the complex, beginning with the Bell Tower. Natural stone materials used in the Monastery are igneous (granite) and metamorphic rocks (gneiss and schist), and artificial stone materials are bricks and mortars, both joint and rendering ones. Granite is the most abundant material used in the complex, with a structural/reinforcing role in elements such as lintels, jambs, buttresses, or bottom areas of the walls with greater sizes and better dimensioned. Some pillars are granite built, from the large ashlars of the sacristy, to the rubble-work of the Mozarab chapel. Two types of monzogranite can be differentiated in relation to distinct constructive stages: the coarse texture monzogranite is used in the first building stages, while the fine texture monzogranite was employed mainly from 17th century on. Petrophysical characteristics of these granites are different but show a good quality to be used in construction. Nevertheless, the abandon and partial ruin of the complex, the devastating fire events (the second one in 1743) leaded to the decay acceleration of the monumental complex, being nowadays the church in ruin, with no roofs and walls

  17. Mexico's northern border conflict: collateral damage to health and human rights of vulnerable groups El conflicto en la frontera norte de México: daños colaterales a la salud y los derechos humanos en grupos vulnerables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Beletsky

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare distributions of human rights violations and disease risk; to juxtapose these patterns against demographic and structural environmental variables, and to formulate implications for structural interventions. METHODS: Female sex workers who inject drugs were surveyed in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Structured interviews and testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs were conducted (October 2008 to October 2009. Frequencies of individual and environmental factors, including police abuse, risk of HIV infection, and protective behaviors, were compared between sites using univariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 624 women, almost half reported police syringe confiscation despite syringes being legal; 55.6% reported extortion (past 6 months, with significantly higher proportions in Ciudad Juarez (P OBJETIVO: Comparar las distribuciones de las violaciones a los derechos humanos y el riesgo de enfermedades; yuxtaponer los patrones obtenidos con las variables demográficas y estructurales del entorno, y formular las implicaciones de llevar a cabo intervenciones estructurales. MÉTODOS: Se entrevistaron trabajadoras del sexo que consumían drogas inyectables en Tijuana y Ciudad Juárez, México. Entre octubre del 2008 y octubre del 2009 se llevaron a cabo entrevistas estructuradas y pruebas para detectar infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS. Se compararon entre las dos ciudades las frecuencias de factores individuales y ambientales, como el abuso policial, el riesgo de infección por el VIH y las conductas protectoras, usando regresión logística de una sola variable. RESULTADOS: De 624 mujeres, casi la mitad comunicaron la confiscación de jeringas por la policía a pesar de que es legal poseerlas; 55,6% informaron extorsión (en los últimos 6 meses, con proporciones significativamente mayores en Ciudad Juárez (P < 0,001. Los informes de solicitación reciente de favores sexuales (28,5% en Tijuana, 36,5% en

  18. El unanimismo en la campaña: Las actividades políticas en la zona rural de Buenos Aires entre Rivadavia y Rosas Quilmes, 1821-1839

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Santilli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo explora las manifestaciones políticas en el partido de Quilmes desde la implantación de la ley del sufragio hasta 1839. Para ello se utilizan las actas de elecciones celebradas en el partido en ese período, de los listados de clasificación de unitarios y federales emitidos por los jueces de paz en 1830 y 1831, de la nómina de embargados por el rosismo por presunto unitarismo y de los posteriormente exceptuados del pago de la Contribución Directa por servicios prestados a la causa de la Federación. Desde lo cuantitativo se establece la relación entre sufragantes y la totalidad de la población habilitada, su evolución y la frecuencia de participación. Muchos votantes no se repetían de elección en elección y una cantidad nada despreciable de votos eran de personas que no registran otro antecedente en el partido. La constatación de que en el principio se votaban candidatos diferenciados, es decir no había lista única, permite deducir que la unanimidad se construyó en la campaña así como años después fue necesario hacerlo también en la ciudad. Asimismo, el cruce entre las listas de votantes y su reiteración y la lista de premiados con la exención de la contribución directa permite colegir cómo el régimen pagaba la concurrencia a las mesas de votación y la fidelidad, o cómo se negociaba subrepticiamente el apoyo brindado.This article explores the political activities in the district (partido of Quilmes since the introduction of the suffrage act until 1839, using election records, classification lists of unitarios and federales issued by the "jueces de paz" (district judges in 1830 and 1831, confiscation lists against alleged unitarios and the lists of citizens exempted from direct tax for services rendered to the Confederation. It is possible to establish a ratio between voters and the total population enabled to vote, as well as its evolution and frequency of participation. Many voters did not recur in

  19. An evaluation of Kazakhstan nuclear export control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeligbayeva, G.; Masenov, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    of the goods (business, services) in Republic of Kazakhstan were corrected. On January 1, 1998, a new Criminal Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan entered into force. It provides punishment for violations of the export control law. According to the criminal code, production, proliferation, and use of weapons of mass destruction qualify as a crime against the peace and security of mankind. The illegal export of arms and technologies used for creation of WMD result in severe penalties, including confiscation of goods, imposition of fines, and possible subjection to criminal liability. This is a significant improvement over the previous criminal code that only allowed for administrative punishment of export control violators although it has yet to be used in the prosecution of any violations. The export control system of the Republic of Kazakhstan is continually improved and developed. It is currently planned to perform work on further development of legislative base, provide enterprises and public with information on principles and policy of export control, and stimulate international cooperation, technical and scientific assistance

  20. Health of an ex situ population of raptors (Falconiformes and Strigiformes in Mexico: diagnosis of internal parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Successful programs for ex situ and in situ conservation and management of raptors require detailed knowledge about their pathogens. The purpose of this study was to identify the internal parasites of some captive raptors in Mexico, as well as to verify their impact in the health status of infected birds. Birds of prey were confiscated and kept in captivity at the Centro de Investigación y Conservación de Vida Silvestre (CIVS in Los Reyes La Paz, Mexico State. For this, fecal and blood samples from 74 birds of prey (66 Falconiformes and eight Strigiformes of 15 species, juveniles and adults from both sexes (39 males and 35 female, were examined for the presence of gastrointestinal and blood parasites. Besides, the oropharyngeal cavity was macroscopically examined for the presence of lesions compatible with trichomoniasis. Among our results we found that lesions compatible with Trichomonas gallinae infection were detected only in two Red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis (2.7%; nevertheless, infected birds were in good physical condition. Overall, gastrointestinal parasites were found in 10 (13.5% raptors: nine falconiforms (13.6% and one strigiform (12.5%, which mainly presented a single type of gastrointestinal parasite (90%. Eimeria spp. was detected in Harris’s hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus, Swainson’s hawk (Buteo swainsoni, Red-tailed hawk (B. jamaicensis and Great horned owl (Bubo virginianus; whereas trematodes eggs were found in Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus and Swainson’s hawk (B. swainsoni. Furthermore, eggs of Capillaria spp. were found in one Swainson’s hawk (B. swainsoni, which was also infected by trematodes. Hemoprotozoarian were detected in five (6.7% falconiforms: Haemoproteus spp. in American kestrel (F. sparverius and Leucocytozoon spp. in Red-tailed hawk (B. jamaicencis. Despite this, no clinical signs referable to gastrointestinal or blood parasite infection were observed in any birds. All parasites identified were

  1. Three essays on access pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydee, Ahmed Nasim

    In the first essay, a theoretical model is developed to determine the time path of optimal access price in the telecommunications industry. Determining the optimal access price is an important issue in the economics of telecommunications. Setting a high access price discourages potential entrants; a low access price, on the other hand, amounts to confiscation of private property because the infrastructure already built by the incumbent is sunk. Furthermore, a low access price does not give the incumbent incentives to maintain the current network and to invest in new infrastructures. Much of the existing literature on access pricing suffers either from the limitations of a static framework or from the assumption that all costs are avoidable. The telecommunications industry is subject to high stranded costs and, therefore, to address this issue a dynamic model is imperative. This essay presents a dynamic model of one-way access pricing in which the compensation involved in deregulatory taking is formalized and then analyzed. The short run adjustment after deregulatory taking has occurred is carried out and discussed. The long run equilibrium is also analyzed. A time path for the Ramsey price is shown as the correct dynamic price of access. In the second essay, a theoretical model is developed to determine the time path of optimal access price for an infrastructure that is characterized by congestion and lumpy investment. Much of the theoretical literature on access pricing of infrastructure prescribes that the access price be set at the marginal cost of the infrastructure. In proposing this rule of access pricing, the conventional analysis assumes that infrastructure investments are infinitely divisible so that it makes sense to talk about the marginal cost of investment. Often it is the case that investments in infrastructure are lumpy and can only be made in large chunks, and this renders the marginal cost concept meaningless. In this essay, we formalize a model of

  2. The German system to prevent, detect and respond to illicit uses of nuclear materials and radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fechner, J.B.

    2001-01-01

    and export activities with legal requirements is carried through at the national borders, at sea- and airports, and also inside the country by the Customs Border Control, and by the Customs Investigation Service. Penalties for offences against nuclear laws and regulations, especially for any kind of illicit use of nuclear materials and radioactive sources, are stipulated in the German Penal Code. Detection of cases of illicit use of nuclear materials or radioactive sources will be either through intelligence and criminal investigation activities, also making use of under-cover agents and of information available through intelligence services and other security authorities. For the detection of radioactive substances by technical means, the police and the customs authorities are equipped with hand-held detectors and car-mounted systems. They will be supported by the radiation protection authorities with sophisticated detection and analysis systems. An in-depth chemical and physical analysis of confiscated nuclear material will be made by the European Institute for Transuranium Elements, of other radioactive materials by university institutes or nuclear research centres. Regulations and recommendations for the joint response of State and Federal authorities (nuclear supervisory and radiation protection authorities, law enforcement and customs authorities, explosives disablement services, fire brigades, etc.) in cases of illicit use of nuclear materials or radioactive substances are in place

  3. Organized massive forced migration of Serbs from Croatia in 1941

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škiljan Filip

    2012-01-01

    in an organized manner. One part of them managed to escape before they were arrested. The migration of priests was carried out through transit camps in Caprag and Požega. Massive deportations of the Serbian population through transit camps in Caprag, Bjelovar and Požega began with the arresting of Serbs in Zagreb in the first half of July 1941, and then continued in other districts of northern Croatia and Bosnia. The total number of migrations in an organized manner from the Croatian part of the NDH up to the beginning of September 1941, according to the name list drawn up in 2012, amounted to 9875 Serbs, although that number was not final since there were greater disparities for certain districts. By the end of September 1941, the Ustashas migrated 14,733 Serbs out of the NDH in a legal way. Croatians from Dalmatia, Herzegovina and the Croatian Zagorje as well as displaced Slovenians primarily originally from Styria, moved into their houses. The authorities of NDH confiscated the property of the forced out Serbs. Other forms of the Ustasha terror, like massive killings, caused intensive illegal emigration of Serbs from NDH to Serbia, which, according to German data, had already increased to around 180,000 relocated Serbs by the end of July, although it seems this number exceeded 200,000 by the end of September. Organized migration was ceased in October 1941 after the German authorities in Serbia forbid further immigration of Serbs from the NDH mainly because of the uprising in western Serbia. Part of the banished Serbs from the Požega concentration camp were returned home to the districts of Osijek, Garešnica, Križevac, Virovitica and Ludbreg. However, from the documentation of the Commissariat for Refugees in Belgrade, it is evident that the research on the migration of Serbs from Croatia and the whole of NDH was not finished in 1941, so the number of 200,000 of forced migrants who have left is not final.

  4. Resultados do controle de qualidade de produtos hemoderivados: análise sanitária Results of quality control of plasma derivatives products: sanitary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa C. Adati

    2009-08-01

    derivative products. This paper is based on the analysis of the 3100 plasma derivative products from January 2000 to December 2004: 31.6% (n=980 of human albumin, 28.7% (n=890 of factor VIII, 21.4% (n=662 of human immunoglobulins, 8.3% (n=257 of factor IX, 7.1% (n=22 of specific immunoglobulin classes containing anti-Rho (D immunoglobulin, anti-hepatitis B, anti-tetanus, anti-rabies and anti-varicella-zoster and 2.91% (n=91 of prothrombin complex. The products submitted to analysis came from airports and frontiers of Brasília, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, and products confiscated by the states of Pernambuco, Santa Catarina, Rio de Janeiro and Rio Grande do Sul. The type of analysis was characterized as: 92.3% control analysis; 5.9% fiscal analysis; 1.4% guidance and 0.4% preliminary analysis. In respect to imported plasma derivatives, 40.0% originated from the airport in Brasilia, 26.9% in São Paulo and 25.2% in Rio de Janeiro. In conclusion, 99.1% of the plasma derivative products analyzed was considered satisfactory and 0.9% unsatisfactory as identified by visual inspection, solubility, stability and chemical assays and pyrogenic and unspecific toxicity tests. Thus, the assessment of the quality of plasma derivative products is an essential tool for health surveillance.

  5. Contraband of Falcons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira G. Nikolenko

    2016-02-01

    , where were 8 Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus. On 02.04.2015 the Sanctuary of rare birds “Altai-Falcon” (Barnaul, the Altai Territory, Russia released 14 falcons (7 Saker Falcons Falco cherrug and 7 Peregrine Falcons F. peregrinus, confiscated in autumn 2014. On July 8, 2015 at the “Domodedovo” airport a Bulgarian citizen, who found 25 eggs of the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus, was detained. On 08.09.2015 on the territory of the cluster in Khakassky State Nature Reserve “Kamyzyakskaya steppe with lake Ulug Kohl” (Khakassia, two citizens of Syria and one native of Azerbaijan were take while attempting to catch falcons. On 11.09.2015 at Domodedovo airport staff of Rosselkhoznadzor suspended clearance of 8 Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus, which was brought to Moscow from the United Arab Emirates. On 18.09.2015 as a result of joint operational-search activities, officers of Altai Customs and Border Service of Russian FSS prevented an attempt of illegal export of 14 falcons from Russia to Kazakhstan. On 14.09.2015 24 Falcons were found during the check of flight № FDV-738 “Shymkent – Dubai” (Karavan.kz. Four members of the organized criminal group, involved in smuggling of Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus, were detained at a Moscow airport “Sheremetyevo” on 17.10.2015. Belgorod custom officers were not allowed to take 8 Saker Falcons (Falco cherrug out of Russia  on 20.10.2015. On 10.11.2015 Gosohotsluzhba of The Zabaikalsky Kray (Russia in cooperation with the police in Chernyshevsky District of the Zabaikalsky Kray detained a group of six foreigners (Syrians, Kurds, Azerbaijanian for illegal catching of falcons. On 20.11.2015 in Kamchatka officers of the Criminal Investigation of Kamchatka Police together with colleagues from the FSS regional department detained a resident of Apuka village of Olyutorsky district, which was seized nine Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus. On November, 2015 in Kamchatka two criminal cases were initiated on the illegal transport

  6. Eso's Situation in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Congress (Parliament) in 1964. According to this, the Chilean Government "grants to ESO the same immunities, prerogatives, privileges and facilities as the Government applies to the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America (CEPAL), as granted in the Convention signed in Santiago on 16 February 1953" (Article 4 of the Chile-ESO Convention). Through this, the Chilean Government has in particular recognized that "the possessions and properties of (ESO) wherever they may be, and whoever may have them in his possession, shall be exempt of registration, requisition, confiscation, expropriation and of whatever interference, may it be through executive, administrative, judicial or legislative action" (Art. 4, Sec. 8, CEPAL Convention). Such privileges and immunities are not peculiar to the relations between Chile and ESO. They apply, as already mentioned, to CEPAL as well as to all other United Nations' Agencies and they are today typically recognized by the host states of International Organisations throughout the world. The Chilean Government and ESO agreed in 1983-84 by an exchange of diplomatic notes that these privileges and immunities apply not only to the La Silla observatory, but equally to any other observatory site that the Organisation may establish in the future in the Republic of Chile. It is obvious that, in order to exclude a possible breach of international law, the reported preliminary decision requires to be considered and interpreted in the light of these privileges and immunities. ESO trusts that the competent Chilean authorities will take the appropriate action and decisions which are required for ensuring the Organisation's international status and its protection from any public interference into its possessions and properties. In a Press Conference at the ESO Headquarters in Santiago de Chile on February 13, 1995, Mr. Daniel Hofstadt, ESO's highest-ranking representative in Chile, stated on behalf of the Organisation that "ESO is in Chile with