WorldWideScience

Sample records for confinement transitions close

  1. Phase transitions and quark confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, A.M.; Gava, E.

    1978-02-01

    The publication collects six lectures on the following themes: quantum field theory and classical statistical mechanics, continuous symmetries, lattice gauge theories, the nature of confinement, a criterion for confinement and non-abelian Yang-Mills theories

  2. Anomalous structural transition of confined hard squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurin, Péter; Varga, Szabolcs; Odriozola, Gerardo

    2016-11-01

    Structural transitions are examined in quasi-one-dimensional systems of freely rotating hard squares, which are confined between two parallel walls. We find two competing phases: one is a fluid where the squares have two sides parallel to the walls, while the second one is a solidlike structure with a zigzag arrangement of the squares. Using transfer matrix method we show that the configuration space consists of subspaces of fluidlike and solidlike phases, which are connected with low probability microstates of mixed structures. The existence of these connecting states makes the thermodynamic quantities continuous and precludes the possibility of a true phase transition. However, thermodynamic functions indicate strong tendency for the phase transition and our replica exchange Monte Carlo simulation study detects several important markers of the first order phase transition. The distinction of a phase transition from a structural change is practically impossible with simulations and experiments in such systems like the confined hard squares.

  3. Changes in density fluctuations associated with confinement transitions close to a rational edge rotational transform in the W7-AS stellarator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoletnik, S,; Basse, Nils Plesner; Saffman, Mark

    2002-01-01

    At certain values of the edge rotational transform t(a), the confinement quality of plasmas in the Wendelstein 7-AS (W7-AS) stellarator is found to react very sensitively to small modifications of the edge rotational transform t(a). As t(a) can be reproducibly changed, either by external fields o...

  4. A dynamical model for plasma confinement transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilarczyk, Paweł; García, Luis; Carreras, Benjamin A; Llerena, Irene

    2012-01-01

    A three-equation model describing the evolution of the turbulence level, averaged shear flow and sheared zonal flow is analyzed using topological properties of the asymptotic solutions. An exploration in parameter space is done, identifying the attractor sets, which are fixed points and limit cycles. Then a more detailed analysis of all Morse sets is conducted using topological-combinatorial computations. This model allows the description of different types of transitions to improved plasma confinement regimes. (paper)

  5. Numerical modeling of the transition from low to high confinement in magnetically confined plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J Juul; Nielsen, A H; Madsen, J; Naulin, V; Xu, G S

    2016-01-01

    The transition dynamics from low (L) to high (H) mode confinement in magnetically confined plasmas is investigated using a four-field drift fluid model—HESEL (Hot Edge-Sol-Electrostatic). The model includes profile evolution and is solved in a 2D domain at the out-board mid-plane of a tokamak including both open and closed field lines. The results reveal different types of L–H-like transitions in response to ramping up the input power by increasing the ion temperature in the edge region. For a fast rising input power we obtain an abrupt transition, and for a slow rising power we obtain a L–I–H transition with an intermediate I-phase displaying limit-cycle oscillations (LCO). The model recovers the power threshold for the L–H transition, the scaling of the threshold with the density and with the loss-rate in the SOL, indicating a decrease in power threshold when switching from single to double null configuration. The results hold promises for developing full predictive modeling of the L–H transition, which is an essential step in understanding and optimizing fusion devices. (paper)

  6. Numerical modeling of the transition from low to high confinement in magnetically confined plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens Juul; Nielsen, Anders Henry; Madsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The transition dynamics from low (L) to high (H) mode confinement in magnetically confined plasmas is investigated using a four-field drift fluid model—HESEL (Hot Edge-Sol-Electrostatic). The model includes profile evolution and is solved in a 2D domain at the out-board mid-plane of a tokamak......–I–H transition with an intermediate I-phase displaying limit-cycle oscillations (LCO). The model recovers the power threshold for the L–H transition, the scaling of the threshold with the density and with the loss-rate in the SOL, indicating a decrease in power threshold when switching from single to double null...... including both open and closed field lines. The results reveal different types of L–H-like transitions in response to ramping up the input power by increasing the ion temperature in the edge region. For a fast rising input power we obtain an abrupt transition, and for a slow rising power we obtain a L...

  7. Simulation of transition dynamics to high confinement in fusion plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Henry; Xu, G. S.; Madsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The transition dynamics from the low (L) to the high (H) confinement mode in magnetically confined plasmas is investigated using a first-principles four-field fluid model. Numerical results are in agreement with measurements from the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak - EAST...

  8. On the expansion of the universe during the confinement transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkovszky, L.L.; Kaempfer, B.; Sysoev, V.M.

    1990-02-01

    The possibility of a mini-inflationary era before and during the cosmic confinement transition is demonstrated. The inflationary growth of the space is caused by some supercooling of the quark-gluon matter. We study the temperature evolution by exploiting nucleation theory. (orig.)

  9. Nonperturbative approach to quantum field theories: phase transitions and confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yankielowicz, S.

    1976-08-01

    Lectures are given on a nonperturbative approach to quantum field theories. Phenomena are discussed for which the usual weak coupling perturbative approach in terms of Feynman diagrams is of no assistance. Properties associated with large distance behavior, i.e., phase transitions, low lying spectra, coherent excitations which are presumably built out of the long wave structure of the theory are described. These methods are important for the study of strong coupling field theories and the question of quarks confinement. 25 references

  10. Holographic (de)confinement transitions in cosmological backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdmenger, Johanna; Ghoroku, Kazuo; Meyer, Rene

    2011-01-01

    For type IIB supergravity with a running axio-dilaton, we construct bulk solutions which admit a cosmological background metric of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker type. These solutions include both a dark radiation term in the bulk as well as a four-dimensional (boundary) cosmological constant, while gravity at the boundary remains nondynamical. We holographically calculate the stress-energy tensor, showing that it consists of two contributions: The first one, generated by the dark radiation term, leads to the thermal fluid of N=4 SYM theory, while the second, the conformal anomaly, originates from the boundary cosmological constant. Conservation of the boundary stress-tensor implies that the boundary cosmological constant is time-independent, such that there is no exchange between the two stress-tensor contributions. We then study (de)confinement by evaluating the Wilson loop in these backgrounds. While the dark radiation term favors deconfinement, a negative cosmological constant drives the system into a confined phase. When both contributions are present, we find an oscillating universe with negative cosmological constant which undergoes periodic (de)confinement transitions as the scale of three-space expands and recontracts.

  11. H-mode confinement properties close to the power threshold in ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryter, F; Fuchs, J; Schneider, W; Sips, A; Staebler, A; Stober, J

    2008-01-01

    Confinement properties close to the H-mode power threshold are studied in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The results show that good confinement can be obtained close to the threshold with Type-I ELMs. The existence of Type-I ELMs does not necessarily require the heating power to be higher than the H-Mode power threshold, but it requires collisionality to be low enough. At higher collisionality Type-III ELMs replace the Type-I ELMs and confinement time is reduced by about 20%

  12. Equilibrium flavor dynamics during the cosmic confinement transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaempfer, B.

    1988-10-01

    The dynamics of the flavor composition of strongly interacting matter during the cosmic confinement transition is followed up in a simplified thermodynamical model. Relying on thermal, mechanical and chemical equilibrium the strangeness fraction of strongly interacting matter is analyzed. Due to equilibrium with respect to ΔS=0 and ΔS=1 weak interactions the relations between different flavors depend strongly on the poorly known lepton excess. In a universe where the lepton (antilepton) excess is in the same order of magnitude as the baryon excess, the strange quark abundancies are suppressed (enhanced). In the hadron phase the strange baryons carry up to a half of the baryon excess. (author) 22 refs.; 9 figs

  13. Pattern Transitions in Bacterial Oscillating System under Nanofluidic Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie-Pan; Chou, Chia-Fu

    2011-03-01

    Successful binary fission in E. coli relies on remarkable oscillatory behavior of the MinCDE protein system to determine the exact division site. The most favorable models to explain this fascinating spatiotemporal regulation on dynamic MinDE pattern formation in cells are based on reaction-diffusion scenario. Although not fully understood, geometric factors caused by bacterial morphology play a crucial role in MinDE dynamics. In the present study, bacteria were cultured, confined and reshaped in various micro/nanofluidic devices, to mimic either curvature changes of cell peripherals. Fluorescence imaging was utilized to detail the mode transitions in multiple MinDE patterns. The understanding of the physics in multiple pattern formations is further complemented via in silico modeling. The study synergizes the join merits of in vivo, in vitro and in silico approaches, to grasp the insight of stochastic dynamics inherited from the noisy mesoscopic biophysics. We acknowledge support from the Foresight Project, Academia Sinica.

  14. Layering of confined water between two graphene sheets and its liquid–liquid transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xuyan; Duan Yunrui; Wang Long; Liu Sida; Li Tao; Li Yifan; Li Hui

    2017-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to explore the layering structure and liquid–liquid transition of liquid water confined between two graphene sheets with a varied distance at different pressures. Both the size of nanoslit and pressure could cause the layering and liquid–liquid transition of the confined water. With increase of pressure and the nanoslit’s size, the confined water could have a more obvious layering. In addition, the neighboring water molecules firstly form chain structure, then will transform into square structure, and finally become triangle with increase of pressure. These results throw light on layering and liquid–liquid transition of water confined between two graphene sheets. (paper)

  15. Sandwich structure of plasma edge during transition to improved confinement regime in L-2M stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchepetov, S V; Kholnov, Yu V; Fedyanin, O I; Kuznetsov, A B; Vasilkov, D G; Akulina, D K; Batanov, G M; Gladkov, G A; Grebenshchikov, S E; Meshcheryakov, A I

    2008-01-01

    Transitions to the regime with better confinement in the L-2M stellarator are presented. Transitions are indicated only at sufficiently high plasma densities, and for a given value of average density they appear only at higher heating powers. Each transition is easily identified by a sudden fast ( e ). In the bulk of the plasma parameters evolve slowly. Drastic changes are observed in the region close to the plasma boundary where two moderate order rational magnetic surfaces are located with the rotational transform μ taking the values 2/3 and 3/4. Relative values of plasma parameters' fluctuations and their spectrum widths decrease significantly in this region. The region has a definite sandwich structure being subdivided by the above-named moderate order rational magnetic surfaces into three smaller zones with different plasma parameter dynamics. Transition is triggered by local disturbances of plasma parameters that are caused by instabilities in the vicinity of magnetic surfaces where μ is equal to 2/3 or 3/4. Different hypotheses on the nature of the phenomenon are discussed

  16. Phase transition over gauge group center and quark confinement in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhlachev, S.B.; Makeenko, Yu.N.

    1979-01-01

    A lattice gauge model with the phase transition corresponding to spontaneous breakdown of the group center symmetry is considered. It is shown that the phase diagram, obtained in multicolor case, separates the high and low-temperature phases with confined and nonconfined quarks. The possibility of the Lorentz-invariant continuum limit in the phase with permanently confined quarks is confirmed

  17. Dimensionally similar studies of confinement and H-mode transition in ASDEX Upgrade and JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryter, F.; Stober, J.; Suttrop, W.

    2001-01-01

    Joint experiments on confinement and L-H transition were performed in ASDEX Upgrade and JET. The confinement experiments suggest that the invariance principle is not always fulfilled at high density. For the L-H transition studies, the dimensionless variables taken at the plasma edge can be in general only made identical per pair, due to the condition imposed by the L-H transition. This new approach to investigate the L-H physics suggests a weak dependence of the L-H transition mechanism on collisionality. (author)

  18. Dimensionally similar studies of confinement and H-mode transition in ASDEX Upgrade and JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryter, F.; Stober, J.; Suttrop, W.

    1999-01-01

    Joint experiments on confinement and L-H transition were performed in ASDEX Upgrade and JET. The confinement experiments suggest that the invariance principle is not always fulfilled at high density. For the L-H transition studies, the dimensionless variables taken at the plasma edge can be in general only made identical per pair, due to the condition imposed by the L-H transition. This new approach to investigate the L-H physics suggests a weak dependence of the L-H transition mechanism on collisionality. (author)

  19. Phase transition to QGP matter : confined vs deconfined matter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maire, Antonin

    2015-01-01

    Simplified phase diagram of the nuclear phase transition, from the regular hadronic matter to the QGP phase. The sketch is meant to describe the transition foreseen along the temperature axis, at low baryochemical potential, µB.

  20. Transitions to improved core electron heat confinement in JT-II plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, T.; Medina, F.; Ascasibar, E.; Balbin, R.; Castejon, F.; Hidalgo, C.; Lopez-Bruna, D.; Petrov, S.

    2008-01-01

    Transitions to improved core electron heat confinement are triggered by low order rational magnetic surfaces in TJ-II ECH plasmas. Transitions triggered by the rational surface n=4/m=2 show an increase in the ion temperature synchronized with the increase in the electron temperature. SXR measurements demonstrate that, under certain circumstances, the rational surface positioned inside the plasma core region precedes and provides a trigger for the transition. (author)

  1. What controls the transition from confined to unconfined flow? : Analysis of hydraulics in a river delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiatt, Matthew; Passalacqua, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Recent field work at the Wax Lake Delta (WLD) in coastal Louisiana indicates lateral outflow from channels to islands upstream of the receiving basin; in this region of the delta the flow transitions from confined to unconfined (i.e., from a uniform discharge profile to a nonuniform discharge

  2. Beta relaxation of nonpolymeric liquids close to the glass transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Boye; Christensen, Tage Emil; Dyre, Jeppe

    2000-01-01

    Dielectric beta relaxation in a pyridine-toluene solution is studied close to the glass transition. Loss peak frequency and maximum loss both exhibit thermal hysteresis. An annealing-state-independent parameter involving loss and loss peak frequency is identified. This parameter has a simple...

  3. Study of Confinement/Deconfinement Transition in AdS/QCD with Generalized Warp Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobhit Sachan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study analytical solutions of charged black holes and thermally charged AdS with generalized warped factors in Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton system. We calculate Euclidean action for charged AdS and thermally charged AdS. The actions in both backgrounds are regularized by the method of background subtraction. The study of phase transition between charged black hole and thermally charged AdS gives an insight into the confinement/deconfinement transition. The plots of grand potential versus temperature and chemical potential versus transition temperature are obtained.

  4. Mobility restrictions and glass transition behaviour of an epoxy resin under confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djemour, A; Sanctuary, R; Baller, J

    2015-04-07

    Confinement can have a big influence on the dynamics of glass formers in the vicinity of the glass transition. Already 40 to 50 K above the glass transition temperature, thermal equilibration of glass formers can be strongly influenced by the confining substrate. We investigate the linear thermal expansion and the specific heat capacity cp of an epoxy resin (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A, DGEBA) in a temperature interval of 120 K around the glass transition temperature. The epoxy resin is filled into controlled pore glasses with pore diameters between 4 and 111 nm. Since DGEBA can form H-bonds with silica surfaces, we also investigate the influence of surface silanization of the porous substrates. In untreated substrates a core/shell structure of the epoxy resin can be identified. The glass transition behaviours of the bulk phase and that of the shell phase are different. In silanized substrates, the shell phase disappears. At a temperature well above the glass transition, a second transition is found for the bulk phase - both in the linear expansion data as well as in the specific heat capacity. The cp data do not allow excluding the glass transition of a third phase as being the cause for this transition, whereas the linear expansion data do so. The additional transition temperature is interpreted as a separation between two regimes: above this temperature, macroscopic flow of the bulk phase inside the porous structure is possible to balance the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients between DGEBA and the substrate. Below the transition temperature, this degree of freedom is hindered by geometrical constraints of the porous substrates. Moreover, this second transition could also be found in the linear expansion data of the shell phase.

  5. Confinement/deconfinement transition from symmetry breaking in gauge/gravity duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Čubrović, Mihailo [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Cologne,Zülpicher Strasse 77, D-50937, Cologne (Germany)

    2016-10-19

    We study the confinement/deconfinement transition in a strongly coupled system triggered by an independent symmetry-breaking quantum phase transition in gauge/gravity duality. The gravity dual is an Einstein-scalar-dilaton system with AdS near-boundary behavior and soft wall interior at zero scalar condensate. We study the cases of neutral and charged condensate separately. In the former case the condensation breaks the discrete ℤ{sub 2} symmetry while a charged condensate breaks the continuous U(1) symmetry. After the condensation of the order parameter, the non-zero vacuum expectation value of the scalar couples to the dilaton, changing the soft wall geometry into a non-confining and anisotropically scale-invariant infrared metric. In other words, the formation of long-range order is immediately followed by the deconfinement transition and the two critical points coincide. The confined phase has a scale — the confinement scale (energy gap) which vanishes in the deconfined case. Therefore, the breaking of the symmetry of the scalar (ℤ{sub 2} or U(1)) in turn restores the scaling symmetry in the system and neither phase has a higher overall symmetry than the other. When the scalar is charged the phase transition is continuous which goes against the Ginzburg-Landau theory where such transitions generically only occur discontinuously. This phenomenon has some commonalities with the scenario of deconfined criticality. The mechanism we have found has applications mainly in effective field theories such as quantum magnetic systems. We briefly discuss these applications and the relation to real-world systems.

  6. Stratification-induced order--disorder phase transitions in molecularly thin confined films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoen, M.; Diestler, D.J.; Cushman, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    By means of grand canonical ensemble Monte Carlo simulations of a monatomic film confined between unstructured (i.e., molecularly smooth) rigidly fixed solid surfaces (i.e., walls), we investigate the mechanism of molecular stratification, i.e., the tendency of atoms to arrange themselves in layers parallel with the walls. Stratification is accompanied by a heretofore unnoticed order--disorder phase transition manifested as a maximum in density fluctuations at the transition point. The transition involves phases with different transverse packing characteristics, although the number of layers accommodated between the walls remains unchanged during the transition, which occurs periodically as the film thickens. However, with increasing thickness, an increasingly smaller proportion of the film is structurally affected by the transition. Thus, the associated maximum in density fluctuations diminishes rapidly with film thickness

  7. New Modular Heliotron system compatible with closed helical divertor and good plasma confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Watanabe, K.Y.

    1994-04-01

    A new helical system ('Modular Heliotron') with improved modular coils compatible with efficient closed helical divertor and good plasma confinement property is proposed based on a Heliotron system with continuous helical coils and one pair of poloidal coils. The physics optimization of this system as a function of the gap angle between adjacent modular coils has been carried out by means of vacuum magnetic surface calculations and finite-beta plasma analyses, and a new improved coil system is invented by combining sectored helical field coils with sectored returning poloidal field coils. The Modular Heliotron with standard coil winding law (reference Modular Heliotron) was previously proposed, but it is found that this is not appropriate to keep clean helical divertor and high beta configuration when the coil gap becomes large. By modulating the modular coil winding with outside-plus and inside-minus pitch modulation, almost the same good magnetic configuration as that of a conventional Heliotron can be produced. The optimal gap angle is determined as a function of the modulation parameter. This improved Modular Heliotron permits larger gap angle between adjacent modules and produces more clean helical divertor configuration than the reference Modular Heliotron. All these helical system are created by only modular coils without poloidal coils. (author)

  8. New modular heliotron system compatible with closed helical divertor and good plasma confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Watanabe, K.Y.

    1995-01-01

    A new helical system ('modular heliotron') with improved modular coils compatible with an efficient closed helical divertor and a good plasma confinement property is proposed, based on a heliotron system with continuous helical coils and one pair of poloidal coils. The physics optimization of this system as a function of the gap angle between adjacent modular coils has been carried out by means of vacuum magnetic surface calculations and finite-beta plasma analyses, and a new improved coil system is invented by combining sectored helical field coils with sectored returning poloidal field coils. A modular heliotron with standard coil winding law (the reference modular heliotron) was previously proposed, but it is found that this was not appropriate to keep a clean helical divertor and high beta configuration when the coil gap becomes large. By modulating the modular coil winding with outside-plus and inside-minus pitch modulation, almost the same good magnetic configuration as that of a conventional heliotron can be produced. The optimal gap angle is determined as a function of the modulation parameter. This improved modular heliotron permits a larger gap angle between adjacent modules and produces a cleaner helical divertor configuration than the reference modular heliotron. All these helical systems are created by only modular coils without poloidal coils. (author). Letter-to-the-editor. 11 refs, 7 figs

  9. Confinement-deconfinement phase transition in hot and dense QCD at large N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.

    2008-01-01

    We conjecture that the confinement-deconfinement phase transition in QCD at large number of colors N and N f c where θ dependence experiences a sudden change in behavior [A. Parnachev, A. Zhitnitsky, (arXiv: 0806.1736 [hep-ph])]. The conjecture is also supported by quantum field theory arguments when the instanton calculations (which trigger the θ dependence) are under complete theoretical control for T>T c , suddenly break down immediately below T c with sharp changes in the θ dependence. Finally, the conjecture is supported by a number of numerical lattice results. We employ this conjecture to study confinement-deconfinement phase transition of dense QCD at large μ in large N limit by analyzing the θ dependence. We find that the confinement-deconfinement phase transition at N f c ∼√(N)Λ QCD . This result agrees with recent findings by McLerran and Pisarski [L. McLerran, R.D. Pisarski, Nucl. Phys. A 796 (2007) 83]. We also speculate on case when N f ∼N

  10. Influence of confining prestress on the transition from interface defeat to penetration in ceramic targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Lundberg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Replica scaled impact experiments with unconfined ceramic targets have shown that the transition velocity, i.e., the impact velocity at which interface defeat ceases and ceramic penetration occurs, decreased as the length scale increased. A possible explanation of how this scale effect is related to the formation of a cone crack in the ceramic has been presented by the authors in an earlier paper. Here, the influence of confinement and prestress on cone cracking and transition velocity is investigated. The hypothesis is that prestress will suppress the formation and growth of the cone crack by lowering the driving stress. A set of impact experiments has been performed in which the transition velocity for four different levels of prestress has been determined. The transition velocities as a function of the level of confining prestress is compared to an analytical model for the influence of prestress on the formation and extension of the cone crack in the ceramic material. Both experiments and model indicate that prestress has a strong influence on the transition from interface defeat to penetration, although the model underestimates the influence of prestress.

  11. Unusual Crystallization Behavior Close to the Glass Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgranges, Caroline; Delhommelle, Jerome

    2018-03-01

    Using molecular simulations, we shed light on the mechanism underlying crystal nucleation in metal alloys and unravel the interplay between crystal nucleation and glass transition, as the conditions of crystallization lie close to this transition. While decreasing the temperature of crystallization usually results in a lower free energy barrier, we find an unexpected reversal of behavior for glass-forming alloys as the temperature of crystallization approaches the glass transition. For this purpose, we simulate the crystallization process in two glass-forming Copper alloys, Ag6 Cu4 , which has a positive heat of mixing, and CuZr, characterized by a large negative heat of mixing. Our results allow us to identify this unusual behavior as directly correlated with a nonmonotonic temperature dependence for the formation energy of connected icosahedral structures, which are incompatible with crystalline order and impede the development of the crystal nucleus, leading to an unexpectedly larger free energy barrier at low temperature. This, in turn, promotes the formation of a predominantly closed-packed critical nucleus, with fewer defects, thereby suggesting a new way to control the structure of the crystal nucleus, which is of key importance in catalysis.

  12. Soft matter in hard confinement: phase transition thermodynamics, structure, texture, diffusion and flow in nanoporous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Spatial confinement in nanoporous media affects the structure, thermodynamics and mobility of molecular soft matter often markedly. This article reviews thermodynamic equilibrium phenomena, such as physisorption, capillary condensation, crystallisation, self-diffusion, and structural phase transitions as well as selected aspects of the emerging field of spatially confined, non-equilibrium physics, i.e. the rheology of liquids, capillarity-driven flow phenomena, and imbibition front broadening in nanoporous materials. The observations in the nanoscale systems are related to the corresponding bulk phenomenologies. The complexity of the confined molecular species is varied from simple building blocks, like noble gas atoms, normal alkanes and alcohols to liquid crystals, polymers, ionic liquids, proteins and water. Mostly, experiments with mesoporous solids of alumina, gold, carbon, silica, and silicon with pore diameters ranging from a few up to 50 nm are presented. The observed peculiarities of nanopore-confined condensed matter are also discussed with regard to applications. A particular emphasis is put on texture formation upon crystallisation in nanoporous media, a topic both of high fundamental interest and of increasing nanotechnological importance, e.g. for the synthesis of organic/inorganic hybrid materials by melt infiltration, the usage of nanoporous solids in crystal nucleation or in template-assisted electrochemical deposition of nano structures.

  13. Nonaffinity in amorphous solids close to the jamming transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arévalo Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonaffinity is known to be an integral part of the response of amorphous solids. Its role is particularly relevant in particulate systems close to their jamming transition, where it dominates the elastic response. Thus, to determine the elastic properties of amorphous solids it is essential to rationalize the features of their nonaffine response. Via numerical simulations we investigate the relation between the non affine response and the vibrational properties of model amorphous materials. We show that, contrary to previous speculations, modes below the Boson peak are those mostly responsible for the nonaffine response.

  14. Glass transition and relaxation dynamics of propylene glycol-water solutions confined in clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamin, Khalid; Björklund, Jimmy; Nyhlén, Fredrik; Yttergren, Madeleine; Mârtensson, Lena; Swenson, Jan

    2014-07-01

    The molecular dynamics of aqueous solutions of propylene glycol (PG) and propylene glycol methylether (PGME) confined in a two-dimensional layer-structured Na-vermiculite clay has been studied by broadband dielectric spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. As typical for liquids in confined geometries the intensity of the cooperative α-relaxation becomes considerably more suppressed than the more local β-like relaxation processes. In fact, at high water contents the calorimetric glass transition and related structural α-relaxation cannot even be observed, due to the confinement. Thus, the intensity of the viscosity related α-relaxation is dramatically reduced, but its time scale as well as the related glass transition temperature Tg are for both systems only weakly influenced by the confinement. In the case of the PGME-water solutions it is an important finding since in the corresponding bulk system a pronounced non-monotonic concentration dependence of the glass transition related dynamics has been observed due to the growth of hydrogen bonded relaxing entities of water bridging between PGME molecules [J. Sjöström, J. Mattsson, R. Bergman, and J. Swenson, Phys. Chem. B 115, 10013 (2011)]. The present results suggest that the same type of structural entities are formed in the quasi-two-dimensional space between the clay platelets. It is also observed that the main water relaxation cannot be distinguished from the β-relaxation of PG or PGME in the concentration range up to intermediate water contents. This suggests that these two processes are coupled and that the water molecules affect the time scale of the β-relaxation. However, this is most likely true also for the corresponding bulk solutions, which exhibit similar time scales of this combined relaxation process below Tg. Finally, it is found that at higher water contents the water relaxation does not merge with, or follow, the α-relaxation above Tg, but instead crosses the

  15. Low–intermediate–high confinement transition in HL-2A tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, J.; Dong, J.Q.; Yan, L.W.; Hong, W.Y.; Zhao, K.J.; Huang, Z.H.; Ji, X.Q.; Zhong, W.L.; Yu, D.L.; Nie, L.; Song, X.M.; Yang, Q.W.; Ding, X.T.; Duan, X.R.; Liu, Yong; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.; Zou, X.L.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of low–intermediate–high confinement transitions was studied using a four-step Langmuir probe in the HL-2A edge plasma. Two types (dubbed type-Y and type-J) of limit cycle oscillations (LCOs) with opposite temporal ordering between the radial electric field and turbulence were first observed. In type-Y, the turbulence grows first, followed by the localized electric field. In contrast, the electric field leads turbulence in type-J. In addition, the Reynolds stress gradient is found not enough to drive the LCO flow and the three-wave nonlinear coupling is weak there. The continuously increasing amplitude of magnetic fluctuations and the significant correlation between the magnetic fluctuation and the electron pressure gradient indicate an important role of diamagnetic drifts in the L–H transition. Mode numbers of magnetic fluctuations in the LCO frequency are identified to be m/n = 1/0. (paper)

  16. Mean and oscillating plasma flows and turbulence interactions across the L-H confinement transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, G D; Angioni, C; Ryter, F; Sauter, P; Vicente, J

    2011-02-11

    A complex interaction between turbulence driven E × B zonal flow oscillations, i.e., geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs), the turbulence, and mean equilibrium flows is observed during the low to high (L-H) plasma confinement mode transition in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. Below the L-H threshold at low densities a limit-cycle oscillation forms with competition between the turbulence level and the GAM flow shearing. At higher densities the cycle is diminished, while in the H mode the cycle duration becomes too short to sustain the GAM, which is replaced by large amplitude broadband flow perturbations. Initially GAM amplitude increases as the H-mode transition is approached, but is then suppressed in the H mode by enhanced mean flow shear.

  17. Low-to-high confinement transition mediated by turbulence radial wave number spectral shift in a fusion plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, G. S.; Wan, B. N.; Wang, H. Q.

    2016-01-01

    A new model for the low-to-high (L-H) confinement transition has been developed based on a new paradigm for turbulence suppression by velocity shear [G. M. Staebler et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 055003 (2013)]. The model indicates that the L-H transition can be mediated by a shift in the radial wa...

  18. Transition to the improved confinement mode in torsatron U-3M in range of rare collision frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashnev, V.K.; Sorokovov, E.L.; Berezhnyj, V.L. and others

    2010-01-01

    Transition to the mode of improved plasma confinement in U-3M facility earlier was discussed in works [1-3]. In these studies discussed the various processes in the confinement volume and in the peripheral plasma that accompany the transition process. Study of plasma confinement and process of transition into the mode of improved confinement just at rare collisions between plasma particles is very important because future fusion reactor based on a toroidal magnetic trap will operate under plasma parameters with rare collision frequencies ('banana' mode). The peculiarity of experiments on torsatron U-3M is that they are conducted at small density n-bar e ≤ 2 lover case x 10 12 cm -3 and, thereby, the frequency of collisions in the confinement area is in the 'banana' mode [4]. And herewith, time of collisions is essentially smaller (up to several orders for electrons and up to the order for ions) than the lifetime of plasma particles. It ensures maxwellization of distribution function and possibility to compare the obtained results with data from other experiments. The objective of this work is to study the main regularity of transition into the mode of improved confinement. Also it is interesting to compare the results with data from other facilities.

  19. The glass transition in nanoscaled confinement probed by dynamic mechanical spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppensteiner, J.

    2009-01-01

    A glass transition in a liquid is characterized by a massive change in some of its physical properties as viscosity η and molecular relaxation time τ, whereas no change in structure or long range order can be detected. Up to now an overall theory explaining the very nature of the glass transition and therewith all experimental findings is not available. Today's common approach, reaching back to Adams and Gibbs in 1963, is based on a cooperative rearrangement of molecules in groups whose size increases, when the glass transition is approached. In this picture a typical number of correlated molecules N corr,T form a compact cluster of a typical size ξ, predicted to be in the nm-range at T g . If this is true, nanoscaled confinement of a glass forming liquid should considerably influence this transition. In a pioneer work of 1991 Jackson and McKenna found a downshift ΔT g α 1/d in nm-sized pores of diameter d. This paper started a new eld of physics, the glass transition in confinement being investigated in experiment, simulation and theory. 20 years of research created partly contradictory results pointing to a large influence of side effects in confinement, opponent in their impact on T g . Both T g upshifts and downshifts were found in 2D and 3D conning geometries showing that spatially hindered molecular rearrangement is blurred by surface interactions and a negative pressure effect. An accurate investigation of side effects therefore is essential. The present thesis contributes to this rich eld and aims to help bridging the often cited gap between theory and experiments. For the rst time a mechanical approach is chosen and the dynamic elastic response of a mesoporous host matrix filled with a glass forming liquid is used to model the liquids behaviour across the glass transition. Low frequency dynamic mechanical measurements are proven to be very sensitive of the vitrification of the filling liquid. DMA turned out as a highly efficient and versatile tool

  20. High-Energy Cosmic Ray Self-Confinement Close to Extra-Galactic Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Pasquale; Amato, Elena; D'Angelo, Marta

    2015-09-18

    The ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays observed on the Earth are most likely accelerated in extra-Galactic sources. For the typical luminosities invoked for such sources, the electric current associated to the flux of cosmic rays that leave them is large. The associated plasma instabilities create magnetic fluctuations that can efficiently scatter particles. We argue that this phenomenon forces cosmic rays to be self-confined in the source proximity for energies Esources for energies Esource luminosity in units of 10^{44} erg/s.

  1. Confinement-induced liquid crystalline transitions in amyloid fibril cholesteric tactoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Gustav; Arcari, Mario; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2018-04-01

    Chirality is ubiquitous in nature and plays crucial roles in biology, medicine, physics and materials science. Understanding and controlling chirality is therefore an important research challenge with broad implications. Unlike other chiral colloids, such as nanocellulose or filamentous viruses, amyloid fibrils form nematic phases but appear to miss their twisted form, the cholesteric or chiral nematic phases, despite a well-defined chirality at the single fibril level. Here we report the discovery of cholesteric phases in amyloids, using β-lactoglobulin fibrils shortened by shear stresses. The physical behaviour of these new cholesteric materials exhibits unprecedented structural complexity, with confinement-driven ordering transitions between at least three types of nematic and cholesteric tactoids. We use energy functional theory to rationalize these results and observe a chirality inversion from the left-handed amyloids to right-handed cholesteric droplets. These findings deepen our understanding of cholesteric phases, advancing their use in soft nanotechnology, nanomaterial templating and self-assembly.

  2. Inorganic Nanoparticle Induced Morphological Transition for Confined Self-Assembly of Block Copolymers within Emulsion Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; He, Yun; Yan, Nan; Zhu, Yutian; Hu, Yuexin

    2017-09-07

    Recently, it has been reported that the incorporation of functional inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) into the three-dimensional (3D) confined self-assembly of block copolymers (BCPs) creates the unique nanostructured hybrid composites, which can not only introduce new functions to BCPs but also induce some interesting morphological transitions of BCPs. In the current study, we systematically investigate the cooperative self-assembly of a series of size-controlled and surface chemistry-tunable gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) diblock copolymer within the emulsion droplets. The influences of the size, content, and surface chemistry of the AuNPs on the coassembled nanostructures as well as the spatial distribution of AuNPs in the hybrid particles are examined. It is found that the size and content of the AuNPs are related to the entropic interaction, while the surface chemistry of AuNPs is related to the enthalpic interaction, which can be utilized to tailor the self-assembled morphologies of block copolymer confined in the emulsion droplets. As the content of PS-coated AuNPs increases, the morphology of the resulting AuNPs/PS-b-P2VP hybrid particles changes from the pupa-like particles to the bud-like particles and then to the onion-like particles. However, a unique morphological transition from the pupa-like particles to the mushroom-like particles is observed as the content of P4VP-coated AuNPs increases. More interestingly, it is observed that the large AuNPs are expelled to the surface of the BCP particles to reduce the loss in the conformational entropy of the block segment, which can arrange into the strings of necklaces on the surfaces of the hybrid particles.

  3. Transitions to improved core electron heat confinement triggered by low order rational magnetic surfaces in the stellarator TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, T.; Medina, F.; Lopez-Bruna, D.; AscasIbar, E.; BalbIn, R.; Cappa, A.; Castejon, F.; Eguilior, S.; Fernandez, A.; Guasp, J.; Hidalgo, C.; Petrov, S.

    2007-01-01

    Transitions to improved core electron heat confinement are triggered by low order rational magnetic surfaces in TJ-II electron cyclotron heated (ECH) plasmas. Experiments are performed changing the magnetic shear around the rational surface n = 3/m = 2 to study its influence on the transition; ECH power modulation is used to look at transport properties. The improvement in the electron heat confinement shows no obvious dependence on the magnetic shear. Transitions triggered by the rational surface n = 4/m = 2 show, in addition, an increase in the ion temperature synchronized with the increase in the electron temperature. Ion temperature changes had not been previously observed either in TJ-II or in any other helical device. SXR measurements demonstrate that, under certain circumstances, the rational surface positioned inside the plasma core region precedes and provides a trigger for the transition

  4. Partial to complete wetting transitions in immiscible ternary blends with PLA: the influence of interfacial confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolali, Ali M; Favis, Basil D

    2017-04-12

    In this study it is shown that the three different intermediate phases in melt blended ternary PLA/PHBV/PBS, PLA/PBAT/PE and PLA/PE/PBAT systems all demonstrate partial wetting, but have very different wetting behaviors as a function of composition and annealing. The interfacial tension of the various components, their spreading coefficients and the contact angles of the confined partially wet droplets at the interface are examined in detail. A wetting transition from partially wet droplets to a complete layer at the interface is observed for both PHBV and PBAT by increasing the concentration and also by annealing. In contrast, in PLA/PE/PBAT, the partially wet droplets of PE at the interface of PLA/PBAT coalesce and grow in size, but remain partially wet even at a high PE concentration of 20% and after 30 min of quiescent annealing. The dewetting speed of the intermediate phase is found to be the principal factor controlling these wetting transitions. This work shows the significant potential for controlled wetting and structuring in ternary polymer systems.

  5. Experimental and theoretical study on transition boiling concerning downward-facing horizontal surface in confined space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, D.W.; Su, G.H.; Tian, W.X.; Sugiyama, K.; Qiu, S.Z.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental study has been conducted to examine the pool boiling occurs on a relative large downward-facing round surface with a diameter of 300 mm in confined water pool at atmospheric pressure. An artificial neural network (ANN) has been trained successfully based on the experimental data for predicting Nusselt number of transition boiling in the present study. The input parameters of the ANN are wall superheat, ΔT w , the ratio of the gap size to the diameter of the heated surface, δ/D, Prandtl number and Rayleigh number. The output is Nusselt number, Nu. The results show that: Nu decreases with increasing ΔT w , and increases generally with an increase of δ/D. Nu increases with increasing Pr when gap size is smaller than 4.0 mm. And Nu decreases initially and then increases with increasing Pr as gap size bigger than 5.0 mm. The results also indicate that the influence of Grashof number, Gr, could be negligible. Finally, a new correlation was proposed to predict the transition boiling heat transfer under the present condition. The comparisons between the prediction of the new correlation and experimental data show a reasonable agreement

  6. Phase transitions in ideal and weakly interacting Bose gases with a finite number of particles confined in a box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianhui; Ma Yongli

    2009-01-01

    We generalize the scheme to characterize phase transitions of finite systems in a complex temperature plane and approach the classifications of phase transitions in ideal and weakly interacting Bose gases of a finite number of particles, confined in a cubic box of volume L 3 with different boundary conditions. For this finite ideal Bose system, by extending the classification parameters to all regions, we predict that the phase transition for periodic boundary conditions is of second order, while the transition in Dirichlet boundary conditions is of first order. For a weakly interacting Bose gas with periodic boundary conditions, we discuss the effects of finite particle numbers and inter-particle interactions on the nature of the phase transitions. We show that this homogenous weakly interacting Bose gas undergoes a second-order phase transition, which is in accordance with universality arguments for infinite systems. We also discuss the dependence of transition temperature on interaction strengths and particle numbers.

  7. Changes in core electron temperature fluctuations across the ohmic energy confinement transition in Alcator C-Mod plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, C.; White, A.E.; Howard, N.T.; Oi, C.Y.; Rice, J.E.; Gao, C.; Ennever, P.; Porkolab, M.; Parra, F.; Ernst, D.; Walk, J.; Hughes, J.W.; Irby, J.; Kasten, C.; Hubbard, A.E.; Greenwald, M.J.; Mikkelsen, D.

    2013-01-01

    The first measurements of long wavelength (k y ρ s < 0.3) electron temperature fluctuations in Alcator C-Mod made with a new correlation electron cyclotron emission diagnostic support a long-standing hypothesis regarding the confinement transition from linear ohmic confinement (LOC) to saturated ohmic confinement (SOC). Electron temperature fluctuations decrease significantly (∼40%) crossing from LOC to SOC, consistent with a change from trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence domination to ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence as the density is increased. Linear stability analysis performed with the GYRO code (Candy and Waltz 2003 J. Comput. Phys. 186 545) shows that TEMs are dominant for long wavelength turbulence in the LOC regime and ITG modes are dominant in the SOC regime at the radial location (ρ ∼ 0.8) where the changes in electron temperature fluctuations are measured. In contrast, deeper in the core (ρ < 0.8), linear stability analysis indicates that ITG modes remain dominant across the LOC/SOC transition. This radial variation suggests that the robust global changes in confinement of energy and momentum occurring across the LOC/SOC transition are correlated to local changes in the dominant turbulent mode near the edge. (paper)

  8. On the limits of statistical learning: Intertrial contextual cueing is confined to temporally close contingencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Cyril; Didierjean, André; Maquestiaux, François; Goujon, Annabelle

    2018-04-12

    Since the seminal study by Chun and Jiang (Cognitive Psychology, 36, 28-71, 1998), a large body of research based on the contextual-cueing paradigm has shown that the cognitive system is capable of extracting statistical contingencies from visual environments. Most of these studies have focused on how individuals learn regularities found within an intratrial temporal window: A context predicts the target position within a given trial. However, Ono, Jiang, and Kawahara (Journal of Experimental Psychology, 31, 703-712, 2005) provided evidence of an intertrial implicit-learning effect when a distractor configuration in preceding trials N - 1 predicted the target location in trials N. The aim of the present study was to gain further insight into this effect by examining whether it occurs when predictive relationships are impeded by interfering task-relevant noise (Experiments 2 and 3) or by a long delay (Experiments 1, 4, and 5). Our results replicated the intertrial contextual-cueing effect, which occurred in the condition of temporally close contingencies. However, there was no evidence of integration across long-range spatiotemporal contingencies, suggesting a temporal limitation of statistical learning.

  9. Confinement-Higgs transition in a disordered gauge theory and the accuracy threshold for quantum memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chenyang; Harrington, Jim; Preskill, John

    2003-01-01

    We study the ±J random-plaquette Z 2 gauge model (RPGM) in three spatial dimensions, a three-dimensional analog of the two-dimensional ±J random-bond Ising model (RBIM). The model is a pure Z 2 gauge theory in which randomly chosen plaquettes (occurring with concentration p) have couplings with the 'wrong sign' so that magnetic flux is energetically favored on these plaquettes. Excitations of the model are one-dimensional 'flux tubes' that terminate at 'magnetic monopoles' located inside lattice cubes that contain an odd number of wrong-sign plaquettes. Electric confinement can be driven by thermal fluctuations of the flux tubes, by the quenched background of magnetic monopoles, or by a combination of the two. Like the RBIM, the RPGM has enhanced symmetry along a 'Nishimori line' in the p-T plane (where T is the temperature). The critical concentration p c of wrong-sign plaquettes at the confinement-Higgs phase transition along the Nishimori line can be identified with the accuracy threshold for robust storage of quantum information using topological error-correcting codes: if qubit phase errors, qubit bit-flip errors, and errors in the measurement of local check operators all occur at rates below p c , then encoded quantum information can be protected perfectly from damage in the limit of a large code block. Through Monte-Carlo simulations, we measure p c0 , the critical concentration along the T=0 axis (a lower bound on p c ), finding p c0 =.0293±.0002. We also measure the critical concentration of antiferromagnetic bonds in the two-dimensional RBIM on the T=0 axis, finding p c0 =.1031±.0001. Our value of p c0 is incompatible with the value of p c =.1093±.0002 found in earlier numerical studies of the RBIM, in disagreement with the conjecture that the phase boundary of the RBIM is vertical (parallel to the T axis) below the Nishimori line. The model can be generalized to a rank-r antisymmetric tensor field in d dimensions, in the presence of quenched

  10. From capillary condensation to interface localization transitions in colloid-polymer mixtures confined in thin-film geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Virgiliis, Andres; Vink, Richard L C; Horbach, Jürgen; Binder, Kurt

    2008-10-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of the Asakura-Oosawa model for colloid-polymer mixtures confined between two parallel repulsive structureless walls are presented and analyzed in the light of current theories on capillary condensation and interface localization transitions. Choosing a polymer-to-colloid size ratio of q=0.8 and studying ultrathin films in the range of D=3 to D=10 colloid diameters thickness, grand canonical Monte Carlo methods are used; phase transitions are analyzed via finite size scaling, as in previous work on bulk systems and under confinement between identical types of walls. Unlike the latter work, inequivalent walls are used here: While the left wall has a hard-core repulsion for both polymers and colloids, at the right-hand wall an additional square-well repulsion of variable strength acting only on the colloids is present. We study how the phase separation into colloid-rich and colloid-poor phases occurring already in the bulk is modified by such a confinement. When the asymmetry of the wall-colloid interaction increases, the character of the transition smoothly changes from capillary condensation type to interface localization type. For very thin films (i.e., for D=3 ) and a suitable choice of the wall-colloid interactions, evidence is found that the critical behavior falls in the universality class of the two-dimensional Ising model. Otherwise, we observe crossover scaling between different universality classes (namely, the crossover from the three-dimensional to the two-dimensional Ising model universality class). The colloid and polymer density profiles across the film in the various phases are discussed, as well as the correlation of interfacial fluctuations in the direction parallel to the confining walls. The broadening of the interface between the coexisting colloid-rich and polymer-rich phases (located parallel to the confining walls) is understood in terms of capillary wave fluctuations. The experimental observability of all these

  11. Experimental investigation of granular dynamics close to the jamming transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, G.; Kolb, E.; Lindner, A.; Lanuza, J.; Clément, E.

    2005-06-01

    We present different experiments on dense granular assemblies with the aim of clarifying the notion of 'jamming transition' for these assemblies of non-Brownian particles. The experimental set-ups differ in the way in which external perturbations are applied in order to unjam the systems. The first experiment monitors the response to a locally applied deformation of a model packing at rest. The two other experiments study local and collective dynamics in a granular assembly weakly excited by vibration.

  12. Detection of individual spin transitions of a single proton confined in a cryogenic Penning trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kracke, Holger

    2013-02-27

    The presented experiment for the determination of the magnetic moment of the proton is based on the measurement of the ratio of cyclotron frequency and Larmor frequency of a single proton confined in a cryogenic double-Penning trap. In the course of this thesis, the simultaneous non-destructive measurement of two of the three eigenfrequencies of the proton in thermal equilibrium with corresponding detection systems was demonstrated, which reduces the measurement time of the cyclotron frequency by a factor of two. Furthermore, this thesis presents the first detection of individual spin transitions of a single proton, which allows for the determination of the Larmor frequency. The continuous Stern-Gerlach effect is utilized to couple the magnetic moment to the axial mode of the trapped proton by means of a magnetic bottle. Thus, a spin flip causes a jump of the axial frequency, which can be measured non-destructively with highly-sensitive detection systems. However, not only the spin momentum is coupled to the axial motion but also the angular momentum. Thus, the main experimental challenge is the elimination of energy fluctuations in the radial modes in order to maintain spin flip resolution. Due to systematic studies on the stability of the axial frequency and a complete revision of the experimental setup, this goal was achieved. The spin state of the proton can be determined with very high fidelity for the very first time. Thus, this thesis represents an important step towards a high-precision determination of the magnetic moment of the proton.

  13. Closed form for two-photon free-free transition matrix elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karule, Erna E-mail: karule@latnet.lv

    2000-08-01

    Two-photon free-free transitions happen in the multiphoton ionization with more than one excess photon and in Bremsstrahlung. Up to now, the configuration space free-free transition amplitudes have not been written in closed form. We propose a modified Coulomb Green's function (CGF) Sturm ian expansion which allows one to obtain expressions for two-photon radial transition matrix elements in the closed form which are easy to continue analytically to calculate free-free transitions in H.

  14. Role of zonal flow predator-prey oscillations in triggering the transition to H-mode confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, L; Zeng, L; Rhodes, T L; Hillesheim, J C; Doyle, E J; Groebner, R J; Peebles, W A; Burrell, K H; Wang, G

    2012-04-13

    Direct evidence of zonal flow (ZF) predator-prey oscillations and the synergistic roles of ZF- and equilibrium E×B flow shear in triggering the low- to high-confinement (L- to H-mode) transition in the DIII-D tokamak is presented. Periodic turbulence suppression is first observed in a narrow layer at and just inside the separatrix when the shearing rate transiently exceeds the turbulence decorrelation rate. The final transition to H mode with sustained turbulence and transport reduction is controlled by equilibrium E×B shear due to the increasing ion pressure gradient.

  15. Contact line motion in confined liquid–gas systems: Slip versus phase transition

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xinpeng

    2010-11-30

    contributions determined by a competition between the two coexisting mechanisms in terms of entropy production. At temperatures very close to the critical temperature, the phase transition is the dominant mechanism, for the liquid–gas interface is wide and the density ratio is close to 1. At low temperatures, the slip effect shows up as the slip length is gradually increased. The observed competition can be interpreted by the Onsager principle of minimum entropy production

  16. Holographic entanglement entropy close to crossover/phase transition in strongly coupled systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shao-Jun, E-mail: sjzhang84@hotmail.com

    2017-03-15

    We investigate the behavior of entanglement entropy in the holographic QCD model proposed by Gubser et al. By choosing suitable parameters of the scalar self-interaction potential, this model can exhibit various types of phase structures: crossover, first order and second order phase transitions. We use entanglement entropy to probe the crossover/phase transition, and find that it drops quickly/suddenly when the temperature approaches the critical point which can be seen as a signal of confinement. Moreover, the critical behavior of the entanglement entropy suggests that we may use it to characterize the corresponding phase structures.

  17. Low-to-High Confinement Transition Mediated by Turbulence Radial Wave Number Spectral Shift in a Fusion Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G S; Wan, B N; Wang, H Q; Guo, H Y; Naulin, V; Rasmussen, J Juul; Nielsen, A H; Wu, X Q; Yan, N; Chen, L; Shao, L M; Chen, R; Wang, L; Zhang, W

    2016-03-04

    A new model for the low-to-high (L-H) confinement transition has been developed based on a new paradigm for turbulence suppression by velocity shear [G. M. Staebler et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 055003 (2013)]. The model indicates that the L-H transition can be mediated by a shift in the radial wave number spectrum of turbulence, as evidenced here, for the first time, by the direct observation of a turbulence radial wave number spectral shift and turbulence structure tilting prior to the L-H transition at tokamak edge by direct probing. This new mechanism does not require a pretransition overshoot in the turbulent Reynolds stress, shunting turbulence energy to zonal flows for turbulence suppression as demonstrated in the experiment.

  18. Comparison of a low- to high-confinement transition theory with experimental data from DIII-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzdar, P N; Kleva, R G; Groebner, R J; Gohil, P

    2002-12-23

    From our recent theory based on the generation of shear flow and field in finite beta plasmas, the criterion for bifurcation from low to high confinement mode yields a critical parameter proportional to T(e)/square root (L(n)), where T(e) is the electron temperature and L(n) is the density scale length. The predicted threshold shows very good agreement with edge measurements on discharges undergoing low-to-high transitions in DIII-D. The observed differences in the transitions with the reversal of the toroidal magnetic field are reconciled in terms of this critical parameter. The theory also provides an explanation for pellet injection H modes in DIII-D, thereby unifying unconnected methods for accomplishing the transition.

  19. Confinement and the Glass Transition Temperature in Supported Polymer Films: Molecular Weight, Repeat Unit Modification, and Cooperativity Length Scale Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundra, Manish K.

    2005-03-01

    It is well known that the glass transition temperatures, Tgs, of supported polystyrene (PS) films decrease dramatically with decreasing film thickness below 60-80 nm. However, a detailed understanding of the cause of this effect is lacking. We have investigated the impact of several parameters, including polymer molecular weight (MW), repeat unit structure, and the length scale of cooperatively rearranging regions in bulk. There is no significant effect of PS MW on the Tg-confinement effect over a range of 5,000 to 3,000,000 g/mol. In contrast, the strength of the Tg reduction and the onset of the confinement effect increase dramatically upon changing the polymer from PS to poly(4-tert-butylstyrene) (PTBS), with PTBS exhibiting a Tg reduction relative to bulk at a thickness of 300-400 nm. PTBS also shows a Tg reduction relative to bulk of 47 K in a 21-nm-thick film, more than twice that observed in a PS film of identical thickness. Characterization of the length scale of cooperatively rearranging regions has been done by differential scanning calorimetry but reveals at best a limited correlation with the confinement effect.

  20. Molecular Weight Effects on the Glass Transition and Confinement Behavior of Polymer Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wenjie; Hsu, David D; Keten, Sinan

    2015-08-01

    Nanoscale polymer thin films exhibit strong confinement effects on Tg arising from free surfaces. However, the coupled influence of molecular weight (MW) and surface effects on Tg is not well understood for low MW film systems below the entanglement length. Utilizing atomistically informed coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations for poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), it is demonstrated that the decrease in free-standing film Tg with respect to bulk is more significant for low MW compared to high MW systems. Investigation of the local interfacial properties reveals that the increase in the local free volume near the free surface is greater for low MW, explaining the MW dependence of Tg -confinement behaviors. These findings corroborate recent experiments on low MW films, and highlight the relationship between nanoconfinement phenomena and local free volume effects arising from free surfaces. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Relaxation processes and glass transition of confined polymer melts: A molecular dynamics simulation of 1,4-polybutadiene between graphite walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar, M; Binder, K; Paul, W

    2017-05-28

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a chemically realistic model for 1,4-polybutadiene in a thin film geometry confined by two graphite walls are presented. Previous work on melts in the bulk has shown that the model faithfully reproduces static and dynamic properties of the real material over a wide temperature range. The present work studies how these properties change due to nano-confinement. The focus is on orientational correlations observable in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and on the local intermediate incoherent neutron scattering function, F s (q z , z, t), for distances z from the graphite walls in the range of a few nanometers. Temperatures from about 2T g down to about 1.15T g , where T g is the glass transition temperature in the bulk, are studied. It is shown that weakly attractive forces between the wall atoms and the monomers suffice to effectively bind a polymer coil that is near the wall. For a wide regime of temperatures, the Arrhenius-like adsorption/desorption kinetics of the monomers is the slowest process, while very close to T g the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann-like α-relaxation takes over. The α-process is modified only for z≤1.2 nm due to the density changes near the walls, less than expected from studies of coarse-grained (bead-spring-type) models. The weakness of the surface effects on the glass transition in this case is attributed to the interplay of density changes near the wall with the torsional potential. A brief discussion of pertinent experiments is given.

  2. Closing of Coster-Kronig transitions in multiply ionised gold atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banas, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Czarnota, M.; Fijal, I.; Jaskola, M.; Korman, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Pajek, M.; Semaniak, J.

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses the effect of closing of L- and M-shell Coster-Kronig (CK) transitions in multiply ionised Au atoms, for which the selected CK transitions become energetically forbidden. This effect plays an important role when the Coster-Kronig energy for single-hole configuration is relatively low, being comparable with a change of the electronic binding energies in multiply ionised atom. We show, by using a simplified model, that for gold the effect of closing of CK transitions occurs for strong L 1 -L 3 M 4,5 transition for the L 1 -subshell as well as the M 3 -M 5 N 6,7 and M 4 -M 5 O 3,4 CK transitions for the M 3 - and M 4 -subshell, respectively. We demonstrate that the discussed effect of closing CK transitions substantially changes the X-ray fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields and thus has to be considered in interpretation of X-rays excited by heavy ion impact

  3. Analysis of closed-pool boilup using the TRANSIT-HYDRO code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graff, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    The benign termination of the transition phase of a hypothetical LMFBR accident rests on the avoidance of highly energetic recriticalities prior to escape of bottled molten core materials from the active core region. In scenarios where molten fuel is trapped due to axial blockages, the maintenance of subcritical configurations until radial flow paths develop requires stable boil-up of the molten fuel/steel mixture. This paper describes the analysis of an experiment investigating the behavior of closed boiling pools using the two-fluid hydrodynamics module of TRANSIT-HYDRO, a deterministic transition-phase analysis code

  4. Promoting effect of ethanol on dewetting transition in the confined region of melittin tetramer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Xiuping; Zhou Bo; Wang Chunlei

    2012-01-01

    To study the influence of ethanol molecules on the melittin tetramer folding, we investigated the dewetting transition of the melittin tetramer immersed in pure water and 8% aqueous ethanol solution (mass fraction) by the molecular dynamics simulations. We found that the marked dewetting transitions occurred inside a nanoscale channel of the melittin tetramer both in pure water and in aqueous ethanol solution. Also, ethanol molecules promoted this dewetting transition. We attributed this promoting effect to ethanol molecules which prefer to locate at the liquid-vapor interface and decrease the liquid-vapor surface energy. The results provide insight into the effect of ethanol on the water dewetting phenomena. (authors)

  5. Trap-size scaling in confined-particle systems at quantum transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campostrini, Massimo; Vicari, Ettore

    2010-01-01

    We develop a trap-size scaling theory for trapped particle systems at quantum transitions. As a theoretical laboratory, we consider a quantum XY chain in an external transverse field acting as a trap for the spinless fermions of its quadratic Hamiltonian representation. We discuss trap-size scaling at the Mott insulator to superfluid transition in the Bose-Hubbard model. We present exact and accurate numerical results for the XY chain and for the low-density Mott transition in the hard-core limit of the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model. Our results are relevant for systems of cold atomic gases in optical lattices.

  6. Rheology of confined granular flows: scale invariance, glass transition, and friction weakening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, P; Valance, A; Métayer, J-F; Sanchez, P; Crassous, J; Louge, M; Delannay, R

    2008-12-12

    We study fully developed, steady granular flows confined between parallel flat frictional sidewalls using numerical simulations and experiments. Above a critical rate, sidewall friction stabilizes the underlying heap at an inclination larger than the angle of repose. The shear rate is constant and independent of inclination over much of the flowing layer. In the direction normal to the free surface, the solid volume fraction increases on a scale equal to half the flowing layer depth. Beneath a critical depth at which internal friction is invariant, grains exhibit creeping and intermittent cage motion similar to that in glasses, causing gradual weakening of friction at the walls.

  7. Transition from closed system to Internet of Things: A study in standardizing building lighting systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathews, E.; Muller, G.

    2016-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) is triggering changes in lighting industry from the traditional closed and propriety systems to flexible, interoperable and service oriented systems. To address the challenges of this transition and catering the specific requirements of lighting networks, an Open

  8. Transition from confined to phreatic conditions as the factor controlling salinization and change in redox state, Upper subaquifer of the Judea Group, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrieli, Ittai; Burg, Avi; Guttman, Joseph

    2002-08-01

    An increase in salinity and change from oxic to anoxic conditions are observed in the Upper subaquifer of the Judea Group in the Kefar Uriyya pumping field at the western foothills of the Judea Mountains, Israel. Hydrogeological data indicate that the change, which occurs over a distance of only a few kilometers, coincides with a transition from confined to phreatic conditions in the aquifer. The deterioration in the water quality is explained as a result of seepage of more saline, organic-rich water from above, into the phreatic "roofed" part of the aquifer. The latter is derived from the bituminous chalky rocks of the Mount Scopus Group, which confine the aquifer in its southeastern part. In this confined part, water in perched horizons within the Mount Scopus Group cannot leak down and flow westward while leaching organic matter and accumulating salts. However, upon reaching the transition area from confined to phreatic conditions, seepage to the Judea Upper subaquifer is possible, thereby allowing it to be defined as a leaky aquifer. The incoming organic matter consumes the dissolved oxygen and allows bacterial sulfate reduction. The latter accounts for the H2S in the aquifer, as indicated by sulfur isotopic analyses of coexisting sulfate and sulfide. Thus, from an aquifer management point of view, in order to maintain the high quality of the water in the confined southeastern part of the Kefar Uriyya field, care should be taken not to draw the confined-roofed transition area further east by over pumping.

  9. Phase transitions of amorphous solid acetone in confined geometry investigated by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunghwan; Kang, Hani; Kim, Jun Soo; Kang, Heon

    2014-11-26

    We investigated the phase transformations of amorphous solid acetone under confined geometry by preparing acetone films trapped in amorphous solid water (ASW) or CCl4. Reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) were used to monitor the phase changes of the acetone sample with increasing temperature. An acetone film trapped in ASW shows an abrupt change in the RAIRS features of the acetone vibrational bands during heating from 80 to 100 K, which indicates the transformation of amorphous solid acetone to a molecularly aligned crystalline phase. Further heating of the sample to 140 K produces an isotropic solid phase, and eventually a fluid phase near 157 K, at which the acetone sample is probably trapped in a pressurized, superheated condition inside the ASW matrix. Inside a CCl4 matrix, amorphous solid acetone crystallizes into a different, isotropic structure at ca. 90 K. We propose that the molecularly aligned crystalline phase formed in ASW is created by heterogeneous nucleation at the acetone-water interface, with resultant crystal growth, whereas the isotropic crystalline phase in CCl4 is formed by homogeneous crystal growth starting from the bulk region of the acetone sample.

  10. Sheared-flow induced confinement transition in a linear magnetized plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Boehmer, H.; McWilliams, R.; Carter, T. A.; Vincena, S.; Friedman, B.; Schaffner, D.

    2012-01-01

    A magnetized plasma cylinder (12 cm in diameter) is induced by an annular shape obstacle at the Large Plasma Device [W. Gekelman, H. Pfister, Z. Lucky, J. Bamber, D. Leneman, and J. Maggs, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)]. Sheared azimuthal flow is driven at the edge of the plasma cylinder through edge biasing. Strong fluctuations of density and potential (δn /n~eδφ/kTe~0.5) are observed at the plasma edge, accompanied by a large density gradient (Ln=|∇lnn |-1~2cm) and shearing rate (γ ~300kHz). Edge turbulence and cross-field transport are modified by changing the bias voltage (Vbias) on the obstacle and the axial magnetic field (Bz) strength. In cases with low Vbias and large Bz, improved plasma confinement is observed, along with steeper edge density gradients. The radially sheared flow induced by E ×B drift dramatically changes the cross-phase between density and potential fluctuations, which causes the wave-induced particle flux to reverse its direction across the shear layer. In cases with higher bias voltage or smaller Bz, large radial transport and rapid depletion of the central plasma density are observed. Two-dimensional cross-correlation measurement shows that a mode with azimuthal mode number m =1 and large radial correlation length dominates the outward transport in these cases. Linear analysis based on a two-fluid Braginskii model suggests that the fluctuations are driven by both density gradient (drift wave like) and flow shear (Kelvin-Helmholtz like) at the plasma edge.

  11. Sheared-flow induced confinement transition in a linear magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, S.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Boehmer, H.; McWilliams, R.; Carter, T. A.; Vincena, S.; Friedman, B.; Schaffner, D.

    2012-01-01

    A magnetized plasma cylinder (12 cm in diameter) is induced by an annular shape obstacle at the Large Plasma Device [W. Gekelman, H. Pfister, Z. Lucky, J. Bamber, D. Leneman, and J. Maggs, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)]. Sheared azimuthal flow is driven at the edge of the plasma cylinder through edge biasing. Strong fluctuations of density and potential (δn/n∼eδφ/kT e ∼0.5) are observed at the plasma edge, accompanied by a large density gradient (L n =∇lnn -1 ∼2cm) and shearing rate (γ∼300kHz). Edge turbulence and cross-field transport are modified by changing the bias voltage (V bias ) on the obstacle and the axial magnetic field (B z ) strength. In cases with low V bias and large B z , improved plasma confinement is observed, along with steeper edge density gradients. The radially sheared flow induced by ExB drift dramatically changes the cross-phase between density and potential fluctuations, which causes the wave-induced particle flux to reverse its direction across the shear layer. In cases with higher bias voltage or smaller B z , large radial transport and rapid depletion of the central plasma density are observed. Two-dimensional cross-correlation measurement shows that a mode with azimuthal mode number m=1 and large radial correlation length dominates the outward transport in these cases. Linear analysis based on a two-fluid Braginskii model suggests that the fluctuations are driven by both density gradient (drift wave like) and flow shear (Kelvin-Helmholtz like) at the plasma edge.

  12. A phase transition close to room temperature in BiFeO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreisel, J; Jadhav, P; Chaix-Pluchery, O [Laboratoire des Materiaux et du Genie Physique, Grenoble INP, CNRS, Minatec, 3, parvis Louis Neel, 38016 Grenoble (France); Varela, M [Departamento Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Carrer MartI i Franques 1. 08028 Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193 (Spain); Dix, N; Sanchez, F; Fontcuberta, J, E-mail: jens.kreisel@grenoble-inp.fr [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193 (Spain)

    2011-08-31

    BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) multiferroic oxide has a complex phase diagram that can be mapped by using appropriately substrate-induced strain in epitaxial films. By using Raman spectroscopy, we conclusively show that films of the so-called supertetragonal T-BFO phase, stabilized under compressive strain, display a reversible temperature-induced phase transition at about 100 deg. C, and thus close to room temperature. (fast track communication)

  13. Flexible fiber in interaction with a dense granular flow close to the jamming transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algarra Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new fluid/structure interaction in the unusual case of a dense granular medium flowing against an elastic fiber acting as a flexible intruder. We study experimentally the reconfiguration and the forces exerted on the flexible fiber produced by the flow at a constant and low velocity of a two-dimensional disordered packing of grains close but below the jamming transition.

  14. Flexible fiber in interaction with a dense granular flow close to the jamming transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algarra, Nicolas; Leang, Marguerite; Lazarus, Arnaud; Vandembroucq, Damien; Kolb, Evelyne

    2017-06-01

    We propose a new fluid/structure interaction in the unusual case of a dense granular medium flowing against an elastic fiber acting as a flexible intruder. We study experimentally the reconfiguration and the forces exerted on the flexible fiber produced by the flow at a constant and low velocity of a two-dimensional disordered packing of grains close but below the jamming transition.

  15. Location identification of closed crack based on Duffing oscillator transient transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Bo, Lin; Liu, Yaolu; Zhao, Youxuan; Zhang, Jun; Deng, Mingxi; Hu, Ning

    2018-02-01

    The existence of a closed micro-crack in plates can be detected by using the nonlinear harmonic characteristics of the Lamb wave. However, its location identification is difficult. By considering the transient nonlinear Lamb under the noise interference, we proposed a location identification method for the closed crack based on the quantitative measurement of Duffing oscillator transient transfer in the phase space. The sliding short-time window was used to create a window truncation of to-be-detected signal. And then, the periodic extension processing for transient nonlinear Lamb wave was performed to ensure that the Duffing oscillator has adequate response time to reach a steady state. The transient autocorrelation method was used to reduce the occurrence of missed harmonic detection due to the random variable phase of nonlinear Lamb wave. Moreover, to overcome the deficiency in the quantitative analysis of Duffing system state by phase trajectory diagram and eliminate the misjudgment caused by harmonic frequency component contained in broadband noise, logic operation method of oscillator state transition function based on circular zone partition was adopted to establish the mapping relation between the oscillator transition state and the nonlinear harmonic time domain information. Final state transition discriminant function of Duffing oscillator was used as basis for identifying the reflected and transmitted harmonics from the crack. Chirplet time-frequency analysis was conducted to identify the mode of generated harmonics and determine the propagation speed. Through these steps, accurate position identification of the closed crack was achieved.

  16. Shock discontinuities around the confinement-deconfinement transition in baryon-rich dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rischke, D.H.; Waldhauser, B.M.; Stoecker, H.; Greiner, W.; Friman, B.L.

    1989-05-01

    We investigate shock discontinuities that involve a conversion of hadronic matter into quark-gluon matter and vice versa. Such discontinuities may develop when nuclear matter is compressed to energy densities beyond the deconfinement transition and in the hadronization of an expanding quark-gluon plasma. In these investigations we study the influence of various phenomenological equations of state. Consequences for entropy production in heavy-ion collisions are discussed and estimates of inclusive particle ratios at freeze-out are given. We find that antiparticle-to-particle ratios may be enhanced by an order of magnitude if a quark-gluon plasma is created during the collision compared to a purely hadronic collision scenario. (orig.)

  17. Effect of closed loop cooling water transit time on containment cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.P.; Vossahlik, J.E.; Goodwin, E.F.

    1996-01-01

    Long term containment cooling analyses in nuclear plant systems are usually conducted assuming a quasi steady-state process, that is, a steady state evaluation of the cooling system is completed for each calculational step. In reality, fluid transport in the system, and heat addition to system components may affect the heat removal rate of the system. Transient effects occurring during system startup may affect the maximum temperatures experienced in the system. It is important to ensure that such transient effects do not affect operation of the system (e.g., cause a high temperature trip). To evaluate the effect of fluid transit delays, a closed loop cooling water system model has been developed that incorporates the fluid transport times when determining the closed loop cooling system performance. This paper describes the closed loop cooling system model as implemented in the CONTEMPT-LT/028 code. The evaluation of the transient temperature response of the closed loop cooling system using the model is described. The paper also describes the effect of fluid transit time on the overall containment cooling performance

  18. Chain confinement, phase transitions, and lamellar structure in semicrystalline polymers, polymer blends and polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huipeng

    and is applied to the iPS/atactic polystyrene, aPS, blends. The fractions of MAF inside and outside the lamellar stacks were quantified for the first time. For A/B binary polymer blends, it has been reported that if B is already crystalline, the crystalline fraction would serve as a restriction on the subsequent growth of the crystallizable partner A, while amorphous fraction could be diffused from the crystalline growth front of the crystallizing A component. Considering the effect of RAF on binary blends, a new concept is provided: like the crystals, the RAF of one polymer component may inhibit the growth of crystals of the other blend partner. The non-isothermal crystallization of PET/poly(lactic acid), PLA, blends were investigated and the results confirmed the new concept is correct: PET forms a large amount of RAF and inhibits crystal formation in PLA. Then, we broadened the concept of RAF and investigated the RAF in recent 'hot' materials, polymer nanocomposites. It was found the fraction of RAF greatly increased with a small amount of multi-wall carbon nanotubes, MWCNT, loading in PET electrospun, ES, fibers. A general model is given for polymer ES fibers with MWCNTs: the addition of MWCNTs causes polymer chains in the ES fibers to become more extended, (ie, more stretched), resulting in more confinement of PET chains and an increase in the RAF.

  19. Sharp Morphological Transitions from Nanoscale Mixed-Anchoring Patterns in Confined Nematic Liquid Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armas-Pérez, Julio C. [Institute; División; Li, Xiao [Institute; Martínez-González, José A. [Institute; Smith, Coleman [Institute; Hernández-Ortiz, J. P. [Departamento; Nealey, Paul F. [Institute; Materials; de Pablo, Juan J. [Institute; Materials

    2017-08-17

    Liquid crystals are known to be particularly sensitive to orientational cues provided at surfaces or interfaces. In this work, we explore theoretically, computationally, and experimentally the behavior of liquid crystals on isolated nanoscale patterns with controlled anchoring characteristics at small length scales. The orientation of the liquid crystal is controlled through the use of chemically patterned polymer brushes that are tethered to a surface. This system can be engineered with remarkable precision, and the central question addressed here is whether a characteristic length scale exists at which information encoded on a surface is no longer registered by a liquid crystal. To do so, we adopt a tensorial description of the free energy of the hybrid liquidcrystal surface system, and we investigate its morphology in a systematic manner. For long and narrow surface stripes, it is found that the liquid crystal follows the instructions provided by the pattern down to 100 nm widths. This is accomplished through the creation of line defects that travel along the sides of the stripes. We show that a "sharp" morphological transition occurs from a uniform undistorted alignment to a dual uniform/splay-bend morphology. The theoretical and numerical predictions advanced here are confirmed by experimental observations. Our combined analysis suggests that nanoscale patterns can be used to manipulate the orientation of liquid crystals at a fraction of the energetic cost that is involved in traditional liquid crystal-based devices. The insights presented in this work have the potential to provide a new fabrication platform to assemble low power bistable devices, which could be reconfigured upon application of small external fields.

  20. Evidence for reduction of the toroidal ITG instability in the transition from saturated to improved Ohmic confinement in the tokamak TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreter, A; Schweer, B; Tokar, M Z; Unterberg, B

    2003-01-01

    In high density Ohmically heated discharges in the tokamak TEXTOR a transition from the saturated Ohmic confinement (SOC) to the improved Ohmic confinement (IOC) was observed triggered by a sudden reduction of the external gas flow. The SOC-IOC transition was investigated regarding the influence of the toroidal ITG instability driven by the ion temperature gradient (ITG). The ion temperature profiles were measured with high radial resolution by means of charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) with a high-energetic diagnostic hydrogen beam recently installed at TEXTOR. On the basis of the measured ion temperature distributions the η i parameter (ratio of the density and ion temperature decay lengths) and the growth rate of the toroidal ITG instability were calculated. After the SOC-IOC transition η i drops and lies in a noticeably smaller radial region over the threshold for the toroidal ITG. In consequence of it, the IOC regime is characterized by a clear reduction of the ITG growth rate γ ITG which was calculated including finite Larmor radius effects. The steepening of the plasma density profile after the decrease of the external gas flow is the main reason for the reduction of the ITG growth rate and the subsequent confinement transition to the IOC regime

  1. Detection limits for close eclipsing and transiting sub-stellar and planetary companions to white dwarfs in the WASP survey

    OpenAIRE

    Faedi, F.; West, R. G.; Burleigh, M. R.; Goad, M. R.; Hebb, L.

    2010-01-01

    We have performed extensive simulations to explore the possibility of detecting eclipses and transits of close, sub-stellar and planetary companions to white dwarfs in WASP light-curves. Our simulations cover companions $\\sim0.3\\Re

  2. The effect of confinement on the temperature dependence of the excitonic transition energy in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M A T da; Morais, R R O; Dias, I F L; Lourenco, S A; Duarte, J L; Laureto, E; Quivy, A A; Silva, E C F da

    2008-01-01

    We determined by means of photoluminescence measurements the dependence on temperature of the transition energy of excitons in GaAs/Al x Ga 1-x As quantum wells with different alloy concentrations (with different barrier heights). Using a fitting procedure, we determined the parameters which describe the behavior of the excitonic transition energy as a function of temperature according to three different theoretical models. We verified that the temperature dependence of the excitonic transition energy does not only depend on the GaAs material but also depends on the barrier material, i.e. on the alloy composition. The effect of confinement on the temperature dependence of the excitonic transition is discussed

  3. Insight into the transition between the open and closed conformations of Thermus thermophilus carboxypeptidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okai, Masahiko; Yamamura, Akihiro; Hayakawa, Kou; Tsutsui, Shiho; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Lee, Woo-Cheol; Nagata, Koji; Inoue, Yumiko; Tanokura, Masaru

    2017-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase cleaves the C-terminal amino acid residue from proteins and peptides. Here, we report the functional and structural characterizations of carboxypeptidase belonging to the M32 family from the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB8 (TthCP). TthCP exhibits a relatively broad specificity for both hydrophilic (neutral and basic) and hydrophobic (aliphatic and aromatic) residues at the C-terminus and shows optimal activity in the temperature range of 75–80 °C and in the pH range of 6.8–7.2. Enzyme activity was significantly enhanced by cobalt or cadmium and was moderately inhibited by Tris at 25 °C. We also determined the crystal structure of TthCP at 2.6 Å resolution. Two dimer types of TthCP are present in the crystal. One type consists of two subunits in different states, open and closed, with a C α RMSD value of 2.2 Å; the other type consists of two subunits in the same open state. This structure enables us to compare the open and closed states of an M32 carboxypeptidase. The TthCP subunit can be divided into two domains, L and S, which are separated by a substrate-binding groove. The L and S domains in the open state are almost identical to those in the closed state, with C α RMSD values of 0.84 and 0.53 Å, respectively, suggesting that the transition between the open and closed states proceeds with a large hinge-bending motion. The superimposition between the closed states of TthCP and BsuCP, another M32 family member, revealed that most putative substrate-binding residues in the grooves are oriented in the same direction. - Highlights: • The enzyme activity of TthCP was inhibited moderately by Tris molecule. • We solved the crystal structure of TthCP at 2.6 Å resolution. • The crystal structure of TthCP revealed both the open and closed conformations.

  4. Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technologies to Meet Near-Term and Transition Period Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.D.; Felker, L.K.; Benker, D.E.; Campbell, D.O.

    2008-01-01

    A scenario that very likely fits conditions in the U.S. nuclear power industry and can meet the goals of cost minimization, waste minimization, and provisions of engineered safeguards for proliferation resistance, including no separated plutonium, to close the fuel cycle with full actinide recycle is evaluated. Processing aged fuels, removed from the reactor for 30 years or more, can provide significant advantages in cost reduction and waste minimization. The UREX+3 separations process is being developed to separate used fuel components for reuse, thus minimizing waste generation and storage in geologic repositories. Near-term use of existing and new thermal spectrum reactors can be used initially for recycle actinide transmutation. A transition period will eventually occur, when economic conditions will allow commercial deployment of fast reactors; during this time, recycled plutonium can be diverted into fast reactor fuel and conversion of depleted uranium into additional fuel material can be considered. (authors)

  5. Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technologies to Meet Near-Term and Transition Period Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, E.D.; Felker, L.K.; Benker, D.E.; Campbell, D.O. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 37831-6152 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    A scenario that very likely fits conditions in the U.S. nuclear power industry and can meet the goals of cost minimization, waste minimization, and provisions of engineered safeguards for proliferation resistance, including no separated plutonium, to close the fuel cycle with full actinide recycle is evaluated. Processing aged fuels, removed from the reactor for 30 years or more, can provide significant advantages in cost reduction and waste minimization. The UREX+3 separations process is being developed to separate used fuel components for reuse, thus minimizing waste generation and storage in geologic repositories. Near-term use of existing and new thermal spectrum reactors can be used initially for recycle actinide transmutation. A transition period will eventually occur, when economic conditions will allow commercial deployment of fast reactors; during this time, recycled plutonium can be diverted into fast reactor fuel and conversion of depleted uranium into additional fuel material can be considered. (authors)

  6. Nanostructure transition in Cr–C–N coatings deposited by pulsed closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Z.L.; Lin, J.; Moore, J.J.; Lei, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Cr–C–N coatings with different compositions, i.e. (C + N)/Cr atomic ratios (x) of 0.81–2.77, were deposited using pulsed closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering by varying the chromium and graphite target powers, the pulse configuration and the ratio of the nitrogen flow rate to the total gas flow rate. Three kinds of nanostructures were identified in the Cr–C–N coatings dependent on the x values: a nano-columnar structure of hexagonal closed-packed (hcp) Cr 2 (C,N) and face-centered cubic (fcc) Cr(C,N) at x = 0.81 and 1.03 respectively, a nanocomposite structure consisting of nanocrystalline Cr(C,N) embedded in an amorphous C(N) matrix at x = 1.26 and 1.78, and a Cr-containing amorphous C(N) structure at x = 2.77. A maximum hardness of 31.0 GPa and a high H/E ratio of 1.0 have been achieved in the nc-Cr(C,N)/a-C(N) nanocomposite structure at x = 1.26, whereas the coating with a Cr-containing amorphous C(N) structure had a minimum hardness of 10.9 GPa and a low H/E ratio of 0.08 at x = 2.77. The incorporation of carbon into the Cr–N coatings led to a phase transition from hcp-Cr 2 (C,N) to fcc-Cr(C,N) by the dissolution into the nanocrystallites, and promoted the amorphization of Cr–C–N coatings with the precipitation of amorphous C(N). It was found that a high x value over 1.0 in the Cr–C–N coatings is the composition threshold to the nanostructure transition. - Highlights: ► Nanostructure transition of Cr–C–N coatings depended on (C + N)/Cr atomic ratio. ► A nano-columnar structure formed at atomic ratio less than 1.0. ► A nc-Cr(C,N)/a-C(N) nanocomposite structure formed at atomic ratio of 1.0–2.7. ► A Cr-containing amorphous C(N) structure formed at atomic ratio more than 2.7. ► Maximum hardness of 31.0 GPa was for nanocomposite coatings at atomic ratio of 1.26.

  7. Solid-to-fluid DNA transition inside HSV-1 capsid close to the temperature of infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sae-Ueng, Udom; Li, Dong; Zuo, Xiaobing; Huffman, Jamie B.; Homa, Fred L.; Rau, Donald; Evilevitch, Alex

    2014-10-01

    DNA in the human Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) capsid is packaged to a tight density. This leads to tens of atmospheres of internal pressure responsible for the delivery of the herpes genome into the cell nucleus. In this study we show that, despite its liquid crystalline state inside the capsid, the DNA is fluid-like, which facilitates its ejection into the cell nucleus during infection. We found that the sliding friction between closely packaged DNA strands, caused by interstrand repulsive interactions, is reduced by the ionic environment of epithelial cells and neurons susceptible to herpes infection. However, variations in the ionic conditions corresponding to neuronal activity can restrict DNA mobility in the capsid, making it more solid-like. This can inhibit intranuclear DNA release and interfere with viral replication. In addition, the temperature of the human host (37 °C) induces a disordering transition of the encapsidated herpes genome, which reduces interstrand interactions and provides genome mobility required for infection.

  8. Entropic stabilisation of topologically close-packed phases in binary transition-metal alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerschmidt, Thomas; Fries, Suzana G.; Steinbach, Ingo; Drautz, Ralf [ICAMS, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Seiser, Bernhard; Pettifor, David G. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    The formation of topologically close-packed (tcp) phases in Ni-based superalloys leads to the degradation of the mechanical properties of the alloys. The precipitation of the tcp phases is attributed to refractory elements that are added in low concentration to improve creep resistance. It is well known that the structural stability of the tcp phases A15, {sigma} and {chi} is driven by the average d-band filling. For a direct comparison to experimental phase diagrams, we carried out extensive density-functional theory (DFT) calculations of the tcp phases A15, C14, C15, C36, {mu}, {sigma}, and {chi} in tcp-forming binary transition-metal (TM) systems. We observe several systems such as W-Re with positive values of the heat of formation for all tcp phases although some of the phases are observed experimentally. By combining our DFT total energies with the CALPHAD methodology, we can demonstrate that configurational entropy can stabilise the tcp phases in these systems.

  9. Phase transition and magnetic properties of Mg-doped hexagonal close-packed Ni nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jinghai; Feng Bo; Liu Yang; Zhang Yongjun; Yang Lili; Wang Yaxin; Wei Maobin; Lang Jihui; Wang Dandan; Liu Xiaoyan

    2008-01-01

    Mg-doped Ni nanoparticles with the hexagonal close-packed (hcp) and face-centered cubic (fcc) structure have been synthesized by sol-gel method sintered at different temperatures in argon atmosphere. The sintering temperature played an important role in the control of the crystalline phase and the particle size. The pure hcp Mg-doped Ni nanoparticles with average particle size of 6.0 nm were obtained at 320 deg. C. The results indicated that the transition from the hcp to the fcc phase occurred in the temperature range between 320 deg. C and 450 deg. C. Moreover, the VSM results showed that the hcp Mg-doped Ni nanoparticles had unique ferromagnetic and superparamagnetic behavior. The unsaturation even at 5000 Oe is one of the superparamagnetic characteristics due to the small particle size. From the ZFC and FC curves, the blocking temperature T B of the hcp sample (6.0 nm) was estimated to be 10 K. The blocking temperature was related to the size of the magnetic particles and the magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant. By theoretical calculation, the deduced particle size was 6.59 nm for hcp Mg-doped Ni nanoparticles which was in agreement with the results of XRD and TEM

  10. Improved particle confinement in transition from multiple-helicity to quasi-single-helicity regimes of a reversed-field pinch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassinetti, L; Predebon, I; Koguchi, H; Yagi, Y; Hirano, Y; Sakakita, H; Spizzo, G; White, R B

    2006-10-27

    The quasi-single-helicity (QSH) state of a reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasma is a regime in which the RFP configuration can be sustained by a dynamo produced mainly by a single tearing mode and in which a helical structure with well-defined magnetic flux surfaces arises. In this Letter, we show that spontaneous transitions to the QSH regime enhance the particle confinement. This improvement is originated by the simultaneous and cooperative action of the increase of the magnetic island and the reduction of the magnetic stochasticity.

  11. Simple phenomenological model for phase transitions in confined geometry. 2. Capillary condensation/evaporation in cylindrical mesopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellenq, Roland J-M; Coasne, Benoit; Denoyel, Renaud O; Coussy, O

    2009-02-03

    A simple phenomenological model that describes capillary condensation and evaporation of pure fluids confined in cylindrical mesopores is presented. Following the work of Celestini (Celestini, F. Phys. Lett. A 1997, 228, 84), the free energy density of the system is derived using interfacial tensions and a corrective term that accounts for the interaction coupling between the vapor/adsorbed liquid and the adsorbed liquid/adsorbent interfaces. This corrective term is shown to be consistent with the Gibbs adsorption isotherm and assessed by standard adsorption tests. This model reveals that capillary condensation and evaporation are metastable and equilibrium processes, respectively, hence exhibiting the existence of a hysteresis loop inadsorption/desorption isotherm that is well-known in experiment. We extend the phenomenological model of Celestini to give a quantitative description of adsorption on the pore wall and hysteresis width evolution with temperature and confinement. Direct quantitative comparison is made with experimental data for confined argon. Used as a characterizing tool, this integrated model allows in a single fit of an experimental adsorption/desorption isotherm assessing essential characterization data such as the specific surface area, pore volume, and mean pore size.

  12. Walking at speeds close to the preferred transition speed as an approach to obesity treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Duško

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Increasing energy expenditure through certain exercise is an important component of effective interventions to enhance initial weight loss and prevent weight regain. Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a 16-week weight loss exercise programme on morpho-functional changes in female adults and to examine the programme effects on two subpopulations with different levels of obesity. Methods. Fifty-six middle-aged women were divided into 2 groups according to their body mass index (BMI: 25-29.9 kg/m2 - overweight (OW and ≥30 kg/m2 - obese (OB. The exercise protocol included a walking technique based on hip rotation at horizontal plane at speeds close to the preferred transition speed (PTS. At the initiation of the study and after 16 weeks of the programme, anthropometric, morphological and cardiovascular parameters of all subjects were assessed. The main effects of Group (OW and OB and Time and the interaction effect of Group by Time were tested by time repeated measures General Linear Model (mixed between-within subjects ANOVA. Results. Mean weight loss during the programme was 10.3 kg and 20.1 kg in OW and OB, respectively. The average fat mass (FM loss was 9.4 kg in OW and 16.9 kg in OB. The Mixed ANOVA revealed a significant Group by Time interaction effects for waist circumference, body weight, body water, fat free mass, FM, %FM and BMI (p<0.05. Conclusion. The applied exercise protocol has proved as beneficial in the treatment of obesity, since it resulted in a significant weight loss and body composition changes. The reduction in body weight was achieved mainly on account of the loss of fat mass.

  13. Isotropic-nematic transition of long, thin, hard spherocylinders confined in a quasi-two-dimensional planar geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagomarsino, M.C.; Dogterom, M.; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2003-01-01

    We present computer simulations of long, thin, hard spherocylinders in a narrow planar slit. We observe a transition from the isotropic to a nematic phase with quasi-long-range orientational order upon increasing the density. This phase transition is intrinsically two-dimensional and of

  14. Non-equilibrium phenomena in confined soft matter irreversible adsorption, physical aging and glass transition at the nanoscale

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book presents cutting-edge experimental and computational results and provides comprehensive coverage on the impact of non-equilibrium structure and dynamics on the properties of soft matter confined to the nanoscale. The book is organized into three main sections: ·         Equilibration and physical aging: by treating non-equilibrium phenomena with the formal methodology of statistical physics in bulk, the analysis of the kinetics of equilibration sheds new light on the physical origin of the non-equilibrium character of thin polymer films. Both the impact of sample preparation and that of interfacial interactions are analyzed using a large set of experiments. A historical overview of the investigation of the non-equilibrium character of thin polymer films is also presented. Furthermore, the discussion focuses on how interfaces and geometrical confinement perturb the pathways and kinetics of equilibrations of soft glasses (a process of tremendous technological interest). ·         Irr...

  15. Study of the dynamical approach to the interface localization-delocalization transition of the confined Ising model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albano, Ezequiel V; Virgiliis, Andres de; Mueller, Marcus; Binder, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    Confined magnetic Ising films in a L x D geometry (L w (h). For T w (h) (T>T w (h)) such an interface is bounded (unbounded) to the walls, while right at T w (h) the interface is freely fluctuating around the centre of the film. Starting from disordered configurations, corresponding to T → ∞, we quench to the wetting critical temperature and study the dynamics of the approach to the stationary regime by means of extensive Monte Carlo simulations. It is found that for all layers parallel to the wall (rows), the row magnetizations exhibit a peak at a time τ max ∝ L 2 and subsequently relax to the stationary, equilibrium behaviour. The characteristic time for such a relaxation scales as τ R ∝ L 4 , as expected from theoretical arguments, that are discussed in detail

  16. Scaling of quantum Fisher information close to the quantum phase transition in the XY spin chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, En-Jia, E-mail: yeenjia@jiangnan.edu.cn [Jiangsu Provincial Research Center of Light Industrial Optoelectronic Engineering and Technology, School of Science, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Hu, Zheng-Da [Jiangsu Provincial Research Center of Light Industrial Optoelectronic Engineering and Technology, School of Science, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Wu, Wei [Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics and Physics Department, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2016-12-01

    The quantum phase transition of an XY spin chain is investigated by employing the quantum Fisher information encoded in the ground state. It is shown that the quantum Fisher information is an effective tool for characterizing the quantum criticality. The quantum Fisher information, its first and second derivatives versus the transverse field display the phenomena of sudden transition, sudden jump and divergence, respectively. Besides, the analysis of finite size scaling for the second derivative of quantum Fisher information is performed.

  17. Disorder parameter of confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, N.; Ejiri, S.; Matsubara, Y.; Suzuki, T.

    1996-01-01

    The disorder parameter of confinement-deconfinement phase transition based on the monopole action determined previously in SU(2) QCD are investigated. We construct an operator which corresponds to the order parameter defined in the abelian Higgs model. The operator shows proper behaviors as the disorder parameter in the numerical simulations of finite temperature QCD. (orig.)

  18. Nanoscale phase transition behavior of shape memory alloys — closed form solution of 1D effective modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M. P.; Sun, Q. P.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the roles of grain size (lg) and grain boundary thickness (lb) on the stress-induced phase transition (PT) behaviors of nanocrystalline shape memory alloys (SMAs) by using a Core-shell type "crystallite-amorphous composite" model. A non-dimensionalized length scale lbarg(=lg /lb) is identified as the governing parameter which is indicative of the energy competition between the crystallite and the grain boundary. Closed form analytical solutions of a reduced effective 1D model with embedded microstructure length scales of lg and lb are presented in this paper. It is shown that, with lbarg reduction, the energy of the elastic non-transformable grain boundary will gradually become dominant in the phase transition process, and eventually bring fundamental changes of the deformation behaviors: breakdown of two-phase coexistence and vanishing of superelastic hysteresis. The predictions are supported by experimental data of nanocrystalline NiTi SMAs.

  19. Quark confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joos, H.

    1976-07-01

    The main topics of these lectures are: phenomenological approach to quark confinement, standard Lagrangian of hadrondynamics, Lagrangian field theory and quark confinement, classical soliton solutions in a simple model, quantization of extended systems, colour charge screening and quantization on a lattice and remarks on applications. A survey of the scientific publications listed according to the topics until 26 March 1976 is supplemented. (BJ) [de

  20. Gluon confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novello, M.; Lorenci, V.A. de; Elbaz, E.

    1997-02-01

    In this paper we present a new model for a gauge field theory such that self-interacting spin-one particles can be confined in a compact domain. The necessary conditions to produce the confining potential appear already in the properties of the eikonal structure generated by the particular choice of the dynamics. (author)

  1. Magnetic confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    The Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) is a compact, high-magnetic-field tokamak capable of operating at density and magnetic field values similar to, or even encompassing, those of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and therefore provides a unique opportunity to explore physics issues that are directly relevant to ITER. During 2004 the experimental activities were focussed on fully exploiting the lower hybrid system (for generating and controlling the plasma current) and the electron cyclotron heating system (joint experiment with the Institute of Plasma Physics of the National Research Council, Milan). With all four gyrotrons in operation, full electron cyclotron power was achieved up to a record level of 1.5 MW. By simultaneously injecting lower hybrid waves, to tailor the plasma current radial profile, and electron cyclotron waves, to heat the plasma centre, good confinement regimes with internal transport barriers were obtained at the highest plasma density values ever achieved for this operation regime (n {approx}1.5X10{sup 20}m{sup -3}). Specific studies were devoted to optimising the coupling of lower hybrid waves to the plasma (by real-time control of the plasma position) and to generating current by electron cyclotron current drive. The new scanning CO{sub 2} interferometer (developed by the Reversed Field Experiment Consortium) for high spatial and time resolution (1 cm/50 {mu}s) density profile measurements was extensively used. The Thomson scattering diagnostic was upgraded and enabled observation of scattered signals associated with the Confinement background plasma dynamics. As for theoretical studies on the dynamics of turbulence in plasmas, the transition from Bohm-like scaling to gyro-Bohm scaling of the local plasma diffusivity was demonstrated on the basis of a generalised four wave model (joint collaboration with Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and the University of California at Irvine). The transition from weak to strong

  2. Magnetic confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    The Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) is a compact, high-magnetic-field tokamak capable of operating at density and magnetic field values similar to, or even encompassing, those of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and therefore provides a unique opportunity to explore physics issues that are directly relevant to ITER. During 2004 the experimental activities were focussed on fully exploiting the lower hybrid system (for generating and controlling the plasma current) and the electron cyclotron heating system (joint experiment with the Institute of Plasma Physics of the National Research Council, Milan). With all four gyrotrons in operation, full electron cyclotron power was achieved up to a record level of 1.5 MW. By simultaneously injecting lower hybrid waves, to tailor the plasma current radial profile, and electron cyclotron waves, to heat the plasma centre, good confinement regimes with internal transport barriers were obtained at the highest plasma density values ever achieved for this operation regime (n ∼1.5X10 20 m -3 ). Specific studies were devoted to optimising the coupling of lower hybrid waves to the plasma (by real-time control of the plasma position) and to generating current by electron cyclotron current drive. The new scanning CO 2 interferometer (developed by the Reversed Field Experiment Consortium) for high spatial and time resolution (1 cm/50 μs) density profile measurements was extensively used. The Thomson scattering diagnostic was upgraded and enabled observation of scattered signals associated with the Confinement background plasma dynamics. As for theoretical studies on the dynamics of turbulence in plasmas, the transition from Bohm-like scaling to gyro-Bohm scaling of the local plasma diffusivity was demonstrated on the basis of a generalised four wave model (joint collaboration with Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and the University of California at Irvine). The transition from weak to strong energetic particle

  3. Dynamics of molecular rotors confined in two dimensions: transition from a 2D rotational glass to a 2D rotational fluid in a periodic mesoporous organosilica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsberg, Cortnie S; Bracco, Silvia; Beretta, Mario; Comotti, Angiolina; Sozzani, Piero; Garcia-Garibay, Miguel A

    2012-02-09

    The motional behavior of p-phenylene-d(4) rotators confined within the 2D layers of a hierarchically ordered periodic mesoporous p-divinylbenzenesilica has been elucidated to evaluate the effects of reduced dimensionality on the engineered dynamics of artificial molecular machines. The hybrid mesoporous material, characterized by a honeycomb lattice structure, has arrays of alternating p-divinylbenzene rotors and siloxane layers forming the molecularly ordered walls of the mesoscopic channels. The p-divinylbenzene rotors are strongly anchored between two adjacent siloxane sheets, so that the p-phenylene rotators are unable to experience translational diffusion and are allowed to rotate about only one fixed axis. Variable-temperature (2)H NMR experiments revealed that the p-phenylene rotators undergo an exchange process between sites related by 180° and a non-Arrhenius temperature dependence of the dynamics, with reorientational rates ranging from 10(3) to 10(8) Hz between 215 to 305 K. The regime of motion changes rapidly at about 280 K indicating the occurrence of a dynamical transition. The transition was also recognized by a steep change in the heat capacity at constant pressure. As a result of the robust lamellar architecture comprising the pore walls, the orientational dynamic disorder related to the phase transition is only realized in two dimensions within the layers, that is in the plane perpendicular to the channel axis. Thus, the aligned rotors that form the organic layers exhibit unique anisotropic dynamical properties as a result of the architecture's reduced dimensionality. The dynamical disorder restricted to two dimensions constitutes a highly mobile fluidlike rotational phase at room temperature, which upon cooling undergoes a transition to a more rigid glasslike phase. Activation energies of 5.9 and 9.5 kcal/mol respectively have been measured for the two dynamical regimes of rotation. Collectively, our investigation has led to the discovery of an

  4. 'Vanishing' structural effects of temperature in polymer glasses close to the glass-transition temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shantarovich, V.P.; Suzuki, T.; Ito, Y.; Yu, R.S.; Kondo, K.; Yampolskii, Yu. P.; Alentiev, A.Yu.

    2007-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) measurements were used for observation of structural effects of temperature in polystyrene (PS), super-cross-linked polystyrene networks (CPS), and in polyimides (PI) below and in the vicinity of glass-transition temperature T g . 'Vanishing' of these structural effects in the repeating cycles of the temperature controlled PAL experiments due to the slow relaxation processes in different conditions and details of chemical structure is demonstrated. Obtained results illustrate complex, dependent on thermal history, inhomogeneous character of the glass structure. In fact, structure of some polymer glasses is changing continuously. Calculations of the number density of free volume holes in these conditions are discussed

  5. Some conditions and prospects of transition to closed fuel cycle in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lependin, A.V.; Oussanov, V.I.; Lependina, E.V.; Ioughai, S.V.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear policy of Russia is based on the necessity of closure of nuclear fuel cycle. But at the same time schedule of such a going is not defined. In this study some conditions and possible time-frames of going the nuclear fuel cycle of Russia to closure are discussed. Naturally, the main condition is revival of Russian economy wherein nuclear power will turn to be necessary in a number of Russian regions. But the question is whether closure of nuclear cycle strategy will be implemented in the near future or nuclear power will develop based on open fuel cycle over a long period of time? at present economic circumstances in Russia has formed in such a way that economics of current projects is not favourable to going to closure of cycle due to high capital investment cost and low fuel component of costs, due to low cost of natural uranium. Ecological analysis performed within the framework of external cost model also does not suggest that closed cycle has essential advantages at present, but also in sight. The authors have considered a model including not only external costs but also total resources expenditures with long-term power development. In the framework of such a method it can be demonstrated that closed fuel cycle has some important advantages taking into account not only tasks of immediate future, but power development strategy for the period of 30-50 years. Under conditions of nuclear capacities increase (to 30-50 GW) limitation of cheap uranium resources available in Russia will assume a new significance. Approach of prices at the back-end stages of nuclear fuel cycle to West Europe level also will favour to going to a closed fuel cycle. More severe ecological requirements answering to a sustainable development concept also will make a contribution. Closure of fuel cycle can be significantly accelerated in the case of implementation of weapon plutonium utilization program. The factors mentioned above facilitate evenly to going to a closed nuclear fuel

  6. Superconducting transition temperature and the formation of closed electron shells in the atoms of superconducting compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapnik, I.M.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between the regularities in the tansition temperature (T/sub c/) values in analogous compounds (having the same structure and stoichiometry) and the formation of the closed electron shells outside inert gas shells in the atoms of the variable component of the 158 intermetallic superconducting compounds has been discussed. The T/sub c/ data for compounds of the elements from the first long period of the Periodic Table (K to Se) are compared with the T/sub c/ data for the analogous compounds of the elements from the second long period (Rb to Te)

  7. Dynamic selective switching in antiferromagnetically-coupled bilayers close to the spin reorientation transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Pacheco, A.; Mansell, R.; Petit, D.; Lee, J. H.; Cowburn, R. P.; Ummelen, F. C.; Swagten, H. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    We have designed a bilayer synthetic antiferromagnet where the order of layer reversal can be selected by varying the sweep rate of the applied magnetic field. The system is formed by two ultra-thin ferromagnetic layers with different proximities to the spin reorientation transition, coupled antiferromagnetically using Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interactions. The different dynamic magnetic reversal behavior of both layers produces a crossover in their switching fields for field rates in the kOe/s range. This effect is due to the different effective anisotropy of both layers, added to an appropriate asymmetric antiferromagnetic coupling between them. Field-rate controlled selective switching of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy layers as shown here can be exploited in sensing and memory applications.

  8. Search for the first-order liquid-to-liquid phase transition in low-temperature confined water by neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sow-Hsin; Wang, Zhe; Kolesnikov, Alexander I.; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Kao-Hsiang

    2013-02-01

    It has been conjectured that a 1st order liquid-to-liquid (L-L) phase transition (LLPT) between high density liquid (HDL) and low density liquid (LDL) in supercooled water may exist, as a thermodynamic extension to the liquid phase of the 1st order transition established between the two bulk solid phases of amorphous ice, the high density amorphous ice (HDA) and the low density amorphous ice (LDA). In this paper, we first recall our previous attempts to establish the existence of the 1st order L-L phase transition through the use of two neutron scattering techniques: a constant Q elastic diffraction study of isobaric temperature scan of the D2O density, namely, the equation of state (EOS) measurements. A pronounced density hysteresis phenomenon in the temperature scan of the density above P = 1500 bar is observed which gives a plausible evidence of crossing the 1st order L-L phase transition line above this pressure; an incoherent quasi-elastic scattering measurements of temperature-dependence of the α-relaxation time of H2O at a series of pressures, namely, the study of the Fragile-to-Strong dynamic crossover (FSC) phenomenon as a function of pressure which we interpreted as the results of crossing the Widom line in the one-phase region. In this new experiment, we used incoherent inelastic neutron scattering (INS) to measure the density of states (DOS) of H atoms in H2O molecules in confined water as function of temperature and pressure, through which we may be able to follow the emergence of the LDL and HDL phases at supercooled temperature and high pressures. We here report for the first time the differences of librational and translational DOSs between the hypothetical HDL and LDL phases, which are similar to the corresponding differences between the well-established HDA and LDA ices. This is plausible evidence that the HDL and LDL phases are the thermodynamic extensions of the corresponding amorphous solid water HDA and LDA ices.

  9. Close relationship between a dry-wet transition and a bubble rearrangement in two-dimensional foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Yujiro; Oikawa, Noriko; Kurita, Rei

    2016-01-01

    Liquid foams are classified into a dry foam and a wet foam, empirically judging from the liquid fraction or the shape of the gas bubbles. It is known that physical properties such as elasticity and diffusion are different between the dry foam and the wet foam. Nevertheless, definitions of those states have been vague and the dry-wet transition of foams has not been clarified yet. Here we show that the dry-wet transition is closely related to rearrangement of the gas bubbles, by simultaneously analysing the shape change of the bubbles and that of the entire foam in two dimensional foam. In addition, we also find a new state in quite low liquid fraction, which is named “superdry foam”. Whereas the shape change of the bubbles strongly depends on the change of the liquid fraction in the superdry foam, the shape of the bubbles does not change with changing the liquid fraction in the dry foam. Our results elucidate the relationship between the transitions and the macroscopic mechanical properties. PMID:27874060

  10. Plasma confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Hazeltine, R D

    2003-01-01

    Detailed and authoritative, this volume examines the essential physics underlying international research in magnetic confinement fusion. It offers readable, thorough accounts of the fundamental concepts behind methods of confining plasma at or near thermonuclear conditions. Designed for a one- or two-semester graduate-level course in plasma physics, it also represents a valuable reference for professional physicists in controlled fusion and related disciplines.

  11. H-mode transition physics close to DN on MAST and its applications to other tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: ELMy H-mode is the base-line operating scenario for the next step fusion device ITER. To improve active and passive pedestal control a deeper understanding of H- mode physics is desirable. MAST contributes towards this understanding with good edge diagnostics, and by accessing extreme parameter regimes. The first inter-machine comparisons with respect to the influence of the magnetic topology on the power threshold with ASDEX-Upgrade and NSTX reveal a reduction of the power threshold in true double null (C-DN) configuration opening new operation regimes in both devices. The 30% reduction in threshold power close to C-DN observed on ASDEX-Upgrade, though significant, is less than the factor of two or more observed in both large spherical tokamaks, MAST and NSTX. This points towards the importance of field line curvature for this effect. The power thresholds measured in C-DN on MAST and NSTX are very similar. Despite this strong effect on the power threshold, changes in most edge parameters in L-mode due to the different magnetic configurations are small. However, significant changes are seen in the toroidal impurity flow velocity, related to the radial electric field, and in the scrape-off-layer temperature decay length at the high field side. The statistical comparison of MAST data with various H-mode theories suggests that different instabilities need to be stabilised at different spatial positions in the region where the pedestal forms to access H-mode. Pedestal temperatures observed on MAST are two to five times lower than in MAST equivalent discharges at ASDEX-Upgrade. However, the pedestal densities are similar. The differences in L-mode are less significant. The usual DN operating regime with co current NBI in MAST has been extended to include single null (SN) configurations, to provide more direct comparisons with conventional tokamaks. The plasma edge in SN on MAST is more stable to ELMs and the typical type-III ELMs, often observed in C-DN, are

  12. Attachment to parents, social anxiety, and close relationships of female students over the transition to college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parade, Stephanie H; Leerkes, Esther M; Blankson, A Nayena

    2010-02-01

    The current study examined the process by which attachment to parents influences satisfaction with and ease in forming friendships at college. One hundred seventy-two female college freshmen completed a measure of parental attachment security the summer before their first semester of college (July 2006) and measures to assess satisfaction with and ease in forming close relationships at the end of their first semester (December 2006). Students ranged in age from 18 to 20 years (M = 18.09, SD = 0.33) and were diverse in their racial makeup (30% racial minority). Consistent with predictions derived from attachment theory, secure attachment to parents was positively associated with ease in forming friendships among racial minority and white participants and satisfaction with friendships among minority participants. Moreover, indirect effects of parental attachment security on relationship outcomes through social anxiety were significant for minority participants but not for white participants. Findings may be useful in the development of retention programs targeted at incoming university freshmen, particularly minority students.

  13. A Closed-Loop Model of Operator Visual Attention, Situation Awareness, and Performance Across Automation Mode Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aaron W; Duda, Kevin R; Sheridan, Thomas B; Oman, Charles M

    2017-03-01

    This article describes a closed-loop, integrated human-vehicle model designed to help understand the underlying cognitive processes that influenced changes in subject visual attention, mental workload, and situation awareness across control mode transitions in a simulated human-in-the-loop lunar landing experiment. Control mode transitions from autopilot to manual flight may cause total attentional demands to exceed operator capacity. Attentional resources must be reallocated and reprioritized, which can increase the average uncertainty in the operator's estimates of low-priority system states. We define this increase in uncertainty as a reduction in situation awareness. We present a model built upon the optimal control model for state estimation, the crossover model for manual control, and the SEEV (salience, effort, expectancy, value) model for visual attention. We modify the SEEV attention executive to direct visual attention based, in part, on the uncertainty in the operator's estimates of system states. The model was validated using the simulated lunar landing experimental data, demonstrating an average difference in the percentage of attention ≤3.6% for all simulator instruments. The model's predictions of mental workload and situation awareness, measured by task performance and system state uncertainty, also mimicked the experimental data. Our model supports the hypothesis that visual attention is influenced by the uncertainty in system state estimates. Conceptualizing situation awareness around the metric of system state uncertainty is a valuable way for system designers to understand and predict how reallocations in the operator's visual attention during control mode transitions can produce reallocations in situation awareness of certain states.

  14. Finite-temperature confinement transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetitsky, B.

    1984-01-01

    The formalism of lattice gauge theory at finite temperature is introduced. The framework of universality predictions for critical behavior is outlined, and recent analytic work in this direction is reviewed. New Monte Carlo information for the SU(4) theory are represented, and possible results of the inclusion of fermions in the SU(3) theory are listed

  15. Self-similar dynamics of air film entrained by a solid disk in confined space: A simple prototype of topological transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazato, Hana; Yamagishi, Yuki; Okumura, Ko

    2018-05-01

    In hydrodynamic topological transitions, one mass of fluid breaks into two or two merge into one. For example, in honey-drop formation when honey is dripping from a spoon, honey is extended to separate into two masses as the liquid neck bridging them thins down to the micron scale. At the moment when the topology changes due to the breakup, physical observables such as surface curvature locally diverge. Such singular dynamics has widely attracted physicists, revealing universality in self-similar dynamics, which shares much in common with critical phenomena in thermodynamics. Many experimental examples have been found, including an electric spout and vibration-induced jet eruption. However, only a few cases have been physically understood on the basis of equations that govern the singular dynamics and even in such a case the physical understanding is mathematically complicated, inevitably involving delicate numerical calculations. Here we study the breakup of air film entrained by a solid disk into viscous liquid in a confined space, which leads to formation, thinning, and breakup of the neck of air. As a result, we unexpectedly find that equations governing the neck dynamics can be solved analytically by virtue of two remarkable experimental features: Only a single length scale linearly dependent on time remains near the singularity and two universal scaling functions describing the singular neck shape and velocity field are both analytic. The present solvable case would be essential for a better understanding of the singular dynamics and will help reveal the physics of unresolved examples intimately related to daily-life phenomena and diverse practical applications.

  16. Two flavor QCD and Confinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Elia, M.; Di Giacomo, A.; Pica, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    We argue that the order of the chiral transition for N_f=2 is a sensitive probe of the QCD vacuum, in particular of the mechanism of color confinement. A strategy is developed to investigate the order of the transition by use of finite size scaling analysis. An in-depth numerical investigation is...

  17. Close coupling calculations of magnetic transitions for He + H/sub 2/ in an uncoupled space frame. [Cross sections, T matrices, orbital angular momentum, elastic and inelastic transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoni, Y; Kouri, D J; Kumar, A [Houston Univ., Tex. (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1977-12-01

    Full close coupling calculations of magnetic transitions in He + H/sub 2/ collisions are reported. The results are analyzed using the coupling space frame approach of Kouri and Shimoni. This enables one to study the magnetic transition T-matrices as a function of orbital angular momentum number l. The results for transitions which are elastic in rotor state j are found to be dominated by j/sub z/-conserving transitions. Those which are inelastic in j are dominated by j/sub z/-conserving transitions for very low l but at higher l values, the non-j/sub z/-conserving transitions dominate. The results for He + H/sub 2/ are consistent with the recent studies of Shimoni and Kouri of the coupled states approximation.

  18. Vimang (Mangifera indica L. extract) induces permeability transition in isolated mitochondria, closely reproducing the effect of mangiferin, Vimang's main component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L; Dorta, Daniel Junqueira; Delgado, René; Cavalheiro, Renata A; Santos, Antonio C; Vercesi, Anibal E; Curti, Carlos

    2006-02-01

    Mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) is a Ca(2+)-dependent, cyclosporin A (CsA)-sensitive, non-selective inner membrane permeabilization process. It is often associated with apoptotic cell death, and is induced by a wide range of agents or conditions, usually involving reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we demonstrated that Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang), in the presence of 20 microM Ca(2+), induces MPT in isolated rat liver mitochondria, assessed as CsA-sensitive mitochondrial swelling, closely reproducing the same effect of mangiferin, the main component of the extract, as well as MPT-linked processes like oxidation of membrane protein thiols, mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation and Ca(2+) release from organelles. The flavonoid catechin, the second main component of Vimang, also induces MPT, although to a lesser extent; the minor, but still representative Vimang extract components, gallic and benzoic acids, show respectively, low and high MPT inducing abilities. Nevertheless, following exposure to H(2)O(2)/horseradish peroxidase, the visible spectra of these compounds does not present the same changes previously reported for mangiferin. It is concluded that Vimang-induced MPT closely reproduces mangiferin effects, and proposed that this xanthone is the main agent responsible for the extract's MPT inducing ability, by the action on mitochondrial membrane protein thiols of products arising as a consequence of the mangiferin's antioxidant activity. While this effect would oppose the beneficial effect of Vimang's antioxidant activity, it could nevertheless benefit cells exposed to over-production of ROS as occurring in cancer cells, in which triggering of MPT-mediated apoptosis may represent an important defense mechanism to their host.

  19. Poloidal inhomogeneity of the particle fluctuation induced fluxes near of the LCFS at lower hybrid heating and improved confinement transition at the FT-2 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashkul, S.I.; Altukhov, A.B.; Gurchenko, A.D.; Gusakov, E.Z.; Dyachenko, V.V.; Esipov, L.A.; Kantor, M.Y.; Kouprienko, D.V.; Stepanov, A.Y.; Sharpeonok, A.P.; Shatalin, S.V.; Vekshina, E.O.

    2004-01-01

    This paper present our observations and conclusions about development of the transport process at the plasma periphery of the small tokamak FT-2 during additional Lower Hybrid Heating (LHH), when external (ETB) transport barrier followed by Internal (ITB) transport barrier is observed. The peculiarities of the variations of the fluctuation fluxes near periphery are measured by three moveable multi-electrode Langmuir probes (L-probe) located in the same poloidal cross-section of the chamber. So the observed L-H transition and ETB formation after LHH and the associated negative E r rise result mainly from the decrease of the electron temperature (T e ) near inner region of the LCFS (last close flux surface) by greater extent than in SOL (scrape-off layer). This effect is stimulated by decrease of the input power and decrease of the radial correlation coefficient (for r equals 74-77 mm) (and radial particle fluctuation-induced Γ(t)) resulted from ITB formation mechanism during LHH. T e variation in the SOL after LH heating pulse takes place to a lesser extent. Observed non-monotonic radial profile of T e near LCFS with positive δT e /δr rise is kept constant obviously by large longitudinal conductivity and poloidal fluxes from the hotter limiter shadow regions because of the poloidal inhomogeneity of the T e (SOL) and n e (SOL). Such induced negative E r after RF pulse gives fast rise to a quasi-steady-state Γ 0 (t) drift fluxes with reversed direction structure, like 'zonal flows', which may inhibit transport across the flow. Large rise of grad(n e ) after LHH near LCFS with L-H transition is observed after the end of LH pulse for a long time - about 10-15 ms

  20. A Neptune-sized transiting planet closely orbiting a 5–10-million-year-old star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Trevor J; Hillenbrand, Lynne A; Petigura, Erik A; Carpenter, John M; Crossfield, Ian J M; Hinkley, Sasha; Ciardi, David R; Howard, Andrew W; Isaacson, Howard T; Cody, Ann Marie; Schlieder, Joshua E; Beichman, Charles A; Barenfeld, Scott A

    2016-06-30

    Theories of the formation and early evolution of planetary systems postulate that planets are born in circumstellar disks, and undergo radial migration during and after dissipation of the dust and gas disk from which they formed. The precise ages of meteorites indicate that planetesimals—the building blocks of planets—are produced within the first million years of a star’s life. Fully formed planets are frequently detected on short orbital periods around mature stars. Some theories suggest that the in situ formation of planets close to their host stars is unlikely and that the existence of such planets is therefore evidence of large-scale migration. Other theories posit that planet assembly at small orbital separations may be common. Here we report a newly born, transiting planet orbiting its star with a period of 5.4 days. The planet is 50 per cent larger than Neptune, and its mass is less than 3.6 times that of Jupiter (at 99.7 per cent confidence), with a true mass likely to be similar to that of Neptune. The star is 5–10 million years old and has a tenuous dust disk extending outward from about twice the Earth–Sun separation, in addition to the fully formed planet located at less than one-twentieth of the Earth–Sun separation.

  1. Fabrication of close-packed TES microcalorimeter arrays using superconducting molybdenum/gold transition-edge sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkbeiner, F. M.; Brekosky, R. P.; Chervenak, J. A.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Li, M. J.; Lindeman, M. A.; Stahle, C. K.; Stahle, C. M.; Tralshawala, N.

    2002-02-01

    We present an overview of our efforts in fabricating Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) microcalorimeter arrays for use in astronomical x-ray spectroscopy. Two distinct types of array schemes are currently pursued: 5×5 single pixel TES array where each pixel is a TES microcalorimeter, and Position-Sensing TES (PoST) array. In the latter, a row of 7 or 15 thermally-linked absorber pixels is read out by two TES at its ends. Both schemes employ superconducting Mo/Au bilayers as the TES. The TES are placed on silicon nitride membranes for thermal isolation from the structural frame. The silicon nitride membranes are prepared by a Deep Reactive Ion Etch (DRIE) process into a silicon wafer. In order to achieve the concept of closely packed arrays without decreasing its structural and functional integrity, we have already developed the technology to fabricate arrays of cantilevered pixel-sized absorbers and slit membranes in silicon nitride films. Furthermore, we have started to investigate ultra-low resistance through-wafer micro-vias to bring the electrical contact out to the back of a wafer. .

  2. Reconfiguration of a flexible fiber immersed in a 2D dense granular flow close to the jamming transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Evelyne; Algarra, Nicolas; Vandembroucq, Damien; Lazarus, Arnaud

    2015-11-01

    We propose a new fluid/structure interaction in the unusual case of a dense granular medium flowing against an elastic fibre acting as a flexible intruder. We experimentally studied the deflection of a mylar flexible beam clamped at one side, the other free side facing a 2D granular flow in a horizontal cell moving at a constant velocity. We investigated the reconfiguration of the fibre as a function of the fibre's rigidity and of the granular packing fraction close but below the jamming in 2D. Imposing the fibre geometry like its length or thickness sets the critical buckling force the fibre is able to resist if it was not supported by lateral grains, while increasing the granular packing fraction might laterally consolidate the fibre and prevent it from buckling. But on the other side, the approach to jamming transition by increasing the granular packing fraction will be characterized by a dramatically increasing size of the cluster of connected grains forming a solid block acting against the fibre, which might promote the fibre's deflection. Thus, we investigated the granular flow fields, the fibre's deflexion as well as the forces experienced by the fibre and compared them with theoretical predictions from elastica for different loadings along the fibre. PMMH, CNRS UMR 7636, UPMC, ESPCI-ParisTech, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France.

  3. Calculation of the Dielectric Constant as a Function of Temperature Close to the Smectic A-Smectic B Transition in B5 Using the Mean Field Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamit Yurtseven

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature dependence of the static dielectric constant ( is calculated close to the smectic A-smectic B ( transition ( = 71.3°C for the liquid crystal compound B5. By expanding the free energy in terms of the order parameter in the mean field theory, the expression for the dielectric susceptibility (dielectric constant is derived and is fitted to the experimental data for which was obtained at the field strengths of 0 and 67 kV/cm from literature. Coefficients in the free energy expansion are determined from our fit for the transition of B5. Our results show that the observed behaviour of the dielectric constant close to the transition in B5 can be described satisfactorily by our mean field model.

  4. Nearly constant magnetic entropy change involving two closely spaced transitions in the compound LaFe11.375Al1.625

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, F X; Qian, X L; Wang, G J; Wang, J; Sun, J R; Zhang, X X; Cheng, Z H; Shen, B G

    2003-01-01

    A large change in the magnetic entropy, |ΔS|, was observed in the Fe-based NaZn 13 -type compound LaFe 11.375 Al 1.625 , which was nearly temperature independent over a wide temperature range (an about 70 K span from ∼ 140 to 210 K). This behaviour of the magnetic entropy change is associated with two closely spaced magnetic transitions. X-ray diffraction investigation at different temperatures indicates that the crystal structure remains cubic, of NaZn 13 type, when the magnetic state changes with temperature, but the cell parameter changes dramatically at the first-order transition point

  5. Tunable diode laser measurement of self broadening versus temperature of five close ammonia transitions of the v2 band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldacchini, G.; D'Amato, F.; Buffa, G.; Tarrini, O.; Ciucci, A.

    1995-08-01

    Self broadening coefficients have been measured as a functional of temperature form 192 to 377 K for five transition lines of the band of ammonia. The results have been compared with theoretical calculations performed in the semiclassical impact approximation, and although one hot transition does not fit well in this scheme, there is in general a fairly good agreement. Moreover there is also an experimental and theoretical evidence against the commonly assumed power law for the temperature dependence. More measurements are needed to clarify the position of the hot transitions in this respect and to verify the extent of validity of the power law in general

  6. Elmo bumpy square plasma confinement device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, L.W.

    1985-01-01

    The invention is an Elmo bumpy type plasma confinement device having a polygonal configuration of closed magnet field lines for improved plasma confinement. In the preferred embodiment, the device is of a square configuration which is referred to as an Elmo bumpy square (EBS). The EBS is formed by four linear magnetic mirror sections each comprising a plurality of axisymmetric assemblies connected in series and linked by 90/sup 0/ sections of a high magnetic field toroidal solenoid type field generating coils. These coils provide corner confinement with a minimum of radial dispersion of the confined plasma to minimize the detrimental effects of the toroidal curvature of the magnetic field. Each corner is formed by a plurality of circular or elliptical coils aligned about the corner radius to provide maximum continuity in the closing of the magnetic field lines about the square configuration confining the plasma within a vacuum vessel located within the various coils forming the square configuration confinement geometry.

  7. Combined confinement system applied to tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, Tihiro

    1986-01-01

    From particle orbit point of view, a tokamak is a combined confinement configuration where a closed toroidal volume is surrounded by an open confinement system like a magnetic mirror. By eliminating a cold halo plasma, the energy loss from the plasma becomes convective. The H-mode in diverted tokamaks is an example. Because of the favorable scaling of the energy confinement time with temperature, the performance of the tokamak may be significantly improved by taking advantage of this effect. (author)

  8. Quantum-Confined Stark Effect in Ensemble of Colloidal Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi-Bing, Wang; Hui-Chao, Zhang; Jia-Yu, Zhang; Su, Huaipeng; Wang, Y. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The presence of a strong, changing, randomly-oriented, local electric field, which is induced by the photo-ionization that occurs universally in colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), makes it difficult to observe the quantum-confined Stark effect in ensemble of colloidal QDs. We propose a way to inhibit such a random electric field, and a clear quantum-confined Stark shift is observed directly in close-packed colloidal QDs. Besides the applications in optical switches and modulators, our experimental results indicate how the oscillator strengths of the optical transitions are changed under external electric fields. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  9. TRANSIT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. TRANSIT. SYSTEM: DETERMINE 2D-POSITION GLOBALLY BUT INTERMITTENT (POST-FACTO). IMPROVED ACCURACY. PRINCIPLE: POLAR SATELLITES WITH INNOVATIONS OF: GRAVITY-GRADIENT ATTITUDE CONTROL; DRAG COMPENSATION. WORKS ...

  10. Analysis of changes in the fuel component of the cost of electricity in the transition to a closed fuel cycle in nuclear power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurin, Andrey V. [National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Alekseev, P.N.

    2017-09-15

    This paper presents a study of scenarios of transition to a closed fuel cycle in the system of nuclear power, built basing on resource availability requirements at the stage of full life-cycle reactors. Conventionally, there are three main scenarios for the development of nuclear energy: with VVER reactors operating in an open fuel cycle; with VVER reactors operating in a closed fuel cycle; and co-operating VVER and BN, operating in a closed fuel cycle. For the considered scenarios, a quantitative estimation of change in time of material balances were performed, including spent fuel balance, balance of plutonium, reprocessed and depleted uranium, radioactive waste, and the analysis of the fuel component of the cost of electricity.

  11. Analysis of changes in the fuel component of the cost of electricity in the transition to a closed fuel cycle in nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurin, Andrey V.; Alekseev, P.N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study of scenarios of transition to a closed fuel cycle in the system of nuclear power, built basing on resource availability requirements at the stage of full life-cycle reactors. Conventionally, there are three main scenarios for the development of nuclear energy: with VVER reactors operating in an open fuel cycle; with VVER reactors operating in a closed fuel cycle; and co-operating VVER and BN, operating in a closed fuel cycle. For the considered scenarios, a quantitative estimation of change in time of material balances were performed, including spent fuel balance, balance of plutonium, reprocessed and depleted uranium, radioactive waste, and the analysis of the fuel component of the cost of electricity.

  12. On the ionization and burnout processes of a magnetically confined plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1977-10-01

    The particle and heat balance during plasma start-up are investigates, to specify the conditions for reaching various ion density ranges and high plasma temperatures in cases of a limited heating power. Particular attention is paid to the permeable-impermeable transition regime of plasmas being subject to Ohmic heating and confined in closed or open bottles with a main poloidal field. The ionization and burnout conditions are found to depend critically on the confinement and the filling density. They become optimal in closed bottles under symmetric and stable conditions, where the transition into a fully ionized state should be reached even at moderately large ionization rates, burnout powers and currents. Start-up methods based on constant as well as on variable filling densities are discussed as means of ion density control.(author)

  13. Comments on confinement criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurak, V.; Schroer, B.; Swieca, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    For a QED 2 model with SU(n) flavour, the nature of the physical states space is more subtle than one expects on the basis of the loop criterion for confinement. One may have colour confinement without confinement of the fundamental flavour representation. Attempts to formulate confinement criteria in which the quark fields play a more fundamental role are discussed [pt

  14. Surface motion and confinement potential for a microwave confined corona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensley, D.L.

    1979-07-01

    Approximate time dependent solutions for surface velocities and potentials are given for a plane polarized microwave field confining a hot, over-dense plasma corona. Steady state solutions to Poissons' equation can be applied to the time dependent case, provided transit time effects are included. The product of ion pressure and potential wave (surface) velocity gives an average heating rate approx. 7/32 NKT 0 V/sub theta/ directly to the ions

  15. Confinement and stability of crystalline beams in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haffmans, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    We present a fully analytical approach to the study of the confinement and stability of open-quote open-quote Crystalline Beams close-quote close-quote in storage rings, in terms of such fundamental accelerator concepts as tune shift and stopband. We consider a open-quote open-quote Crystalline Beam close-quote close-quote consisting of substrings, arranged symmetrically around the reference trajectory, and we examine the motion of a slightly perturbed test particle on one of them. Our approach quite naturally leads to the conclusion, that (a) storage rings need to be operated below the transition energy, and (b) the open-quote open-quote Crystalline Beam close-quote close-quote has the same periodicity as the storage ring. Each open-quote open-quote Crystalline Beam close-quote close-quote has an upper and lower limit of the spacing between the ions. The upper limit is determined by condition (b), and the lower limit is set by the stability of the test particle motion around the equilibrium. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  16. Critical behavior of the spontaneous polarization and the dielectric susceptibility close to the cubic-tetragonal transition in BaTiO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yurtseven

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Using Landau mean field model, the spontaneous polarization and the dielectric susceptibility are analyzed as functions of temperature and pressure close to the cubic–tetragonal (ferroelectric–paraelectric transition in BaTiO3. From the analysis of the dielectric susceptibility and the spontaneous polarization, the critical exponents are deduced in the classical and quantum limits for BaTiO3. From the critical behavior of the dielectric susceptibility, the spontaneous polarization can be described for the ferroelectric–paraelectric (cubic to tetragonal transition between 4 and 8 GPa at constant temperatures of 0 to 200 K in BaTiO3 within the Landau mean field model given here.

  17. Gravitationally confined relativistic neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayenas, C. G.; Fokas, A. S.; Grigoriou, D.

    2017-09-01

    Combining special relativity, the equivalence principle, and Newton’s universal gravitational law with gravitational rather than rest masses, one finds that gravitational interactions between relativistic neutrinos with kinetic energies above 50 MeV are very strong and can lead to the formation of gravitationally confined composite structures with the mass and other properties of hadrons. One may model such structures by considering three neutrinos moving symmetrically on a circular orbit under the influence of their gravitational attraction, and by assuming quantization of their angular momentum, as in the Bohr model of the H atom. The model contains no adjustable parameters and its solution, using a neutrino rest mass of 0.05 eV/c2, leads to composite state radii close to 1 fm and composite state masses close to 1 GeV/c2. Similar models of relativistic rotating electron - neutrino pairs give a mass of 81 GeV/c2, close to that of W bosons. This novel mechanism of generating mass suggests that the Higgs mass generation mechanism can be modeled as a latent gravitational field which gets activated by relativistic neutrinos.

  18. A Review of Quantum Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerade, Jean-Patrick

    2009-12-01

    A succinct history of the Confined Atom problem is presented. The hydrogen atom confined to the centre of an impenetrable sphere counts amongst the exactly soluble problems of physics, alongside much more noted exact solutions such as Black Body Radiation and the free Hydrogen atom in absence of any radiation field. It shares with them the disadvantage of being an idealisation, while at the same time encapsulating in a simple way particular aspects of physical reality. The problem was first formulated by Sommerfeld and Welker [1]—henceforth cited as SW—in connection with the behaviour of atoms at very high pressures, and the solution was published on the occasion of Pauli's 60th birthday celebration. At the time, it seemed that there was not much other connection with physical reality beyond a few simple aspects connected to the properties of atoms in solids, for which more appropriate models were soon developed. Thus, confined atoms attracted little attention until the advent of the metallofullerene, which provided the first example of a confined atom with properties quite closely related to those originally considered by SW. Since then, the problem has received much more attention, and many more new features of quantum confinement, quantum compression, the quantum Faraday cage, electronic reorganisation, cavity resonances, etc have been described, which are relevant to real systems. Also, a number of other situations have been uncovered experimentally to which quantum confinement is relevant. Thus, studies of the confined atom are now more numerous, and have been extended both in terms of the models used and the systems to which they can be applied. Connections to thermodynamics are explored through the properties of a confined two-level atom adapted from Einstein's celebrated model, and issues of dynamical screening of electromagnetic radiation by the confining shell are discussed in connection with the Faraday cage produced by a confining conducting shell

  19. A Review of Quantum Confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connerade, Jean-Patrick

    2009-01-01

    A succinct history of the Confined Atom problem is presented. The hydrogen atom confined to the centre of an impenetrable sphere counts amongst the exactly soluble problems of physics, alongside much more noted exact solutions such as Black Body Radiation and the free Hydrogen atom in absence of any radiation field. It shares with them the disadvantage of being an idealisation, while at the same time encapsulating in a simple way particular aspects of physical reality. The problem was first formulated by Sommerfeld and Welker - henceforth cited as SW - in connection with the behaviour of atoms at very high pressures, and the solution was published on the occasion of Pauli's 60th birthday celebration. At the time, it seemed that there was not much other connection with physical reality beyond a few simple aspects connected to the properties of atoms in solids, for which more appropriate models were soon developed. Thus, confined atoms attracted little attention until the advent of the metallofullerene, which provided the first example of a confined atom with properties quite closely related to those originally considered by SW. Since then, the problem has received much more attention, and many more new features of quantum confinement, quantum compression, the quantum Faraday cage, electronic reorganisation, cavity resonances, etc have been described, which are relevant to real systems. Also, a number of other situations have been uncovered experimentally to which quantum confinement is relevant. Thus, studies of the confined atom are now more numerous, and have been extended both in terms of the models used and the systems to which they can be applied. Connections to thermodynamics are explored through the properties of a confined two-level atom adapted from Einstein's celebrated model, and issues of dynamical screening of electromagnetic radiation by the confining shell are discussed in connection with the Faraday cage produced by a confining conducting shell. The

  20. Building solids inside nano-space: from confined amorphous through confined solvate to confined 'metastable' polymorph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nartowski, K P; Tedder, J; Braun, D E; Fábián, L; Khimyak, Y Z

    2015-10-14

    The nanocrystallisation of complex molecules inside mesoporous hosts and control over the resulting structure is a significant challenge. To date the largest organic molecule crystallised inside the nano-pores is a known pharmaceutical intermediate - ROY (259.3 g mol(-1)). In this work we demonstrate smart manipulation of the phase of a larger confined pharmaceutical - indomethacin (IMC, 357.8 g mol(-1)), a substance with known conformational flexibility and complex polymorphic behaviour. We show the detailed structural analysis and the control of solid state transformations of encapsulated molecules inside the pores of mesoscopic cellular foam (MCF, pore size ca. 29 nm) and controlled pore glass (CPG, pore size ca. 55 nm). Starting from confined amorphous IMC we drive crystallisation into a confined methanol solvate, which upon vacuum drying leads to the stabilised rare form V of IMC inside the MCF host. In contrast to the pure form, encapsulated form V does not transform into a more stable polymorph upon heating. The size of the constraining pores and the drug concentration within the pores determine whether the amorphous state of the drug is stabilised or it recrystallises into confined nanocrystals. The work presents, in a critical manner, an application of complementary techniques (DSC, PXRD, solid-state NMR, N2 adsorption) to confirm unambiguously the phase transitions under confinement and offers a comprehensive strategy towards the formation and control of nano-crystalline encapsulated organic solids.

  1. H-mode transition physics close to double null on MAST and its applications to other tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H.; Carolan, P.G.; Cunningham, G.; Kirk, A.; Lloyd, B.; Saarelma, S.; Wilson, H.R.; Conway, G.D.; Horton, L.D.; Ryter, F.; Schirmer, J.; Suttrop, W.; Maingi, R.

    2005-01-01

    By accessing extreme parameter regimes combined with well diagnosed edge MAST data contribute towards the understanding of H-mode physics. The first inter-machine comparisons with respect to the influence of the magnetic topology on the power threshold with ASDEX Upgrade and NSTX reveal a reduction of the power threshold in true double null (C-DN) configuration opening new operation regimes in both devices. In L-mode, the negative radial electric field close to the separatrix was found to be more negative in C-DN than in single null (SN), whilst most of the other edge parameters are similar. Pedestal temperatures in MAST are lower than in ASDEX Upgrade in MAST-equivalent discharges, whereas the pedestal densities can be similar, although in long inter ELM periods the MAST density pedestal is higher than on ASDEX Upgrade. In order to test four leading H-mode theories MAST data are compared statistically to their H-mode access criteria. The usual DN operating regime with co current NBI in MAST has been extended to include single null (SN) configurations, to provide more direct comparisons with conventional tokamaks. The plasma edge in SN on MAST is more stable to ELMs and the typical type-III ELMs, often observed in C-DN, are absent, despite input powers close to the H-mode threshold power. In this respect, the stability of measured plasma edge profiles in SN and DN against ideal peeling-ballooning modes will be discussed. (author)

  2. Local structural ordering in surface-confined liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwa, I.; Jeżewski, W.; Zakharov, A. V.

    2017-06-01

    The effect of the interplay between attractive nonlocal surface interactions and attractive pair long-range intermolecular couplings on molecular structures of liquid crystals confined in thin cells with flat solid surfaces has been studied. Extending the McMillan mean field theory to include finite systems, it has been shown that confining surfaces can induce complex orientational and translational ordering of molecules. Typically, local smectic A, nematic, and isotropic phases have been shown to coexist in certain temperature ranges, provided that confining cells are sufficiently thick, albeit finite. Due to the nonlocality of surface interactions, the spatial arrangement of these local phases can display, in general, an unexpected complexity along the surface normal direction. In particular, molecules located in the vicinity of surfaces can still be organized in smectic layers, even though nematic and/or isotropic order can simultaneously appear in the interior of cells. The resulting surface freezing of smectic layers has been confirmed to occur even for rather weak surface interactions. The surface interactions cannot, however, prevent smectic layers from melting relatively close to system boundaries, even when molecules are still arranged in layers within the central region of the system. The internal interfaces, separating individual liquid-crystal phases, are demonstrated here to form fronts of local finite-size transitions that move across cells under temperature changes. Although the complex molecular ordering in surface confined liquid-crystal systems can essentially be controlled by temperature variations, specific thermal properties of these systems, especially the nature of the local transitions, are argued to be strongly conditioned to the degree of molecular packing.

  3. A LIKELY CLOSE-IN LOW-MASS STELLAR COMPANION TO THE TRANSITIONAL DISK STAR HD 142527

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biller, Beth; Benisty, Myriam; Chauvin, Gael; Olofsson, Johan; Pott, Jörg-Uwe; Müller, André; Bonnefoy, Mickaël; Henning, Thomas; Lacour, Sylvestre; Thebault, Philippe; Juhász, Attila; Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Tuthill, Peter; Crida, Aurelien

    2012-01-01

    With the uniquely high contrast within 0.''1 (Δmag(L') = 5-6.5 mag) available using Sparse Aperture Masking with NACO at Very Large Telescope, we detected asymmetry in the flux from the Herbig Fe star HD 142527 with a barycenter emission situated at a projected separation of 88 ± 5 mas (12.8 ± 1.5 AU at 145 pc) and flux ratios in H, K, and L' of 0.016 ± 0.007, 0.012 ± 0.008, and 0.0086 ± 0.0011, respectively (3σ errors), relative to the primary star and disk. After extensive closure-phase modeling, we interpret this detection as a close-in, low-mass stellar companion with an estimated mass of ∼0.1-0.4 M ☉ . HD 142527 has a complex disk structure, with an inner gap imaged in both the near and mid-IR as well as a spiral feature in the outer disk in the near-IR. This newly detected low-mass stellar companion may provide a critical explanation of the observed disk structure.

  4. Chernobyl new safe confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, L.

    2011-01-01

    The author presents the new safe confinement that will be commissioned at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl NPP in 2015. The confinement will ensure that Chernobyl Unit 4 will be placed in an environmentally safe condition for at least next 100 years. The article highlights the current work status, future perspectives and the feasibility of confinement concept [ru

  5. Bifurcated equilibria in centrifugally confined plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, I.; Teodorescu, C.; Guzdar, P. N.; Hassam, A. B.; Clary, R.; Ellis, R.; Lunsford, R.

    2008-01-01

    A bifurcation theory and associated computational model are developed to account for abrupt transitions observed recently on the Maryland Centrifugal eXperiment (MCX) [R. F. Ellis et al. Phys. Plasmas 8, 2057 (2001)], a supersonically rotating magnetized plasma that relies on centrifugal forces to prevent thermal expansion of plasma along the magnetic field. The observed transitions are from a well-confined, high-rotation state (HR-mode) to a lower-rotation, lesser-confined state (O-mode). A two-dimensional time-dependent magnetohydrodynamics code is used to simulate the dynamical equilibrium states of the MCX configuration. In addition to the expected viscous drag on the core plasma rotation, a momentum loss term is added that models the friction of plasma on the enhanced level of neutrals expected in the vicinity of the insulators at the throats of the magnetic mirror geometry. At small values of the external rotation drive, the plasma is not well-centrifugally confined and hence experiences the drag from near the insulators. Beyond a critical value of the external drive, the system makes an abrupt transition to a well-centrifugally confined state in which the plasma has pulled away from the end insulator plates; more effective centrifugal confinement lowers the plasma mass near the insulators allowing runaway increases in the rotation speed. The well-confined steady state is reached when the external drive is balanced by only the viscosity of the core plasma. A clear hysteresis phenomenon is shown.

  6. Higher-order corrections to the effective potential close to the jamming transition in the perceptron model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Ada

    2018-01-01

    In view of the results achieved in a previously related work [A. Altieri, S. Franz, and G. Parisi, J. Stat. Mech. (2016) 093301], 10.1088/1742-5468/2016/09/093301, regarding a Plefka-like expansion of the free energy up to the second order in the perceptron model, we improve the computation here focusing on the role of third-order corrections. The perceptron model is a simple example of constraint satisfaction problem, falling in the same universality class as hard spheres near jamming and hence allowing us to get exact results in high dimensions for more complex settings. Our method enables to define an effective potential (or Thouless-Anderson-Palmer free energy), namely a coarse-grained functional, which depends on the generalized forces and the effective gaps between particles. The analysis of the third-order corrections to the effective potential reveals that, albeit irrelevant in a mean-field framework in the thermodynamic limit, they might instead play a fundamental role in considering finite-size effects. We also study the typical behavior of generalized forces and we show that two kinds of corrections can occur. The first contribution arises since the system is analyzed at a finite distance from jamming, while the second one is due to finite-size corrections. We nevertheless show that third-order corrections in the perturbative expansion vanish in the jamming limit both for the potential and the generalized forces, in agreement with the isostaticity argument proposed by Wyart and coworkers. Finally, we analyze the relevant scaling solutions emerging close to the jamming line, which define a crossover regime connecting the control parameters of the model to an effective temperature.

  7. Confinement models for gluons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadkikar, S.B.; Vinodkumar, P.C.

    1987-04-01

    Confinement model for gluons using a 'colour super current' is formulated. An attempt has been made to derive a suitable dielectric function corresponding to the current confinement model. A simple inhomogeneous dielectric confinement model for gluons is studied for comparison. The model Hamiltonians are second quantized and the glueball states are constructed. The spurious motion of the centre of confinement is accounted for. The results of the current confinement scheme are found to be in good agreement with the experimental candidates for glueballs. (author). 16 refs, 3 tabs

  8. Tyr66 acts as a conformational switch in the closed-to-open transition of the SHP-2 N-SH2-domain phosphotyrosine-peptide binding cleft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacKerell Alexander D

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The N-terminal SH2 domain (N-SH2 of the non-receptor tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 is involved both in localization of SHP-2 by recognition of phosphotyrosine (pY peptides and self-inhibition of SHP-2 phosphatase activity through the formation of a protein – protein interface with the phosphatase domain. Mutations that disrupt this interface break the coupling between pY-peptide binding cleft conformation and self-inhibition, thereby increasing both SHP-2 phosphatase activity and pY-peptide binding affinity, and are associated with the congenital condition Noonan syndrome and various pediatric leukemias. To better characterize the molecular process involved in N-SH2 pY-dependent binding, we have applied explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations to study the closed-to-open transition of the N-SH2 pY-peptide binding cleft. Results The existence of stable conformations in the left-handed helical and the extended regions of Tyr66 φ/ψ space prevent rapid interconversion of the backbone and create a conformational switch such that Tyr66 in a left-handed helical backbone conformation results in an open cleft and in an extended backbone conformation results in a closed cleft. The stable conformations arise from deep, well-localized free-energy minima in the left-handed helical and extended regions of the Tyr66 φ/ψ map. Changing the Tyr66 backbone conformation from extended to left-handed helical induces a closed-to-open transition in the cleft, and the reverse change in backbone conformation induces the reverse, open-to-closed transition. In the open-cleft state, weak solvent-exposed interactions involving the sidechains of Tyr66, Asp40, Lys55, and Gln57 serve to anchor the Tyr66 sidechain to the surface of the protein and away from the binding cleft entrance, thereby facilitating pY-peptide access to the binding cleft. Conclusion The simulations point to a regulatory role for Tyr66 and surrounding residues in SHP-2 function

  9. Tokamak confinement scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.

    1998-01-01

    The scaling of energy confinement with engineering parameters, such as plasma current and major radius, is important for establishing the size of an ignited fusion device. Tokamaks exhibit a variety of modes of operation with different confinement properties. At present there is no adequate first principles theory to predict tokamak energy confinement and the empirical scaling method is the preferred approach to designing next step tokamaks. This paper reviews a number of robust theoretical concepts, such as dimensional analysis and stability boundaries, which provide a framework for characterising and understanding tokamak confinement and, therefore, generate more confidence in using empirical laws for extrapolation to future devices. (author)

  10. Holographic repulsion and confinement in gauge theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Viqar; Kothawala, Dawood

    2013-02-01

    We show that for asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) backgrounds with negative energy, such as the AdS soliton and regulated negative-mass AdS-Schwarzshild metrics, the Wilson loop expectation value in the AdS/CFT conjecture exhibits a Coulomb to confinement transition. We also show that the quark-antiquark (q \\bar{q}) potential can be interpreted as affine time along null geodesics on the minimal string worldsheet and that its intrinsic curvature provides a signature of transition to confinement phase. Our results suggest a generic (holographic) relationship between confinement in gauge theory and repulsive gravity, which in turn is connected with singularity avoidance in quantum gravity. Communicated by P R L V Moniz

  11. Stable tetrabenzo-Chichibabin's hydrocarbons: Tunable ground state and unusual transition between their closed-shell and open-shell resonance forms

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Zebing

    2012-09-05

    Stable open-shell polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of fundamental interest due to their unique electronic, optical, and magnetic properties and promising applications in materials sciences. Chichibabin\\'s hydrocarbon as a classical open-shell PAH has been investigated for a long time. However, most of the studies are complicated by their inherent high reactivity. In this work, two new stable benzannulated Chichibabin\\'s hydrocarbons 1-CS and 2-OS were prepared, and their electronic structure and geometry in the ground state were studied by various experiments (steady-state and transient absorption spectra, NMR, electron spin resonance (ESR), superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), FT Raman, X-ray crystallographic etc.) and density function theory (DFT) calculations. 1-CS and 2-OS exhibited tunable ground states, with a closed-shell quinoidal structure for 1-CS and an open-shell biradical form for 2-OS. Their corresponding excited-state forms 1-OS and 2-CS were also chemically approached and showed different decay processes. The biradical 1-OS displayed an unusually slow decay to the ground state (1-CS) due to a large energy barrier (95 ± 2.5 kJ/mol) arising from severe steric hindrance during the transition from an orthogonal biradical form to a butterfly-like quinoidal form. The quick transition from the quinoidal 2-CS (excited state) to the orthogonal biradicaloid 2-OS (ground state) happened during the attempted synthesis of 2-CS. Compounds 1-CS and 2-OS can be oxidized into stable dications by FeCl 3 and/or concentrated H 2SO 4. The open-shell 2-OS also exhibited a large two-photon absorption (TPA) cross section (760 GM at 1200 nm). © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  12. Confinement and strings in MQCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanany, A.; Strassler, M.J.; Zaffaroni, A.

    1998-01-01

    We study aspects of confinement in the M-theory fivebrane version of QCD (MQCD). We show heavy quarks are confined in hadrons (which take the form of membrane-fivebrane bound states) for N=1 and softly broken N=2 SU(N) MQCD. We explore and clarify the transition from the exotic physics of the latter to the standard physics of the former. In particular, the many strings and quark-antiquark mesons found in N=2 field theory by Douglas and Shenker are reproduced. It is seen that in the N=1 limit all but one such meson disappears while all of the strings survive. The strings of softly broken N=2, N=1, and even non-supersymmetric SU(N) MQCD have a common ratio for their tensions as a function of the amount of flux they carry. We also comment on the almost BPS properties of the Douglas-Shenker strings and discuss the brane picture for monopole confinement on N=2 QCD Higgs branches. (orig.)

  13. Higher representations: Confinement and large N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the confining phase transition as a function of temperature for theories with dynamical fermions in the two index symmetric and antisymmetric representation of the gauge group. By studying the properties of the center of the gauge group we predict for an even number of colors a confining phase transition, if second order, to be in the universality class of Ising in three dimensions. This is due to the fact that the center group symmetry does not break completely for an even number of colors. For an odd number of colors the center group symmetry breaks completely. This pattern remains unaltered at a large number of colors. The confining/deconfining phase transition in these theories at large and finite N is not mapped in the one of super Yang-Mills theory. We extend the Polyakov loop effective theory to describe the confining phase transition of the theories studied here for a generic number of colors. Our results are not modified when adding matter in the same higher dimensional representations of the gauge group. We comment on the interplay between confinement and chiral symmetry in these theories and suggest that they are ideal laboratories to shed light on this issue also for ordinary QCD. We compare the free energy as a function of temperature for different theories. We find that the conjectured thermal inequality between the infrared and ultraviolet degrees of freedom computed using the free energy does not lead to new constraints on asymptotically free theories with fermions in higher dimensional representations of the gauge group. Since the center of the gauge group is an important quantity for the confinement properties at zero temperature our results are relevant here as well

  14. Generating equilateral random polygons in confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao, Y; Ernst, C; Montemayor, A; Ziegler, U

    2011-01-01

    One challenging problem in biology is to understand the mechanism of DNA packing in a confined volume such as a cell. It is known that confined circular DNA is often knotted and hence the topology of the extracted (and relaxed) circular DNA can be used as a probe of the DNA packing mechanism. However, in order to properly estimate the topological properties of the confined circular DNA structures using mathematical models, it is necessary to generate large ensembles of simulated closed chains (i.e. polygons) of equal edge lengths that are confined in a volume such as a sphere of certain fixed radius. Finding efficient algorithms that properly sample the space of such confined equilateral random polygons is a difficult problem. In this paper, we propose a method that generates confined equilateral random polygons based on their probability distribution. This method requires the creation of a large database initially. However, once the database has been created, a confined equilateral random polygon of length n can be generated in linear time in terms of n. The errors introduced by the method can be controlled and reduced by the refinement of the database. Furthermore, our numerical simulations indicate that these errors are unbiased and tend to cancel each other in a long polygon. (paper)

  15. Transition metal catalysis in confined spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, S.H.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical reactions are required for the conversion of feedstocks to valuable materials, such as different types of plastics, pharmaceutical ingredients and advanced materials. In order to facilitate the conversion of these feedstocks to a wide array of products, catalysis plays a prominent role.

  16. Compact inertial confinement multireactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergrass, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) commercial-applications plant-optimum driver pulse repetition rates may exceed reactor pulse-repetition-rate capabilities. Thus, more than one reactor may be required for low-cost production of electric power, process heat, fissionable fuels, etc., in ICF plants. Substantial savings in expensive reactor containment cells and blankets can be realized by placing more than one reactor in a cell and by surrounding more than one reactor cavity with a single blanket system. There are also some potential disadvantages associated with close coupling in compact multicavity blankets and multireactor cells. Tradeoffs associated with several scenarios have been studied

  17. Dynamics in geometrical confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Kremer, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the dynamics of low molecular weight and polymeric molecules when they are constrained under conditions of geometrical confinement. It covers geometrical confinement in different dimensionalities: (i) in nanometer thin layers or self supporting films (1-dimensional confinement) (ii) in pores or tubes with nanometric diameters (2-dimensional confinement) (iii) as micelles embedded in matrices (3-dimensional) or as nanodroplets.The dynamics under such conditions have been a much discussed and central topic in the focus of intense worldwide research activities within the last two decades. The present book discusses how the resulting molecular mobility is influenced by the subtle counterbalance between surface effects (typically slowing down molecular dynamics through attractive guest/host interactions) and confinement effects (typically increasing the mobility). It also explains how these influences can be modified and tuned, e.g. through appropriate surface coatings, film thicknesses or pore...

  18. HAT-P-65b and HAT-P-66b: Two Transiting Inflated Hot Jupiters and Observational Evidence for the Reinflation of Close-in Giant Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. Á.; Bhatti, W.; Penev, K.; Bieryla, A.; Latham, D. W.; Kovács, G.; Torres, G.; Csubry, Z.; de Val-Borro, M.; Buchhave, L.; Kovács, T.; Quinn, S.; Howard, A. W.; Isaacson, H.; Fulton, B. J.; Everett, M. E.; Esquerdo, G.; Béky, B.; Szklenar, T.; Falco, E.; Santerne, A.; Boisse, I.; Hébrard, G.; Burrows, A.; Lázár, J.; Papp, I.; Sári, P.

    2016-12-01

    We present the discovery of the transiting exoplanets HAT-P-65b and HAT-P-66b, with orbital periods of 2.6055 and 2.9721 days, masses of 0.527+/- 0.083 {M}{{J}} and 0.783+/- 0.057 {M}{{J}}, and inflated radii of 1.89+/- 0.13 {R}{{J}} and {1.59}-0.10+0.16 {R}{{J}}, respectively. They orbit moderately bright (V=13.145+/- 0.029 and V=12.993+/- 0.052) stars of mass 1.212+/- 0.050 {M}⊙ and {1.255}-0.054+0.107 {M}⊙ . The stars are at the main-sequence turnoff. While it is well known that the radii of close-in giant planets are correlated with their equilibrium temperatures, whether or not the radii of planets increase in time as their hosts evolve and become more luminous is an open question. Looking at the broader sample of well-characterized close-in transiting giant planets, we find that there is a statistically significant correlation between planetary radii and the fractional ages of their host stars, with a false-alarm probability of only 0.0041%. We find that the correlation between the radii of planets and the fractional ages of their hosts is fully explained by the known correlation between planetary radii and their present-day equilibrium temperatures; however, if the zero-age main-sequence equilibrium temperature is used in place of the present-day equilibrium temperature, then a correlation with age must also be included to explain the planetary radii. This suggests that, after contracting during the pre-main-sequence, close-in giant planets are reinflated over time due to the increasing level of irradiation received from their host stars. Prior theoretical work indicates that such a dynamic response to irradiation requires a significant fraction of the incident energy to be deposited deep within the planetary interiors. Based on observations obtained with the Hungarian-made Automated Telescope Network. Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology

  19. The cruel and unusual phenomenology of solitary confinement

    OpenAIRE

    Shaun eGallagher; Shaun eGallagher; Shaun eGallagher

    2014-01-01

    What happens when subjects are deprived of intersubjective contact? This paper looks closely at the phenomenology and psychology of one example of that deprivation: solitary confinement. It also puts the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement to use in the legal context. Not only is there no consensus on whether solitary confinement is a cruel and unusual punishment, there is no consensus on the definition of the term ‘cruel’ in the use of that legal phrase. I argue that we ...

  20. The confinement problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, E.

    1985-01-01

    Confinement of quarks is sometimes taken as some kind of dogma in the contemporary theory of strong interactions - quantum chromo-dynamics (QCD). Scientists should not be content with that. What is meant by ''permanent confinement'' should be formulated more precisely to see whether the theory has this property or not. The author looks at some possible interpretations of ''confinement'' and their shortcomings and then turns to the most widely used rather pragmatic definition based on the somewhat unphysical notion of infinitely heavy external sources. He describes what is known about the problem and tries to bring into focus some aspects that are insufficiently understood in his opinion

  1. Tormac confinement, theory, and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Brown, I.G.; Feinberg, B.

    1978-01-01

    Tormac is a stuffed toroidal line cusp: the magnetic field is divided into two distinct regions, i.e., an outside ''sheath'' layer where the plasma is mirror-confined on open field lines and an internal high-β region of closed nested flux surfaces. The sheath is arranged with the appropriate curvature to ensure absolute MHD stability everywhere. The bulk of the plasma is maintained on closed flux surfaces as in a typical toroidal configuration, but with enhanced MHD stability due to the external field shaping. Experimental results on a toroidal ''bicusp'' (Tormac IV) will be reported. This device has a boro-silicate glass chamber and holds a plasma with an aspect ratio of 4 and a major diameter of 35 cm

  2. Modification of the perturbative QCD towards confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arodz, H.

    1981-01-01

    Modification of the low momentum behaviour of the perturbative SU(2) gauge theory is proposed. The modification is closely related (although not equivalent) to a nonstandard choice of boundary condition for the Euclidean 2-point gluonic Green function. In the resulting theory already single graphs lead to the confining potential between heavy, static quarks, V(r) = ar 2 for r → infinity. (author)

  3. Exceptional confinement in G(2) gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, K.; Minkowski, P.; Pepe, M.; Wiese, U.-J.

    2003-01-01

    We study theories with the exceptional gauge group G(2). The 14 adjoint 'gluons' of a G(2) gauge theory transform as {3}, {3-bar} and {8} under the subgroup SU(3), and hence have the color quantum numbers of ordinary quarks, anti-quarks and gluons in QCD. Since G(2) has a trivial center, a 'quark' in the {7} representation of G(2) can be screened by 'gluons'. As a result, in G(2) Yang-Mills theory the string between a pair of static 'quarks' can break. In G(2) QCD there is a hybrid consisting of one 'quark' and three 'gluons'. In supersymmetric G(2) Yang-Mills theory with a {14} Majorana 'gluino' the chiral symmetry is Z(4) χ . Chiral symmetry breaking gives rise to distinct confined phases separated by confined-confined domain walls. A scalar Higgs field in the {7} representation breaks G(2) to SU(3) and allows us to interpolate between theories with exceptional and ordinary confinement. We also present strong coupling lattice calculations that reveal basic features of G(2) confinement. Just as in QCD, where dynamical quarks break the Z(3) symmetry explicitly, G(2) gauge theories confine even without a center. However, there is not necessarily a deconfinement phase transition at finite temperature

  4. WWC Review of the Report "Closing the Social-Class Achievement Gap: A Difference-Education Intervention Improves First-Generation Students' Academic Performance and All Students' College Transition." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    For the 2014 study, "Closing the Social-Class Achievement Gap: A Difference-Education Intervention Improves First-Generation Students' Academic Performance and All Students' College Transition," researchers investigated the impact of attending a moderated panel on incoming freshmen's adjustment to college. The panel featured…

  5. The confining trailing string

    CERN Document Server

    Kiritsis, E; Nitti, F

    2014-01-01

    We extend the holographic trailing string picture of a heavy quark to the case of a bulk geometry dual to a confining gauge theory. We compute the classical trailing confining string solution for a static as well as a uniformly moving quark. The trailing string is infinitely extended and approaches a confining horizon, situated at a critical value of the radial coordinate, along one of the space-time directions, breaking boundary rotational invariance. We compute the equations for the fluctuations around the classical solutions, which are used to obtain boundary force correlators controlling the Langevin dynamics of the quark. The imaginary part of the correlators has a non-trivial low-frequency limit, which gives rise to a viscous friction coefficient induced by the confining vacuum. The vacuum correlators are used to define finite-temperature dressed Langevin correlators with an appropriate high-frequency behavior.

  6. Solitons and confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swieca, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Some aspects of two recent developments in quantum field theory are discussed. First, related with 'extended particles' such as soliton, kink and the 't Hooft monopole. Second, with confinement of particles which are realized in the Schwinger model [pt

  7. The confining string from the soft dilaton theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Enrique; Gomez, Cesar

    2000-01-01

    A candidate for the confining string of gauge theories is constructed via a representation of the ultraviolet divergences of quantum field theory by a closed string dilaton insertion, computed through the soft dilaton theorem. The resulting (critical) confining string is conformally invariant, singles out naturally d=4 dimensions, and can not be used to represent theories with Landau poles

  8. Confinement and the Pomeron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of confinement for obtaining a unitary high-energy limit for QCD is discussed. ''Minijets'' are argued to build up non-unitary behavior endash when k T > Λ is imposed. For minijets to mix with low k T Pomeron Field Theory describing confinement, and give consistent asymptotic behavior, new ''quarks'' must enter the theory above the minijet transverse momentum scale. The Critical Pomeron is the resulting high-energy limit. 22 refs

  9. Fusion, magnetic confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of the principles of magnetic confinement of plasmas for the purpose of achieving controlled fusion conditions. Sec. 1 discusses the different nuclear fusion reactions which can be exploited in prospective fusion reactors and explains why special technologies need to be developed for the supply of tritium or 3 He, the probable fuels. In Sec. 2 the Lawson condition, a criterion that is a measure of the quality of confinement relative to achieving fusion conditions, is explained. In Sec. 3 fluid equations are used to describe plasma confinement. Specific confinement configurations are considered. In Sec. 4 the orbits of particle sin magneti and electric fields are discussed. In Sec. 5 stability considerations are discussed. It is noted that confinement systems usually need to satisfy stability constraints imposed by ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The paper culminates with a summary of experimental progress in magnetic confinement. Present experiments in tokamaks have reached the point that the conditions necessary to achieve fusion are being satisfied

  10. The cruel and unusual phenomenology of solitary confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Shaun

    2014-01-01

    What happens when subjects are deprived of intersubjective contact? This paper looks closely at the phenomenology and psychology of one example of that deprivation: solitary confinement. It also puts the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement to use in the legal context. Not only is there no consensus on whether solitary confinement is a "cruel and unusual punishment," there is no consensus on the definition of the term "cruel" in the use of that legal phrase. I argue that we can find a moral consensus on the meaning of "cruelty" by looking specifically at the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement.

  11. The cruel and unusual phenomenology of solitary confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun eGallagher

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available What happens when subjects are deprived of intersubjective contact? This paper looks closely at the phenomenology and psychology of one example of that deprivation: solitary confinement. It also puts the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement to use in the legal context. Not only is there no consensus on whether solitary confinement is a cruel and unusual punishment, there is no consensus on the definition of the term ‘cruel’ in the use of that legal phrase. I argue that we can find a moral consensus on the meaning of ‘cruelty’ by looking specifically at the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement.

  12. Improved confinement and related physics study in Compact Helical System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, S.; Akiyama, T.; Fujisawa, A.; Ida, K.; Iguchi, H.; Isobe, M.; Minami, T.; Nagaoka, K.; Nakamura, K.; Nishimura, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Matsushita, H.; Nakano, H.; Ohshima, S.; Shimizu, A.; Suzuki, C.; Takahashi, C.; Toi, K.; Yoshimura, Y.; Yoshinuma, M.; Oishi, T.; Kado, S.

    2005-01-01

    Recent experimental results in Compact Helical System (CHS) will be presented focusing on the improved confinement and physics study of electric field and turbulence in helical plasmas. Among various improved confinement modes found in CHS experiments, the edge transport barrier (ETB) formation is an important topic, which we have been studying intensively for these years. The discharges of CHS with ETB have characteristics very similar to H-mode discharges in tokamaks and W7-AS stellarator. We observe a sharp drop of Hα emission signal, increase of plasma density together with an increase of local density gradient at the plasma edge, so we call our ETB discharges as H-mode. The power threshold for the transition is clearly observed which is again similar to standard H-mode discharges, i.e., the threshold increases with the density and magnetic field. Unique feature of CHS H-mode is the dependence on the magnetic field configuration. We examined H-mode discharges for the configurations with magnetic axis shift and the magnetic quadrupole control. The transition appeared for a wide range of configurations with the rotational transform at the plasma edge (iota(a)) below and above unity. There is a general dependence of power threshold: higher power needed for the inward shifted configuration (with lower value of iota(a)) and lower power for outward shift. The absolute power threshold of CHS H-mode for the outward shifted configuration is very close to the tokamak H-mode with a divertor configuration. Other topics of confinement studies in CHS will be also presented. We have a unique diagnostic system of two heavy ion beam probes. It is unique in stellarator research and also for all toroidal confinement research including many tokamaks in the world. As well as fruitful result of electric field measurements, that is one of key elements for stellarator physics, this diagnostic measures turbulence in the plasma, which gives essential information for the study of

  13. Crystallization features of normal alkanes in confined geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yunlan; Liu, Guoming; Xie, Baoquan; Fu, Dongsheng; Wang, Dujin

    2014-01-21

    How polymers crystallize can greatly affect their thermal and mechanical properties, which influence the practical applications of these materials. Polymeric materials, such as block copolymers, graft polymers, and polymer blends, have complex molecular structures. Due to the multiple hierarchical structures and different size domains in polymer systems, confined hard environments for polymer crystallization exist widely in these materials. The confined geometry is closely related to both the phase metastability and lifetime of polymer. This affects the phase miscibility, microphase separation, and crystallization behaviors and determines both the performance of polymer materials and how easily these materials can be processed. Furthermore, the size effect of metastable states needs to be clarified in polymers. However, scientists find it difficult to propose a quantitative formula to describe the transition dynamics of metastable states in these complex systems. Normal alkanes [CnH2n+2, n-alkanes], especially linear saturated hydrocarbons, can provide a well-defined model system for studying the complex crystallization behaviors of polymer materials, surfactants, and lipids. Therefore, a deeper investigation of normal alkane phase behavior in confinement will help scientists to understand the crystalline phase transition and ultimate properties of many polymeric materials, especially polyolefins. In this Account, we provide an in-depth look at the research concerning the confined crystallization behavior of n-alkanes and binary mixtures in microcapsules by our laboratory and others. Since 2006, our group has developed a technique for synthesizing nearly monodispersed n-alkane containing microcapsules with controllable size and surface porous morphology. We applied an in situ polymerization method, using melamine-formaldehyde resin as shell material and nonionic surfactants as emulsifiers. The solid shell of microcapsules can provide a stable three-dimensional (3-D

  14. ATR confinement leakage determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuan, P.; Buescher, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    The air leakage rate from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) confinement is an important parameter in estimating hypothesized accidental releases of radiation to the environment. The leakage rate must be determined periodically to assure that the confinement has not degraded with time and such determination is one of the technical safety requirements of ATR operation. This paper reviews the methods of confinement leakage determination and presents an analysis of leakage determination under windy conditions, which can complicate the interpretation of the determined leakage rates. The paper also presents results of analyses of building air exchange under windy conditions. High wind can enhance air exchange and this could increase the release rates of radioisotopes following an accident

  15. Topology of polymer chains under nanoscale confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satarifard, Vahid; Heidari, Maziar; Mashaghi, Samaneh; Tans, Sander J; Ejtehadi, Mohammad Reza; Mashaghi, Alireza

    2017-08-24

    Spatial confinement limits the conformational space accessible to biomolecules but the implications for bimolecular topology are not yet known. Folded linear biopolymers can be seen as molecular circuits formed by intramolecular contacts. The pairwise arrangement of intra-chain contacts can be categorized as parallel, series or cross, and has been identified as a topological property. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we determine the contact order distributions and topological circuits of short semi-flexible linear and ring polymer chains with a persistence length of l p under a spherical confinement of radius R c . At low values of l p /R c , the entropy of the linear chain leads to the formation of independent contacts along the chain and accordingly, increases the fraction of series topology with respect to other topologies. However, at high l p /R c , the fraction of cross and parallel topologies are enhanced in the chain topological circuits with cross becoming predominant. At an intermediate confining regime, we identify a critical value of l p /R c , at which all topological states have equal probability. Confinement thus equalizes the probability of more complex cross and parallel topologies to the level of the more simple, non-cooperative series topology. Moreover, our topology analysis reveals distinct behaviours for ring- and linear polymers under weak confinement; however, we find no difference between ring- and linear polymers under strong confinement. Under weak confinement, ring polymers adopt parallel and series topologies with equal likelihood, while linear polymers show a higher tendency for series arrangement. The radial distribution analysis of the topology reveals a non-uniform effect of confinement on the topology of polymer chains, thereby imposing more pronounced effects on the core region than on the confinement surface. Additionally, our results reveal that over a wide range of confining radii, loops arranged in parallel and cross

  16. Confinement of quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambu, J.

    1978-01-01

    Three quark models of hadron structure, which suggest an explanation of quarks confinement mechanism in hadrons are considered. Quark classifications, quark flawors and colours, symmetry model of hadron structure based on the colour theory of strong interaction are discussed. Diagrams of colour combinations of quarks and antiquarks, exchange of gluons, binding quarks in hadron. Quark confinement models based on the field theory, string model rotating and bag model are discussed. Diagrams of the colour charge distribution explaining the phenomena of infrared ''slavery'' and ultraviolet ''freedom'' are given. The models considered explain but some quark properties, creating prerequisites for the development of the consequent theory of hadron structure

  17. Confinement effects and mechanistic aspects for montmorillonite nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiong; Zhu, Chang; Jia, Zengqiang; Yang, Gang

    2018-08-01

    Owing to the ubiquity, critical importance and special properties, confined microenvironments have recently triggered overwhelming interest. In this work, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations have been conducted to address the confinement effects and ion-specific effects for electrolyte solutions within montmorillonite nanopores, where the pore widths vary with a wide range. The adsorption number, structure, dynamics and stability of inner- and outer-sphere metal ions are affected by the change of pore widths (confinement effects), while the extents are significantly dependent on the type of adsorbed species. The type of adsorbed species is, however, not altered by the magnitude of confinement effects, and confinement effects are similar for different electrolyte concentrations. Ion-specific effects are pronounced for all magnitudes of confinement effects (from non- to strong confined conditions), and Hofmeister sequences of outer-sphere species are closely associated with the magnitude of confinement effects while those of inner-sphere species remain consistent. In addition, mechanistic aspects of confinement have been posed using the electrical double layer theories, and the results can be generalized to other confined systems that are ubiquitous in biology, chemistry, geology and nanotechnology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Tunable diode laser measurement of self broadening versus temperature of five close ammonia transitions of the v{sub 2} band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldacchini, G; D` Amato, F [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione; Buffa, G; Tarrini, O [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica; Ciucci, A

    1995-08-01

    Self broadening coefficients have been measured as a functional of temperature form 192 to 377 K for five transition lines of the band of ammonia. The results have been compared with theoretical calculations performed in the semiclassical impact approximation, and although one hot transition does not fit well in this scheme, there is in general a fairly good agreement. Moreover there is also an experimental and theoretical evidence against the commonly assumed power law for the temperature dependence. More measurements are needed to clarify the position of the hot transitions in this respect and to verify the extent of validity of the power law in general.

  19. Confinement for More Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kipnusu, Wycliffe K.; Elsayed, Mohamed; Kossack, Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    Broadband dielectric spectroscopy and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy are employed to study the molecular dynamics and effective free volume of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2E1H) in the bulk state and when confined in unidirectional nanopores with average diameters of 4, 6, and 8 nm. Enhanced α...

  20. On confinement and duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strassler, M J [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2002-05-15

    Confinement in four-dimensional gauge theories is considered from several points of view. General features are discussed, and the mechanism of confinement is investigated. Dualities between field theories, and duality between field theory and string theory, are both put to use. In these lectures I have given an overview of some of the key ideas underlying confinement as a property of field theory, and now, of string theory as well. This is a tiny fraction of what field theory (and now string theory) is capable of, and we are still uncovering new features on a monthly basis. In fact, most field theories do not have confinement, for reasons entirely different from those of QCD. Many become nontrivial conformal field theories at low energy. Others become composite, weakly-coupled gauge theories. Dualities of many stripes are found everywhere. Ordinary dimensional analysis in string theory is totally wrong in the regime where it looks like weakly-coupled field theory, and ordinary dimensional analysis in field theory is totally wrong in the regime where it looks like weakly-coupled supergravity.

  1. Entanglement as a probe of confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klebanov, Igor R.; Kutasov, David; Murugan, Arvind

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the entanglement entropy in gravity duals of confining large N c gauge theories using the proposal of [S. Ryu, T. Takayanagi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 181602, (hep-th/0603001); S. Ryu, T. Takayanagi, JHEP 0608 (2006) 045, (hep-th/0605073)]. Dividing one of the directions of space into a line segment of length l and its complement, the entanglement entropy between the two subspaces is given by the classical action of the minimal bulk hypersurface which approaches the endpoints of the line segment at the boundary. We find that in confining backgrounds there are generally two such surfaces. One consists of two disconnected components localized at the endpoints of the line segment. The other contains a tube connecting the two components. The disconnected surface dominates the entropy for l above a certain critical value l crit while the connected one dominates below that value. The change of behavior at l=l crit is reminiscent of the finite temperature deconfinement transition: for l crit the entropy scales as N c 2 , while for l>l crit as N c 0 . We argue that a similar transition should occur in any field theory with a Hagedorn spectrum of non-interacting bound states. The requirement that the entanglement entropy has a phase transition may be useful in constraining gravity duals of confining theories

  2. Pathways to dewetting in hydrophobic confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remsing, Richard C; Xi, Erte; Vembanur, Srivathsan; Sharma, Sumit; Debenedetti, Pablo G; Garde, Shekhar; Patel, Amish J

    2015-07-07

    Liquid water can become metastable with respect to its vapor in hydrophobic confinement. The resulting dewetting transitions are often impeded by large kinetic barriers. According to macroscopic theory, such barriers arise from the free energy required to nucleate a critical vapor tube that spans the region between two hydrophobic surfaces--tubes with smaller radii collapse, whereas larger ones grow to dry the entire confined region. Using extensive molecular simulations of water between two nanoscopic hydrophobic surfaces, in conjunction with advanced sampling techniques, here we show that for intersurface separations that thermodynamically favor dewetting, the barrier to dewetting does not correspond to the formation of a (classical) critical vapor tube. Instead, it corresponds to an abrupt transition from an isolated cavity adjacent to one of the confining surfaces to a gap-spanning vapor tube that is already larger than the critical vapor tube anticipated by macroscopic theory. Correspondingly, the barrier to dewetting is also smaller than the classical expectation. We show that the peculiar nature of water density fluctuations adjacent to extended hydrophobic surfaces--namely, the enhanced likelihood of observing low-density fluctuations relative to Gaussian statistics--facilitates this nonclassical behavior. By stabilizing isolated cavities relative to vapor tubes, enhanced water density fluctuations thus stabilize novel pathways, which circumvent the classical barriers and offer diminished resistance to dewetting. Our results thus suggest a key role for fluctuations in speeding up the kinetics of numerous phenomena ranging from Cassie-Wenzel transitions on superhydrophobic surfaces, to hydrophobically driven biomolecular folding and assembly.

  3. Emissive limiter bias experiment for improved confinement of tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, W.; Ono, M.; Darrow, D.S.; Pribyl, P.A.; Liberati, J.R.; Taylor, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments have been performed in Ohmic discharges of the UCLA CCT tokamak with a LaB 6 biased limiter, capable of emitting energetic electrons as a technique to improve confinement in tokamaks. To study the effects of emitted electrons, the limiter position, bias voltage, and plasma position were varied. The results have shown that the plasma positioning with respect to the emissive limiter plays an important role in obtaining H-mode plasmas. The emissive cathode must be located close to the last closed flux surface in order to charge up the plasma. As the cathode is moved closer to the wall, the positioning of the plasma becomes more critical since the plasma can easily detach from the cathode and reattach to the wall, resulting in the termination of H-mode. The emissive capability appears to be important for operating at lower bias voltage and reducing impurity levels in the plasma. With a heated cathode, transition to H-mode was observed for V bias ≤ 50 V and I inj ≥ 30 A. At a lower cathode heater current, a higher bias voltage is required for the transition. Moreover, with a lower cathode heater current, the time delay for inducing H-mode becomes longer, which can be attributed to the required time for the self-heating of the cathode to reach the emissive temperature. From this result, we conclude that the capacity for emission can significantly improve the performance of limiter biasing for inducing H-mode transition. With L-mode plasmas, the injection current flowing out of the cathode was generally higher than 100 A

  4. Photoexcitation and ionization of hydrogen atom confined in Debye environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumb, S.; Lumb, S.; Nautiyal, V.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of a hydrogen atom confined in an impenetrable spherical box and under the effect of Debye screening, in the presence of intense short laser pulses of few femtosecond is studied in detail. The energy spectra and wave functions have been calculated using Bernstein polynomial (B-polynomial) method. Variation of transition probabilities for various transitions due to changes in Debye screening length, confinement radius as well as the parameters characterizing applied laser pulse is studied and explained. The results are found to be in good agreement with the results obtained by others. The photoexcitation and ionization of the atom strongly depend on confinement radius and screening parameter. For small confinement radii and for some values of screening parameter the atom is found to be ionized easily. The dynamics of the atom can be easily controlled by varying pulse parameters

  5. Qualitative quark confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, T.L.

    1976-01-01

    The infrared limit in asymptotically free non-abelian gauge theories using recently developed non-perturbative methods which allow derivation of zero momentum theorems for Green's functions and vertices is described. These low-energy theorems are compared to the infrared behavior predicted from the renormalization group equation when the existence of an infrared fixed point is assumed. A set of objects is exhibited whose low energy theorems violate the scaling behavior predicted by the renormalization group. This shows that the assumed fixed point cannot exist and that in the Landau gauge the effective charge becomes infinite in the infrared. Qualitatively this implies that as an attempt is made to separate elementary quanta the interaction between the quanta becomes arbitrarily strong. This indicates at least that the theories studied are capable of color confinement. Results are true only for theories with large numbers of quarks. This opens the possibility that large numbers of quarks are actually necessary for confinement

  6. Percolation transition in Yang-Mills matter at a finite number of colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottini, Stefano; Torrieri, Giorgio

    2011-10-07

    We examine baryonic matter at a quark chemical potential of the order of the confinement scale μ(q)∼Λ(QCD). In this regime, quarks are supposed to be confined but baryons are close to the "tightly packed limit" where they nearly overlap in configuration space. We show that this system will exhibit a percolation phase transition when varied in the number of colors N(c): at high N(c), large distance correlations at the quark level are possible even if the quarks are essentially confined. At low N(c), this does not happen. We discuss the relevance of this for dense nuclear matter, and argue that our results suggest a new "phase transition," varying N(c) at constant μ(q).

  7. Topological confinement and superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-hassanieh, Dhaled A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batista, Cristian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We derive a Kondo Lattice model with a correlated conduction band from a two-band Hubbard Hamiltonian. This mapping allows us to describe the emergence of a robust pairing mechanism in a model that only contains repulsive interactions. The mechanism is due to topological confinement and results from the interplay between antiferromagnetism and delocalization. By using Density-Matrix-Renormalization-Group (DMRG) we demonstrate that this mechanism leads to dominant superconducting correlations in aID-system.

  8. Innovative confinement concepts workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    The Innovative Confinement Concepts Workshop occurred in California during the week preceding the Second Symposium on Current Trends in International Fusion Research. An informal report was made to the Second Symposium. A summary of the Workshop concluded that some very promising ideas were presented, that innovative concept development is a central element of the restructured US DOE. Fusion Energy Sciences program, and that the Workshop should promote real scientific progress in fusion

  9. Confined exciton spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Clivia M.S.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: In this work, the exciton is considered as a sensor of the electronic and optical properties of materials such as semiconductors, which have size compared to the exciton De Broglie wavelength, approximately 20 nm, depending on the semiconductor. Examples of electron-phonon, electron-electron, photon-electron, exciton-polariton, phonon-plasmon, are presented, under different confinement conditions such as quantum wells, superlattices

  10. Helical Confinement Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beidler, C; Brakel, R; Burhenn, R; Dinklage, A; Erckmann, V; Feng, Y; Geiger, J; Hartmann, D; Hirsch, M; Jaenicke, R; Koenig, R; Laqua, H P; Maassberg, H; Wagner, F; Weller, A; Wobig, H [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Greifswald (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Stellarators, conceived 1951 by Lyman Spitzer in Princeton, are toroidal devices that confine a plasma in a magnetic field which originates from currents in coils outside the plasma. A plasma current driven by external means, for example by an ohmic transformer, is not required for confinement. Supplying the desired poloidal field component by external coils leads to a helically structured plasma topology. Thus stellarators - or helical confinement devices - are fully three-dimensional in contrast to the toroidal (rotational) symmetry of tokamaks. As stellarators can be free of an inductive current, whose radial distribution depends on the plasma parameters, their equilibrium must not be established via the evolving plasma itself, but to a first order already given by the vacuum magnetic field. They do not need an active control (like positional feedback) and therefore cannot suffer from its failure. The outstanding conceptual advantage of stellarators is the potential of steady state plasma operation without current drive. As there is no need for current drive, the recirculating power is expected to be smaller than in equivalent tokamaks. The lack of a net current avoids current driven instabilities; specifically, no disruptions, no resistive wall modes and no conventional or neoclassical tearing modes appear. Second order pressure-driven currents (Pfirsch-Schlueter, bootstrap) exist but they can be modified and even minimized by the magnetic design. The magnetic configuration of helical devices naturally possesses a separatrix, which allows the implementation of a helically structured divertor for exhaust and impurity control. (author)

  11. Pattern replication by confined dewetting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkema, S.; Schäffer, E.; Morariu, M.D.; Steiner, U

    2003-01-01

    The dewetting of a polymer film in a confined geometry was employed in a pattern-replication process. The instability of dewetting films is pinned by a structured confining surface, thereby replicating its topographic pattern. Depending on the surface energy of the confining surface, two different

  12. NMR studies of metallic tin confined within porous matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnaya, E. V.; Tien, Cheng; Lee, M. K.; Kumzerov, Yu. A.

    2007-01-01

    119 Sn NMR studies were carried out for metallic tin confined within synthetic opal and porous glass. Tin was embedded into nanoporous matrices in the melted state under pressure. The Knight shift for liquid confined tin was found to decrease with decreasing pore size. Correlations between NMR line shapes, Knight shift, and pore filling were observed. The melting and freezing phase transitions of tin under confinement were studied through temperature dependences of NMR signals upon warming and cooling. Melting of tin within the opal matrix agreed well with the liquid skin model suggested for small isolated particles. The influence of the pore filling on the melting process was shown

  13. Influence of error fields on the plasma confining field and the plasma confinement in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Shinzaburo

    1977-05-01

    Influence of error fields on the plasma confining field and the plasma confinement is treated in the standpoint of design. In the initial breakdown phase before formation of the closed magnetic surfaces, the vertical field properly applied is the most important. Once the magnetic surfaces are formed, the non-axisymmetric error field is important. Effect of the shell gap associated with iron core and with pulsed vertical coils is thus studied. The formation of magnetic islands due to the external non-axisymmetric error field is studied with a simple model. A method of suppressing the islands by choosing the minor periodicity is proposed. (auth.)

  14. Closing summary for inertial confinement fusion, diodes and beam transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanDevender, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The progress since BEAMS'83 has been very encouraging. The experiments and theories are of significantly higher quality than we have seen in the past. The problems that have been identified in our fields are now being solved. Scientific comradery is improving and more scientists from different countries are working to complement their associates on similar projects in other countries. The papers presented at this conference have been much more substantial scientifically than in the past and indicate the maturation of our discipline.

  15. Closing summary for inertial confinement fusion, diodes and beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanDevender, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The progress since BEAMS'83 has been very encouraging. The experiments and theories are of significantly higher quality than we have seen in the past. The problems that have been identified in our fields are now being solved. Scientific comradery is improving and more scientists from different countries are working to complement their associates on similar projects in other countries. The papers presented at this conference have been much more substantial scientifically than in the past and indicate the maturation of our discipline

  16. International school of plasma physics course on instabilities and confinement in toroidal plasmas. Varenna (Italy), September 27-October 9, 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-11-01

    The lectures of a Varenna Summer School about the theme Instabilities and Confinement in toroidal Plasmas are given. The topics included are: high-beta toroidal pinches, non-MHD instabilities and anomalous transport, analogy between turbulent transfer in velocity space and plasma collisioned transport in real space, the magnetohydrodynamic approach of plasma confinement in closed magnetic configurations, properties of isodynamical equilibrium configurations and their generalization, transport theory for toroidal plasmas, plasma physics, low-β toroidal machines, the neoclassical theory of transit time magnetic pumping, radio frequency heating of toroidal plasmas, plasma heating at lower hybrid frequency, RF-plasma heating with L-structures, numerical simulation, dynamical stabilization of low frequency waves in inhomogeneous plasmas, dynamic and feedback stabilization of plasmas and problems with nuclear fusion reactors

  17. Strain-induced fundamental optical transition in (In,Ga)As/GaP quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, C., E-mail: cedric.robert@insa-rennes.fr, E-mail: cedric.robert@tyndall.ie; Pedesseau, L.; Cornet, C.; Jancu, J.-M.; Even, J.; Durand, O. [Université Européenne de Bretagne, INSA Rennes, France and CNRS, UMR 6082 Foton, 20 Avenue des Buttes de Coësmes, 35708 Rennes (France); Nestoklon, M. O. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Pereira da Silva, K. [ICMAB-CSIC, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, P.O. Box 6030, Fortaleza–CE, 60455-970 (Brazil); Alonso, M. I. [ICMAB-CSIC, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Goñi, A. R. [ICMAB-CSIC, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); ICREA, Passeig Lluís Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona (Spain); Turban, P. [Equipe de Physique des Surfaces et Interfaces, Institut de Physique de Rennes UMR UR1-CNRS 6251, Université de Rennes 1, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2014-01-06

    The nature of the ground optical transition in an (In,Ga)As/GaP quantum dot is thoroughly investigated through a million atoms supercell tight-binding simulation. Precise quantum dot morphology is deduced from previously reported scanning-tunneling-microscopy images. The strain field is calculated with the valence force field method and has a strong influence on the confinement potentials, principally, for the conduction band states. Indeed, the wavefunction of the ground electron state is spatially confined in the GaP matrix, close to the dot apex, in a large tensile strain region, having mainly Xz character. Photoluminescence experiments under hydrostatic pressure strongly support the theoretical conclusions.

  18. Turbulent edge transport in the Princeton Beta Experiment-Modified high confinement mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, G. R.; Schmitz, L.; Blush, L.; Boedo, J. A.; Conn, R. W.; Doerner, R.; Lehmer, R.; Moyer, R.; Kugel, H.; Bell, R.; Kaye, S.; Okabayashi, M.; Sesnic, S.; Sun, Y.

    1994-10-01

    The first probe measurements of edge turbulence and transport in a neutral beam induced high confinement mode (H-mode) are reported. A strong negative radial electric field is directly observed in H-mode. A transient suppression of normalized ion saturation and floating potential fluctuation levels occurs at the low confinement mode to high confinement mode (L-H) transition, followed by a recovery to near low mode (L-mode) levels. The average poloidal wave number and the poloidal wave-number spectral width are decreased, and the correlation between fluctuating density and potential is reduced. A large-amplitude coherent oscillation, localized to the strong radial electric field region, is observed in H-mode but does not cause transport. In H-mode the effective turbulent diffusion coefficient is reduced by an order of magnitude inside the last closed flux surface and in the scrape-off layer. The results are compared with a heuristic model of turbulence suppression by velocity-shear stabilization.

  19. The cruel and unusual phenomenology of solitary confinement

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Shaun

    2014-01-01

    What happens when subjects are deprived of intersubjective contact? This paper looks closely at the phenomenology and psychology of one example of that deprivation: solitary confinement. It also puts the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement to use in the legal context. Not only is there no consensus on whether solitary confinement is a “cruel and unusual punishment,” there is no consensus on the definition of the term “cruel” in the use of that legal phrase. I argue that we ca...

  20. Inertial confinement fusion (ICF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.

    1977-01-01

    The principal goal of the inertial confinement fusion program is the development of a practical fusion power plant in this century. Rapid progress has been made in the four major areas of ICF--targets, drivers, fusion experiments, and reactors. High gain targets have been designed. Laser, electron beam, and heavy ion accelerator drivers appear to be feasible. Record-breaking thermonuclear conditions have been experimentally achieved. Detailed diagnostics of laser implosions have confirmed predictions of the LASNEX computer program. Experimental facilities are being planned and constructed capable of igniting high gain fusion microexplosions in the mid 1980's. A low cost long lifetime reactor design has been developed

  1. Confinement and 4-manifolds

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    In this talk I will survey a connection between two very challenging problems, one in physics and one in math. The physics problem involves quantitative understanding of confinement in a system with least amount of supersymmetry that has been studied so far and that has a wide range of applications, from semi-realistic string models to qualitatively new examples of gauge-gravity duality. Surprisingly, the rich physics of this system translates into incredibly rich mathematics of the only remaining unsolved case of the Poincare conjecture.

  2. Hadrosynthesis and Quark Confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satz Helmut

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Multihadron production in high energy collisions, from e+e− annihilation to heavy ion interactions, shows remarkable thermal behaviour, specified by a universal “Hagedorn” temperature. We argue that this hadronic radiation is formed by tunnelling through the event horizon of colour confinement, i.e., that it is the QCD counterpart of Hawking-Unruh radiation from black holes. It is shown to be emitted at a universal temperature TH ≃ (σ/2π1/2, where σ denotes the string tension. Since the event horizon does not allow information transfer, the radiation is thermal “at birth”.

  3. Minimal quantization and confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilieva, N.P.; Kalinowskij, Yu.L.; Nguyen Suan Han; Pervushin, V.N.

    1987-01-01

    A ''minimal'' version of the Hamiltonian quantization based on the explicit solution of the Gauss equation and on the gauge-invariance principle is considered. By the example of the one-particle Green function we show that the requirement for gauge invariance leads to relativistic covariance of the theory and to more proper definition of the Faddeev - Popov integral that does not depend on the gauge choice. The ''minimal'' quantization is applied to consider the gauge-ambiguity problem and a new topological mechanism of confinement

  4. Pressure-controlled nucleation and growth in Zr41Ti14Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 bulk metallic glass close to and beyond glass transition temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Mingxiang; Yao Yushu; Zhao Deqian; Zhuang Yanxin; Wang Weihua

    2002-01-01

    By high-pressure annealing close to and beyond glass transition temperature, the behavior of nucleation and growth of crystals in Zr 41 Ti 14 Cu 12.5 Ni 10 Be 22.5 bulk metallic glass (BMG) is investigated. The experimental results indicate that exerting a high pressure during annealing can markedly decrease the nucleation temperature of the BMG. The growth rate of crystals first increases and then decreases with increase of annealing pressure. The effect of pressure on nucleation and growth of crystals is phenomenologically explained

  5. Fuel and helium confinement in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlberg, W.A.; Attenberger, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    An expanded macroscopic model for particle confinement is used to investigate both fuel and helium confinement in reactor plasmas. The authors illustrate the relative effects of external sources of fuel, divertor pumping, and wall and divertory recycle on core, edge and scrape-off layer densities by using separate particle confinement times for open-quote core close-quote fueling (deep pellet or beam penetration, τ c ), open-quote shallow close-quote fueling (shallow pellet penetration or neutral atoms that penetrate the scrape-off layer, τ s ) and fueling in the scrape-off layer (τ sol ). Because τ s is determined by the parallel flow velocity and characteristic distance to the divertor plate, it can be orders of magnitude lower than either τ c or τ sol . A dense scrape-off region, desirable for reduced divertor erosion, leads to a high fraction of the recycled neutrals being ionized in the scrape-off region and poor core fueling efficiency. The overall fueling efficiency can then be dramatically improved with either shallow or deep auxillary fueling. Helium recycle is nearly always coupled to the scrape-off region and does not lead to strong core accumulation unless the helium pumping efficiency is much less than the fuel pumping efficiency, or the plasma preferentially retains helium over hydrogenic ions. Differences between the results of this model, single-τ p macroscopic models, and 1-D and 2-D models are discussed in terms of assumptions and boundary conditions

  6. Greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Schubert, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Greater-confinement disposal (GCD) is a general term for low-level waste (LLW) disposal technologies that employ natural and/or engineered barriers and provide a degree of confinement greater than that of shallow-land burial (SLB) but possibly less than that of a geologic repository. Thus GCD is associated with lower risk/hazard ratios than SLB. Although any number of disposal technologies might satisfy the definition of GCD, eight have been selected for consideration in this discussion. These technologies include: (1) earth-covered tumuli, (2) concrete structures, both above and below grade, (3) deep trenches, (4) augered shafts, (5) rock cavities, (6) abandoned mines, (7) high-integrity containers, and (8) hydrofracture. Each of these technologies employ several operations that are mature,however, some are at more advanced stages of development and demonstration than others. Each is defined and further described by information on design, advantages and disadvantages, special equipment requirements, and characteristic operations such as construction, waste emplacement, and closure

  7. Direct visualization of phase separation between superconducting and nematic domains in Co-doped CaFe2As2 close to a first-order phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fente, Antón; Correa-Orellana, Alexandre; Böhmer, Anna E.; Kreyssig, Andreas; Ran, S.; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.; Mompean, Federico J.; García-Hernández, Mar; Munuera, Carmen; Guillamón, Isabel; Suderow, Hermann

    2018-01-01

    We show that biaxial strain induces alternating tetragonal superconducting and orthorhombic nematic domains in Co-substituted CaFe2As2 . We use atomic force, magnetic force, and scanning tunneling microscopy to identify the domains and characterize their properties, finding in particular that tetragonal superconducting domains are very elongated, more than several tens of micrometers long and about 30 nm wide; have the same Tc as unstrained samples; and hold vortices in a magnetic field. Thus, biaxial strain produces a phase-separated state, where each phase is equivalent to what is found on either side of the first-order phase transition between antiferromagnetic orthorhombic and superconducting tetragonal phases found in unstrained samples when changing Co concentration. Having such alternating superconducting domains separated by normal conducting domains with sizes of the order of the coherence length opens opportunities to build Josephson junction networks or vortex pinning arrays and suggests that first-order quantum phase transitions lead to nanometric-size phase separation under the influence of strain.

  8. Transition radiation and transition scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, V.L.

    1982-01-01

    Transition radiation is a process of a rather general character. It occurs when some source, which does not have a proper frequency (for example, a charge) moves at a constant velocity in an inhomogeneous and (or) nonstationary medium or near such a medium. The simplest type of transition radiation takes place when a charge crosses a boundary between two media (the role of one of the media may be played by vacuum). In the case of periodic variation of the medium, transition radiation possesses some specific features (resonance transition radiation or transition scattering). Transition scattering occurs, in particular, when a permittivity wave falls onto an nonmoving (fixed) charge. Transition scattering is closely connected with transition bremsstrahlung radiation. All these transition processes are essential for plasma physics. Transition radiation and transition scattering have analogues outside the framework of electrodynamics (like in the case of Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation). In the present report the corresponding range of phenomena is elucidated, as far as possible, in a generally physical aspect. (Auth.)

  9. Topological superconductivity, topological confinement, and the vortex quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamantini, M. Cristina; Trugenberger, Carlo A.

    2011-01-01

    Topological matter is characterized by the presence of a topological BF term in its long-distance effective action. Topological defects due to the compactness of the U(1) gauge fields induce quantum phase transitions between topological insulators, topological superconductors, and topological confinement. In conventional superconductivity, because of spontaneous symmetry breaking, the photon acquires a mass due to the Anderson-Higgs mechanism. In this paper we derive the corresponding effective actions for the electromagnetic field in topological superconductors and topological confinement phases. In topological superconductors magnetic flux is confined and the photon acquires a topological mass through the BF mechanism: no symmetry breaking is involved, the ground state has topological order, and the transition is induced by quantum fluctuations. In topological confinement, instead, electric charge is linearly confined and the photon becomes a massive antisymmetric tensor via the Stueckelberg mechanism. Oblique confinement phases arise when the string condensate carries both magnetic and electric flux (dyonic strings). Such phases are characterized by a vortex quantum Hall effect potentially relevant for the dissipationless transport of information stored on vortices.

  10. Analysis of Russian transition scenarios to innovative nuclear energy system based on thermal and fast reactors with closed nuclear fuel cycle using INPRO methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagramanyan, V.S.; Poplavskaya, E.V.; Korobeynikov, V.V.; Kalashnikov, A.G.; Moseev, A.L.; Korobitsyn, V.E.; Andreeva-Andrievskaya, L.N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the analysis of modeling of Russian nuclear energy (NE) scenarios on the basis of thermal and fast reactors with closed nuclear fuel cycle (NFC). Modeling has been carried out with use of CYCLE code (SSC RF IPPE's tool) designed for analysis of Nuclear Energy System (NES) with closed NFC taking into account plutonium and minor actinides (MA) isotopic composition change during multi-recycling of fuel in fast reactors. When considering fast reactor introduction scenarios, one of important questions is to define optimal time for their introduction and related NFC's facilities. Analysis of the results obtained has been fulfilled using the key INPRO indicators for sustainable energy development. It was shown that a delay in fast reactor introduction led to serious ecological, social and finally economic risks for providing energy security and sustainable development of Russia in long-term prospects and loss of knowledge and experience in mastering innovative technologies of fast reactors and related nuclear fuel cycle. (author)

  11. Closed Strings From Nothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, Albion

    2001-07-25

    We study the physics of open strings in bosonic and type II string theories in the presence of unstable D-branes. When the potential energy of the open string tachyon is at its minimum, Sen has argued that only closed strings remain in the perturbative spectrum. We explore the scenario of Yi and of Bergman, Hori and Yi, who argue that the open string degrees of freedom are strongly coupled and disappear through confinement. We discuss arguments using open string field theory and worldsheet boundary RG flows, which seem to indicate otherwise. We then describe a solitonic excitation of the open string tachyon and gauge field with the charge and tension of a fundamental closed string. This requires a double scaling limit where the tachyon is taken to its minimal value and the electric field is taken to its maximum value. The resulting flux tube has an unconstrained spatial profile; and for large fundamental string charge, it appears to have light, weakly coupled open strings living in the core. We argue that the flux tube acquires a size or order {alpha}' through sigma model and string coupling effects; and we argue that confinement effects make the light degrees of freedom heavy and strongly interacting.

  12. Closed Strings From Nothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Albion

    2001-01-01

    We study the physics of open strings in bosonic and type II string theories in the presence of unstable D-branes. When the potential energy of the open string tachyon is at its minimum, Sen has argued that only closed strings remain in the perturbative spectrum. We explore the scenario of Yi and of Bergman, Hori and Yi, who argue that the open string degrees of freedom are strongly coupled and disappear through confinement. We discuss arguments using open string field theory and worldsheet boundary RG flows, which seem to indicate otherwise. We then describe a solitonic excitation of the open string tachyon and gauge field with the charge and tension of a fundamental closed string. This requires a double scaling limit where the tachyon is taken to its minimal value and the electric field is taken to its maximum value. The resulting flux tube has an unconstrained spatial profile; and for large fundamental string charge, it appears to have light, weakly coupled open strings living in the core. We argue that the flux tube acquires a size or order α' through sigma model and string coupling effects; and we argue that confinement effects make the light degrees of freedom heavy and strongly interacting

  13. Magnetic properties of confined holographic QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Oren; Lifschytz, Gilad; Lippert, Matthew

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the Sakai-Sugimoto model at nonzero baryon chemical potential in a background magnetic field in the confined phase where chiral symmetry is broken. The D8-brane Chern-Simons term holographically encodes the axial anomaly and generates a gradient of the η' meson, which carries a non-vanishing baryon charge. Above a critical value of the chemical potential, there is a second-order phase transition to a mixed phase which includes also ordinary baryonic matter. However, at fixed baryon charge density, the matter is purely η'-gradient above a critical magnetic field.

  14. Inertial confinement fusion target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdier, A.

    2001-12-01

    A simple, zero-dimensional model describing the temporal behaviour of an imploding-shell, magnetized fuel inertial confinement fusion target is formulated. The addition of a magnetic field to the fuel reduces thermal conduction losses. As a consequence, it might lead to high gains and reduce the driver requirements. This beneficial effect of the magnetic field on thermonuclear gains is confirmed qualitatively by the zero-dimensional model results. Still, the extent of the initial-condition space for which significant gains can occur is not, by far, as large as previously reported. One-dimensional CEA code simulations which confirm this results are also presented. Finally, we suggest to study the approach proposed by Hasegawa. In this scheme, the laser target is not imploded, and the life-time of the plasma can be very much increased. (author)

  15. Femtochemistry of confined water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douhal, A.; Carranza, M. A.; Sanz, M.; Organero, J. A.; Santos, L.

    In this contribution, we applied ultrafast spectroscopy to study the H-bond network of water confined in nanostructures (Cyclodextrins and Micelles). We examine the effect of caging on ultrafast reaction dynamics and discuss the related processes under different experimental conditions. The results show an ultrafast dynamic giving birth to intermediates of the probe, which show femtosecond and picosecond dynamics leading to the final structure at the excited state. The results show the high sensitivity of the used technique in detecting small of water. This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MCYT, Spain) and ``Conserjería de Ciencia y Tecnologia de la JCCM, Spain'' through projects MAT2002-01829 and PAI-02-004.

  16. Section 1. Confinement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Major experimental and theoretical results achieved by the Controlled Thermonuclear Research (CTR) program at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory during FY 1975 gave the greatest encouragement to date that the ultimate goal of a deuterium-tritium-fueled mirror reactor can be reached. In the experimental program, the year was characterized by unusually important physics results from the 2XIIB experiment and by significant steps in the plan to change the Baseball II mode of operation. The stabilization of ion-cyclotron instabilities in the 2XIIB experiment by the introduction of an auxiliary warm plasma permitted the buildup of a high-temperature, high-density plasma with an n tau parameter an order of magnitude larger than the 2XII experiment.I In the Baseball II experiment, preliminary tests and computer predictions indicated that a dense, transient, target plasma can be created by laser irradiation of a pellet in midflight through the center of the Baseball confinement zone

  17. Universal evaporation dynamics of a confined sessile droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Lalit; Hatte, Sandeep; Basu, Saptarshi; Chakraborty, Suman

    2017-09-01

    Droplet evaporation under confinement is ubiquitous to multitude of applications such as microfluidics, surface patterning, and ink-jet printing. However, the rich physics governing the universality in the underlying dynamics remains grossly elusive. Here, we bring out hitherto unexplored universal features of the evaporation dynamics of a sessile droplet entrapped in a 3D confined fluidic environment. We show, through extensive set of experiments and theoretical formulations, that the evaporation timescale for such a droplet can be represented by a unique function of the initial conditions. Moreover, using same theoretical considerations, we are able to trace and universally merge the volume evolution history of the droplets along with evaporation lifetimes, irrespective of the extent of confinement. We also showcase the internal flow transitions caused by spatio-temporal variation of evaporation flux due to confinement. These findings may be of profound importance in designing functionalized droplet evaporation devices for emerging engineering and biomedical applications.

  18. Improved GAMMA 10 tandem mirror confinement in high density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsu, K.; Cho, T.; Higaki, H.; Hirata, M.; Hojo, H.; Ichimura, M.; Ishii, K.; Ishimoto, Y.; Itakura, A.; Katanuma, I.; Kohagura, J.; Minami, R.; Nakashima, Y.; Numakura, T.; Saito, T.; Saosaki, S.; Takemura, Y.; Tatematsu, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Yoshikawa, M.

    2003-01-01

    GAMMA 10 experiments have advanced in high density experiments after the last IAEA fusion energy conference in 2000 where we reported the production of the high density plasma through use of ion cyclotron range of frequency heating at a high harmonic frequency and neutral beam injection in the anchor cells. However, the diamagnetic signal of the plasma decreased when electron cyclotron resonance heating was applied for the potential formation. Recently a high density plasma has been obtained without degradation of the diamagnetic signal and with much improved reproducibility than before. The high density plasma was attained through adjustment of the spacing of the conducting plates installed in the anchor transition regions. The potential confinement of the plasma has been extensively studied. Dependences of the ion confinement time, ion-energy confinement time and plasma confining potential on plasma density were obtained for the first time in the high density region up to a density of 4x10 18 m -3 . (author)

  19. Density and Phase State of a Confined Nonpolar Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, Daniel F.; Kuhl, Tonya L.

    2016-07-01

    Measurements of the mean refractive index of a spherelike nonpolar fluid, octamethytetracylclosiloxane (OMCTS), confined between mica sheets, demonstrate direct and conclusive experimental evidence of the absence of a first-order liquid-to-solid phase transition in the fluid when confined, which has been suggested to occur from previous experimental and simulation results. The results also show that the density remains constant throughout confinement, and that the fluid is incompressible. This, along with the observation of very large increases (many orders of magnitude) in viscosity during confinement from the literature, demonstrate that the molecular motion is limited by the confining wall and not the molecular packing. In addition, the recently developed refractive index profile correction method, which enables the structural perturbation inherent at a solid-liquid interface and that of a liquid in confinement to be determined independently, was used to show that there was no measurable excess or depleted mass of OMCTS near the mica surface in bulk films or confined films of only two molecular layers.

  20. The effects of slit-like confinement on flow-induced polymer deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Aishani; Cherayil, Binny J.

    2017-08-01

    This paper is broadly concerned with the dynamics of a polymer confined to a rectangular slit of width D and deformed by a planar elongational flow of strength γ ˙ . It is interested, more specifically, in the nature of the coil-stretch transition that such polymers undergo when the flow strength γ ˙ is varied, and in the degree to which this transition is affected by the presence of restrictive boundaries. These issues are explored within the framework of a finitely extensible Rouse model that includes pre-averaged surface-mediated hydrodynamic interactions. Calculations of the chain's steady-state fractional extension x using this model suggest that different modes of relaxation (which are characterized by an integer p) exert different levels of control on the coil-stretch transition. In particular, the location of the transition (as identified from the graph of x versus the Weissenberg number Wi, a dimensionless parameter defined by the product of γ ˙ and the time constant τp of a relaxation mode p) is found to vary with the choice of τp. In particular, when τ1 is used in the definition of Wi, the x vs. Wi data for different D lie on a single curve, but when τ3 is used instead (with τ3 > τ1) the corresponding data lie on distinct curves. These findings are in close qualitative agreement with a number of experimental results on confinement effects on DNA stretching in electric fields. Similar D-dependent trends are seen in our calculated force vs. Wi data, but force vs. x data are essentially D-independent and lie on a single curve.

  1. Molecular mobility of nematic E7 confined to molecular sieves with a low filling degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brás, A R; Frunza, S; Guerreiro, L; Fonseca, I M; Corma, A; Frunza, L; Dionísio, M; Schönhals, A

    2010-06-14

    The nematic liquid crystalline mixture E7 was confined with similar filling degrees to molecular sieves with constant composition but different pore diameters (from 2.8 to 6.8 nm). Fourier transform infrared analysis proved that the E7 molecules interact via the cyanogroup with the pore walls of the molecular sieves. The molecular dynamics of the system was investigated by broadband dielectric spectroscopy (10(-2)-10(9) Hz) covering a wide temperature range of approximately 200 K from temperatures well above the isotropic-nematic transition down to the glass transition of bulk E7. A variety of relaxation processes is observed including two modes that are located close to the bulk behavior in its temperature dependence. For all confined samples, two relaxation processes, at frequencies lower than the processes observed for the bulk, were detected. At lower temperatures, their relaxation rates have different temperature dependencies whereas at higher temperatures, they seem to collapse into one chart. The temperature dependence of the slowest process (S-process) obeys the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann law indicating a glassy dynamics of the E7 molecules anchored to the pore surface. The pore size dependence of both the Vogel temperature and fragility revealed a steplike transition around 4 nm pore size, which indicates a transition from a strong to a fragile behavior. The process with a relaxation rate in between the bulklike and the S-process (I-process) shows no dependence on the pore size. The agreement of the I-process with the behavior of a 5CB surface layer adsorbed on nonporous silica leads to the assignment of E7 molecules anchored at the outer surface of the microcrystals of the molecular sieves.

  2. Magnetic monopoles, center vortices, confinement and topology of gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt, H.; Engelhardt, M.; Langfeld, K.; Quandt, M.; Schaefke, A.

    2000-01-01

    The vortex picture of confinement is studied. The deconfinement phase transition is explained as a transition from a phase in which vortices percolate to a phase of small vortices. Lattice results are presented in support of this scenario. Furthermore the topological properties of magnetic monopoles and center vortices arising, respectively, in Abelian and center gauges are studied in continuum Yang-Mills-theory. For this purpose the continuum analog of the maximum center gauge is constructed

  3. Magnetic Monopoles, Center Vortices, Confinement and Topology of Gauge Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhardt, H.; Engelhardt, M.; Langfeld, K.; Quandt, M.; Sch"afke, A.

    1999-01-01

    The vortex picture of confinement is studied. The deconfinement phase transition is explained as a transition from a phase in which vortices percolate to a phase of small vortices. Lattice results are presented in support of this scenario. Furthermore the topological properties of magnetic monopoles and center vortices arising, respectively, in Abelian and center gauges are studied in continuum Yang-Mills-theory. For this purpose the continuum analog of the maximum center gauge is constructed.

  4. Chemical reactions confined within carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miners, Scott A; Rance, Graham A; Khlobystov, Andrei N

    2016-08-22

    In this critical review, we survey the wide range of chemical reactions that have been confined within carbon nanotubes, particularly emphasising how the pairwise interactions between the catalysts, reactants, transition states and products of a particular molecular transformation with the host nanotube can be used to control the yields and distributions of products of chemical reactions. We demonstrate that nanoscale confinement within carbon nanotubes enables the control of catalyst activity, morphology and stability, influences the local concentration of reactants and products thus affecting equilibria, rates and selectivity, pre-arranges the reactants for desired reactions and alters the relative stability of isomeric products. We critically evaluate the relative advantages and disadvantages of the confinement of chemical reactions inside carbon nanotubes from a chemical perspective and describe how further developments in the controlled synthesis of carbon nanotubes and the incorporation of multifunctionality are essential for the development of this ever-expanding field, ultimately leading to the effective control of the pathways of chemical reactions through the rational design of multi-functional carbon nanoreactors.

  5. Confinement in dually transformed U(1) lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, M.

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this work is a detailed investigation of the confinement mechanism in U(1) lattice gauge theory. In the first chapters we give a review on the definition of compact Abelian gauge theory on space-time lattices, the numerical calculation of physical observables for exploring confinement, and the interpretation of the results in terms of the dual superconductor picture, which is introduced at two levels of description. We work out that the electric field strength and the magnetic currents around a charge pair can be described very well by a classical effective model of Maxwell and London equations, if fluctuations of the occurring fluxoid string are considered. In order to obtain a deeper understanding of confinement in U(1), we extend the duality transformation of the path integral to the correlation functions which are used to calculate expectation values of fields and currents. This not only helps to interpret U(1) lattice gauge theory as a limit of the dual Higgs model, but also opens the possibility for efficient calculations of expectation values in the presence of static charges by simulating the dual model. Using this technique we are able to consider large flux tube lengths, low temperatures, and multiply charged systems without loss of numerical precision. The dual simulation is applied to flux tubes between static charges, to periodically closed flux tubes (torelons), and to doubly charged systems. We find that the behavior of flux tubes for large charge distances cannot be explained by the picture of a classical dual type-II superconductor; the observed roughening of the flux tube agrees very well with the prediction from the effective string description. We also analyze the different contributions to the total energy of the electromagnetic field. For torelons we calculate both the free energy and the total field energy, split the free energy into a string tension and a string fluctuation part, and apply lattice sum rules modified for finite

  6. Two strongly correlated electron systems: the Kondo mode in the strong coupling limit and a 2-D model of electrons close to an electronic topological transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouis, F.

    1999-01-01

    Two strongly correlated electron systems are considered in this work, Kondo insulators and high Tc cuprates. Experiments and theory suggest on one hand that the Kondo screening occurs on a rather short length scale and on the other hand that the Kondo coupling is renormalized to infinity in the low energy limit. The strong coupling limit is then the logical approach although the real coupling is moderate. A systematic development is performed around this limit in the first part. The band structure of these materials is reproduced within this scheme. Magnetic fluctuations are also studied. The antiferromagnetic transition is examined in the case where fermionic excitations are shifted to high energy. In the second part, the Popov and Fedotov representation of spins is used to formulate the Kondo and the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model in terms of a non-polynomial action of boson fields. In the third part the properties of high Tc cuprates are explained by a change of topology of the Fermi surface. This phenomenon would happen near the point of optimal doping and zero temperature. It results in the appearance of a density wave phase in the under-doped regime. The possibility that this phase has a non-conventional symmetry is considered. The phase diagram that described the interaction and coexistence of density wave and superconductivity is established in the mean-field approximation. The similarities with the experimental observations are numerous in particular those concerning the pseudo-gap and the behavior of the resistivity near optimal doping. (author)

  7. Closing the social-class achievement gap: a difference-education intervention improves first-generation students' academic performance and all students' college transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Nicole M; Hamedani, MarYam G; Destin, Mesmin

    2014-04-01

    College students who do not have parents with 4-year degrees (first-generation students) earn lower grades and encounter more obstacles to success than do students who have at least one parent with a 4-year degree (continuing-generation students). In the study reported here, we tested a novel intervention designed to reduce this social-class achievement gap with a randomized controlled trial (N = 168). Using senior college students' real-life stories, we conducted a difference-education intervention with incoming students about how their diverse backgrounds can shape what they experience in college. Compared with a standard intervention that provided similar stories of college adjustment without highlighting students' different backgrounds, the difference-education intervention eliminated the social-class achievement gap by increasing first-generation students' tendency to seek out college resources (e.g., meeting with professors) and, in turn, improving their end-of-year grade point averages. The difference-education intervention also improved the college transition for all students on numerous psychosocial outcomes (e.g., mental health and engagement).

  8. Fusion radioactivity confinement and application to postulated ITER accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Brereton, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    An assessment of the ITER radioactivity confinement shows reduction of potential accidental releases to the environment by two orders of magnitude. Important credits are the 1% volume/day confinement leakage rate, radioactivity decay for short-lived isotopes, resumption of detritiation/negative pressure within seven days of the accident, and wind meander during the slow confinement leakage. Achieving this two order of magnitude credit in practice requires appropriate design details, especially the leakage rate and detritiation/negative pressure equipment, and research to validate some key assumptions. The confinement maximizes dependence on passive safety features, thereby working toward using fusion's potential safety advantages. The confinement includes several confinement zones with varying human access allowances. Some confinement areas are normally isolated from the environment, the closed ventilation zone. Some areas have an inert cover gas to inhibit combustion. If future assessments of accidental overpressure show the need, we propose a filter/vent system. This report documents our work for the ITER Conceptual Design Activity (CDA). The report is consistent with the final CDA design reports and descriptions, except that our analysis includes a filter/vent. For gaseous or vapor tritium and for most activated aerosols, the reference release fraction is about 2%. For short-lived tungsten-rhenium aerosols, the reference release fraction is somewhat lower, as low as 0.5% for some accident scenarios. Even without resumption of detritiation/decontamination or negative pressure within seven days of the accident, the release fraction for stays below 4%

  9. Confinement at large-N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinkhamer, F.R.

    1985-06-01

    Recent numerical results indicate that QCD in the limit of an infinite number (N) of colors also has confinement and moreover that it looks rather similar to normal QCD with N = 3 colors. This imposes severe restrictions on what the mechanism of confinement can be

  10. Block copolymer morphologies confined by square-shaped particle: Hard and soft confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiyi; Yang Wenyan; Hu Kaiyan

    2016-01-01

    The self-assembly of diblock copolymers confined around one square-shaped particle is studied systematically within two-dimensional self-consistent field theory (SCFT). In this model, we assume that the thin block copolymer film is confined in the vicinity of a square-shaped particle by a homopolymer melt, which is equivalent to the poor solvents. Multiple sequences of square-shaped particle-induced copolymer aggregates with different shapes and self-assembled internal morphologies are predicted as functions of the particle size, the structural portion of the copolymer, and the volume fraction of the copolymer. A rich variety of aggregates are found with complex internal self-assembled morphologies including complex structures of the vesicle, with one or several inverted micelle surrounded by the outer monolayer with the particle confined in the core. These results demonstrate that the assemblies of diblock copolymers formed around the square-shaped particle in poor solvents are of immediate interest to the assembly of copolymer and the morphology of biomembrane in the confined environment, as well as to the transitions of vesicles to micelles. (paper)

  11. Polarized Light Imaging of the HD 142527 Transition Disk with the Gemini Planet Imager: Dust around the Close-in Companion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodigas, Timothy J.; Follette, Katherine B.; Weinberger, Alycia; Close, Laird; Hines, Dean C.

    2014-08-01

    When giant planets form, they grow by accreting gas and dust. HD 142527 is a young star that offers a scaled-up view of this process. It has a broad, asymmetric ring of gas and dust beyond ~100 AU and a wide inner gap. Within the gap, a low-mass stellar companion orbits the primary star at just ~12 AU, and both the primary and secondary are accreting gas. In an attempt to directly detect the dusty counterpart to this accreted gas, we have observed HD 142527 with the Gemini Planet Imager in polarized light at Y band (0.95-1.14 μm). We clearly detect the companion in total intensity and show that its position and photometry are generally consistent with the expected values. We also detect a point source in polarized light that may be spatially separated by ~ a few AU from the location of the companion in total intensity. This suggests that dust is likely falling onto or orbiting the companion. Given the possible contribution of scattered light from this dust to previously reported photometry of the companion, the current mass limits should be viewed as upper limits only. If the dust near the companion is eventually confirmed to be spatially separated, this system would resemble a scaled-up version of the young planetary system inside the gap of the transition disk around LkCa 15. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministrio da Cincia, Tecnologia e Inovao (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologa e Innovacin Productiva (Argentina).

  12. Bifurcated transition of radial transport in the HIEI tandem mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, O.; Yasaka, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Transition to a high radial confinement mode in a mirror plasma is triggered by limiter biasing. Sheared plasma rotation is induced in the high confinement phase which is characterized by reduction of edge turbulence and a confinement enhancement factor of 2-4. Edge plasma parameters related to radial confinement show a hysteresis phenomenon as a function of bias voltage or bias current, leading to the fact that transition from low to high confinement mode occurs between the bifurcated states. A transition model based on azimuthal momentum balance is employed to clarify physics of the observed bifurcation. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  13. Simulating tumor growth in confined heterogeneous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevertz, Jana L; Torquato, Salvatore; Gillies, George T

    2008-01-01

    The holy grail of computational tumor modeling is to develop a simulation tool that can be utilized in the clinic to predict neoplastic progression and propose individualized optimal treatment strategies. In order to develop such a predictive model, one must account for many of the complex processes involved in tumor growth. One interaction that has not been incorporated into computational models of neoplastic progression is the impact that organ-imposed physical confinement and heterogeneity have on tumor growth. For this reason, we have taken a cellular automaton algorithm that was originally designed to simulate spherically symmetric tumor growth and generalized the algorithm to incorporate the effects of tissue shape and structure. We show that models that do not account for organ/tissue geometry and topology lead to false conclusions about tumor spread, shape and size. The impact that confinement has on tumor growth is more pronounced when a neoplasm is growing close to, versus far from, the confining boundary. Thus, any clinical simulation tool of cancer progression must not only consider the shape and structure of the organ in which a tumor is growing, but must also consider the location of the tumor within the organ if it is to accurately predict neoplastic growth dynamics

  14. Evaporation rate of water in hydrophobic confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sumit; Debenedetti, Pablo G

    2012-03-20

    The drying of hydrophobic cavities is believed to play an important role in biophysical phenomena such as the folding of globular proteins, the opening and closing of ligand-gated ion channels, and ligand binding to hydrophobic pockets. We use forward flux sampling, a molecular simulation technique, to compute the rate of capillary evaporation of water confined between two hydrophobic surfaces separated by nanoscopic gaps, as a function of gap, surface size, and temperature. Over the range of conditions investigated (gaps between 9 and 14 Å and surface areas between 1 and 9 nm(2)), the free energy barrier to evaporation scales linearly with the gap between hydrophobic surfaces, suggesting that line tension makes the predominant contribution to the free energy barrier. The exponential dependence of the evaporation rate on the gap between confining surfaces causes a 10 order-of-magnitude decrease in the rate when the gap increases from 9 to 14 Å. The computed free energy barriers are of the order of 50 kT and are predominantly enthalpic. Evaporation rates per unit area are found to be two orders of magnitude faster in confinement by the larger (9 nm(2)) than by the smaller (1 nm(2)) surfaces considered here, at otherwise identical conditions. We show that this rate enhancement is a consequence of the dependence of hydrophobic hydration on the size of solvated objects. For sufficiently large surfaces, the critical nucleus for the evaporation process is a gap-spanning vapor tube.

  15. Inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.; Wood, L.L.

    1988-01-01

    Edward Teller has been a strong proponent of harnessing nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes. There are two approaches: Plowshare, which utilizes macro- explosions, and inertial confinement fusion, which utilizes microexplosions. The development of practical fusion power plants is a principal goal of the inertial program. It is remarkable that Teller's original thermonuclear problem, how to make super high yield nuclear explosions, and the opposite problem, how to make ultra low yield nuclear explosions, may both be solved by Teller's radiation implosion scheme. This paper reports on the essential physics of these two thermonuclear domains, which are separated by nine orders of magnitude in yield, provided by Teller's similarity theorem and its exceptions. Higher density makes possible thermonuclear burn of smaller masses of fuel. The leverage is high: the scale of the explosion diminishes with the square of the increase in density. The extraordinary compressibility of matter, first noticed by Teller during the Los Alamos atomic bomb program, provides an almost incredible opportunity to harness fusion. The energy density of thermonuclear fuels isentropically compressed to super high-- -densities---even to ten thousand times solid density---is small compared to the energy density at thermonuclear ignition temperatures. In small masses of fuel imploded to these super high matter densities, the energy required to achieve ignition may be greatly reduced by exploiting thermonuclear propagation from a relatively small hot spot

  16. Thermostating highly confined fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Stefano; Todd, B D; Searles, Debra J

    2010-06-28

    In this work we show how different use of thermostating devices and modeling of walls influence the mechanical and dynamical properties of confined nanofluids. We consider a two dimensional fluid undergoing Couette flow using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Because the system is highly inhomogeneous, the density shows strong fluctuations across the channel. We compare the dynamics produced by applying a thermostating device directly to the fluid with that obtained when the wall is thermostated, considering also the effects of using rigid walls. This comparison involves an analysis of the chaoticity of the fluid and evaluation of mechanical properties across the channel. We look at two thermostating devices with either rigid or vibrating atomic walls and compare them with a system only thermostated by conduction through vibrating atomic walls. Sensitive changes are observed in the xy component of the pressure tensor, streaming velocity, and density across the pore and the Lyapunov localization of the fluid. We also find that the fluid slip can be significantly reduced by rigid walls. Our results suggest caution in interpreting the results of systems in which fluid atoms are thermostated and/or wall atoms are constrained to be rigid, such as, for example, water inside carbon nanotubes.

  17. Atom-atom scattering under cylindrical harmonic confinement: Numerical and analytic studies of the confinement induced resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeman, T.; Moore, M.G.; Olshanii, M.

    2003-01-01

    It was recently predicted [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 938 (1998)10.1103/PhysRevLett.81.938] that atom-atom scattering under transverse harmonic confinement is subject to a 'confinement-induced resonance' where the effective one-dimensional coupling strength diverges at a particular ratio of the confinement and scattering lengths. As the initial prediction made use of the zero-range pseudopotential approximation, we now report numerical results for finite-range interaction potentials that corroborate this resonance. In addition, we now present a physical interpretation of this effect as a novel type of Feshbach resonance in which the transverse modes of the confining potential assume the roles of 'open' and 'closed' scattering channels

  18. Structural behavior of supercritical fluids under confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Kanka; Krishnamurthy, C. V.

    2018-01-01

    The existence of the Frenkel line in the supercritical regime of a Lennard-Jones (LJ) fluid shown through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations initially and later corroborated by experiments on argon opens up possibilities of understanding the structure and dynamics of supercritical fluids in general and of the Frenkel line in particular. The location of the Frenkel line, which demarcates two distinct physical states, liquidlike and gaslike within the supercritical regime, has been established through MD simulations of the velocity autocorrelation (VACF) and radial distribution function (RDF). We, in this article, explore the changes in the structural features of supercritical LJ fluid under partial confinement using atomistic walls. The study is carried out across the Frenkel line through a series of MD simulations considering a set of thermodynamics states in the supercritical regime (P =5000 bar, 240 K ≤T ≤1500 K ) of argon well above the critical point. Confinement is partial, with atomistic walls located normal to z and extending to "infinity" along the x and y directions. In the "liquidlike" regime of the supercritical phase, particles are found to be distributed in distinct layers along the z axis with layer spacing less than one atomic diameter and the lateral RDF showing amorphous-like structure for specific spacings (packing frustration) and non-amorphous-like structure for other spacings. Increasing the rigidity of the atomistic walls is found to lead to stronger layering and increased structural order. For confinement with reflective walls, layers are found to form with one atomic diameter spacing and the lateral RDF showing close-packed structure for the smaller confinements. Translational order parameter and excess entropy assessment confirms the ordering taking place for atomistic wall and reflective wall confinements. In the "gaslike" regime of the supercritical phase, particle distribution along the spacing and the lateral RDF exhibit features

  19. The U(1)-Higgs model: critical behaviour in the confining-Higgs region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.L.; Azcoiti, V.; Campos, I.; Ciria, J.C.; Cruz, A.; Iniguez, D.; Lesmes, F.; Piedrafita, C.; Rivero, A.; Tarancon, A.; Badoni, D.; Fernandez, L.A.; Munoz Sudupe, A.; Ruiz-Lorenzo, J.J.; Gonzalez-Arroyo, A.; Martinez, P.; Pech, J.; Tellez, P.

    1993-01-01

    We study numerically the critical properties of the U(1)-Higgs lattice model, with fixed Higgs modulus, in the region of small gauge coupling where the Higgs and confining phases merge. We find evidence for a first-order transition line that ends in a second-order point. By means of a rotation in parameter space we introduce thermodynamic magnitudes and critical exponents in close resemblance with simple models that show analogous critical behaviour. The measured data allow us to fit the critical exponents finding values in agreement with the mean-field prediction. The location of the critical point and the slope of the first-order line are accurately measured. (orig.)

  20. Monopoles, vortices, and confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.; Pietarinen, E.

    1981-10-01

    An exact relation is established between an SO(3) lattice gauge theory model without monopoles, and a corresponding SU(2) model. Elimination of the monopoles (and their strings) leads to a substantial lowering of the entropy of thin vortices and a corresponding decrease of the string tension for low γ. This is revealed by approximate calculations of the vortex free energy and is confirmed by Monte Carlo data. The value of the physical transition temperature to 'hot gluon soup' is also lowered considerably. (orig.)

  1. BY FRUSTUM CONFINING VESSEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Khazaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Helical piles are environmentally friendly and economical deep foundations that, due to environmental considerations, are excellent additions to a variety of deep foundation alternatives available to the practitioner. Helical piles performance depends on soil properties, the pile geometry and soil-pile interaction. Helical piles can be a proper alternative in sensitive environmental sites if their bearing capacity is sufficient to support applied loads. The failure capacity of helical piles in this study was measured via an experimental research program that was carried out by Frustum Confining Vessel (FCV. FCV is a frustum chamber by approximately linear increase in vertical and lateral stresses along depth from top to bottom. Due to special geometry and applied bottom pressure, this apparatus is a proper choice to test small model piles which can simulate field stress conditions. Small scale helical piles are made with either single helix or more helixes and installed in fine grained sand with three various densities. Axial loading tests including compression and tension tests were performed to achieve pile ultimate capacity. The results indicate the helical piles behavior depends essentially on pile geometric characteristics, i.e. helix configuration and soil properties. According to the achievements, axial uplift capacity of helical model piles is about equal to usual steel model piles that have the helixes diameter. Helical pile compression bearing capacity is too sufficient to act as a medium pile, thus it can be substituted other piles in special geoenvironmental conditions. The bearing capacity also depends on spacing ratio, S/D, and helixes diameter.

  2. Generalized Lawson Criteria for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipton, Robert E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-27

    The Lawson Criterion was proposed by John D. Lawson in 1955 as a general measure of the conditions necessary for a magnetic fusion device to reach thermonuclear ignition. Over the years, similar ignition criteria have been proposed which would be suitable for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) designs. This paper will compare and contrast several ICF ignition criteria based on Lawson’s original ideas. Both analytical and numerical results will be presented which will demonstrate that although the various criteria differ in some details, they are closely related and perform similarly as ignition criteria. A simple approximation will also be presented which allows the inference of each ignition parameter directly from the measured data taken on most shots fired at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) with a minimum reliance on computer simulations. Evidence will be presented which indicates that the experimentally inferred ignition parameters on the best NIF shots are very close to the ignition threshold.

  3. Pressure dependence of optical transitions in In0.15Ga0.85N/GaN multiple quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, W.; Ager, J.W. III; Walukiewicz, W.; Haller, E.E.; McCluskey, M.D.; Johnson, N.M.; Bour, D.P.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of hydrostatic pressure on optical transitions in In 0.15 Ga 0.85 N/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQW close-quote s) have been studied. The optical transition associated with confined electron and hole states in the MQW close-quote s was found to shift linearly to higher energy with pressure but exhibit a significantly weaker pressure dependence compared to bulklike thick epitaxial-layer samples. Similar pressure coefficients obtained by both photomodulation and photoluminescence measurements rule out the possibility of the transition involving localized states deep in the band gap. We found that the difference in the compressibility of In x Ga 1-x N and GaN induces a tensile strain in the compressively strained In x Ga 1-x N well layers, partially compensating the externally applied hydrostatic pressure. This mechanical effect is primarily responsible for the smaller pressure dependence of the optical transitions in the In x Ga 1-x N/GaN MQW close-quote s. In addition, the pressure-dependent measurements allow us to identify a spectral feature observed at an energy below the GaN band gap. We conclude that this feature is due to transitions from ionized Mg acceptor states to the conduction band in the p-type GaN cladding layer rather than a confined transition in the MQW close-quote s. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  4. Confinement and deconfinement of quarks in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baym, G.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear matter at high baryon density or excitation energy is expected to undergo a transition to deconfined quark matter, a new state of matter, whose production and detection would be an exciting and basic advance in nuclear physics. These lectures summarize current understanding of quark matter and the deconfinement transition. Beginning with a review of elementary models of confinement, the basic properties of quark matter are described, estimates of the transition from hadronic to quark matter are made, and various ways one might see quark matter experimentally by production in nuclear collisions or in the form of metastable exotic nuclear objects are discussed. (author)

  5. Embedding beyond electrostatics-The role of wave function confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nåbo, Lina J; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Holmgaard List, Nanna; Solanko, Lukasz M; Wüstner, Daniel; Kongsted, Jacob

    2016-09-14

    We study excited states of cholesterol in solution and show that, in this specific case, solute wave-function confinement is the main effect of the solvent. This is rationalized on the basis of the polarizable density embedding scheme, which in addition to polarizable embedding includes non-electrostatic repulsion that effectively confines the solute wave function to its cavity. We illustrate how the inclusion of non-electrostatic repulsion results in a successful identification of the intense π → π(∗) transition, which was not possible using an embedding method that only includes electrostatics. This underlines the importance of non-electrostatic repulsion in quantum-mechanical embedding-based methods.

  6. Tandem mirror plasma confinement apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus and method are described for confining a plasma in a center mirror cell by use of two end mirror cells as positively charged end stoppers to minimize leakage of positive particles from the ends of the center mirror cell

  7. Tandem mirror plasma confinement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, T. Kenneth

    1978-11-14

    Apparatus and method for confining a plasma in a center mirror cell by use of two end mirror cells as positively charged end stoppers to minimize leakage of positive particles from the ends of the center mirror cell.

  8. Alternate fusion -- continuous inertial confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.C.; Turner, L.; Nebel, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    The authors argue that alternate approaches to large tokamak confinement are appropriate for fusion applications if: (1) They do not require magnetic confinement of a much higher quality than demonstrated in tokamaks; (2) Their physics basis may be succinctly stated and experimentally tested; (3) They offer near-term applications to important technical problems; and (4) Their cost to proof-of-principle is low enough to be consistent with current budget realities. An approach satisfying all of these criteria is presented. Fusion systems based on continuous inertial confinement are described. In these approaches, the inertia of a nonequilibrium plasma is used to produce local concentrations of plasma density in space and/or time. One implementation (inertial electrostatic confinement) which has been investigated both experimentally and theoretically uses a system of electrostatic grids to accelerate plasma ions toward a spherical focus. This system produced a steady 2 x 10 10 D-T neutrons/second with an overall fusion gain of 10 -5 in a sphere of about 9 cm radius. Recent theoretical developments show how to raise the fusion gain to order unity or greater by replacing the internal grids by a combination of applied magnetic and electrostatic fields. In these approaches, useful thermonuclear conditions may be produced in a system as small as a few mm radius. Confinement is that of a nonneutralized plasma. A pure electron plasma with a radial beam velocity distribution is absolutely confined by an applied Penning trap field. Spherical convergence of the confined electrons forms a deep virtual cathode near r = 0, in which thermonuclear ions are absolutely confined at useful densities. The authors have examined the equilibrium, stability, and classical relaxation of such systems, and obtained many positive physics results. Equilibria exist for both pure electron and partially charge-neutralized systems with arbitrarily high core-plasma densities

  9. Physics of inertial confinement pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, W.C.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of inertial confinement fusion pellet physics is given. A discussion is presented of current estimated ICF driver requirements and a couple of pellet examples. The physics of driver/plasma coupling for two drivers which are being considered, namely a laser driver and a heavy ion accelerator driver, is described. Progress towards inertial confinement fusion that has been made using laser drivers in target experiments to date is discussed

  10. Infrared slavery and quark confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Alabiso, C

    1976-01-01

    The question is considered of whether the so-called infrared slavery mechanism as, e.g., being manifest in non-Abelian gauge theories, necessarily confines quarks. Making a specific ansatz for the long- range forces, the Schwinger-Dyson equation is solved for the quark Green function. Besides having a confining solution, it appears that quarks may by-pass the long-range forces and be produced. (20 refs).

  11. Infrared slavery and quark confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alabiso, C.; Schierholz, G.

    1976-01-01

    The question of whether the so-called infrared slavery mechanism as, e.g., being manifest in non-Abelian gauge theories, necessarily confines quarks is posed. Making a specific ansatz for the long-range forces, the Schwinger-Dyson equation is solved for the quark Green function. Besides having a confining solution, it appears that quarks may by-pass the long-range forces and be produced. (Auth.)

  12. Magnetic well for plasma confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valfells, A.; Chiu, Y.C.

    1977-01-01

    A multipole magnetic well for plasma confinement includes a plurality of current-carrying coils placed on planes corresponding to the facets of a regular polyhedron that can be symmetrically circumscribed about a sphere. The direction of current in the coils is such as to minimize the flux density at the center of the polyhedron, thereby providing a confinement well with three-dimensional symmetry having an increasing flux density in all directions from the center. 16 claims, 18 figures

  13. Neutron spectroscopy for confinement studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorn, R.

    2010-01-01

    Neutron spectroscopy is an important method for the study of microscopic dynamics because it captures the spatial as well as the temporal aspects of the atomic or molecular motion. In this article techniques will be presented which are of special importance for the study of confined systems. Many of these are based on the fact that neutron scattering is isotope-dependent. Possible sources of systematic errors in measurements of confined systems will be pointed out. (author)

  14. Phenomenology of cosmic phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaempfer, B.; Lukacs, B.; Paal, G.

    1989-11-01

    The evolution of the cosmic matter from Planck temperature to the atomic combination temperature is considered from a phenomenological point of view. Particular emphasis is devoted to the sequence of cosmic phase transitions. The inflationary era at the temperature of the order of the grand unification energy scale and the quantum chromodynamic confinement transition are dealt with in detail. (author) 131 refs.; 26 figs

  15. Physics of Confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldston, R J; White, R B; Hahm, T S; Kaye, S [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton (United States)

    2012-09-15

    The measured radial fluxes of particles, ion and electron heat, and toroidal angular momentum in tokamaks are usually greater than given by neoclassical transport theory. In this collisional theory, appropriate for a quiescent plasma, the random-walk step size is generally set by the width of closed banana trajectories in the steady state magnetic fields, and the step period is set by the collisional decorrelation time. At low collisionalities relevant to fusioning plasmas, detailed calculations give radial transport coefficients of the form G{sub c}{rho}{sup 2}{nu}, where G{sub c} is a dimensionless geometrical factor, {rho} is the gyroradius of the species under consideration and {nu} is the collision frequency. (author)

  16. Dynamical vanishing of the order parameter in a confined Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer Fermi gas after an interaction quench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, S.; Kettmann, P.; Croitoru, M. D.; Axt, V. M.; Kuhn, T.

    2018-01-01

    We present a numerical study of the Higgs mode in an ultracold confined Fermi gas after an interaction quench and find a dynamical vanishing of the superfluid order parameter. Our calculations are done within a microscopic density-matrix approach in the Bogoliubov-de Gennes framework which takes the three-dimensional cigar-shaped confinement explicitly into account. In this framework, we study the amplitude mode of the order parameter after interaction quenches starting on the BCS side of the BEC-BCS crossover close to the transition and ending in the BCS regime. We demonstrate the emergence of a dynamically vanishing superfluid order parameter in the spatiotemporal dynamics in a three-dimensional trap. Further, we show that the signal averaged over the whole trap mirrors the spatiotemporal behavior and allows us to systematically study the effects of the system size and aspect ratio on the observed dynamics. Our analysis enables us to connect the confinement-induced modifications of the dynamics to the pairing properties of the system. Finally, we demonstrate that the signature of the Higgs mode is contained in the dynamical signal of the condensate fraction, which, therefore, might provide a new experimental access to the nonadiabatic regime of the Higgs mode.

  17. Structure in a confined smectic liquid crystal with competing surface and sample elasticities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idziak, S.H.; Koltover, I.; Israelachvili, J.N.; Safinya, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    We report on studies using the x-ray surface forces apparatus (XSFA) to compare the structure of a liquid crystal confined between hard surfaces and, for the first time, between soft surfaces that can deform due to the stresses imposed by the confined fluid. We find that the alignment of smectic domains in confined films depends critically on both the shape and compliance of the confining walls or surfaces: open-quote open-quote Soft surfaces close-quote close-quote exhibit a critical gap thickness of 3.4 μm for the liquid crystal studied at which maximum alignment occurs, while open-quote open-quote hard surfaces close-quote close-quote do not exhibit gap-dependent alignment. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  18. Effect of an offshore sinkhole perforation in a coastal confined aquifer on submarine groundwater discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratesi, S.E.; Leonard, V.; Sanford, W.E.

    2007-01-01

    In order to explore submarine groundwater discharge in the vicinity of karst features that penetrate the confining layer of an offshore, partially confined aquifer, we constructed a three-dimensional groundwater model using the SUTRA (Saturated-Unsaturated TRAnsport) variable-density groundwater flow model. We ran a parameter sensitivity analysis, testing the effects of recharge rates, permeabilities of the aquifer and confining layer, and thickness of the confining layer. In all simulations, less than 20% of the freshwater recharge for the entire model exits through the sinkhole. Recirculated seawater usually accounts for 10-30% of the total outflow from the model. Often, the sinkhole lies seaward of the transition zone and acts as a recharge feature for recirculating seawater. The permeability ratio between aquifer and confining layer influences the configuration of the freshwater wedge the most; as confining layer permeability decreases, the wedge lengthens and the fraction of total discharge exiting through the sinkhole increases. Copyright ?? 2007 IAHS Press.

  19. Mantle transition zone structure beneath the Canadian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. A.; Helffrich, G. R.; Bastow, I. D.; Kendall, J. M.; Wookey, J.; Eaton, D. W.; Snyder, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    The Canadian Shield is underlain by one of the deepest and most laterally extensive continental roots on the planet. Seismological constraints on the mantle structure beneath the region are presently lacking due to the paucity of stations in this remote area. Presented here is a receiver function study on transition zone structure using data from recently deployed seismic networks from the Hudson Bay region. High resolution images based on high signal-to-noise ratio data show clear arrivals from the 410 km and 660 km discontinuities, revealing remarkably little variation in transition zone structure. Transition zone thickness is close to the global average (averaging 245 km across the study area), and any deviations in Pds arrival time from reference Earth models can be readily explained by upper-mantle velocity structure. The 520 km discontinuity is not a ubiquitous feature, and is only weakly observed in localised areas. These results imply that the Laurentian root is likely confined to the upper-mantle and if any mantle downwelling exists, possibly explaining the existence of Hudson Bay, it is also confined to the upper 400 km. Any thermal perturbations at transition zone depths associated with the existence of the root, whether they be cold downwellings or elevated temperatures due to the insulating effect of the root, are thus either non-existent or below the resolution of the study.

  20. Are low-dimensional dynamics typical in magnetically confined plasmas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, R.; Dewar, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Since 1988 there have been many serious attempts to construct low-dimensional dynamical systems that model L-H transitions and associated oscillatory phenomena in magnetically confined plasmas. Such models usually consist of coupled ordinary differential equations in a few dynamical state variables and several parameters that represent physical properties or external controls. The advantages of a unified, low-dimensional approach to modelling plasma behaviour are multifold. Most importantly, the qualitative analysis of nonlinear ODE and algebraic systems is supported by a substantial body of theory. The toolkits of singularity and stability theory are well-developed and accessible, and contain the right tools for the job of charting the state and parameter space. One of the driving forces behind the development of low-dimensional dynamical models is the predictive potential of a parameter map. For example, a model that talks of the shape and extent of hysteresis in the L-H transition would help engineers who are interested in controlling access to H-mode. We can express this problem another way: given the enormous number of variables and parameters that could be varied around a hysteretic regime, it would be cheaper to know in advance which ones actually do influence the quality and quantity of the hysteresis. The quest for a low-dimensional state space that contains the qualitative dynamics of L-H transitions also introduces other problems. We need to identify the essential (few) dynamical variables and the essential (few) independent parameter groups, clarify the mechanisms for the feedback that is modelled by nonlinear terms, and identify symmetries in the physics. Before jumping the gun on these questions the fundamental issue should be addressed of whether a confined plasma, having many important length and time scales, steep gradients, strong anisotropy, and an uncountable multiplicity of states, can indeed exhibit low-dimensional dynamics. In this

  1. Transport of nano-objects in narrow channels: influence of Brownian diffusion, confinement and particle nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liot, O; Socol, M; Garcia, L; Thiéry, J; Figarol, A; Mingotaud, A F; Joseph, P

    2018-06-13

    This paper presents experimental results about transport of dilute suspensions of nano-objects in silicon-glass micrometric and sub-micrometric channels. Two kinds of objects are used: solid, rigid latex beads and spherical capsule-shaped, soft polymersomes. They are tracked using fluorescence microscopy. Three aspects are studied: confinement (ratio between particle diameter and channel depth), Brownian diffusion and particle nature. The aim of this work is to understand how these different aspects affect the transport of suspensions in narrow channels and to understand the different mechanisms at play. Concerning the solid beads we observe the appearance of two regimes, one where the experimental mean velocity is close to the expected one and another where this velocity is lower. This is directly related to a competition between confinement, Brownian diffusion and advection. These two regimes are shown to be linked to the inhomogeneity of particles distribution in the channel depth, which we experimentally deduce from velocity distributions. This inhomogeneity appears during the entrance process into the sub-micrometric channels, as for hydrodynamic separation or deterministic lateral displacement. Concerning the nature of the particles we observed a shift of transition towards the second regime likely due to the relationships between shear stress and polymersomes mechanical properties which could reduce the inhomogeneity imposed by the geometry of our device.

  2. Annihilation of positronium atoms confined in mesoporous and macroporous SiO2 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, B. S.; Boilot, J.-P.; Corbel, C.; Guillemot, F.; Gurung, L.; Liszkay, L.; Cassidy, D. B.

    2018-05-01

    We report experiments in which positronium (Ps) atoms were created in thin, porous silica films containing isolated voids with diameters ranging from 5 to 75 nm. Ps lifetimes in the pore structures were measured directly via time-delayed laser excitation of 13S1→23PJ transitions. In a film containing 5-nm pores Ps was predominantly emitted into vacuum, with a small component of confined Ps with a lifetime of 75 ns also observed. In films with larger pores Ps atoms were not emitted into vacuum except from the film surface, and confined Ps lifetimes of ≈90 ns were measured with no dependence on the pore size. However, for such large pores, extended Tao-Eldrup (ETE)-type models predict Ps lifetimes close to the 142-ns vacuum value. Moreover, 13S1→23PJ excitation of Ps atoms inside the pores was found to result in annihilation and exhibited an extremely broad (≈10 THz) linewidth. We attribute these observations to a process in which nonthermal Ps atoms in the isolated voids become temporarily trapped in a series of surface states that dissociate following excitation. The occurrence of this mechanism is not necessarily apparent from ground-state Ps decay rates without some prior knowledge of the sample structure, and it precludes the application of ETE-type models as they do not take into account surface interactions other than pickoff annihilation.

  3. Transport of nano-objects in narrow channels: influence of Brownian diffusion, confinement and particle nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liot, O.; Socol, M.; Garcia, L.; Thiéry, J.; Figarol, A.; Mingotaud, A. F.; Joseph, P.

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents experimental results about transport of dilute suspensions of nano-objects in silicon-glass micrometric and sub-micrometric channels. Two kinds of objects are used: solid, rigid latex beads and spherical capsule-shaped, soft polymersomes. They are tracked using fluorescence microscopy. Three aspects are studied: confinement (ratio between particle diameter and channel depth), Brownian diffusion and particle nature. The aim of this work is to understand how these different aspects affect the transport of suspensions in narrow channels and to understand the different mechanisms at play. Concerning the solid beads we observe the appearance of two regimes, one where the experimental mean velocity is close to the expected one and another where this velocity is lower. This is directly related to a competition between confinement, Brownian diffusion and advection. These two regimes are shown to be linked to the inhomogeneity of particles distribution in the channel depth, which we experimentally deduce from velocity distributions. This inhomogeneity appears during the entrance process into the sub-micrometric channels, as for hydrodynamic separation or deterministic lateral displacement. Concerning the nature of the particles we observed a shift of transition towards the second regime likely due to the relationships between shear stress and polymersomes mechanical properties which could reduce the inhomogeneity imposed by the geometry of our device.

  4. Capillary condensation and orientational ordering of confined polar fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramzow, Matthias; Klapp, Sabine H L

    2007-01-01

    The phase behavior and the orientational structure of polar model fluids confined to slit pores is investigated by means of density functional theory in a modified mean-field approximation. We focus on fluid states and further assume a uniform number density throughout the pore. Our results for spherical dipolar particles with additional van der Waals-like interactions (Stockmayer fluids) reveal complex fluid-fluid phase behavior involving condensation and first- and second-order isotropic-to-ferroelectric phase transitions, where the ferroelectric ordering occurs parallel to the confining walls. The relative importance of these phase transitions depends on two "tuning" parameters, that is the strength of the dipolar interactions (relative to the isotropic attractive ones) between fluid particles, and on the pore width. In particular, in narrow pores the condensation transition seen in bulk Stockmayer fluids is entirely suppressed. For dipolar hard spheres, on the other hand, the impact of confinement consists in a decrease of the isotropic-to-ferroelectric transition temperatures. We also demonstrate that the local orientational structure is inhomogeneous and anisotropic even in globally isotropic systems, in agreement with computer simulation results.

  5. On the scaling of magnetic plasma confinement under classical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1979-04-01

    Present magnetic confinement schemes based on tokamaks and similar devices are characterized by relatively large losses and low beta values. As a consequence, thermonuclear conditions can only be reached in such devices at large linear dimensions or by means of very strong magnetic fields, in combination with large heating powers. This does not rule out the possibility of realizing the same conditions on a smaller scale, i.e. by finding alternative schemes which provide classical and stable confinement of a pure plasma in a closed magnetic bottle. (author)

  6. SOLAR MULTIPLE ERUPTIONS FROM A CONFINED MAGNETIC STRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeongwoo; Chae, Jongchul [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Liu, Chang; Jing, Ju [Space Weather Research Laboratory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States)

    2016-09-20

    How eruption can recur from a confined magnetic structure is discussed based on the Solar Dynamics Observatory observations of the NOAA active region 11444, which produced three eruptions within 1.5 hr on 2012 March 27. The active region (AR) had the positive-polarity magnetic fields in the center surrounded by the negative-polarity fields around. Since such a distribution of magnetic polarity tends to form a dome-like magnetic fan structure confined over the AR, the multiple eruptions were puzzling. Our investigation reveals that this event exhibits several properties distinct from other eruptions associated with magnetic fan structures: (i) a long filament encircling the AR was present before the eruptions; (ii) expansion of the open–closed boundary (OCB) of the field lines after each eruption was suggestive of the growing fan-dome structure, and (iii) the ribbons inside the closed magnetic polarity inversion line evolved in response to the expanding OCB. It thus appears that in spite of multiple eruptions the fan-dome structure remained undamaged, and the closing back field lines after each eruption rather reinforced the fan-dome structure. We argue that the multiple eruptions could occur in this AR in spite of its confined magnetic structure because the filament encircling the AR was adequate for slipping through the magnetic separatrix to minimize the damage to its overlying fan-dome structure. The result of this study provides a new insight into the productivity of eruptions from a confined magnetic structure.

  7. SOLAR MULTIPLE ERUPTIONS FROM A CONFINED MAGNETIC STRUCTURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeongwoo; Chae, Jongchul; Liu, Chang; Jing, Ju

    2016-01-01

    How eruption can recur from a confined magnetic structure is discussed based on the Solar Dynamics Observatory observations of the NOAA active region 11444, which produced three eruptions within 1.5 hr on 2012 March 27. The active region (AR) had the positive-polarity magnetic fields in the center surrounded by the negative-polarity fields around. Since such a distribution of magnetic polarity tends to form a dome-like magnetic fan structure confined over the AR, the multiple eruptions were puzzling. Our investigation reveals that this event exhibits several properties distinct from other eruptions associated with magnetic fan structures: (i) a long filament encircling the AR was present before the eruptions; (ii) expansion of the open–closed boundary (OCB) of the field lines after each eruption was suggestive of the growing fan-dome structure, and (iii) the ribbons inside the closed magnetic polarity inversion line evolved in response to the expanding OCB. It thus appears that in spite of multiple eruptions the fan-dome structure remained undamaged, and the closing back field lines after each eruption rather reinforced the fan-dome structure. We argue that the multiple eruptions could occur in this AR in spite of its confined magnetic structure because the filament encircling the AR was adequate for slipping through the magnetic separatrix to minimize the damage to its overlying fan-dome structure. The result of this study provides a new insight into the productivity of eruptions from a confined magnetic structure.

  8. 308 Building zone I stabilization and confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, I.L.; Schwartz, K.E.; Rich, J.W.; Benecke, M.W.; Lanham, G.W.

    1994-08-01

    The 308 Building located on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, is currently in transition to shutdown status. After this transition is complete, the facility will be maintained/surveilled and given to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Facility Transition and Management (EM-60) for utilization, remedial action, or decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D). This may require that the facility be maintained in the shutdown status for as long as 30 yrs. To date, all of the special nuclear material (SNM) has been removed, potential fuel supply equipment preserved, surplus materials and equipment excessed, and enclosure cleanup and stabilization completed. A major activity in support of the 308 Building shutdown was the cleanup and stabilization of the enclosures and surface contamination areas. This document discusses the specific designs, processes, and methods used to stabilize and confine the radiological material within the enclosure and exhaust ducts to allow the shutdown of the active support systems. The process and designs employed were effective, yet simple, and maximized the use of current technologies and commercial products

  9. Momentum confinement at low torque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, W M [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Burrell, K H [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); De Grassie, J S [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Budny, R [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Groebner, R J [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Kinsey, J E [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Kramer, G J [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Luce, T C [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Makowski, M A [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Mikkelsen, D [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Nazikian, R [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Petty, C C [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Politzer, P A [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Scott, S D [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Zeeland, M A Van [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Zarnstorff, M C [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Momentum confinement was investigated on DIII-D as a function of applied neutral beam torque at constant normalized beta {beta}{sub N}, by varying the mix of co (parallel to the plasma current) and counter neutral beams. Under balanced neutral beam injection (i.e. zero total torque to the plasma), the plasma maintains a significant rotation in the co-direction. This 'intrinsic' rotation can be modeled as being due to an offset in the applied torque (i.e. an 'anomalous torque'). This anomalous torque appears to have a magnitude comparable to one co neutral beam source. The presence of such an anomalous torque source must be taken into account to obtain meaningful quantities describing momentum transport, such as the global momentum confinement time and local diffusivities. Studies of the mechanical angular momentum in ELMing H-mode plasmas with elevated q{sub min} show that the momentum confinement time improves as the torque is reduced. In hybrid plasmas, the opposite effect is observed, namely that momentum confinement improves at high torque/rotation. GLF23 modeling suggests that the role of E x B shearing is quite different between the two plasmas, which may help to explain the different dependence of the momentum confinement on torque.

  10. Phenomenology and theory of confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervushin, V.N.

    1987-01-01

    Phenomenological and theoretical arguments of the separation of the hadronization dynamics from confinement and the idea of the ''kinematic'' confinement are discussed. The recent theory contains results which point out that the Wilson criterion and the confinement potentials are not sufficient for explaining the phenomenological confinement in the sense of zero color amplitudes or Green functions. However, these potentials well explain the hadron spectrum and spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry, i.e., the hadronization dynamics. The ''kinematic'' confinement can be explained by the topological degeneration of all color-particle physical states in QCD. This degeneration arises if the theory is quantized by explicitly solving the gauge and dynamic constraints: all color states are defined up to gauge(phase) factors describing the map of the three-dimensional space onto SU(3) c -group (π 3 (SU(3) c =Z). The total probability of the color particle generation is equal to zero due to the destructive interference of these phase factors. As a result, in QCD there remains only a hadron sector used in the phenomenology

  11. Plasma Confinement in the UCLA Electric Tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert J.

    2001-10-01

    The main goal of the newly constructed large Electric Tokamak (R = 5 m, a = 1 m, BT 8 x 10^12 cm-3 when there is no MHD activity. The electron temperature, derived from the plasma conductivity is > 250 eV with a central electron energy confinement time > 350 msec in ohmic conditions. The sawteeth period is 50 msec. Edge plasma rotation is induced by plasma biasing via electron injection in an analogous manner to that seen in CCT(R.J. Taylor, M.L. Brown, B.D. Fried, H. Grote, J.R. Liberati, G.J. Morales, P. Pribyl, D. Darrow, and M. Ono. Phys. Rev Lett. 63 2365 1989.) and the neoclassical bifurcation is close to that described by Shaing et al(K.C. Shaing and E.C. Crume, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63 2369 (1989).). In the ohmic phase the confinement tends to be MHD limited. The ICRF heating eliminates the MHD disturbances. Under second harmonic heating conditions, we observe an internal confinement peaking characterized by doubling of the core density and a corresponding increase in the central electron temperature. Charge exchange data, Doppler data in visible H-alpha light, and EC radiation all indicate that ICRF heating works much better than expected. The major effort is focused on increasing the power input and controlling the resulting equilibrium. This task appears to be easy since our current pulses are approaching the 3 second mark without RF heating or current drive. Our initial experience with current profile control, needed for high beta plasma equilibrium, will be also discussed.

  12. Fluctuations and confinement in ATF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isler, R.C.; Harris, J.H.; Murakami, M.

    1993-01-01

    In the period immediately prior to the suspension of ATF operation in November, 1991, a great deal of emphasis was palced on investigations of the fundamental mechanisms controlling confinement in this device. At that time, measurements of the density fluctuations throughout the plasma volume indicated the existence of theoretically predicted dissipative trapped electron and resistive interchange instabilities. These identifications were supported by results of dynamic configuration scans of the magnetic fields during which the extent of the magnetic well, shear, and fraction of confined trapped particles were changed continuously. Interpretation of the data from these experiments has been an ongoing exercise. Most recently, analysis of discharges employing strong gas puffing to change density gradients and fluctuation levels have strengthened the view that dissipative trapped electron modes may be present but do not play a significant direct role in energy transport. The present paper summarizes the current understanding concerning the identification of instabilities and their relationship to confinement in ATF

  13. Correlations In Confined Quantum Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufty, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    This is the final report for the project 'Correlations in Confined Quantum Plasmas', NSF-DOE Partnership Grant DE FG02 07ER54946, 8/1/2007 - 7/30/2010. The research was performed in collaboration with a group at Christian Albrechts University (CAU), Kiel, Germany. That collaboration, almost 15 years old, was formalized during the past four years under this NSF-DOE Partnership Grant to support graduate students at the two institutions and to facilitate frequent exchange visits. The research was focused on exploring the frontiers of charged particle physics evolving from new experimental access to unusual states associated with confinement. Particular attention was paid to combined effects of quantum mechanics and confinement. A suite of analytical and numerical tools tailored to the specific inquiry has been developed and employed

  14. Nanoscale Trapping and Squeeze-Out of Confined Alkane Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosvami, N N; O'Shea, S J

    2015-12-01

    We present combined force curve and conduction atomic force microscopy (AFM) data for the linear alkanes CnH2n+2 (n = 10, 12, 14, 16) confined between a gold-coated AFM tip and a graphite surface. Solvation layering is observed in the force curves for all liquids, and conduction AFM is used to study in detail the removal of the confined (mono)layer closest to the graphite surface. The squeeze-out behavior of the monolayer can be very different depending upon the temperature. Below the monolayer melting transition temperatures the molecules are in an ordered state on the graphite surface, and fast and complete removal of the confined molecules is observed. However, above the melting transition temperature the molecules are in a disordered state, and even at large applied pressure a few liquid molecules are trapped within the tip-sample contact zone. These findings are similar to a previous study for branched alkanes [ Gosvami Phys. Rev. Lett. 2008, 100, 076101 ], but the observation for the linear alkane homologue series demonstrates clearly the dependence of the squeeze-out and trapping on the state of the confined material.

  15. From stripe to slab confinement for DNA linearization in nanochannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifra, Peter; Benkova, Zuzana; Namer, Pavol

    We investigate suggested advantageous analysis in the linearization experiments with macromolecules confined in a stripe-like channel using Monte Carlo simulations. The enhanced chain extension in a stripe that is due to significant excluded volume interactions between monomers in two dimensions weakens on transition to experimentally feasible slit-like channel. Based on the chain extension-confinement strength dependence and the structure factor behavior for the chain in stripe we infer the excluded volume regime typical for two-dimensional systems. On transition to the slab geometry, the advantageous chain extension decreases and the Gaussian regime is observed for not very long semiflexible chains. The evidence for pseudo-ideality in confined chains is based on indicators such as the extension curves, variation of the extension with the persistence length or the structure factor. The slab behavior is observed when the stripe (originally of monomer thickness) reaches the thickness larger than cca 10nm in the third dimension. This maximum height of the slab to retain the advantage of the stripe is very low and this have implication for DNA linearization experiments. The presented analysis, however, has a broader relevance for confined polymers. Support from Slovak R&D Agency (SRDA-0451-11) is acknowledged.

  16. Core electron-root confinement (CERC) in helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, M.; Ida, K.; Maassbcrg, H.

    2006-10-01

    The improvement of core electron heat confinement has been realized in a wide range of helical devices such as CHS, LHD, TJ-II and W7-AS. Strongly peaked electron temperature profiles and large positive radial electric field, E r , in the core region are common fractures for this improved confinement. Such observations are consistent with a transition to the electron-root' solution of the ambipolarity condition for E r in the context of the neoclassical transport, which is unique to non-axisymmetric configurations. Based on this background, this improved confinement has been collectively dubbed 'core electron-root confinement' (CERC). The electron heat diffusivity is much reduced due to the electron-root E r compared to that with E r =0 assumed, which clearly demonstrates that 1/v ripple diffusion (ν being the collision frequency) in low-collisional helical plasmas could be overcome. The magnetic configuration properties play important roles in this transition, and thresholds are found for the collisionality and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) power. (author)

  17. Improved confinement in L-mode JET plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.T.C.; Balet, B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bures, M.; Campbell, D.J.; Christiansen, J.P.; Cordey, J.G.; Core, W.F.; Corti, S.; Costley, A.E.; Cottrell, G.A.; Edwards, A.; Ehrenberg, J.; Jacquinot, J.; Lallia, P.; Lomas, P.J.; Lowry, C.; Malacarne, M.; Muir, D.G.; Nave, M.F.; Nielsen, P.; Sack, C.; Sadler, G.; Start, D.F.H.; Taroni, A.; Thomas, P.R.; Thomsen, K.

    1989-01-01

    The JET confinement data show considerable variations of stored plasma energy W (thermal + fast ions) at fixed input power P, plasma current I, toroidal field B and plasma configuration C. The data on confinement properties, e.g. the confinement time τ E or its incremental value τ E (inc), derived from variations of P at fixed I, B, C thus exhibit scatter which makes the scaling of τ E with P, I, B, C difficult to establish. The effects from sawteeth, from variations in the power deposition profiles and from plasma edge physics on confinement do not depend on P, I, B, C in any simple way which would permit a deduced scaling law to be identified with a single (or more) physics loss mechanism(s). In this paper we examine the response of confinement to variations in plasma configuration at fixed I and B (3 MA and 3 T). Results from global and local transport analysis are discussed in sections 2 and 3; section 4 describes the role of fast ions produced by ICRF and NBI heating. High confinement in the L-mode regime at increased plasma currents up to 6 MA is also studied, in particular the effects from sawteeth on stored energy W. Such effects increase with current and presently only predictive transport studies (section 5) can estimate what may be achieved at high current without sawteeth effects. The predictive studies also assess the benefits which may arise from an increase of the neutral beam energy at high plasma currents (section 6). The conclusions are based on extensive study of data from JET pulses with up to 14 MW of ICRH, 21 MW of NBI and 6 MW of ohmic power. None of the pulses included in the study show the sudden reduction of D α emission characteristic of the L to H mode transition of confinement. 7 refs., 4 figs

  18. Linking of uniform random polygons in confined spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsuaga, J.; Blackstone, T.; Diao, Y.; Karadayi, E.; Saito, M.

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we study the topological entanglement of uniform random polygons in a confined space. We derive the formula for the mean squared linking number of such polygons. For a fixed simple closed curve in the confined space, we rigorously show that the linking probability between this curve and a uniform random polygon of n vertices is at least 1-O\\big(\\frac{1}{\\sqrt{n}}\\big) . Our numerical study also indicates that the linking probability between two uniform random polygons (in a confined space), of m and n vertices respectively, is bounded below by 1-O\\big(\\frac{1}{\\sqrt{mn}}\\big) . In particular, the linking probability between two uniform random polygons, both of n vertices, is bounded below by 1-O\\big(\\frac{1}{n}\\big) .

  19. Linking of uniform random polygons in confined spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsuaga, J; Blackstone, T; Diao, Y; Karadayi, E; Saito, M

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study the topological entanglement of uniform random polygons in a confined space. We derive the formula for the mean squared linking number of such polygons. For a fixed simple closed curve in the confined space, we rigorously show that the linking probability between this curve and a uniform random polygon of n vertices is at least 1-O(1/√n). Our numerical study also indicates that the linking probability between two uniform random polygons (in a confined space), of m and n vertices respectively, is bounded below by 1-O(1/√(mn)). In particular, the linking probability between two uniform random polygons, both of n vertices, is bounded below by 1-O(1/n)

  20. Spatial confinement governs orientational order in patchy particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, Yasutaka; Kimura, Yasuyuki

    2016-06-01

    Orientational order in condensed matter plays a key role in determining material properties such as ferromagnetism, viscoelasticity or birefringence. We studied purely orientational ordering in closely-packed one-patch colloidal particles confined between flat substrates, where the particles can only rotate and are ordered via the sticky interaction between the patches. For the first time, we experimentally realized a rich variety of mesoscopic patterns through orientational ordering of colloids by controlling patch size and confinement thickness. The combination of experiment and numerical simulation reveals the decisive role of confinement: An ordered state(s) is selected from the (meta)stable options in bulk when it is commensurate with the system geometry and boundary conditions; otherwise, frustration induces a unique order. Our study offers a new means of systematic control over mesoscopic structures via orientational ordering in patchy particles. The system would also possess unique functionalities through the rotational response of the particles to external stimuli.

  1. Effects of confinement in meso-porous silica and carbon nano-structures; Etude des effets de confinement dans la silice mesoporeuse et dans certaines nanostructures carbonees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon, V

    2006-07-15

    Physico-chemical properties of materials can be strongly modified by confinement because of the quantum effects that appear at such small length scales and also because of the effects of the confinement itself. The aim of this thesis is to show that both the nature of the confining material and the size of the pores and cavities have a strong impact on the confined material. We first show the effect of the pore size of the host meso-porous silica on the temperature of the solid-solid phase transition of silver selenide, a semiconducting material with enhanced magnetoresistive properties under non-stoichiometric conditions. Narrowing the pores from 20 nm to 2 nm raises the phase transition temperature from 139 C to 146 C. This result can be explained by considering the interaction between the confining and confined materials as a driving force. The effects of confinement are also studied in the case of hydrogen and deuterium inside cavities of organized carbon nano-structures. The effects that appear in the adsorption/desorption cycles are much stronger with carbon nano-horns as the host material than with C60 pea-pods and single-walled carbon nano-tubes. (author)

  2. Finite temperature approach to confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gave, E.; Jengo, R.; Omero, C.

    1980-06-01

    The finite temperature treatment of gauge theories, formulated in terms of a gauge invariant variable as in a Polyakov method, is used as a device for obtaining an effective theory where the confinement test takes the form of a correlation function. The formalism is discussed for the abelian CPsup(n-1) model in various dimensionalities and for the pure Yang-Mills theory in the limit of zero temperature. In the latter case a class of vortex like configurations of the effective theory which induce confinement correspond in particular to the instanton solutions. (author)

  3. Some aspects of geometrical confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novello, M.; De Lorenci, V.A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Elbaz, E. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    1998-04-01

    In this paper we present a toy model for the dynamics of a gauge field theory in such way that spin-one particles can be confined in a compact domain. We show that the property of confinement can be associated to the formation of a null surface identified to a horizon. This is due to the presence of an effective geometry generated by the self-interaction of the gauge field that guides the wave propagation of the field. This phenomenon has a striking analogy to the gravitational black hole in Einstein general theory of relativity, separating two domains of spacetime that can be trespassed only into one direction. (author) 4 refs.

  4. Hermitian relativity, chromodynamics and confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treder, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    The extension of the Riemann metrics of General Relativity to the complex domain (substitution of the symmetry conditions for the fundamental tensor, the affinity and the Ricci curvature by the conditions of hermicity) leads to a 'Generalized Theory of Gravity' (Einstein) describing the Newton-Einstein gravodynamics combined with the chromodynamics of quarks. The interaction of gravodynamics and chromodynamics implied by the Einstein-Schroedinger field equations of the hermitian relativity theory enforces the 'confinement'. The 'confinement' prevents the gravitational potential from divergence which would result in the lack of a Riemann space-time metric

  5. Pellet injection and toroidal confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    The proceedings of a technical committee meeting on pellet injection and toroidal confinement, held in Gut Ising, Federal Republic of Germany, 24-26 October, 1988, are given in this report. Most of the major fusion experiments are using pellet injectors; these were reported at this meeting. Studies of confinement, which is favorably affected, impurity transport, radiative energy losses, and affects on the ion temperature gradient instability were given. Studies of pellet ablation and effects on plasma profiles were presented. Finally, several papers described present and proposed injection guns. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. CONFINEMENT OF HIGH TEMPERATURE PLASMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, H.R.

    1963-05-01

    The confinement of a high temperature plasma in a stellarator in which the magnetic confinement has tended to shift the plasma from the center of the curved, U-shaped end loops is described. Magnetic means are provided for counteracting this tendency of the plasma to be shifted away from the center of the end loops, and in one embodiment this magnetic means is a longitudinally extending magnetic field such as is provided by two sets of parallel conductors bent to follow the U-shaped curvature of the end loops and energized oppositely on the inside and outside of this curvature. (AEC)

  7. Velocity Dependence of Friction of Confined Hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the f......We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence...... of the frictional shear stress for both cases. In our simulations, the polymer films are very thin (∼3 nm), and the solid walls are connected to a thermostat at a short distance from the polymer slab. Under these circumstances we find that frictional heating effects are not important, and the effective temperature...... in the polymer film is always close to the thermostat temperature. In the first setup (a), for hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 1400 carbon atoms, the shear stresses are nearly independent of molecular length, but for the shortest hydrocarbon C20H42 the frictional shear stress is lower. In all...

  8. The ''Kinetic Stabilizer'': A Simpler Tandem Mirror Confinement?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    In the search for better approaches to magnetic fusion it is important to keep in mind the lessons learned in the 50 years that fusion plasma confinement has been studied. One of the lessons learned is that ''closed'' and ''open'' fusion devices differ fundamentally with respect to an important property of their confinement, as follows: Without known exception closed systems such as the tokamak, the stellarator, or the reversed-field pinch, have been found to have their confinement times limited by non-classical, i.e., turbulence-related, processes, leading to the requirement that such systems must be scaled-up in dimensions to sizes much larger than would be the case in the absence of turbulence. By contrast, from the earliest days of fusion research, it has been demonstrated that open magnetic systems of the mirror variety can achieve confinement times close to that associated with classical, i.e., collisional, processes. While these good results have been obtained in both axially symmetric fields and in non-axisymmetric fields, the clearest cases have been those in which the confining fields are solenoidal and axially symmetric. These observations, i.e., of confinement not enhanced by turbulence, can be traced theoretically to such factors as the absence of parallel currents in the plasma, and to the constraints on particle drifts imposed by the adiabatic invariants governing particle confinement in axisymmetric open systems. In the past the MHD instability of axially symmetric open systems has been seen as a barrier to their use. However, theory predicts MHD-stable confinement is achievable if sufficient plasma is present in the ''good curvature'' regions outside the mirrors. This theory has been confirmed by experiments on the Gas Dynamic Trap mirror-based experiment at Novosibirsk, In this paper a new way of exploiting this stabilizing principle, involving creating a localized ''stabilizer plasma'' outside a mirror, will be discussed. To create this plasma

  9. Polymer brushes: a controllable system with adjustable glass transition temperature of fragile glass formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shi-Jie; Qian, Hu-Jun; Lu, Zhong-Yuan

    2014-01-28

    We present results of molecular dynamics simulations for coarse-grained polymer brushes in a wide temperature range to investigate the factors that affect the glass transition in these systems. We focus on the influences of free surface, polymer-substrate interaction strength, grafting density, and chain length not only on the change of glass transition temperature Tg, but also the fragility D of the glass former. It is found that the confinement can enhance the dependence of the Tg on the cooling rate as compared to the bulk melt. Our layer-resolved analysis demonstrates that it is possible to control the glass transition temperature Tg of polymer brushes by tuning the polymer-substrate interaction strength, the grafting density, and the chain length. Moreover, we find quantitative differences in the influence range of the substrate and the free surface on the density and dynamics. This stresses the importance of long range cooperative motion in glass formers near the glass transition temperature. Furthermore, the string-like cooperative motion analysis demonstrates that there exists a close relation among glass transition temperature Tg, fragility D, and string length ⟨S⟩. The polymer brushes that possess larger string length ⟨S⟩ tend to have relatively higher Tg and smaller D. Our results suggest that confining a fragile glass former through forming polymer brushes changes not only the glass transition temperature Tg, but also the very nature of relaxation process.

  10. Crystalline structure in the confined-deconfined mixed phase: Neutron stars as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1996-01-01

    We review the differences in first order phase transition of single and multi-component systems, and then discuss the crystalline structure expected to exist in the mixed confined deconfined phase of hadronic matter. The particular context of neutron stars is chosen for illustration. The qualitative results are general and apply for example to the vapor-liquid transition in subsaturated asymmetric nuclear matter

  11. Confinement Sensing and Signal Optimization via Piezo1/PKA and Myosin II Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chien Hung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Cells adopt distinct signaling pathways to optimize cell locomotion in different physical microenvironments. However, the underlying mechanism that enables cells to sense and respond to physical confinement is unknown. Using microfabricated devices and substrate-printing methods along with FRET-based biosensors, we report that, as cells transition from unconfined to confined spaces, intracellular Ca2+ level is increased, leading to phosphodiesterase 1 (PDE1-dependent suppression of PKA activity. This Ca2+ elevation requires Piezo1, a stretch-activated cation channel. Moreover, differential regulation of PKA and cell stiffness in unconfined versus confined cells is abrogated by dual, but not individual, inhibition of Piezo1 and myosin II, indicating that these proteins can independently mediate confinement sensing. Signals activated by Piezo1 and myosin II in response to confinement both feed into a signaling circuit that optimizes cell motility. This study provides a mechanism by which confinement-induced signaling enables cells to sense and adapt to different physical microenvironments. : Hung et al. demonstrate that a Piezo1-dependent intracellular calcium increase negatively regulates protein kinase A (PKA as cells transit from unconfined to confined spaces. The Piezo1/PKA and myosin II signaling modules constitute two confinement-sensing mechanisms. This study provides a paradigm by which signaling enables cells to sense and adapt to different microenvironments.

  12. Velocity dependence of friction of confined polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2009-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the frictional...... shear stress for both cases. In our simulations, the polymer films are very thin (approx. 3 nm), and the solid walls are connected to a thermostat at a short distance from the polymer slab. Under these circumstances we find that frictional heating effects are not important, and the effective temperature...... in the polymer film is always close to the thermostat temperature. In the first setup (a), for hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 1400 carbon atoms, the shear stresses are nearly independent of molecular length, but for the shortest hydrocarbon C20H42 the frictional shear stress is lower. In all...

  13. Field reversal experiments (FRX). [Equilibrium, confinement, and stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, R.K.; Armstrong, W.T.; Platts, D.A.; Sherwood, E.G.

    1978-01-01

    The equilibrium, confinement, and stability properties of the reversed-field configuration (RFC) are being studied in two theta-pinch facilities. The RFC is an elongated toroidal plasma confined in a purely poloidal field geometry. The open field lines of the linear theta pinch support the closed-field RFC much like the vertical field centers the toroidal plasma in a tokamak. Depending on stability and confinement properties, the RFC might be used to greatly reduce the axial losses in linear fusion devices such as mirrors, theta pinches, and liners. The FRX systems produce RFC's with a major radius R = 2-6 cm, minor radius a approximately 2 cm, and a total length l approximately 35 cm. The observed temperatures are T/sub e/ approximately 100 eV and T/sub i/ = 150-350 eV with a peak density n approximately 2 x 10/sup 15/ cm/sup -3/. After the plasma reaches equilibrium, the RFC remains stable for up to 30 ..mu..s followed by the rapid growth of the rotational m = 2 instability, which terminates the confinement. During the stable equilibrium, the particle and energy confinement times are more than 10 times longer than in an open-field system. The behavior of the m = 2 mode qualitatively agrees with the theoretically predicted instability for rotational velocities exceeding some critical value.

  14. Enhancement of confinement in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.

    1986-05-01

    A plausible interpretation of the experimental evidence is that energy confinement in tokamaks is governed by two separate considerations: (1) the need for resistive MHD kink-stability, which limits the permissible range of current profiles - and therefore normally also the range of temperature profiles; and (2) the presence of strongly anomalous microscopic energy transport near the plasma edge, which calibrates the amplitude of the global temperature profile, thus determining the energy confinement time tau/sub E/. Correspondingly, there are two main paths towards the enhancement of tokamak confinement: (1) Configurational optimization, to increase the MHD-stable energy content of the plasma core, can evidently be pursued by varying the cross-sectional shape of the plasma and/or finding stable radial profiles with central q-values substantially below unity - but crossing from ''first'' to ''second'' stability within the peak-pressure region would have the greatest ultimate potential. (2) Suppression of edge turbulence, so as to improve the heat insulation in the outer plasma shell, can be pursued by various local stabilizing techniques, such as use of a poloidal divertor. The present confinement model and initial TFTR pellet-injection results suggest that the introduction of a super-high-density region within the plasma core should be particularly valuable for enhancing ntau/subE/. In D-T operation, a centrally peaked plasma pressure profile could possibly lend itself to alpha-particle-driven entry into the second-stability regime

  15. Frictional properties of confined polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N; Persson, Bo N J

    2008-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and b) polymer sliding on polymer. In the first setup the shear stresses are relatively i...

  16. String theory and quark confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    This article is based on a talk given at the ''Strings '97'' conference. It discusses the search for the universality class of confining strings. The key ingredients include the loop equations, the zigzag symmetry, the non-linear renormalization group. Some new tests for the equivalence between gauge fields and strings are proposed. (orig.)

  17. Mirror Confinement Systems: project summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    This report contains descriptions of the projects supported by the Mirror Confinement Systems (MCS) Division of the Office of Fusion Energy. The individual project summaries were prepared by the principal investigators, in collaboration with MCS staff office, and include objectives and milestones for each project. In addition to project summaries, statements of Division objectives and budget summaries are also provided

  18. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  19. Is confinement the ultimate truth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirrring, W.

    1980-01-01

    This seminar discusses a field theory which leads to a r-potential and therefore to a confinement. By comparison to the instability due to a resonance phenomenon, the author concentrates on the theory's ghost problem and concludes that for some couplings this does not occur and the theory behaves reasonably

  20. Confined flow of polymer blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tufano, C.; Peters, G.W.M.; Meijer, H.E.H.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of confinement on the steady-state morphology of two different emulsions is investigated. The blends, made from polybutene (PB) in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polybutadiene (PBD) in PDMS, are sheared between two parallel plates, mostly with a standard gap spacing of 40 m, in the

  1. Turbulent jet in confined counterflow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mean flowfield of a turbulent jet issuing into a confined, uniform counterflow was investigated computationally. Based on dimensional analysis, the jet penetration length was shown to scale with jet-to-counterflow momentum flux ratio. This scaling and the computational results reproduce the well-known correct limit of ...

  2. Momentum Confinement at Low Torque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, W.M.; Burrell, K.H.; deGrassie, J.S.; Budny, R.; Groebner, R.J.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Kinsey, J.E.; Kramer, G.J.; Makowski, M.A.; Mikkelsen, D.; Nazikian, R.; Petty, C.C.; Politzer, P.A.; Scott, S.D.; Van Zeeland, M.A.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Momentum confinement was investigated on DIII-D as a function of applied neutral beam torque at constant normalized β N , by varying the mix of co (parallel to the plasma current) and counter neutral beams. Under balanced neutral beam injection (i.e. zero total torque to the plasma), the plasma maintains a significant rotation in the co-direction. This 'intrinsic' rotation can be modeled as being due to an offset in the applied torque (i.e. an 'anomalous torque'). This anomalous torque appears to have a magnitude comparable to one co-neutral beam source. The presence of such an anomalous torque source must be taken into account to obtain meaningful quantities describing momentum transport, such as the global momentum confinement time and local diffusivities. Studies of the mechanical angular momentum in ELMing H-mode plasmas with elevated q min show that the momentum confinement time improves as the torque is reduced. In hybrid plasmas, the opposite effect is observed, namely that momentum confinement improves at high torque/rotation. The relative importance of E x B shearing between the two is modeled using GLF23 and may suggest a possible explanation.

  3. On the implications of confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors consider some implications of confinement starting from the basic observation that cross-sections for the production of colored asymptotic states, such as free quarks and gluons, from color singlet initial states must be zero if QCD is to be confining. The authors discuss two pictures of confinement: the failure of the cluster decomposition property and the absence of a pole at timelike momenta in the propagator of a confined particle. The authors use QCD-based models as a framework to relate the failure of the cluster decomposition property to other ideas, such as the role of a nonzero gluon condensate. The authors' primary interest is to address the question of the absence of a mass pole through a study of model Schwinger-Dyson equations. These equations contain some of the dynamical information that is present in the study of the cluster decomposition property. The authors discuss the problems within this idea and its study using the Schwinger-Dyson equations

  4. Baryon observables and color confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    Calculations of baryon observables within the framework of the chiral bag model are reviewed. The results of such calculations are found to be remarkably insensitive to the radius of color confinement and indicate the difficulty of finding unambiguous evidence for quarks in nuclei. 13 refs.; 5 figs

  5. Improved confinement during ICRF heating on JFT-2M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Toshihide; Tamai, Hiroshi

    1986-10-01

    Significant improvement of energy confinement was observed on JFT-2M during ICRF heating. This improvement is associated with the sudden depression of H α /D α emission and the following increase of plasma stored energy, electron density and the radiation loss. This should be the same phenomena as H-mode transitions observed in ASDEX, PDX, and D-III divertor experiments with neutral beam injection heating. However, this transition is also observed in limiter discharges as well as in open divertor configurations on JFT-2M. (author)

  6. Closing remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reig, J.

    2007-01-01

    Good afternoon. Before providing the closing remarks on behalf of the NEA, I would like to take this opportunity and make some personal reflections, if you allow me Mr. Chairman. I have had the opportunity to take part in the three workshops on public communication organised by the NEA. In the first one in Paris in 2000, representing my country, Spain, and in the two last ones in Ottawa in 2004 and Tokyo today, on behalf of the NEA. The topics for the three workshops follow a logical order, first the focus was on investing in trust in a time when public communication was becoming a big challenge for the regulators. Second, maintaining and measuring public confidence to assess how credible regulators are in front of the public; and finally here in Tokyo, transparency, which is a basic element to achieve trust and credibility. In my view, a regulatory decision has three main components, it has to be technically sound. legally correct and well communicated. The emphasis in the early years was in the technical matters, till legal issues became a key element to achieve the political acceptance from governments and local authorities. Finally the public communication aspects resulted into a major effort and challenge to achieve social acceptance. (author)

  7. Bosonic Confinement and Coherence in Disordered Nanodiamond Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gufei; Samuely, Tomas; Du, Hongchu; Xu, Zheng; Liu, Liwang; Onufriienko, Oleksandr; May, Paul W; Vanacken, Johan; Szabó, Pavol; Kačmarčík, Jozef; Yuan, Haifeng; Samuely, Peter; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; Hofkens, Johan; Moshchalkov, Victor V

    2017-11-28

    In the presence of disorder, superconductivity exhibits short-range characteristics linked to localized Cooper pairs which are responsible for anomalous phase transitions and the emergence of quantum states such as the bosonic insulating state. Complementary to well-studied homogeneously disordered superconductors, superconductor-normal hybrid arrays provide tunable realizations of the degree of granular disorder for studying anomalous quantum phase transitions. Here, we investigate the superconductor-bosonic dirty metal transition in disordered nanodiamond arrays as a function of the dispersion of intergrain spacing, which ranges from angstroms to micrometers. By monitoring the evolved superconducting gaps and diminished coherence peaks in the single-quasiparticle density of states, we link the destruction of the superconducting state and the emergence of bosonic dirty metallic state to breaking of the global phase coherence and persistence of the localized Cooper pairs. The observed resistive bosonic phase transitions are well modeled using a series-parallel circuit in the framework of bosonic confinement and coherence.

  8. Capillary evaporation of the ionic liquid [EMIM][BF4] in nanoscale solvophobic confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastav, Gourav; Remsing, Richard C.; Kashyap, Hemant K.

    2018-05-01

    Solvent density fluctuations play a crucial role in liquid-vapor transitions in solvophobic confinement and can also be important for understanding solvation of polar and apolar solutes. In the case of ionic liquids (ILs), density fluctuations can be used to understand important processes in the context of nanoscale aggregation and colloidal self-assemblies. In this article, we explore the nature of density fluctuations associated with capillary evaporation of the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([EMIM][BF4]) in the confined region of model solvophobic nanoscale sheets by using molecular dynamics simulations combined with non-Boltzmann sampling techniques. We demonstrate that density fluctuations of the confined IL play an important role in capillary evaporation, suggesting analogies to dewetting transitions involving water. Significant changes in the interfacial structure of the IL are also detailed and suggested to underlie a non-classical (non-parabolic) dependence of the free energy barrier to evaporation on the degree of confinement.

  9. Spherical fusion plasma-confinement field of Surmac type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipf, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a Surmac confinement field that can be completely closed is presented. The internal conductor is magnetically suspended inside large corrugations of a superconducting spherical shell structure that carries the return current. Presently available superconductor technology using superfluid helium cooling allows fields above 1.5T throughout the wall region. Such a Surmac has potential for the study of advanced fuel cycles.

  10. High-confinement NBI discharges in the W7-AS stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroth, U.; Baldzuhn, J.; Geiger, J.; Geist, T.; Giannone, L.; Hartfuss, H.-J.; Hirsch, M.; Jaenicke, R.; Kick, M.; Koponen, J.P.; Kuehner, G.; Penningsfeld, F.-P.; Wagner, F.

    1998-01-01

    In W7-AS, the longest energy confinement times were achieved in neutral beam injection heated (NBI-heated) discharges under low wall-recycling conditions. Low recycling is needed to control the density at line-averaged values of n-bar e approx. 10 20 m -3 . Under these conditions, confinement was improved by a factor of two above the common scaling estimate. The reduction of radial transport is concentrated into a layer at about two-thirds of the plasma radius. In this region steep pressure gradients and a strong gradient in the radial electric field develop. Specific for the discharges is the slow transition to improved confinement, lasting up to three energy confinement times. Since the measured electric field is consistent with the neoclassical ambipolar field, this high-confinement mode could be an example where sheared plasma flow as created by the neoclassical radial electric field leads to a suppression of anomalous transport. (author)

  11. High-confinement NBI discharges in the W7-AS stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroth, U; Baldzuhn, J; Geiger, J; Geist, T; Giannone, L.; Hartfuss, H -J; Hirsch, M; Jaenicke, R; Kick, M; Koponen, J P; Kuehner, G; Penningsfeld, F -P; Wagner, F [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    1998-08-01

    In W7-AS, the longest energy confinement times were achieved in neutral beam injection heated (NBI-heated) discharges under low wall-recycling conditions. Low recycling is needed to control the density at line-averaged values of n-bar{sub e} approx. 10{sup 20}m{sup -3}. Under these conditions, confinement was improved by a factor of two above the common scaling estimate. The reduction of radial transport is concentrated into a layer at about two-thirds of the plasma radius. In this region steep pressure gradients and a strong gradient in the radial electric field develop. Specific for the discharges is the slow transition to improved confinement, lasting up to three energy confinement times. Since the measured electric field is consistent with the neoclassical ambipolar field, this high-confinement mode could be an example where sheared plasma flow as created by the neoclassical radial electric field leads to a suppression of anomalous transport. (author)

  12. Structure and Interfacial Tension of a Hard-Rod Fluid in Planar Confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumby, Paul E; Wensink, Henricus H; Haslam, Andrew J; Jackson, George

    2017-10-24

    The structural properties and interfacial tension of a fluid of rodlike hard-spherocylinder particles in contact with hard structureless flat walls are studied by means of Monte Carlo simulation. The calculated surface tension between the rod fluid and the substrate is characterized by a nonmonotonic trend as a function of the bulk concentration (density) over the range of isotropic bulk concentrations. As suggested by earlier theoretical studies, a surface-ordering scenario is confirmed by our simulations: the local orientational order close to the wall changes from uniaxial to biaxial nematic when the bulk concentration reaches about 85% of the value at the onset of the isotropic-nematic phase transition. The surface ordering coincides with a wetting transition whereby the hard wall is wetted by a nematic film. Accurate values of the fluid-solid surface tension, the adsorption, and the average particle-wall contact distance are reported (over a broad range of densities into the dense nematic region for the first time), which can serve as a useful benchmark for future theoretical and experimental studies on confined rod fluids. The simulation data are supplemented with predictions from second-virial density functional theory, which are in good qualitative agreement with the simulation results.

  13. Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebel, R.A.; Turner, L.; Tiouririne, T.N.; Barnes, D.C.; Nystrom, W.D.; Bussard, R.W.; Miley, G.H.; Javedani, J.; Yamamoto, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) is one of the earliest plasma confinement concepts, having first been suggested by P. T. Farnsworth in the 1950s. The concept involves a simple apparatus of concentric spherical electrostatic grids or a combination of grids and magnetic fields. An electrostatic structure is formed from the confluence of electron or ion beams. Gridded IEC systems have demonstrated neutron yields as high as 2 * 10 10 neutrons/sec. These systems have considerable potential as small, inexpensive, portable neutron sources for assaying applications. Neutron tomography is also a potential application. Atomic physics effects strongly influence the performance of all of these systems. Important atomic effects include elastic scattering, ionization, excitation, and charge exchange. This paper discusses how an IEC system is influenced by these effects and how to design around them. Theoretical modeling and experimental results are presented

  14. Nonradiative recombination onto shallow bound states in confined systems in electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinyavskij, Eh.P.; Rusanov, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    A study has been made of the one-phonon recombination of carriers onto shallow impurity states in parabolic quantum wells in the longitudinal electric field. It has been found that processes of the one-phonon recombination in confined systems occur in a more active way the in a bulk material.The possibility of electrically induced one-quantum transitions in confined systems is being discussed

  15. Extra dimensions and color confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleitez, V

    1995-04-01

    An extension of the ordinary four dimensional Minkowski space by introducing additional dimensions which have their own Lorentz transformation is considered. Particles can transform in a different way under each Lorentz group. It is shown that only quark interactions are slightly modified and that color confinement automatic since these degrees of freedom run only in the extra dimensions. No compactification of the extra dimensions is needed. (author). 4 refs.

  16. Confinement facilities for handling plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraman, W.J.; McNeese, W.D.; Stafford, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    Plutonium handling on a multigram scale began in 1944. Early criteria, equipment, and techniques for confining contamination have been superseded by more stringent criteria and vastly improved equipment and techniques for in-process contamination control, effluent air cleaning and treatment of liquid wastes. This paper describes the evolution of equipment and practices to minimize exposure of workers and escape of contamination into work areas and into the environment. Early and current contamination controls are compared. (author)

  17. Inertial-confinement-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are made as simple flat discs, as hollow shells or as complicated multilayer structures. Many techniques have been devised for producing the targets. Glass and metal shells are made by using drop and bubble techniques. Solid hydrogen shells are also produced by adapting old methods to the solution of modern problems. Some of these techniques, problems and solutions are discussed. In addition, the applications of many of the techniques to fabrication of ICF targets is presented

  18. Confinement and diffusion in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliams, R.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of electric field fluctuations on confinement and diffusion in tokamak is discussed. Based on the experimentally determined cross-field turbolent diffusion coefficient, D∼3.7*cT e /eB(δn i /n i ) rms which is also derived by a simple theory, the cross-field diffusion time, tp=a 2 /D, is calculated and compared to experimental results from 51 tokamak for standard Ohmic operation

  19. Enhancement of confinement in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.

    1986-01-01

    The analysis begins by identifying a hypothetical model of tokamak confinement that is designed to take into account the conflict between Tsub(e)(r)-profile shapes arising from microscopic transport and J(r)-profile shapes required for gross stability. On the basis of this model, a number of hypothetical lines of advance are developed. Some TFTR experiments that may point the way to a particularly attractive type of tokamak reactor regime are discussed. (author)

  20. Capillary Condensation in Confined Media

    OpenAIRE

    Charlaix, Elisabeth; Ciccotti, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    28 pages - To appear in 2010 in the Handbook of Nanophysics - Vol 1 - Edited by Klaus Sattler - CRC Press; We review here the physics of capillary condensation of liquids in confined media, with a special regard to the application in nanotechnologies. The thermodynamics of capillary condensation and thin film adsorption are first exposed along with all the relevant notions. The focus is then shifted to the modelling of capillary forces, to their measurements techniques (including SFA, AFM and...

  1. Metastability in Magnetically Confined Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, B.H.; Cowley, S.C.; Hurricane, O.A.

    1999-01-01

    The parameter space of magnetically confined plasmas near marginal instability for interchange-type modes is divided into three regions according to qualitative stability properties. Region I is linearly stable though nonlinearly unstable to large excitations. Region II is linearly unstable, nonlinearly stable to small excitations, and nonlinearly unstable to large excitations. Region III is linearly and nonlinearly unstable. For an equilibrium evolving through marginal stability, region III and therefore explosive instability are inevitably encountered. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  2. Closing Remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed

    1996-01-01

    About twenty years ago, the leaders of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) decided to start a new branch in the Clinical Oncology Program of the Division of Cancer Treatment. That new entity was named the Clinical Pharmacology Branch (CPB), and its first leader was a brilliant, young, promising investigator named Bruce A. Chabner. Chabner was educated at Yale and Harvard, and appeared to have an extraordinary grasp of novel concepts that were being developed in the emerging area of cancer chemotherapy. What the NCI leaders did not fully appreciate at the time was that they had just given birth to one of the most extraordinary careers in academic medicine. From the early seventies through the early eighties, Bruce Chabner developed a strong laboratory program that was based on scientific discovery and on the development of new talent. The CPB focused on new drug development, elucidation of drug mechanism(s) of action, and the development of new ways to use drugs that were already available. Concurrent with this laboratory effort was active participation in the development of clinical treatment regimens for Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and other malignancies. Individuals who trained under Chabner are now cancer center directors, department heads, laboratory chiefs, and hold many other high-profile positions. From 1981 to 1995 Bruce Chabner was Director of the Division of Cancer Treatment (DCT) of the NCI. In that capacity he was Scientific Director of the Intramural Program within DCT, and he had oversight responsibility for the direction of extramural studies that were funded through the NCI, which were focused on the development of new treatments for human malignant disease. The NCI has five divisions for which the NCI Director has ultimate responsibility. While working with one NCI Director from 1981 to 1988, and with another from 1988 to 1995, and during the transition year of 1988, Bruce Chabner provided stability for the DCT while many changes

  3. Open-ended magnetic confinement systems for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.; Ryutov, D.D.

    1995-05-01

    Magnetic confinement systems that use externally generated magnetic fields can be divided topologically into two classes: ''closed'' and 'open''. The tokamak, the stellarator, and the reversed-field-pinch approaches are representatives of the first category, while mirror-based systems and their variants are of the second category. While the recent thrust of magnetic fusion research, with its emphasis on the tokamak, has been concentrated on closed geometry, there are significant reasons for the continued pursuit of research into open-ended systems. The paper discusses these reasons, reviews the history and the present status of open-ended systems, and suggests some future directions for the research

  4. Effects of confinement in meso-porous silica and carbon nano-structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, V.

    2006-07-01

    Physico-chemical properties of materials can be strongly modified by confinement because of the quantum effects that appear at such small length scales and also because of the effects of the confinement itself. The aim of this thesis is to show that both the nature of the confining material and the size of the pores and cavities have a strong impact on the confined material. We first show the effect of the pore size of the host meso-porous silica on the temperature of the solid-solid phase transition of silver selenide, a semiconducting material with enhanced magnetoresistive properties under non-stoichiometric conditions. Narrowing the pores from 20 nm to 2 nm raises the phase transition temperature from 139 C to 146 C. This result can be explained by considering the interaction between the confining and confined materials as a driving force. The effects of confinement are also studied in the case of hydrogen and deuterium inside cavities of organized carbon nano-structures. The effects that appear in the adsorption/desorption cycles are much stronger with carbon nano-horns as the host material than with C60 pea-pods and single-walled carbon nano-tubes. (author)

  5. Transit management certificate program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    TTI worked closely with the Landscape Architecture and Urban Planning Department : (LAUP) of Texas A&M University (TAMU) to develop a transit management certificate : focus for the current Graduate Certificate in Transportation Planning (CTP) housed ...

  6. Confinement in Polyakov gauge and the QCD phase diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marhauser, Marc Florian

    2009-10-14

    We investigate Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) in the framework of the functional renormalisation group (fRG). Thereby describing the phase transition from the phase with confined quarks into the quark-gluon-plasma phase. We focus on a physical gauge in which the mechanism driving the phase transition is discernible. We find results compatible with lattice QCD data, as well as with functional methods applied in different gauges. The phase transition is of the expected order and we computed critical exponents. Extensions of the model are discussed. When investigating the QCD phase diagram, we compute the effects of dynamical quarks at finite density on the running of the gauge coupling. Additionally, we calculate how these affect the deconfinement phase transition, also, dynamical quarks allow for the inclusion of a finite chemical potential. Concluding the investigation of the phase diagram, we establish a relation between confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, which is tied to the dynamical generation of hadron masses. In the investigations, we often encounter scale dependent fields. We investigate a footing on which these can be dealt with in a uniform way. (orig.)

  7. Confining but chirally symmetric dense and cold matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glozman, L. Ya.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility for existence of cold, dense chirally symmetric matter with confinement is reviewed. The answer to this question crucially depends on the mechanism of mass generation in QCD and interconnection of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. This question can be clarified from spectroscopy of hadrons and their axial properties. Almost systematical parity doubling of highly excited hadrons suggests that their mass is not related to chiral symmetry breaking in the vacuum and is approximately chirally symmetric. Then there is a possibility for existence of confining but chirally symmetric matter. We clarify a possible mechanism underlying such a phase at low temperatures and large density. Namely, at large density the Pauli blocking prevents the gap equation to generate a solution with broken chiral symmetry. However, the chirally symmetric part of the quark Green function as well as all color non-singlet quantities are still infrared divergent, meaning that the system is with confinement. A possible phase transition to such a matter is most probably of the first order. This is because there are no chiral partners to the lowest lying hadrons.

  8. A double-layer based model of ion confinement in electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascali, D., E-mail: davidmascali@lns.infn.it; Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Castro, G.; Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Torrisi, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell’Energia Sostenibile, Via Graziella, I-89100 Reggio Calabria (Italy); Sorbello, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica Elettronica ed Informatica, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    The paper proposes a new model of ion confinement in ECRIS, which can be easily generalized to any magnetic configuration characterized by closed magnetic surfaces. Traditionally, ion confinement in B-min configurations is ascribed to a negative potential dip due to superhot electrons, adiabatically confined by the magneto-static field. However, kinetic simulations including RF heating affected by cavity modes structures indicate that high energy electrons populate just a thin slab overlapping the ECR layer, while their density drops down of more than one order of magnitude outside. Ions, instead, diffuse across the electron layer due to their high collisionality. This is the proper physical condition to establish a double-layer (DL) configuration which self-consistently originates a potential barrier; this “barrier” confines the ions inside the plasma core surrounded by the ECR surface. The paper will describe a simplified ion confinement model based on plasma density non-homogeneity and DL formation.

  9. Centrifugal particle confinement in mirror geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Roscoe; Hassam, Adil; Brizard, Alain

    2018-01-01

    The use of supersonic rotation of a plasma in mirror geometry has distinct advantages for thermonuclear fusion. The device is steady state, there are no disruptions, the loss cone is almost closed, sheared rotation stabilizes magnetohydrodynamic instabilities as well as plasma turbulence, there are no runaway electrons, and the coil configuration is simple. In this work, we examine the effect of rotation on mirror confinement using a full cyclotron orbit code. The full cyclotron simulations give a much more complete description of the particle energy distribution and losses than the use of guiding center equations. Both collisionless loss as a function of rotation and the effect of collisions are investigated. Although the cross field diffusion is classical, we find that the local rotating Maxwellian is increased to higher energy, increasing the fusion rate and also enhancing the radial diffusion. We find a loss channel not envisioned with a guiding center treatment, but a design can be chosen that can satisfy the Lawson criterion for ions. Of course, the rotation has a minimal effect on the alpha particle birth distribution, so there is initially loss through the usual loss cone, just as in a mirror with no rotation. However after this loss, the alphas slow down on the electrons with little pitch angle scattering until reaching low energy, so over half of the initial alpha energy is transferred to the electrons. The important problem of energy confinement, with losses primarily through the electron channel, is not addressed in this work. We also discuss the use of rotating mirror geometry to produce an ion thruster.

  10. Confinement dynamics in the reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenberg, K.F.

    1988-01-01

    The study of basic transport and confinement dynamics is central to the development of the reversed field pinch (RFP) as a confinement concept. Thus, the goal of RFP research is to understand the connection between processes that sustain the RFP configuration and related transport/confinement properties. Recently, new insights into confinement have emerged from a detailed investigation of RFP electron and ion physics. These insights derive from the recognition that both magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and electron kinetic effects play an important and strongly coupled role in RFP sustainment and confinement dynamics. In this paper, we summarize the results of these studies on the ZT-40M experiment. 8 refs

  11. Global confinement characteristics of Jet limiter plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.J.; Christiansen, J.P.; Cordey, J.G.; Thomas, P.R.; Thomsen, K.

    1989-01-01

    Data from a wide variety of plasma pulses on JET (aux. heating, current, field, minority species, plasma shape, etc) are analysed in order to assess the characteristics of global confinement. The scaling of confinement in ohmically and auxiliary heated discharges is examined. The ohmic confinement in the present new JET configuration (Belt Limiter) is essentially the same as previously. Confinement in auxiliary heated discharges shows presently a slight improvement since 1986. Both ohmic and non-ohmic data is used in a set of confinement time regression analyses and certain constraints derived from theory are imposed

  12. ANISOTROPIC WINDS FROM CLOSE-IN EXTRASOLAR PLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, James M.; Proga, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We present two-dimensional hydrodynamic models of thermally driven winds from highly irradiated, close-in extrasolar planets. We adopt a very simple treatment of the radiative heating processes at the base of the wind, and instead focus on the differences between the properties of outflows in multidimensions in comparison to spherically symmetric models computed with the same methods. For hot (T ∼> 2 x 10 4 K) or highly ionized gas, we find that strong (supersonic) polar flows are formed above the planet surface which produce weak shocks and outflow on the night side. In comparison to a spherically symmetric wind with the same parameters, the sonic surface on the day side is much closer to the planet surface in multidimensions, and the total mass-loss rate is reduced by almost a factor of 4. We also compute the steady-state structure of interacting planetary and stellar winds. Both winds end in a termination shock, with a parabolic contact discontinuity which is draped over the planet separating the two shocked winds. The planetary wind termination shock and the sonic surface in the wind are well separated, so that the mass-loss rate from the planet is essentially unaffected. However, the confinement of the planetary wind to the small volume bounded by the contact discontinuity greatly enhances the column density close to the planet, which might be important for the interpretation of observations of absorption lines formed by gas surrounding transiting planets.

  13. Generating random walks and polygons with stiffness in confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao, Y; Ernst, C; Saarinen, S; Ziegler, U

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore ways to generate random walks and polygons in confinement with a bias toward stiffness. Here the stiffness refers to the curvature angle between two consecutive edges along the random walk or polygon. The stiffer the walk (polygon), the smaller this angle on average. Thus random walks and polygons with an elevated stiffness have lower than expected curvatures. The authors introduced and studied several generation algorithms with a stiffness parameter s>0 that regulates the expected curvature angle at a given vertex in which the random walks and polygons are generated one edge at a time using conditional probability density functions. Our generating algorithms also allow the generation of unconfined random walks and polygons with any desired mean curvature angle. In the case of random walks and polygons confined in a sphere of fixed radius, we observe that, as expected, stiff random walks or polygons are more likely to be close to the confinement boundary. The methods developed here require that the random walks and random polygons be rooted at the center of the confinement sphere. (paper)

  14. Dynamic behaviour of the high confinement mode of fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zohm, H.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes the dynamic behaviour of the High Confinement mode (H-mode) of fusion plasmas, which is one of the most promising regimes of enhanced energy confinement in magnetic fusion research. The physics of the H-mode is not yet fully understood, and the detailed behaviour is complex. However, we establish a simple physics picture of the phenomenon. Although a first principles theory of the anomalous transport processes in a fusion plasma has not yet been given, we show that within the picture developed here, it is possible to describe the dynamic behaviour of the H-mode, namely the dynamics of the L-H transition and the occurrence of edge localized modes (ELMs). (orig.)

  15. Confinement in single walled carbon nanotubes investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battie, Y.; Jamon, D.; Lauret, J.S.; Gu, Q.; Gicquel-Guézo, M.; En Naciri, A.; Loiseau, A.

    2014-01-01

    Thick films of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with different diameter and chirality distributions are characterized by combining transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The dependence of the dielectric function with the increase of the SWCNT diameter occurs with a drastic redshift of the S 11 , S 22 and M 11 transition energies. The transfer integral parameter γ 0 of SWCNT is also evaluated and analyzed. We demonstrate that parts of the optical properties of SWCNTs are attributed to a one dimensional confinement effect. - Highlights: • Ellipsometric measurements are performed on carbon nanotube thick films. • The complex dielectric functions of conventional carbon nanotubes are given. • Confinement effects explain the variations of dielectric function of nanotubes

  16. Geometrical-confinement effects on excitons in quantum disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, J.; Ulloa, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    Excitons confined to flat semiconductor quantum dots with elliptical cross sections are considered as we study geometrical effects on exciton binding energy, electron-hole separation, and the resulting linear optical properties. We use numerical matrix diagonalization techniques with appropriately large and optimized basis sets in an effective-mass Hamiltonian approach. The linear optical susceptibilities of GaAs and InAs dots for several different size ratios are discussed and compared to experimental photoluminescence spectra obtained on GaAs/Al x Ga 1-x As and InAs/GaAs quantum dots. For quantum dots of several nm in size, there is a strong blueshift of the luminescence due to geometrical-confinement effects. Also, transition peaks are split and shifted towards higher energy, in comparison with dots with circular cross sections

  17. Inertial confinement fusion at NRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodner, S.E.; Boris, J.P.; Cooperstein, G.

    1979-01-01

    The NRL Inertial Confinement Fusion Program's emphasis has moved toward pellet concepts which use longer (approximately 10ns) lower intensity driver pulses than previously assumed. For laser drivers, this change was motivated by recent experiments at NRL with enhanced stimulated Brillouin backscatter. For ion drivers, the motivation is the possibility that substantial energy at 10-ns pulse lengths may soon be available. To accept these 10-ns pulses, it may be necessary to consider pellets of larger radius and thinner shell. The computational studies of Rayleigh-Taylor instability at NRL indicate the possibility of a dynamic stabilization of these thinner shells. (author)

  18. Confinement through tensor gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1977-12-01

    Using the 0(3,2)-symmetric de Sitter solution of Einstein's equation describing a strongly interacting tensor field it is shown that hadronic bags confining quarks can be represented as de Sitter ''micro-universes'' with radii given 1/R 2 =lambdak 2 /6. Here k 2 and lambda are the strong coupling and the ''cosmological'' constant which apear in the Einstein equation used. Surprisingly the energy spectrum for the two-body hadronic states is the same as that for a harmonic oscillator potential, though the wave functions are completely different. The Einstein equation can be extended to include colour for the tensor fields

  19. Nonrelativistic closed string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomis, Jaume; Ooguri, Hirosi

    2001-01-01

    We construct a Galilean invariant nongravitational closed string theory whose excitations satisfy a nonrelativistic dispersion relation. This theory can be obtained by taking a consistent low energy limit of any of the conventional string theories, including the heterotic string. We give a finite first order worldsheet Hamiltonian for this theory and show that this string theory has a sensible perturbative expansion, interesting high energy behavior of scattering amplitudes and a Hagedorn transition of the thermal ensemble. The strong coupling duals of the Galilean superstring theories are considered and are shown to be described by an eleven-dimensional Galilean invariant theory of light membrane fluctuations. A new class of Galilean invariant nongravitational theories of light-brane excitations are obtained. We exhibit dual formulations of the strong coupling limits of these Galilean invariant theories and show that they exhibit many of the conventional dualities of M theory in a nonrelativistic setting

  20. Q-profile evolution and improved core electron confinement in the full current drive operation on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litaudon, X.; Peysson, Y.; Aniel, T.; Huysmans, G.; Imbeaux, F.; Joffrin, E.; Lasalle, J.; Lotte, Ph.; Schunke, B.; Segui, J.; Tresset, G.; Zabiego, M.

    2000-12-01

    The formation of a core region with improved electron confinement is reported in the recent full current drive operation of Tore Supra where the plasma current is sustained with the Lower Hybrid, LH, wave. Current profile evolution and thermal electron transport coefficients are directly assessed using the data of the new fast electron Bremsstrahlung tomography that provides the most accurate determination of the LH current and power deposition profiles. The spontaneous rise of the core electron temperature observed a few seconds after the application of the LH power is ascribed to a bifurcation towards a state of reduced electron transport. The role of the magnetic shear is invoked to partly stabilize the anomalous electron turbulence. The electron temperature transition occurs when the q-profile evolves towards a non-inductive state with a non-monotonic shape i.e. when the magnetic shear is reduced close to zero in the plasma core. The improved core confinement phase is often terminated by a sudden MHD activity when the minimum q approaches two. (authors)

  1. Thermalization in a holographic confining gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Takaaki; Kiritsis, Elias; Rosen, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Time dependent perturbations of states in the holographic dual of a 3+1 dimensional confining theory are considered. The perturbations are induced by varying the coupling to the theory’s most relevant operator. The dual gravitational theory belongs to a class of Einstein-dilaton theories which exhibit a mass gap at zero temperature and a first order deconfining phase transition at finite temperature. The perturbation is realized in various thermal bulk solutions by specifying time dependent boundary conditions on the scalar, and we solve the fully backreacted Einstein-dilaton equations of motion subject to these boundary conditions. We compute the characteristic time scale of many thermalization processes, noting that in every case we examine, this time scale is determined by the imaginary part of the lowest lying quasi-normal mode of the final state black brane. We quantify the dependence of this final state on parameters of the quench, and construct a dynamical phase diagram. Further support for a universal scaling regime in the abrupt quench limit is provided.

  2. Thermalization in a holographic confining gauge theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Takaaki; Kiritsis, Elias; Rosen, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    Time dependent perturbations of states in the holographic dual of a 3+1 dimensional confining theory are considered. The perturbations are induced by varying the coupling to the theory's most relevant operator. The dual gravitational theory belongs to a class of Einstein-dilaton theories which exhibit a mass gap at zero temperature and a first order deconfining phase transition at finite temperature. The perturbation is realized in various thermal bulk solutions by specifying time dependent boundary conditions on the scalar, and we solve the fully backreacted Einstein-dilaton equations of motion subject to these boundary conditions. We compute the characteristic time scale of many thermalization processes, noting that in every case we examine, this time scale is determined by the imaginary part of the lowest lying quasi-normal mode of the final state black brane. We quantify the dependence of this final state on parameters of the quench, and construct a dynamical phase diagram. Further support for a universal scaling regime in the abrupt quench limit is provided.

  3. Holographic collisions in confining theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Emparan, Roberto; Mateos, David; Pani, Paolo; Rocha, Jorge V.

    2014-01-01

    We study the gravitational dual of a high-energy collision in a confining gauge theory. We consider a linearized approach in which two point particles traveling in an AdS-soliton background suddenly collide to form an object at rest (presumably a black hole for large enough center-of-mass energies). The resulting radiation exhibits the features expected in a theory with a mass gap: late-time power law tails of the form t −3/2 , the failure of Huygens’ principle and distortion of the wave pattern as it propagates. The energy spectrum is exponentially suppressed for frequencies smaller than the gauge theory mass gap. Consequently, we observe no memory effect in the gravitational waveforms. At larger frequencies the spectrum has an upward-stairway structure, which corresponds to the excitation of the tower of massive states in the confining gauge theory. We discuss the importance of phenomenological cutoffs to regularize the divergent spectrum, and the aspects of the full non-linear collision that are expected to be captured by our approach

  4. Magnetic confinement fusion energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grad, H.

    1977-03-01

    Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion offers probably the only relatively clean energy solution with completely inexhaustible fuel and unlimited power capacity. The scientific and technological problem consists in magnetically confining a hot, dense plasma (pressure several to hundreds of atmospheres, temperature 10 8 degrees or more) for an appreciable fraction of a second. The scientific and mathematical problem is to describe the behavior, such as confinement, stability, flow, compression, heating, energy transfer and diffusion of this medium in the presence of electromagnetic fields just as we now can for air or steam. Some of the extant theory consists of applications, routine or ingenious, of known mathematical structures in the theory of differential equations and in traditional analysis. Other applications of known mathematical structures offer surprises and new insights: the coordination between sub-supersonic and elliptic-hyperbolic is fractured; supersonic propagation goes upstream; etc. Other completely nonstandard mathematical structures with significant theory are being rapidly uncovered (and somewhat less rapidly understood) such as non-elliptic variational equations and new types of weak solutions. It is these new mathematical structures which one should expect to supply the foundation for the next generation's pure mathematics, if history is a guide. Despite the substantial effort over a period of some twenty years, there are still basic and important scintific and mathematical discoveries to be made, lying just beneath the surface

  5. Quark cluster model and confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Yuji; Yazaki, Koichi

    2000-01-01

    How confinement of quarks is implemented for multi-hadron systems in the quark cluster model is reviewed. In order to learn the nature of the confining interaction for fermions we first study 1+1 dimensional QED and QCD, in which the gauge field can be eliminated exactly and generates linear interaction of fermions. Then, we compare the two-body potential model, the flip-flop model and the Born-Oppenheimer approach in the strong coupling lattice QCD for the meson-meson system. Having shown how the long-range attraction between hadrons, van der Waals interaction, shows up in the two-body potential model, we discuss two distinct attempts beyond the two-body potential model: one is a many-body potential model, the flip-flop model, and the other is the Born-Oppenheimer approach in the strong coupling lattice QCD. We explain how the emergence of the long-range attraction is avoided in these attempts. Finally, we present the results of the application of the flip-flop model to the baryon-baryon scattering in the quark cluster model. (author)

  6. Multiple-mirror plasma confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtenberg, A.J.; Lieberman, M.A.; Logan, B.G.

    1975-01-01

    A large enhancement of the confinement time can be achieved in a straight system of multiple mirrors over an equal length uniform magnetic field. The scaling is diffusive rather than that of flow, thereby scaling the square of the system length rather than linear with system length. Probably the most economic mode of operation for a reactor occurs when lambda/M is approximately l/sub c/, where lambda is the mean free path, M the mirror ratio, and l/sub c/ the length between mirrors; but where the scale length of the mirror field l/sub m/ is much less than lambda. The axial confinement time has been calculated theoretically and numerically for all important parameter regimes, and confirmed experimentally. A typical reactor calculation gives Q/sub E/ = 2 for a 400 meter system with 3000 MW(e) output. The main concern of a multiple-mirror system is stability. Linked quadrupoles can achieve average minimum-B stabilization of flute modes, and experiments have demonstrated this stabilization. Localized instabilities at finite β and enhanced diffusion resulting from the distorted flux surfaces and possibly from turbulent higher order modes still remain to be investigated

  7. Electronic confinement in graphene quantum rings due to substrate-induced mass radial kink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, L J P; da Costa, D R; Chaves, A; Pereira, J M; Farias, G A

    2016-12-21

    We investigate localized states of a quantum ring confinement in monolayer graphene defined by a circular mass-related potential, which can be induced e.g. by interaction with a substrate that breaks the sublattice symmetry, where a circular line defect provides a change in the sign of the induced mass term along the radial direction. Electronic properties are calculated analytically within the Dirac-Weyl approximation in the presence of an external magnetic field. Analytical results are also compared with those obtained by the tight-binding approach. Regardless of its sign, a mass term [Formula: see text] is expected to open a gap for low-energy electrons in Dirac cones in graphene. Both approaches confirm the existence of confined states with energies inside the gap, even when the width of the kink modelling the mass sign transition is infinitely thin. We observe that such energy levels are inversely proportional to the defect line ring radius and independent on the mass kink height. An external magnetic field is demonstrated to lift the valley degeneracy in this system and easily tune the valley index of the ground state in this system, which can be polarized on either K or [Formula: see text] valleys of the Brillouin zone, depending on the magnetic field intensity. Geometrical changes in the defect line shape are considered by assuming an elliptic line with different eccentricities. Our results suggest that any defect line that is closed in a loop, with any geometry, would produce the same qualitative results as the circular ones, as a manifestation of the topologically protected nature of the ring-like states investigated here.

  8. Analysis of radial electric field in LHD towards improved confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, M.; Ida, K.; Sanuki, H.; Itoh, K.; Narihara, K.; Tanaka, K.; Kawahata, K.; Ohyabu, N.

    2001-05-01

    The radial electric field (E r ) properties in LHD have been investigated to indicate the guidance towards improved confinement with possible E r transition and bifurcation. The ambipolar E r is obtained from the neoclassical flux based on the analytical formulae. This approach is appropriate to clarify ambipolar E r properties in a wide range of temperature and density in a more transparent way. The comparison between calculated E r and experimentally measured one has shown the qualitatively good agreement such as the threshold density for the transition from ion root to electron root. The calculations also well reproduce the experimentally observed tendency that the electron root is possible by increasing temperatures even for higher density and the ion root is enhanced for higher density. Based on the usefulness of this approach to analyze E r in LHD, calculations in a wide range have been performed to clarify the parameter region of interest where multiple solutions of E r can exist. This is the region where E r transition and bifurcation may be realized as already experimentally confirmed in CHS. The systematic calculations give a comprehensive understandings of experimentally observed E r properties, which indicates an optimum path towards improved confinement. (author)

  9. Confinement-Dependent Friction in Peptide Bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbaş, Aykut; Netz, Roland R.

    2013-01-01

    Friction within globular proteins or between adhering macromolecules crucially determines the kinetics of protein folding, the formation, and the relaxation of self-assembled molecular systems. One fundamental question is how these friction effects depend on the local environment and in particular on the presence of water. In this model study, we use fully atomistic MD simulations with explicit water to obtain friction forces as a single polyglycine peptide chain is pulled out of a bundle of k adhering parallel polyglycine peptide chains. The whole system is periodically replicated along the peptide axes, so a stationary state at prescribed mean sliding velocity V is achieved. The aggregation number is varied between k = 2 (two peptide chains adhering to each other with plenty of water present at the adhesion sites) and k = 7 (one peptide chain pulled out from a close-packed cylindrical array of six neighboring peptide chains with no water inside the bundle). The friction coefficient per hydrogen bond, extrapolated to the viscous limit of vanishing pulling velocity V → 0, exhibits an increase by five orders of magnitude when going from k = 2 to k = 7. This dramatic confinement-induced friction enhancement we argue to be due to a combination of water depletion and increased hydrogen-bond cooperativity. PMID:23528088

  10. Simulation of Spheromak Evolution and Energy Confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B; Hooper, E; Cohen, R; Hill, D; McLean, H; Wood, R; Woodruff, S; Sovinec, C; Cone, G

    2004-01-01

    Simulation results are presented that illustrate the formation and decay of a spheromak plasma driven by a coaxial electrostatic plasma gun, and that model the energy confinement of the plasma. The physics of magnetic reconnection during spheromak formation is also illuminated. The simulations are performed with the three-dimensional, time-dependent, resistive magnetohydrodynamic NIMROD code. The simulation results are compared to data from the SSPX spheromak experiment at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The simulation results are tracking the experiment with increasing fidelity (e.g., improved agreement with measurements of the magnetic field, fluctuation amplitudes, and electron temperature) as the simulation has been improved in its representations of the geometry of the experiment (plasma gun and flux conserver), the magnetic bias coils, and the detailed time dependence of the current source driving the plasma gun, and uses realistic parameters. The simulations are providing a better understanding of the dominant physics in SSPX, including when the flux surfaces close and the mechanisms limiting the efficiency of electrostatic drive

  11. Securing hydrogen in a confined space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttin, D.

    2000-01-01

    The autonomy of quasi infinite propulsion of the modern submarines premise by the utilization of nuclear energy has considerably lengthened times for the immersion of this type of vessel. The limits of the operational missions are now fixed by personal elements and logistics (for example, food autonomy limited by volumes of storage of food). The prolonged life in restricted space, under some hundreds of meters of sea water and without possible stopover lasting several weeks poses problems, medical and psychological due to the tolerance of the bodies and of the human spirit in a close space for community life. In this specific environment it is necessary to pay a particular attention to the chemical composition of the atmosphere in order to assure it remains compatible with the physiological needs (oxygen content and carbon dioxide, absence of pollutants). The current method largely used to produce oxygen is electrolysis of water under pressure. This type of production, which presently has multiple operational advantages poses the problem of sedentary management of hydrogen produced in a confined space. Launching of the development of these installations, safety has value in the architectural and technological choices. Two items of design need to be considered. The first relates to the mixture potential of hydrogen and oxygen and the second relates to volumes of stored hydrogen. Lastly a study of safety lessons learned has provided fascinating accounts from past experience with stoichiometric explosion mixtures. Lessons learned helps to verify the theoretical results obtained at the time of the design engineering

  12. Simulation of Spheromak Evolution and Energy Confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.; Hooper, E.; Cohen, R.; Hill, D.; McLean, H.; Wood, R.; Woodruff, S.

    2004-01-01

    Simulation results are presented that illustrate the formation and decay of a spheromak plasma driven by a coaxial electrostatic plasma gun, and that model the energy confinement of the plasma. The physics of magnetic reconnection during spheromak formation is also illuminated. The simulations are performed with the three-dimensional, time-dependent, resistive magnetohydrodynamic NIMROD code. The dimensional, simulation results are compared to data from the SSPX spheromak experiment at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The simulation results are tracking the experiment with increasing fidelity (e.g., improved agreement with measurements of the magnetic field, fluctuation amplitudes, and electron temperature) as the simulation has been improved in its representations of the geometry of the experiment (plasma gun and flux conserver), the magnetic bias coils, and the detailed time dependence of the current source driving the plasma gun, and uses realistic parameters. The simulations are providing a better understanding of the dominant physics in SSPX, including when the flux surfaces close and the mechanisms limiting the efficiency of electrostatic drive

  13. Quark confinement in a constituent quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langfeld, K.; Rho, M.

    1995-01-01

    On the level of an effective quark theory, we define confinement by the absence of quark anti-quark thresholds in correlation function. We then propose a confining Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-type model. The confinement is implemented in analogy to Anderson localization in condensed matter systems. We study the model's phase structure as well as its behavior under extreme conditions, i.e. high temperature and/or high density

  14. Binary mixtures of condensates in generic confining potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facchi, P [Dipartimento di Matematica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Florio, G; Pascazio, S; Pepe, F V, E-mail: Francesco.Pepe@ba.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy)

    2011-12-16

    We study a binary mixture of Bose-Einstein condensates, confined in a generic potential, in the Thomas-Fermi approximation. We search for the zero-temperature ground state of the system, both in the case of fixed numbers of particles and fixed chemical potentials. For generic potentials, we analyze the transition from mixed to separated ground-state configurations as the inter-species interaction increases. We derive a simple formula that enables one to determine the location of the domain walls. Finally, we find criteria for the energetic stability of separated configurations, depending on the number and the position of the domain walls separating the two species. (paper)

  15. Binary mixtures of condensates in generic confining potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.; Pepe, F. V.

    2011-12-01

    We study a binary mixture of Bose-Einstein condensates, confined in a generic potential, in the Thomas-Fermi approximation. We search for the zero-temperature ground state of the system, both in the case of fixed numbers of particles and fixed chemical potentials. For generic potentials, we analyze the transition from mixed to separated ground-state configurations as the inter-species interaction increases. We derive a simple formula that enables one to determine the location of the domain walls. Finally, we find criteria for the energetic stability of separated configurations, depending on the number and the position of the domain walls separating the two species.

  16. Binary mixtures of condensates in generic confining potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchi, P; Florio, G; Pascazio, S; Pepe, F V

    2011-01-01

    We study a binary mixture of Bose–Einstein condensates, confined in a generic potential, in the Thomas–Fermi approximation. We search for the zero-temperature ground state of the system, both in the case of fixed numbers of particles and fixed chemical potentials. For generic potentials, we analyze the transition from mixed to separated ground-state configurations as the inter-species interaction increases. We derive a simple formula that enables one to determine the location of the domain walls. Finally, we find criteria for the energetic stability of separated configurations, depending on the number and the position of the domain walls separating the two species. (paper)

  17. Inertial confinement fusion and fast ignitor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willi, O.; Barringer, L.; Bell, A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper discusses inertial confinement fusion research carried out at several different laser facilities including the VULCAN laser at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, the TRIDENT laser at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the PHEBUS laser at Limeil. Low density foam targets were irradiated either with nanosecond laser or soft x-ray pulses. Laser imprinting was studied and in particular saturation of areal density perturbations induced by near-single mode laser imprinting has been observed. Several issues important for the foam buffered direct drive scheme were investigated. These studies included measurements of the absolute levels of Stimulated Brillouin and Raman Scattering observed from laser irradiated low density foam targets either bare or overcoated with a thin layer of gold. A novel scheme is proposed to increase the pressure in indirectly driven targets. Low density foams that are mounted onto a foil target are heated with an intense pulse of soft x-ray radiation. If the foam is heated supersonically the pressure generated is not only the ablation pressure but the combined pressure due to ablation at the foam/foil interface and the heated foam material. The scheme was confirmed on planar targets. Brominated foil targets overcoated with a low density foam were irradiated by a soft x-ray pulse emitted from a hohlraum. The pressure was obtained by comparing the rear side trajectory of the driven target observed by soft x-ray radiography to one dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations. Further, measurements were carried out to observe the transition from super- to subsonic propagation of an ionisation front in low density chlorinated foam targets irradiated by an intense soft x-ray pulse both in open and confined geometry. The diagnostic for these measurements was K-shell point projection absorption spectroscopy. In the fast ignitor area the channeling and guiding of picosecond laser pulses through underdense plasmas, preformed density

  18. Inertial confinement fusion and fast ignitor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willi, O.; Barringer, L.; Bell, A.

    2001-01-01

    The paper discusses inertial confinement fusion research carried out at several different laser facilities including the VULCAN laser at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, the TRIDENT laser at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the PHEBUS laser at Limeil. Low density foam targets were irradiated either with nanosecond laser or soft x-ray pulses. Laser imprinting was studied and in particular saturation of areal density perturbations induced by near-single mode laser imprinting has been observed. Several issues important for the foam buffered direct drive scheme were investigated. These studies included measurements of the absolute levels of Stimulated Brillouin and Raman Scattering observed from laser irradiated low density foam targets either bare or overcoated with a thin layer of gold. A novel scheme is proposed to increase the pressure in indirectly driven targets. Low density foams that are mounted onto a foil target are heated with an intense pulse of soft x-ray radiation. If the foam is heated supersonically the pressure generated is not only the ablation pressure but the combined pressure due to ablation at the foam/foil interface and the heated foam material. The scheme was confirmed on planar targets. Brominated foil targets overcoated with a low density foam were irradiated by a soft x-ray pulse emitted from a hohlraum. The pressure was obtained by comparing the rear side trajectory of the driven target observed by soft x-ray radiography to one dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations. Further, measurements were carried out to observe the transition from super- to subsonic propagation of an ionisation front in low density chlorinated foam targets irradiated by an intense soft x-ray pulse both in open and confined geometry. The diagnostic for these measurements was K-shell point projection absorption spectroscopy. In the fast ignitor area the channeling and guiding of picosecond laser pulses through underdense plasmas, preformed density

  19. Dynamics and reactivity of confined water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musat, R.

    2008-01-01

    In the context of new sustainable energy sources quest, the nuclear energy remains a key solution. However, with the development of nuclear technology, problems relating to nuclear waste disposal arise; thus, the radiolysis of water in confined media is extremely important with respect to matters related to long time storage of nuclear waste. Studies in model porous media would allow the projection of a confined water radiolysis simulator. A first step in this direction was made by studying the radiolysis of water confined in Vycor and CPG glasses; this study continues the trend set and investigates the effects of confinement in metal materials upon the water radiolysis allowing the understanding of metal - water radiation induced corrosion. A further/complete understanding of the radiolytic process under confinement requires knowledge of the effect of confinement upon the dynamics of confined molecules and on the evolution of the species produced upon ionizing radiation. In this respect, we have used the OH vibrator as a probe of the hydrogen bond network properties and thus investigated the dynamics of confined water using IR time resolved spectroscopy. The evolution of the hydrated electron under confinement was studied on a nano and picosecond time scale using UV pump - visible probe technique and single shot spectroscopy. (author) [fr

  20. Summary on inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer-Ter-Vehn, J.

    1995-01-01

    Highlights on inertial confinement during the fifteenth international conference on plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion are briefly summarized. Specifically the following topics are discussed: the US National Ignition Facility presently planned by the US Department of Energy; demonstration of diagnostics for hot spot formation; declassification of Hohlraum target design; fusion targets, in particular, the Hohlraum target design for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), Hohlraum experiments, direct drive implosions, ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, laser imprinting (of perturbations by the laser on the laser target surface), hot spot formation and mixing, hot spot implosion experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, USA, time resolving hot spot dynamics at the Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE), Osaka, Japan, laser-plasma interaction

  1. Confined subdiffusion in three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Shan-Lin; He Yong

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) Fick's diffusion equation and fractional diffusion equation are solved for different reflecting boundaries. We use the continuous time random walk model (CTRW) to investigate the time-averaged mean square displacement (MSD) of a 3D single particle trajectory. Theoretical results show that the ensemble average of the time-averaged MSD can be expressed analytically by a Mittag—Leffler function. Our new expression is in agreement with previous formulas in two limiting cases: <δ 2 -bar> ∼ Δ in short lag time and <δ 2 -bar> ∼ Δ 1-α in long lag time. We also simulate the experimental data of mRNA diffusion in living E. coli using a 3D CTRW model under confined and crowded conditions. The simulation results are well consistent with experimental results. The calculations of power spectral density (PSD) further indicate the subdiffsive behavior of an individual trajectory. (general)

  2. Colour screening and quark confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.

    1978-03-01

    It is proposed that in Quantum Chromodynamics the colour charge of gluons and of anything with zero triality is screened by a dynamical Higgs mechanism with Higgs scalars made out of gluons. The center Z 3 of the gauge group SU(3) is left unbroken in this way, and single quarks, which have nonzero triality, cannot be screened. Long range forces between them persist therefore. Given that the Higgs mechanism produces a mass gap, the most favorable configuration of field lines between e.g. quark and antiquark will be in strings analogous to magnetic field lines in a superconductor. The strings confine the quarks. The screening mechanism, on the other hand, produces not only the mass gap (which leads to string formation) but is also responsible for saturation of forces, i.e. absence of bound states of six quarks etc. (orig.) [de

  3. Colour screening and quark confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.

    1978-01-01

    It is proposed that in quantum chromodynamics the colour charge of gluons and of anything with zero triality is screened by a dynamic Higgs mechanism with Higgs scalars made out of gluons, but the center Z 3 of the gauge group SU(3) is left unbroken, and single quarks, which have nonzero triality, are not screened. Long range forces between them persist therefore. Given that the Higgs mechanism produces a mass gap, the most favourable configuration of field lines between e.g., quark and antiquark will be in strings analogous to magnetic field lines in a superconductor. The string confine the quarks. The screening mechanism, on the other hand, produces not only the mass gap (which leads to string formation) but is also responsible for saturation of forces, i.e. absence of bound states of six quarks, etc. (Auth.)

  4. Planning for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    A report that provides guidance for planning for greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste is being prepared. The report addresses procedures for selecting a GCD technology and provides information for implementing these procedures. The focus is on GCD; planning aspects common to GCD and shallow-land burial are covered by reference. Planning procedure topics covered include regulatory requirements, waste characterization, benefit-cost-risk assessment and pathway analysis methodologies, determination of need, waste-acceptance criteria, performance objectives, and comparative assessment of attributes that support these objectives. The major technologies covered include augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, hydrofracture, improved waste forms, and high-integrity containers. Descriptive information is provided, and attributes that are relevant for risk assessment and operational requirements are given. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  5. 2XIIB plasma confinement experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coensgen, F.H.; Clauser, J.F.; Correll, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    This paper reports results of 2XIIB neutral-beam injection experiments with plasma-stream stabilization. The plasma stream is provided either by a pulsed plasma generator located on the field lines outside the plasma region or by ionization of neutral gas introduced at the mirror throat. In the latter case, the gas is ionized by the normal particle flux through the magnetic mirror. A method of plasma startup and sustenance in a steady-state magnetic field is reported in which the plasma stream from the pulsed plasma generator serves as the initial target for the neutral beams. After an energetic plasma of sufficient density is established, the plasma generator stream is replaced by the gas-fed stream. Lifetimes of the stabilized plasma increase with plasma temperature in agreement with the plasma stabilization of the drift-cyclotron loss-cone mode. The following plasma parameters are attained using the pulsed plasma generator for stabilization: n approximately 5 x 10 13 cm -3 , anti W/sub i/ approximately 13 keV, T/sub e/ = 140 eV, and ntau/sub p/ approximately 7 x 10 10 cm -3 .s. With the gas feed, the mean deuterium ion energy is 9 keV and the peak density n approximately 10 14 cm -3 . In the latter case, the energy confinement parameter reaches ntau/sub E/ = 7 x 10 10 cm -3 .s, and the particle confinement parameter reaches ntau/sub p/ = 1 x 10 11 cm -3 .s

  6. Stark effect of optical properties of excitons in a quantum nanorod with parabolic confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyo, S.K., E-mail: sklyo@uci.edu

    2014-01-15

    We study the quantum Stark effect of optical properties of a quasi-one-dimensional quantum rod with parabolic confinement. Interplays between the competing/cooperative forces from confinement, electron–hole (e–h) attraction, and an external field are examined by studying the binding energy, the oscillator strength, and the root-mean-square (RMS) average of the e–h separation in a nonlinear electric field. In a long rod with weak confinement, the e–h interaction dominates over the confinement effect, yielding an abrupt drop of the exciton binding energy, oscillator strength, and a sudden increase of the RMS average e–h separation as the excitons are dissociated at the threshold field as the field increases. The exciton-dissociation transition is gradual in a short rod, where the confinement force dominates over the e–h attraction. We show that a DC field can induce an optically active excited exciton state in a narrow field range, causing a sharp peak in the oscillator strength and a dip in the RMS average of the e–h separation as the field increases. The Stark effects are also investigated as a function of the linear confinement length (i.e., rod length) at fixed fields. -- Highlights: • Study the dependence of optical properties of nanorods on the rod size and field. • Study the interplay between forces of confinement, Coulomb attraction, and field. • A strong field induces an optically active excited state observed in quantum dots.

  7. Studies on the quark confinement in a non-relativistic quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfenninger, T.

    1988-01-01

    In the framework of the non-relativistic quark model we have studied several aspects of the description of the confinement by a confinement potential. A first consideration applied to the effects of the long-range color van-der-Waals forces on the nucleon-nucleon scattering. Regarding color dipole states as an additional closed channel in a dynamical and nonlocal resonating-group calculation we found a strong attraction. Additionally it was possible by means of the RGM kernels to derive an against earlier calculations improved color van-der-Waals potential in adiabatic approximation which regards correctly the internal kinetic and the confinement energy of the color octet states. This potential is not confined to large NN distances and shows asymptotically a 1/R 2 behaviour if it is based on a harmonic confinement. A further study applied to the question how far a possible vector character of the confinement, which is suggested by the elementary quark-gluon vertex, has effects on baryon properties and the NN interaction. Here it resulted that the vector confinement reacts in view of the model parameters very sensitively in the baryon properties whereas the scalar confinement did not show this dependence. In the NN scattering this vector confinement however plays a more secondary role. Because of the difficulties of the usual confinement potential with long-range color van-der-Waals forces we proposed in the last part a new potential and additional orthogonality relations for the quark wave functions in order to accomodate in the potential model to the string degrees of freedom. In scattering calculations we again studied the effects of the modification on the NN interaction. (orig./HSI) [de

  8. Turbulent jet in confined counterflow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    framework for presenting the results of the flowfield and jet penetration length. ... A turbulent jet is a basic free shear flow and has received research attention (see, .... MBE76 identify this to be a transitional zone and for. √ .... higher return flow and also higher velocity from counterflow due to a narrower gap thus leading.

  9. Generating equilateral random polygons in confinement III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao, Y; Ernst, C; Montemayor, A; Ziegler, U

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we continue our earlier studies (Diao et al 2011 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44 405202, Diao et al J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 45 275203) on the generation methods of random equilateral polygons confined in a sphere. The first half of this paper is concerned with the generation of confined equilateral random walks. We show that if the selection of a vertex is uniform subject to the position of its previous vertex and the confining condition, then the distributions of the vertices are not uniform, although there exists a distribution such that if the initial vertex is selected following this distribution, then all vertices of the random walk follow this same distribution. Thus in order to generate a confined equilateral random walk, the selection of a vertex cannot be uniform subject to the position of its previous vertex and the confining condition. We provide a simple algorithm capable of generating confined equilateral random walks whose vertex distribution is almost uniform in the confinement sphere. In the second half of this paper we show that any process generating confined equilateral random walks can be turned into a process generating confined equilateral random polygons with the property that the vertex distribution of the polygons approaches the vertex distribution of the walks as the polygons get longer and longer. In our earlier studies, the starting point of the confined polygon is fixed at the center of the sphere. The new approach here allows us to move the starting point of the confined polygon off the center of the sphere. (paper)

  10. Tightly confined atoms in optical dipole traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, M.

    2002-12-01

    trap depth. In a crossed beam geometry with red-detuned laser light, efficient transfer of atoms between the beams is observed. Optimum transfer occurs when the two beams cross at a radial offset, which can be qualitatively understood when the particle energy and geometrical properties of the two-beam trapping potential are considered. Numerical simulations reproduce the general features of the measured transfer efficiency vs. radial beam offset. Atoms have been radially confined in a blue-detuned hollow beam. This configuration is currently extended to a three-dimensionally confining blue-detuned dipole trap. For advanced laser cooling, state manipulation and spectroscopy, a double-diode laser system has been set up which is phase-locked with a difference frequency near 6.834 GHz to drive Raman transitions between the hyperfine-split ground states of Rb-87 atoms. Dark resonances with linewidths below 100-Hz have been observed in a buffer gas loaded rubidium vapour cell. (author)

  11. Structure and dynamics of a silica melt in neutral confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Julian; Drossel, Barbara; Vogel, Michael

    2017-04-01

    We analyze the effects of spatial confinement on viscous silica using molecular dynamics simulations. For this purpose, we prepare a silica melt in a cylindrical pore, which is produced by pinning appropriate fractions of silicon and oxygen atoms in a bulk system after an equilibration period. In this way, the structure of the confined silica melt remains unaffected, while the confinement has a strong impact on the dynamics. We find that the structural relaxation of viscous silica is slowed down according to a double exponential law when approaching the pore wall. Moreover, we observe that static density correlations exist in the vicinity of the pore wall. Based on these effects, we determine dynamical and structural length scales of the silica melt. Both length scales show a similar increase upon cooling, with values on the order of the next-neighbor distances in the studied temperature range. Interestingly, we find no evidence that the growth of the length scales is affected by a fragile-to-strong transition of the silica melt. This observation casts serious doubts on the relevance of these length scales for the structural relaxation, at least for the studied glass former.

  12. Nature of ordering in confined crystalline ionic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Simulations continued studying the properties of systems of ions confined in ion traps or storage rings and cooled to very low temperatures, forming a strongly correlated non-neutral plasma. In particular the computer simulation of a large system of 20000 ions in isotropic confinement was continued to investigate whether a transition to the body-centered cubic order that is characteristic of infinite systems might occur. The simulations so far have not provided a conclusive answer. The systems show a characteristic shell structure, 18 spherical shells, very similar to what was seen in smaller simulations. Simulations were also done with the same number of ions in anisotropic confinement. Here a surprising result is seen -- instead of forming a series of spheroidal shells, the anisotropy causes the outer shell to be spheroidal -- but the inner ones are formed at a fixed distance from the outermost shell -- giving shapes that are not spheroids and exhibit discontinuous edges. The relevance of these phenomena to ion traps needs to be investigated

  13. Soft inclusion in a confined fluctuating active gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Vishen, Amit; Rupprecht, J.-F.; Shivashankar, G. V.; Prost, J.; Rao, Madan

    2018-03-01

    We study stochastic dynamics of a point and extended inclusion within a one-dimensional confined active viscoelastic gel. We show that the dynamics of a point inclusion can be described by a Langevin equation with a confining potential and multiplicative noise. Using a systematic adiabatic elimination over the fast variables, we arrive at an overdamped equation with a proper definition of the multiplicative noise. To highlight various features and to appeal to different biological contexts, we treat the inclusion in turn as a rigid extended element, an elastic element, and a viscoelastic (Kelvin-Voigt) element. The dynamics for the shape and position of the extended inclusion can be described by coupled Langevin equations. Deriving exact expressions for the corresponding steady-state probability distributions, we find that the active noise induces an attraction to the edges of the confining domain. In the presence of a competing centering force, we find that the shape of the probability distribution exhibits a sharp transition upon varying the amplitude of the active noise. Our results could help understanding the positioning and deformability of biological inclusions, e.g., organelles in cells, or nucleus and cells within tissues.

  14. Plasma confinement in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsu, K.; Bruskin, L.G.; Cho, T.

    1999-01-01

    The central-cell density and the diamagnetic signal were doubled due to plug potential formation by ECRH in the hot ion mode experiments on the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror. In order to obtain these remarkable results, the axisymmetrized heating patterns of ECRH and ICRF were optimized. Furthermore, conducting plates were installed adjacent to the surface of the plasma along the flat shaped magnetic flux tube located at the anchor transition regions; the plates may contribute to reduce some irregular electric fields produced possibly with ECRH in these thin flux tube regions. The conducting plates contributed to the reduction of the radial loss rate to be less than 3% of the total particle losses along with the improvements in the reproducibility of the experiments and the controllability of the potential confinement. The increases in the central-cell density and the diamagnetism in association with the increase in the plug potentials scaled well with increasing the ECRH powers. A plug potential of 0.6 kV and a density increase of 100% were achieved using an ECRH power of 140 kW injected into both plug regions. The plasma confinement was improved by an order of magnitude over a simple mirror confinement due to the tandem mirror potential formation. (author)

  15. Transport increase and confinement degradation caused by MARFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peng; Zhuang, Ge; Gao, Li; Zhou, Yinan

    2017-10-01

    Recently, the MARFE phenomenon associated with high density plasmas has been observed on J-TEXT Ohmically heated discharges. The MARFE on J-TEXT is charactered by the poloidally local region at high field side (HFS) edge with high density and strong radiation. At the almost same time of MARFE appearance, the density peaking factor and sawtooth oscillation reach maximum and decrease with density increasing, infers that the plasma confinement is saturated. By analyzing the far-forward scattering signals from polarimeter-interferometer, it is found that the local radial density turbulence at high field edge increases significantly after MARFE onset. It is inferred that the local particle transport at MARFE affected region (HFS edge) is enhanced. The enhancement of radial transport at MARFE affected region is considered as the possible reason for confinement saturation on J-TEXT. Furthermore, the trapped electron mode (TEM) with quasi-coherent characteristics is measured by far-forward scattering. The TEMs are always observed in plasmas with low density, and disappear after the plasma density exceeds a threshold. The density threshold of TEM disappearance is consistent with the density threshold of MARFE onset. The evolution of turbulences affirms that the MARFE may be the cause of energy confinement transition from LOC to SOC.

  16. Experimental studies of plasma confinement in toroidal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodin, H.A.B.; Keen, B.E.

    1977-01-01

    In this article the closed-line magnetic field approach to the plasma isolation and confinement problem in toroidal systems is reviewed. The theoretical aspects of closed-line magnetic field systems, indicating that topologically such systems are toroidal, are surveyed under the headings; topology of closed-line systems, equilibrium in different configurations and classification of toroidal devices, MHD stability, non-ideal effects in MHD stability, microscopic stability, and plasma energy loss. A section covering the experimental results of plasma confinement in toroidal geometry considers Stellerators, Tokamaks, toroidal pinch -the reversed-field pinch, screw pinches and high-β Tokamaks, Levitrons and multipoles (internal-ring devices), and miscellaneous toroidal containment devices. Recent achievements and the present position are discussed with reference to the status of Tokamak research, low-β stellerator research and high-β research. It is concluded from the continuing progress made in this research that the criteria for the magnetic containment of plasmas can be met. Further, it is concluded that the construction of a successful and economic fusion reactor is within the scope of advancing science and technology. 250 references. (U.K.)

  17. Experimental studies of plasma confinement in toroidal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, H A.B.; Keen, B E [UKAEA, Abingdon. Culham Lab.

    1977-12-01

    In this article the closed-line magnetic field approach to the plasma isolation and confinement problem in toroidal systems is reviewed. The theoretical aspects of closed-line magnetic field systems, indicating that topologically such systems are toroidal, are surveyed under the headings; topology of closed-line systems, equilibrium in different configurations and classification of toroidal devices, MHD stability, non-ideal effects in MHD stability, microscopic stability, and plasma energy loss. A section covering the experimental results of plasma confinement in toroidal geometry considers Stellerators, Tokamaks, toroidal pinch -the reversed-field pinch, screw pinches and high-..beta.. Tokamaks, Levitrons and multipoles (internal-ring devices), and miscellaneous toroidal containment devices. Recent achievements and the present position are discussed with reference to the status of Tokamak research, low-..beta.. stellerator research and high-..beta.. research. It is concluded from the continuing progress made in this research that the criteria for the magnetic containment of plasmas can be met. Further, it is concluded that the construction of a successful and economic fusion reactor is within the scope of advancing science and technology. 250 references.

  18. Near-wall effects in improved plasma confinement regimes in tokamak FT-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnikov, V.N.; D'yachenko, V.V.; Esipov, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Transition to the regime of improved plasma confinement (H-mode) revealed in experiments on low hybrid heating in tokamak ft-2 is analyzed. Main attention is paid to processes, taking place in near-wall region. The data are correlated with results of experiments in large tokamaks

  19. Climate conditions in bedded confinement buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confinement buildings are utilized for finishing cattle to allow more efficient collection of animal waste and to buffer animals against adverse climatic conditions. Environmental data were obtained from a 29 m wide x 318 m long bedded confinement building with the long axis oriented east to west. T...

  20. Confinement studies of helical-axis Heliotron plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, F.; Mizuuchi, T.; Kondo, K.

    2005-01-01

    The L-H transition in the helical-axis heliotron, Heliotron J, was investigated. For ECH-only, NBI-only and ECH+NBI combination heating plasmas, the confinement quality of the H-mode was examined with special regard to the magnetic configuration, the vacuum edge iota value of which was chosen as a label of the configuration. The experimental iota dependence of the H ISS95 -factor (τ E exp /τ E ISS95 ) has revealed that there exist the specific configurations for which the high-quality H-modes (1.3 ISS95 p , was calculated and compared with the experiment. Edge plasma characteristics are also measured and discussed with regard to the E r -shear formation at the transition. (author)

  1. A growth factor signaling cascade confined to circular ruffles in macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P. Welliver

    2012-06-01

    The formation of macropinosomes requires large-scale movements of membranes and the actin cytoskeleton. Over several minutes, actin-rich surface ruffles transform into 1–5 µm diameter circular ruffles, which close at their distal margins, creating endocytic vesicles. Previous studies using fluorescent reporters of phosphoinositides and Rho-family GTPases showed that signals generated by macrophages in response to the growth factor Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (M-CSF appeared transiently in domains of plasma membrane circumscribed by circular ruffles. To address the question of how signaling molecules are coordinated in such large domains of plasma membrane, this study analyzed the relative timing of growth factor-dependent signals as ruffles transformed into macropinosomes. Fluorescent protein chimeras expressed in macrophages were imaged by microscopy and quantified relative to circular ruffle formation and cup closure. The large size of macropinocytic cups allowed temporal resolution of the transitions in phosphoinositides and associated enzyme activities that organize cup closure. Circular ruffles contained transient and sequential spikes of phosphatidylinositol (4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5P2, phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3, diacylglycerol, PI(3,4P2, PI(3P and the activities of protein kinase C-α, Rac1, Ras and Rab5. The confinement of this signal cascade to circular ruffles indicated that diffusion barriers present in these transient structures focus feedback activation and deactivation of essential enzyme activities into restricted domains of plasma membrane.

  2. A paramagnetic nearly isodynamic compact magnetic confinement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, W.A.; Antonietti, J.M.; Todd, T.N.

    2001-01-01

    A coreless compact magnetic confinement system that consists of sets of helical windings and vertical magnetic field coils is investigated. The helical coils produce a small toroidal translation of the magnetic field lines and seed paramagnetism. The force-free component of the toroidal current strongly enhances the paramagnetism such that isodynamic conditions near the plasma centre can be approached. At β 5%, the configuration is stable to local MHD modes. Global MHD modes limit the toroidal current 2πJ to about 60kA for peaked J. Bootstrap-like hollow current profiles generate quasiaxisymmetric systems that require a close fitting conducting shell to satisfy external kink stability. (author)

  3. Experimental Investigation on the Influence of a Double-Walled Confined Width on the Velocity Field of a Submerged Waterjet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Ding

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current research on confined submerged waterjets mainly focuses on the flow field of the impinging jet and wall jet. The double-sided wall vertically confined waterjet, which is widely used in many fields such as mining, cleaning and surface strengthening, has rarely been studied so far. In order to explore the influence of a double-sided wall confined width on the velocity field of submerged waterjet, an experiment was conducted with the application of 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV technology. The distribution of mean velocity and turbulent velocity in both horizontal and vertical planes was used to characterize the flow field under various confined widths. The results show that the vertical confinement has an obvious effect on the decay rate of the mean centerline velocity. When the confined width changes from 15 to 5, the velocity is reduced by 20%. In addition, with the decrease of the confined width, the jet has a tendency to spread horizontally. The vertically confined region induces a space hysteresis effect which changes the location of the transition region moving downstream. There are local negative pressure zones separating the fluid and the wall. This study of a double-walled confined jet provides some valuable information with respect to its mechanism and industrial application.

  4. Transverse confinement of an ion beam in a purely electrostatic configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, J.R.; Ordonez, C.A.; Weathers, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    The transverse confinement of an ion beam in a purely electrostatic configuration is studied. Analytical expressions for the electric potential of three different electrode configurations are found. Each configuration may be described as consisting of many closely spaced Einzel lenses, such that the focusing periodicity length is much smaller than the transverse size of the beam. Classical trajectory computer simulations are used to obtain a map of the phase space co-ordinates for which transverse electrostatic confinement occurs with one of the configurations. The results indicate that confinement should occur for a large range of conditions. It is speculated that the configurations studied can be used for transverse confinement of ion beams in either electrostatic ion traps or electrostatic ion storage rings

  5. An introduction to the confinement problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greensite, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    This book addresses the confinement problem, which quite generally deals with the behavior of non-abelian gauge theories, and the force which is mediated by gauge fields, at large distances.The word ''confinement'' in the context of hadronic physics originally referred to the fact that quarks and gluons appear to be trapped inside mesons and baryons, from which they cannot escape. There are other, and possibly deeper meanings that can be attached to the term, and these will be explored in this book. Although the confinement problem is far from solved, much is now known about the general features of the confining force, and there are a number of very well motivated theories of confinement which are under active investigation. This volume gives a both pedagogical and concise introduction and overview of the main ideas in this field, their attractive features, and, as appropriate, their shortcomings. (orig.)

  6. Global energy confinement in TORE SUPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, G.T.; Bizarro, J.P.; Genile, B. de; Hutter, Th.; Laurent, L.; Litaudon, X.; Moreau, D.; Peysson, Y.; Tonon, G.; Houtte, D. van

    1992-01-01

    The global energy confinement behaviour of mixed Ohmic/Lower Hybrid driven Tore Supra plasmas has been analysed at various densities. In contradiction with L-mode ITER scaling law, this analysis indicates that the global energy confinement time depends strongly on the plasma density and the isotopic dependence seems not to be observed. The thermal electron energy content of steady-state discharges is in good agreement with the offset linear Rebut-Lallia scaling law. During current ramp experiments, the global energy confinement time was found to depend on the internal self-inductance (li). Improved confinement has been obtained for a steady-state 0.8 MA plasma where the plasma current profile is peaked by LH waves (li ∼1.8). In this case, the global confinement time is found to be about 40% higher than the value predicted by the Rebut-Lallia scaling law. (author) 3 refs., 6 figs

  7. Confinement-induced resonances in anharmonic waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Shiguo [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Centre for Atom Optics and Ultrafast Spectroscopy, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne 3122 (Australia); Hu Hui; Liu Xiaji; Drummond, Peter D. [Centre for Atom Optics and Ultrafast Spectroscopy, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne 3122 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    We develop the theory of anharmonic confinement-induced resonances (ACIRs). These are caused by anharmonic excitation of the transverse motion of the center of mass (c.m.) of two bound atoms in a waveguide. As the transverse confinement becomes anisotropic, we find that the c.m. resonant solutions split for a quasi-one-dimensional (1D) system, in agreement with recent experiments. This is not found in harmonic confinement theories. A new resonance appears for repulsive couplings (a{sub 3D}>0) for a quasi-two-dimensional (2D) system, which is also not seen with harmonic confinement. After inclusion of anharmonic energy corrections within perturbation theory, we find that these ACIRs agree extremely well with anomalous 1D and 2D confinement-induced resonance positions observed in recent experiments. Multiple even- and odd-order transverse ACIRs are identified in experimental data, including up to N=4 transverse c.m. quantum numbers.

  8. Effects of low-Z and high-Z impurities on divertor detachment and plasma confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Q. Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The impurity-seeded detached divertor is essential for heat exhaust in ITER and other reactor-relevant devices. Dedicated experiments with injection of N2, Ne and Ar have been performed in DIII-D to assess the impact of the different impurities on divertor detachment and confinement. Seeding with N2, Ne and Ar all promote divertor detachment, greatly reducing heat flux near the strike point. The upstream plasma density at the onset of detachment decreases with increasing impurity-puffing flow rates. For all injected impurity species, the confinement and pedestal pressure are correlated with the impurity content and the ratio of separatrix loss power to the l-H transition threshold power. As the divertor plasma approaches detachment, the high-Z impurity seeding tends to degrade the core confinement owing to the increased core radiation. In particular, Ar injection with up to 50% of the injected power radiating in the core cools the pedestal and core plasmas, thus significantly degrading the confinement. As for Ne seeding, medium confinement with H98∼0.8 can be maintained during the detachment phase with the pedestal temperature being reduced by about 50%. In contrast, in the N2 seeded plasmas, radiation is predominately confined in the boundary plasma, which leads to less effect on the confinement and pedestal. In the case of strong N2 gas puffing, the confinement recovers during the detachment, from ∼20% reduction at the onset of the detachment to greater than unity comparable to that before the seeding. The core and pedestal temperatures feature a reduction of 30% from the initial attached phase and remain nearly constant during the detachment phase. The improvement in confinement appears to arise from the increase in pedestal and core density despite the temperature reduction.

  9. Universality classes and critical phenomena in confined liquid systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Chalyi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the similar universal behavior of infinite-size (bulk systems of different nature requires the same basic conditions: space dimensionality; number components of order parameter; the type (short- or long-range of the intermolecular interaction; symmetry of the fluctuation part of thermodynamical potential. Basic conditions of similar universal behavior of confined systems needs the same supplementary conditions such as the number of monolayers for a system confinement; low crossover dimensionality, i.e., geometric form of restricted volume; boundary conditions on limiting surfaces; physical properties under consideration. This review paper is aimed at studying all these conditions of similar universal behavior for diffusion processes in confined liquid systems. Special attention was paid to the effects of spatial dispersion and low crossover dimensionality. This allowed us to receive receiving correct nonzero expressions for the diffusion coefficient at the critical point and to take into account the specific geometric form of the confined liquid volume. The problem of 3D⇔2D dimensional crossover was analyzed. To receive a smooth crossover for critical exponents, the Kawasaki-like approach from the theory of mode coupling in critical dynamics was proposed. This ensured a good agreement between data of computer experiment and theoretical calculations of the size dependence of the critical temperature Tc(H of water in slitlike pores. The width of the quasi-elastic scattering peak of slow neutrons near the structural phase transition in the aquatic suspensions of plasmatic membranes (mesostructures with the typical thickness up to 10 nm was studied. It was shown that the width of quasi-elastic peak of neutron scattering decreases due to the process of cell proliferation, i.e., with an increase of the membrane size (including the membrane thickness. Thus, neutron studies could serve as an additional diagnostic test for the

  10. Definition of Ignition in Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopherson, A. R.; Betti, R.

    2017-10-01

    Defining ignition in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is an unresolved problem. In ICF, a distinction must be made between the ignition of the hot spot and the propagation of the burn wave in the surrounding dense fuel. Burn propagation requires that the hot spot is robustly ignited and the dense shell exhibits enough areal density. Since most of the energy gain comes from burning the dense shell, in a scale of increasing yields, hot-spot ignition comes before high gains. Identifying this transition from hot-spot ignition to burn-wave propagation is key to defining ignition in general terms applicable to all fusion approaches that use solid DT fuel. Ad hoc definitions such as gain = 1 or doubling the temperature are not generally valid. In this work, we show that it is possible to identify the onset of ignition through a unique value of the yield amplification defined as the ratio of the fusion yield including alpha-particle deposition to the fusion yield without alphas. Since the yield amplification is a function of the fractional alpha energy fα =EαEα 2Ehs 2Ehs (a measurable quantity), it appears possible not only to define ignition but also to measure the onset of ignition by the experimental inference of the fractional alpha energy and yield amplification. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy Services under Award Number DE-FC02-04ER54789 and National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  11. Transport properties of supercooled confined water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallamace, F.; Baglioni, P.; Corsaro, C.; Spooren, J.; Stanley, H.E.; Chen, S.-H.

    2011-01-01

    We present an overview of recent experiments performed on water in the deeply supercooled region, a temperature region of fundamental importance in the science of water. We examine data generated by nuclear magnetic resonance, quasi-elastic neutron scattering, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, and study water confined in nanometer-scale environments. When contained within small pores, water does not crystallize and can be supercooled well below its homogeneous nucleation temperature T H. On this basis, it is possible to carry out a careful analysis of the well-known thermodynamic anomalies of water. Studying the temperature and pressure dependencies of water dynamics, we show that the liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) hypothesis represents a reliable model for describing liquid water. In this model, liquid water is a mixture of two different local structures: a low density liquid (LDL) and a high-density liquid (HDL). The LLPT line terminates at a low-T liquid-liquid critical point. We discuss the following experimental findings: 1.) the crossover from non-Arrhenius behavior at high T to Arrhenius behavior at low T in transport parameters; 2.) the breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relation; 3.) the existence of a Widom line, which is the locus of points corresponding to a maximum correlation length in the P-T phase diagram and which ends in the liquid-liquid critical point; 4.) the direct observation of the LDL phase; and 5.) the minimum in the density at approximately 70 K below the temperature of the density maximum. In our opinion these results strongly support the LLPT hypothesis. All of the basic science and technology community should be impressed by the fact that, although the few ideas (apparently elementary) developed concerning water approximately 27 centuries ago have changed very little up to now, because of the current expansion in our knowledge in this area, they can begin to change in the near future.

  12. New schemes for confinement of fusion products in stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, W.A.; Isaev, M.Yu.; Heyn, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    Improved energetic-particle confinement is found in new stellarator and toroidal mirror field configurations. The possibility of fulfilling the condition of poloidal closure of the contours of the second adiabatic invariant for all reflected particles is studied for stellarators with poloidally closed contours of the magnetic field B on the magnetic surfaces through computational stellarator optimization. It is shown that by adjusting the geometry this is possible in a major fraction of the plasma volume. The most salient characteristic (as compared to previous quasi-iso dynamic configurations) is a magnetic axis whose curvature vanishes in all cross-sections with an extremum of B on the magnetic axis and renders possible a 3D structure of B with unprecedently high collisionless α-particle confinement. Sectionally isometric vacuum magnetic field toroidal mirror traps are analytically constructed with the help of the paraxial (or 'thin tube') approximation. Application of standard computational stellarator tools to this type of ι = 0 stellarator shows excellent alignment of second adiabatic invariant contours and equilibrium surfaces as well as directly calculated collisionless confinement of energetic particles. (author)

  13. Axisymmetric magnetic mirrors for plasma confinement. Recent development and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruglyakov, E.P.; Dimov, G.I.; Ivanov, A.A.; Koidan, V.S.

    2003-01-01

    Mirrors are the only one class of fusion systems which completely differs topologically from the systems with closed magnetic configurations. At present, three modern types of different mirror machines for plasma confinement and heating exist in Novosibirsk (Gas Dynamic Trap,- GDT, Multi-mirror,- GOL-3, and Tandem Mirror,- AMBAL-M). All these systems are attractive from the engineering point of view because of very simple axisymmetric geometry of magnetic configurations. In the present paper, the status of different confinement systems is presented. The experiments most crucial for the mirror concept are described such as a demonstration of different principles of suppression of electron heat conductivity (GDT, GOL-3), finding of MHD stable regimes of plasma confinement in axisymmetric geometry of magnetic field (GDT, AMBAL-M), an effective heating of a dense plasma by relativistic electron beam (GOL-3), observation of radial diffusion of quiescent plasma with practically classical diffusion coefficient (AMBAL-M), etc. It should be mentioned that on the basis of the GDT it is possible to make a very important intermediate step. Using 'warm' plasma and oblique injection of fast atoms of D and T one can create a powerful 14 MeV neutron source with a moderate irradiation area (about 1 square meter) and, accordingly, with low tritium consumption. The main plasma parameters achieved are presented and the future perspectives of different mirror machines are outlined. (author)

  14. The nature of confined states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.H.

    1979-01-01

    We show that in spite of charge confinement in the Schwinger model and its nonconfinement in (QED) 4 , the charged states in the two theories have many features in common. A convenient infrared regularization procedure is introduced to facilitate the study of large-distance behaviors in the Schwinger model, particularly those properties that are relevant ot the question of when a charged state is physical. One difference that emerges between the two theories is that when a charged state in the Schwinger model is made physical while its energy is kept bounded, the charge goes off to infinity. Thr end-product could be considered neutral if the charge is defined as the limit of local measurements. On the other hadn, if one attempts to change a local charged state in the Schwinger model into a physical state by transportin the localization region to asymptotic distances, the state may end up in either a THETA-sector or the corresponding (THETA + π)-sector, depending on the direction of transport. A possible generalization of this THETA-mixing property to quark-like states in QCD is commented upon. (orig.)

  15. Photoluminescence and Confinement of Excitons in Disordered Porous Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondar, N. V., E-mail: jbond@iop.kiev.ua; Brodin, M. S. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Physics (Ukraine); Brodin, A. M. [National Technical University of Ukraine “KPI” (Ukraine); Matveevskaya, N. A. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute for Single Crystals (Ukraine)

    2016-03-15

    The exciton confinement effect in quantum dots at the surface of SiO{sub 2} spheres and the percolation phase transition in films based on a mixture of pure SiO{sub 2} spheres and spheres covered by CdS quantum dots (SiO{sub 2}/CdS nanoparticles) are studied. It is found that, due to the high surface energy of spheres, the quantum dots deposited onto their surface are distorted, which modifies the exciton confinement effect: the effect is retained only in one direction, the direction normal to the surface of the spheres. As a result, the energy of the exciton ground state exhibits a complex dependence on both the quantum-dot radius and sphere size. In the optical spectra of films based on this mixture, the clustering of small-sized nanoparticles and then, at a critical concentration of nanoparticles of ~60%, the formation of a percolation cluster are detected for the first time. The critical concentration is twice higher than the corresponding quantity given by the model of geometrical “colored percolation”, which is a consequence of interaction between submicrometer nanoparticles. The relation between the basic parameters of the percolation transition, such as the film porosity, coordination number, and the quantity defining the number of particles in the percolation cluster, is obtained and analyzed.

  16. Surface-Activated Coupling Reactions Confined on a Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lei; Liu, Pei Nian; Lin, Nian

    2015-10-20

    -functional theory (DFT) transition-state calculations have been used to shed light on reaction mechanisms and to unravel the trends of different surface materials. In this Account, we discuss recent progress made in two widely studied surface-confined coupling reactions, aryl-aryl (Ullmann-type) coupling and alkyne-alkyne (Glaser-type) coupling, and focus on surface activation effects. Combined experimental and theoretical studies on the same reactions taking place on different metal surfaces have clearly demonstrated that different surfaces not only reduce the reaction barrier differently and render different reaction pathways but also control the morphology of the reaction products and, to some degree, select the reaction products. We end the Account with a list of questions to be addressed in the future. Satisfactorily answering these questions may lead to using the surface-confined coupling reactions to synthesize predefined products with high yield.

  17. Effects of rigid or adaptive confinement on colloidal self-assembly. Fixed vs. fluctuating number of confined particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pȩkalski, J.; Ciach, A. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-224 Warszawa (Poland); Almarza, N. G. [Instituto de Química Física Rocasolano, CSIC, Serrano 119, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-05-28

    The effects of confinement on colloidal self-assembly in the case of fixed number of confined particles are studied in the one dimensional lattice model solved exactly in the grand canonical ensemble (GCE) in Pȩkalski et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 014903 (2015)]. The model considers a pair interaction defined by a short-range attraction plus a longer-range repulsion. We consider thermodynamic states corresponding to self-assembly into clusters. Both fixed and adaptive boundaries are studied. For fixed boundaries, there are particular states in which, for equal average densities, the number of clusters in the GCE is larger than in the canonical ensemble. The dependence of pressure on density has a different form when the system size changes with fixed number of particles and when the number of particles changes with fixed size of the system. In the former case, the pressure has a nonmonotonic dependence on the system size. The anomalous increase of pressure for expanding system is accompanied by formation of a larger number of smaller clusters. In the case of elastic confining surfaces, we observe a bistability, i.e., two significantly different system sizes occur with almost the same probability. The mechanism of the bistability in the closed system is different to that of the case of permeable walls, where the two equilibrium system sizes correspond to a different number of particles.

  18. The Knot Spectrum of Confined Random Equilateral Polygons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diao Y.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that genomic materials (long DNA chains of living organisms are often packed compactly under extreme confining conditions using macromolecular self-assembly processes but the general DNA packing mechanism remains an unsolved problem. It has been proposed that the topology of the packed DNA may be used to study the DNA packing mechanism. For example, in the case of (mutant bacteriophage P4, DNA molecules packed inside the bacteriophage head are considered to be circular since the two sticky ends of the DNA are close to each other. The DNAs extracted from the capsid without separating the two ends can thus preserve the topology of the (circular DNAs. It turns out that the circular DNAs extracted from bacteriophage P4 are non-trivially knotted with very high probability and with a bias toward chiral knots. In order to study this problem using a systematic approach based on mathematical modeling, one needs to introduce a DNA packing model under extreme volume confinement condition and test whether such a model can produce the kind of knot spectrum observed in the experiments. In this paper we introduce and study a model of equilateral random polygons con_ned in a sphere. This model is not meant to generate polygons that model DNA packed in a virus head directly. Instead, the average topological characteristics of this model may serve as benchmark data for totally randomly packed circular DNAs. The difference between the biologically observed topological characteristics and our benchmark data might reveal the bias of DNA packed in the viral capsids and possibly lead to a better understanding of the DNA packing mechanism, at least for the bacteriophage DNA. The purpose of this paper is to provide information about the knot spectrum of equilateral random polygons under such a spherical confinement with length and confinement ratios in a range comparable to circular DNAs packed inside bacteriophage heads.

  19. 8OCB and 8CB Liquid Crystals Confined in Nanoporous Alumina: Effect of Confinement on the Structure and Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selevou, Aristoula; Papamokos, George; Steinhart, Martin; Floudas, George

    2017-08-03

    The effect of oxygen substitution is studied in two homologous compounds of n-cyanobiphenyls with n = 8 in the bulk and under confinement within self-ordered nanoporous alumina (AAO). Oxygen substitution in 8OCB increases the dipole moment and stabilizes the crystalline, smectic, and nematic phases to higher temperatures relative to 8CB. Within their smectic- A (SmA) phase both 8CB and 8OCB behave as weak viscoelastic solids with low shear moduli reflecting the underlying supramolecular defect structure. Dielectric spectroscopy assisted by DFT calculations identified strong dipolar associations within the isotropic phases characterized by a Kirkwood-Fröhlich interaction parameter, g ∼ 0.36. Dielectric spectroscopy further identified a slow process (∼ kHz) of low dielectric strength. The proximity of this process to the rheology time scale suggests as common origin a cooperative relaxation of the defect structure. Confinement alters the phase diagram by stabilizing certain crystalline phases and by reducing the N-I transition temperature in agreement with surface tension effects. However, the N-I transition seems to retain its first order character. Surface treatment with n-decyltrichlorosilane results in destabilization of the SmA phase at the expense of the N phase. This is consistent with a picture of surface anchored LC molecules at the pore walls that stabilize the nematic phase.

  20. Mechanical collapse of confined fluid membrane vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Jee E; Purohit, Prashant K; Klug, William S

    2014-11-01

    Compact cylindrical and spherical invaginations are common structural motifs found in cellular and developmental biology. To understand the basic physical mechanisms that produce and maintain such structures, we present here a simple model of vesicles in confinement, in which mechanical equilibrium configurations are computed by energy minimization, balancing the effects of curvature elasticity, contact of the membrane with itself and the confining geometry, and adhesion. For cylindrical confinement, the shape equations are solved both analytically and numerically by finite element analysis. For spherical confinement, axisymmetric configurations are obtained numerically. We find that the geometry of invaginations is controlled by a dimensionless ratio of the adhesion strength to the bending energy of an equal area spherical vesicle. Larger adhesion produces more concentrated curvatures, which are mainly localized to the "neck" region where the invagination breaks away from its confining container. Under spherical confinement, axisymmetric invaginations are approximately spherical. For extreme confinement, multiple invaginations may form, bifurcating along multiple equilibrium branches. The results of the model are useful for understanding the physical mechanisms controlling the structure of lipid membranes of cells and their organelles, and developing tissue membranes.

  1. Aerofractures in Confined Granular Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Fredrik K.; Turkaya, Semih; Toussaint, Renaud; Måløy, Knut J.; Flekkøy, Eirik G.

    2015-04-01

    We will present the optical analysis of experimental aerofractures in confined granular media. The study of this generic process may have applications in industries involving hydraulic fracturing of tight rocks, safe construction of dams, tunnels and mines, and in earth science where phenomena such as mud volcanoes and sand injectites are results of subsurface sediment displacements driven by fluid overpressure. It is also interesting to increase the understanding the flow instability itself, and how the fluid flow impacts the solid surrounding fractures and in the rest of the sample. Such processes where previously studied numerically [Niebling 2012a, Niebling 2012b] or in circular geometries. We will here explore experimentally linear geometries. We study the fracturing patterns that form when air flows into a dense, non-cohesive porous medium confined in a Hele-Shaw cell - i.e. into a packing of dry 80 micron beads placed between two glass plates separated by ~1mm. The cell is rectangular and fitted with a semi-permeable boundary to the atmosphere - blocking beads but not air - on one short edge, while the other three edges are impermeable. The porous medium is packed inside the cell between the semi-permeable boundary and an empty volume at the sealed side where the air pressure can be set and kept at a constant overpressure (1-2bar). Thus, for the air trapped inside the cell to release the overpressure it has to move through the solid. At high enough overpressures the air flow deforms the solid and increase permeability in some regions along the air-solid interface, which results in unstable flow and aerofracturing. Aerofractures are thought to be an analogue to hydrofractures, and an advantage of performing aerofracturing experiments in a Hele-Shaw cell is that the fracturing process can easily be observed in the lab. Our experiments are recorded with a high speed camera with a framerate of 1000 frames per second. In the analysis, by using various image

  2. Review of Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, M. G.

    The physics of inertial confinement fusion is reviewed. The trend to short-wavelength lasers is argued, and the distinction between direct and indirect (soft X-ray) drive is made. Key present issues include the non-linear growth of Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instabilities, the seeding of this instability by the initial laser imprint, the relevance of self-generated magnetic fields, and the importance of parametric instabilities (stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering) in gas-filled hohlraums. Experiments are reviewed which explore the R-T instability in both planar and converging geometry. The employment of various optical smoothing techniques is contrasted with the overcoating of the capsule by gold coated plastic foams to reduce considerably the imprint problem. The role of spontaneously generated magnetic fields in non-symmetric plasmas is discussed. Recent hohlraum compression results are presented together with gas bag targets which replicate the long-scale-length low density plasmas expected in NIF gas filled hohlraums. The onset of first Brillouin and then Raman scattering is observed. The fast ignitor scheme is a proposal to use an intense short pulse laser to drill a hole through the coronal plasma and then, with laser excited fast electrons, create a propagating thermonuclear spark in a dense, relatively cold laser-compressed target. Some preliminary results of laser hole drilling and 2-D and 3-D PIC simulations of this and the > 10^8 Gauss self-generated magnetic fields are presented. The proposed National Ignition Facility (NIF) is described.

  3. Optically induced structural phase transitions in ion Coulomb crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horak, Peter; Dantan, Aurelien Romain; Drewsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We investigate numerically the structural dynamics of ion Coulomb crystals confined in a three-dimensional harmonic trap when influenced by an additional one-dimensional optically induced periodical potential. We demonstrate that transitions between thermally excited crystal structures, such as b......We investigate numerically the structural dynamics of ion Coulomb crystals confined in a three-dimensional harmonic trap when influenced by an additional one-dimensional optically induced periodical potential. We demonstrate that transitions between thermally excited crystal structures...

  4. Percolating cluster of center vortices and confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliozzi, Ferdinando; Panero, Marco; Provero, Paolo

    2003-01-01

    We study the role of percolating clusters of center vortices in configurations of an Ising gauge theory in 3D. It is known that low energy features of gauge theories can be described in terms of an 'effective string picture', and that confinement properties are associated with topologically non-trivial configurations. We focus our attention upon percolating clusters of center vortices, and present numerical evidence for the fact that these objects play a preminent role in confinement phenomenon, since their removal sweeps off confinement altogether. Moreover, numerical simulations show that the string fluctuations, and in particular the Mischer term, are completely encoded in the percolating cluster

  5. FRP confined smart concrete/mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Y.; Zhu, P. S.; Choi, K. G.; Wu, Y. T.; Huang, Z. Y.; Shan, B.

    2006-03-01

    In this study, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) confined smart concrete/mortar sensors were invented and validated for significantly improved measurement range. Several trial mixes were made using cement mortar and micron-phase graphite powders at different mix proportions. Compressive loading tests were conducted on smart mortar cylinder specimens with or without FRP confinement. Two-probe method was used to detect the electrical resistance of the smart cement mortar specimens. Strong correlation was recognized between the stress and electric resistance of the smart mortar. The test results indicated that the FRP wrapping could significantly enlarge the range of such self-sensing property as a consequence of confinement.

  6. Confinement and quark structure of light hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, G.V.; Ivanov, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    We present a quark confinement model (QCM) for the description of the low-energy physics of light hadrons (mesons and baryons). The model is based on two hypotheses. First, the quark confinement is realized as averaging over vacuum gluon fields which are believed to provide the confinement of any colour objects. Second, hadrons are treated as collective colourless excitations of quark-gluon interactions. The description of strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions of mesons and baryons at the low energy is given from a unique point of view

  7. Plasma confinement in the TMX tandem mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, E.B. Jr.; Allen, S.L.; Casper, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    Plasma confinement in the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) is described. Axially confining potentials are shown to exist throughout the central 20-cm core of TMX. Axial electron-confinement time is up to 100 times that of single-cell mirror machines. Radial transport of ions is smaller than axial transport near the axis. It has two parts at large radii: nonambipolar, in rough agreement with predictions from resonant-neoclassical transport theory, and ambipolar, observed near the plasma edge under certain conditions, accompanied by a low-frequency, m = 1 instability or strong turbulence

  8. Plasma confinement in a magnetic dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesner, J.; Bromberg, L.; Garnier, D.; Mauel, M.

    1999-01-01

    A dipole fusion confinement device is stable to MHD interchange and ballooning modes when the pressure profile is sufficiently gentle. The plasma can be confined at high beta, is steady state and disruption free. Theory indicates that when the pressure gradient is sufficiently gentle to satisfy MHD requirements drift waves will also be stable. The dipole approach is particularly applicable for advanced fuels. A new experimental facility is presently being built to test the stability and transport properties of a dipole-confined plasma. (author)

  9. Plasma confinement in a magnetic dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesner, J.; Bromberg, L.; Garnier, D.; Mauel, M.

    2001-01-01

    A dipole fusion confinement device is stable to MHD interchange and ballooning modes when the pressure profile is sufficiently gentle. The plasma can be confined at high beta, is steady state and disruption free. Theory indicates that when the pressure gradient is sufficiently gentle to satisfy MHD requirements drift waves will also be stable. The dipole approach is particularly applicable for advanced fuels. A new experimental facility is presently being built to test the stability and transport properties of a dipole-confined plasma. (author)

  10. Inflation in a closed universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratra, Bharat

    2017-11-01

    To derive a power spectrum for energy density inhomogeneities in a closed universe, we study a spatially-closed inflation-modified hot big bang model whose evolutionary history is divided into three epochs: an early slowly-rolling scalar field inflation epoch and the usual radiation and nonrelativistic matter epochs. (For our purposes it is not necessary to consider a final dark energy dominated epoch.) We derive general solutions of the relativistic linear perturbation equations in each epoch. The constants of integration in the inflation epoch solutions are determined from de Sitter invariant quantum-mechanical initial conditions in the Lorentzian section of the inflating closed de Sitter space derived from Hawking's prescription that the quantum state of the universe only include field configurations that are regular on the Euclidean (de Sitter) sphere section. The constants of integration in the radiation and matter epoch solutions are determined from joining conditions derived by requiring that the linear perturbation equations remain nonsingular at the transitions between epochs. The matter epoch power spectrum of gauge-invariant energy density inhomogeneities is not a power law, and depends on spatial wave number in the way expected for a generalization to the closed model of the standard flat-space scale-invariant power spectrum. The power spectrum we derive appears to differ from a number of other closed inflation model power spectra derived assuming different (presumably non de Sitter invariant) initial conditions.

  11. Isodynamical (omnigenous) equilibrium in symmetrically confined plasma configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, M.P.; Moses, R.W.; Tataronis, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Isodynamical or omnigenous equilibrium has the property that the magnitude of the magnetic field is constant on magnetic surfaces. It is shown that in plasma confinement configurations with one ignorable coordinate there are three possible classes of solutions, characterized by the properties of the curvature of the magnetic axis, the magnitude of the magnetic field on axis, and the closure of magnetic surfaces about the magnetic axis. Solutions belonging to class (i) have a straight magnetic axis, a finite field on axis, and closed magnetic surfaces. Solutions in class (ii) have a curved magnetic axis, closed magnetic surfaces, and a magnetic field that vanishes on axis. Finally, solutions in class (iii) have a curved magnetic axis, a finite magnetic field on axis, and open magnetic surfaces

  12. Energy Confinement of both Ohmic and LHW Plasma on EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yao; Gao Xiang

    2011-01-01

    Study on the characters of energy confinement in both Ohmic and lower hybrid wave (LHW) discharges on EAST is conducted and the linear Ohmic confinement (LOC), saturated ohmic confinement (SOC) and improved Ohmic confinement (IOC) regimes are investigated in this paper. It is observed that an improved confinement mode characterized by both a drop of D α line intensity and an increase in line average density can be triggered by a gas puffing pulse. (magnetically confined plasma)

  13. R7T7 glass alteration mechanism in an aqueous closed system: understanding and modelling the long term alteration kinetic; Etude des mecanismes d'alteration par l'eau du verre R7T7 en milieu confine: comprehension et modelisation de la cinetique residuelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chave, T

    2007-10-15

    The long term alteration rate of the French R7T7 nuclear glass has been investigated since many years because it will define the overall resistance of the radionuclide containment matrix. Recent studies have shown that the final rate remains constant or is slightly decreasing with time. It never reaches zero. Though this residual rate is very low, only 5 nm per year at 50 C, it would be the dominant alteration phenomenon in a geological repository. Two mechanisms are suggested for explaining such behaviour: diffusion in solution of elements from glass through an amorphous altered layer and precipitation of neo-formed phases. The diffusion processes are in agreement with a solid state diffusion mechanism and can lead to secondary phase precipitation due to solution concentration increases. Observed phases are mainly phyllosilicates and zeolites, in specific conditions. Phyllosilicates are expected to maintain the residual kinetic rate whereas alteration resumption could be observed in presence of zeolites at very high pH or temperature (10.5 at 90 C or temperature above 150 C). Both diffusion and neo-formed phase precipitation have been investigated in order to better understand their impact on the residual alteration rate and have then been modelled by a calculation code, coupling chemistry and transport, in order to be able to better anticipate the long term behaviour of the glass R7T7 in an aqueous closed system. (author)

  14. A Study of Confined Helium Atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Wenfang

    2007-01-01

    The helium atom confined by a spherical parabolic potential well is studied employing the adiabatic hyperspherical approach method. Total energies of the ground and three low-excited states are obtained as a function of the confined potential radii. We find that the energies of a spherical parabolic potential well are in good agreement with those of an impenetrable spherical box for the larger confined potential radius. We find also that the confinement may cause accidental degeneracies between levels with different low-excited states and the inversion of the energy values. The results for the three-dimensional spherical potential well and the two-dimensional disc-like potential well are compared with each other. We find that the energy difference between states in a two-dimensional parabolic potential is also obviously larger than the corresponding levels for a spherical parabolic potential.

  15. The Physics Basis of ITER Confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, F.

    2009-01-01

    ITER will be the first fusion reactor and the 50 year old dream of fusion scientists will become reality. The quality of magnetic confinement will decide about the success of ITER, directly in the form of the confinement time and indirectly because it decides about the plasma parameters and the fluxes, which cross the separatrix and have to be handled externally by technical means. This lecture portrays some of the basic principles which govern plasma confinement, uses dimensionless scaling to set the limits for the predictions for ITER, an approach which also shows the limitations of the predictions, and describes briefly the major characteristics and physics behind the H-mode--the preferred confinement regime of ITER.

  16. Nucleon in confining models with glueballs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broniowski, W.

    1987-07-01

    Solutions to non-chiral and chiral color dielectric models are discussed. The coupling of glueballs produces absolute quark confinement and generates selfconsistently a bag. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  17. Random walks and polygons in tight confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao, Y; Ernst, C; Ziegler, U

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the effect of confinement on the topology and geometry of tightly confined random walks and polygons. Here the walks and polygons are confined in a sphere of radius R ≥ 1/2 and the polygons are equilateral with n edges of unit length. We illustrate numerically that for a fixed length of random polygons the knotting probability increases to one as the radius decreases to 1/2. We also demonstrate that for random polygons (walks) the curvature increases to πn (π(n – 1)) as the radius approaches 1/2 and that the torsion decreases to ≈ πn/3 (≈ π(n – 1)/3). In addition we show the effect of length and confinement on the average crossing number of a random polygon

  18. Plasma confinement system and methods for use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarboe, Thomas R.; Sutherland, Derek

    2017-09-05

    A plasma confinement system is provided that includes a confinement chamber that includes one or more enclosures of respective helicity injectors. The one or more enclosures are coupled to ports at an outer radius of the confinement chamber. The system further includes one or more conductive coils aligned substantially parallel to the one or more enclosures and a further set of one or more conductive coils respectively surrounding portions of the one or more enclosures. Currents may be provided to the sets of conductive coils to energize a gas within the confinement chamber into a plasma. Further, a heat-exchange system is provided that includes an inner wall, an intermediate wall, an outer wall, and pipe sections configured to carry coolant through cavities formed by the walls.

  19. Monte Carlo simulations of confined polymer systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, Johannes Henricus van

    1991-01-01

    This thesis considers confined polymer systems. These systems are of considerable interest, e.g., thin polymer films, chromotography of polymer solutions, drag reduction, enhanced oil recovery, stabilization of colloidal dispersions, lubrication and biolubrication. The method used to study these

  20. Finite temperature Casimir energy in closed rectangular cavities: a rigorous derivation based on a zeta function technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S C; Teo, L P

    2007-01-01

    We derive rigorously explicit formulae of the Casimir free energy at finite temperature for massless scalar field and electromagnetic field confined in a closed rectangular cavity with different boundary conditions by a zeta regularization method. We study both the low and high temperature expansions of the free energy. In each case, we write the free energy as a sum of a polynomial in temperature plus exponentially decay terms. We show that the free energy is always a decreasing function of temperature. In the cases of massless scalar field with the Dirichlet boundary condition and electromagnetic field, the zero temperature Casimir free energy might be positive. In each of these cases, there is a unique transition temperature (as a function of the side lengths of the cavity) where the Casimir energy changes from positive to negative. When the space dimension is equal to two and three, we show graphically the dependence of this transition temperature on the side lengths of the cavity. Finally we also show that we can obtain the results for a non-closed rectangular cavity by letting the size of some directions of a closed cavity go to infinity, and we find that these results agree with the usual integration prescription adopted by other authors

  1. Predictions of a theory of quark confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.

    1980-03-01

    We propose a theory of quark confinement which uses only the simplest of approximations. It explains persistence of quark confinement in Yang Mills theories with gauge group SU(2) or SU(3) as a consequence of asymptotic freedom in perturbation theory and of the known phase structure of Z(2) resp. Z(3) lattice gauge theory. Predictions are derived which can in principle be tested by computer simulation. Some are already tested by results of Creutz. They are in good agreement. (orig.)

  2. Confined catalysis under two-dimensional materials

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Haobo; Xiao, Jianping; Fu, Qiang; Bao, Xinhe

    2017-01-01

    Small spaces in nanoreactors may have big implications in chemistry, because the chemical nature of molecules and reactions within the nanospaces can be changed significantly due to the nanoconfinement effect. Two-dimensional (2D) nanoreactor formed under 2D materials can provide a well-defined model system to explore the confined catalysis. We demonstrate a general tendency for weakened surface adsorption under the confinement of graphene overlayer, illustrating the feasible modulation of su...

  3. Magnetic confinement in plasmas in nuclear devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tull, C.G.

    1979-01-01

    The main emphasis of the magnetic fusion energy research program today lies in the development of two types of confinement schemes: magnetic mirrors and tokamaks. Experimental programs for both of these confinement schemes have shown steady progress toward achieving fusion power breakeven. The scaling of the current machines to a reactor operating regime and newly developed methods for plasma heating will very likely produce power breakeven within the next decade. Predictions are that the efficiency in a fusion power plant should exceed 32%

  4. Predictions of a theory of quark confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.

    1980-01-01

    A theory of quark confinement is proposed which uses only the simplest of approximations. It explains persistence of quark confinement in Yang-Mills theories with gauge group SU(2) or SU(3) as a consequence of asymptotic freedom in perturbation theory and of the known phase structure of Z(2) and Z(3) lattice gauge theory. Predictions are derived which can in principle be tested by computer simulation. Some are are already tested by results of Creutz. They are in good agreement

  5. Isotope effect on confinement in DT plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuyama, A.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.; Yagi, M.; Azumi, M.

    1994-03-01

    Isotope effect on the energy confinement time is discussed for the DT plasma. The transport theory which is based on the ballooning mode turbulence is applied. When the DT plasma is produced under the condition of β p >1, the energy confinement time of DT plasma (50% mixture) is expected to be about 1.2 times better than the D plasma with the same operation condition. (author)

  6. Fluorescence Microscopy of Nanochannel-Confined DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, Fredrik; Persson, Fredrik; Fritzsche, Joachim; Beech, Jason P; Tegenfeldt, Jonas O

    2018-01-01

    Stretching of DNA in nanoscale confinement allows for several important studies. The genetic contents of the DNA can be visualized on the single DNA molecule level and both the polymer physics of confined DNA and also DNA/protein and other DNA/DNA-binding molecule interactions can be explored. This chapter describes the basic steps to fabricate the nanostructures, perform the experiments and analyze the data.

  7. Extended BRS algebra and color confinement criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shintani, Meiun.

    1983-09-01

    We examine the color-confinement criteria proposed by Kugo and Ojima. With the use of the extended BRS symmetry and the Nakanishi's theorem, we look for the representations of the BRS algebra compatible with the first condition of their criteria (the K-O condition) and then ask whether or not they are physically acceptable. As a result, the quartet mechanism does not work, and the K-O condition is not regarded as a confinement condition. (author)

  8. Stellarator approach to toroidal plasma confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.L.

    1981-12-01

    An overview is presented of the development and current status of the stellarator approach to controlled thermonuclear confinement. Recent experimental, theoretical, and systems developments have made this concept a viable option for the evolution of the toroidal confinement program. Some experimental study of specific problems associated with departure from two-dimensional symmetry must be undertaken before the full advantages and opportunities of steady-state, net-current-free operation can be realized

  9. Confined Space Evaluation Student Manual, #19613

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmot, David Ezekiel [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-08-29

    Many workplaces contain spaces that are considered to be “confined” because their configuration hinders the activities of employees who must enter into, work in, and exit from them. In general, the permit-required confined spaces (PRCSs) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard requires that Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) evaluate the workplace to determine if any spaces are PRCSs. The standard specifies strict procedures for the evaluation and atmospheric testing of a space before and during an entry by workers. The OSHA PRCS standard provides for alternative (less stringent than full-permit) entry procedures in cases where the only hazard in a space is atmospheric and the hazard can be controlled by forced air. At LANL, all confined spaces or potential confined spaces on LANL-owned or -operated property must be identified and evaluated by a confined space evaluator accompanied by a knowledgeable person. This course provides the information needed by confined space evaluators to make judgements about whether a space is a confined space, and if so, whether the space will require a permit for entry.

  10. Theoretical and numerical analysis of reinforced concrete beams with confinement reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Delalibera

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the use of confinement in over-reinforced concrete beams. This reinforcement consists of square stirrups, placed in the compression zone of the beam cross-section, in order to improve its ductility. A parametric numerical study is initially performed, using a finite element computational program that considers the material nonlinearities and the confinement effect. To investigate the influence of the transverse reinforcing ratio on the beam ductility, an experimental program was also conducted. Four over-reinforced beams were tested; three beam specimens with additional transverse reinforcement to confine the beams, and one without it. All specimens were fabricated with a concrete designed for a compressive strength of 25 MPa. The experimental results show that the post-peak ductility factor is proportional to the confining reinforcement ratio, however the same is not observed for the pre-peak ductility factor, which varied randomly with changes in the confining reinforcement ratio. It was also observed from the experiments that the confinement effect tends to be smaller close to the beam neutral axis.

  11. Investigation of impurity confinement in lower hybrid wave heated plasma on EAST tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z.; Wu, Z. W.; Zhang, L.; Gao, W.; Ye, Y.; Chen, K. Y.; Yuan, Y.; Zhang, W.; Yang, X. D.; Chen, Y. J.; Zhang, P. F.; Huang, J.; Wu, C. R.; Morita, S.; Oishi, T.; Zhang, J. Z.; Duan, Y. M.; Zang, Q.; Ding, S. Y.; Liu, H. Q.; Chen, J. L.; Hu, L. Q.; Xu, G. S.; Guo, H. Y.; the EAST Team

    2018-01-01

    The transient perturbation method with metallic impurities such as iron (Fe, Z  =  26) and copper (Cu, Z  =  29) induced in plasma-material interaction (PMI) procedure is used to investigate the impurity confinement characters in lower hybrid wave (LHW) heated EAST sawtooth-free plasma. The dependence of metallic impurities confinement time on plasma parameters (e.g. plasma current, toroidal magnetic field, electron density and heating power) are investigated in ohmic and LHW heated plasma. It is shown that LHW heating plays an important role in the reduction of the impurity confinement time in L-mode discharges on EAST. The impurity confinement time scaling is given as 42IP0.32Bt0.2\\overline{n}e0.43Ptotal-0.4~ on EAST, which is close to the observed scaling on Tore Supra and JET. Furthermore, the LHW heated high-enhanced-recycling (HER) H-mode discharges with ~25 kHz edge coherent modes (ECM), which have lower impurity confinement time and higher energy confinement time, provide promising candidates for high performance and steady state operation on EAST.

  12. Conference summary: Experiments in confinement and plasma-wall interaction and innovative confinement concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninomiya, H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results presented at the 20th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference 2004 in the sessions of confinement, plasma-wall interaction and innovative confinement concept. The highlights of the presentations are as follows. Long pulse operation with high beta and high bootstrap fraction much longer than the current diffusion time has been achieved. The discharge scenario optimization and its extrapolation towards ITER have progressed remarkably. Significant progress has been made in understanding of global confinement and transport physics. (author)

  13. Ductility of reinforced concrete columns confined with stapled strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, M.F.; Khan, Q.U.Z.; Shabbir, F.; Sharif, M.B.; Ijaz, N.

    2015-01-01

    Response of three 150x150x450mm short reinforced concrete (RC) columns confined with different types of confining steel was investigated. Standard stirrups, strips and stapled strips, each having same cross-sectional area, were employed as confining steel around four comer column bars. Experimental work was aimed at probing into the affect of stapled strip confinement on post elastic behavior and ductility level under cyclic axial load. Ductility ratios, strength enhancement factor and core concrete strengths were compared to study the affect of confinement. Results indicate that strength enhancement in RC columns due to strip and stapled strip confinement was not remarkable as compared to stirrup confined column. It was found that as compared to stirrup confined column, stapled strip confinement enhanced the ductility of RC column by 183% and observed axial capacity of stapled strip confined columns was 41 % higher than the strip confined columns. (author)

  14. Cyclotron transitions of bound ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezchastnov, Victor G.; Pavlov, George G.

    2017-06-01

    A charged particle in a magnetic field possesses discrete energy levels associated with particle rotation around the field lines. The radiative transitions between these levels are the well-known cyclotron transitions. We show that a bound complex of particles with a nonzero net charge displays analogous transitions between the states of confined motion of the entire complex in the field. The latter bound-ion cyclotron transitions are affected by a coupling between the collective and internal motions of the complex and, as a result, differ from the transitions of a "reference" bare ion with the same mass and charge. We analyze the cyclotron transitions for complex ions by including the coupling within a rigorous quantum approach. Particular attention is paid to comparison of the transition energies and oscillator strengths to those of the bare ion. Selection rules based on integrals of collective motion are derived for the bound-ion cyclotron transitions analytically, and the perturbation and coupled-channel approaches are developed to study the transitions quantitatively. Representative examples are considered and discussed for positive and negative atomic and cluster ions.

  15. Observation of the L-H confinement bifurcation triggered by a turbulence-driven shear flow in a tokamak plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Z; McKee, G R; Fonck, R; Gohil, P; Groebner, R J; Osborne, T H

    2014-03-28

    Comprehensive 2D turbulence and eddy flow velocity measurements on DIII-D demonstrate a rapidly increasing turbulence-driven shear flow that develops ∼100  μs prior to the low-confinement (L mode) to high-confinement (H mode) transition and appears to trigger it. These changes are localized to a narrow layer 1-2 cm inside the magnetic boundary. Increasing heating power increases the Reynolds stress, the energy transfer from turbulence to the poloidal flow, and the edge flow shearing rate that then exceeds the decorrelation rate, suppressing turbulence and triggering the transition.

  16. Transitional Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo

    This presentation builds on an earlier published article, 'Contemporary Transitional Justice: Normalising a Politics of Exception'. It argues that the field of transitional justice has undergone a shift in conceptualisation and hence practice. Transitional justice is presently understood to be th...... to be the provision of ordinary criminal justice in contexts of exceptional political transition.......This presentation builds on an earlier published article, 'Contemporary Transitional Justice: Normalising a Politics of Exception'. It argues that the field of transitional justice has undergone a shift in conceptualisation and hence practice. Transitional justice is presently understood...

  17. Thermal characterization of static and dynamical properties of the confined molecular systems interacting through dispersion force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Sergio Luis L M; Ogino, Michihiko; Oguni, Masaharu

    2015-01-28

    We investigated the thermal properties of liquid methylcyclohexane and racemic sec-butylcyclohexane, as representatives of a molecular system with only dispersion-force intermolecular interactions, confined in the pores (thickness/diameter d = 12, 6, 1.1 nm) of silica gels by adiabatic calorimetry. The results imply a heterogeneous picture for molecular aggregate under confinement consisting of an interfacial region and an inner pore one. In the vicinity of a glass-transition temperature T(g,bulk) of bulk liquid, two distinguishable relaxation phenomena were observed for the confined systems and their origins were attributed to the devitrification, namely glass transition, processes of (1) a layer of interfacial molecules adjacent to the pore walls and (2) the molecules located in the middle of the pore. A third glass-transition phenomenon was observed at lower temperatures and ascribed to a secondary relaxation process. The glass transition of the interfacial-layer molecules was found to proceed at temperatures rather above T(g,bulk), whereas that of the molecules located in the inner pore region occurred at temperatures below T(g,bulk). We discuss the reason why the molecules located in different places in the pores reveal the respectively different dynamical properties.

  18. Influence of the nanoparticles agglomeration state in the quantum-confinement effects: Experimental evidences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorite, I., E-mail: lorite@physik.uni-leipzig.de [Electroceramic Department, Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio, CSIC, Kelsen 5, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Division of Superconductivity and Magnetism, Faculty of Physics and Earth Sciences, Linnestrasse 5, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Romero, J. J.; Fernandez, J. F. [Electroceramic Department, Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio, CSIC, Kelsen 5, 28049, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-03-15

    The agglomeration state facilitates particle-particle interaction which produces important effects in the phonon confinement effects at the nanoscale. A partial phonon transmission between close nanoparticles yields a lower momentum conservation relaxation than in a single isolated nanoparticle. It means a larger red shift and broadening of the Raman modes than the expected ones for Raman quantum confinement effects. This particle-particle interaction can drive to error when Raman responses are used to estimate the size of the nanoscaled materials. In this work different corrections are suggested to overtake this source of error.

  19. Influence of the nanoparticles agglomeration state in the quantum-confinement effects: Experimental evidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorite, I.; Romero, J. J.; Fernandez, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    The agglomeration state facilitates particle-particle interaction which produces important effects in the phonon confinement effects at the nanoscale. A partial phonon transmission between close nanoparticles yields a lower momentum conservation relaxation than in a single isolated nanoparticle. It means a larger red shift and broadening of the Raman modes than the expected ones for Raman quantum confinement effects. This particle-particle interaction can drive to error when Raman responses are used to estimate the size of the nanoscaled materials. In this work different corrections are suggested to overtake this source of error

  20. Pneumatic fractures in confined granular media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Fredrik K; Toussaint, Renaud; Turquet, Antoine L; Måløy, Knut J; Flekkøy, Eirik G

    2017-06-01

    We perform experiments where air is injected at a constant overpressure P_{in}, ranging from 5 to 250 kPa, into a dry granular medium confined within a horizontal linear Hele-Shaw cell. The setup allows us to explore compacted configurations by preventing decompaction at the outer boundary, i.e., the cell outlet has a semipermeable filter such that beads are stopped while air can pass. We study the emerging patterns and dynamic growth of channels in the granular media due to fluid flow, by analyzing images captured with a high speed camera (1000 images/s). We identify four qualitatively different flow regimes, depending on the imposed overpressure, ranging from no channel formation for P_{in} below 10 kPa, to large thick channels formed by erosion and fingers merging for high P_{in} around 200 kPa. The flow regimes where channels form are characterized by typical finger thickness, final depth into the medium, and growth dynamics. The shape of the finger tips during growth is studied by looking at the finger width w as function of distance d from the tip. The tip profile is found to follow w(d)∝d^{β}, where β=0.68 is a typical value for all experiments, also over time. This indicates a singularity in the curvature d^{2}d/dw^{2}∼κ∼d^{1-2β}, but not of the slope dw/dd∼d^{β-1}, i.e., more rounded tips rather than pointy cusps, as they would be for the case β>1. For increasing P_{in}, the channels generally grow faster and deeper into the medium. We show that the channel length along the flow direction has a linear growth with time initially, followed by a power-law decay of growth velocity with time as the channel approaches its final length. A closer look reveals that the initial growth velocity v_{0} is found to scale with injection pressure as v_{0}∝P_{in}^{3/2}, while at a critical time t_{c} there is a cross-over to the behavior v(t)∝t^{-α}, where α is close to 2.5 for all experiments. Finally, we explore the fractal dimension of the fully

  1. School Closings in Philadelphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, James; Sludden, John

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the School District of Philadelphia closed six schools. In 2013, it closed 24. The closure of 30 schools has occurred amid a financial crisis, headlined by the district's $1.35 billion deficit. School closures are one piece of the district's plan to cut expenditures and close its budget gap. The closures are also intended to make…

  2. Manipulating topological-insulator properties using quantum confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotulla, M; Zülicke, U

    2017-01-01

    Recent discoveries have spurred the theoretical prediction and experimental realization of novel materials that have topological properties arising from band inversion. Such topological insulators are insulating in the bulk but have conductive surface or edge states. Topological materials show various unusual physical properties and are surmised to enable the creation of exotic Majorana-fermion quasiparticles. How the signatures of topological behavior evolve when the system size is reduced is interesting from both a fundamental and an application-oriented point of view, as such understanding may form the basis for tailoring systems to be in specific topological phases. This work considers the specific case of quantum-well confinement defining two-dimensional layers. Based on the effective-Hamiltonian description of bulk topological insulators, and using a harmonic-oscillator potential as an example for a softer-than-hard-wall confinement, we have studied the interplay of band inversion and size quantization. Our model system provides a useful platform for systematic study of the transition between the normal and topological phases, including the development of band inversion and the formation of massless-Dirac-fermion surface states. The effects of bare size quantization, two-dimensional-subband mixing, and electron–hole asymmetry are disentangled and their respective physical consequences elucidated. (paper)

  3. Influence of an external gas puff on the RI-mode confinement properties in TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalupin, D.

    2002-06-01

    An actual subject of experimental and theoretical studies in present day fusion research is the development of an operational scenario combining simultaneously high confinement, with at least H-mode quality, and high densities, around or above the empirical Greenwald limit. Recently, this subject was studied in TEXTOR radiative improved (RI) mode discharges, in which the seeding of a small amount of impurities is helpful in a transition to the improved confinement stage. It was found that by the careful tailoring of external fuelling and optimisation of the wall conditions it is possible to maintain the H-mode or even higher quality confinement at densities much above Greenwald density limit. However, more intense fuelling, aimed to extend maximal achievable densities, led to the progressive confinement deterioration. The theory explains the transition to the RI-mode as a bifurcation into the stage where the transport governed by the ion temperature gradient (ITG) instability is significantly reduced due to a high density gradient and high value of the effective charge. The numerical studies of an influence of the gas puff intensity on confinement properties of plasma, done with the help of the 1-D transport code RITM, show that the same theory can be used for an explanation of the confinement rollover triggered by a strong gas puff. The code was modified in order to simulate the effect of the gas puff on the confinement properties. The anomalous transport coefficients in the plasma core include contributions from the ITG and dissipative trapped electron (DTE) instabilities. The transport at the plasma edge under RI-mode conditions might be described by the electrostatic turbulence caused by electric currents in the scrape-off layer of the limiter. The present computations show that this assumption for the edge transport does not allow the modeling of an effect of the gas puff intensity on the profiles evolution in agreement with experimental observations. The

  4. Evaluation of the confinement option for LMRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himes, D.A.; Stepnewski, D.D.; Franz, G.R.

    1985-12-01

    The coolant in liquid metal cooled reactors operates at low pressures and therefore contains relatively little stored energy compared to LWR systems. This presents the possibility of using a more conventional building for containment coupled with a confinement system which vents the internal volume of the building through a filter/scrubber. The confinement system would be designed to keep the internal pressure in the containment near atmospheric thereby minimizing unfiltered leakage. The principal benefits of such an arrangement would be lower capital cost and less stringent leaktightness requirements permitting simpler and less disruptive testing. In conclusion, the confinement system assumed here would reduce consequences to the public of an LMR HCDA to acceptable levels. However control room doses are unacceptable due to the noble gas concentration inside the control room. A confinement system is therefore a viable design option for LMR's provided means are included for keeping noble gases out of the control room. Such means are readily available including, for example, selectable remote air intakes, an exhaust stack, or a noble gas filter. Probably the most satisfactory alternative would be a large cryogenic filter on the confinement system exhaust

  5. Vortex Ring Dynamics in Radially Confined Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kelley; Niebel, Casandra; Jung, Sunghwan; Vlachos, Pavlos

    2010-11-01

    Vortex ring dynamics have been studied extensively in semi-infinite quiescent volumes. However, very little is known about vortex-ring formation in wall-bounded domains where vortex wall interaction will affect both the vortex ring pinch-off and propagation velocity. This study addresses this limitation and studies vortex formation in radially confined domains to analyze the affect of vortex-ring wall interaction on the formation and propagation of the vortex ring. Vortex rings were produced using a pneumatically driven piston cylinder arrangement and were ejected into a long cylindrical tube which defined the confined downstream domain. A range of confinement domains were studied with varying confinement diameters Velocity field measurements were performed using planar Time Resolved Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (TRDPIV) and were processed using an in-house developed cross-correlation PIV algorithm. The experimental analysis was used to facilitate the development of a theoretical model to predict the variations in vortex ring circulation over time within confined domains.

  6. Reinforced confinement in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, H.

    1988-01-01

    The present invention concerns a nuclear reactor containing a reactor core, a swimming pool space that is filled and pressurized with a neutron-absorbing solution, a reactor tank, at least one heat exchanger, at least one inlet line, at least one return line and at least one circulation pump, where the said reactor tank is confined in the said swimming pool space and designed to be cooled with the aid of relatively pure water, which is fed by means of the said at least one circulating pump to the said reactor tank from the said heat exchanger via the said at least one inlet line and is returned to the heat exchanger via the said at least one return line. The problem that is to be solved by the invention is to design a reactor of the above type in such a way that a complete confinement of the primary circuit of the reactor is achieved at relatively low extra cost. This problem is solved by providing the reactor with a special confinement space that confines the heat exchanger, but not the reactor tank, with the confinement space and the swimming pool space being fashioned in the same concrete body

  7. Generating equilateral random polygons in confinement II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao, Y; Ernst, C; Montemayor, A; Ziegler, U

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we continue an earlier study (Diao et al 2011 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44 405202) on the generation algorithms of random equilateral polygons confined in a sphere. Here, the equilateral random polygons are rooted at the center of the confining sphere and the confining sphere behaves like an absorbing boundary. One way to generate such a random polygon is the accept/reject method in which an unconditioned equilateral random polygon rooted at origin is generated. The polygon is accepted if it is within the confining sphere, otherwise it is rejected and the process is repeated. The algorithm proposed in this paper offers an alternative to the accept/reject method, yielding a faster generation process when the confining sphere is small. In order to use this algorithm effectively, a large, reusable data set needs to be pre-computed only once. We derive the theoretical distribution of the given random polygon model and demonstrate, with strong numerical evidence, that our implementation of the algorithm follows this distribution. A run time analysis and a numerical error estimate are given at the end of the paper. (paper)

  8. Packing frustration in dense confined fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygård, Kim; Sarman, Sten; Kjellander, Roland

    2014-09-07

    Packing frustration for confined fluids, i.e., the incompatibility between the preferred packing of the fluid particles and the packing constraints imposed by the confining surfaces, is studied for a dense hard-sphere fluid confined between planar hard surfaces at short separations. The detailed mechanism for the frustration is investigated via an analysis of the anisotropic pair distributions of the confined fluid, as obtained from integral equation theory for inhomogeneous fluids at pair correlation level within the anisotropic Percus-Yevick approximation. By examining the mean forces that arise from interparticle collisions around the periphery of each particle in the slit, we calculate the principal components of the mean force for the density profile--each component being the sum of collisional forces on a particle's hemisphere facing either surface. The variations of these components with the slit width give rise to rather intricate changes in the layer structure between the surfaces, but, as shown in this paper, the basis of these variations can be easily understood qualitatively and often also semi-quantitatively. It is found that the ordering of the fluid is in essence governed locally by the packing constraints at each single solid-fluid interface. A simple superposition of forces due to the presence of each surface gives surprisingly good estimates of the density profiles, but there remain nontrivial confinement effects that cannot be explained by superposition, most notably the magnitude of the excess adsorption of particles in the slit relative to bulk.

  9. Confinement sensitivity in quantum dot singlet-triplet relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesslén, C. J.; Lindroth, E.

    2017-11-01

    Spin-orbit mediated phonon relaxation in a two-dimensional quantum dot is investigated using different confining potentials. Elliptical harmonic oscillator and cylindrical well results are compared to each other in the case of a two-electron GaAs quantum dot subjected to a tilted magnetic field. The lowest energy set of two-body singlet and triplet states are calculated including spin-orbit and magnetic effects. These are used to calculate the phonon induced transition rate from the excited triplet to the ground state singlet for magnetic fields up to where the states cross. The roll of the cubic Dresselhaus effect, which is found to be much more important than previously assumed, and the positioning of ‘spin hot-spots’ are discussed and relaxation rates for a few different systems are exhibited.

  10. Spin waves propagation and confinement in magnetic microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailleul, Matthieu

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis, ferromagnetic thin film elements have been studied on a small scale (μm) and at high frequencies (GHz). For those studies, a microwave spectrometer based on the use of micro-antennae has been developed. It had been applied to two different systems. In a first time, we have launched and detected spin waves in continuous films. This allowed us to describe both the transduction process and the relaxation law for long wavelength spin waves. In a second time, we have studied micrometer-wide stripe for which the magnetic ground state is inhomogeneous. The obtained microwave response has been interpreted in terms of micro-magnetic phase transitions and in terms of spin waves confinement. (author)

  11. Confinement, glueballs and strings from deformed AdS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apreda, Riccardo; Crooks, David E.; Evans, Nick; Petrini, Michela

    2004-01-01

    We study aspects of confinement in two deformed versions of the AdS/CFT correspondence - the GPPZ dual of N = 1* Yang Mills, and the Yang Mills* N 0 dual. Both geometries describe discrete glueball spectra which we calculate numerically. The results agree at the 10% level with previous AdS/CFT computations in the Klebanov Strassler background and AdS Schwarzchild respectively. We also calculate the spectra of bound states of the massive fermions in these geometries and show that they are light, so not decoupled from the dynamics. We then study the behaviour of Wilson loops in the 10d lifts of these geometries. We find a transition from AdS-like strings in the UV to strings that interact with the unknown physics of the central singularity of the space in the IR. (author)

  12. Role of magnetic flux perturbations in confinement bifurcations in TUMAN-3M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, S.V.; Andreiko, M.V.; Askinazi, L.G.

    2003-01-01

    Poloidal magnetic flux variations in the small tokamak TUMAN-3M allowed observation of transitions between different confinement modes. The possibility of switching on/off the ohmic H-mode by edge poloidal magnetic flux perturbations has been found. The flux perturbations were created by fast current ramp up/down or by magnetic compression/decompression produced by fast increase/decrease in the toroidal magnetic field. It was found that positive flux perturbations (current ramp-up and magnetic compression scenarios) are useful means of H-mode triggering. If a negative flux perturbation (current ramp-down or magnetic decompression) is applied, the H-mode terminated. Various mechanisms involved in the L-H and H-L transition physics in the flux perturbation experiments were analyzed. The experimental observations of the transitions between confinement modes might be understood in terms of the model of a sheared radial electric field generation, which takes into account the electron Ware drift in a perturbed longitudinal electric field. Another scenario of improved confinement was observed in the initial phase of an ohmic discharge, when change in the poloidal flux is associated with current ramp-up. Variation of the rates of current ramp-up and working gas puffing in the beginning of a discharge resulted in a fast increase in the electron temperature near the axis. The increase correlates with low m/n MHD mode growth. The observed core electron confinement improvement is apparently connected with the rate of current ramp. Deviation from the optimal rate results in disappearance of the improvement. The role of magnetic shear profile and rational magnetic surfaces in the core electron confinement improvement in the initial phase of ohmic discharges is discussed. (author)

  13. Cylindrical fabric-confined soil structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Richard A.

    A cylindrical fabric-soil structural concept for implementation on the moon and Mars which provides many advantages is proposed. The most efficient use of fabric is to fashion it into cylindrical tubes, creating cylindrical fabric-confined soil structures. The length, diameter, and curvature of the tubes will depend on the intended application. The cylindrical hoop forces provide radial confinement while end caps provide axial confinement. One of the ends is designed to allow passage of the soil into the fabric tube before sealing. Transportation requirements are reduced due to the low mass and volume of the fabric. Construction requirements are reduced due to the self-erection capability via the pneumatic exoskeleton. Maintenance requirements are reduced due to the passive nature of the concept. The structure's natural ductility is well suited for any seismic activity.

  14. Confinement and related transport in Extrap geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendler, M.

    1983-01-01

    The properties of the plasma dynamic equilibrium are investigated for the Extrap magnetic confinement geometry. The temperatures achieved so far in the high-#betta# pinches are much lower than the predicted values. Here, it is shown that the particle containment in Extrap may be improved as compared to the other pinches due to the electrostatic confinement. An analytic solution for the profiles of the plasma parameters are found under the assumption that the energy is lost primarily in the radial direction by heat conduction and convection. An estimate of the radial particle confinement time is given, showing favourable scaling with plasma density and temperature. The conventional assumption of a uniform current density is shown to be unjustified in the case of an inhomogeneous electron temperature. An analytical expression is found for the pinch radius at different mechanisms of the heat transport. (orig.)

  15. INERT Atmosphere confinement operability test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RISENMAY, H.R.

    1999-01-01

    This Operability Test Procedure (OTP) provides instructions for testing operability of the Inert Atmosphere Confinement (IAC). The Inert Atmosphere Confinement was designed and built for opening cans of metal items that might have hydrided surfaces. Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) PFP-97-005 addresses the discovery of suspected plutonium hydride forming on plutonium metal currently stored in the Plutonium Finishing Plant vaults. Plutonium hydride reacts quickly with air, liberating energy. The Inert Atmosphere Confinement was designed to prevent this sudden liberation of energy by opening the material in an inert argon atmosphere instead of the normal glovebox atmosphere. The IAC is located in glovebox HC-21A, room 230B of the 234-5Z Building at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) in the 200-West Area of the Hanford Site

  16. Critical quench dynamics in confined systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collura, Mario; Karevski, Dragi

    2010-05-21

    We analyze the coherent quantum evolution of a many-particle system after slowly sweeping a power-law confining potential. The amplitude of the confining potential is varied in time along a power-law ramp such that the many-particle system finally reaches or crosses a critical point. Under this protocol we derive general scaling laws for the density of excitations created during the nonadiabatic sweep of the confining potential. It is found that the mean excitation density follows an algebraic law as a function of the sweeping rate with an exponent that depends on the space-time properties of the potential. We confirm our scaling laws by first order adiabatic calculation and exact results on the Ising quantum chain with a varying transverse field.

  17. Electrostatically confined quantum rings in bilayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarenia, M; Pereira, J M; Peeters, F M; Farias, G A

    2009-12-01

    We propose a new system where electron and hole states are electrostatically confined into a quantum ring in bilayer graphene. These structures can be created by tuning the gap of the graphene bilayer using nanostructured gates or by position-dependent doping. The energy levels have a magnetic field (B(0)) dependence that is strikingly distinct from that of usual semiconductor quantum rings. In particular, the eigenvalues are not invariant under a B(0) --> -B(0) transformation and, for a fixed total angular momentum index m, their field dependence is not parabolic, but displays two minima separated by a saddle point. The spectra also display several anticrossings, which arise due to the overlap of gate-confined and magnetically confined states.

  18. Neutron Assay System for Confinement Vessel Disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frame, Katherine C.; Bourne, Mark M.; Crooks, William J.; Evans, Louise; Mayo, Douglas R.; Miko, David K.; Salazar, William R.; Stange, Sy; Valdez, Jose I.; Vigil, Georgiana M.

    2012-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels (CVs) remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1-inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the CVs. The Confinement Vessel Assay System (CVAS) was developed to measure the amount of special nuclear material (SNM) in CVs before and after cleanout. Prior to cleanout, the system will be used to perform a verification measurement of each vessel. After cleanout, the system will be used to perform safeguards-quality assays of (le)100-g 239 Pu equivalent in a vessel for safeguards termination. The CVAS has been tested and calibrated in preparation for verification and safeguards measurements.

  19. Progress in toroidal confinement and fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.

    1987-10-01

    During the past 30 years, the characteristic T/sub i/n tau/sub E/-value of toroidal-confinement experiments has advanced by more than seven orders of magnitude. Part of this advance has been due to an increase of gross machine parameters. Most of this advance has been due to an increase of gross machine parameters. Most of the advance is associated with improvements in the ''quality of plasma confinement.'' The combined evidence of spherator and tokamak research clarifies the role of magnetic-field geometry in determining confinement and points to the importance of shielding out plasma edge effects. A true physical understanding of anomalous transport remains to be achieved. 39 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  20. Confinement and correlation effects in the Xe-C{sub 60} generalized oscillator strengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M. Ya. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); A. F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Chernysheva, L. V. [A. F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Dolmatov, V. K. [Department of Physics and Earth Science, University of North Alabama, Florence, Alabama 35632 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    The impact of both confinement and electron correlation on generalized oscillator strengths (GOS's) of endohedral atoms, A-C{sub 60}, is theoretically studied choosing the Xe-C{sub 60} 4d, 5s, and 5p fast electron impact ionization as the case study. Calculations are performed in the transferred to the atom energy region beyond the 4d threshold, {omega}=75-175 eV. The calculation methodology combines the plane-wave Born approximation, Hartree-Fock approximation, and random-phase approximation with exchange in the presence of the C{sub 60} confinement. The confinement is modeled by a spherical {delta}-function-like potential as well as by a square well potential to evaluate the effect of the finite thickness of the C{sub 60} cage on the Xe-C{sub 60} GOS's. Dramatic distortion of the 4d, 5p, and 5s GOS's by the confinement is demonstrated, compared to the free atom. Considerable contributions of multipolar transitions beyond dipole transitions in the calculated GOS's are revealed, in some instances. The vitality of accounting for electron correlation in calculation of the Xe-C{sub 60} 5s and 5p GOS's is shown.

  1. Phase transitions modern applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gitterman, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive review of the theory of phase transitions and its modern applications, based on the five pillars of the modern theory of phase transitions i.e. the Ising model, mean field, scaling, renormalization group and universality. This expanded second edition includes, along with a description of vortices and high temperature superconductivity, a discussion of phase transitions in chemical reaction and moving systems. The book covers a close connection between phase transitions and small world phenomena as well as scale-free systems such as the stock market and the Internet. Readership: Scientists working in different fields of physics, chemistry, biology and economics as well as teaching material for undergraduate and graduate courses.

  2. Potential formation and confinement in high density plasma on the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsu, K.

    2002-01-01

    After the attainment of doubling of the density due to the potential confinement, GAMMA 10 experiments have been directed to realization of a high density plasma and also to study dependence of the confining potential and confinement time on the plasma density. These problems are important to understand the physics of potential formation in tandem mirrors and also for the development of a tandem mirror reactor. We reported high density plasma production by using an ion cyclotron range of frequency heating at a high harmonic frequency in the last IAEA Conference. However, the diamagnetic signal of the high density plasma decreased when electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) was applied due to some instabilities. Recently, the high density plasma production was much improved by adjusting the spacing of the conducting plates installed in the anchor transition regions, which enabled us to produce a high density plasma without degradation of the diamagnetic signal with ECRH and also to study the density dependence. In this paper we report production of a high density plasma and dependence of the confining potential and the confinement time on the density. (author)

  3. Dynamic studies of nano-confined polymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Kun

    Polymer thin films with the film thickness (h0 ) below 100 nm often exhibit physical properties different from the bulk counterparts. In order to make the best use of polymer thin films in applications, it is important to understand the physical origins of these deviations. In this dissertation, I will investigate how different factors influence dynamic properties of polymer thin films upon nano-confinement, including glass transition temperature (Tg), effective viscosity (etaeff) and self-diffusion coefficient (D ). The first part of this dissertation concerns the impacts of the molecular weight (MW) and tacticity on the Tg's of nano-confined polymer films. Previous experiments showed that the Tg of polymer films could be depressed or increased as h0 decreases. While these observations are usually attributed to the effects of the interfaces, some experiments suggested that MW's and tacticities might also play a role. To understand the effects of these factors, the Tg's of silica-based poly(alpha-methyl styrene) (PalphaMS/SiOx) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA/SiOx) thin films were studied, and the results suggested that MW's and tacticities influence Tg in nontrivial ways. The second part concerns an effort to resolve the long-standing controversy about the correlation between different dynamics of polymer thin films upon nano-confinement. Firstly, I discuss the experimental results of Tg, D and etaeff of poly(isobutyl methacrylate) films supported by silica (PiBMA/SiOx). Both T g and D were found to be independent of h 0, but etaeff decreased with decreasing h 0. Since both D and etaeff describe transport phenomena known to depend on the local friction coefficient or equivalently the local viscosity, it is questionable why D and etaeff displayed seemingly inconsistent h 0 dependencies. We envisage the different h0 dependencies to be caused by Tg, D and etaeff being different functions of the local T g's (Tg,i) or viscosities (eta i). By assuming a three

  4. Stress-Strain Law for Confined Concrete with Hardening or Softening Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Colajanni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a new general stress-strain law for concrete confined by steel, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP, or fiber reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM, obtained by a suitable modification of the well-known Sargin’s curve for steel confined concrete. The proposed law is able to reproduce stress-strain curve of any shape, having both hardening or softening behavior, by using a single closed-form simple algebraic expression with constant coefficients. The coefficients are defined on the basis of the stress and the tangent modulus of the confined concrete in three characteristic points of the curve, thus being related to physical meaningful parameters. It will be shown that if the values of the parameters of the law are deduced from experimental tests, the model is able to accurately reproduce the experimental curve. If they are evaluated on the basis of an analysis-oriented model, the proposed model provides a handy equivalent design model.

  5. Confinement of nonneutral spheroidal plasmas in multi-ring electrode traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohri, Akihiro; Yuyama, Tetsumori; Michishita, Toshinori; Higaki, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Yamazawa, Yohei; Aoyagi, Masayuki

    1998-01-01

    A nonneutral spheroidal plasma can be settled in a rigid rotor equilibrium inside a closed conducting cell independently of induced image charges on the cell wall if the electrostatic potential distribution on the wall surface is set equal to the sum of the external hyperbolic potential (r 2 -2z 2 ) and the self-potential produced by the plasma. A confinement system equipped with a train of properly biased ring electrodes can approximately generate any axisymmetric potential, including the above field. Experiments on confinement of electron spheroids in such a system showed that the confinement time became the longest when the condition to diminish the image charge effects was satisfied. The observed frequency of the centre-of-mass harmonic oscillation of the plasma in this configuration was in good agreement with the estimated one. (author)

  6. Vesicle dynamics in a confined Poiseuille flow: from steady state to chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouane, Othmane; Thiébaud, Marine; Benyoussef, Abdelilah; Wagner, Christian; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2014-09-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) are the major component of blood, and the flow of blood is dictated by that of RBCs. We employ vesicles, which consist of closed bilayer membranes enclosing a fluid, as a model system to study the behavior of RBCs under a confined Poiseuille flow. We extensively explore two main parameters: (i) the degree of confinement of vesicles within the channel and (ii) the flow strength. Rich and complex dynamics for vesicles are revealed, ranging from steady-state shapes (in the form of parachute and slipper shapes) to chaotic dynamics of shape. Chaos occurs through a cascade of multiple periodic oscillations of the vesicle shape. We summarize our results in a phase diagram in the parameter plane (degree of confinement and flow strength). This finding highlights the level of complexity of a flowing vesicle in the small Reynolds number where the flow is laminar in the absence of vesicles and can be rendered turbulent due to elasticity of vesicles.

  7. Large scale simulation numerical study of transition to turbulence in jets; Etude numerique par simulation des grandes echelles de la transition a la turbulence dans les jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbin, Gerald [Institut National Polytechnique, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1998-02-02

    This study highlights the potentialities of the numerical technique of large scale simulation in describing and understanding the turbulent flows in a complex geometry. Particularly, it is focussed on flows of free jet, confined jets and multiple jets of high solidity grid. Spatial simulations of the circular zone close to a free jet, of high Reynolds number were performed. In spite of an evident sensitivity to upstream conditions good agreement between our statistical predictions and different experimental measurements was obtained. The multiple coherent vortical structures implied in the transition to turbulence of the jet were found. At the same time, helical or annular axisymmetric vortices were observed. Also, an original vortical arrangement was evidenced, resulting from the alternating inclination and local pairing of these rings. It could been forced through an ad-hoc excitation which modifies subsequently drastically the jet development. When an axisymmetric excitation is imposed after formation of annular structures, pairs of counter-rotative longitudinal vortices occur and generate lateral jets. Their nature and presence in case of a helical excitation are discussed. An efficient method for controlling their number is developed. Then, one is studied the very low frequency periodic phenomenon of backward-facing transition to turbulence which develops in the confined jet and grid multiple jets (a phenomenon generic in numerous flows). It was found to depend not only on the characteristic of the re-circulation (pre-transition) zones but also on the upstream flow (zone of post-transition stagnation, pressure effect). Large scale transversal motions of the fluid have been found beginning from the grid. An interpretation of this phenomenon is suggested 193 refs., 109 figs.

  8. Mott glass from localization and confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yang-Zhi; Nandkishore, Rahul M.; Radzihovsky, Leo

    2018-05-01

    We study a system of fermions in one spatial dimension with linearly confining interactions and short-range disorder. We focus on the zero-temperature properties of this system, which we characterize using bosonization and the Gaussian variational method. We compute the static compressibility and ac conductivity, and thereby demonstrate that the system is incompressible, but exhibits gapless optical conductivity. This corresponds to a "Mott glass" state, distinct from an Anderson and a fully gapped Mott insulator, arising due to the interplay of disorder and charge confinement. We argue that this Mott glass phenomenology should persist to nonzero temperatures.

  9. Alternative lines with magnetic plasma confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobig, H.

    1981-01-01

    Plasma confinement with the aid of a magnetic field is the most common and also the most frequently investigated principle on the way to controlled nuclear fusion. Apart from the Tokamak principle, which is the most advanced principle as far as fusion-relevant plasma parameters are concerned, also other approaches are being investigated, e.g. the mirror device, the bumpy tons, and the stellarator. In principle, all three concepts permit 'stationary' plasma confinement in a stationary fusion reactor. Compared with the pulsed Tokamak reactor, this is a considerable advantage. (orig./GG) [de

  10. Recent results on confinement in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    The JET device is the world's largest tokamak and has been utilized in plasma heating experiments at total powers of up to 35MW using both neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). At the highest performance, JET plasmas have achieved conditions equivalent to energy ''breakeven''. A principal aim of the JET experiment is the investigation of plasma heating and confinement in plasma regimes relevant to thermonuclear ignition. The central issues in confinement physics involved in these advances are briefly reviewed and the most recent investigations of transport in high performance plasmas are summarized. (Author)

  11. Magnetic properties of confined electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felicio, J.R.D. de.

    1977-04-01

    The effects of confinement by a two or three-dimensional harmonic potential on the magnetic properties of a free electron gas are investigated using the grand-canonical ensemble framework. At high temperatures an extension of Darwin's, Felderhof and Raval's works is made taking into account spin effects at low temperature. A comprehensive description of the magnetic properties of a free electron gas is given. The system is regarded as finite, but the boundary condition psi=0 is not introduced. The limits of weak and strong confinement are also analysed [pt

  12. The bound state problem and quark confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaichian, M.; Demichev, A.P.; Nelipa, N.F.

    1980-01-01

    A quantum field-theoretic model in which quark is confined is considered. System of equations for the Green functions of colour singlet and octet bound states is obtained. The method is based on the nonperturbative Schwinger-Dyson equations with the use of Slavnov-Taylor identities. It is shown that in the framework of the model if there exist singlet, then also exist octet bound states of the quark-antiquark system. Thus in general, confinement of free quarks does not mean absence of their coloured bound states. (author)

  13. Structure and dynamics of water confined in a graphene nanochannel under gigapascal high pressure: dependence of friction on pressure and confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Guo, Yanjie; Diao, Dongfeng

    2017-05-31

    Recently, water flow confined in nanochannels has become an interesting topic due to its unique properties and potential applications in nanofluidic devices. The trapped water is predicted to experience high pressure in the gigapascal regime. Theoretical and experimental studies have reported various novel structures of the confined water under high pressure. However, the role of this high pressure on the dynamic properties of water has not been elucidated to date. In the present study, the structure evolution and interfacial friction behavior of water constrained in a graphene nanochannel were investigated via molecular dynamics simulations. Transitions of the confined water to different ice phases at room temperature were observed in the presence of lateral pressure at the gigapascal level. The friction coefficient at the water/graphene interface was found to be dependent on the lateral pressure and nanochannel height. Further theoretical analyses indicate that the pressure dependence of friction is related to the pressure-induced change in the structure of water and the confinement dependence results from the variation in the water/graphene interaction energy barrier. These findings provide a basic understanding of the dynamics of the nanoconfined water, which is crucial in both fundamental and applied science.

  14. Confinement of acoustical modes due to the electron-phonon interaction within 2D-electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochelap, V.A.; Gulseren, O.

    1992-09-01

    We study the confinement of acoustical modes within 2DEG due only to the electron-phonon interaction. The confined modes split out from the bulk phonons even at uniform lattice parameters, when the 2DEG is created by means of modulation doping. The effect is more pronounced when the wave vector q of the modes increases and is maximum at q = 2 k F (k F is the Fermi wave vector). In the case of several electron sheets the additional features of the confinement effect appear. In the limit of the strong electron-phonon coupling and high surface concentration of the electrons the considered system can suffer Peierls-type phase transition. In this case periodical deformation of the lattice and charge density wave are confined within the electron sheet. (author). 18 refs, 2 figs

  15. History of Solitary Confinement Is Associated with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms among Individuals Recently Released from Prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Brian O; Wang, Emily A; Aminawung, Jenerius A; Albizu-Garcia, Carmen E; Zaller, Nickolas; Nyamu, Sylviah; Shavit, Shira; Deluca, Joseph; Fox, Aaron D

    2018-04-01

    This study assessed the relationship between solitary confinement and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a cohort of recently released former prisoners. The cross-sectional design utilized baseline data from the Transitions Clinic Network, a multi-site prospective longitudinal cohort study of post-incarceration medical care. Our main independent variable was self-reported solitary confinement during the participants' most recent incarceration; the dependent variable was the presence of PTSD symptoms determined by primary care (PC)-PTSD screening when participants initiated primary care in the community. We used multivariable logistic regression to adjust for potential confounders, such as prior mental health conditions, age, and gender. Among 119 participants, 43% had a history of solitary confinement and 28% screened positive for PTSD symptoms. Those who reported a history of solitary confinement were more likely to report PTSD symptoms than those without solitary confinement (43 vs. 16%, p history of solitary confinement (OR = 3.93, 95% CI 1.57-9.83) and chronic mental health conditions (OR = 4.04, 95% CI 1.52-10.68) were significantly associated with a positive PTSD screen after adjustment for the potential confounders. Experiencing solitary confinement was significantly associated with PTSD symptoms among individuals accessing primary care following release from prison. Larger studies should confirm these findings.

  16. Supporting Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Asima; Petrucco, James

    2018-01-01

    Meadowbrook Primary School has explored the use of The Teacher Assessment in Primary Science (TAPS) to support transition, initially for transfer to secondary school and now for transition from Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) into Key Stage 1 (ages 5-7). This article will consider an example of a secondary transition project and discuss the…

  17. Theory of pseudo-classical confinement and transmutation to L-mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.; Yagi, M.; Fukuyama, A.; Azumi, M.

    1993-05-01

    Theory of the self-sustained turbulence is developed for resistive plasma in toroidal devices. Pseudo-classical confinement is obtained in the low temperature limit. As temperature increases, the current-diffusivity prevails upon resistivity, and the turbulence nature changes so as to recover the L-mode transport. Comparison with experimental observation on this transition is made. Hartmann number is also given. (author)

  18. Modeling σ-Bond Activations by Nickel(0) Beyond Common Approximations: How Accurately Can We Describe Closed-Shell Oxidative Addition Reactions Mediated by Low-Valent Late 3d Transition Metal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lianrui; Chen, Kejuan; Chen, Hui

    2017-10-10

    Accurate modelings of reactions involving 3d transition metals (TMs) are very challenging to both ab initio and DFT approaches. To gain more knowledge in this field, we herein explored typical σ-bond activations of H-H, C-H, C-Cl, and C-C bonds promoted by nickel(0), a low-valent late 3d TM. For the key parameters of activation energy (ΔE ‡ ) and reaction energy (ΔE R ) for these reactions, various issues related to the computational accuracy were systematically investigated. From the scrutiny of convergence issue with one-electron basis set, augmented (A) basis functions are found to be important, and the CCSD(T)/CBS level with complete basis set (CBS) limit extrapolation based on augmented double-ζ and triple-ζ basis pair (ADZ and ATZ), which produces deviations below 1 kcal/mol from the reference, is recommended for larger systems. As an alternative, the explicitly correlated F12 method can accelerate the basis set convergence further, especially after its CBS extrapolations. Thus, the CCSD(T)-F12/CBS(ADZ-ATZ) level with computational cost comparable to the conventional CCSD(T)/CBS(ADZ-ATZ) level, is found to reach the accuracy of the conventional CCSD(T)/A5Z level, which produces deviations below 0.5 kcal/mol from the reference, and is also highly recommendable. Scalar relativistic effects and 3s3p core-valence correlation are non-negligible for achieving chemical accuracy of around 1 kcal/mol. From the scrutiny of convergence issue with the N-electron basis set, in comparison with the reference CCSDTQ result, CCSD(T) is found to be able to calculate ΔE ‡ quite accurately, which is not true for the ΔE R calculations. Using highest-level CCSD(T) results of ΔE ‡ in this work as references, we tested 18 DFT methods and found that PBE0 and CAM-B3LYP are among the three best performing functionals, irrespective of DFT empirical dispersion correction. With empirical dispersion correction included, ωB97XD is also recommendable due to its improved

  19. Real-time determination of confinement parameters in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barana, Oliviero; Joffrin, E.; Murari, A.; Sartori, F.

    2003-01-01

    The main confinement parameters, like the internal inductance l i and the diamagnetic poloidal beta β DIA , are of particular relevance for a reliable real-time control system of next step tokamaks. These quantities have been obtained at Joint European Torus (JET), with a precision more than satisfactory for real-time applications, through a method, known as BETALI, that uses the Shafranov integrals S 1 , S 2 and S 3 . Since S 1 , S 2 and S 3 are defined on the plasma boundary, a technique, that exploits the real-time boundary code XLOC, has been expressively developed to determine the last closed flux surface (LCFS). BETALI has been verified on several experimental plasma configurations, giving very encouraging results both in the limiter and x-point phase of the discharges. The compatibility with the time restrictions has also been tested successfully. This application has, therefore, been implemented and it has already been used during last JET campaigns

  20. Particle-confinement criteria for axisymmetric field-reversed magnetic configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, M.Y.; Miley, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    Based on two constants of motion, H and Psub(theta), where H is the total energy of a particle and Psub(theta) is its canonical angular momentum, particle confinement criteria are derived which impose constraints on H and Psub(theta). With no electric field at the ends of field-reversed magnetic configurations, confinement criteria for closed-field and absolute confinements are obtained explicitly, including both lower and upper bounds of Psub(theta)/q, where q is the charge of the species considered, for a class of Hill's vortex field-reversed magnetic configurations. The commonly used criterion for the Hamiltonian, H 0 Psub(theta), where ω 0 is identical to qB 0 /mc, is deduced from a more general form as a special case. In this special case, it is found necessary to impose a new criterion, -B 0 R 2 sub(w)/2c 0 is the vacuum field, which reduces the confinement region in (H,Psub(theta)) space. With the presence of electric fields at the ends of field-reversed magnetic configurations, confinement criteria are obtained for two interesting cases. In addition to lower and upper bounds of H, both lower and upper bounds of Psub(theta)/q are found. For axially confined particles, the lower bound of Psub(theta)/q reduces the confinement region in (H,Psub(theta)) space and represents a new criterion. These results can be applied to calculations for field-reversed mirrors and field-reversed theta pinches. (author)

  1. GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY OF ROTATING, PRESSURE-CONFINED, POLYTROPIC GAS DISKS WITH VERTICAL STRATIFICATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong-Gyu; Kim, Woong-Tae; Seo, Young Min; Hong, Seung Soo

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the gravitational instability (GI) of rotating, vertically stratified, pressure-confined, polytropic gas disks using a linear stability analysis as well as analytic approximations. The disks are initially in vertical hydrostatic equilibrium and bounded by a constant external pressure. We find that the GI of a pressure-confined disk is in general a mixed mode of the conventional Jeans and distortional instabilities, and is thus an unstable version of acoustic-surface-gravity waves. The Jeans mode dominates in weakly confined disks or disks with rigid boundaries. On the other hand, when the disk has free boundaries and is strongly pressure confined, the mixed GI is dominated by the distortional mode that is surface-gravity waves driven unstable under their own gravity and thus incompressible. We demonstrate that the Jeans mode is gravity-modified acoustic waves rather than inertial waves and that inertial waves are almost unaffected by self-gravity. We derive an analytic expression for the effective sound speed c eff of acoustic-surface-gravity waves. We also find expressions for the gravity reduction factors relative to a razor-thin counterpart that are appropriate for the Jeans and distortional modes. The usual razor-thin dispersion relation, after correcting for c eff and the reduction factors, closely matches the numerical results obtained by solving a full set of linearized equations. The effective sound speed generalizes the Toomre stability parameter of the Jeans mode to allow for the mixed GI of vertically stratified, pressure-confined disks.

  2. Upper Basalt-Confined Aquifer System in the Southern Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, P.

    1999-01-01

    The 1990 DOE Tiger Team Finding GW/CF-202 found that the hydrogeologic regime at the Hanford Site was inadequately characterized. This finding also identified the need for completing a study of the confined aquifer in the central and southern portions of the Hanford Site. The southern portion of the site is of particular interest because hydraulic-head patterns in the upper basalt-confined aquifer system indicate that groundwater from the Hanford central plateau area, where contaminants have been found in the aquifer, flows southeast toward the southern site boundary. This results in a potential for offsite migration of contaminants through the upper basalt-confined aquifer system. Based on the review presented in this report, available hydrogeologic characterization information for the upper basalt-confined aquifer system in this area is considered adequate to close the action item. Recently drilled offsite wells have provided additional information on the structure of the aquifer system in and near the southern part of the Hanford Site. Information on hydraulic properties, hydrochemistry, hydraulic heads and flow directions for the upper basalt-confined aquifer system has been re-examined and compiled in recent reports including Spane and Raymond (1993), Spane and Vermeul ( 1994), and Spane and Webber (1995)

  3. Decreased re-conviction rates of DUI offenders with intensive supervision and home confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, William D; Fisher, Virginia; Hynes, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    In some jurisdictions, persons who are convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) are allowed to serve some portion of their prison sentence under home confinement as part of Intensive Supervision Programs (ISPs) which include pre-release psycho-education and close post-release supervision. Test the hypothesis that persons convicted of DUI offenses who have spent some portion of their sentence under home confinement, as compared to a historical comparison group, will exhibit a relatively low re-conviction rate. Using administrative data for 1,410 repeat DUI offenders (302 members of the historical comparison group, 948 ISP members, and 160 persons who appear in both groups at different points in time), with a follow-up period of up to 3 years and 10 months, a marginal Cox model was employed to compare conviction rates of persons who experienced intensive supervision and home confinement with historical comparison group members. Persons with ISP + home confinement experience a re-conviction rate that is less than half that observed in the comparison group. Age, ethnicity (white vs. non-white), and gender are also significant predictors of re-conviction. Home confinement, in conjunction with psycho-education and other program elements, is one means of reducing the costs of incarceration. The results of this study suggest that, in addition to cost savings, states may realize a public safety benefit in the form of a reduction in DUI offense rates.

  4. Symmetries in confined classical Coulomb systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The properties of charged particles confined in a harmonic oscillator potential have become of increased interest lately in view of the development of techniques in ion traps and storage rings. The symmetries in such systems intrigued the imagination of Ted Hecht in connection with the storage ring at Heidelberg, and so perhaps it is an appropriate subject for this symposium

  5. Mesoscale simulations of confined Nafion thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanya, P.; Sharman, J.; Elliott, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    The morphology and transport properties of thin films of the ionomer Nafion, with thicknesses on the order of the bulk cluster size, have been investigated as a model system to explain the anomalous behaviour of catalyst/electrode-polymer interfaces in membrane electrode assemblies. We have employed dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to investigate the interaction of water and fluorocarbon chains, with carbon and quartz as confining materials, for a wide range of operational water contents and film thicknesses. We found confinement-induced clustering of water perpendicular to the thin film. Hydrophobic carbon forms a water depletion zone near the film interface, whereas hydrophilic quartz results in a zone with excess water. There are, on average, oscillating water-rich and fluorocarbon-rich regions, in agreement with experimental results from neutron reflectometry. Water diffusivity shows increasing directional anisotropy of up to 30% with decreasing film thickness, depending on the hydrophilicity of the confining material. A percolation analysis revealed significant differences in water clustering and connectivity with the confining material. These findings indicate the fundamentally different nature of ionomer thin films, compared to membranes, and suggest explanations for increased ionic resistances observed in the catalyst layer.

  6. Inertial Confinement Fusion at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, D.C.

    1989-09-01

    This report discusses the following topics on Inertial Confinement Fusion: ICF contributions to science and technology; target fabrication; laser-target interaction; KrF laser development; advanced KrF lasers; KrF laser technology; and plasma physics for light-ion program

  7. Mixed colour states in QCD confining vacuum

    OpenAIRE

    Buividovich, P. V.; Kuvshinov, V. I.

    2005-01-01

    We show that confinement of spinless heavy quarks in fundamental representation of $SU(N_{c})$ gauge group can be treated as decoherence of pure colour state into a white mixture of states. Decoherence rate is found to be proportional to the tension of QCD string and the distance between colour charges. The purity of colour states is calculated.

  8. Confining strings revisited - a short comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, Luiz C.L.

    2000-03-01

    We show that Polyakov's confining string Nucl. Phys. B486, (1997) 23, is the author's previously proposed self-avoiding extrinsic strings (Luiz C.L. Botelho), Rev. Bras. Fis. 16, 279, (1986); CALTECH-preprint 68, 1444, (1987); J. Math. Phys. 30 (9), (1989), 2160). (author)

  9. Monopole current dynamics and color confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichie, H.; Suganuma, H.; Tanaka, A.

    1998-01-01

    Color confinement can be understood by the dual Higgs theory, where monopole condensation leads to the exclusion of the electric flux from the QCD vacuum. We study the role of the monopole for color confinement by investigating the monopole current system. When the self-energy of the monopole current is small enough, long and complicated monopole world-lines appear, which is a signal of monopole condensation. In the dense monopole system, the Wilson loop obeys the area-law, and the string tension and the monopole density have similar behavior as the function of the self-energy, which seems that monopole condensation leads to color confinement. On the long-distance physics, the monopole current system almost reproduces essential features of confinement properties in lattice QCD. In the short-distance physics, however, the monopole-current theory would become nonlocal and complicated due to the monopole size effect. This monopole size would provide a critical scale of QCD in terms of the dual Higgs mechanism. (orig.)

  10. Inertial Confinement Fusion at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, D.C.

    1989-09-01

    This report discusses the following topics on inertial confinement fusion: distribution of electron-beam energy in KrF laser media; electron collision processes in KrF laser media; Krf laser kinetics; and properties of the KrF laser medium

  11. Somersault of Paramecium in extremely confined environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Saikat; Eddins, Aja; Spoon, Corrie; Jung, Sunghwan

    2015-08-01

    We investigate various swimming modes of Paramecium in geometric confinements and a non-swimming self-bending behavior like a somersault, which is quite different from the previously reported behaviors. We observe that Paramecia execute directional sinusoidal trajectories in thick fluid films, whereas Paramecia meander around a localized region and execute frequent turns due to collisions with adjacent walls in thin fluid films. When Paramecia are further constrained in rectangular channels narrower than the length of the cell body, a fraction of meandering Paramecia buckle their body by pushing on the channel walls. The bucking (self-bending) of the cell body allows the Paramecium to reorient its anterior end and explore a completely new direction in extremely confined spaces. Using force deflection method, we quantify the Young’s modulus of the cell and estimate the swimming and bending powers exerted by Paramecium. The analysis shows that Paramecia can utilize a fraction of its swimming power to execute the self-bending maneuver within the confined channel and no extra power may be required for this new kind of self-bending behavior. This investigation sheds light on how micro-organisms can use the flexibility of the body to actively navigate within confined spaces.

  12. Dynamics of water confined in clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Caer, S.; Pommeret, S.; Renault, J.Ph.; Lima, M.; Righini, R.; Gosset, D.; Simeone, D.; Bergaya, F.

    2012-01-01

    Ultrafast infrared spectroscopy of the O-D stretching mode of dilute HOD in H 2 O probes the local environment and the hydrogen bond network of confined water. The dynamics of water molecules confined in the interlayer space of montmorillonites (Mt) and in interaction with two types of cations (Li + and Ca 2+ ) but also with the negatively charged siloxane surface are studied. The results evidence that the OD vibrational dynamics is significantly slowed down in confined media: it goes from 1.7 ps in neat water to 2.6 Ps in the case of Li + cations with two water pseudo-layers (2.2-2.3 ps in the case of Ca 2+ cations) and to 4.7 ps in the case of Li + cations with one water pseudo-layer. No significant difference between the two cations is noticed. In this 2D confined geometry (the interlayer space being about 0.6 nm for two water pseudo-layers), the relaxation time constants obtained are comparable to the ones measured in analogous concentrated salt solutions. Nevertheless, and in strong opposition to the observations performed in the liquid phase, anisotropy experiments evidence the absence of rotational motions on a 5 ps time scale, proving that the hydrogen bond network in the interlayer space of the clay mineral is locked at this time scale. (authors)

  13. Extended BRS algebra and color confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shintani, Meiun.

    1984-02-01

    We examine the color confinement scheme and its realizations proposed by Kugo and Ojima. Using the Nakanishi's theorem, we obtain a representation of the extended BRS algebra compatible with the so-called K-O condition of their confinement criteria. However, it turns out that the representation is not physically acceptable, and thus their scheme lacks self-consistency at the level of realizations. We also clarify what kind of ghost structures are suggested by the well-definedness or ill-definedness of the charge operator Nsup(a) constituting a part of the global color charge operator. It is shown that there are four possible cancellation mechanisms of ghosts. In particular, it turns out that the octet of ghosts suggested by Nishijima in his confinement theory arises from the well-definedness of the Nsup(a) charge, whereas the elementary quartet arises from the ill-definedness of the Nsup(a). Moreover, from the octet structures, we deduce the confinement condition which replaces the K-O condition. (author)

  14. Neutrino confinement in collapsing stellar cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    Neutrino confinement is expected to occur in the core of highly evolved stars, leading to the formation of a degenerate neutrino gas. The main neutrino sources are briefly reviewed and the neutrino processes relevant to the neutrino opacity in the stellar matter are discussed. Implications for the equation of state of neutrino-trapped matter are examined. (author) [pt

  15. Nuclear diagnostics for inertial confinement fusion implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    This abstract contains viewgraphs on nuclear diagnostic techniques for inertial confinement fusion implosions. The viewgraphs contain information on: reactions of interest in ICF; advantages and disadvantages of these methods; the properties nuclear techniques can measure; and some specifics on the detectors used

  16. Perspectives on confinement in helical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae

    1989-01-01

    A review on recent experimental results and theoretical models on anomalous transport and density limit in toroidal helical devices is presented. Importance of transport problems is discussed. Experiments on Heliotron-E, Wendelstein-VIIA and new devices, i.e., ATF, Wendelstein-VIIAS and CHS, are reviewed and an overview on confinement property is given. From recent experimental results one sees that there are anomalous transport, which increases with temperature, and density limit, and that they limit the energy confinement time as well as the attainable beta value. The confinement characteristics of the scrape off layer plasma and loss cone loss are discussed, and perspectives on the high temperature plasma are given. These anomalous transport and density limit will be difficult obstacles in realizing a reactor grade plasma in helical systems. It is an urgent task to draw a realistic picture of the confinement based on the present data base. The relevant knowledge now would be critically essential for the successful development of the research in 1990's. (author) 102 refs

  17. Energy confinement of high-density tokamaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schüller, F.C.; Schram, D.C.; Coppi, B.; Sadowski, W.

    1977-01-01

    Neoclassical ion heat conduction is the major energy loss mechanism in the center of an ohmically heated high-d. tokamak discharge (n>3 * 1020 m-3). This fixes the mutual dependence of plasma quantities on the axis and leads to scaling laws for the poloidal b and energy confinement time, given the

  18. Confinement mechanisms in the radiatively improved mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tokar, M. Z.; R. Jaspers,; Koslowski, H. R.; Kramer-Flecken, A.; Messiaen, A. M.; Ongena, J.; Rogister, A. A.; Unterberg, B.; Weynants, R. R.

    1999-01-01

    The characteristics of the toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) instability, considered as the main source of anomalous transport in the low (L) confinement mode of tokamaks, are analysed for the conditions of the radiatively improved (RI) mode triggered by seeding of impurities. Based on

  19. Hohlraum manufacture for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreman, L.R.; Gobby, P.; Bartos, J.

    1994-01-01

    Hohlraums are an integral part of indirect drive targets for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research. Hohlraums are made by an electroforming process that combines elements of micromachining and coating technology. The authors describe how these target element are made and extension of the method that allow fabrication of other, more complex target components

  20. Probing the properties of confined liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, Sissi Jacoba Adrianus

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis we describe Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation of the static and dynamic properties of layered liquids confined between two solid surfaces. Liquid molecules in the proximity of a solid surface assemble into layers. When a fluid is