WorldWideScience

Sample records for confined submarine fans

  1. The Bengal Submarine Fan, Northeastern Indian ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmel, F. J.; Curray, J. R.

    1984-06-01

    Bengal Submarine Fan, with or without its eastern lobe, the Nicobar Fan, is the largest submarine fan known. Most of its sediment has been supplied by the Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers, probably since the Early Eocene. The “Swatch-of-No-Ground” submarine canyon connects to only one active fan valley system at a time, without apprent bifurcation over its 2500-km length. The upper fan is comprised of a complex of huge channel-levee wedges of abandoned and buried older systems. A reduction of channel size and morphology occurs at the top of the middle, fan, where meandering and sheet flow become more important.

  2. Calciclastic submarine fans: An integrated overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payros, Aitor; Pujalte, Victoriano

    2008-01-01

    Calciclastic submarine fans are rare in the stratigraphic record and no bona fide present-day analogue has been described to date. Possibly because of that, and although calciclastic submarine fans have long intrigued deep-water carbonate sedimentologists, they have largely been overlooked by the academic and industrial communities. To fill this gap we have compiled and critically reviewed the existing sedimentological literature on calciclastic submarine fans, thus offering an updated view of this type of carbonate slope sedimentary system. Calciclastic submarine fans range in length from just a few to more than 100 km. Three different types can be distinguished: (1) Coarse-grained, small-sized (reefs was hampered by cool waters, nutrient enrichment or oligophoty. Another circumstance that contributes to the transfer of shallow-water sediments to the distal ramp slope is a low sea level, forcing the carbonate factory closer to the slope break and destabilizing sediments by increased pore-water pressure. However, the most important factor controlling the development of calciclastic submarine fans was the existence of an efficient funnelling mechanism forcing sediment gravity flows to merge downslope and build up a point-sourced sedimentary accumulation. In most cases this occurred through a major slope depression associated with tectonic structures, an inherited topography, or large-scale mass failures.

  3. Process sedimentology of submarine fan deposits - new perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, George

    2017-04-01

    To link submarine fan process sedimentology with sand distribution, sand body architecture, texture and fabric, the field geologist studies sedimentary facies, facies associations (fan elements) and stratigraphy. Facies analysis resides on factual knowledge of modern fan morphodynamics and physical modelling of en-masse sediment transport. Where do we stand after 55 years of submarine research, i.e. the date when the first submarine fan model was launched by Arnold Bouma in 1962? Since that date students of submarine fans have worked on a number of important, recurring questions concerned with facies analysis of submarine successions in outcrop and core: 1. What type of sediment transport produced the beds? 2. What facies can be related to initial flow conditions? 3. What is the significance of grain size jumps and bounding surface hierarchy in beds consisting of crude and spaced stratification (traction carpets)? Do these point to multi flow events or to flow pulsations by one and the same event? 4. What facies associations relate to the basic elements of submarine fans? 5. What are the autogenic and allogenic signatures in submarine fans? Particularly in the last decade, the enormous technical advancement helped to obtain high-quality data from observations of density flows in modern canyons, deep basins and deep-water delta slopes (refs 1,2,3). In combination with both physical (refs 4,5) and numerical modelling (ref 6) these studies broke new ground into our understanding of density flow processes in various submarine environments and have led to new concepts of submarine fan building by super- and subcritical high-density flow (ref 7). Do these new concepts provide better answers to our recurrent questions related to the morphodynamics of submarine fans and prediction of sand body architecture? In discussing this open question, I shall 1. apply the new concepts to a modern and ancient example of a channel-lobe-transition-zone (ref 8); 2. raise the problem of

  4. Tectonically controlled fan delta and submarine fan sedimentation of late Miocene age, southern Temblor Range, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Thomson, Alan

    1989-01-01

    The Santa Margarita Formation in the southern Temblor Range, composed of conglomerate and subordinate sandstone, evolved as a large complex of fan deltas and submarine fans in late Miocene time. An 80 to 90-m.y.-old granitic basement of the Salinian block and an accompanying 23.5-m.y.-old volcanic field now located in the northern Gabilan Range and the Pinnacles area, respectively, were the primary source terranes. In general, the fan deltas crop out along the west side of the southern Temblor Range, whereas the proximal parts of the submarine fans crop out along the east side of the range. The fan deltas consist of subaerial topset beds and low-angle basinward-dipping subaqueous foreset beds. Strata interpreted to be topset beds are composed largely of conglomerate with thick to very thick horizontal beds and matrix-supported clasts. Most of the thick to very thick conglomerate beds are internally massive and disorganized. Strata interpreted as foreset beds are composed of thick-bedded, large-scale, low-angle, cross-stratified conglomerate and sandstone units which commonly are internally massive. Abundant molluskan macrofossils such as Ostrea and Pecten are present in the subaqueous foreset beds; many have been displaced downslope from their original site of deposition. Conglomerate- and sandstone-filled submarine canyons, through which coarse-grained detritus was transported to the adjacent submarine fans, locally have cut into the foreset beds of the fan deltas. These submarine canyon deposits are generally better stratified than adjacent foreset-bed deposits, and they consist of thick horizontal beds, internally massive or normally graded, arranged in fining- and thinning-upward sequences. Isolated and composite conglomerate- and sandstone-filled channels, which crop out on the east flank of the southern Temblor Range, are interpreted as proximal submarine-fan channel deposits. These channel-form conglomerate and sandstone deposits are characterized by thick

  5. Late Cretaceous Sub-Marine Fan System in Batain Mélange Zone, the Fayah Formation in Northeastern Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Ahmed Abbasi

    2014-06-01

    , possibly as olistostrome formed due to submarine slumping and sliding. The turbidite lithofacies association is comprised of monotonous grayish-green to brown coloured clays tens of meters thick interbedded with thin, clean, well-sorted sandstone. The Interbedded sandstone and shale lithofacies association is comprised of a half to one meter thick cross-bedded, burrowed arkosic sandstone and plane laminated shale. The sandstone constitutes about 25% of the association with ripple lamination in the upper part of the unit indicating a fining-upward trend. Dewatering structures are common. This association constitutes the upper 100m of the formation. These sediments were deposited in shallow water conditions by channelized flows. Based on the lithofacies associations described above, especially the dominance of debris-flow units and turbidites, the greater part of the Fayah Formation are interpreted as having been deposited under a sub-marine fan setting. Only the upper part of the formation was deposited in a shallow water setting before the onset of overlying carbonate deposits. The sub-marine fan system was active during the last stages of the Tethys Ocean closure at the time of onset of the Batain nappe.

  6. Complications in The Identification and Mapping of the Foot of the Slope on the Indus Submarine Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inam, A.; Rabbani, M. M.; Tabrez, A. R.

    2005-12-01

    scientific literature. The investigation and identification of the COB/COT/SDRs might be one of the most critical element in determining the FoS using geological/geophysical evidence, when invoking the `evidence to the contrary' provision of the Art.76 for the establishment of the continental shelf. The seafloor spreading, basement topography and the SW Monsoon have influenced the sediment deposition in the geological past, resulting in variable sediment thicknesses in the area. This will be one of the most critical factor when pursuing the `sediment thickness rule' for the proposed establishment of the continental shelf. The rugged bottom topography and variations in the sediment thicknesses over the Indus submarine fan has made the delimitation of marine boundary a very challenging task for the scientists involved in the application of Article 76 in this part of the world.

  7. Unlocking the hydrocarbon potential of the eastern Black Sea basin. Prospectivity of middle Miocene submarine fan reservoirs by seismic sequence stratigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundogan, Coskun; Galip, Ozbek; Ali, Demirer

    2002-01-01

    Full text : The objective of this paper is to present present depositional characteristics and hydrocarbon prospectivity of the middle Miocene submarine basin floor fan deposits from the exploration stand point of view by using seismic data available in the offshore eastern Black Sea basin. This basin is a Tertiary trough formed as a continuation of the Mesozoic oceanic basin. The hydrocarbon potential of the basin is believed to be high in the Tertiary section because of the existence of the elements necessary for generation, migration and entrapment of hydrocarbon. A sequence stratigraphic study has been carried out by using 2-d seismic data in the Turkish portion of the eastern Black Sea basin. The objective of the study was to determine periods of major clastic sediment influxes which might lead to identify good reservoir intervals and their spatial distribution in this basin. All basic seismic sequence stratigraphic interpretation techniques and seismic facies analysis were used to identify times of these sand rich deposition periods. Sequence stratigraphy and seismic facies analysis indicate that the basinal areas of the middle Miocene sequences were dominated mainly by submarine fan complexes introduced in the lowstand stages and pelagic sediments deposited during the transgressive and highstand stages. It was proposed that Turkish portion of this basin which is one of the best frontier exploration area with its high potential left in the world, is glimpsing to those looking for good future exploration opportunities.

  8. Autogenic influence on the morphology of submarine fans: an approach from 3D physical modelling of turbidity currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Fick

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Autogenic controls have significant influence on deep-water fans and depositional lobes morphology. In this work, we aim to investigate autogenic controls on the topography and geometry of deep-water fans. The influence of the sediment concentration of turbidity currents on deep-water fans morphology was also investigated. From the repeatability of 3D physical modeling of turbidity currents, two series of ten experiments were made, one of high-density turbidity currents (HDTC and another of low-density turbidity currents (LDTC. All other input parameters (discharge, sediment volumetric concentration and grain size median were kept constant. Each deposit was analyzed from qualitative and quantitative approaches and statistical analysis. In each experimental series, the variability of the morphological parameters (length, width, L/W ratio, centroid, area, topography of the simulated deep-water fans was observed. Depositional evolution of the HDTC fans was more complex, showing four evolutionary steps and characterized by the self-channelizing of the turbidity current, while LDTC fans neither present self-channelizing, nor evolutionary steps. High disparities on the geometrical parameters of the fans, as characterized by the elevated relative standard deviation, suggest that autogenic controls induced a stochastic morphological behaviour on the simulated fans of the two experimental series.

  9. Shale tectonics and structural deformation on the Amazon submarine fan: preliminaries results; Processo de argilocinese e estruturacao do pacote sedimentar da regiao do leque submarino do Amazonas: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Valterlene de; Silva, Cleverson Guizan [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Lab. de Geologia Marinha (LAGEMAR); Reis, Antonio Tadeu dos [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Oceanografia

    2004-07-01

    The Amazon Submarine Fan, part of the Amazon Mouth Basin, is strongly affected by shale tectonics. Preliminary analysis of about 9.000 Km of multichannel seismic lines allowed us to map three main structural domains: a proximal extensive province largely dominated by seaward-dipping listric normal faults soling into a decollement level (mobile shale, Neomiocene in age) and associated rollovers; an intermediate rigid gliding province, and a lowermost compressive front, dominated by thrust faults. An important point about gravity tectonics in this area is that the morphology of the base of the mobile level seems to have influenced the development of the structural styles. For instance, listric faults lying at the upslope limit of the extensional province are arranged along a step-like morphology of the decollement level. As well as that, we observed that the gradient of the decollement level is more important on the northwestern portion of the fan, where the distance between the extensive and the compressive province is larger (of about 40 Km) than on the southeastern portion of the fan (about 25 Km large). Then, on the basis of the basal level gradient and the structures disposition we can segment the fan area into two structural compartments: a northwest and a southeast compartment. (author)

  10. The modern Kaoping transient fan offshore SW Taiwan: Morphotectonics and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Kan-Hsi; Yu, Ho-Shing; Chiang, Cheng-Shing

    2018-01-01

    Using bathymetry and seismic reflection profiles, this study examined and determined the transient nature of the Kaoping Fan located in the topographically complex slope offshore southwest Taiwan. Kaoping Fan is located west of the lower reach of the Kaoping Canyon at the lower Kaoping Slope, ranging from 2,200 to 3,000 m water depth, and has a relatively small areal extent restricted in the topographic lows confined by structural highs due to mud diapiric uplifting and thrust faulting. Kaoping Fan shows an asymmetrical triangular fan-shaped bathymetric feature elongated in an NW-SE direction but with a strong skew toward the east. The fan deposits consist of three main seismic facies: layered high-amplitude reflections in the upper section and stratified, parallel to sub-parallel low-amplitude reflections with variable continuity and channel fill facies in the lower section. In the absence of ground-truthing from core data, the seismic patterns suggest that the Kaoping Fan recorded the onset of channelized and over-bank deposits in the lower part and layered turbidite facies in the upper part subsequently. The development of the Kaoping Fan can be divided into three stages in terms of canyon activities and fan-feeding processes. Initially, Kaoping Fan was mainly fed by a point sediment source at the apex of the fan. Secondly, Kaoping Fan was maintained as a slope fan, mainly fed laterally by over-spilled sediments from the canyon. Finally, the Kaoping Canyon completely passes through the Kaoping Fan and supplies over-spilled sediments laterally, forming a transient fan with canyon incision and sediment by-passing. The accumulation of sediments and the growth of Kaoping Fan are primarily controlled by inherited complex paleo-topography and the evolution of Kaoping Canyon. The sediment delivery system of Kaoping Fan is characterized by lateral supply of over-spilling sediment flows and sediments bypassing to and beyond the base of slope. The Kaoping Fan together

  11. First direct observations linking confined supercritical turbidity currents to their depositional architecture and facies characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, S.; Cartigny, M.; Hughes Clarke, J. E.; Clare, M. A.; Sumner, E.; Hubbard, S. M.; Talling, P.; Lintern, G.; Stacey, C.; Vardy, M. E.; Hunt, J.; Vendettuoli, D.; Yokokawa, M.; Hizzett, J. L.; Vellinga, A. J.; Azpiroz, M.

    2017-12-01

    Turbidity currents transfer globally significant amounts of sediment via submarine channels from the continental margin to deep submarine fans. Submarine channel inception is thought to result from erosive, supercritical turbidity currents that are common in proximal settings of the marine realm. Recent monitoring of submarine processes have provided the first measurements of supercritical turbidity currents (Hughes Clarke, 2016), demonstrating that they drive the upstream migration of crescentic bedforms in confined submarine channels. Although upstream-migrating bedforms are common in confined channels across the world's oceans, there is considerable debate over the type of deposits that they produce. It is important to understand what types of deposit record these supercritical bedforms to potentially identify them from geological archives. For the first time, we combine direct measurements from supercritical field-scale turbidity currents with the facies and depositional architecture resulting from such flows. We show how the subsurface architecture evolves in a highly active channel at Squamish submarine delta, British Columbia, Canada. Repeated upstream migration of bedforms is found to create two main deposit geometries. First, regular back-stepping beds result from flow deceleration on the slightly-inclined sides of the bedforms. Second, lens-shaped scour fills composed of massive deposits result from erosion of the back-stepping beds by subsequent turbidity currents. We relate our findings to a range of ancient outcrop studies to demonstrate that supercritical flows are common in proximal settings through the geological record. This study provides the first direct observation-based model to identify confined supercritical turbidity currents and their associated upslope-migrating bedforms in the sedimentary record. This is important for correctly identifying the proximal sites of ancient submarine channels that served as past conduits for globally

  12. Submarine landslides in Arctic sedimentation: Canada Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lebedova-Ivanova, N; Chapman, C.

    2016-01-01

    Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin in the World. Marine seismic field programs were conducted over the past 6 years using Canadian and American icebreakers. These expeditions acquired more than 14,000 line-km of multibeam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data over abyssal plain, continental rise and slope regions of Canada Basin; areas where little or no seismic reflection data existed previously. Canada Basin is a turbidite-filled basin with flat-lying reflections correlateable over 100s of km. For the upper half of the sedimentary succession, evidence of sedimentary processes other than turbidity current deposition is rare. The Canadian Archipelago and Beaufort Sea margins host stacked mass transport deposits from which many of these turbidites appear to derive. The stratigraphic succession of the MacKenzie River fan is dominated by mass transport deposits; one such complex is in excess of 132,000 km2 in area and underlies much of the southern abyssal plain. The modern seafloor is also scarred with escarpments and mass failure deposits; evidence that submarine landsliding is an ongoing process. In its latest phase of development, Canada Basin is geomorphologically confined with stable oceanographic structure, resulting in restricted depositional/reworking processes. The sedimentary record, therefore, underscores the significance of mass-transport processes in providing sediments to oceanic abyssal plains as few other basins are able to do.

  13. Submarine hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Renilson, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This book adopts a practical approach and presents recent research together with applications in real submarine design and operation. Topics covered include hydrostatics, manoeuvring, resistance and propulsion of submarines. The author briefly reviews basic concepts in ship hydrodynamics and goes on to show how they are applied to submarines, including a look at the use of physical model experiments. The issues associated with manoeuvring in both the horizontal and vertical planes are explained, and readers will discover suggested criteria for stability, along with rudder and hydroplane effectiveness. The book includes a section on appendage design which includes information on sail design, different arrangements of bow planes and alternative stern configurations. Other themes explored in this book include hydro-acoustic performance, the components of resistance and the effect of hull shape. Readers will value the author’s applied experience as well as the empirical expressions that are presented for use a...

  14. Soviet submarine accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breemer, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    Although the Soviet Union has more submarines than the NATO navies combined, and the technological superiority of western submarines is diminishing, there is evidence that there are more accidents with Soviet submarines than with western submarine fleets. Whether this is due to inadequate crews or lower standards of maintenance and overhaul procedures is discussed. In particular, it is suggested that since the introduction of nuclear powered submarines, the Soviet submarine safety record has deteriorated. Information on Soviet submarine accidents is difficult to come by, but a list of some 23 accidents, mostly in nuclear submarines, between 1966 and 1986, has been compiled. The approximate date, class or type of submarine, the nature and location of the accident, the casualties and damage and the source of information are tabulated. (U.K.)

  15. weiqiang fan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. WEIQIANG FAN. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 96 Issue 6 December 2017 pp 867-872 RESEARCH ARTICLE. A genetic variant in COL11A1 is functionally associated with lumbar disc herniation in Chinese population · WENJUN LIU GUISEN SUN LONGSHENG GUO ...

  16. Submarine Medicine Team

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Submarine Medicine Team conducts basic and applied research on biomedical aspects of submarine and diving environments. It focuses on ways to optimize the health...

  17. Submarine nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    The submarine nuclear power plant has revolutionised the strategy and tactics of under-sea warfare. Present day submarine nuclear power plants are discussed, as well as future developments. The endurance, speed, noise and diving depth of nuclear submarines are also outlined. (U.K.)

  18. Marine underwater in submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarthon, F.; Dupuy-Maury, F.

    2004-01-01

    This dossier summarizes the 50 years of the French history of submarine nuclear propulsion. It presents the respective missions of the different types of submarines (dissuasion, protection), the inside structure, the maintenance works, the reactor and propulsion system, the new generation of nuclear submarines and the facilities for the on-shore testing of the reactor components. (J.S.)

  19. Assessment of ambulatory activity in the Republic of Korea Navy submarine crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seong-Woo; Lee, Jae-Ho; Jang, Young-Keun; Kim, Jung-Ryul

    2010-01-01

    A submarine crew in the Republic of the Korea Navy experienced significant physical inactivity during undersea deployment because of the narrow and confined space. Physical inactivity is known to be associated with a number of adverse health conditions in the long-term perspective. This study aimed to assess the ambulatory activity of submarine crew using pedometers. Study subjects (n=109) were the submarine crew from two diesel submarines and personnel from the Submarine Command. The subjects wore pedometers at their waistline and recorded their walking steps daily for a month. The submarine crew walked more than 7000 steps/day on average during the stationed period. However, the ambulatory activity of the submarine crew greatly declined to a level of around 2000 steps/day during deployment, which corresponded to the sedentary status category. Active exercise is recommended for the submarine crew to prevent potential adverse health outcomes related to the physical inactivity.

  20. Understanding Himalayan erosion and the significance of the Nicobar Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Lisa C.; Dugan, Brandon; Backman, Jan; Pickering, Kevin T.; Pouderoux, Hugo F. A.; Henstock, Timothy J.; Petronotis, Katerina E.; Carter, Andrew; Chemale, Farid; Milliken, Kitty L.; Kutterolf, Steffen; Mukoyoshi, Hideki; Chen, Wenhuang; Kachovich, Sarah; Mitchison, Freya L.; Bourlange, Sylvain; Colson, Tobias A.; Frederik, Marina C. G.; Guèrin, Gilles; Hamahashi, Mari; House, Brian M.; Hüpers, Andre; Jeppson, Tamara N.; Kenigsberg, Abby R.; Kuranaga, Mebae; Nair, Nisha; Owari, Satoko; Shan, Yehua; Song, Insun; Torres, Marta E.; Vannucchi, Paola; Vrolijk, Peter J.; Yang, Tao; Zhao, Xixi; Thomas, Ellen

    2017-10-01

    A holistic view of the Bengal-Nicobar Fan system requires sampling the full sedimentary section of the Nicobar Fan, which was achieved for the first time by International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 362 west of North Sumatra. We identified a distinct rise in sediment accumulation rate (SAR) beginning ∼9.5 Ma and reaching 250-350 m/Myr in the 9.5-2 Ma interval, which equal or far exceed rates on the Bengal Fan at similar latitudes. This marked rise in SAR and a constant Himalayan-derived provenance necessitates a major restructuring of sediment routing in the Bengal-Nicobar submarine fan. This coincides with the inversion of the Eastern Himalayan Shillong Plateau and encroachment of the west-propagating Indo-Burmese wedge, which reduced continental accommodation space and increased sediment supply directly to the fan. Our results challenge a commonly held view that changes in sediment flux seen in the Bengal-Nicobar submarine fan were caused by discrete tectonic or climatic events acting on the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau. Instead, an interplay of tectonic and climatic processes caused the fan system to develop by punctuated changes rather than gradual progradation.

  1. Sunken nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, V.O.

    1990-01-01

    The increasing number of accidents with nuclear submarines is a worriment to the general public. Five nuclear submarines are resting on the bottom of the North Atlantic. Design information on nuclear propulsion plants for submarines is classified. The author describes a potential generic nuclear submarine propulsion plant. Design information from the civilian nuclear industry, nuclear power plants, research reactors, nuclear cargo vessels and nuclear propelled icebreakers are used for illustration of relevant problems. A survey is given of nuclear submarines. Factors influencing the accident risks and safety characteristics of nuclear submarines are considered, and potential accident scenarios are described. The fission product content of the nuclear plant can be estimated, '' source terms'' can be guessed and potential release rates can be judged. The mechanisms of dispersion in the oceans is reviewed and compared with the dumping of radioactive waste in the Atlantic and other known releases. 46 refs., 49 figs., 14 tabs

  2. Nuclear-powered submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curren, T.

    1989-01-01

    The proposed acquisition of nuclear-powered submarines by the Canadian Armed Forces raises a number of legitimate concerns, including that of their potential impact on the environment. The use of nuclear reactors as the propulsion units in these submarines merits special consideration. Radioactivity, as an environmental pollutant, has unique qualities and engenders particular fears among the general population. The effects of nuclear submarines on the environment fall into two distinct categories: those deriving from normal operations of the submarine (the chief concern of this paper), and those deriving from a reactor accident. An enormous body of data must exist to support the safe operation of nuclear submarines; however, little information on this aspect of the proposed submarine program has been made available to the Canadian public. (5 refs.)

  3. Submarine landslides: advances and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locat, Jacques; Lee, Homa J.

    2002-01-01

    Due to the recent development of well-integrated surveying techniques of the sea floor, significant improvements were achieved in mapping and describing the morphology and architecture of submarine mass movements. Except for the occurrence of turbidity currents, the aquatic environment (marine and fresh water) experiences the same type of mass failure as that found on land. Submarine mass movements, however, can have run-out distances in excess of 100 km, so their impact on any offshore activity needs to be integrated over a wide area. This great mobility of submarinemass movements is still not very well understood, particularly for cases like the far-reaching debris flows mapped on the Mississippi Fan and the large submarine rock avalanches found around many volcanic islands. A major challenge ahead is the integration of mass movement mechanics in an appropriate evaluation of the hazard so that proper risk assessment methodologies can be developed and implemented for various human activities offshore, including the development of natural resources and the establishment of reliable communication corridors. Key words : submarine slides, hazards, risk assessment, morphology, mobility, tsunami. Le dveloppement rcent de techniques de levs hydrograhiques pour les fonds marins nous a permis d'atteindre une qualit ingale dans la cartographie et la description des glissements sous marins. l'exception des courants de turbidit, on retrouve dans le domaine aquatique les mmes types de mouvements de terrain que sur terre. Par contre, les glissements sous-marins peuvent atteindre des distances excdant 100 km de telle sorte que leur impact sur les activits offshore doit tre pris en compte sur degrandes tendues. La grande mobilit des glissements sous-marins n'est pas encore bien comprise, comme pour le cas des coules dedbris cartographies sur le cne du Mississippi ainsi que pour les grandes avalanches rocheuses sous-marines retrouves au pourtour des les volcaniques. Un dfi majeur

  4. The nuclear submarines dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queau, Ph.

    2002-01-01

    The replacement of the first French nuclear submarines by these ones of new generation has led to put in place the dismantling and decommissioning of nuclear boilers on board. Technicatome is in charge of shutdown, decommissioning and dismantling studies of nuclear submarines. (N.C.)

  5. Submarine inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanita, Yasunori; Shigemitsu, Toshinori.

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention can confirm the assembly number of a fuel assembly in a pool and detect the head of an inserted material by a screen an image. That is, a submarine object is caused to swim by remote control by using a control device. A float which is floating on the water is disposed above the submarine object. A winch is disposed to the float for winding a rope such as a wire. The rope of the winch is connected to the submarine object. A TV camera is disposed to the float for photographing the submarine object. With such a constitution, the length of the rope can be controlled by the winch to restrict the moving range of the submarine object. This can prevent the submarine object from colliding against a fuel assembly or dropping. In addition, the position of the submarine object, which has been confirmed so far by a compass, a depth-sounding device and an image of TV camera appended to the submarine object, can be detected by the television images of the float extremely simply. (I.S.)

  6. NASA ISS Portable Fan Assembly Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Andrew; Allen, Christopher S.; Hess, Linda F.

    2018-01-01

    The Portable Fan Assembly (PFA) is a variable speed fan that can be used to provide additional ventilation inside International Space Station (ISS) modules as needed for crew comfort or for enhanced mixing of the ISS atmosphere. This fan can also be configured with a Shuttle era lithium hydroxide (LiOH) canister for CO2 removal in confined areas partially of fully isolated from the primary Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) on ISS which is responsible for CO2 removal. This report documents noise emission levels of the PFA at various speed settings and configurations. It also documents the acoustic attenuation effects realized when circulating air through the PFA inlet and outlet mufflers and when operating in its CO2 removal configuration (CRK) with a LiOH canister (sorbent bed) installed over the fan outlet.

  7. Submarine neutrino communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the possibility to use a high energy neutrino beam from a muon storage ring to provide one way communication with a submerged submarine. Neutrino interactions produce muons which can be detected either, directly when they pass through the submarine or by their emission of Cerenkov light in sea water, which, in turn, can be exploited with sensitive photo detectors. Due to the very high neutrino flux from a muon storage ring, it is sufficient to mount either detection system directly onto the hull of the submersible. The achievable data transfer rates compare favorable with existing technologies and do allow for a communication at the usual speed and depth of submarines.

  8. Low cost submarine robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponlachart Chotikarn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A submarine robot is a semi-autonomous submarine robot used mainly for marine environmental research. We aim todevelop a low cost, semi-autonomous submarine robot which is able to travel underwater. The robot’s structure was designedand patented using a novel idea of the diving system employing a volume adjustment mechanism to vary the robot’s density.A light weight, flexibility and small structure provided by PVC can be used to construct the torpedo-liked shape robot.Hydraulic seal and O-ring rubbers are used to prevent water leaking. This robot is controlled by a wired communicationsystem.

  9. [Effect of submarine training on antioxidant ability in submarine men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xia; Zhong, Jin-yi; Wan, Nian-wei; Shang, Wei-hua; Han, Li

    2010-06-01

    To study the effect of the submarine training on the antioxidant ability of the submarine men. 50 sea-training submarine men, 50 land-training submarine men and 50 resting submarine men were randomly selected from some submarine troops. The blood routine, the total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the levels of IFN-gamma in blood plasma, the hemolytic degree of RBC, the proliferation of peripheral-blood lymphocyte (PPL) of them were detected in each group. The T-AOC of the sea-training submarine men, the land-training submarine men and the resting submarine men significantly increased by turns [(15.38 +/- 3.11), (18.81 +/- 2.45), (20.93 +/- 2.95) U/ml], but MDA and the hemolytic degree of RBC significantly decreased by turns [(2.56 +/- 0.70), (2.12 +/- 0.53),(1.77 +/- 0.56) nmol/ml and 25.72% +/- 1.67%, 21.45% +/- 1.02%, 18.28% +/- 1.37%] (P submarine men and the resting submarine men, IFN-gamma [(31.89 +/- 3.52) pg/ml] and the proliferation of PPL of the sea-training submarine men were significantly lower, whereas the red blood count (RBC) and hemoglobin (Hb) were significantly higher (P Submarine training, especially sea training, may decrease the antioxidant ability.

  10. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  11. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  12. Decommissioning of nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The intention of this Report is to set out in simple terms the options open to the Ministry of Defence in disposing of nuclear submarines, and the extent of the problem. To this end oral evidence was taken from United Kingdom Nirex Limited (Nirex) and from the Ministry of Defence, and written evidence was taken from MoD, Nirex, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority and Rolls-Royce and Associates Limited. The immediate problem is what to do with the nuclear submarine, DREADNOUGHT. Since decommissioning in 1982, the submarine has been lying at Rosyth Naval Base on the Firth of Forth. Upon decommissioning, the highly radioactive reactor core with the uranium fuel was removed and transported to the Sellafield reprocessing plant. The remaining radioactive part is the reactor compartment and it is the size of this, not its level of radioactivity which makes it hard to deal with. By the year 2000 a further seven nuclear submarines will have been decommissioned. There are three main options for disposing of the reactor compartments; dumping at sea, land burial in a shallow trench and land burial in a deep repository. Dumping at sea is the option favoured by the Ministry of Defence and Government, but shallow land burial remains an option. Deep burial is not an option which is available immediately as there will not be a repository ready until 2005. (author)

  13. Overseas or Submarines?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Morten Hetmar

    patterns in the maritime domain. The findings are significant particularly in the development of two major constituents of the Chinese Navy, namely submarines and principal surface combatants. In these areas, the development of capabilities has taken place at a dramatic pace and breadth. The paper...

  14. Making a Submarine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornacchia, Deborah J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes Archimedes principle and why a ship sinks when it gets a hole in it. Suggests an activity for teaching the concept of density and water displacement through the construction of a simple submarine. Includes materials and procedures for this activity. (KHR)

  15. RUO-FAN QIU

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. RUO-FAN QIU. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 89 Issue 6 December 2017 pp 81 Research Article. Three-dimensional coupled double-distribution-function lattice Boltzmann models for compressible Navier–Stokes equations · RUO-FAN QIU ...

  16. yi fan zheng

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. YI FAN ZHENG. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 40 Issue 7 December 2017 pp 1329-1333. Synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic activity of g-C 3 N 4 hybridized CdS nanoparticles · QING YING LIU YI LING QI YI FAN ZHENG XU CHUN SONG.

  17. Radiation protection for submarine forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laroche, P.; Rousset, J.; Defrance, J.P.; Grivart de Kerstrat, R.; Amabile, J.C.; Feraud, M.; Roe, H.

    2001-01-01

    We report on the strategic site of Ile Longue in Brittany and describe the medical and dosimetric monitoring of nuclear submarine crews. Over the past eleven years, dosimetric results of nuclear submarine crews have been compared to those of workers employed by outside companies and the Directorate of naval constructions. Since the utilization of the first nuclear submarine, none of the crew members has been overexposed. (author)

  18. Quantifying Channelized Submarine Depositional Systems From Bed to Basin Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    model of channel inception on submarine fans. Journal of the Geophysical Research, C , Oceans, 103(1):1219-1238, 1998. D.C. Jennette , T.R. Garfield, D.C...vertical average for the section. Line is 30km from B to B’. ........... ...................................... 79 14 2-3 Seismic line C - C ’ (Figure 2-1...H14.5 (solid line) can be approximated using CS12, CS13 and CS14. Sedi- mentation is represented by T = 0.9t + C (R 2 = 0.9413) where C is some constant

  19. Online Fan Practices and CALL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauro, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a narrative overview of research on online fan practices for language and literacy learning, use, and identity work. I begin with an introduction to online fan communities and common fan practices found in these online affinity spaces, the best known of which is fan fiction, fictional writing that reinterprets and remixes the…

  20. Quark confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joos, H.

    1976-07-01

    The main topics of these lectures are: phenomenological approach to quark confinement, standard Lagrangian of hadrondynamics, Lagrangian field theory and quark confinement, classical soliton solutions in a simple model, quantization of extended systems, colour charge screening and quantization on a lattice and remarks on applications. A survey of the scientific publications listed according to the topics until 26 March 1976 is supplemented. (BJ) [de

  1. Football - Feminisation - Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mintert, Svenja-Maria

    the number of female fans in football has grown over the past years. A national sense of community, emotion and passion for the game is in particular reached during the international tournaments at live football spectacles and many female fans cheer and sing for ‘their’ team with the utmost conviction. Yet...... sociological theories. The objective is, first, to develop new knowledge and understanding about the impact of football on gendered identity construction and negotiation – in both the performance and the consumption of football – and how these female fans contribute to a European dialogue, the gender......-specific experience and acting out of fandom, and the intersection between gender and national/European identity. The second objective is to study the role of gender in football and fan cultures with regard to gender-specific patterns of cross-cultural communication and identification. The third objective...

  2. Fans af Bruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaben, Nana Katrine

    2007-01-01

    Analysen viser, hvordan det samme ritual under en koncert forener og opdeler de fans, der orienterer sig mod Bruce Springsteen. På den ene side forener ritualet hele publikum i en stor fælles "Intimitet for mange" og på den anden side splitter det dem, fordi det bliver tydeligt, hvem der er de...... rigtige fans, og hvem der tilhører "pøbelen"....

  3. Preliminary Aerodynamic Investigation of Fan Rotor Blade Morphing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Various new technologies currently under development may enable controlled blade shape variability, or so-called blade morphing, to be practically employed in aircraft engine fans and compressors in the foreseeable future. The current study is a relatively brief, preliminary computational fluid dynamics investigation aimed at partially demonstrating and quantifying the aerodynamic potential of fan rotor blade morphing. The investigation is intended to provide information useful for near-term planning, as well as aerodynamic solution data sets that can be subsequently analyzed using advanced acoustic diagnostic tools, for the purpose of making fan noise comparisons. Two existing fan system models serve as baselines for the investigation: the Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan with a design tip speed of 806 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.294, and the Source Diagnostic Test fan with a design tip speed of 1215 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.470. Both are 22-in. sub-scale, low-noise research fan/nacelle models that have undergone extensive experimental testing in the 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The study, restricted to fan rotor blade morphing only, involves a fairly simple blade morphing technique. Specifically, spanwise-linear variations in rotor blade-section setting angle are applied to alter the blade shape; that is, the blade is linearly retwisted from hub to tip. Aerodynamic performance comparisons are made between morphed-blade and corresponding baseline configurations on the basis of equal fan system thrust, where rotor rotational speed for the morphed-blade fan is varied to change the thrust level for that configuration. The results of the investigation confirm that rotor blade morphing could be a useful technology, with the potential to enable significant improvements in fan aerodynamic performance. Even though the study is very limited in scope and confined to simple geometric perturbations of two existing fan

  4. Research on the hydrogeological and geochemical conditions at the coastal area and submarine formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Tomochika; Taniguchi, Makoto; Goto, Junji

    2003-05-01

    One of the major concerns for the high-level radioactive waste disposal is the possibility of the radionuclides to reach biosphere by groundwater flow. Recent research results have shown that the fresh groundwater discharge from subsea formations are widespread phenomena, thus, it is necessary to evaluate the submarine groundwater discharge as possible pathways of contaminant discharge towards the biosphere. It is also important to unravel the groundwater flow and associated material transport at the coastal area and subsea formations. To better understand the groundwater flow processes and the submarine groundwater discharge, we have conducted the hydrological, hydrogeological, geochemical, and numerical modeling studies at the Kurobe alluvial fan and its offshore, Toyama Prefecture, Japan. In this report, the results of the following research activities are presented: 1) Development and application of a method to detect the locations of the submarine groundwater discharge. 2) Development and application of a method to collect uncontaminated groundwater samples from subsea formations. 3) Measurements of submarine groundwater discharge fluxes by automated seepage meter. 4) Hydrological and geochemical studies for groundwater flow at the coastal area. 5) Geochemical studies to understand sources of fresh submarine groundwater discharge. 6) Examination of groundwater flow and submarine groundwater discharge using methane concentration and carbon isotope ratio. 7) Numerical modeling studies for coastal groundwater flow system. (author)

  5. Smart Fan Modules And System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, Thomas M.; Kaufman, Richard I.; Mok, Lawrence S.

    2003-07-15

    A fan module including: two or more individual fans, each fan having an air movement means and a motor engaged with the air movement means for accelerating air entering each of the two or more individual fans; a temperature sensor for sensing a temperature associated with the two or more fans and for outputting a first signal corresponding to the temperature; rotational speed sensor for outputting a second signal corresponding to a rotational speed of each of the two or more fans; and a processor for receiving the first and second signals and controlling the two or more individual fans based on the first and second signals. A fan module including: two or more individual fans, each fan having an air movement means and a motor engaged with the air movement means for accelerating air entering each of the two or more individual fans; a temperature sensor for sensing a temperature associated with the two or more fans and for outputting a first signal corresponding to the temperature; rotational speed sensor for outputting a second signal corresponding to a rotational speed of each of the two or more fans; and a processor for receiving the first and second signals and controlling the two or more individual fans based on the first and second signals.

  6. Plasma confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Hazeltine, R D

    2003-01-01

    Detailed and authoritative, this volume examines the essential physics underlying international research in magnetic confinement fusion. It offers readable, thorough accounts of the fundamental concepts behind methods of confining plasma at or near thermonuclear conditions. Designed for a one- or two-semester graduate-level course in plasma physics, it also represents a valuable reference for professional physicists in controlled fusion and related disciplines.

  7. Late Quaternary changes in depositional processes along the western margin of the Indus Fan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Govil, P.; Naidu, P.D.

    is carried directly offshore to the Indus Fan through the Indus Submarine Canyon (Islam 1959). The lithostratigraphy of Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 720A shows two units: unit I, from 0 to 18 mbsf (metres below seafloor), is composed of pelagic... on productivity changes? Deep-Sea Res II 52:1981– 1993 Holeman JN (1968) Sediment yield of major rivers of the world. Water Resour Res 4:737–747 Islam SR (1959) The Indus Submarine Canyon. Oriental Geogr 3 (1):101–104 Kolla V, Coumes F (1987) Morphology, internal...

  8. SOLAR MULTIPLE ERUPTIONS FROM A CONFINED MAGNETIC STRUCTURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeongwoo; Chae, Jongchul; Liu, Chang; Jing, Ju

    2016-01-01

    How eruption can recur from a confined magnetic structure is discussed based on the Solar Dynamics Observatory observations of the NOAA active region 11444, which produced three eruptions within 1.5 hr on 2012 March 27. The active region (AR) had the positive-polarity magnetic fields in the center surrounded by the negative-polarity fields around. Since such a distribution of magnetic polarity tends to form a dome-like magnetic fan structure confined over the AR, the multiple eruptions were puzzling. Our investigation reveals that this event exhibits several properties distinct from other eruptions associated with magnetic fan structures: (i) a long filament encircling the AR was present before the eruptions; (ii) expansion of the open–closed boundary (OCB) of the field lines after each eruption was suggestive of the growing fan-dome structure, and (iii) the ribbons inside the closed magnetic polarity inversion line evolved in response to the expanding OCB. It thus appears that in spite of multiple eruptions the fan-dome structure remained undamaged, and the closing back field lines after each eruption rather reinforced the fan-dome structure. We argue that the multiple eruptions could occur in this AR in spite of its confined magnetic structure because the filament encircling the AR was adequate for slipping through the magnetic separatrix to minimize the damage to its overlying fan-dome structure. The result of this study provides a new insight into the productivity of eruptions from a confined magnetic structure.

  9. Stable isotope study of ground water recharge and movement in the Shogawa Fan, Toyama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, Yoshihiko; Oda, Matsuhisa

    1983-01-01

    Deuterium and oxygen-18 measurements of ground and river waters of the Shogawa Fan, Toyama, have been used to identify sources of water in aquifers in the Fan. A significant difference exists in deltaD and delta 18 O values between two major rivers flowing onto the Fan. On the basis of this difference, it is indicated that aquifers in the eastern half of the Fan are recharged from the Sho River and those in the western half of the Fan are from the Oyabe River. Chloride measurements of the waters support this identification of water sources. Contributions of other water sources to the aquifers are also indicated. The flow rate of infiltration from the Sho River is estimated to be 10-13 m/day in the confined aquifers in the northern part of the Fan. (author)

  10. 30 CFR 57.4504 - Fan installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fan installations. 57.4504 Section 57.4504... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4504 Fan installations. (a) Fan houses, fan bulkheads for main and booster fans, and air ducts connecting main fans to underground openings shall be...

  11. The Submarine, 1776-1918

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uhlig, Frank

    2004-01-01

    When, on 11 April 1900, the U.S. Navy thought the Holland, named for its designer, that little submarine joined a fleet consisting of two armored cruisers, six monitors, seven first and second-class battleships, and seventeen each...

  12. SCICEX: Submarine Arctic Science Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submarine Arctic Science Program, SCICEX, is a federal interagency collaboration among the operational Navy, research agencies, and the marine research community...

  13. ENERGY STAR Certified Ceiling Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ceiling Fans that are effective as of April 1, 2012. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=ceiling_fans.pr_crit_ceiling_fans

  14. ENERGY STAR Certified Ventilating Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ventilating Fans that are effective as of October 1, 2015. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=vent_fans.pr_crit_vent_fans

  15. An Evaluation of Stress Factors in Basic Enlisted Submarine School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    contaminantion , concern about sea- water pressurization, space restriction, family separation, adverse effects of asynchrony of day-night cues upon sleep...atmospheric contaminantion , seawater pressuriation and confinement in submarines. He also reports that other occupational stressors included...in their work environment. These stressors include perceived danger of radiation and other atmospheric contaminantion , concern about seawater

  16. Frontal and Lateral Submarine Lobe Fringes: Comparing Sedimentary Facies, Architecture and Flow Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spychala, Yvonne T.; Hodgson, David M.; Prélat, Amandine; Kane, Ian A.; Flint, Stephen S.; Mountney, Nigel P.

    2017-01-01

    Submarine lobe-fringe deposits form heterolithic successions that may include a high proportion of hybrid beds. The identification of lobe-fringe successions aids interpretation of paleogeographic setting and the degree of basin confinement. Here, for the first time, the sedimentological and

  17. Danish-German Submarine Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sender, Johannes F.; Lucas, Edward R.

    Germany has invited the Royal Danish Navy to participate in training missions and exercises on board German submarines. This brief examines the benefits and challenges of this proposed cooperation for both Denmark and NATO more broadly.......Germany has invited the Royal Danish Navy to participate in training missions and exercises on board German submarines. This brief examines the benefits and challenges of this proposed cooperation for both Denmark and NATO more broadly....

  18. The Fabulous Fact Fan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Jene P.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use and construction of "fact fans," fun and easy-to-make manipulatives that provide elementary school students with the opportunity to explore mathematics operations being studied in the classroom and to practice addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division facts. (BB)

  19. Morphodynamic Model of Submarine Canyon Incision by Sandblasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Parker, G.; Izumi, N.; Cartigny, M.; Li, T.; Wang, G.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine canyons are carved by turbidity currents under the deep sea. As opposed to subaerial canyons, the relevant processes are not easy to observe directly. Turbidity currents are bottom-hugging sediment gravity flows of that can incise or deposit on the seafloor to create submarine canyons or fans. The triggers of turbidity currents can be storms, edge waves, internal waves, canyon wall sapping, delta failure, breaching and hyperpycnal flows. The formation and evolution mechanisms of submarine canyons are similar to those of subaerial canyons, but have substantial differences. For example, sandblasting, rather than wear due to colliding gravel clasts is more likely to be the mechanism of bedrock incision. Submarine canyons incise downward, and often develop meander bends and levees within the canyon, so defining "fairways". Here we propose a simple model for canyon incision. The starting point of our model is the Macro Roughness Saltation Abrasion Alluviation model of Zhang et al. [2015], designed for bedrock incision by gravel clasts in mixed bedrock-alluvial rivers. We adapt this formulation to consider sandblasting as a means of wear. We use a layer-averaged model for turbidity current dynamics. The current contains a mixture of mud, which helps drive the flow but which does not cause incision, and sand, which is the agent of incision. We show that the model can successfully model channel downcutting, and indeed illustrate the early formation of net incisional cyclic steps, i.e. upstream-migrating undulations on the bed associated with transcritical (in the Froude sense) flow. These steps can be expected to abet the process of incision.

  20. Morphodynamics of submarine channel inception revealed by new experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Jan; Eggenhuisen, Joris T; Cartigny, Matthieu J B

    2016-03-21

    Submarine channels are ubiquitous on the seafloor and their inception and evolution is a result of dynamic interaction between turbidity currents and the evolving seafloor. However, the morphodynamic links between channel inception and flow dynamics have not yet been monitored in experiments and only in one instance on the modern seafloor. Previous experimental flows did not show channel inception, because flow conditions were not appropriately scaled to sustain suspended sediment transport. Here we introduce and apply new scaling constraints for similarity between natural and experimental turbidity currents. The scaled currents initiate a leveed channel from an initially featureless slope. Channelization commences with deposition of levees in some slope segments and erosion of a conduit in other segments. Channel relief and flow confinement increase progressively during subsequent flows. This morphodynamic evolution determines the architecture of submarine channel deposits in the stratigraphic record and efficiency of sediment bypass to the basin floor.

  1. Stranger than fiction: Fan identity in cosplay

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolle Lamerichs

    2011-01-01

    Academic accounts of fan cultures usually focus on creative practices such as fan fiction, fan videos, and fan art. Through these practices, fans, as an active audience, closely interpret existing texts and rework them with texts of their own. A practice scarcely examined is cosplay ("costume play"), in which fans produce their own costumes inspired by fictional characters. Cosplay is a form of appropriation that transforms and actualizes an existing story in close connection to the fan commu...

  2. On Fan Raspaud Conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    Fouquet, Jean-Luc; Vanherpe, Jean-Marie

    2008-01-01

    A conjecture of Fan and Raspaud [3] asserts that every bridgeless cubic graph con-tains three perfect matchings with empty intersection. Kaiser and Raspaud [6] sug-gested a possible approach to this problem based on the concept of a balanced join in an embedded graph. We give here some new results concerning this conjecture and prove that a minimum counterexample must have at least 32 vertices.

  3. Enhancing Submarine Operational Relevance: A Leadership Challenge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daigle, Jr, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    .... This vision of submarine operations must change. As the military continues to shift to operations focused on joint capabilities, the submarine force must break from the closed, protective, and risk averse culture of its past and push forward...

  4. Environmental assessment of submarine power cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isus, Daniel; Martinez, Juan D.; Arteche, Amaya; Del Rio, Carmen; Madina, Virginia

    2011-03-01

    Extensive analyses conducted by the European Community revealed that offshore wind energy have relatively benign effects on the marine environment by comparison to other forms of electric power generation [1]. However, the materials employed in offshore wind power farms suffer major changes to be confined to the marine environment at extreme conditions: saline medium, hydrostatic pressure... which can produce an important corrosion effect. This phenomenon can affect on the one hand, to the material from the structural viewpoint and on the other hand, to the marine environment. In this sense, to better understand the environmental impacts of generating electricity from offshore wind energy, this study evaluated the life cycle assessment for some new designs of submarine power cables developed by General Cable. To achieve this goal, three approaches have been carried out: leaching tests, eco-toxicity tests and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. All of them are aimed to obtaining quantitative data for environmental assessment of selected submarine cables. LCA is a method used to assess environmental aspects and potential impacts of a product or activity. LCA does not include financial and social factors, which means that the results of an LCA cannot exclusively form the basis for assessment of a product's sustainability. Leaching tests results allowed to conclude that pH of seawater did not significantly changed by the presence of submarine three-core cables. Although, it was slightly higher in case of broken cable, pH values were nearly equals. Concerning to the heavy metals which could migrate to the aquatic medium, there were significant differences in both scenarios. The leaching of zinc is the major environmental concern during undersea operation of undamaged cables whereas the fully sectioned three-core cable produced the migration of significant quantities of copper and iron apart from the zinc migrated from the galvanized steel. Thus, the tar

  5. Weight issues during submarine deployments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Bhutani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity onboard the diesel-electric submarines is as it is restricted due to lack of space onboard. In the absence of physical activity, one would expect the weight of the submarine crew to increase during the period of deployment at sea. Submarine crew were seen to be consuming 3168±282 kCal/day while doing hard physical work but DIPAS, New Delhi designed ration scales for the submarine crew which were to provide 3640 kCal/day. In such a scenario, a high calorie intake with low physical activity at sea would be of grave concern for long term health status of the crew. Data from an Indian submarines during a 26 day sortie involving 42 crew members revealed that weight gain occurred in 29 crew members. When food remains an important motivator at sea to break the monotony, restriction of intake is important and that can be brought about only by motivation and individual awareness. Data from a US Navy study have shown that this is possible and implementable and the solution seems quite simple.

  6. SSN 774 Virginia Class Submarine (SSN 774)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-516 SSN 774 Virginia Class Submarine (SSN 774) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...December 2015 SAR March 8, 2016 11:22:44 UNCLASSIFIED 4 CAPT Michael Stevens VIRGINIA Submarine Program Office PEO Submarines 614 Sicard Street, SE...16, 2015 Program Information Program Name SSN 774 Virginia Class Submarine (SSN 774) DoD Component Navy Responsible Office References SAR

  7. Fan-structure wave as a source of earthquake instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Boris

    2015-04-01

    Today frictional shear resistance along pre-existing faults is considered to be the lower limit on rock shear strength at confined compression corresponding to the seismogenic layer. This determines the lithospheric strength and the primary earthquake mechanism associated with frictional stick-slip instability on pre-existing faults. This paper introduces a recently identified shear rupture mechanism providing a paradoxical feature of hard rocks - the possibility of shear rupture propagation through the highly confined intact rock mass at shear stress levels significantly less than frictional strength. In the new mechanism the rock failure, associated with consecutive creation of small slabs (known as 'domino-blocks') from the intact rock in the rupture tip, is driven by a fan-shaped domino structure representing the rupture head. The fan-head combines such unique features as: extremely low shear resistance (below the frictional strength), self-sustaining stress intensification in the rupture tip (providing easy formation of new domino-blocks), and self-unbalancing conditions in the fan-head (making the failure process inevitably spontaneous and violent). An important feature of the fan-mechanism is the fact that for the initial formation of the fan-structure an enhanced local shear stress is required, however, after completion of the fan-structure it can propagate as a dynamic wave through intact rock mass at shear stresses below the frictional strength. Paradoxically low shear strength of pristine rocks provided by the fan-mechanism determines the lower limit of the lithospheric strength and favours the generation of new faults in pristine rocks in preference to frictional stick-slip instability along pre-existing faults. The new approach reveals an alternative role of pre-existing faults in earthquake activity: they represent local stress concentrates in pristine rock adjoining the fault where special conditions for the fan-mechanism nucleation are created

  8. Observational Analysis of Coronal Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpeanu, D.-C.; Rachmeler, L; Mierla, Marilena

    2017-01-01

    Coronal fans (see Figure 1) are bright observational structures that extend to large distances above the solar surface and can easily be seen in EUV (174 angstrom) above the limb. They have a very long lifetime and can live up to several Carrington rotations (CR), remaining relatively stationary for many months. Note that they are not off-limb manifestation of similarly-named active region fans. The solar conditions required to create coronal fans are not well understood. The goal of this research was to find as many associations as possible of coronal fans with other solar features and to gain a better understanding of these structures. Therefore, we analyzed many fans and created an overview of their properties. We present the results of this statistical analysis and also a case study on the longest living fan.

  9. North American Submarine Cable Association (NASCA) Submarine Cables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data show the locations of in-service and out-of-service submarine cables that are owned by members of NASCA and located in U.S. territorial waters. More...

  10. 75 FR 79952 - Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT AVIATION Model Falcon 10 Airplanes; Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT AVIATION Model Falcon 10 Airplanes; Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN JET FALCON.... (1) DASSAULT AVIATION Model Falcon 10 airplanes, Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN JET FALCON SERIES C, D, E... airplanes Inspection threshold (whichever occurs later) Inspection interval Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN JET...

  11. Dynamic and Implications of Football Fans' Club and Fans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    Alvan-Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri, Imo State ... Owerri, Imo State. Abstract. The study found out the dynamics of becoming football fans and supporting the chosen football teams by tertiary students in Lagos. Basically, the ... sense of social affiliation, identity and self-esteem are boosted and those of the fan of.

  12. On sonobuoy placement for submarine tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouritzin, Michael A.; Ballantyne, David J.; Kim, Hyukjoon; Hu, Yaozhong

    2005-05-01

    This paper addresses the problem of detecting and tracking an unknown number of submarines in a body of water using a known number of moving sonobuoys. Indeed, we suppose there are N submarines collectively maneuvering as a weakly interacting stochastic dynamical system, where N is a random number, and we need to detect and track these submarines using M moving sonobuoys. These sonobuoys can only detect the superposition of all submarines through corrupted and delayed sonobuoy samples of the noise emitted from the collection of submarines. The signals from the sonobuoys are transmitted to a central base to analyze, where it is required to estimated how many submarines there are as well as their locations, headings, and velocities. The delays induced by the propagation of the submarine noise through the water mean that novel historical filtering methods need to be developed. We summarize these developments within and give initial results on a simplified example.

  13. Submarine canyons off Madras Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    Submarine canyons off the coast of Madras, Tamil Nadu, India were studied during cruise of @iINS Kistna@@ as part of the IIOE programme They consist of hill-like projections and V-shaped valleys Their other features are also reported...

  14. Sediment transport processes in the Gulf of Alaska: a morphological analysis of channel and fan sedimentary features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, S.; Swartz, J. M.; Gulick, S. P. S.

    2016-12-01

    The Alaskan Abyssal Plain is home to three active channel/fan systems: the Surveyor, Chirikov, and Baranof systems. Individual studies of the Surveyor and Baranof fans indicate that these systems derive their sediments from the glacially dominated Northeast Pacific North American coast. The Pleistocene aged sediments found in the Surveyor Fan record some of the highest sediment accumulation rates (up to 130 cm/kyr) ever documented and show that this system is one of the youngest recognized large submarine fans. Further, the Surveyor and Baranof systems are two of the largest submarine fans in the world and their development has been significantly influenced by climatic and tectonic forcing. Specifically, these fans either developed or expanded with increased glacial activity in the Pleistocene that resulted in increased sediment flux to the Gulf of Alaska. While this influence is widely accepted, the depositional processes within the modern and past systems are poorly understood. A thorough investigation of these deep ocean sediment transport processes can further inform our understanding of this high-latitude source-to-sink system. Although the existence of multiple fans on a margin isn't exclusive to Alaska, the slope of the Gulf's basin floor indicates a relatively unique condition. As channels in the Gulf of Alaska carry sediment away from the continental slope margin—parallel to the Aleutian Trench—the basin floor between the adjacent channels generally slopes towards the Aleutian Trench. The presence of large scale bedforms on this sloped surface indicate the potential for significant sediment remobilization on the basin floor between active channels. Additionally, these systems are characterized by higher relief western channel banks and varying states of equilibrium, as well as differing degrees of sinuosity and channel width/depth. We intend to quantify these and other morphological features in the Gulf of Alaska with the goal of investigating active

  15. Fan Cart: The Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamore, Brian

    2016-01-01

    For years the fan cart has provided physics students with an excellent resource for exploring fundamental mechanics concepts such as acceleration, Newton's laws, impulse, momentum, work-energy, and energy conversions. "The Physics Teacher" has even seen some excellent do-it-yourself (DIY) fan carts and activities. If you are interested…

  16. 47 CFR 32.2424 - Submarine & deep sea cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Submarine & deep sea cable. 32.2424 Section 32... Submarine & deep sea cable. (a) This account shall include the original cost of submarine cable and deep sea... defined below, are to be maintained for nonmetallic submarine and deep sea cable and metallic submarine...

  17. Design definition study of a lift/cruise fan technology V/STOL aircraft. Volume 1: Navy operational aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft were designed and sized to meet Navy mission requirements. Five missions were established for evaluation: anti-submarine warfare (ASW), surface attack (SA), combat search and rescue (CSAR), surveillance (SURV), and vertical on-board delivery (VOD). All missions were performed with a short takeoff and a vertical landing. The aircraft were defined using existing J97-GE gas generators or reasonable growth derivatives in conjunction with turbotip fans reflecting LF460 type technology. The multipurpose aircraft configuration established for U.S. Navy missions utilizes the turbotip driven lift/cruise fan concept for V/STOL aircraft.

  18. Passive and Active Sonar Prosecution of Diesel Submarines by Nuclear Submarines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Erik J

    2008-01-01

    .... Specifically, it simulates a nuclear powered submarine (SSN) searching for a diesel submarine in an environment where the SSN has a speed advantage and active sonar detection ranges exceed passive sonar detection ranges...

  19. Magnetic confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    The Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) is a compact, high-magnetic-field tokamak capable of operating at density and magnetic field values similar to, or even encompassing, those of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and therefore provides a unique opportunity to explore physics issues that are directly relevant to ITER. During 2004 the experimental activities were focussed on fully exploiting the lower hybrid system (for generating and controlling the plasma current) and the electron cyclotron heating system (joint experiment with the Institute of Plasma Physics of the National Research Council, Milan). With all four gyrotrons in operation, full electron cyclotron power was achieved up to a record level of 1.5 MW. By simultaneously injecting lower hybrid waves, to tailor the plasma current radial profile, and electron cyclotron waves, to heat the plasma centre, good confinement regimes with internal transport barriers were obtained at the highest plasma density values ever achieved for this operation regime (n {approx}1.5X10{sup 20}m{sup -3}). Specific studies were devoted to optimising the coupling of lower hybrid waves to the plasma (by real-time control of the plasma position) and to generating current by electron cyclotron current drive. The new scanning CO{sub 2} interferometer (developed by the Reversed Field Experiment Consortium) for high spatial and time resolution (1 cm/50 {mu}s) density profile measurements was extensively used. The Thomson scattering diagnostic was upgraded and enabled observation of scattered signals associated with the Confinement background plasma dynamics. As for theoretical studies on the dynamics of turbulence in plasmas, the transition from Bohm-like scaling to gyro-Bohm scaling of the local plasma diffusivity was demonstrated on the basis of a generalised four wave model (joint collaboration with Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and the University of California at Irvine). The transition from weak to strong

  20. Magnetic confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    The Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) is a compact, high-magnetic-field tokamak capable of operating at density and magnetic field values similar to, or even encompassing, those of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and therefore provides a unique opportunity to explore physics issues that are directly relevant to ITER. During 2004 the experimental activities were focussed on fully exploiting the lower hybrid system (for generating and controlling the plasma current) and the electron cyclotron heating system (joint experiment with the Institute of Plasma Physics of the National Research Council, Milan). With all four gyrotrons in operation, full electron cyclotron power was achieved up to a record level of 1.5 MW. By simultaneously injecting lower hybrid waves, to tailor the plasma current radial profile, and electron cyclotron waves, to heat the plasma centre, good confinement regimes with internal transport barriers were obtained at the highest plasma density values ever achieved for this operation regime (n ∼1.5X10 20 m -3 ). Specific studies were devoted to optimising the coupling of lower hybrid waves to the plasma (by real-time control of the plasma position) and to generating current by electron cyclotron current drive. The new scanning CO 2 interferometer (developed by the Reversed Field Experiment Consortium) for high spatial and time resolution (1 cm/50 μs) density profile measurements was extensively used. The Thomson scattering diagnostic was upgraded and enabled observation of scattered signals associated with the Confinement background plasma dynamics. As for theoretical studies on the dynamics of turbulence in plasmas, the transition from Bohm-like scaling to gyro-Bohm scaling of the local plasma diffusivity was demonstrated on the basis of a generalised four wave model (joint collaboration with Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and the University of California at Irvine). The transition from weak to strong energetic particle

  1. Nuclear submarine decommissioning and related environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkisov, A.

    1998-01-01

    The issue of nuclear powered submarines occupies a particular place among the problems related to nuclear wastes. Nuclear submarines that were withdrawn from military service as well as those intended fro utilization represent a potential source of both nuclear and radiation hazard. By the beginning of 1966 more than one hundred and fifty nuclear powered vessels were decommissioned in Russia both for the reason of expiration of their service life and due to treaties on reduction of strategic offensive weapons. By 200 this number is expected to increase to one hundred and seventy-eighty units. According to published data the number of nuclear submarines decommissioned in USA to date exceeds twenty units. Major problems associated with utilization of nuclear submarines are related to safety and special security measures are to undertaken for decommissioned nuclear submarines. One of the most significant problems is related with management and/or storage of spent fuel from decommissioned nuclear submarines

  2. A history of RPGs: Made by fans; played by fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Mason

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available I explore some aspects of the early history of tabletop role-playing games (RPGs that are perhaps not well known among media scholars, and which offer an alternative take on the idea of fan activity.

  3. Anti Submarine Warfare Search Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    www.mh-60.com/mh-60r/ Stone LD (1975) Theory of Optimal Search ( Academic Press, New York) Stone LD, Royset J, Washburn A (2016), Optimal Search of...that optimizes the operation of the helicopter and measures its effectiveness. We analyze the effect of the different input parameters, such as...helicopter speed, submarine speed, sensor detection radius, and travel time to the point of detection on the optimal dipping pattern and the probability of

  4. 14 CFR 29.908 - Cooling fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling fans. 29.908 Section 29.908... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant General § 29.908 Cooling fans. For cooling fans that are a part of a powerplant installation the following apply: (a) Category A. For cooling fans installed...

  5. 75 FR 43878 - Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT AVIATION Model Falcon 10 Airplanes; Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... Model Falcon 10 Airplanes; Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN JET FALCON SERIES C, D, E, F, and G Airplanes.... Since that NPRM was issued, we have determined that Model FAN JET FALCON SERIES C, D, E, F, and G..., Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN JET FALCON SERIES C, D, E, F, and G airplanes, and Model MYSTERE-FALCON 20-C5...

  6. SCICEX: Submarine Arctic Science Program, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Submarine Arctic Science Program, SCICEX, is a federal interagency collaboration among the operational Navy, research agencies, and the marine research community...

  7. Stranger than fiction: Fan identity in cosplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle Lamerichs

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Academic accounts of fan cultures usually focus on creative practices such as fan fiction, fan videos, and fan art. Through these practices, fans, as an active audience, closely interpret existing texts and rework them with texts of their own. A practice scarcely examined is cosplay ("costume play", in which fans produce their own costumes inspired by fictional characters. Cosplay is a form of appropriation that transforms and actualizes an existing story in close connection to the fan community and the fan's own identity. I provide analytical insights into this fan practice, focusing on how it influences the subject. Cosplay is understood as a performative activity and analyzed through Judith Butler's concept of performativity. I specifically focus on boundaries between the body and dress, and on those between reality and fiction. I aim to show that cosplay emphasizes the personal enactment of a narrative, thereby offering new perspectives on fan identity.

  8. The Relationship of Job Performance to Physical Fitness and Its Application to U. S. Navy Submariners

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-29

    posture, thermo- regulation, perception of pain, mood, arousal, self - esteem and environmental surroundings (Shephard, 1974). 4.5 Work Rest Cycles...belief that an implementation of an aerobic exercise regime would help maintain and in some cases improve physical fitness and lessen the stresses that...curtailed for a majority of individuals because of the closed confines of the submarine. Work schedules and studying for self -advancement may also

  9. To the problem of utilization of nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarakanov, E.; Larin, V.

    1999-01-01

    Paper discusses a concept of step-by-step utilization of nuclear submarines in Russia. By the late 2000 minimum 160 nuclear submarines with over 300 nuclear reactors should be removed. Unloading of spent nuclear fuel from reactors, dismounting of nuclear submarines, efforts to arrange storage facilities for liquid and solid radioactive waste are the main steps of nuclear submarine utilization. Under the rates of nuclear submarine utilization being as they are, the utilization of 160 nuclear submarines will take about 30 years. Paper analyzes the alternative variants of nuclear submarine utilization and discusses the social and ecological aspects of utilization of nuclear submarines [ru

  10. Sustaining U.S. Nuclear Submarine Design Capabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schank, John F; Arena, Mark V; DeLuca, Paul; Riposo, Jessie; Curry, Kimberly; Weeks, Todd; Chiesa, James

    2007-01-01

    .... The resulting lack of demand for the services of submarine designers and engineers raises concerns that this highly specialized capability could atrophy, burdening the next submarine design effort...

  11. ENERGY STAR Certified Ceiling Fans

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ceiling Fans that are effective as of April 1,...

  12. ENERGY STAR Certified Ventilating Fans

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ventilating Fans that are effective as of...

  13. Decommissioning of French nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robin, B.; Buzonniere, A. de; Chenais, J.

    2003-01-01

    Since the beginning of the sixties, France has developed a fleet of nuclear powered vessels. Insofar as the ships of the 2. generation are being built, the older ones are decommissioned and enter the dismantling process. The average rate is presently one submarine decommissioned every two or three years. The overall strategy for the decommissioning of French nuclear submarines can be brought down to 3 phases: 1. Level 1 dismantling which essentially consists in: - unloading the spent fuel and storing it in a pool ; - possibly emptying the circuits which contain radioactive liquids. The level 1 is easily achieved, as it is not very different from the plant situation during ship overhaul or major refits. 2. Level 2 dismantling which consists in isolating the nuclear reactor compartment from the rest of the submarine and conditioning it for interim storage on a ground facility located inside Cherbourg Naval Dockyard. The rest of the ship is decontaminated, controlled and set for scrap like any conventional submarine. Up to now, the policy has been to keep the reactor compartment in this intermediate storage facility for at least 20 years, a duration calculated to allow enough time for short life corrosion products to disappear and hence, reduce the radioactive dose to workers during the level 3 dismantling operations. 3. Level 3 dismantling of the nuclear reactor compartment after a storage period. These operations consist in cutting into pieces all remaining structures and equipment, conditioning and sending them to ANDRA for disposal. The SSBN Le Redoutable, first French nuclear submarine which was removed from active service en 1991, underwent the first two phases but, forward and stern parts after cutting of the reactor compartment have been sealed and turned into a museum which is now part of 'La Cite de la Mer' in Cherbourg. Among the three other SSBNs removed from active service, two are at the end of phase 1 just before the separation of the reactor

  14. Miocene denudation history of Himalaya deduced from IODP Exp. 354 Bengal Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohki, Y.; Cruz, J. W.; Osaki, A.; Manoj, M. C.; Hatano, N.; France-Lanord, C.; Spiess, V.; Klaus, A.

    2017-12-01

    The submarine Bengal Fan is the largest submarine fan on Earth and covers the whole Bay of Bengal. The sediments are fed by the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers reflecting India-Asia plate collision. The sediments recovered from IODP Expedition 354 Bengal Fan record the uplift history of the Himalayan orogenic system. We examined the chemical composition of detrital garnets in the Miocene deposits from Site U1451, where drilling reached to basal horizon of the fan deposits, in order to reveal the detailed denudation history of Himalayan metamorphic rocks. For this purpose, the comparison of chemical composition between detrital garnet in the Bengal Fan deposits and metamorphic garnet in Himalayan metamorphic rocks was carried out. The chemical composition of the metamorphic garnet from Higher Himalayan Crystalline (HHC) in Karnali and Kaligandaki areas, western Nepal, was examined for chemical reference to detrital garnets in Bengal Fan. The metamorphic garnets in "Formation I (Le Fort, 1975)" in HHC are characterized by almandine-rich garnet with high pyrope content. Also, the garnets in "Formation II" are remarked by two types of garnets, i.e., almandine-rich and grandite-rich garnets. Meanwhile, the composition of garnets in "Formation III" is almandine-rich garnet with low pyrope content. In the Bengal Fan deposits, the characteristic garnets, which show the similarity to the metamorphic garnet in HHC, is not found from the Lower Miocene (Burdigalian) deposits. In the Middle and Upper Miocene deposits, the almandine-rich garnets characteristic in Formation I, are normally included. At the basal part of the Middle Miocene (Langhian), almandine-rich garnets with low pyrope content, suggesting the derivation from Formation III, are remarkable. The grandite-rich garnets from Formation II are sporadically found In the Upper Miocene deposits (Tortonian-Messinian). Above chemical comparison between the detrital garnets in Bengal Fan and metamorphic garnets from HHC

  15. Sedimentary Filling of the Submarine Canyon "Swatch of No Ground", Bengal Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamenghi, L.; Schwenk, T.; Kudrass, H. R.; Spiess, V.

    2008-12-01

    The submarine canyon "Swatch of No Ground" (SoNG), deeply incised into the Bengal Shelf, plays an important role in the source to sink system Himalaya-Bengal Fan by connecting the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers, which drain the Himalayas, with the largest submarine fan on Earth. It is believed that around one third of the delivered sediments of at least 1 billion ton per year are transported through this canyon to the deep sea fan. In general the SoNG acts as a temporary trap and releases the sediments episodically by turbidity currents to the fan. Transportation of the sediments to the head of the canyon under quite weather conditions is done by tidal currents during high discharge periods. More effective, passages of cyclones remobilize shelf sediments and transport them to the canyon, and trigger also failures in the canyon flanks with consequent mass wasting downward. Finally all processes lead to high sedimentation rates of 50 cm per year in the head of the canyon. To understand the filling architecture and depositional processes, high-resolution multichannel seismic data were collected in summer 2006 in the upper canyon with the German research vessel "Sonne". Additionally, multibeam and sediment echosounder data were gathered, together with gravity cores. Hydroacoustic data and cores were also already collected on cruises in 1994 and 1997 and consequently, some lines and stations were revisited to study the deposition within the last years. The seismic data, shot on a dense grid of lines along and across the axis including flanks and shoulders, reveal a thick (1.5 sec TWT) sedimentary fill. Well stratified layer alternate with transparent to chaotic units intercalated by filled channels. Two main unconformities could be identified in the seismic data. Faulting is also found in the study area, probably caused by sediment compaction. The data set should be used to develop an IODP proposal to drill into this unique high resolution archive.

  16. Flow performance of highly loaded axial fan with bowed rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Liu, X. J.; Yang, A. L.; Dai, R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a partial bowed rotor blade was proposed for a newly designed high loaded axial fan. The blade was positively bowed 30 degrees from hub to 30 percent spanwise position. Flows of radial blade and bowed blade fans were numerically compared for various operation conditions. Results show that the fan's performance is improved. At the designed condition with flow coefficient of 0.52, the efficiency of the bowed blade fan is increased 1.44% and the static pressure rise is increased 11%. Comparing the flow structures, it can be found that the separated flow in the bowed fan is reduced and confined within 20 percent span, which is less than the 35 percent in the radial fan. It means that the bowed blade generates negative blade force and counteracts partial centrifugal force. It is alleviates the radial movements of boundary layers in fan's hub region. Flow losses due to 3D mixing are reduced in the rotor. Inlet flow to downstream stator is also improved.

  17. Comments on confinement criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurak, V.; Schroer, B.; Swieca, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    For a QED 2 model with SU(n) flavour, the nature of the physical states space is more subtle than one expects on the basis of the loop criterion for confinement. One may have colour confinement without confinement of the fundamental flavour representation. Attempts to formulate confinement criteria in which the quark fields play a more fundamental role are discussed [pt

  18. Nuclear Submarines and Aircraft Carriers | Radiation ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Nuclear submarines and aircraft carriers are powered by onboard nuclear reactors. Heat from the nuclear reaction makes the steam needed to power the submarine. When a nuclear vessel is taken out of service, its radioactive parts are disposed of and monitored.

  19. Sedimentary architecture of a sub-lacustrine debris fan: Eocene Dongying Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, east China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianping; Xian, Benzhong; Wang, Junhui; Ji, Youliang; Lu, Zhiyong; Liu, Saijun

    2017-12-01

    The sedimentary architectures of submarine/sublacustrine fans are controlled by sedimentary processes, geomorphology and sediment composition in sediment gravity flows. To advance understanding of sedimentary architecture of debris fans formed predominantly by debris flows in deep-water environments, a sub-lacustrine fan (Y11 fan) within a lacustrine succession has been identified and studied through the integration of core data, well logging data and 3D seismic data in the Eocene Dongying Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, east China. Six types of resedimented lithofacies can be recognized, which are further grouped into five broad lithofacies associations. Quantification of gravity flow processes on the Y11 fan is suggested by quantitative lithofacies analysis, which demonstrates that the fan is dominated by debris flows, while turbidity currents and sandy slumps are less important. The distribution, geometry and sedimentary architecture are documented using well data and 3D seismic data. A well-developed depositional lobe with a high aspect ratio is identified based on a sandstone isopach map. Canyons and/or channels are absent, which is probably due to the unsteady sediment supply from delta-front collapse. Distributary tongue-shaped debris flow deposits can be observed at different stages of fan growth, suggesting a lobe constructed by debrite tongue complexes. Within each stage of the tongue complexes, architectural elements are interpreted by wireline log motifs showing amalgamated debrite tongues, which constitute the primary fan elements. Based on lateral lithofacies distribution and vertical sequence analysis, it is proposed that lakefloor erosion, entrainment and dilution in the flow direction lead to an organized distribution of sandy debrites, muddy debrites and turbidites on individual debrite tongues. Plastic rheology of debris flows combined with fault-related topography are considered the major factors that control sediment distribution and fan

  20. Two-Stage Centrifugal Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, David

    2011-01-01

    Fan designs are often constrained by envelope, rotational speed, weight, and power. Aerodynamic performance and motor electrical performance are heavily influenced by rotational speed. The fan used in this work is at a practical limit for rotational speed due to motor performance characteristics, and there is no more space available in the packaging for a larger fan. The pressure rise requirements keep growing. The way to ordinarily accommodate a higher DP is to spin faster or grow the fan rotor diameter. The invention is to put two radially oriented stages on a single disk. Flow enters the first stage from the center; energy is imparted to the flow in the first stage blades, the flow is redirected some amount opposite to the direction of rotation in the fixed stators, and more energy is imparted to the flow in the second- stage blades. Without increasing either rotational speed or disk diameter, it is believed that as much as 50 percent more DP can be achieved with this design than with an ordinary, single-stage centrifugal design. This invention is useful primarily for fans having relatively low flow rates with relatively high pressure rise requirements.

  1. 32 CFR 700.1058 - Command of a submarine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Command of a submarine. 700.1058 Section 700... Command Detail to Duty § 700.1058 Command of a submarine. The officer detailed to command a submarine... submarines. ...

  2. Cyclones and tides as feeders of a submarine canyon off Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrass, H. R.; Michels, K. H.; Wiedicke, M.; Suckow, A.

    1998-08-01

    Extremely high annual sedimentation rates of about 50 cm/yr at the head of the submarine canyon “Swatch of No Ground,” which connects the submarine delta of the Ganges-Brahmaputra to the Bengal deep-sea fan were estimated by 210Pb and 137Cs gamma spectrometry. The sediment in the canyon at 228 m water depth consists of graded sand and silt layers and laminated mud. The sand and silt layers are assumed to have been deposited by tropical cyclones, whereas the intercalated laminated mud is thought to have been deposited by daily variations of tidal currents. The graded layers correlate well with the historical record of cyclones and allow an annual fine tuning. The rapid infill of the canyon head is caused by trapping of suspended sediment that has been mobilized by storms and tides on the delta topset. The sediment is stored only temporarily in the canyon head: slides, slumps, and earthquakes occasionally remove and transfer it by turbidity currents to the deep-sea fan. The focusing effect of the canyon and the subsequent stepwise export of sediment, probably combined with erosion of the canyon floor, explain the long-term regional stability of this canyon and probably other shelf canyons.

  3. Football – Feminisation – Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mintert, Svenja-Maria

    the number of female fans in football has grown over the past years. A national sense of community, emotion and passion for the game is in particular reached during the international tournaments at live football spectacles and many female fans cheer and sing for ‘their’ team with the utmost conviction. Yet...... The researcher reviewed relevant primary and secondary literature relating to women’s football, female football consumption and identity dynamics in a European perspective. Between March and August 2013, 31 semi-structured interviews with Danish women aged between 24 and 60 years were conducted following...

  4. On Some Generalized Ky Fan Minimax Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianqiang Luo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Some generalized Ky Fan minimax inequalities for vector-valued mappings are established by applying the classical Browder fixed point theorem and the Kakutani-Fan-Glicksberg fixed point theorem.

  5. Advance Noise Control Fan II: Test Rig Fan Risk Management Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, John

    2013-01-01

    Since 1995 the Advanced Noise Control Fan (ANCF) has significantly contributed to the advancement of the understanding of the physics of fan tonal noise generation. The 9'x15' WT has successfully tested multiple high speed fan designs over the last several decades. This advanced several tone noise reduction concepts to higher TRL and the validation of fan tone noise prediction codes.

  6. Section Selection Software Design for Submarine Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Niu, Sheng-suo; Song, Yan; Jia, Xu-ce; Liu, Yu-qin; Zhao, Ke-wei

    2017-08-01

    In order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of ampacity calculation and submarine cable’s section selection, this article improved the shortage of IEC(International Electrotechnical Commission) norms when calculating the ampacity of submarine cables, developed hierarchical principles and established accurate thermal circuit model of the various types of cables. This article realized accurate calculation of ampacity and achieved the ampacity calculation software module’s design. Finally this article firstly developed a section selection software for submarine cables combined with the heat-stable calibration module. After verified the accuracy and effectiveness of software in the typical layout conditions, this software can provide good guidance for practical engineering.

  7. The timing of sediment transport down Monterey Submarine Canyon, offshore California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Thomas; Paull, Charles K.; Ussler, William III; McGann, Mary; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Lundsten, Eve M.

    2013-01-01

    While submarine canyons are the major conduits through which sediments are transported from the continents out into the deep sea, the time it takes for sediment to pass down through a submarine canyon system is poorly constrained. Here we report on the first study to couple optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages of quartz sand deposits and accelerator mass spectrometry 14C ages measured on benthic foraminifera to examine the timing of sediment transport through the axial channel of Monterey Submarine Canyon and Fan, offshore California. The OSL ages date the timing of sediment entry into the canyon head while the 14C ages of benthic foraminifera record the deposition of hemipelagic sediments that bound the sand horizons. We use both single-grain and small (∼2 mm area) single-aliquot regeneration approaches on vibracore samples from fining-upward sequences at various water depths to demonstrate relatively rapid, decadal-scale sand transport to at least 1.1 km depth and more variable decadal- to millennial-scale transport to a least 3.5 km depth on the fan. Significant differences between the time sand was last exposed at the canyon head (OSL age) and the timing of deposition of the sand (from 14C ages of benthic foraminifera in bracketing hemipelagic sediments) are interpreted as indicating that the sand does not pass through the entire canyon instantly in large individual events, but rather moves multiple times before emerging onto the fan. The increased spread in single-grain OSL dates with water depth provides evidence of mixing and temporary storage of sediment as it moves through the canyon system. The ages also indicate that the frequency of sediment transport events decreases with distance down the canyon channel system. The amalgamated sands near the canyon head yield OSL ages that are consistent with a sub-decadal recurrence frequency while the fining-upward sand sequences on the fan indicate that the channel is still experiencing events with a 150

  8. Introduction of a Cooling-Fan Efficiency Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiavon, S.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2009-01-01

    was determined for a ceiling fan, a desk fan, standing fan, and a tower fan in a real office at three room air temperatures and at different fan speed levels. The results reveal that the index is sensitive enough to identify differences in the performance of the cooling devices. A standard method for testing fan...

  9. Online Fan Fiction and Critical Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Rebecca W.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores English-language-learning (ELL) youths' engagement with popular media through composing and publicly posting stories in an online fan fiction writing space. Fan fiction is a genre that lends itself to critical engagement with media texts as fans repurpose popular media to design their own narratives. Analyses describe how…

  10. AERODYNAMIC DESIGN OF HIGH PRESSRE AXIAL FAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Ryzhov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of numerical studies of flow in a high axial fan of H-2, the geometric parameters are carefully designed by the author. The coefficients of performance, the total pressure, efficiency and capacity. Shows the benefits of fan of H-2 on several other fans, expressed in increased efficiency with equal dimensions and angles of blade setting.

  11. Airborne Radar Search for Diesel Submarines (ARSDS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pilnick, Steven E; Landa, Jose

    2005-01-01

    .... In this research, a detection rate model is developed to analyze the effectiveness of an airborne radar search for a diesel submarine assumed to be intermittently operating with periscopes or masts...

  12. Airborne Radar Search for Diesel Submarines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pilnick, Steven E; Landa, Jose

    2005-01-01

    .... In this research, a detection rate model is developed to analyze the effectiveness of airborne radar search for a diesel submarine assumed to be intermittently operating with periscopes or masts...

  13. Aspects of Propeller Developements for a Submarine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; kappel, Jens Julius; Spangenberg, Eugen

    2009-01-01

    Design and development of propellers for submarines are in some ways different from propellers for surface vessels. The most important demand is low acoustic signature that has priority over propeller efficiency, and the submarine propeller must be optimized with respect to acoustics rather than...... efficiency. Moreover the operating conditions of a submarine propeller are quite different. These aspects are discussed as well as the weighing of the various propeller parameters against the design objectives. The noise generated by the propeller can be characterized as thrust noise due to the inhomogeneous...... wake field of the submarine, trailing-edge noise and noise caused by turbulence in the inflow. The items discussed are demonstrated in a case study where a propeller of the Kappel type was developed. Three stages of the development are presented, including a design of an 8-bladed propeller where...

  14. The Medical Implications of Women On Submarines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kane, John

    2001-01-01

    .... The information covered includes a review of the history of women in the military followed by a discussion of how women have been integrated into submarines in foreign navies and in space travel...

  15. Hypercortisolism as a Potential Concern for Submariners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    adverse physiological and psychological states such as glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, obesity , hypertension (all components of metabolic syndrome...physically (e.g. no exposure to sunlight, fresh air, room to move freely) and psychosocially (e.g. friends, family, television , and news) from the world for...study examining the 18-hour watch schedules performed among US submarines found that submariners average a total of 7.1 hours of sleep over a 24 hour

  16. Submarine landslides: processes, triggers and hazard prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, D G; Harbitz, C B; Wynn, R B; Pedersen, G; Løvholt, F

    2006-08-15

    Huge landslides, mobilizing hundreds to thousands of km(3) of sediment and rock are ubiquitous in submarine settings ranging from the steepest volcanic island slopes to the gentlest muddy slopes of submarine deltas. Here, we summarize current knowledge of such landslides and the problems of assessing their hazard potential. The major hazards related to submarine landslides include destruction of seabed infrastructure, collapse of coastal areas into the sea and landslide-generated tsunamis. Most submarine slopes are inherently stable. Elevated pore pressures (leading to decreased frictional resistance to sliding) and specific weak layers within stratified sequences appear to be the key factors influencing landslide occurrence. Elevated pore pressures can result from normal depositional processes or from transient processes such as earthquake shaking; historical evidence suggests that the majority of large submarine landslides are triggered by earthquakes. Because of their tsunamigenic potential, ocean-island flank collapses and rockslides in fjords have been identified as the most dangerous of all landslide related hazards. Published models of ocean-island landslides mainly examine 'worst-case scenarios' that have a low probability of occurrence. Areas prone to submarine landsliding are relatively easy to identify, but we are still some way from being able to forecast individual events with precision. Monitoring of critical areas where landslides might be imminent and modelling landslide consequences so that appropriate mitigation strategies can be developed would appear to be areas where advances on current practice are possible.

  17. Industrial fans used in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Industrial fans are widely used in nuclear facilities, and their most common use is in building ventilation. To control the spread of contamination, airflows are maintained at high levels. Therefore, the selection of the fan and fan control are important to the safety of people, equipment and the environment. As a result, 80% of all energy used in nuclear facilities is fan energy. Safety evolves from the durability, control and redundancy in the system. In new or retrofit installations, testing and qualification of fans and systems are completed prior to start-up. Less important but necessary is the energy conservation aspect of fan selection and installations. Fan efficiency, type of control and system installation are evaluated for energy use

  18. Submarine groundwater discharge into the near-shore zone of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stieglitz, Thomas [Marine Geophysical Laboratory, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville QLD 4811 (Australia) and Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville QLD 4810 (Australia)]. E-mail: thomas.stieglitz@jcu.edu.au

    2005-07-01

    Along the tropical coastline of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) region, little is known to date about submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the near-shore ocean. In an oceanographic sense, SGD consists of freshwater flow from land as well as seawater circulated through sediments. Recent radiochemical and geophysical studies, using the tracer {sup 222}Rn and apparent ground conductivity respectively, provide evidence for SGD to occur in a variety of hydrogeological settings. In this paper, a non-quantitative overview of different settings of SGD in the region is presented: (1) recirculation of seawater through animal burrows in mangrove forests, (2) freshwater SGD from unconfined aquifers as a narrow coastal fringe of freshwater along Wet Tropics beaches, (3) SGD from coastal dune systems in form of localised freshwater springs in the intertidal zone, (4) inner-shelf SGD from confined submarine aquifer systems comprised of riverine paleochannels incised into the shelf.

  19. Submarine groundwater discharge into the near-shore zone of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieglitz, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Along the tropical coastline of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) region, little is known to date about submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the near-shore ocean. In an oceanographic sense, SGD consists of freshwater flow from land as well as seawater circulated through sediments. Recent radiochemical and geophysical studies, using the tracer 222 Rn and apparent ground conductivity respectively, provide evidence for SGD to occur in a variety of hydrogeological settings. In this paper, a non-quantitative overview of different settings of SGD in the region is presented: (1) recirculation of seawater through animal burrows in mangrove forests, (2) freshwater SGD from unconfined aquifers as a narrow coastal fringe of freshwater along Wet Tropics beaches, (3) SGD from coastal dune systems in form of localised freshwater springs in the intertidal zone, (4) inner-shelf SGD from confined submarine aquifer systems comprised of riverine paleochannels incised into the shelf

  20. Sub-decadal turbidite frequency during the early Holocene: Eel Fan, offshore northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, Charles K.; McGann, Mary L.; Sumner, Esther J; Barnes, Philip M; Lundsten, Eve M.; Anderson, Krystle; Gwiazda, Roberto; Edwards, Brian D.; Caress, David W

    2014-01-01

    Remotely operated and autonomous underwater vehicle technologies were used to image and sample exceptional deep sea outcrops where an ∼100-m-thick section of turbidite beds is exposed on the headwalls of two giant submarine scours on Eel submarine fan, offshore northern California (USA). These outcrops provide a rare opportunity to connect young deep-sea turbidites with their feeder system. 14C measurements reveal that from 12.8 ka to 7.9 ka, one turbidite was being emplaced on average every 7 yr. This emplacement rate is two to three orders of magnitude higher than observed for turbidites elsewhere along the Pacific margin of North America. The turbidites contain abundant wood and shallow-dwelling foraminifera, demonstrating an efficient connection between the Eel River source and the Eel Fan sink. Turbidite recurrence intervals diminish fivefold to ∼36 yr from 7.9 ka onward, reflecting sea-level rise and re-routing of Eel River sediments.

  1. WHO ARE FANS OF FACEBOOK FAN PAGES? AN ELECTRONIC WORD-OF-MOUTH COMMUNICATION PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Hu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Given its great business value and popularity, Facebook fan pages have attracted more and more attention in both industry and academia. Fans of Facebook fan pages play an important role in electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM communication. This study focused on the population of fans on Facebook fan pages and examined the differences between fans and non-fans in terms of demographics, social network sites (SNS use, Internet use, and online shopping behaviors. The results indicated that fans used SNS more frequently than non-fans. Additionally, from the eWOM perspective, the researchers moderated product types in the model of people’s word-of-mouth (WOM preferences and found that people had different preferences for eWOM and traditional WOM for different products. Traditional WOM is still the most important source of information for people when shopping online.

  2. Changes in body composition of submarine crew during prolonged submarine deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Bhutani

    2015-01-01

    Discussion: Increased body fat along with lack of physical activity can lead to development of lifestyle disorders in submarine crew. These crew members need to be actively encouraged to participate in physical activity when in harbour. In addition dieting program specifically to encourage reduced fat consumption needs to be instituted in submarines during sorties at sea.

  3. Flutter of swept fan blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielb, R. E.; Kaza, K. R. V.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of sweep on fan blade flutter is studied by applying the analytical methods developed for aeroelastic analysis of advance turboprops. Two methods are used. The first method utilizes an approximate structural model in which the blade is represented by a swept, nonuniform beam. The second method utilizes a finite element technique to conduct modal flutter analysis. For both methods the unsteady aerodynamic loads are calculated using two dimensional cascade theories which are modified to account for sweep. An advanced fan stage is analyzed with 0, 15 and 30 degrees of sweep. It is shown that sweep has a beneficial effect on predominantly torsional flutter and a detrimental effect on predominantly bending flutter. This detrimental effect is shown to be significantly destabilizing for 30 degrees of sweep.

  4. Football – Feminisation – Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mintert, Svenja-Maria

    Football has long time been considered as a genuine masculine domain. However, in the current football culture, the dualism of masculinity and femaleness is in progress. More and more women consume football which is in many countries considered the most popular sport, not only in Scandinavia where...... the number of female fans in football has grown over the past years. A national sense of community, emotion and passion for the game is in particular reached during the international tournaments at live football spectacles and many female fans cheer and sing for ‘their’ team with the utmost conviction. Yet......, the combination ‘women and football’ is still adhered to certain scepticism. Objective The overall objective of this Ph.D. thesis is to contribute to the body of knowledge associated with the distinct aspects of women’s football, female fandom and gender identities in European football drawing upon various...

  5. Seismic facies and sedimentary processes of submarine fans and turbidite systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weimer, Paul; Link, Martin H

    1991-01-01

    ... their internal character, making them increasingly more important exploration targets. However, the proliferation of many types of data has made it difficult for geoscientists to examine and integrate all aspects of these important depositional systems...

  6. Transport of typhoon-induced submarine sediment-laden flows off southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, C.; Cheng, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Since 2006, southern Taiwan experienced destructive typhoons and earthquakes which triggered large scale submarine landslides and turbidity currents and devastated many submarine cables off southwestern Taiwan. Most of cable breakages were located in the Gaoping (GPSC) and Fangliao (FLSC) submarine canyons which indicate submarine canyon is an important pathway for underwater gravity flows that induced by natural hazards. A series of investigations were conducted before and after Morakot typhoon, the sub-bottom profiler and core analysis results revealed the GPSC and FLSC may play different roles in transport sediment from coastal seas to the abyssal ocean during the typhoon invaded period. Off southwestern Taiwan, the GPSC and FLSC are incising from continental shelf to deep sea floor and both of them transport considerable amounts of sediment to the South China Sea. GPSC is directly connected to the Gaoping River on land. The hyperpycnal flows, formed during Typhoon Morakot, delivered coarse sands, gravels and branches of trees into GPSC and deposited at the upper reach. On the contrary, the FLSC, which is smaller, younger and confined to the slope, does not associate with any river on land. A series of turbidites and debrites, which composed by coarse slates, fractal shells, wood fragments and fresh leaves, were observed in cores collected from the head of FLSC through Gaoping slope to the lower reach of GPSC. It implies the torrential rains induced landslides at the southernmost Central Mountain Range may directly delivered large amount of slate fragments through narrow Gaoping shelf into the deep sea. Furthermore, according to Water Resources Agency's groundwater level monitoring data, during Typhoon Morakot, the groundwater level raised significantly at the coastal area of Pingtung Plain. The increased groundwater pressure may lead to high flux of submarine groundwater discharge and induced liquefaction on seafloor. From sub-bottom profiles, the liquefaction

  7. Tokamak confinement scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.

    1998-01-01

    The scaling of energy confinement with engineering parameters, such as plasma current and major radius, is important for establishing the size of an ignited fusion device. Tokamaks exhibit a variety of modes of operation with different confinement properties. At present there is no adequate first principles theory to predict tokamak energy confinement and the empirical scaling method is the preferred approach to designing next step tokamaks. This paper reviews a number of robust theoretical concepts, such as dimensional analysis and stability boundaries, which provide a framework for characterising and understanding tokamak confinement and, therefore, generate more confidence in using empirical laws for extrapolation to future devices. (author)

  8. Sediment dispersal pattern in the Bay of Bengal - evidence for commencement of Bengal Fan sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, K. S.; Ismaiel, M.; Karlapati, S.; Gopala Rao, D.; Mishra, J.; D, S.

    2015-12-01

    The sediment succession in the Bay of Bengal records signatures corresponding to India-Asia collision, regional climate, and erosional processes of the Himalayan orogeny and the Indian subcontinent. The Bengal Fan - world's largest submarine fan - has been long studied to understand the link between the Himalayan tectonics and Asian monsoon climate, but early phase information of the Himalaya erosion is not retrieved from the Indian Ocean due to lack of deep-core samples. Therefore, the missing corresponding signals hampered the understanding of coupled processes between tectonics, climate and erosion. Seismic reflection profiles and industrial drill wells from the western Bay of Bengal show two different modes of sediment deposition: initially Indian peninsular rivers discharged sediments to the ocean at a rate ~20 m/m.y. until Oligocene-Miocene time (~23 Ma) with the exception of two fairly-enhanced sediment pulses from 65 to 54 and again from 34 to 23 Ma; since 23 Ma the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers added huge volumes of sediments to the bay with variable rates range from 40 to >1000 m/m.y. Using seismic stratigraphic technique we found a distinct increase in sediment discharge (~140 m/m.y.) at 23 Ma is an important age marker for the onset of Bengal Fan sedimentation as a coupled connection between the Himalayan tectonics and Asian climate. Further rise in sedimentation rate during the period 6.8 - 0.8 Ma is surprisingly not in agreement with the decrease in sediment rate reported at ODP Leg 116 sites in the distal Bengal Fan, but coincident with the change in monsoon intensity. Here we provide well constrained ages for the growth of the Bengal Fan, which can serve as benchmark for interactions between the Himalayan exhumation and Asian climate.

  9. GRIM FATE OF UNLUCKY STRANDED SUBMARINE E13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    2015-01-01

    THE STORY OF A BRITISH SUBMARINE THAT SUFFERED AT THE HANDS OF THE GERMANS AFTER RUNNING AGROUND IN AUGUST 1915.......THE STORY OF A BRITISH SUBMARINE THAT SUFFERED AT THE HANDS OF THE GERMANS AFTER RUNNING AGROUND IN AUGUST 1915....

  10. Sustaining U.S. Nuclear Submarine Design Capabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schank, John F; Arena, Mark V; DeLuca, Paul; Riposo, Jessie; Curry, Kimberly; Weeks, Todd; Chiesa, James

    2007-01-01

    ... with extra costs, delays and risks. In 2005 the Program Executive Office (PEO) for Submarines asked the RAND Corporation to evaluate the cost and schedule impacts of various strategies for managing submarine design resources...

  11. Reactivity accident of nuclear submarine near Vladivostok

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Makoto; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Romanova, V.; Compton, K.; Novikov, V.; Parker, F.; Sivintsev, Y.

    2001-01-01

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union and consequently the termination of the Cold War and the disarmament agreements, many nuclear warheads are in a queue for dismantling. As a result, substantial number of nuclear submarines equipped with ballistic missiles will be also withdrawn from service. However, Russian nuclear submarines have suffered from reactivity accidents five times. In the paper, a reactivity accident on a nuclear submarine that happened at Chazhma Bay located between Vladivostok and Nakhodka on August 10, 1985, has been described. In addition, the characteristics of submarine nuclear reactors, procedures of refueling, and the possibility of a similar accident are given. Further, the radiological risk to Japan and neighboring countries has been assessed by using an atmospheric pollutant transport code, WSPEEDI, developed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The radiological risk has been evaluated for the Chazhma Bay accident and for a hypothetical reactivity accident of a retired submarine during defueling, assuming winter meteorological conditions. The analyses have shown that the radioactive material might be transported in the atmosphere to Japan in one to several days and might contaminate wide areas of Japan. Under the assumptions taken in the paper, however, the radiological dose to population in the area might be not significant. (author)

  12. Decline of the performance of a portable axial-flow fan due to the friction and duct bending loss of a connected flexible duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Jun

    2017-03-28

    In a job site, a portable fan is often used to ventilate a confined space. When a portable fan is applied to such a space, the actual ventilation flow rate must be accurately estimated in advance because the safety level of contaminant and oxygen concentrations in the space will determine the ventilation requirements. When a portable fan is used with a flexible duct, the actual flow rate of the fan decreases due to the friction and duct bending loss of the duct. Intending to show the decline of a fan performance, the author conducted laboratory experiments and reported the quantitative effect of the friction and duct bending loss of a flexible duct to the flow rate of a portable fan. Four commercial portable fans of different specifications were procured for the experiments, and the decline of the performance of each portable fan due to the friction loss etc. of a connected flexible duct was investigated by measuring actual flow rate. The flow rate showed an obvious decrease from the rated flow rate when a flexible duct was connected. Connection of a straight polyester flexible duct and a straight aluminum flexible duct reduced the flow rates to 81.2 - 52.9% and less than 50%, respectively. The flow rate decreased with an increase of the bend angle of the flexible duct. It is recommended that flow rate check of a portable fan should be diligently carried out in every job site.

  13. Acoustic Power Transmission Through a Ducted Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Envia, Ed

    2016-01-01

    For high-speed ducted fans, when the rotor flowfield is shock-free, the main contribution to the inlet radiated acoustic power comes from the portion of the rotor stator interaction sound field that is transmitted upstream through the rotor. As such, inclusion of the acoustic transmission is an essential ingredient in the prediction of the fan inlet noise when the fan tip relative speed is subsonic. This paper describes a linearized Euler based approach to computing the acoustic transmission of fan tones through the rotor. The approach is embodied in a code called LINFLUX was applied to a candidate subsonic fan called the Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP). The results from this study suggest that it is possible to make such prediction with sufficient fidelity to provide an indication of the acoustic transmission trends with the fan tip speed.

  14. Laboratory alluvial fans in one dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerit, L; Métivier, F; Devauchelle, O; Lajeunesse, E; Barrier, L

    2014-08-01

    When they reach a flat plain, rivers often deposit their sediment load into a cone-shaped structure called alluvial fan. We present a simplified experimental setup that reproduces, in one dimension, basic features of alluvial fans. A mixture of water and glycerol transports and deposits glass beads between two transparent panels separated by a narrow gap. As the beads, which mimic natural sediments, get deposited in this gap, they form an almost one-dimensional fan. At a moderate sediment discharge, the fan grows quasistatically and maintains its slope just above the threshold for sediment transport. The water discharge determines this critical slope. At leading order, the sediment discharge only controls the velocity at which the fan grows. A more detailed analysis reveals a slight curvature of the fan profile, which relates directly to the rate at which sediments are transported.

  15. 30 CFR 57.8518 - Main and booster fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main and booster fans. 57.8518 Section 57.8518... and Underground § 57.8518 Main and booster fans. (a) All mine main and booster fans installed and used...-cycle shutdowns or planned or scheduled fan maintenance or fan adjustments where air quality is...

  16. The Challenges of Teaching Fan Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephan, Matthias

    , has only gained in popularity. Yet, the nature of the course in question, an interdisciplinary open elective, has meant a class with a variety of backgrounds, preparation, and expectations from fan studies and its critical apparatus. In addition, due to the course being taught in English, it attracts...... a conversation about the best methods for teaching fan studies, and help to open up fan studies to be integrated into other courses and programs....

  17. Fan blade crack diagnosis method study

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng Fu; Yinbo Gao

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a discrete mathematical model for fan blades and theoretically analyses the mathematical relationship between the location and depth of crack and fan blade natural frequency. On the basis of the blade mathematical model, using the theoretical computed natural frequency as the fault feature, this article proposes a fast and efficient fan blade crack fault diagnosis method. Transfer matrix method is used to calculate the first three-order blade natural frequencies under di...

  18. Investigating Outfitting Density as a Cost Driver in Submarine Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    unique are that submarine volumetrics and Archimedes principles must be considered in parallel with the weight estimating. “The fundamental goal in...determining if an outfitting density-adjusted cost estimating relationship (CER) is applicable for preparing submarine construction cost estimates...density-adjusted cost estimating relationship (CER) is applicable for preparing submarine construction cost estimates. vi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY

  19. Nuclear reactor plant development for submarine propulsion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladkov, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    History of creating nuclear submarines in the USSR is considered. The above-mentioned works began in 1952. Water cooled and moderated reactor was chosen for the submarine propulsion system. Small-sized high-intensity and high-mobile power facility meeting the submarine requirements was created

  20. US Naval nuclear powering submarine inactivation, disposal and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The US NAVY report dealing with the problem of American nuclear submarine inactivation after service life ending is discussed. 31 submarines were inactivated in 1993 accomplishing the treaty on strategic weapons reduction. The technologies of dismantling, weapon, components and equipment removing, submarine hull cutting, transportation of nuclear compartments contaminated with residual radioactivity and their disposal in Hanford are described. 3 figs

  1. 32 CFR 707.7 - Submarine identification light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submarine identification light. 707.7 Section... RULES WITH RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.7 Submarine identification light. Submarines may display, as a distinctive means of identification, an intermittent flashing amber beacon with...

  2. Reducing Unsteady Loads on a Piggyback Miniature Submarine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, John

    2009-01-01

    A small, simple fixture has been found to be highly effective in reducing destructive unsteady hydrodynamic loads on a miniature submarine that is attached in piggyback fashion to the top of a larger, nuclear-powered, host submarine. The fixture, denoted compact ramp, can be installed with minimal structural modification, and the use of it does not entail any change in submarine operations.

  3. At Periscope Depth: Exploring Submarine Proliferation In Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Region in Acquiring Submarines to Modernize Navy,” Straits Times ( Malaysia ), September 24, 1995, LexisNexis Academic , http...deterrence, enforcement, prestige, or a combination of the three? This thesis compared the case studies of Indonesia, Malaysia , Singapore, and...rationales for purchasing submarines. Indonesia, Malaysia , and Singapore likely purchased submarines for deterrence and enforcement, and Vietnam for

  4. Enhanced Fan Noise Modeling for Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejsa, Eugene A.; Stone, James R.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes work by consultants to Diversitech Inc. for the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to revise the fan noise prediction procedure based on fan noise data obtained in the 9- by 15 Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel at GRC. The purpose of this task is to begin development of an enhanced, analytical, more physics-based, fan noise prediction method applicable to commercial turbofan propulsion systems. The method is to be suitable for programming into a computational model for eventual incorporation into NASA's current aircraft system noise prediction computer codes. The scope of this task is in alignment with the mission of the Propulsion 21 research effort conducted by the coalition of NASA, state government, industry, and academia to develop aeropropulsion technologies. A model for fan noise prediction was developed based on measured noise levels for the R4 rotor with several outlet guide vane variations and three fan exhaust areas. The model predicts the complete fan noise spectrum, including broadband noise, tones, and for supersonic tip speeds, combination tones. Both spectra and directivity are predicted. Good agreement with data was achieved for all fan geometries. Comparisons with data from a second fan, the ADP fan, also showed good agreement.

  5. Durable terrestrial bedrock predicts submarine canyon formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elliot; Finnegan, Noah J.; Mueller, Erich R.; Best, Rebecca J.

    2017-01-01

    Though submarine canyons are first-order topographic features of Earth, the processes responsible for their occurrence remain poorly understood. Potentially analogous studies of terrestrial rivers show that the flux and caliber of transported bedload are significant controls on bedrock incision. Here we hypothesize that coarse sediment load could exert a similar role in the formation of submarine canyons. We conducted a comprehensive empirical analysis of canyon occurrence along the West Coast of the contiguous United States which indicates that submarine canyon occurrence is best predicted by the occurrence of durable crystalline bedrock in adjacent terrestrial catchments. Canyon occurrence is also predicted by the flux of bed sediment to shore from terrestrial streams. Surprisingly, no significant correlation was observed between canyon occurrence and the slope or width of the continental shelf. These findings suggest that canyon incision is promoted by greater yields of durable terrestrial clasts to the shore.

  6. The Ministry of Dilemmas [decommissioning nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peden, W.

    1995-01-01

    A consultant for Greenpeace, the anti-nuclear campaigners, looks at the United Kingdom Government's problems with decommissioning of its nuclear submarine fleet as the vessels become obsolete, and at the transport and storage of spent fuels from the submarine's propulsion reactors. It is argued that no proper plans exist to decommission the vessels safely. The Ministry of Defence sites such as Rosyth and Devonport are immune from inspection by regulatory bodies, so there is no public knowledge of any potential radioactive hazards from the stored out-of-service carcasses, floating in dock, awaiting more active strategies. The author questions the wisdom of building new nuclear submarines, when no proper program exists to decommission existing vessels and their operational waste. (U.K.)

  7. Durable Terrestrial Bedrock Predicts Submarine Canyon Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. Elliot; Finnegan, Noah J.; Mueller, Erich R.; Best, Rebecca J.

    2017-10-01

    Though submarine canyons are first-order topographic features of Earth, the processes responsible for their occurrence remain poorly understood. Potentially analogous studies of terrestrial rivers show that the flux and caliber of transported bedload are significant controls on bedrock incision. Here we hypothesize that coarse sediment load could exert a similar role in the formation of submarine canyons. We conducted a comprehensive empirical analysis of canyon occurrence along the West Coast of the contiguous United States which indicates that submarine canyon occurrence is best predicted by the occurrence of durable crystalline bedrock in adjacent terrestrial catchments. Canyon occurrence is also predicted by the flux of bed sediment to shore from terrestrial streams. Surprisingly, no significant correlation was observed between canyon occurrence and the slope or width of the continental shelf. These findings suggest that canyon incision is promoted by greater yields of durable terrestrial clasts to the shore.

  8. How Do Submarine Networks Web the World?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufils, Jean-Marie

    2000-01-01

    From late 1997 to mid-1999, major submarine cable projects have been launched and huge contracts have been signed for the implementation of transatlantic and transpacific submarine cable systems. The submarine cable industry has rarely seen so much interest in its history and the exponential growth of offered capacity on a single fiber pair has attracted all incumbent and new, national, and international, state-owned, and private operators. Will the capacity per fiber endlessly increase and the endless bandwidth needs continue to match or will limiting factors slow down the pace? It will be shown how this appetite has been made possible and what the required conditions are to keep the same pace.

  9. Active growth of the Bengal Fan during sea-level rise and highstand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Michael E.; Wiedicke, Michael H.; Kudrass, Hermann R.; Hübscher, Christian; Erlenkeuser, Helmut

    1997-04-01

    New stratigraphic and high-resolution seismic data from the Bengal Fan indicate that the world's largest fan shows active growth during the most recent sea-level rise and the recent highstand. This unique phenomenon contradicts common sequence-stratigraphic models, and the sediment preserved provides new insight into the sedimentological response of a fan system to sea-level rise, climatic terminations, and monsoon intensity during the past climatic cycle. We present a detailed dated sequence of turbidite sedimentation based on a core transect perpendicular to the active channel-levee system in the upper mid-fan area. Between the two major terminations 1a (12 800 14C yr B.P.) and 1b (9700 14C yr B.P.), and especially at the end of the Younger Dryas, a 13-km-wide channel built up levees 50 m high. With decreasing sediment supply, continued sea-level rise, and increasing monsoon intensity during the early Holocene, turbidity currents were confined to the channel and gradually filled it. The canyon “Swatch of No Ground,” a shelf depocenter that serves as the source for frequent turbidity currents, and the channel-levee system provide the unique opportunity for studying an active highstand system. Many fans showed this behavior only during lowered sea-level.

  10. Dynamics in geometrical confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Kremer, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the dynamics of low molecular weight and polymeric molecules when they are constrained under conditions of geometrical confinement. It covers geometrical confinement in different dimensionalities: (i) in nanometer thin layers or self supporting films (1-dimensional confinement) (ii) in pores or tubes with nanometric diameters (2-dimensional confinement) (iii) as micelles embedded in matrices (3-dimensional) or as nanodroplets.The dynamics under such conditions have been a much discussed and central topic in the focus of intense worldwide research activities within the last two decades. The present book discusses how the resulting molecular mobility is influenced by the subtle counterbalance between surface effects (typically slowing down molecular dynamics through attractive guest/host interactions) and confinement effects (typically increasing the mobility). It also explains how these influences can be modified and tuned, e.g. through appropriate surface coatings, film thicknesses or pore...

  11. Elastic membranes in confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, J B; Miksis, M J; Davis, S H

    2016-07-01

    An elastic membrane stretched between two walls takes a shape defined by its length and the volume of fluid it encloses. Many biological structures, such as cells, mitochondria and coiled DNA, have fine internal structure in which a membrane (or elastic member) is geometrically 'confined' by another object. Here, the two-dimensional shape of an elastic membrane in a 'confining' box is studied by introducing a repulsive confinement pressure that prevents the membrane from intersecting the wall. The stage is set by contrasting confined and unconfined solutions. Continuation methods are then used to compute response diagrams, from which we identify the particular membrane mechanics that generate mitochondria-like shapes. Large confinement pressures yield complex response diagrams with secondary bifurcations and multiple turning points where modal identities may change. Regions in parameter space where such behaviour occurs are then mapped. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Prototype Morphing Fan Nozzle Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Jun; Song, Gang-Bing

    2004-01-01

    Ongoing research in NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch to develop smart materials technologies for aeropropulsion structural components has resulted in the design of the prototype morphing fan nozzle shown in the photograph. This prototype exploits the potential of smart materials to significantly improve the performance of existing aircraft engines by introducing new inherent capabilities for shape control, vibration damping, noise reduction, health monitoring, and flow manipulation. The novel design employs two different smart materials, a shape-memory alloy and magnetorheological fluids, to reduce the nozzle area by up to 30 percent. The prototype of the variable-area fan nozzle implements an overlapping spring leaf assembly to simplify the initial design and to provide ease of structural control. A single bundle of shape memory alloy wire actuators is used to reduce the nozzle geometry. The nozzle is subsequently held in the reduced-area configuration by using magnetorheological fluid brakes. This prototype uses the inherent advantages of shape memory alloys in providing large induced strains and of magnetorheological fluids in generating large resistive forces. In addition, the spring leaf design also functions as a return spring, once the magnetorheological fluid brakes are released, to help force the shape memory alloy wires to return to their original position. A computerized real-time control system uses the derivative-gain and proportional-gain algorithms to operate the system. This design represents a novel approach to the active control of high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines. Researchers have estimated that such engines will reduce thrust specific fuel consumption by 9 percent over that of fixed-geometry fan nozzles. This research was conducted under a cooperative agreement (NCC3-839) at the University of Akron.

  13. Fan Fuel Casting Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhoff, Seth D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-28

    LANL was approached to provide material and design guidance for a fan-shaped fuel element. A total of at least three castings were planned. The first casting is a simple billet mold to be made from high carbon DU-10Mo charge material. The second and third castings are for optimization of the actual fuel plate mold. The experimental scope for optimization is only broad enough for a second iteration of the mold design. It is important to note that partway through FY17, this project was cancelled by the sponsor. This report is being written in order to capture the knowledge gained should this project resume at a later date.

  14. Biomonitoring of physiological status and cognitive performance of underway submariners undergoing a novel watch-standing schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplessis, C. A.; Cullum, M. E.; Crepeau, L. J.

    2005-05-01

    Submarine watch-standers adhere to a 6 hour-on, 12 hour-off (6/12) watch-standing schedule, yoking them to an 18-hr day, engendering circadian desynchronization and chronic sleep deprivation. Moreover, the chronic social crowding, shift work, and confinement of submarine life provide additional stressors known to correlate with elevated secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and cortisol levels, reduced performance, immunologic dysfunction, malignancies, infections, gastrointestinal illness, coronary disease, anxiety, and depression. We evaluated an alternative, compressed, fixed work schedule designed to enhance circadian rhythm entrainment, sleep hygiene, performance, and health on 10 underway submariners, who followed the alternative and 6/12 schedules for approximately 2 weeks each. We measured subjects" sleep, cognitive performance, and salivary biomarker levels. Pilot analysis of the salivary data on one subject utilizing ELISA suggests elevated biomarker levels of stress. Average PM cortisol levels were 0.2 μg/L (normal range: nondetectable - 0.15 μg/L), and mean sIgA levels were 562 μg/ml (normal range: 100-500 μg/ml). Future research exploiting real-time salivary bioassays, via fluorescent polarimetry technology, identified by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) as a future Naval requirement, allows researchers to address correlations between stress-induced elaboration of salivary biomarkers with physiological and performance decrements, thereby fostering insight into the underway submariner"s psychoimmunological status. This may help identify strategies that enhance resilience to stressors. Specifically, empirically-based modeling can identify optimal watch-standing schedules and stress-mitigating procedures -- within the operational constraints of the submarine milieu and the mission --that foster improved circadian entrainment and reduced stress reactivity, enhancing physiological health, operational performance, safety, and job satisfaction.

  15. Being of service: "X-Files" fans and social engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Bethan Jones

    2012-01-01

    I explore the ways in which celebrity charity and fan activism can lead to civic engagement and social change. Fan studies has moved away from the traditional view of fans as psychologically deficient and has begun to examine resistance within the cultural productions of fandom—fan fiction, for example, addressing gender imbalances in popular TV shows. However, scholarship on celebrity-focused fans still retains much of the stigmatizing language that mars early writing about fans. I examine t...

  16. The confinement problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, E.

    1985-01-01

    Confinement of quarks is sometimes taken as some kind of dogma in the contemporary theory of strong interactions - quantum chromo-dynamics (QCD). Scientists should not be content with that. What is meant by ''permanent confinement'' should be formulated more precisely to see whether the theory has this property or not. The author looks at some possible interpretations of ''confinement'' and their shortcomings and then turns to the most widely used rather pragmatic definition based on the somewhat unphysical notion of infinitely heavy external sources. He describes what is known about the problem and tries to bring into focus some aspects that are insufficiently understood in his opinion

  17. Nuclear submarines in the Royal Navy - the design challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, C.V.

    1999-01-01

    Since the early years of the century, submarines have been among the most potent contributors to naval power. Nuclear-powered submarines, with the ability to stay continuously submerged for months and capable of the high sustained speeds previously only achieved by surface warships, now vie with aircraft carriers as the capital ships of the major navies of the world. Indeed, their unsurpassed stealth has made them the prime choice for deploying a nuclear deterrent capability. After a brief historical survey, this paper reviews the current status of the Royal Navy's nuclear submarine fleet then describes the design and construction process for a nuclear submarine. The design of any submarine is a complex and highly integrated process and the particular and far-reaching effects of incorporating nuclear steam-raising plant are discussed, along with the key safety considerations involved in nuclear submarine design and operation. The paper concludes with some thoughts on the future development of submarines. (author)

  18. The Right to Be a Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Reading experts have consistently cited the importance of independent reading, reading for pleasure, and fostering "a love of reading." Unfortunately, fanning the fire of fan readership is not so easy in the service of our clear-cut and standards-aligned curricula, except perhaps in small, carefully channeled doses. Moreover, the impetus for such…

  19. German Submarine Offensives and South African Countermeasures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evert

    direct result of the successful German submarine operations in the North Atlantic during 1939–1942. The first German .... The presence of Japanese and German warships in the Southern Atlantic and Indian Oceans was ..... sailed at great speed from the equator in order to arrive off Cape Town for the commencement of the.

  20. Submarine Telecommunication Cables in Disputed Maritime Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Logchem, Youri

    2014-01-01

    There are a considerable number of maritime areas where no boundary exists, or where a boundary is delimited only in part. This article deals with the issue of submarine telecommunication cables, which are sometimes placed on the seabed or buried in the subsoil of areas that are claimed by multiple

  1. The sedimentary record of submarine channel morphodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, J.

    2017-01-01

    Submarine channels are ubiquitous on the ocean floor and are considered to be the equivalent of rivers on land. These channels are created by turbidity currents, which originate from the continental margins and which can transport sediment for thousands of kilometres into the oceans. The aim of this

  2. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  3. Submarine Combat Systems Engineering Project Capstone Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    to 06-06-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Submarine Combat Systems Engineering Project 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ...AND ALLOCATIONS ..............................................25 E. APPLYING FITTS ’ LIST...25 Figure 8 Fitts ’ List [Schmidt, 2010

  4. Anaerobic digestion submarine in Abbey farmyard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-07-01

    An anaerobic digestion system and fiber separation plant installed at Bethlehem Abbey (Northern Ireland) produces biogas for central heating and grain drying, and a compost which is bagged and sold. According to one report, it even keeps the monks warm at night. Designed by James Murcott of Farm Gas Ltd., the digester (shaped like a submarine) receives 10% solids slurry.

  5. Hydrogen isotope systematics of submarine basalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyser, T.K. (Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences); O' Neil, J.R. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

    1984-10-01

    The D/H ratios and water contents in fresh submarine basalts from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the East Pacific Rise, and Hawaii indicate that the primary D/H ratios of many submarine lavas have been altered by processes including (1) outgassing, (2) addition of seawater at magmatic temperature, and (3) low-temperature hydration of glass. Decreases in deltaD and H/sub 2/O/sup +/ from exteriors to interiors of pillows are explained by outgassing of water whereas inverse relations between deltaD and H/sub 2/O/sup +/ in basalts from the Galapagos Rise and the FAMOUS Area are attributed to outgassing of CH/sub 4/ and H/sub 2/. A good correlation between deltaD values and H/sub 2/O is observed in a suite of submarine tholeiites dredged from the Kilauea East Rift Zone where seawater (added directly to the magma), affected only the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and argon. Analyses of some glassy rims indicate that the outer millimeter of the glass can undergo low-temperature hydration by hydroxyl groups having deltaD values as low as -100. deltaD values vary with H/sub 2/O contents of subaerial transitional basalts from Molokai, Hawaii, and subaerial alkali basalts from the Society Islands, indicating that the primary deltaD values were similar to those of submarine lavas. The results are discussed.

  6. NDT in submarines construction-HY 80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, C.A.; Talmadge, J.

    1988-01-01

    In submarines construction, provided that metallurgic characteristics have been established, the NDT methods and equipments as well as the application ways should be taken into account. It is then fundamental purpose of this work to emphasize all that coming from conventional context in the field of use of already known nondestructive techniques

  7. Blade Vibration Measurement System for Unducted Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marscher, William

    2014-01-01

    With propulsion research programs focused on new levels of efficiency and noise reduction, two avenues for advanced gas turbine technology are emerging: the geared turbofan and ultrahigh bypass ratio fan engines. Both of these candidates are being pursued as collaborative research projects between NASA and the engine manufacturers. The high bypass concept from GE Aviation is an unducted fan that features a bypass ratio of over 30 along with the accompanying benefits in fuel efficiency. This project improved the test and measurement capabilities of the unducted fan blade dynamic response. In the course of this project, Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI) collaborated with GE Aviation to (1) define the requirements for fan blade measurements; (2) leverage MSI's radar-based system for compressor and turbine blade monitoring; and (3) develop, validate, and deliver a noncontacting blade vibration measurement system for unducted fans.

  8. Advanced Noise Control Fan Aerodynamic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozak, Richard F., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Noise Control Fan at the NASA Glenn Research Center is used to experimentally analyze fan generated acoustics. In order to determine how a proposed noise reduction concept affects fan performance, flow measurements can be used to compute mass flow. Since tedious flow mapping is required to obtain an accurate mass flow, an equation was developed to correlate the mass flow to inlet lip wall static pressure measurements. Once this correlation is obtained, the mass flow for future configurations can be obtained from the nonintrusive wall static pressures. Once the mass flow is known, the thrust and fan performance can be evaluated. This correlation enables fan acoustics and performance to be obtained simultaneously without disturbing the flow.

  9. Computing Gröbner fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, K.; Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Thomas, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents algorithms for computing the Gröbner fan of an arbitrary polynomial ideal. The computation involves enumeration of all reduced Gröbner bases of the ideal. Our algorithms are based on a uniform definition of the Gröbner fan that applies to both homogeneous and non-homogeneous i...... are not always normal fans of polyhedra in which case reverse search applies automatically. Computational results using our implementation of these algorithms in the software package Gfan are included.......This paper presents algorithms for computing the Gröbner fan of an arbitrary polynomial ideal. The computation involves enumeration of all reduced Gröbner bases of the ideal. Our algorithms are based on a uniform definition of the Gröbner fan that applies to both homogeneous and non...

  10. Fan-fold shielded electrical leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatgi, Rajeev R.; Cowan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    Fan-folded electrical leads made from copper cladded Kapton, for example, with the copper cladding on one side serving as a ground plane and the copper cladding on the other side being etched to form the leads. The Kapton is fan folded with the leads located at the bottom of the fan-folds. Electrical connections are made by partially opening the folds of the fan and soldering, for example, the connections directly to the ground plane and/or the lead. The fan folded arrangement produces a number of advantages, such as electrically shielding the leads from the environment, is totally non-magnetic, and has a very low thermal conductivity, while being easy to fabricate.

  11. Phase 1 Final Report: Titan Submarine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Paul, Michael V.

    2015-01-01

    The conceptual design of a submarine for Saturn's moon Titan was a funded NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase 1 for 2014. The proposal stated the desire to investigate what science a submarine for Titan's liquid hydrocarbon seas might accomplish and what that submarine might look like. Focusing on a flagship class science system (100 kg), it was found that a submersible platform can accomplish extensive science both above and below the surface of the Kraken Mare. Submerged science includes mapping using side-looking sonar, imaging and spectroscopy of the lake, as well as sampling of the lake's bottom and shallow shoreline. While surfaced, the submarine will not only sense weather conditions (including the interaction between the liquid and atmosphere) but also image the shoreline, as much as 2 km inland. This imaging requirement pushed the landing date to Titan's next summer period (2047) to allow for lighted conditions, as well as direct-to-Earth communication, avoiding the need for a separate relay orbiter spacecraft. Submerged and surfaced investigation are key to understanding both the hydrological cycle of Titan as well as gather hints to how life may have begun on Earth using liquid, sediment, and chemical interactions. An estimated 25 Mb of data per day would be generated by the various science packages. Most of the science packages (electronics at least) can be safely kept inside the submarine pressure vessel and warmed by the isotope power system.The baseline 90-day mission would be to sail submerged and surfaced around and through Kraken Mare investigating the shoreline and inlets to evaluate the sedimentary interaction both on the surface and then below. Depths of Kraken have yet to be sensed (Ligeia to the north is thought to be 200 m (656 ft) deep), but a maximum depth of 1,000 m (3,281 ft) for Kraken Mare was assumed for the design). The sub would spend 20 d at the interface between Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare for clues to the drainage of

  12. The confining trailing string

    CERN Document Server

    Kiritsis, E; Nitti, F

    2014-01-01

    We extend the holographic trailing string picture of a heavy quark to the case of a bulk geometry dual to a confining gauge theory. We compute the classical trailing confining string solution for a static as well as a uniformly moving quark. The trailing string is infinitely extended and approaches a confining horizon, situated at a critical value of the radial coordinate, along one of the space-time directions, breaking boundary rotational invariance. We compute the equations for the fluctuations around the classical solutions, which are used to obtain boundary force correlators controlling the Langevin dynamics of the quark. The imaginary part of the correlators has a non-trivial low-frequency limit, which gives rise to a viscous friction coefficient induced by the confining vacuum. The vacuum correlators are used to define finite-temperature dressed Langevin correlators with an appropriate high-frequency behavior.

  13. The confining trailing string

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiritsis, Elias [APC, Université Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Obs. de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité,Bâtiment Condorcet, F-75205, Paris Cedex 13 (UMR du CNRS 7164) (France); Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Crete Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of Crete,71003 Heraklion (Greece); Mazzanti, Liuba [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University,3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Nitti, Francesco [APC, Université Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Obs. de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité,Bâtiment Condorcet, F-75205, Paris Cedex 13 (UMR du CNRS 7164) (France)

    2014-02-19

    We extend the holographic trailing string picture of a heavy quark to the case of a bulk geometry dual to a confining gauge theory. We compute the classical trailing confining string solution for a static as well as a uniformly moving quark. The trailing string is infinitely extended and approaches a confining horizon, situated at a critical value of the radial coordinate, along one of the space-time directions, breaking boundary rotational invariance. We compute the equations for the fluctuations around the classical solutions, which are used to obtain boundary force correlators controlling the Langevin dynamics of the quark. The imaginary part of the correlators has a non-trivial low-frequency limit, which gives rise to a viscous friction coefficient induced by the confining vacuum. The vacuum correlators are used to define finite-temperature dressed Langevin correlators with an appropriate high-frequency behavior.

  14. Solitons and confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swieca, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Some aspects of two recent developments in quantum field theory are discussed. First, related with 'extended particles' such as soliton, kink and the 't Hooft monopole. Second, with confinement of particles which are realized in the Schwinger model [pt

  15. Fusion, magnetic confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, H.L.

    1992-08-06

    An overview is presented of the principles of magnetic confinement of plasmas for the purpose of achieving controlled fusion conditions. Sec. 1 discusses the different nuclear fusion reactions which can be exploited in prospective fusion reactors and explains why special technologies need to be developed for the supply of tritium or {sup 3}He, the probable fuels. In Sec. 2 the Lawson condition, a criterion that is a measure of the quality of confinement relative to achieving fusion conditions, is explained. In Sec. 3 fluid equations are used to describe plasma confinement. Specific confinement configurations are considered. In Sec. 4 the orbits of particle sin magneti and electric fields are discussed. In Sec. 5 stability considerations are discussed. It is noted that confinement systems usually need to satisfy stability constraints imposed by ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The paper culminates with a summary of experimental progress in magnetic confinement. Present experiments in tokamaks have reached the point that the conditions necessary to achieve fusion are being satisfied.

  16. Turbofan gas turbine engine with variable fan outlet guide vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Peter John (Inventor); Zenon, Ruby Lasandra (Inventor); LaChapelle, Donald George (Inventor); Mielke, Mark Joseph (Inventor); Grant, Carl (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A turbofan gas turbine engine includes a forward fan section with a row of fan rotor blades, a core engine, and a fan bypass duct downstream of the forward fan section and radially outwardly of the core engine. The forward fan section has only a single stage of variable fan guide vanes which are variable fan outlet guide vanes downstream of the forward fan rotor blades. An exemplary embodiment of the engine includes an afterburner downstream of the fan bypass duct between the core engine and an exhaust nozzle. The variable fan outlet guide vanes are operable to pivot from a nominal OGV position at take-off to an open OGV position at a high flight Mach Number which may be in a range of between about 2.5-4+. Struts extend radially across a radially inwardly curved portion of a flowpath of the engine between the forward fan section and the core engine.

  17. Bright Streaks and Dark Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The south polar region of Mars is covered every year by a layer of carbon dioxide ice. In a region called the 'cryptic terrain,' the ice is translucent and sunlight can penetrate through the ice to warm the surface below. The ice layer sublimates (evaporates) from the bottom. The dark fans of dust seen in this image come from the surface below the layer of ice, carried to the top by gas venting from below. The translucent ice is 'visible' by virtue of the effect it has on the tone of the surface below, which would otherwise have the same color and reflectivity as the fans. Bright streaks in this image are fresh frost. The CRISM team has identified the composition of these streaks to be carbon dioxide. Observation Geometry Image PSP_003113_0940 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 26-Mar-2007. The complete image is centered at -85.8 degrees latitude, 106.0 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 244.9 km (153.0 miles). At this distance the image scale is 49.0 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning) so objects 147 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 50 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 06:20 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 79 degrees, thus the sun was about 11 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 207.6 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  18. School spirits: alcohol and collegiate sports fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Toben F; Wechsler, Henry

    2003-01-01

    While studies have addressed alcohol use and related problems among college athletes, little is known about the drinking patterns of non-athletes who are sports fans. This study examines the relationship between alcohol use and interest in collegiate sports on two levels. First, do sports fans in college binge drink more and exhibit more negative alcohol-related outcomes than other students? Second, do colleges with large numbers of sports fans have higher rates of heavy drinking and accompanying secondhand effects affecting other students? The study analyzed the responses of a nationally representative sample of students who completed questionnaires in the spring of 1999 regarding their extracurricular activities and substance use. The responses of 3445 student sports fans were compared to those of 8405 students who were not sports fans. More sports fans drank alcohol, engaged in binge drinking, had a heavy drinking style and reported alcohol-related problems than nonfans. The percentage of sports fans at a school was associated with binge drinking rates and the secondhand effects. The implications for those working with college athletics and for alcohol prevention personnel are discussed. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  19. Dynamic response of Hovercraft lift fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, D. D.

    1981-08-01

    Hovercraft lift fans are subjected to varying back pressure due to wave action and craft motions when these vehicles are operating in a seaway. The oscillatory back pressure causes the fans to perform dynamically, exhibiting a hysteresis type of response and a corresponding degradation in mean performance. Since Hovercraft motions are influenced by variations in lift fan pressure and discharge, it is important to understand completely the nature of the dynamic performance of lift fans in order to completely solve the Hovercraft seakeeping problem. The present study was performed to determine and classify the instabilities encountered in a centrifugal fan operating against time-varying back pressure. A model-scale experiment was developed in which the fan discharge was directed into a flow-measuring device, terminating in a rotating valve which produced an oscillatory back pressure superimposed upon a mean aerodynamic resistance. Pressure and local velocity were measured as functions of time at several locations in the fan volute. The measurements permitted the identification of rotating (or propagating) stall in the impeller. One cell and two cell configurations were classified and the transient condition connecting these two configurations was observed. The mechanisms which lead to rotating stall in a centrifugal compressor are presented and discussed with specific reference to Hovercraft applications.

  20. FANS-3D Users Guide (ESTEP Project ER 201031)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    TECHNICAL DOCUMENT 3293 August 2016 FANS -3D User’s Guide (ESTEP Project ER-201031) Pei-Fang Wang SSC Pacific Hamn-Ching...1.1 THEORY AND NUMERICAL ALGORITHM OF FANS CODE ............................................. 1 2. FANS -3D SOFTWARE DOCUMENTATION AND EXECUTION...5 3. FANS -3D CODE PARALLELIZATION

  1. 30 CFR 75.310 - Installation of main mine fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Installation of main mine fans. 75.310 Section... mine fans. (a) Each main mine fan shall be— (1) Installed on the surface in an incombustible housing... that gives a signal at the mine when the fan either slows or stops. A responsible person designated by...

  2. 30 CFR 75.302 - Main mine fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main mine fans. 75.302 Section 75.302 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.302 Main mine fans. Each coal mine shall be ventilated by one or more main mine fans. Booster fans shall not be installed underground to assist main mine...

  3. 30 CFR 75.331 - Auxiliary fans and tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fans and tubing. 75.331 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.331 Auxiliary fans and tubing. (a) When auxiliary fans and tubing are used for face ventilation, each auxiliary fan shall be— (1...

  4. Optimizing Circular Side-Resonators to Reduce Computer Fan Noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, M.J.J.; Beltman, W.M.

    2004-01-01

    One of the main noise sources in computers are the cooling fans. Tonal noise at the rotational frequency of the fan, the blade passing frequency (BPF) and its higher harmonics are important in fan noise. So called 'side-resonators' integrated in the duct of an in-duct axial fan cause an impedance

  5. 30 CFR 57.8519 - Underground main fan controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground main fan controls. 57.8519 Section... Ventilation Surface and Underground § 57.8519 Underground main fan controls. All underground main fans shall have controls placed at a suitable protected location remote from the fan and preferably on the surface...

  6. [Functional status of submariners after short-time submarine raid in the sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmanov, A S; Pisarev, A A; Khankevich, Yu R; Bloshchinskii, I A; Valskii, A V

    2015-10-01

    Short-time sea submarine raids (from a few days to a few weeks), performed during one working cycle, negatively influence on the functional state of the submariners organism. Upon returning to the point of basing the crew involved in the maintenance of the material and performs preparations for further access to the sea. Due to the high workload and lack of time personnel are not held in any correctional and rehabilitation activities, and therefore the time for the next release in the sea functional condition and functional reserves of the body does not have time to fully recover. The transfer of the submarine crew and referral to medical and psychological rehabilitation assumed only after the end of the operating cycle after the crew the task of further voyage. Based on the assessment of the functional systems of the submarine after a short voyage concluded on the need to develop a set of remedial measures for the recovery of submarine crews during inter-cruise period.

  7. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed.

  8. Submarine medicine in indian navy: A 50-year Odyssey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G D Bhanot

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Submarine arm of the Indian Navy is in its Golden Jubilee year, celebrating 50 glorious years of service to the Nation. From a small force of Foxtrot class, it leapfrogged into high technology boats in just 25 years of its coming into being. Forays into operating a nuclear Submarine have brought the Navy into the fold of of modern Submarine powers. In this journey, it has also graduated from acquiring Submarines from foreign nations to the present day indigenous construction of both conventional and nuclear boats. Submarine Medicine has been an inseparable part of strengthening the Naval capability throughout this endeavor. This article briefly describes the tale of Submarine medicine in India since its origin, highlighting significant milestones.

  9. ATR confinement leakage determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuan, P.; Buescher, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    The air leakage rate from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) confinement is an important parameter in estimating hypothesized accidental releases of radiation to the environment. The leakage rate must be determined periodically to assure that the confinement has not degraded with time and such determination is one of the technical safety requirements of ATR operation. This paper reviews the methods of confinement leakage determination and presents an analysis of leakage determination under windy conditions, which can complicate the interpretation of the determined leakage rates. The paper also presents results of analyses of building air exchange under windy conditions. High wind can enhance air exchange and this could increase the release rates of radioisotopes following an accident

  10. New Fan Engine Noise-Reduction Concept Using Trailing Edge Blowing of Fan Blades Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelberg, Laurence J.

    2002-01-01

    A major source of noise in commercial turbofan engines is the interaction of the fan blade wakes with the fan exit vanes (stators). These wakes can be greatly reduced by filling them with air blown out of the blade trailing edge. Extensive testing of this concept has demonstrated significant noise reductions. These tests were conducted on a low-speed, 4- ft-diameter fan using hollow blades at NASA Glenn Research Center's Aeroacoustic Propulsion Laboratory (AAPL).

  11. PICNIC - FANS, ULTRAS AND HOOLIGANS - INTERNAL DIFFERENTIATE OF SUBCULTURE GROUP FOOTBALL FANS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Solinski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a main part of "Internal differentiate of subculture group of football fans in Poland" project. Author has tried to show how the subculture of football fans can be differentiate. Author ha presented three different subgroups of Polish fans. It is very important to divide this subculture, because each subgroup has different mentality and style. That is why I have paid the most attention on this element.

  12. Submarine Groundwater Discharge in the Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakti, Hendra

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia is one of the archipelagic countries that has the longest coastline in the world. Because it is located in the tropics, in general it has a very high rainfall. Each island has a different morphology which is composed of a variety of rocks with different hydrogeological properties. This natural condition allows for the presence of groundwater in different amount in each island. The difference in groundwater hydraulics gradients in aquifer continuous to the sea has triggered the discharge of groundwater to offshore known as submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Its presence can be as seepage or submarine springs with components derived from land and sea and a mixture between them. The understanding of SGD phenomenon is very important because it can be useful as a source of clean water in coastal areas, affecting marine health, and improving marine environment.

  13. Hybrid Intelligent Control for Submarine Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract While sailing near the sea surface, submarines will often undergo rolling motion caused by wave disturbance. Fierce rolling motion seriously affects their normal operation and even threatens their security. We propose a new control method for roll stabilization. This paper studies hybrid intelligent control combining a fuzzy control, a neural network and extension control technology. Every control strategy can achieve the ideal control effect within the scope of its effective control. The neuro-fuzzy control strategy is used to improve the robustness of the controller. The speed control strategy and the course control strategy are conducted to extend the control range. The paper also proposes the design of the controller and carries out the simulation experiment in different sea conditions. The simulation results show that the control method proposed can indeed effectively improve the control performance of submarine stabilization.

  14. MVAC Submarine cable, impedance measurements and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentsen, Martin Trolle; Expethit, Adrian; Pedersen, Morten Virklund

    2017-01-01

    Due to environmental concerns an increase in off-shore windfarms has been observed in recent years, leading to an increased demand for three-core-wire-armoured submarine cables. However, the IEC Standard 60287 used to calculate the ampacity of these cables is widely recognized as being not accurate....... Several recent studies have shown that the standard overestimates the cable losses, which results in over-dimensioning the cables and hence higher costs. The studies claim that the over-dimensioning might be due to the collective wire-armour which electromagnetic behaviour is not considered accurately...... by the standard. This paper investigates the standard inaccuracies, by conducting comprehensive measurements on a three-core-wire-armoured submarine cable. Firstly, DC measurements are conducted in order to investigate the connections between cable components (screen-screen and screens-armour) as this may...

  15. Being of service: "X-Files" fans and social engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethan Jones

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available I explore the ways in which celebrity charity and fan activism can lead to civic engagement and social change. Fan studies has moved away from the traditional view of fans as psychologically deficient and has begun to examine resistance within the cultural productions of fandom—fan fiction, for example, addressing gender imbalances in popular TV shows. However, scholarship on celebrity-focused fans still retains much of the stigmatizing language that mars early writing about fans. I examine the relationship between celebrity and fan; examine the role celebrity plays in framing fan charity; assess how fan investment affects celebrity charity work; and argue that fans are active participants in encouraging social awareness and charitable giving.

  16. CF6 jet engine performance improvement: New fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    As part of the NASA sponsored engine component improvement program, and fan package was developed to reduce fuel consumption in current CF6 turbofan aircraft engine. The new fan package consist of an improved fan blade, reduced fan tip clearance due to a fan case stiffener, and a smooth fan casing tip shroud. CF6 engine performance and acoustic tests demonstrated the predicted 1.8% improvement in cruise sfc without an increase in engine noise. Power management thrust/fan speed characteristics were defined. Mechanical and structural integrity was demonstrated in model fan rotor photoelastic stress tests, full-size fan blade bench fatigue tests, and CF6 engine bird ingestion, crosswind, and cyclic endurance tests. The fan was certified in the CF6-500c2/E2 engines and is in commerical service on the Boeing 747-200, Douglas DC-10-30, and Atrbus industrie A300B aircraft.

  17. Active Vibration Reduction of Titanium Alloy Fan Blades (FAN1) Using Piezoelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Benjamin; Kauffman, Jeffrey; Duffy, Kirsten; Provenza, Andrew; Morrison, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing smart adaptive structures to improve fan blade damping at resonances using piezoelectric (PE) transducers. In this paper, a digital resonant control technique emulating passive shunt circuits is used to demonstrate vibration reduction of FAN1 Ti real fan blade at the several target modes. Single-mode control and multi-mode control using one piezoelectric material are demonstrated. Also a conceptual study of how to implement this digital control system into the rotating fan blade is discussed.

  18. How to do things with fan subs: Media engagement as subcultural capital in anime fan subbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Schules

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Anime fandom has been a fairly constant subject in fan scholarship, although only recently have conversations about fan subbing begun to circulate. As useful as those conversations are, none have directly dealt either with the mechanisms of fan subbing, particularly the use of linear notes, as a practice or with how these subs intersect with the flows of subcultural capital. Fan subbing, both as a productive and a consumptive practice, plays a small but influential part in subcultural capital. Engagement with media is a compositional element of such capital in this community.

  19. Submarine Landslides: What we Know and Where we are Going!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscardelli, L. G.; Mountjoy, J. J.; Micallef, A.; Strasser, M.; Vanneste, M.; Chaytor, J. D.; Mosher, D.; Krastel, S.; Lo Iacono, C.; Yamada, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Submarine landslides and other gravity-induced movements can disrupt very large areas of continental margins resulting in long-term seafloor morphologic change and multi-scale mass transport deposits (MTDs). Potential consequences of submarine landslides include damage to seabed infrastructure, offshore facilities, as well as generation or enhancement of tsunamis. MTDs are common on the modern seafloor and within the stratigraphic record. Slides, slumps and debris flows can be constituents of MTDs and can co-occur in the same event or depositional unit. Recent research indicates that relationships exist between MTD geological setting, causal mechanisms, and geometries. Quantitative data analysis suggests that MTD morphometric parameters can be used to link these three parameters. Despite many advances in this field, it still remains unclear how to definitively identify pre-conditioning factors and triggers of submarine landslides in modern slopes, and how submarine landslides evolve after initiation. In addition, new questions regarding the interaction between submarine landslides and active marine processes, such as bottom currents and fluid flow, have emerged.One of the mandates of the S4SLIDE (IGCP-640) project, a joint endeavor of UNESCO and IGCP that represents the broad field of submarine landslide research, is to facilitate interactions at an international level among scientists, industry and government representatives to advance our knowledge on a number of outstanding science questions: (i) What is the nature of the interaction between current-controlled sedimentation and submarine landslides? (ii) What role do transient turbulent-laminar flows play in the formation of submarine landslides? (iii) Do climatic variations control the occurrence of submarine landslides? (iv) What is the economic significance of submarine landslides? (v) Do we understand the hazards that submarine landslides pose to the environment and to humans? This presentation will cover

  20. US naval nuclear powering submarine inactivation, disposal and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The report of US Department NAVY is devoted to the problem of taking out of service of US nuclear submarines whose life time has been ended. To 1993 31 submarines have been removed from service in accordance with agreement on the reduction of strategic weapons. The technology of equipment for dismantling, disarming, submarine hull cutting, transportation and reactor module burial in Hanford is described. 2 figs

  1. Aerodynamic Modelling and Optimization of Axial Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft

    A numerically efficient mathematical model for the aerodynamics oflow speed axial fans of the arbitrary vortex flow type has been developed.The model is based on a blade-element principle, whereby therotor is divided into a number of annular streamtubes.For each of these streamtubes relations...... and integrated propertiesshow that the computed results agree well with the measurements.Integrating a rotor-only version of the aerodynamic modelwith an algorithm for numerical designoptimization, enables the finding of an optimum fan rotor.The angular velocity of the rotor, the hub radius and the spanwise...... of fan efficiency in a design interval of flow rates,thus designinga fan which operates well over a range of different flow conditions.The optimization scheme was used to investigate the dependence ofmaximum efficiency on1: the number of blades,2: the width of the design interval and3: the hub radius...

  2. Reduction of fan noise: A concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, M. R.

    1972-01-01

    Acoustic materials strategically located within or near noise sources are effective for noise abatement on wing mounted lift fans, nozzles, engines and other noise sources. Panels are straightforward and easily adaptable to situations outside of aircraft technology.

  3. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dean, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Acosta, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  4. Mexican Fan Palm - Orange Co. [ds350

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset provides the known distribution of Mexican fan palm (Washingtonia robusta) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007...

  5. Magnetic anomalies in Central Bengal fan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.C.S.; Lakshminarayana, S.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.

    Total magnetic field anomalies recorded over the Central Bengal Fan are analysed and the depths to the magnetic basement are computed using the analytical signal and the Werner deconvolution methods. To the west and east of 85 degrees E...

  6. Submarine tower escape decompression sickness risk estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveman, G A M; Seddon, E M; Thacker, J C; Stansfield, M R; Jurd, K M

    2014-01-01

    Actions to enhance survival in a distressed submarine (DISSUB) scenario may be guided in part by knowledge of the likely risk of decompression sickness (DCS) should the crew attempt tower escape. A mathematical model for DCS risk estimation has been calibrated against DCS outcome data from 3,738 exposures of either men or goats to raised pressure. Body mass was used to scale DCS risk. The calibration data included more than 1,000 actual or simulated submarine escape exposures and no exposures with substantial staged decompression. Cases of pulmonary barotrauma were removed from the calibration data. The calibrated model was used to estimate the likelihood of DCS occurrence following submarine escape from the United Kingdom Royal Navy tower escape system. Where internal DISSUB pressure remains at - 0.1 MPa, escape from DISSUB depths 60% DCS risk predicted for a 200-meter escape from saturation at 0.21 MPa. Using the calibrated model to predict DCS for direct ascent from saturation gives similar risk estimates to other published models.

  7. Sloping fan travertine, Belen, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Megan; Chafetz, Henry S.

    2017-05-01

    Pliocene to Quaternary age travertines are very well-exposed in quarries near Belen, New Mexico, U.S.A., on the western edge of the Rio Grande Rift system. A series of hillside springs produced travertine tongues tens of meters thick and hundreds of meters long. The accumulations represent deposits from individual springs as well as the amalgamation of deposits. The overall architecture is predominantly composed of sloping fans with a smaller component of terrace mounds. The sloping fan deposits commonly have a dip of step morphology. As a consequence of vertical accretion in the pools, terrace mounds morphed into sloping fans. The travertine is composed of a variety of commonly reported constituents, i.e., centimeter thick laminae of bacterial shrubs and oncoids, foam rock, sheets and rafts, and finely crystalline crusts that occur throughout the sloping fan and terrace mound accumulations. Sheets and rafts formed as precipitates in pools on the surfaces of the fans and terraces as well as spelean deposits on the water surfaces of pools within cavities in the overall accumulation. Thus, the spelean rafts provide valuable indicators of original horizontality in the sloping fan strata. In addition, intraformational breccias, composed of locally torn-up travertine intraclastic boulders and deposited in with other travertine, and extraformational breccias, composed of torn-up travertine intraclasts mixed with siliciclastic fines and sand and Paleozoic limestone clasts transported downslope from higher on the hillside, are a common constituent in the sloping fan accumulation. The Belen travertines provide a very well-exposed example of sloping fan travertines and may provide relevant data with regard to the subsurface Aptian Pre-Salt deposits, offshore Brazil.

  8. Wordplay, mindplay: Fan fiction and postclassical narratology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle Van Steenhuyse

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent narrative theories on story worlds, or the worlds evoked by narratives, call attention to the process of fan reading and the role which the canon plays in that process. This paper posits that such theories can help us understand literary techniques that make a difference on the level of the reading experience that is implied by fan fiction texts. This is illustrated with a close reading of Naguabo's "The Mother of All Marriage Proposals," a Jane Austen fic.

  9. Measuring Fan-Blade-Tip Displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Robert F., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Magnets and Hall-effect transducers used to monitor tip-to-shroud clearances. Mounting permanent magnet in end of fan blade and monitoring tip-to-shroud distance by use of output of Hall-effect transducers affixed to surface of shroud. Transducers provide real-time information. By placing magnets in each fan-blade tip, complete set monitored sequentially as each blade rotates past sensor. Application in many rotating machines, providing surrounding materials nonmagnetic and temperatures not severe.

  10. The human factor in the operation of nuclear powered submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dambier, M.

    1982-05-01

    The conditions characterizing the operation of nuclear powered submarines are described and the precautionary measures suitable to reduce the incidence of human errors and their consequences are explained

  11. Fractal dimension of debris-avalanche deposits in the Hawaiian submarine landslide deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokose, H.; Yamato, S.

    2005-12-01

    around Hawaiian ridge, only three debris-avalanche deposits, Nuuanu, Alika 2, Ka Lae, could be a huge landslide deposits accompanied with huge tsunamis. Because fractal dimension indicates degree of the fragmentation, Alika 2 debris flow could be the most powerful turbulent flow among others. The bending trend in the power law distribution pattern of the Nuuanu landslide imply that the hummocks were produced by two different fragmentation: turbulent flows at the toe of the debris-avalanche and translational disruption at proximal part. The hummocks without a power law distribution in the terrain have been produced by a overlapping of small scale debris flow deposits rather than a huge landslide failure. Unimodal size distribution with a broad peak may be interpreted as a gravel-rich submarine fans rather than a huge landslide deposit.

  12. Fan-out in gene regulatory networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauro Herbert M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In synthetic biology, gene regulatory circuits are often constructed by combining smaller circuit components. Connections between components are achieved by transcription factors acting on promoters. If the individual components behave as true modules and certain module interface conditions are satisfied, the function of the composite circuits can in principle be predicted. Results In this paper, we investigate one of the interface conditions: fan-out. We quantify the fan-out, a concept widely used in electrical engineering, to indicate the maximum number of the downstream inputs that an upstream output transcription factor can regulate. The fan-out is shown to be closely related to retroactivity studied by Del Vecchio, et al. An efficient operational method for measuring the fan-out is proposed and shown to be applied to various types of module interfaces. The fan-out is also shown to be enhanced by self-inhibitory regulation on the output. The potential role of an inhibitory regulation is discussed. Conclusions The proposed estimation method for fan-out not only provides an experimentally efficient way for quantifying the level of modularity in gene regulatory circuits but also helps characterize and design module interfaces, enabling the modular construction of gene circuits.

  13. Head injury from fan blades among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Azmi; Krishnapillai, Ravi; Teng, Hong Wah; Abd Latif, Ahmad Zubaidi; Adnan, Johari Siregar

    2005-07-01

    Head injury caused by fan blades is rare among children. We analysed 14 cases of such injury and discuss the causes, type of injury and preventive measures. A retrospective analysis of 14 cases of children who were admitted to the Pediatric Neurosurgical Unit of Hospital Kuala Lumpur after sustaining head injuries caused by fan blades between January 2000 and December 2002 was performed. The causes of fan-blade head injury included jumping on the upper bunk of a bunk-bed, climbing on a ladder, climbing up onto a table, and being lifted by an adult. Thirteen patients were injured by ceiling fans and one by falling onto an uncovered table fan. School-aged boys were the predominant victims. Mean patient age was 7.9 years (range, 1.0-12.2 years). There was a twin peak incidence of when the accidents occurred: just before lunch in the afternoon and bedtime at night. The types of injury were scalp lacerations, compound depressed fractures and multiple intracranial haemorrhages. Two patients had the complication of wound infection, and one of these patients developed cerebral spinal fluid leak. One patient died from severe head injuries. Safety awareness among parents and caretakers are important as fan-blade head injury among children is preventable.

  14. Confinement contains condensates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodsky, S. J.; Roberts, C. D.; Shrock, R.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and its connection to the generation of hadron masses has historically been viewed as a vacuum phenomenon. We argue that confinement makes such a position untenable. If quark-hadron duality is a reality in QCD, then condensates, those quantities that have common...... evidence and incidentally expose misconceptions in a recent Comment....

  15. Confinement for More Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kipnusu, Wycliffe K.; Elsayed, Mohamed; Kossack, Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    Broadband dielectric spectroscopy and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy are employed to study the molecular dynamics and effective free volume of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2E1H) in the bulk state and when confined in unidirectional nanopores with average diameters of 4, 6, and 8 nm. Enhanced α...

  16. Australian Queer Science Fiction Fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, Stephen Craig

    2017-10-23

    Science fiction (sf) does more than provide a fleeting moment of entertainment; it has many personal and social functions. In addition to offering audiences "romantic escapism" (Gerrold, 1996, pp. 5-6), sf also enables the "postulation of an alternative reality from which to contemplate this one" (Gerrold, 1996, pp. 5-6); as such, it is especially important "for groups which have had limited stakes in the status quo" (Jenkins, 1995, p. 242). To date, no research has been undertaken on the relationship between Australian queers and sf fandom. This article reports the findings of an online survey and explores the psycho-social features of Australian queer sf fans and why they like the genre. While the characteristics of this sample mirror those of Australian queers generally, they also have slightly higher rates of mental illness and are far more likely to state they have "no religion." Furthermore, while enjoying the "sciency" (P10, bisexual woman) aspects of sf, Australian queers also like the "poignant metaphors for our own civilization" (P45, asexual man).

  17. Meta-Analysis of Data from the Submarine Ventilation Doctrine Test Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoover, J

    1998-01-01

    .... The Submarine Ventilation Doctrine Test Program was developed to address submarine-specific issues regarding the use of ventilation systems to control smoke and heat movement, maintain habitability...

  18. Securing hydrogen in a confined space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttin, D.

    2000-01-01

    The autonomy of quasi infinite propulsion of the modern submarines premise by the utilization of nuclear energy has considerably lengthened times for the immersion of this type of vessel. The limits of the operational missions are now fixed by personal elements and logistics (for example, food autonomy limited by volumes of storage of food). The prolonged life in restricted space, under some hundreds of meters of sea water and without possible stopover lasting several weeks poses problems, medical and psychological due to the tolerance of the bodies and of the human spirit in a close space for community life. In this specific environment it is necessary to pay a particular attention to the chemical composition of the atmosphere in order to assure it remains compatible with the physiological needs (oxygen content and carbon dioxide, absence of pollutants). The current method largely used to produce oxygen is electrolysis of water under pressure. This type of production, which presently has multiple operational advantages poses the problem of sedentary management of hydrogen produced in a confined space. Launching of the development of these installations, safety has value in the architectural and technological choices. Two items of design need to be considered. The first relates to the mixture potential of hydrogen and oxygen and the second relates to volumes of stored hydrogen. Lastly a study of safety lessons learned has provided fascinating accounts from past experience with stoichiometric explosion mixtures. Lessons learned helps to verify the theoretical results obtained at the time of the design engineering

  19. Palynofacies reveal fresh terrestrial organic matter inputs in the terminal lobes of the Congo deep-sea fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnyder, Johann; Stetten, Elsa; Baudin, François; Pruski, Audrey M.; Martinez, Philippe

    2017-08-01

    The Congo deep-sea fan is directly connected to the Congo River by a unique submarine canyon. The Congo River delivers up to 2×1012gPOC/yr, a part of which is funnelled by the submarine canyon and feeds the deep-sea environments. The more distal part of the Congo deep-sea fan, the terminal lobe area, has a surface of 2500 km2 and is situated up to 800 km offshore at depths of 4750-5000 m. It is a remarkable place to study the fate and distribution of the organic matter transferred from the continent to the deep ocean via turbidity currents. Forty-two samples were analyzed from the terminal lobes, including sites from the active channel, one of its levees and an abandoned distal channel. Samples were collected using multitube cores and push-cores using a Victor 6000 ROV, which surveyed the dense chemosynthetic habitats that locally characterize the terminal lobes. Palynofacies reveal a remarkably well-preserved, dominantly terrestrial particulate organic matter assemblage, that has been transferred from the continent into the deep-sea by turbidity currents. Delicate plant structures, cuticle fragments and plant cellular material is often preserved, highlighting the efficiency of turbidity currents to transfer terrestrial organic matter to the sea-floor, where it is preserved. Moreover, the palynofacies data reveal a general sorting by density or buoyancy of the organic particles, as the turbulent currents escaped the active channel, feeding the levees and the more distal, abandoned channel area. Finally, in addition to aforementioned hydrodynamic factors controlling the organic matter accumulation, a secondary influence of chemosynthetic habitats on organic matter preservation is also apparent. Palynofacies is therefore a useful tool to record the distribution of organic matter in recent and ancient deep-sea fan environments, an important topic for both academic and petroleum studies.

  20. Fan relationship management in football - going beyond traditional product offerings to win the hearts of fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    The management and control of fan relations should go beyond a football club?s traditional product and service offerings and touch the important experiential side of the football economy. This will create a stronger platform to optimize ROI, ROE and ROO relating to different fan segments....

  1. Novel Crosstalk Measurement Method for Multi-Core Fiber Fan-In/Fan-Out Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Feihong; Ono, Hirotaka; Abe, Yoshiteru

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new crosstalk measurement method for multi-core fiber fan-in/fan-out devices utilizing the Fresnel reflection. Compared with the traditional method using core-to-core coupling between a multi-core fiber and a single-mode fiber, the proposed method has the advantages of high reliability...

  2. Sedimentary processes of the lower Monterey Fan channel and channel-mouth lobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaucke, I.; Masson, D.G.; Kenyon, Neil H.; Gardner, J.V.

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of deposits, sediment transport pathways and processes on the lower Monterey Fan channel and channel-mouth lobe (CML) are studied through the integration of GLORIA and TOBI sidescan sonar data with 7-kHz subbottom profiler records and sediment cores for ground-truthing. The lower Monterey channel is characterised by an up to 30-m-deep channel with poorly developed levees and alternating muddy and silty muddy overbank deposits. The channel is discontinuous, disappearing where gradients are less than about 1:350. Ground-truthing of the large CML shows that the entire CML is characterised by widespread deposits of generally fine sand, with coarser sand at the base of turbidites. Sand is particularly concentrated in finger-like areas of low-backscatter intensity and is interpreted as the result of non-turbulent sediment-gravity flows depositing metres thick massive, fine sand. TOBI sidescan sonar data reveal recent erosional features in the form of scours, secondary channels, large flow slides, and trains of blocks at the distal end of the CML. Erosion is probably related to increasing gradient as the CML approaches Murray Fracture zone and to differential loading of sandy submarine fan deposits onto pelagic clays. Reworking of older flow slides by sediment transport processes on the lobe produces trains of blocks that are several metres in diameter and aligned parallel to the flow direction. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. North Sea submarine cable disruptions and fishing activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintzen, N.T.; Machiels, M.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    At the North Sea seafloor, numerous submarine cables are positioned that connect telecommunication networks between countries. Worldwide, human activities cause most of the cable disruptions with fisheries accounting for nearly half of all reported faults. Due to a recent increase of submarine cable

  4. 'Good Hunting': German submarine offensives and South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By the latter half of 1942, the High Command of the German U-boats (BdU) realised that the 'sinking results' of the North Atlantic had decreased immensely. The successes of the Allied anti-submarine operations in the North Atlantic precluded the successful employment of the German submarines in said waters.

  5. Small nuclear power AIP technology applied in modern conventional submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guangya; Ling Qiu

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives a review development of air independent propulsion (AIP) system for submarine applications. The principles, configuration and suitable reactor-type about small nuclear power AIP are presented and performance status of the submarines equipped with small nuclear power AIP is given. (authors)

  6. Displaying Uncertainty: A Comparison Between Submarine Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    known as the “submarine capital of the world” and is the home for many of the schools relating to the submarine service. The administering officer for...and Woods, D. D. (1988). Aiding Human Performance: I. Cognitive Analysis, Le Travail Humain 51(1), 39-64. Roth, E. M., Patterson, E. S., and Mumaw

  7. Monitoring of radioactivity at the Russian nuclear submarine Kursk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundsen, I.; Lind, B.

    2002-01-01

    In the morning of August 12th 2000, a Russian submarine accident occurred in international waters east of Rybatschi Peninsula in the Barents Sea about 250 km from Norway. The submarine, a Russian Oscar class II attack submarine, sunk to 116 meters depth at the position 69 deg. 36,99N, 37 deg. 34,50E. The submarine 'Kursk' is 154 meters long, equipped with two pressurised water reactors and the submerged displacement is 24000 tons. Each reactor has a thermal effect or 190 megawatt, or less than 10% of a typical nuclear power plant reactor. The submarines in Oscar-II class is one of the largest and most capable in the Russian Northern Fleet. No indications of leakage from the submarine have so far been observed during the monitoring expeditions. Elevated levels of radioactivity have note been detected in any dose-rate readings or at any of the measurements of environmental samples taken close to Kursk. Furthermore, no increased levels were measured on bits and pieces from the submarine or from water sampled inside the submarine. A more comprehensive report covering experience and monitoring results from the two expeditions term and impact assessments of possible future releases from Kursk. (LN)

  8. Topological confinement and superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-hassanieh, Dhaled A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batista, Cristian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We derive a Kondo Lattice model with a correlated conduction band from a two-band Hubbard Hamiltonian. This mapping allows us to describe the emergence of a robust pairing mechanism in a model that only contains repulsive interactions. The mechanism is due to topological confinement and results from the interplay between antiferromagnetism and delocalization. By using Density-Matrix-Renormalization-Group (DMRG) we demonstrate that this mechanism leads to dominant superconducting correlations in aID-system.

  9. Innovative confinement concepts workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    The Innovative Confinement Concepts Workshop occurred in California during the week preceding the Second Symposium on Current Trends in International Fusion Research. An informal report was made to the Second Symposium. A summary of the Workshop concluded that some very promising ideas were presented, that innovative concept development is a central element of the restructured US DOE. Fusion Energy Sciences program, and that the Workshop should promote real scientific progress in fusion

  10. Energy confinement in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, M.; Singer, C.

    1986-08-01

    A straightforward generalization is made of the ohmic heating energy confinement scalings of Pfeiffer and Waltz and Blackwell et. al. The resulting model is systematically calibrated to published data from limiter tokamaks with ohmic, electron cyclotron, and neutral beam heating. With considerably fewer explicitly adjustable free parameters, this model appears to give a better fit to the available data for limiter discharges than the combined ohmic/auxiliary heating model of Goldston

  11. Confined exciton spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Clivia M.S.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: In this work, the exciton is considered as a sensor of the electronic and optical properties of materials such as semiconductors, which have size compared to the exciton De Broglie wavelength, approximately 20 nm, depending on the semiconductor. Examples of electron-phonon, electron-electron, photon-electron, exciton-polariton, phonon-plasmon, are presented, under different confinement conditions such as quantum wells, superlattices

  12. Acceptance test report MICON software exhaust fan control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    This test procedure specifies instructions for acceptance testing of software for exhaust fan control under Project ESPT (Energy Savings Performance Contract). The software controls the operation of two emergency exhaust fans when there is a power failure. This report details the results of acceptance testing for the MICON software upgrades. One of the modifications is that only one of the emergency fans will operate at all times. If the operating fan shuts off or fails, the other fan will start and the operating fan will be stopped

  13. Study on performance of centripetal fan, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejiri, Eiji; Shirakura, Masaaki; Tagori, Tetsuo; Enomoto, Hisao.

    1984-01-01

    Centripetal fans are radial flow type fans which gather air from outer side into inner side. The construction is simple, and when heat exchangers are arranged around them, cooled air can be discharged upward only by connecting simple ducts, accordingly, centripetal fans are suitable to the ventilating fans for superlarge cooling towers of nuclear power plants. The static pressure rise is obtained only by the diffuser action of impellers, therefore, they are not suitable to pumps and compressors, and their use is limited only to fans. Centrifugal force exerts negative effect on static pressure rise, accordingly, the ratio of internal diameter/external diameter of impellers cannot be made very small. In this study, a small model with impeller diameter of 0.6 m was used, and its overall performance, the performance of moving blades in the range of stable operation, the rotating stall characteristics in the region of low flow rate, and the effect of side wind on the overall performance in outdoor use were examined. By changing the angle of inclination of entrance guide vanes, the range of stable operation was expanded, and the pressure coefficient and efficiency were increased. (Kako, I.)

  14. Comparison of BacT/Alert FAN and FAN Plus Bottles with Conventional Medium for Culturing Cerebrospinal Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, In Young; Chun, Sejong; Song, Dong Joon; Huh, Hee Jae; Lee, Nam Yong

    2016-11-01

    We compared the BacT/Alert system FAN and FAN Plus media to conventional media for culturing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with 2,545 samples. FAN/FAN Plus bottles showed better performance for isolating microorganisms in CSF than conventional media (positive rate, 7.2% [182/2,545] versus 3.1% [80/2,545]). The incremental recovery rate of Cryptococcus neoformans from FAN Plus bottles was higher than that from FAN bottles. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. SWITCHING POWER FAN CONTROL OF COMPUTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr I. Popovskyi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of material presented in the article, due to extensive use of high-performance computers to create modern information systems, including the NAPS of Ukraine. Most computers in NAPS of Ukraine work on Intel Pentium processors at speeds from 600 MHz to 3 GHz and release a lot of heat, which requires the installation of the system unit 2-3 additional fans. The fan is always works on full power, that leads to rapid deterioration and high level (up to 50 dB noise. In order to meet ergonomic requirements it is proposed to іnstall a computer system unit and an additional control unit ventilators, allowing independent control of each fan. The solution is applied at creation of information systems planning research in the National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine on Internet basis.

  16. Noise Measurements of the VAIIPR Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Jeff; Weir, Don

    2012-01-01

    This final report has been prepared by Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, Arizona, a unit of Honeywell International, Inc., documenting work performed during the period September 2004 through November 2005 for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, under the Revolutionary Aero-Space Engine Research (RASER) Program, Contract No. NAS3- 01136, Task Order 6, Noise Measurements of the VAIIPR Fan. The NASA Task Manager was Dr. Joe Grady, NASA Glenn Research Center, Mail Code 60-6, Cleveland, Ohio 44135. The NASA Contract Officer was Mr. Albert Spence, NASA Glenn Research Center, Mail Code 60-6, Cleveland, Ohio 44135. This report focuses on the evaluation of internal fan noise as generated from various inflow disturbances based on measurements made from a circumferential array of sensors located near the fan and sensors upstream of a serpentine inlet.

  17. Optimism Bias in Fans and Sports Reporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Bradley C; Kopeć, Łukasz; Guest, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    People are optimistic about their prospects relative to others. However, existing studies can be difficult to interpret because outcomes are not zero-sum. For example, one person avoiding cancer does not necessitate that another person develops cancer. Ideally, optimism bias would be evaluated within a closed formal system to establish with certainty the extent of the bias and the associated environmental factors, such that optimism bias is demonstrated when a population is internally inconsistent. Accordingly, we asked NFL fans to predict how many games teams they liked and disliked would win in the 2015 season. Fans, like ESPN reporters assigned to cover a team, were overly optimistic about their team's prospects. The opposite pattern was found for teams that fans disliked. Optimism may flourish because year-to-year team results are marked by auto-correlation and regression to the group mean (i.e., good teams stay good, but bad teams improve).

  18. Optimism Bias in Fans and Sports Reporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Bradley C.

    2015-01-01

    People are optimistic about their prospects relative to others. However, existing studies can be difficult to interpret because outcomes are not zero-sum. For example, one person avoiding cancer does not necessitate that another person develops cancer. Ideally, optimism bias would be evaluated within a closed formal system to establish with certainty the extent of the bias and the associated environmental factors, such that optimism bias is demonstrated when a population is internally inconsistent. Accordingly, we asked NFL fans to predict how many games teams they liked and disliked would win in the 2015 season. Fans, like ESPN reporters assigned to cover a team, were overly optimistic about their team’s prospects. The opposite pattern was found for teams that fans disliked. Optimism may flourish because year-to-year team results are marked by auto-correlation and regression to the group mean (i.e., good teams stay good, but bad teams improve). PMID:26352146

  19. Fan blade crack diagnosis method study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Fu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a discrete mathematical model for fan blades and theoretically analyses the mathematical relationship between the location and depth of crack and fan blade natural frequency. On the basis of the blade mathematical model, using the theoretical computed natural frequency as the fault feature, this article proposes a fast and efficient fan blade crack fault diagnosis method. Transfer matrix method is used to calculate the first three-order blade natural frequencies under different crack cases and then to build the database in MATLAB. Subsequently, the damaged blade can be detected using changes in natural frequencies by solving the reverse problem. The experimental result shows that this discrete mathematical model can get the exact solution of natural frequency, and the method has certain application value.

  20. ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR CALCULATING FAN AERODYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dostal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results obtained between 2010 and 2014 in the field of fan aerodynamics at the Department of Composite Technology at the VZLÚ aerospace research and experimental institute in Prague – Letnany. The need for rapid and accurate methods for the preliminary design of blade machinery led to the creation of a mathematical model based on the basic laws of turbomachine aerodynamics. The mathematical model, the derivation of which is briefly described below, has been encoded in a computer programme, which enables the theoretical characteristics of a fan of the designed geometry to be determined rapidly. The validity of the mathematical model is assessed continuously by measuring model fans in the measuring unit, which was developed and manufactured specifically for this purpose. The paper also presents a comparison between measured characteristics and characteristics determined by the mathematical model as the basis for a discussion on possible causes of measured deviations and calculation deviations.

  1. Reduction of power of clinker cooling fan. Kurinka reikyaku fan no doryoku teigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshiyoshi, A. (Tohoku Development Co. Ltd., Miyagi (Japan))

    1991-02-04

    A power reduction was reported of the clinker cooling fan of a cement plant. An additional waste heat recovery duct of a cement firing equipment was installed and the wind velocity of the duct was reduced to decrease the draft ressistance. Resultant excess force of the fan eliminated the runner operation and the related power was reduced. The waste heat boiler adopted the system for recovering the waste heat from the refrigerator of clinker (AQC). In other words, the waste heat of the AQC was re-used for cooling the clinker to raise the gas temperature at the boiler inlet as much as possible. The waste heat was planned initially of one fan but the air volume increased after two fans were installed finally. As a result, the duct wind velocity was increased, requiring more fan power. A duct was then installed to reduce the wind velocity. Surplus fan force cut the fan runners by about 4%, and 6,300,000 yen per year energy saving was achieved. 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. 33 CFR 334.75 - Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Thames River, Naval Submarine....75 Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area. (a) The area: The open waters of... notified by personnel of the New London Submarine Base that such use will interfere with submarine...

  3. Sport fans' impressions of gay male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jamonn; Cothren, Denise; Rogers, Ross; Kistler, Lindsay; Osowski, Anne; Greenauer, Nathan; End, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sport fans' impressions of gay male athletes. Participants formed impressions of a fictional athlete from their favorite team after reading a short scenario about the player. The scenarios described the athlete as being gay or straight, and either becoming a distraction or not causing a distraction to the team. While males' ratings of the athlete did not significantly differ, female fans formed significantly more positive impressions of the gay male player than the straight athlete. These results are discussed in terms of the ingroup bias and the shifting culture of homophobia in sport.

  4. Analysis of dynamic parameters of mine fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russky, E. Yu

    2018-03-01

    The design of the rotor of an axial fan and its main units, namely double leaf blades impeller and the main shaft are discussed. The parameters of a disturbed mine air flow under sudden outbursts are determined and the influence of disturbances on frequencies of axial fan units is assessed. The scope of the assessment embraces the disturbance effect on the blades and on the torsional vibrations of the main shafts. The dependences of the stresses in the elements of the rotor versus the disturbed air flow parameters are derived.

  5. Homophobia, heteronormativity, and slash fan fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April S. Callis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available I analyze the relationship between homophobia/heteronormativity and slash fan fiction. Through reading and coding almost 6,000 pages of Kirk/Spock fan fiction written from 1978 to 2014, I illuminate shifts in how normative gender and sexuality are portrayed by K/S authors. Writers of K/S, while ostensibly writing about the 23rd century, consciously or unconsciously include cultural norms from the 20th and 21st centuries. Thus, slash becomes a lens through which readers can view a decrease in both homophobia and heteronormativity in US culture over the past several decades.

  6. Mass balancing of hollow fan blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielb, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    A typical section model is used to analytically investigate the effect of mass balancing as applied to hollow, supersonic fan blades. A procedure to determine the best configuration of an internal balancing mass to provide flutter alleviation is developed. This procedure is applied to a typical supersonic shroudless fan blade which is unstable in both the solid configuration and when it is hollow with no balancing mass. The addition of an optimized balancing mass is shown to stabilize the blade at the design condition.

  7. Homophobia, heteronormativity, and slash fan fiction

    OpenAIRE

    April S. Callis

    2016-01-01

    I analyze the relationship between homophobia/heteronormativity and slash fan fiction. Through reading and coding almost 6,000 pages of Kirk/Spock fan fiction written from 1978 to 2014, I illuminate shifts in how normative gender and sexuality are portrayed by K/S authors. Writers of K/S, while ostensibly writing about the 23rd century, consciously or unconsciously include cultural norms from the 20th and 21st centuries. Thus, slash becomes a lens through which readers can view a decrease in ...

  8. Fan-less long range alpha detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Bounds, John A.

    1994-01-01

    A fan-less long range alpha detector which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces.

  9. Submarine 'safe to escape' studies in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurd, K M; Seddon, F M; Thacker, J C; Blogg, S L; Stansfield, M R D; White, M G; Loveman, G A M

    2014-01-01

    The Royal Navy requires reliable advice on the safe limits of escape from a distressed submarine (DISSUB). Flooding in a DISSUB may cause a rise in ambient pressure, increasing the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) and decreasing the maximum depth from which it is safe to escape. The aim of this study was to investigate the pressure/depth limits to escape following saturation at raised ambient pressure. Exposure to saturation pressures up to 1.6 bar (a) (160 kPa) (n = 38); escapes from depths down to 120 meters of sea water (msw) (n = 254) and a combination of saturation followed by escape (n = 90) was carried out in the QinetiQ Submarine Escape Simulator, Alverstoke, United Kingdom. Doppler ultrasound monitoring was used to judge the severity of decompression stress. The trials confirmed the previously untested advice, in the Guardbook, that if a DISSUB was lying at a depth of 90 msw, then it was safe to escape when the pressure in the DISSUB was 1.5 bar (a), but also indicated that this advice may be overly conservative. This study demonstrated that the upper DISSUB saturation pressure limit to safe escape from 90 msw was 1.6 bar (a), resulting in two cases of DCS.

  10. Flow dynamics around downwelling submarine canyons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Spurgin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Flow dynamics around a downwelling submarine canyon were analysed with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model. Blanes Canyon (northwestern Mediterranean was used for topographic and initial forcing conditions. Fourteen scenarios were modelled with varying forcing conditions. Rossby and Burger numbers were used to determine the significance of Coriolis acceleration and stratification (respectively and their impacts on flow dynamics. A new non-dimensional parameter (χ was introduced to determine the significance of vertical variations in stratification. Some simulations do see brief periods of upwards displacement of water during the 10-day model period; however, the presence of the submarine canyon is found to enhance downwards advection of density in all model scenarios. High Burger numbers lead to negative vorticity and a trapped anticyclonic eddy within the canyon, as well as an increased density anomaly. Low Burger numbers lead to positive vorticity, cyclonic circulation, and weaker density anomalies. Vertical variations in stratification affect zonal jet placement. Under the same forcing conditions, the zonal jet is pushed offshore in more uniformly stratified domains. The offshore jet location generates upwards density advection away from the canyon, while onshore jets generate downwards density advection everywhere within the model domain. Increasing Rossby values across the canyon axis, as well as decreasing Burger values, increase negative vertical flux at shelf break depth (150 m. Increasing Rossby numbers lead to stronger downwards advection of a passive tracer (nitrate, as well as stronger vorticity within the canyon. Results from previous studies are explained within this new dynamic framework.

  11. Submarine Tailings Disposal (STD—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Dold

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The mining industry is a fundamental industry involved in the development of modern society, but is also the world’s largest waste producer. This role will be enhanced in the future, because ore grades are generally decreasing, thus leading to increases in the waste/metal production ratio. Mine wastes deposited on-land in so-called tailings dams, impoundments or waste-dumps have several associated environmental issues that need to be addressed (e.g., acid mine drainage formation due to sulphide oxidation, geotechnical stability, among others, and social concerns due to land use during mining. The mining industry recognizes these concerns and is searching for waste management alternatives for the future. One option used in the past was the marine shore or shallow submarine deposition of this waste material in some parts of the world. After the occurrence of some severe environmental pollution, today the deposition in the deep sea (under constant reducing conditions is seen as a new, more secure option, due to the general thought that sulphide minerals are geochemically stable under the reduced conditions prevailing in the deep marine environment. This review highlights the mineralogical and geochemical issues (e.g., solubility of sulphides in seawater; reductive dissolution of oxide minerals under reducing conditions, which have to be considered when evaluating whether submarine tailings disposal is a suitable alternative for mine waste.

  12. Experiencing fan activism: Understanding the power of fan activist organizations through members' narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neta Kligler-Vilenchik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fan activism, forms of civic engagement and political participation growing out of experiences of fandom, is a powerful mode of mobilization, particularly for young people. Building on 40 interviews with members of two organizations representing different configurations of fan activism, this article discusses three emerging elements that are key to the experience of membership in such groups. We suggest that the strength of fan activist groups builds on successfully combining these elements: two that are common to fandom, shared media experiences and a sense of community, and one that is traditionally ascribed to volunteerism and activism, the wish to help.

  13. Improving Fan System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-04-01

    This is one of a series of sourcebooks on motor-driven equipment produced by the Industrial Technologies Program. It provides a reference for industrial fan systems users, outlining opportunities to improve fan system performance.

  14. Fan Duct Heat Exchanger for Turbine Cooling Air, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposal is for the design of a fan duct heat exchanger in order to improve aircraft fuel burn. The fan duct heat exchanger decreases the temperature of the 15%...

  15. Structural integrity of wind tunnel wooden fan blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Clarence P., Jr.; Wingate, Robert T.; Rooker, James R.; Mort, Kenneth W.; Zager, Harold E.

    1991-01-01

    Information is presented which was compiled by the NASA Inter-Center Committee on Structural Integrity of Wooden Fan Blades and is intended for use as a guide in design, fabrication, evaluation, and assurance of fan systems using wooden blades. A risk assessment approach for existing NASA wind tunnels with wooden fan blades is provided. Also, state of the art information is provided for wooden fan blade design, drive system considerations, inspection and monitoring methods, and fan blade repair. Proposed research and development activities are discussed, and recommendations are provided which are aimed at future wooden fan blade design activities and safely maintaining existing NASA wind tunnel fan blades. Information is presented that will be of value to wooden fan blade designers, fabricators, inspectors, and wind tunnel operations personnel.

  16. What threat do turbidity currents and submarine landslides pose to submarine telecommunications cable infrastructure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Michael; Pope, Edward; Talling, Peter; Hunt, James; Carter, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    The global economy relies on uninterrupted usage of a network of telecommunication cables on the seafloor. These submarine cables carry ~99% of all trans-oceanic digital data and voice communications traffic worldwide, as they have far greater bandwidth than satellites. Over 9 million SWIFT banks transfers alone were made using these cables in 2004, totalling 7.4 trillion of transactions per day between 208 countries, which grew to 15 million SWIFT bank transactions last year. We outline the challenge of why, how often, and where seafloor cables are broken by natural causes; primarily subsea landslides and sediment flows (turbidity currents and also debris flows and hyperpycnal flows). These slides and flows can be very destructive. As an example, a sediment flow in 1929 travelled up to 19 m/s and broke 11 cables in the NE Atlantic, running out for ~800 km to the abyssal ocean. The 2006 Pingtung earthquake triggered a sediment flow that broke 22 cables offshore Taiwan over a distance of 450 km. Here, we present initial results from the first statistical analysis of a global database of cable breaks and causes. We first investigate the controls on frequency of submarine cable breaks in different environmental and geological settings worldwide. We assess which types of earthquake pose a significant threat to submarine cable networks. Meteorological events, such as hurricanes and typhoons, pose a significant threat to submarine cable networks, so we also discuss the potential impacts of future climate change on the frequency of such hazards. We then go on to ask what are the physical impacts of submarine sediment flows on submerged cables? A striking observation from past cable breaks is sometimes cables remain unbroken, whilst adjacent cables are severed (and record powerful flows travelling at up to 6 m/s). Why are some cables broken, but neighbouring cables remain intact? We provide some explanations for this question, and outline the need for future in

  17. Inertial confinement fusion (ICF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.

    1977-01-01

    The principal goal of the inertial confinement fusion program is the development of a practical fusion power plant in this century. Rapid progress has been made in the four major areas of ICF--targets, drivers, fusion experiments, and reactors. High gain targets have been designed. Laser, electron beam, and heavy ion accelerator drivers appear to be feasible. Record-breaking thermonuclear conditions have been experimentally achieved. Detailed diagnostics of laser implosions have confirmed predictions of the LASNEX computer program. Experimental facilities are being planned and constructed capable of igniting high gain fusion microexplosions in the mid 1980's. A low cost long lifetime reactor design has been developed

  18. Hadrosynthesis and Quark Confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satz Helmut

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Multihadron production in high energy collisions, from e+e− annihilation to heavy ion interactions, shows remarkable thermal behaviour, specified by a universal “Hagedorn” temperature. We argue that this hadronic radiation is formed by tunnelling through the event horizon of colour confinement, i.e., that it is the QCD counterpart of Hawking-Unruh radiation from black holes. It is shown to be emitted at a universal temperature TH ≃ (σ/2π1/2, where σ denotes the string tension. Since the event horizon does not allow information transfer, the radiation is thermal “at birth”.

  19. Confinement and 4-manifolds

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    In this talk I will survey a connection between two very challenging problems, one in physics and one in math. The physics problem involves quantitative understanding of confinement in a system with least amount of supersymmetry that has been studied so far and that has a wide range of applications, from semi-realistic string models to qualitatively new examples of gauge-gravity duality. Surprisingly, the rich physics of this system translates into incredibly rich mathematics of the only remaining unsolved case of the Poincare conjecture.

  20. Fan action and political participation on "The Colbert Report"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Schulzke

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Colbert Report merges the increasingly popular political satire genre with fan activism. The result is that the fan community helps to construct Colbert's malleable character and demonstrates symbolic power through its willingness to act. The fans are usually a nonpartisan force, acting to produce entertainment rather than substantive political change. However, this can be politically meaningful, as the fans' projects promote collective action, parallel political activities like voting and protesting, and encourage critical thinking about political information.

  1. Patterns of alcohol and drugs consumption in young soccer fans

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Anelise Lopes; Sarriera, Jorge Castellá

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol and drug consumption among young soccer fans have been associated with violence in soccer context. This study aims to determine patterns of alcohol, marijuana and cocaine consumption in a sample of 1,130 soccer fans residents in the Rio Grande do Sul State, as well as to verify if there are differences regarding gender, age and if the participant is member of organized fan soccer or not. From a questionnaire available through Internet, soccer fan answered the frequency they generally ...

  2. F232 Development of Jet Fan by CFD

    OpenAIRE

    川久保, 知己; 小田, 憲司; 山方, 章弘; Tomoki, KAWAKUBO; Kenji, ODA; Akihiro, YAMAGATA; IHI; IHI; IHI; Turbo & Hydraulic Machinery Dept., Technical Development & Engineering Center; Rotating Machinery Engineering Dept., Rotating Machinery Division, Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd.; Turbo & Hydraulic Machinery Dept., Technical Development & Engineering Center

    2004-01-01

    Axial jet fans are used in many tunnels to extract automobile emissions and improve the visibility, as well as provide refuge passages in case of fire. The Japan Highway Public Corporation reviewed the specifications for such tunnel jet fans in 2002, and required higher grade specifications than for previous tunnel jet fans. To meet these requirements, IHI has developed a new series of high performance jet fans using CFD technology.

  3. Anaerobic methanotrophic communities thrive in deep submarine permafrost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Matthias; Mitzscherling, Julia; Overduin, Pier P; Horn, Fabian; Winterfeld, Maria; Rijkers, Ruud; Grigoriev, Mikhail N; Knoblauch, Christian; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Wagner, Dirk; Liebner, Susanne

    2018-01-22

    Thawing submarine permafrost is a source of methane to the subsurface biosphere. Methane oxidation in submarine permafrost sediments has been proposed, but the responsible microorganisms remain uncharacterized. We analyzed archaeal communities and identified distinct anaerobic methanotrophic assemblages of marine and terrestrial origin (ANME-2a/b, ANME-2d) both in frozen and completely thawed submarine permafrost sediments. Besides archaea potentially involved in anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) we found a large diversity of archaea mainly belonging to Bathyarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota, and Euryarchaeota. Methane concentrations and δ 13 C-methane signatures distinguish horizons of potential AOM coupled either to sulfate reduction in a sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) or to the reduction of other electron acceptors, such as iron, manganese or nitrate. Analysis of functional marker genes (mcrA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) corroborate potential activity of AOM communities in submarine permafrost sediments at low temperatures. Modeled potential AOM consumes 72-100% of submarine permafrost methane and up to 1.2 Tg of carbon per year for the total expected area of submarine permafrost. This is comparable with AOM habitats such as cold seeps. We thus propose that AOM is active where submarine permafrost thaws, which should be included in global methane budgets.

  4. 78 FR 25626 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans and Ceiling Fan... for residential ceiling fans and ceiling fan light kits in the Federal Register. This document... other aspect of the rulemaking for ceiling fans and ceiling fan light kits. The comment period is...

  5. Introduction to the special issue on submarine geohazard records and potential seafloor instability

    OpenAIRE

    Song-Chuen Chen Jia-Jyun Dong

    2018-01-01

    Submarine landslides frequently occur in passive continental margins or active margins (Hampton et al. 1996; Wynn et al. 2000; Mienert et al. 2002; Korup et al. 2007; Twichell et al. 2009; Cukur et al. 2016). Submarine landslides have been studied extensively not only for scientific research but also for submarine geohazards. Submarine landslides could jeopardize marine infrastructures, such as offshore drilling platforms or submarine telecommunication cables, and could even trigger disastrou...

  6. Sound effects as a genre-defining factor in submarine films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Maria Koldau

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Submarine films can be regarded as a genre with a specific semantic and syntactical structure that heavily depends on the acoustemological nature of submarine warfare. The sound design in submarine films therefore has decisive dramatic and emotive functions. The article presents the sound effects most specific to submarine films and discusses the creative potential they offer both as diegetic sounds bound to submarine existence and as emotive cues with an immediate effect on the audience.

  7. Sound effects as a genre-defining factor in submarine films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Maria Koldau

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Submarine films can be regarded as a genre with a specific semantic and syntactical structure that heavily depends on the acoustemological nature of submarine warfare. The sound design in submarine films therefore has decisive dramatic and emotive functions. The article presents the sound effects most specific to submarine films and discusses the creative potential they offer both as diegetic sounds bound to submarine existence and as emotive cues with an immediate effect on the audience.

  8. 16 CFR 305.13 - Labeling for ceiling fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling for ceiling fans. 305.13 Section... Disclosures § 305.13 Labeling for ceiling fans. (a) Ceiling fans—(1) Content. Any covered product that is a ceiling fan shall be labeled clearly and conspicuously on the principal display panel with the following...

  9. Dead links, vaporcuts, and creativity in fan edit replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Wille

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In my examination of a Star Wars prequel trilogy fan edit reportedly made by Topher Grace, I introduce the term vaporcut to describe fan edits with reputations that may generate critical discourse but that are not publicly released. I explore the ways some fan editors attempt to recreate intangible projects but inevitably produce variant works that reflect their own creative perspectives.

  10. 30 CFR 57.8529 - Auxiliary fan systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fan systems 57.8529 Section 57.8529 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.8529 Auxiliary fan systems When auxiliary fan systems are used, such systems shall...

  11. 30 CFR 75.311 - Main mine fan operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main mine fan operation. 75.311 Section 75.311... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.311 Main mine fan operation. (a) Main mine fans shall be continuously operated, except as otherwise approved in the ventilation plan, or when...

  12. 30 CFR 57.8525 - Main fan maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main fan maintenance. 57.8525 Section 57.8525 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.8525 Main fan maintenance. Main fans shall be maintained according to either the...

  13. Alcohol-Related Fan Behavior on College Football Game Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis; Werch, Chudley E.; Jobli, Edessa; Bian, Hui

    2007-01-01

    High-risk drinking on game day represents a unique public health challenge. Objective: The authors examined the drinking behavior of college football fans and assessed the support for related interventions. Participants: The authors randomly selected 762 football fans, including college students, alumni, and other college football fans, to…

  14. 76 FR 50739 - Hung Ta Fan: Debarment Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ...] Hung Ta Fan: Debarment Order AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... (the FD&C Act) debarring Hung Ta Fan for a period of 5 years from importing articles of food or.... Fan was convicted of a felony under Federal law for conduct relating to the importation into the...

  15. Quark Confinement and Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    't Hooft, Gerardus

    QCD was proposed as a theory for the strong interactions long before we had any idea as to how it could be that its fundamental constituents, the quarks, are never seen as physical particles. Massless gluons also do not exist as free particles. How can this be explained? The first indication that this question had to be considered in connection with the topological structure of a gauge theory came when Nielsen and Olesen observed the occurrence of stable magnetic vortex structures [1] in the Abelian Higgs model. Expanding on such ideas, the magnetic monopole solution was found [2]. Other roundabout attempts to understand confinement involve instantons. Today, we have better interpretations of these topological structures, including a general picture of the way they do lead to unbound potentials confining quarks. It is clear that these unbound potentials can be ascribed to a string-like structure of the vortices formed by the QCD field lines. Can string theory be used to analyze QCD? Many researchers think so. The leading expert on this is Sacha Polyakov. In his instructive account he adds how he experienced the course of events in Gauge Theory, emphasizing the fact that quite a few discoveries often ascribed to researchers from the West, actually were made independently by scientists from the Soviet Union…

  16. Confinement from correlation functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fister, Leonard; Pawlowski, Jan M.

    2013-08-01

    We compute the Polyakov loop potential in Yang-Mills theory from the fully dressed primitively divergent correlation functions only. This is done in a variety of functional approaches ranging from functional renormalization group equations over Dyson-Schwinger equations to two-particle irreducible functionals. We present a confinement criterion that links the infrared behavior of propagators and vertices to the Polyakov loop expectation value. The present work extends the works of [J. Braun , Phys. Lett. B 684, 262 (2010)PYLBAJ0370-2693; F. Marhauser and J. M. Pawlowski, arXiv:0812.1144; J. Braun , Eur. Phys. J. C 70, 689 (2010)EPCFFB1434-6044] to general functional methods and sharpens the confinement criterion presented there. The computations are based on the thermal correlation functions in the Landau gauge calculated in [L. Fister and J. M. Pawlowski, arXiv:1112.5440; L. Fister and J. M. Pawlowski, arXiv:1112.5429; L. Fister, Ph.D. thesis, Heidelberg University, 2012].

  17. Greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Schubert, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Greater-confinement disposal (GCD) is a general term for low-level waste (LLW) disposal technologies that employ natural and/or engineered barriers and provide a degree of confinement greater than that of shallow-land burial (SLB) but possibly less than that of a geologic repository. Thus GCD is associated with lower risk/hazard ratios than SLB. Although any number of disposal technologies might satisfy the definition of GCD, eight have been selected for consideration in this discussion. These technologies include: (1) earth-covered tumuli, (2) concrete structures, both above and below grade, (3) deep trenches, (4) augered shafts, (5) rock cavities, (6) abandoned mines, (7) high-integrity containers, and (8) hydrofracture. Each of these technologies employ several operations that are mature,however, some are at more advanced stages of development and demonstration than others. Each is defined and further described by information on design, advantages and disadvantages, special equipment requirements, and characteristic operations such as construction, waste emplacement, and closure

  18. Optimisation of efficiency of axial fans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, Nicolaas P.; Pennings, P.C.; Faasen, R.

    2014-01-01

    A three-stage research project has been executed to develop ducted axial-fans with increased efficiency. In the first stage a design method has been developed in which various conflicting design criteria can be incorporated. Based on this design method, an optimised design has been determined

  19. Online Fan Fiction, Global Identities, and Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Rebecca W.

    2009-01-01

    Based on longitudinal data from a three year ethnographic study, this article uses discourse analytic methods to explore the literacy and social practices of three adolescent English language learners writing in an online fan fiction community. Theoretical constructs within globalization and literacy studies are used to describe the influences of…

  20. Saving energy via high-efficiency fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Thomas Heine, sales and market manager for EC Upgrades, the retrofit arm of global provider of air movement solutions, ebm-papst A&NZ, discusses the retrofitting of high-efficiency fans to existing HVAC equipment to 'drastically reduce energy consumption'.

  1. Submersible fans and pumps for cryogenic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Submersible electric motor driven fans of three sizes have been designed, built and operated at 21 0 K at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The largest is a 100-mm diameter, 2 stage vaneaxial fan with a nominal capacity of 6 L/s at 2 m head. It is driven by a 4 pole, 3 phase induction motor that runs at 1750 rpm. The next smaller one is an 85-mm diameter centrifugal pump. It pumps 3 L/s at a head of 5 m. The third is a 75-mm single stage vaneaxial fan with a nominal capacity is 3 L/s at a head of 2 m. The 85-mm pump and the 75-mm fan are driven by 2 pole, 3 phase induction motors running at 3550 rpm. The motors were modified to operate submerged in the cryogenic fluid. The pumps have been operated in liquid hydrogen, liquid deuterium, and pressurized helium gas at 21 0 K. They can also operate with denser fluids such as liquid nitrogen, but rotational speed, capacity, and head will be reduced. They have been operated while submerged in liquid helium

  2. Fan Affinity Laws from a Collision Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Shayak

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a fan is usually estimated using hydrodynamical considerations. The calculations are long and involved and the results are expressed in terms of three affinity laws. In this paper we use kinetic theory to attack this problem. A hard sphere collision model is used, and subsequently a correction to account for the flow behaviour…

  3. The Ashgate Research Companion to Fan Cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stijn Reijnders; Linda Duits; dr. Koos Zwaan

    2014-01-01

    Fans constitute a very special kind of audience. They have been marginalized, ridiculed and stigmatized, yet at the same time they seem to represent the vanguard of new relationships with and within the media. ‘Participatory culture’ has become the new normative standard. Concepts derived from early

  4. Uranium in phosphorites of submarine untains in the Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baturin, G.N.; Kochenov, A.V.; Dubinchuk, V.T.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium geochemical behaviour was studied under present sharply oxidizing conditions of sedimentation within the boundaries of submarine mountains in the Pacific Ocean (pelagic zone). It has been ascertained that the uranium content in phosphorites of submarine mountains in the Pacific Ocean does not exceed 10 -4 % which is considerably lower as compared phosphorites of submarine margins of the continents and terrestrial deposits. Iron and manganese hydroxides are the most active concentrators of uranium in a sharply oxidizing environment and to a lesser degree - phosphates, silicates, carbonates. Uranium bonded to phosphate is not an isomorphic impurity in it [ru

  5. Canyon-confined pockmarks on the western Niger Delta slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Uzochukwu; Huuse, Mads; Hodgetts, David

    2015-07-01

    Fluid flow phenomena in the deepwater Niger Delta are important for the safe and efficient exploration, development and production of hydrocarbons in the area. Utilizing 3D seismic data from the western Niger Delta slope, we have identified pockmarks that are confined within a NE-SW oriented submarine canyon system that has been active since the early Quaternary. The pockmarks, subdivided into 'canyon-margin' pockmarks and 'intra-canyon' pockmarks, on the basis of their plan-form distribution patterns, are found to be spatially and stratigraphically related to stratigraphic discontinuities created by erosion cuts associated with the submarine canyon system. We infer that stratigraphic discontinuities provided pathways for fluid migration within the buried canyon system, allowing fluids from deeper parts of the basin to reach the seafloor as indicated by abundant pockmarks above the partly buried canyon. The transportation of fluids from deeper parts of the basin into the buried segment of the canyon system was facilitated by carrier beds expressed as high amplitude reflection packages and by extensional normal faults. The prevalence of the 'canyon margin' pockmarks over the 'intra-canyon' pockmarks is attributed to the direct connection of the buried canyon margins with truncated reservoir facies in hydraulic connection with deeper reservoir facies. The formation of the 'intra-canyon' pockmarks is interpreted to have been limited by fluid flow disconnection often caused by stratigraphic alternation of sand-rich and shale-rich channel deposits that constitute the canyon fill. Muddy canyon fill units act as baffles to fluid flow, while connected sandy infill units constitute pathways for fluid migration. Occurrence of pockmarks throughout the length of the submarine canyon system is an indication of shallow fluid flow within buried reservoir facies. Systematic alignment of seafloor pockmarks are clues to buried reservoirs and provide insights into reservoir

  6. Hydrate-bearing Submarine Landslides in the Orca Basin, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, D.; Mason, A.; Cook, A.; Portnov, A.; Hillman, J.

    2017-12-01

    The co-occurrence of submarine landslides and hydrate-bearing sediment suggests that hydrates may play a role in landslide triggering and/or the mobility and dynamic characteristics of the submarine landslide. In turn, the removal of large sections of seafloor perturbs the hydrate stability field by removing overburden pressure and disturbing the temperature field. These potential hydrate-landslide feedbacks are not well understood. Here we combine three-dimensional seismic and petrophysical logs to characterize the deposits of submarine landslides that failed from hydrate-bearing sediments in the Orca Basin in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The Orca Basin contains a regionally mappable bottom simulating reflector, hydrate saturations within sands and muds, as well as numerous landslides. In addition, the Orca Basin features a well-known 123 km2 anoxic hypersaline brine pool that is actively being fed by outcropping salt. Lying at the bottom of the brine pool are deposits of submarine landslides. Slope instability in the Orca Basin is likely associated with near-seafloor salt tectonics. The most prominent landslide scar observable on the seafloor has a correlative deposit that now lies at the bottom of the brine pool 11.6 km away. The headwall is amphitheater-shaped with an average height of 80 meters and with only a minor amount of rubble remaining near the headwall. A total of 8.7 km3 of material was removed and deposited between the lower slopes of the basin and the base of the brine pool. Around the perimeter of the landslide headwall, two industry wells were drilled and well logs show elevated resistivity that are likely caused by gas hydrate. The slide deposits have a chaotic seismic facies with large entrained blocks and the headwall area does not retain much original material, which together suggests a relatively mobile style of landslide and therefore may have generated a wave upon impacting the brine pool. Such a slide-induced wave may have sloshed

  7. Impact of gate fan-in and fan-out limits on optoelectronic digital circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, L; Heuring, V P

    1997-06-10

    The impact of gate fan-in and fan-out limits on digital circuit delay is discussed with a set of benchmark circuits. This research presents the advantages of exploiting the ability of optoelectronic gates to perform both logic operations and optical interconnections with systematic optimization. It is possible for gate-level optical interconnected optoelectronic circuits to compete with their pure silicon counterparts in terms of the combinational circuit delay and system clock rate.

  8. Bydrage ta de kennis fan it libben, de persoan en it wurk fan Dr. Eeltsje Halbersma 1797-1858

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1946-01-01

    It doel fan dizze dissertaesje is yn 'e earste pleats nij materiael to bringen oer Dr. Eeltsje. De wichtichste boarnen foar syn libben en syn wurk binne syn brieven oan Ds, Joast. Oant nou ta wie fan dy brieven mar in lyts bytsje bikend wurden, Dêrneist binne fansels ek de brieven fan Ds. Joast en

  9. A New Strategy to Address Loss of Submarine Qualifications in Submariners Who are Helicobacter Pylori Positive and Diagnosed with Peptic Ulcer Disease: Background to the Change in Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, Robert

    1998-01-01

    .... This is an evaluation of the medical literature to provide background to why the current USN policy of disqualifying submariners from submarine duty following the diagnosis of peptic ulcer disease has been changed. FINDINGS...

  10. Regenerative Blower for EVA Suit Ventilation Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Paul, Heather L.

    2010-01-01

    Portable life support systems in future space suits will include a ventilation subsystem driven by a dedicated fan. This ventilation fan must meet challenging requirements for pressure rise, flow rate, efficiency, size, safety, and reliability. This paper describes research and development that showed the feasibility of a regenerative blower that is uniquely suited to meet these requirements. We proved feasibility through component tests, blower tests, and design analysis. Based on the requirements for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) ventilation fan, we designed the critical elements of the blower. We measured the effects of key design parameters on blower performance using separate effects tests, and used the results of these tests to design a regenerative blower that will meet the ventilation fan requirements. We assembled a proof-of-concept blower and measured its performance at sub-atmospheric pressures that simulate a PLSS ventilation loop environment. Head/flow performance and maximum efficiency point data were used to specify the design and operating conditions for the ventilation fan. We identified materials for the blower that will enhance safety for operation in a lunar environment, and produced a solid model that illustrates the final design. The proof-of-concept blower produced the flow rate and pressure rise needed for the CSSE ventilation subsystem while running at 5400 rpm, consuming only 9 W of electric power using a non-optimized, commercial motor and controller and inefficient bearings. Scaling the test results to a complete design shows that a lightweight, compact, reliable, and low power regenerative blower can meet the performance requirements for future space suit life support systems.

  11. Submarine thermal springs on the Galapagos Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, J.B.; Dymond, J.; Gordon, L.I.; Edmond, J.M.; Von Herzen, R. P.; Ballard, Richard D.; Green, K.; Williams, D.; Bainbridge, A.; Crane, K.; Van Andel, T. H.

    1979-01-01

    The submarine hydrothermal activity on and near the Galápagos Rift has been explored with the aid of the deep submersible Alvin. Analyses of water samples from hydrothermal vents reveal that hydrothermal activity provides significant or dominant sources and sinks for several components of seawater; studies of conductive and convective heat transfer suggest that two-thirds of the heat lost from new oceanic lithosphere at the Galápagos Rift in the first million years may be vented from thermal springs, predominantly along the axial ridge within the rift valley. The vent areas are populated by animal communities. They appear to utilize chemosynthesis by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to derive their entire energy supply from reactions between the seawater and the rocks at high temperatures, rather than photosynthesis

  12. Submarine granular flow down a rough plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Maxime; Cassar, Cyril; Pouliquen, Olivier

    2003-11-01

    We lead experiments of submarine granular flows in a water tank. The particles are spherical 100 microns glass beads and flow down a rough inclined plane from a reservoir with a controlled opening. Different flow regimes are observed, the flow velocity and thickness are measured. The basal water pressure is also measured and give information on the suspension rate of the flow. No flow was observed for an angle below 24 degrees. The flow velocity increases smoothly for a [24-36] degrees inclination range, and a strong velocity increase occurs for inclination over 36 degrees. The thickness of the flow decreases when inclination increases but no abrupt change of thickness is observed around 36 degrees. That suggests that a transition exists between a granular regime, where friction on the rough plane and particle contacts are dominant, and a suspension regime where basal friction vanishes. A thin film ripple instability is also observed for large inclination angles.

  13. Section 1. Confinement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Major experimental and theoretical results achieved by the Controlled Thermonuclear Research (CTR) program at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory during FY 1975 gave the greatest encouragement to date that the ultimate goal of a deuterium-tritium-fueled mirror reactor can be reached. In the experimental program, the year was characterized by unusually important physics results from the 2XIIB experiment and by significant steps in the plan to change the Baseball II mode of operation. The stabilization of ion-cyclotron instabilities in the 2XIIB experiment by the introduction of an auxiliary warm plasma permitted the buildup of a high-temperature, high-density plasma with an n tau parameter an order of magnitude larger than the 2XII experiment.I In the Baseball II experiment, preliminary tests and computer predictions indicated that a dense, transient, target plasma can be created by laser irradiation of a pellet in midflight through the center of the Baseball confinement zone

  14. Confinement effects in sesquioxydes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercier, B. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents, UMR 5620 du CNRS, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon I, 10 rue A.M. Ampere 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Dujardin, C. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents, UMR 5620 du CNRS, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon I, 10 rue A.M. Ampere 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Ledoux, G. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents, UMR 5620 du CNRS, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon I, 10 rue A.M. Ampere 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)]. E-mail: ledoux@pcml.univ-lyon1.fr; Louis, C. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents, UMR 5620 du CNRS, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon I, 10 rue A.M. Ampere 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Tillement, O. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents, UMR 5620 du CNRS, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon I, 10 rue A.M. Ampere 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Perriat, P. [Groupe d' Etude de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, UMR 5510 du CNRS, INSA de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2006-07-15

    When the size of a particle is decreased to nano-scales, confinement effects induce strong changes. The luminescence of Eu{sup 3+}-doped Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles has been studied as a function of both the temperature and the size of the nanoparticles. Two consequences of the small sizes in Eu{sup 3+}-doped Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} are observed. First the linewidth of the Eu{sup 3+} transitions are inhomogeneously broadened at low temperature, and second the population of the ground and the first excited state of Eu{sup 3+} as a function of temperature differs depending on the size: at low temperatures, the smaller the particles, the less populated the first excited state is. The explanation of this second phenomenon could be the absence of very low-energy phonons in small particles.

  15. Improved OTEC System for a Submarine Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yi; Jones, Jack; Valdez, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    An ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), now undergoing development, is a less-massive, more-efficient means of exploiting the same basic principle as that of the proposed system described in "Alternative OTEC Scheme for a Submarine Robot" (NPO-43500), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 1 (January 2009), page 50. The proposed system as described previously would be based on the thawing-expansion/freezing-contraction behavior of a wax or perhaps another suitable phase-change material (PCM). The power generated by the system would be used to recharge the batteries in a battery- powered unmanned underwater vehicle [UUV (essentially, a small exploratory submarine robot)] of a type that has been deployed in large numbers in research pertaining to global warming. A UUV of this type travels between the ocean surface and depths, measuring temperature and salinity. At one phase of its operational cycle, the previously proposed system would utilize the surface ocean temperature (which lies between 15 and 30 C over most of the Earth) to melt a PCM that has a melting/freezing temperature of about 10 C. At the opposite phase of its operational cycle, the system would utilize the lower ocean temperature at depth (e.g., between 4 and 7 C at a depth of 300 m) to freeze the PCM. The melting or freezing would cause the PCM to expand or contract, respectively, by about 9 volume percent. The PCM would be contained in tubes that would be capable of expanding and contracting with the PCM. The PCM-containing tubes would be immersed in a hydraulic fluid. The expansion and contraction would drive a flow of the hydraulic fluid against a piston that, in turn, would push a rack-and-pinion gear system to spin a generator to charge a battery.

  16. Alternative OTEC Scheme for a Submarine Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Chao, Yi

    2009-01-01

    A proposed system for exploiting the ocean thermal gradient to generate power would be based on the thawing-expansion/ freezing-contraction behavior of a wax or perhaps another suitable phase-change material. The power generated by this system would be used to recharge the batteries in a battery-powered unmanned underwater vehicle [UUV (essentially, a small exploratory submarine robot)] of a type that has been deployed in large numbers in research pertaining to global warming. A UUV of this type travels between the ocean surface and various depths, measuring temperature and salinity. This proposed system would be an alternative to another proposed ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) system that would serve the same purpose but would utilize a thermodynamic cycle in which CO2 would be the working fluid. That system is described in Utilizing Ocean Thermal Energy in a Submarine Robot (NPO-43304), immediately following this brief. The main advantage of this proposed system over the one using CO2 is that it could derive a useful amount of energy from a significantly smaller temperature difference. At one phase of its operational cycle, the system now proposed would utilize the surface ocean temperature (which lies between 15 and 20 C over most of the Earth) to melt a wax (e.g., pentadecane) that has a melting/freezing temperature of about 10 C. At the opposite phase of its operational cycle, the system would utilize the lower ocean temperature at depth (e.g., between 4 and 7 C at a depth of 300 m) to freeze the wax. The melting or freezing causes the wax to expand or contract, respectively, by about 8 volume percent.

  17. Fan-out Estimation in Spin-based Quantum Computer Scale-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thien; Hill, Charles D; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L; James, Matthew R

    2017-10-17

    Solid-state spin-based qubits offer good prospects for scaling based on their long coherence times and nexus to large-scale electronic scale-up technologies. However, high-threshold quantum error correction requires a two-dimensional qubit array operating in parallel, posing significant challenges in fabrication and control. While architectures incorporating distributed quantum control meet this challenge head-on, most designs rely on individual control and readout of all qubits with high gate densities. We analysed the fan-out routing overhead of a dedicated control line architecture, basing the analysis on a generalised solid-state spin qubit platform parameterised to encompass Coulomb confined (e.g. donor based spin qubits) or electrostatically confined (e.g. quantum dot based spin qubits) implementations. The spatial scalability under this model is estimated using standard electronic routing methods and present-day fabrication constraints. Based on reasonable assumptions for qubit control and readout we estimate 10 2 -10 5 physical qubits, depending on the quantum interconnect implementation, can be integrated and fanned-out independently. Assuming relatively long control-free interconnects the scalability can be extended. Ultimately, the universal quantum computation may necessitate a much higher number of integrated qubits, indicating that higher dimensional electronics fabrication and/or multiplexed distributed control and readout schemes may be the preferredstrategy for large-scale implementation.

  18. Exploration of submarine wake and powering performance using CFD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huizhi, Y.; Hongcui, S.; Nan, Z.; Renyou, Y.; Liangmei, Y.

    2005-01-01

    In response to the needs of better design and less time, Computational Fluid Dynamic(CFD) methods have become an impartible part in the ship design, especially in the earlier design phases. In this paper FLUENT software was used to predict the wake character and powering performance of submarine at model scale. By an effective combination of the block topology, grid, turbulence model and validation, the simulation scheme was developed and applied to the predictions of multiple designs and optimizations of the earlier submarine design iterations. The incompressible RANS equations with different turbulence models were solved. To handle the block interface between the propeller and submarine stern, sliding girds in multiple blocks were employed, unstructural grids were used in the block around the propeller. Submarine with/without stator and/or propeller were studied. The flow feature, forces and powering performance at various conditions were calculated. The results were compared with experimental data, and a good agreement was obtained. (author)

  19. Submarine Upward Looking Sonar Ice Draft Profile Data and Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of upward looking sonar draft data collected by submarines in the Arctic Ocean. It includes data from both U.S. Navy and Royal Navy...

  20. Compounding the Losses of Convoyed Ships Attacked by Tactical Submarines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kåre M. Mjelde

    1982-10-01

    Full Text Available It is demonstrated that a time dependent stochastic model for the losses of convoyed ships attacked by submarines can be applied in the determination of the losses in terms of the results of two submodels:

  1. Virtual Reality Training System for a Submarine Command Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maxwell, Douglas B

    2008-01-01

    The invention as disclosed is a system that uses a combined real and virtual display interaction methodology to generate the visual appearance of submarine combat control rooms and allow interaction...

  2. Titan Submarine: Exploring the Depths of Kraken Mare (Phase II)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase II of the Titan Submarine: Exploring the Kraken Mare effort will focus on advancing the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of the concept by (1) retiring risks...

  3. The Female Vikings, a women's fan group in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mintert, Svenja-Maria; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2014-01-01

    on the historical development of a Danish women-only fan group called 'The Female Vikings', which support a professional football club, Lyngby Boldklub (BK), in a city north of Copenhagen. The article explores the backgrounds and motivations of female fans, as well as their ways of staging femininity in a man......'s world. Drawing on available information about football and fans in Denmark, we have reconstructed the developments of both Lyngby BK and its supporters. Special focus was placed on the histories and cultures as well as the experiences of female fans in this club. Insights into the foundation...... of the women's fan group were provided by problem-centred interviews which also contained open questions. The foundation and activities of the Female Vikings show how women can perform gender in the fan's stands and how they play a significant role in the fan movement. The interviews also reveal the loyalty...

  4. Fan-beam intensity modulated proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Patrick; Westerly, David; Mackie, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents a concept for a proton therapy system capable of delivering intensity modulated proton therapy using a fan beam of protons. This system would allow present and future gantry-based facilities to deliver state-of-the-art proton therapy with the greater normal tissue sparing made possible by intensity modulation techniques.Methods: A method for producing a divergent fan beam of protons using a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles is described and particle transport through the quadrupole doublet is simulated using a commercially available software package. To manipulate the fan beam of protons, a modulation device is developed. This modulator inserts or retracts acrylic leaves of varying thickness from subsections of the fan beam. Each subsection, or beam channel, creates what effectively becomes a beam spot within the fan area. Each channel is able to provide 0–255 mm of range shift for its associated beam spot, or stop the beam and act as an intensity modulator. Results of particle transport simulations through the quadrupole system are incorporated into the MCNPX Monte Carlo transport code along with a model of the range and intensity modulation device. Several design parameters were investigated and optimized, culminating in the ability to create topotherapy treatment plans using distal-edge tracking on both phantom and patient datasets.Results: Beam transport calculations show that a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles can be used to create a divergent fan beam of 200 MeV protons over a distance of 2.1 m. The quadrupole lengths were 30 and 48 cm, respectively, with transverse field gradients less than 20 T/m, which is within the range of water-cooled magnets for the quadrupole radii used. MCNPX simulations of topotherapy treatment plans suggest that, when using the distal edge tracking delivery method, many delivery angles are more important than insisting on narrow beam channel widths in order to obtain conformal target coverage

  5. Characterization of Composite Fan Case Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoracek, Charlene M.

    2004-01-01

    The majority of commercial turbine engines that power today s aircraft use a large fan driven by the engine core to generate thrust which dramatically increases the engine s efficiency. However, if one of these fan blades fails during flight, it becomes high energy shrapnel, potentially impacting the engine or puncturing the aircraft itself and thus risking the lives of passengers. To solve this problem, the fan case must be capable of containing a fan blade should it break off during flight. Currently, all commercial fan cases are made of either just a thick metal barrier or a thinner metal wall surrounded by Kevlar-an ultra strong fiber that elastically catches the blade. My summer 2004 project was to characterize the resins for a composite fan case that will be lighter and more efficient than the current metal. The composite fan case is created by braiding carbon fibers and injecting a polymer resin into the braid. The resin holds the fibers together, so at first using the strongest polymer appears to logically lead to the strongest fan case. Unfortunately, the stronger polymers are too viscous when melted. This makes the manufacturing process more difficult because the polymer does not flow as freely through the braid, and the final product is less dense. With all of this in mind, it is important to remember that the strength of the polymer is still imperative; the case must still contain blades with high impact energy. The research identified which polymer had the right balance of properties, including ease of fabrication, toughness, and ability to transfer the load to the carbon fibers. Resin deformation was studied to better understand the composite response during high speed impact. My role in this research was the testing of polymers using dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile, compression, and torsion testing. Dynamic mechanical analysis examines the response of materials under cyclic loading. Two techniques were used for dynamic mechanical analysis

  6. Fan-beam intensity modulated proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Patrick; Westerly, David; Mackie, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a concept for a proton therapy system capable of delivering intensity modulated proton therapy using a fan beam of protons. This system would allow present and future gantry-based facilities to deliver state-of-the-art proton therapy with the greater normal tissue sparing made possible by intensity modulation techniques. A method for producing a divergent fan beam of protons using a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles is described and particle transport through the quadrupole doublet is simulated using a commercially available software package. To manipulate the fan beam of protons, a modulation device is developed. This modulator inserts or retracts acrylic leaves of varying thickness from subsections of the fan beam. Each subsection, or beam channel, creates what effectively becomes a beam spot within the fan area. Each channel is able to provide 0-255 mm of range shift for its associated beam spot, or stop the beam and act as an intensity modulator. Results of particle transport simulations through the quadrupole system are incorporated into the MCNPX Monte Carlo transport code along with a model of the range and intensity modulation device. Several design parameters were investigated and optimized, culminating in the ability to create topotherapy treatment plans using distal-edge tracking on both phantom and patient datasets. Beam transport calculations show that a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles can be used to create a divergent fan beam of 200 MeV protons over a distance of 2.1 m. The quadrupole lengths were 30 and 48 cm, respectively, with transverse field gradients less than 20 T/m, which is within the range of water-cooled magnets for the quadrupole radii used. MCNPX simulations of topotherapy treatment plans suggest that, when using the distal edge tracking delivery method, many delivery angles are more important than insisting on narrow beam channel widths in order to obtain conformal target coverage. Overall, the sharp distal

  7. North Sea submarine cable disruptions and fishing activity

    OpenAIRE

    Hintzen, N.T.; Machiels, M.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    At the North Sea seafloor, numerous submarine cables are positioned that connect telecommunication networks between countries. Worldwide, human activities cause most of the cable disruptions with fisheries accounting for nearly half of all reported faults. Due to a recent increase of submarine cable disruptions in the central North Sea area, Global Marine Systems Ltd. requested IMARES to investigate a possible link between these occurrences and the recent gear switch of the Dutch –demersal be...

  8. Motor Controlled Rotating Base for Directional Submarine Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    steel gear 172 that is attached to the rotating platform 150. [0044] Suitable motors include, but are not limited to, a brushless DC motor that...DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Motor Controlled Rotating Base For Directional Submarine Antennas 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...Std Z39-18 Attorney Docket No. 101658 Page 1 of 23 MOTOR CONTROLLED ROTATING BASE FOR DIRECTIONAL SUBMARINE ANTENNAS STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT

  9. Topology Model of the Flow around a Submarine Hull Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Topology Model of the Flow around a Submarine Hull Form S.-K. Lee Maritime Division Defence Science and Technology Group DST-Group–TR...3177 ABSTRACT A topology model constructed from surface-streamer visualisation describes the flow around a generic conventional submarine hull form at...7999 c© Commonwealth of Australia 2015 AR-016-453 December, 2015 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Topology Model of the Flow

  10. Exercise Aboard Attack Submarines: Rationale and New Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-18

    experience loss of physical fitness while underway. Bennett and co-workers (2) noted a 7% reduction of maximal oxygen consumption in non-exercising...Inc. designed and built a comprehensive resistance exercise device to help counteract muscle deconditioning during long term space flights (the SX... Physical activity aboard nuclear submarines as measured by pedometry. Groton: Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory, Report 1053, 1985, p. 12

  11. Energy labeling for electric fans in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.; Taha, F.M.; Rahim, N.A.; Saidur, R.

    2005-01-01

    To reduce energy consumption in the residential sector, Malaysia Energy Commission is considering implementing energy labels for household electrical appliances including electric fans in 2005. The purpose of the energy labels is to provide the consumers a guideline to compare the size, features, price and efficiency of the appliance. This paper discusses the energy label for electric fans in this country based on Malaysian Standards developed by a technical committee that reviewed the performance of household electrical appliances. This study includes methodology for the calculation of the energy efficiency star rating and projected energy usage, performance requirements, details of the energy label and the requirements for the valid application in Malaysia. The label also can be adopted for other household electrical appliances with only slight modifications

  12. Noise study in laboratories with exhaust fans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, G.H.; Hashmi, R.; Shareef, A.

    2005-01-01

    Noise study has been carried out in 25 laboratories fitted with exhaust fans. We have studied A- Weighted equivalent sound pressure levels (dB(A) LAeJ and equivalent octave band sound pressure levels (dB L/sub eq/ in each of the laboratories surveyed. The data collected has been analyzed for Preferred Speech Interference Levels (PSIL). The results show that the interior noise levels in these laboratories vary from 59.6 to 72.2 dB(A) L/sub Aeq/, which are very high and much beyond the interior noise limits recommended for laboratories. Some ways and means to limit emission of high-level noise from exhaust fans are also discussed. (author)

  13. Optical measurement of unducted fan blade deflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkov, A. P.

    1990-01-01

    A nonintrusive optical method for measuring unducted fan (or propeller) blade deflections is described and evaluated. The measurement does not depend on blade surface reflectivity. Deflection of a point at the leading edge and a point at the trailing edge in a plane nearly perpendicular to the pitch axis is obtained with a single light beam generated by a low-power, helium-neon laser. Quantitative analyses are performed from taped signals on a digital computer. Averaging techniques are employed to reduce random errors. Measured static deflections from a series of high-speed wind tunnel tests of a counterrotating unducted fan model are compared with available, predicted deflections, which are also used to evaluate systematic errors.

  14. 'Bataille's boys': postmodernity, Fascists and football fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T

    2000-09-01

    In his analysis of football hooliganism, Anthony King claims to reveal the historical, conceptual scheme young, male supporters draw upon. This 'masculine vision', he states, is similar to that held by the Freikorps. Both groups are said to adhere to modernist notions of masculinity, sexuality and nationhood, reinforced by rituals which maintain boundaries between these 'proper' males and deviant 'others'. Occasionally, football hooligans breach these boundaries in acts of postmodern transgression. King also claims that fans link sex and violence in their imaginations. In this response I examine King's critique of his fellow theorists; challenge his 'Freikorps-Fans' analogy; demonstrate the problem he has in establishing the sex-violence link and question the relevance of his concept of postmodernity.

  15. A note on Ramsey numbers for fans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yanbo; Broersma, Haitze J.; Chen, Yaojun

    For two given graphs G1 and G2, the Ramsey number R(G1,G2) is the smallest integer N such that, for any graph G of order N, either G contains G1 as a subgraph or the complement of G contains G2 as a subgraph. A fan Fl is l triangles sharing exactly one vertex. In this note, it is shown that R(Fn,

  16. Mementoes: Raul Seixas’ fans and their collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Abonizio

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Raul Seixas’ fans are collectors of several objects. In order to unveil the relationship of the collectors with the idol, with others, and with themselves, I reviewed the letters sent to Raul Rock Club and analyzed his collection. The articulations among the various forms of relating with objects of the singer, or that refer to him, show that the collectible objects, more than vehicles of social reproduction, can function as poetic devices.

  17. Gigapixel Images Connect Sports Teams with Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Technology developed at Ames Research Center to take high-resolution imagery on Mars is now being used in baseball stadiums across the country. New York City-based Major League Baseball Advanced Media LP customized the platform to accommodate in-game shots that capture nearly the whole stadium. Fans navigate the photos online and tag themselves and their friends using social media tools.

  18. Inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.; Wood, L.L.

    1988-01-01

    Edward Teller has been a strong proponent of harnessing nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes. There are two approaches: Plowshare, which utilizes macro- explosions, and inertial confinement fusion, which utilizes microexplosions. The development of practical fusion power plants is a principal goal of the inertial program. It is remarkable that Teller's original thermonuclear problem, how to make super high yield nuclear explosions, and the opposite problem, how to make ultra low yield nuclear explosions, may both be solved by Teller's radiation implosion scheme. This paper reports on the essential physics of these two thermonuclear domains, which are separated by nine orders of magnitude in yield, provided by Teller's similarity theorem and its exceptions. Higher density makes possible thermonuclear burn of smaller masses of fuel. The leverage is high: the scale of the explosion diminishes with the square of the increase in density. The extraordinary compressibility of matter, first noticed by Teller during the Los Alamos atomic bomb program, provides an almost incredible opportunity to harness fusion. The energy density of thermonuclear fuels isentropically compressed to super high-- -densities---even to ten thousand times solid density---is small compared to the energy density at thermonuclear ignition temperatures. In small masses of fuel imploded to these super high matter densities, the energy required to achieve ignition may be greatly reduced by exploiting thermonuclear propagation from a relatively small hot spot

  19. Gravitationally confined relativistic neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayenas, C. G.; Fokas, A. S.; Grigoriou, D.

    2017-09-01

    Combining special relativity, the equivalence principle, and Newton’s universal gravitational law with gravitational rather than rest masses, one finds that gravitational interactions between relativistic neutrinos with kinetic energies above 50 MeV are very strong and can lead to the formation of gravitationally confined composite structures with the mass and other properties of hadrons. One may model such structures by considering three neutrinos moving symmetrically on a circular orbit under the influence of their gravitational attraction, and by assuming quantization of their angular momentum, as in the Bohr model of the H atom. The model contains no adjustable parameters and its solution, using a neutrino rest mass of 0.05 eV/c2, leads to composite state radii close to 1 fm and composite state masses close to 1 GeV/c2. Similar models of relativistic rotating electron - neutrino pairs give a mass of 81 GeV/c2, close to that of W bosons. This novel mechanism of generating mass suggests that the Higgs mass generation mechanism can be modeled as a latent gravitational field which gets activated by relativistic neutrinos.

  20. Thermostating highly confined fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Stefano; Todd, B D; Searles, Debra J

    2010-06-28

    In this work we show how different use of thermostating devices and modeling of walls influence the mechanical and dynamical properties of confined nanofluids. We consider a two dimensional fluid undergoing Couette flow using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Because the system is highly inhomogeneous, the density shows strong fluctuations across the channel. We compare the dynamics produced by applying a thermostating device directly to the fluid with that obtained when the wall is thermostated, considering also the effects of using rigid walls. This comparison involves an analysis of the chaoticity of the fluid and evaluation of mechanical properties across the channel. We look at two thermostating devices with either rigid or vibrating atomic walls and compare them with a system only thermostated by conduction through vibrating atomic walls. Sensitive changes are observed in the xy component of the pressure tensor, streaming velocity, and density across the pore and the Lyapunov localization of the fluid. We also find that the fluid slip can be significantly reduced by rigid walls. Our results suggest caution in interpreting the results of systems in which fluid atoms are thermostated and/or wall atoms are constrained to be rigid, such as, for example, water inside carbon nanotubes.

  1. Fan-head shear rupture mechanism as a source of off-fault tensile cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Boris

    2016-04-01

    ; behind this zone static microcracks are left in the wake of the propagating rupture. Unfortunately, the modern technology used in these experiments is not able to identify the shear rupture mechanism itself operated within the narrow rupture interface. However, a special analysis of side effects accompanying the shear rupture propagation (including the off-fault tensile cracking) allows supposing that the failure process was governed by the fan-mechanism. 1. Tarasov, B.G. 2014. Hitherto unknown shear rupture mechanism as a source of instability in intact hard rocks at highly confined compression. Tectonophysics, 621, 69-84. 2. Griffith, W.A., Rosakis, A., Pollard, D.D. and Ko, C.W., 2009. Dynamic rupture experiments elucidate tensile crack development during propagating earthquake ruptures, Geology, pp 795-798. 3. Ngo, D., Huang, Y., Rosakis, A., Griffith, W.A., Pollard D. 2012. Off-fault tensile cracks: A link between geological fault observations, lab experiments, and dynamic rupture models. Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 117, B01307, doi: 10.1029/2011JB008577 (2012).

  2. "Emotions-Only" versus "Special People": Genre in fan discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa Ellen Stein

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay looks at genre as a complex set of discursive threads running unevenly through production, TV text, and fan reception. Through a case study of the reception of fan favorite Roswell, this essay interrogates the role of genre in spectatorship. In its mixing of teen and science fiction elements, Roswell trod upon contested generic spaces, eliciting strong reaction from its viewers. Connections between genre and gender came to the fore, as producer commentary linked science fiction with male audiences and teen romance with female audiences. Fans responded with analyses that greatly complicated and at times overtly rejected industrial suppositions regarding the gendered work of genre. Through these fan conversations, we can witness the complexity of genre as discursive thread moving through not only TV texts but also multivariant fan responses. I intend this essay to work at two levels. My analysis of fan responses to Roswell models the possibilities of a close study of genre discourse. At the same time, my case study probes the nature of genre in fan engagement, as genre discourses intersect with other fan concerns such as character identification, perceptions of textual quality, and questions of gender representation. While we cannot necessarily look to fan accounts for proof of how viewers engage with genre, they do tell us how fans frame their engagement with genre, how they incorporate genre into their performance of fannishness, and how they perform and thus enact genre itself as a shared cultural process.

  3. Fan edits and the legacy of The Phantom Edit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Wille

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A fan edit can generally be defined as an alternative version of a film or television text created by a fan. It offers a different viewing experience, much as a song remix offers a different listening experience. The contemporary wave of fan edits has emerged during the remix zeitgeist of digital media and at a time when digital video editing technology has become more affordable and popular. The increasing number of alternative versions of films and the works of revisionist Hollywood filmmakers such as George Lucas have contributed to a greater public understanding of cinema as a fluid medium instead of one that exists in a fixed form. The Phantom Edit (2000, a seminal fan edit based on Lucas's Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace (1999, inspired new ranks of fan editors. However, critics have misunderstood fan edits as merely the work of disgruntled fans. In order to provide a critical and historical basis for studies in fan editing as a creative practice, I examine previous interpretations of fan edits in the context of relevant contemporary works, and I use an annotated chronology of The Phantom Edit to trace its influence on subsequent fan editing communities and uncover their relationship with intellectual property disputes.

  4. Harmonic Balance Computations of Fan Aeroelastic Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Reddy, T. S. R.

    2010-01-01

    A harmonic balance (HB) aeroelastic analysis, which has been recently developed, was used to determine the aeroelastic stability (flutter) characteristics of an experimental fan. To assess the numerical accuracy of this HB aeroelastic analysis, a time-domain aeroelastic analysis was also used to determine the aeroelastic stability characteristics of the same fan. Both of these three-dimensional analysis codes model the unsteady flowfield due to blade vibrations using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. In the HB analysis, the unsteady flow equations are converted to a HB form and solved using a pseudo-time marching method. In the time-domain analysis, the unsteady flow equations are solved using an implicit time-marching approach. Steady and unsteady computations for two vibration modes were carried out at two rotational speeds: 100 percent (design) and 70 percent (part-speed). The steady and unsteady results obtained from the two analysis methods compare well, thus verifying the recently developed HB aeroelastic analysis. Based on the results, the experimental fan was found to have no aeroelastic instability (flutter) at the conditions examined in this study.

  5. Fan Blade Deflection Measurement and Analyses Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmed, Oral; Janetzke, David C.

    1997-01-01

    Steady deflection measurements were taken of two identical NASA/Pratt & Whitney-designed fan blades while they were rotating in a vacuum in NASA Lewis Research Center's Dynamic Spin Facility. The one-fifth-scale fan blades, which have a tip diameter of 22 in. and a pinroot retention, are of sparshell construction and were unducted for this test. The purpose of the test was to measure the change of the radial deflection of the blade tip and blade angle at selected radial stations along the blade span with respect to rotational speed. The procedure for radial deflection measurement had no precedent and was newly developed for this test. Radial deflection measurements were made to assure adequate tip clearance existed between the fan blades and the duct for a follow-on wind tunnel test. Also, blade angle deflection measurements were desired before pitchsetting parts for the wind tunnel test were finish machined. During the test, laser beams were aimed across the blade path into photodiodes to give signals that were used to determine blade angle change or tip radial deflection. These laser beams were set parallel to the spin axis at selected radial stations.

  6. Thermal management of pico projector using a piezoelectric fan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyu, Jin-Cherng; Tsai, Ho-Min

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A fin-equipped pico projector cooled by a vibrating piezoelectric fan was studied. • The piezoelectric fan was actuated with four different frequencies at 90 V rms . • Both the heater power and the fan vibrating frequency affected the fan amplitude. • Forced and natural convection might be equally significant at a high heater power. • Fan amplitude strongly affected the thermal resistance of pico projector. - Abstract: A fin-array-equipped test pico projector with horizontal or vertical orientation was cooled by a vibrating piezoelectric fan in this study. The 47 mm × 10 mm piezoelectric fan was operated at 90 V rms at a frequency ranging from 135.5 Hz to 129.5 Hz. It was found that the fan vibrating amplitude was affected by both the input power of the heater and the fan operating frequency. The thermal resistance of the fan-cooled test pico projector not always reduced as the heater power increased, and would be equally affected by both forced convection and natural convection depending on Gr and Re numbers. Such phenomenon that might arise from the temperature effect on the fan blade material and the fluidic damping was especially marked when the plate-fin-array-equipped test pico projector was horizontally tested. The results also showed that the pin-fin array was more favorable than plate-fin array for the cooling of test pico projector as a piezoelectric fan vibrated at a specific frequency, regardless of the orientation. When the pin-fin array was cooled by a vibrating piezoelectric fan at 133.5 Hz at 7 W in a horizontally and vertically oriented projector, the maximum thermal resistance reduction was about 3.4 °C/W and 3.8 °C/W, respectively

  7. Advanced Low-Noise Research Fan Stage Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, Robert; Bock, Larry; Malmborg, Eric; Owen-Peer, William

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the design of the Advanced Low-Noise Research Fan stage. The fan is a variable pitch design, which is designed at the cruise pitch condition. Relative to the cruise setting, the blade is closed at takeoff and opened for reverse thrust operation. The fan stage is a split flow design with fan exit guide vanes (FEGVs) and core stators. The fan stage design is combined with a nacelle and engine core duct to form a powered fan/nacelle subscale model. This model is intended for use in combined aerodynamic, acoustic, and structural testing in a wind tunnel. The fan has an outer diameter of 22 in. and a hub-to-tip of 0.426 in., which allows the use of existing NASA fan and cowl force balance and rig drive systems. The design parameters were selected to permit valid acoustic and aerodynamic comparisons with the Pratt & Whitney (P&W) 17- and 22-in. rigs previously tested under NASA contract. The fan stage design is described in detail. The results of the design axisymmetric and Navier-Stokes aerodynamic analysis are presented at the critical design conditions. The structural analysis of the fan rotor and attachment is included. The blade and attachment are predicted to have adequate low-cycle fatigue life and an acceptable operating range without resonant stress or flutter. The stage was acoustically designed with airfoil counts in the FEGV and core stator to minimize noise. A fan/FEGV tone analysis developed separately under NASA contract was used to determine the optimum airfoil counts. The fan stage was matched to the existing nacelle, designed under the previous P&W low-noise contract, to form a fan/nacelle model for wind tunnel testing. It is an axisymmetric nacelle for convenience in testing and analysis. Previous testing confirmed that the nacelle performed as required at various aircraft operating conditions.

  8. Submarine Landslides at Santa Catalina Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, M. R.; Francis, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    Santa Catalina Island is an active tectonic block of volcanic and metamorphic rocks originally exposed during middle Miocene transtension along the evolving Pacific-North America transform plate boundary. Post-Miocene transpression created the existing large pop-up structure along the major strike-slip restraining bend of the Catalina fault that forms the southwest flank of the uplift. Prominent submerged marine terraces apparent in high-resolution bathymetric maps interrupt the steep submarine slopes in the upper ~400 meters subsea depths. Steep subaerial slopes of the island are covered by Quaternary landslides, especially at the sea cliffs and in the blueschist metamorphic rocks. The submarine slopes also show numerous landslides that range in area from a few hectares to more than three sq-km (300 hectares). Three or more landslides of recent origin exist between the nearshore and first submerged terrace along the north-facing shelf of the island's West End. One of these slides occurred during September 2005 when divers observed a remarkable change in the seafloor configuration after previous dives in the area. Near a sunken yacht at about 45-ft depth where the bottom had sloped gently into deeper water, a "sinkhole" had formed that dropped steeply to 100-ft or greater depths. Some bubbling sand was observed in the shallow water areas that may be related to the landslide process. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry acquired in 2008 by CSU Monterey Bay show this "fresh" slide and at least two other slides of varying age along the West End. The slides are each roughly 2 hectares in area and their debris aprons are spread across the first terrace at about 85-m water depth that is likely associated with the Last Glacial Maximum sealevel lowstand. Larger submarine slides exist along the steep Catalina and Catalina Ridge escarpments along the southwest flank of the island platform. A prominent slide block, exceeding 3 sq-km in area, appears to have slipped more than

  9. ROV Tiburon Investigation of Hawaiian Submarine Canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, C. K.; Greene, H. G.; Caress, D. W.; Clague, D. A.; Ussler, W.; Maher, N. M.

    2001-12-01

    MBARI conducted ROV dives around the Hawaiian Islands during an expedition of the R/V Western Flyer and Tiburon in the spring of 2001. Eight ROV dives were made to investigate five major submarine canyons offshore of Oahu, Molokai, and Hawaii in up to 3,434 m water depths. Four of these canyons are located off the windward (northern) side of these islands where onshore canyons are also well developed. Those canyons located offshore of Molokai and Oahu incise the head scars of the giant Nuuanu and Wailai submarine landslides. ROV observations and sediment and rock outcrop sampling were made in these canyons to determine their origin and present-day activity. The fifth canyon investigated is located on the leeward (southern) side of Molokai. The canyons along the windward side expose extensive stratigraphic sections that reveal the history of the islands' formation. In composite, these sections contain marine pillow basalt overlain by a substantial sequence of alternating subaerial lava flows, rounded boulder conglomerates, shallow water carbonates, and hyaloclastites that indicate coastal and marine deposition. These sequences illustrate the accretion and subsequent subsidence of the islands' flanks. These canyons also have morphologically distinct upper and lower sections. The upper reaches of the canyons are incised into the shallow water marine facies and contain broad axial channels through which active sediment transport is occurring. In contrast, the morphology of the lower canyons are strongly influenced by the giant landslides that massively altered the northern flanks of the Hawaiian chain. The lower canyons contain plunge pools and steep headwall scarps that are generally comprised of mechanically competent subaerial lava flows. The presence of multiple plunge pools with differentially eroded head scarps suggests retrogressive erosion (bottom-up process) with headward advancement of the various heads. Undercutting of the headwalls also produce periodic

  10. Relationship between work stress and health in submariners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-nan JIANG

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the relationship between work stress and health in submariners. Methods In April 2008, 272 submariners trained in a navy base were selected as study subjects by random group sampling method, and tested by primary personal information questionnaire, self-rated health measurement scale (SRHMS, self-developed submariners' work stressors questionnaire, and work stress self-rated scale. Physical health, mental health and social health of submariners were analyzed, and scores were compared with the norm of reference scores. Correlations were analyzed respectively between 10 items of submariners' general information (including age, length of military service, education degree, years at the present post, times of receiving awards, on-duty hours, off-duty hours, hours of sleep, lost days of leave, positive attitude to work and their physical health score, mental health score, social health score, total health score, as well as between 15 submariners' work stressors (including workrelated risks, diet problems, high temperature, humidity and noise in workplace, shortage of clean clothes, illness, losing contact with outside, lack of information about the task, lacking supports from family members, relationship problems, lack of involvement in task decisions, boring and dull work, on duty, heavy work, high quality of work, coping with unexpected threat and their physical health score, mental health score, social health score and total health score. Results No significant difference was found between submariners' SRHMS total score and the normal referenced score (t=0.56, P>0.05, but the physical health score and mental health score were significantly lower than normal referenced scores respectively (t=–2.172, P<0.05; t=–3.299, P<0.01, and the social health score was significantly higher than normal referenced score (t=9.331, P<0.001. The age, length of military service, years at present post of submariners were related

  11. Active Processes: Bright Streaks and Dark Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2 In a region of the south pole known informally as 'Ithaca' numerous fans of dark frost form every spring. HiRISE collected a time lapse series of these images, starting at Ls = 185 and culminating at Ls = 294. 'Ls' is the way we measure time on Mars: at Ls = 180 the sun passes the equator on its way south; at Ls = 270 it reaches its maximum subsolar latitude and summer begins. In the earliest image (figure 1) fans are dark, but small narrow bright streaks can be detected. In the next image (figure 2), acquired at Ls = 187, just 106 hours later, dramatic differences are apparent. The dark fans are larger and the bright fans are more pronounced and easily detectable. The third image in the sequence shows no bright fans at all. We believe that the bright streaks are fine frost condensed from the gas exiting the vent. The conditions must be just right for the bright frost to condense. Observation Geometry Image PSP_002622_0945 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 16-Feb-2007. The complete image is centered at -85.2 degrees latitude, 181.5 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 246.9 km (154.3 miles). At this distance the image scale is 49.4 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning) so objects 148 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 50 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 05:46 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 88 degrees, thus the sun was about 2 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 185.1 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  12. BY FRUSTUM CONFINING VESSEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Khazaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Helical piles are environmentally friendly and economical deep foundations that, due to environmental considerations, are excellent additions to a variety of deep foundation alternatives available to the practitioner. Helical piles performance depends on soil properties, the pile geometry and soil-pile interaction. Helical piles can be a proper alternative in sensitive environmental sites if their bearing capacity is sufficient to support applied loads. The failure capacity of helical piles in this study was measured via an experimental research program that was carried out by Frustum Confining Vessel (FCV. FCV is a frustum chamber by approximately linear increase in vertical and lateral stresses along depth from top to bottom. Due to special geometry and applied bottom pressure, this apparatus is a proper choice to test small model piles which can simulate field stress conditions. Small scale helical piles are made with either single helix or more helixes and installed in fine grained sand with three various densities. Axial loading tests including compression and tension tests were performed to achieve pile ultimate capacity. The results indicate the helical piles behavior depends essentially on pile geometric characteristics, i.e. helix configuration and soil properties. According to the achievements, axial uplift capacity of helical model piles is about equal to usual steel model piles that have the helixes diameter. Helical pile compression bearing capacity is too sufficient to act as a medium pile, thus it can be substituted other piles in special geoenvironmental conditions. The bearing capacity also depends on spacing ratio, S/D, and helixes diameter.

  13. A concept for a counterrotating fan with reduced tone noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, James H.

    1992-01-01

    As subsonic jet engine designs incorporate higher bypass ratios to reduce jet noise and increase engine cycle efficiency, the fan noise becomes a significant part of the perceived total noise. The conventional method of reducing fan tone noise is to design a low tip-speed device. An alternative approach of using a counterrotating fan with a high number of rotor blades is investigated in this report. The source of noise at the blade passing frequency of this device is the rotor-only mechanism, which is cut off for a subsonic tip speed rotor. The interaction noise occurs at twice the blade passing frequency, which, for this fan, was shifted high enough in frequency to be above the perceived noise rating range. The result was a counterrotating fan which had more potential for tone noise reduction than does the conventional fan. A potential broadband noise reduction was also indicated.

  14. From submarine to lacustrine groundwater discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lewandowski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD and its role in marine nutrient cycling are well known since the last decade. The freshwater equivalent, lacustrine groundwater discharge (LGD, is often still disregarded, although first reports of LGD are more than 50 years old. We identify nine different reasons why groundwater has long been disregarded in both freshwater and marine environments such as invisibility of groundwater discharge, the size of the interface and its difficult accessibility. Although there are some fundamental differences in the hydrology of SGD and LGD, caused primarily by seawater recirculation that occurs only in cases of SGD, there are also a lot of similarities such as a focusing of discharge to near-shore areas. Nutrient concentrations in groundwater near the groundwater–surface water interface might be anthropogenically enriched. Due to spatial heterogeneity of aquifer characteristics and biogeochemical processes, the quantification of groundwater-borne nutrient loads is challenging. Both nitrogen and phosphorus might be mobile in near-shore aquifers and in a lot of case studies large groundwater-borne nutrient loads have been reported.

  15. Design and analysis of submarine radome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, C. Satya; Prasad, U. Shiva; Suresh, R.; Rathan, A.; Sravanthi, G.; Govardhan, D.

    2017-07-01

    Radomes are the electromagnetic windows that protect microwave sub-systems from the environmental effects. The major requirement of radome is its transparency to microwaves and for most of the cases mechanical properties are also equally important. Radome for underwater applications has to withstand high water pressure of the order of 45 bars. Composite materials owing to their high strength to weight ratio, high stiffness and better corrosion resistance are potential source for under water applications. The concept of 'tailoring' the material properties to suit the radome is obtained by selecting proper reinforcement, resin matrix and their compositions. The mechanical properties of composite material, evaluated by testing specimens as per ASTM standards, are utilized in designing the radome. The modulus properties calculated using classical theories of composite materials and compared with test results. ANSYS a Finite Element software package used to analyse the problem. As the cross sectional thickness of radome varies, the complexity in fabrication is overcome by adopting matched die techniques. The radome design and finite element analysis validation concluded by conducting the pressure test on radome. On the design a modal analysis is also carried to check for the natural frequency, So that resonance does not occur if the natural frequency of the radome coincides with the excitation frequency of the submarine Clinical information system (CIS) for UNRWA is a computerized distributed application that used in clinics which follows the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) to manage the clinical requirements and services.

  16. 30 CFR 57.8534 - Shutdown or failure of auxiliary fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shutdown or failure of auxiliary fans. 57.8534... Ventilation Underground Only § 57.8534 Shutdown or failure of auxiliary fans. (a) Auxiliary fans installed and... fan maintenance or fan adjustments where air quality is maintained in compliance with the applicable...

  17. 78 FR 16443 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... Standards for Ceiling Fans and Ceiling Fan Light Kits AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... consider amending the energy conservation standards for ceiling fans and ceiling fan light kits. DOE also....gov . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Email: CeilingFan[email protected

  18. Numerical Study of Transition of an Annular Lift Fan Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Jiang; Bo Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at studying the transition of annular lift fan aircraft through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The oscillations of lift and drag, the optimization for the figure of merit, and the characteristics of drag, yawing, rolling and pitching moments in transition are studied. The results show that a two-stage upper and lower fan lift system can generate oscillations of lift and drag in transition, while a single-stage inner and outer fan lift system can elimin...

  19. Improving the energy efficiency of mine fan assemblages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Souza, Euler

    2015-01-01

    Energy associated with ventilating an underground operation comprises a significant portion of a mine operation's base energy demand and is consequently responsible for a large percentage of the total operating costs. Ventilation systems may account from 25 to 40% of the total energy costs and 40–50% of the energy consumption of a mine operation. Fans are the most important mechanical devices used to ventilate underground mines and the total fan power installed in a single mine operation can easily exceed 10,000 kW. Investigations of a number of mine main fan installations have determined their assemblage to be, in general, very energy inefficient. The author has found that 40–80% of the energy consumed by a main fan is used to overcome the resistance of fan assemblage components. This paper presents how engineering design principles can be applied to improve the performance and efficiency of fan installations, resulting in substantial reductions in power consumption, operating cost and greenhouse gas emissions. A detailed case study is presented to demonstrate that, by designing fan assemblages using proper engineering concepts of fluid physics and industrial ventilation design, main fan systems will operate at efficiencies well above 80–90% (compared to common operating efficiencies of between 20 and 65%), resulting in a drastic reduction in a mine's overall costs and base electrical and energy loads. - Highlights: • Increases in fan assemblage efficiencies with minimum capital investment. • Improved designs for substantial fan power and operating cost savings. • General solutions and tactics for improving existing main fan installations. • Case study presented to demonstrate proper design of fan assemblages.

  20. On-site testing of crop drying fans

    OpenAIRE

    Winkelman, Paul M.

    1988-01-01

    The commercial peanut dryers used today were first conceived when energy was relatively inexpensive. Since then, energy costs have increased significantly, and more efficient peanuts dryers are desirable. To evaluate dryer efficiency, a mobile fan test facility was designed, built and calibrated for on-site fan airflow and energy measurements. Four-, six-, and eight-trailer peanut dryers were tested for performance. The characteristics observed were delivery of fan airflow as compared to m...

  1. Operational Art and the Submarine: Does the Enemy Understand it Better?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pellissier, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    ...) due to its multifunctional capability. While the submarine community lobbies in a parochial fashion about the indispensability of the platform, the truth of how the submarine provides significant operational impact in the purest sense...

  2. NOAA Charted Submarine cables in the United States as of December 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data depict the occurrence of submarine cables in and around U.S. navigable waters. The geographic extent of these data is greater than the "NASCA Submarine...

  3. NSMRL: A Small Command with A Huge Presence for the Submarine Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, J. C; Lamb, Jerry

    2005-01-01

    "To protect the health and enhance the performance of our warfighters through focused submarine, diving and surface research solutions" is the mission of the Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory (NSMRL...

  4. Disposal of Russian nuclear submarines and surface ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klammt, Jens-Uwe; Menger, Bernd; Mietann, Detlef

    2009-01-01

    A German contribution to the initiative of the Global G8 Partnership against the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction is a project for the disposal of decommissioned nuclear submarines of the Russian Northern Sea Fleet. The Federal Republic of Germany makes available a total of 600 million euro for this purpose for the period of 2003 to 2014. Since 2003, a long-term store has been under construction in the Saida Bay in the Murmansk region for land-based storage of mothballed reactor sections from decommissioned nuclear submarines and components of nuclear surface ships with a total of 178 storage positions, the necessary infrastructure included. At the present time, 33 mothballed reactor sections of disassembled nuclear submarines are stored there. Work is also under way to build and equip a center for conditioning, treatment, and long-term storage of radioactive waste from the northwestern region of Russia, which will be commissioned in 2014. This waste management center is a key item in Russian plans for the establishment of radiologically safe conditions in the region. Germany financed the disassembly of 20 submarines into reactor sections fit for storage. Extensive assistance was provided in improving the material technical basis of the shipyard commissioned to dispose of the nuclear submarines. (orig.)

  5. A measuring stand for a ducted fan aircraft propulsion unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlaváček David

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The UL-39 ultra-light aircraft which is being developed by the Department of Aerospace Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, is equipped with an unconventional ducted fan propulsion unit. The unit consists of an axial fan driven by a piston engine and placed inside a duct ended with a nozzle. This article describes the arrangement of a modernised measuring stand for this highly specific propulsion unit which will be able to measure the fan pressure ratio and velocity field in front of and behind the fan and its characteristic curve.

  6. K-pop Reception and Participatory Fan Culture in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Yeon Sung

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available K-pop’s popularity and its participatory fan culture have expanded beyond Asia and become significant in Europe in the past few years. After South Korean pop singer Psy’s “Gangnam Style” music video topped the Austrian chart in October 2012, the number and size of K-pop events in Austria sharply increased, with fans organizing various participatory events, including K-pop auditions, dance festivals, club meetings, quiz competitions, dance workshops, and smaller fan-culture gatherings. In the private sector, longtime fans have transitioned from participants to providers, and in the public sector, from observers to sponsors. Through in-depth interviews with event organizers, sponsors, and fans, this article offers an ethnographic study of the reception of K-pop in Europe that takes into consideration local interactions between fans and Korean sponsors, perspectives on the genre, patterns of social integration, and histories. As a case study, this research stresses the local situatedness of K-pop fan culture by arguing that local private and public sponsors and fans make the reception of K-pop different in each locality. By exploring local scenes of K-pop reception and fan culture, the article demonstrates the rapidly growing consumption of K-pop among Europeans and stresses multidirectional understandings of globalization.

  7. Single photon emission computed tomography by using fan beam collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Yoshihisa

    1992-01-01

    A multislice fan beam collimator which has parallel collimation along the cephalic-caudul axis of a patient and converging collimation within planes that are perpendicular to that axis was designed for a SPECT system with a rotating scintillation camera, and it was constructed by the lead casting method which was developed in recent years. A reconstruction algorithm for fan beam SPECT was formed originally by combining the reconstruction algorithm of the parallel beam SPECT with that of the fan beam X-ray CT. The algorithm for fan beam SPECT was confirmed by means of computer simulation and a head phantom filled with diluted radionuclide. Not only 99m Tc but also 123 I was used as a radionuclide. A SPECT image with the fan beam collimator was compared with that of a parallel hole, low energy, high resolution collimator which was routinely used for clinical and research SPECT studies. Both system resolution and sensitivity of the fan beam collimator were ∼20% better than those of the parallel hole collimator. Comparing SPECT images obtained from fan beam collimator with those of parallel hole collimator, the SPECT images using fan beam collimator had far better resolution. A fan beam collimator is a useful implement for the SPECT study. (author)

  8. The Mechanical Impact of Aerodynamic Stall on Tunnel Ventilation Fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Sheard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes work aimed at establishing the ability of a tunnel ventilation fan to operate without risk of mechanical failure in the event of aerodynamic stall. The research establishes the aerodynamic characteristics of a typical tunnel ventilation fan when operated in both stable and stalled aerodynamic conditions, with and without an anti-stall stabilisation ring, with and without a “nonstalling” blade angle and at full, half, and one quarter design speed. It also measures the fan’s peak stress, thus facilitating an analysis of the implications of the experimental results for mechanical design methodology. The paper concludes by presenting three different strategies for tunnel ventilation fan selection in applications where the selected fan will most likely stall. The first strategy selects a fan with a low-blade angle that is nonstalling. The second strategy selects a fan with a high-pressure developing capability. The third strategy selects a fan with a fitted stabilisation ring. Tunnel ventilation system designers each have their favoured fan selection strategy. However, all three strategies can produce system designs within which a tunnel ventilation fan performs reliably in-service. The paper considers the advantages and disadvantages of each selection strategy and considered the strengths and weaknesses of each.

  9. Alternative approaches to plasma confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses 20 plasma confinement schemes each representing an alternative to the tokamak fusion reactor. Attention is given to: (1) tokamak-like devices (TORMAC, Topolotron, and the Extrap concept), (2) stellarator-like devices (Torsatron and twisted-coil stellarators), (3) mirror machines (Astron and reversed-field devices, the 2XII B experiment, laser-heated solenoids, the LITE experiment, the Kaktus-Surmac concept), (4) bumpy tori (hot electron bumpy torus, toroidal minimum-B configurations), (5) electrostatically assisted confinement (electrostatically stuffed cusps and mirrors, electrostatically assisted toroidal confinement), (6) the Migma concept, and (7) wall-confined plasmas. The plasma parameters of the devices are presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each are listed.

  10. Assessing confinement in coastal lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canu, Donata Melaku; Solidoro, Cosimo; Umgiesser, Georg; Cucco, Andrea; Ferrarin, Christian

    2012-11-01

    Measures of transport scale in aquatic systems can contribute to the formulation of definitions of indicators of the system's ecological properties. This paper addresses confinement, a specific transport scale proposed by biological scientists as a parameter that can capture and synthesize the principal properties that determine the spatial structure of biological communities in transitional environments. Currently, there is no direct experimental measure of confinement. In this study, a methodology based on the accumulation rate within a lagoon of a passive tracer of marine origin is proposed, the influences of different factors in the calculation of confinement are analyzed, and general recommendations are derived. In particular, we analyze the spatial and the temporal variability of confinement and its sensitivity to the seasonal variability of climatic forcing, the inputs from rivers and the parameterization of the tidal exchanges. The Lagoon of Venice is used as a case study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impurities confined in quantum structures

    CERN Document Server

    Holtz, Per Olof

    2004-01-01

    The introduction of impurities, even in very small concentrations, in a semiconductor can change its optical and electrical properties entirely. This attribute of the semiconductor is utilized in the manifoldness of their applications. In this book, the progress on elucidating the physical properties of impurities confined in quantum structures are reviewed with an emphasis on the experimental aspects. The major results of various kinds of characterization, such as infrared spectroscopy, Raman measurements, luminescence characterization, perturbation spectroscopy and dynamical studies of the confined impurities are reviewed, but also the theoretical basis to calculate the electronic structure of the confined donors and acceptors are presented. This monograph also describes more specific aspects of the confined impurities such as the properties in the high doping regime and the effects of hydrogen passivation.

  12. Infrared slavery and quark confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Alabiso, C

    1976-01-01

    The question is considered of whether the so-called infrared slavery mechanism as, e.g., being manifest in non-Abelian gauge theories, necessarily confines quarks. Making a specific ansatz for the long- range forces, the Schwinger-Dyson equation is solved for the quark Green function. Besides having a confining solution, it appears that quarks may by-pass the long-range forces and be produced. (20 refs).

  13. Fan beam intensity modulated proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Patrick M.

    A fan beam proton therapy is developed which delivers intensity modulated proton therapy using distal edge tracking. The system may be retrofit onto existing proton therapy gantries without alterations to infrastructure in order to improve treatments through intensity modulation. A novel range and intensity modulation system is designed using acrylic leaves that are inserted or retracted from subsections of the fan beam. Leaf thicknesses are chosen in a base-2 system and motivated in a binary manner. Dose spots from individual beam channels range between 1 and 5 cm. Integrated collimators attempting to limit crosstalk among beam channels are investigated, but found to be inferior to uncollimated beam channel modulators. A treatment planning system performing data manipulation in MATLAB and dose calculation in MCNPX is developed. Beamlet dose is calculated on patient CT data and a fan beam source is manually defined to produce accurate results. An energy deposition tally follows the CT grid, allowing straightforward registration of dose and image data. Simulations of beam channels assume that a beam channel either delivers dose to a distal edge spot or is intensity modulated. A final calculation is performed separately to determine the deliverable dose accounting for all sources of scatter. Treatment plans investigate the effects that varying system parameters have on dose distributions. Beam channel apertures may be as large as 20 mm because the sharp distal falloff characteristic of proton dose provides sufficient intensity modulation to meet dose objectives, even in the presence of coarse lateral resolution. Dose conformity suffers only when treatments are delivered from less than 10 angles. Jaw widths of 1--2 cm produce comparable dose distributions, but a jaw width of 4 cm produces unacceptable target coverage when maintaining critical structure avoidance. Treatment time for a prostate delivery is estimated to be on the order of 10 minutes. Neutron production

  14. 33 CFR 209.310 - Representation of submarine cables and pipelines on nautical charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representation of submarine... of submarine cables and pipelines on nautical charts. (a) The policy of the Corps of Engineers with respect to showing the locations of submarine cables and pipelines on nautical charts published by the...

  15. 77 FR 59749 - Safety Zone; Submarine Cable Installation Project; Chicago River, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Submarine Cable Installation Project; Chicago River, Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard... the Chicago River due to the installation of submarine cables in the vicinity of both the West Adams... surrounding public and vessels from the hazards associated with the installation of submarine cables in the...

  16. 75 FR 27638 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy Submarines, Hood Canal, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ...-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy Submarines, Hood Canal, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... submarine is operating in that area and is being escorted by the Coast Guard. The RNA is necessary to help ensure the safety and security of the submarines, their Coast Guard security escorts, and the maritime...

  17. 75 FR 1706 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy Submarines, Hood Canal, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ...-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy Submarines, Hood Canal, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... submarine is operating in the Hood Canal and being escorted by the Coast Guard. The RNA is necessary to help ensure the safety and security of the submarines, their Coast Guard security escorts, and the maritime...

  18. 47 CFR 32.6424 - Submarine and deep sea cable expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Submarine and deep sea cable expense. 32.6424 Section 32.6424 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Submarine and deep sea cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with submarine and...

  19. 78 FR 67086 - Safety Zone, Submarine Cable Replacement Operations, Kent Island Narrows; Queen Anne's County, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Submarine Cable Replacement Operations, Kent Island Narrows; Queen Anne's County... vessels on navigable waters during submarine cable replacement operations at the Kent Island Narrows (MD... involves the installation of a submarine cable within a federal navigation channel requiring divers, a...

  20. 33 CFR 165.1328 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA. 165.1328 Section 165.1328 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.1328 Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA. (a) Location. The following... whenever any U.S. Navy submarine is operating in the Hood Canal and is being escorted by the Coast Guard...

  1. 76 FR 78159 - Safety Zone; Submarine Cable Installation Project; Chicago River South Branch, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Submarine Cable Installation Project; Chicago River South Branch, Chicago, IL AGENCY... vessels from a portion of the Chicago River South Branch due to the installation of submarine cables in... surrounding public and vessels from the hazards associated with the installation of submarine cables in the...

  2. Addressing the Challenges of a Smoke-Free U.S. Navy Submarine Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    smoking aboard US Nuclear Submarines” (2006, The Submarine Review).  Report linked smoking and its effect on adverse operational capability...Proposed the submarine force should comply with policies to protect the nonsmokers from secondhand smoke . 7 2011 MHS Conference Background: Smoke Free...2010, the submarine force went smoke -free.  Initial observations indicate no significant effects on operational capabilities. 11 2011 MHS

  3. 33 CFR 165.1302 - Bangor Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, WA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bangor Naval Submarine Base... Bangor Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, WA. (a) Location. The following is a security zone: The waters of... States Naval vessels. (ii) Vessels that are performing work at Naval Submarine Base Bangor pursuant to a...

  4. The Lower Cretaceous Way Group of northern Chile: An alluvial fan-fan delta complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, S.; Clemmey, H.; Turner, P.

    1986-01-01

    Alluvial fan sediments of the Lower Cretaceous Coloso Basin in northern Chile were deposited in a half-graben and derived from andesitic volcanics of a former island arc. Transport directions were towards the east, away from the present-day Peru-Chile trench. Grain flow, density modified grain flow and sheetflow processes were responsible for most of the sediment deposition with cohesive debris flows playing only a minor part. An early phase of conglomerate deposition (Coloso Formation) into a restricted basin records the transition from proximal fan facies with abundant grain flows and remobilized screes to mid-fan facies dominated by sheetflows. Stratiform copper mineralization near the top of the lower conglomerates is related to the unroofing of the Jurassic island arc. This mineralization comprises copper sulphide-cemented sands and gravels and formed by the reaction of mineralized detritus with diagenetic and hydrothermal solutions. A later phase of deposition (Lombriz Formation) includes sandstones, siltstones and conglomerates with a source area different from the Coloso Formation. This change in source may be related to strike-slip tectonics as the basin extended. The Lombriz conglomerates pass distally (eastwards) into red sandstones and purple siltstones with thin limestones deposited under marine conditions. This sequence is interpreted as a major fan delta complex. It passes conformably into marine carbonates of the Tableado Formation signifying the complete drowning of the basin in lower Cretaceous times.

  5. Long-Term Changes in Chemical Weathering in the Himalayan Region from Indus Fan Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, S.; Griffith, E. M.; Scher, H.; Dellapenna, T. M.; Clift, P. D.

    2017-12-01

    The Asian Monsoon reflects large-scale interactions between the atmosphere, land, and ocean systems. Increasing our understanding of this system, how and why it has evolved through time, is critically important in order to understand how it may evolve in the future. The radiogenic strontium isotopic signature (87Sr/86Sr) of the clay fraction in deep sea sediment cores within submarine fans has been used as a record of riverine 87Sr/86Sr composition to gain information about Himalayan weathering intensity. Strontium exists in clay minerals primarily in interlayer sites or adsorbed onto mineral surfaces. Interlayer cation exchange is thought to be completed within rivers during recrystallization or neoformation of clays. A record of chemical weathering intensity in the Himalayas is presented by analyzing the 87Sr/86Sr signature of the clay fraction in sediments from International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 355 Sites U1456 and U1457, located on the Indus Fan, eastern Arabian Sea. This record will be coupled with additional records of bulk grain size and K/Al ratios of clay as potentially additional indicators of weathering intensity. The Sr isotopes in the interstitial waters at each site have also been measured (Carter et al., in press) to verify that the Sr in the treated clay fraction is not being reset by diagenesis in the sedimentary column. Initial results verify that the 87Sr/86Sr values of the clay are less than those in the bulk sediment, as expected, but are not similar to pore fluid Sr. 87Sr/86Sr values of the clays show trends suggesting fluctuations in chemical weathering intensity through time. However, bulk grain size and K/Al ratios results conflict with the 87Sr/86Sr values. If the additional proxy records continue to show conflicting results for "weathering intensity", together they may reveal more information regarding the sedimentary system. Ultimately, the various records will either agree, providing strong evidence for changes in

  6. Levitated Duct Fan (LDF) Aircraft Auxiliary Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Emerson, Dawn C.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.

    2011-01-01

    This generator concept includes a novel stator and rotor architecture made from composite material with blades attached to the outer rotating shell of a ducted fan drum rotor, a non-contact support system between the stator and rotor using magnetic fields to provide levitation, and an integrated electromagnetic generation system. The magnetic suspension between the rotor and the stator suspends and supports the rotor within the stator housing using permanent magnets attached to the outer circumference of the drum rotor and passive levitation coils in the stator shell. The magnets are arranged in a Halbach array configuration.

  7. Noise suppressor for turbo fan jet engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D. Y. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A noise suppressor is disclosed for installation on the discharge or aft end of a turbo fan engine. Within the suppressor are fixed annular airfoils which are positioned to reduce the relative velocity between the high temperature fast moving jet exhaust and the low temperature slow moving air surrounding it. Within the suppressor nacelle is an exhaust jet nozzle which constrains the shape of the jet exhaust to a substantially uniform elongate shape irrespective of the power setting of the engine. Fixed ring airfoils within the suppressor nacelle therefore have the same salutary effects irrespective of the power setting at which the engine is operated.

  8. Contemporary sediment-transport processes in submarine canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Pere; Palanques, Albert; Martín, Jacobo

    2014-01-01

    Submarine canyons are morphological incisions into continental margins that act as major conduits of sediment from shallow- to deep-sea regions. However, the exact mechanisms involved in sediment transfer within submarine canyons are still a subject of investigation. Several studies have provided direct information about contemporary sedimentary processes in submarine canyons that suggests different modes of transport and various triggering mechanisms. Storm-induced turbidity currents and enhanced off-shelf advection, hyperpycnal flows and failures of recently deposited fluvial sediments, dense shelf-water cascading, canyon-flank failures, and trawling-induced resuspension largely dominate present-day sediment transfer through canyons. Additionally, internal waves periodically resuspend ephemeral deposits within canyons and contribute to dispersing particles or retaining and accumulating them in specific regions. These transport processes commonly deposit sediments in the upper- and middle-canyon reaches for decades or centuries before being completely or partially flushed farther down-canyon by large sediment failures.

  9. A heuristic solution for the stability problem in conventional submarines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sinclair

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Seafaring vessels must meet a few very obvious conditions in order to be of any use. The one condition is that they should stay afloat when loaded. The other condition is that they should float upright and with a level keel. The technical terms for these conditions are gravitational stability and trim. In practice some very precise numerical values are calculated for certain parameters in order to describe these conditions. After each refit of a submarine, the numerical values for the parameters referred to above must be recalculated. In the conventional submarines used by the South African Navy these new values must then be translated into the physical redistribution of weights housed in bays in the keel of the submarine. This paper discusses the problem of how this redistribution must be done in order to minimise the amount of work necessary. A heuristic algorithm is proposed by means of which a satisfactory redistribution may economically be computed.

  10. Modeling long-runout submarine landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, T.; Sparks, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine landslides are known to travel down very low slopes and for very long distances relative to their elevation drop, indicating a very low frictional resistance between the slide material and sediment bed over which it travels. A number of mechanisms have been suggested for reducing this resistance. We propose that dynamic fluidization caused by rapid compaction of the sediment bed is a plausible cause of this friction drop. We use a grain-scale numerical model that incorporates the interaction between grains and pore fluid to model a small part of a landslide. The model (based on Goren et al. JGR, 2010) uses the discrete element approach to model a 2-D set of interacting grains, coupled with a finite difference model for fluid pressure in a permeable material (with pressures approximated in grid cells 2 to 3 grains across). We create a small set of idealized grains that are acted upon by gravity, grain contact forces and local gradients in fluid pressure; grain rearrangements that cause local porosity changes generate changes in fluid pressure. In a set of simple numerical experiments, we approximate the slide itself as a rapidly translating cohesive block that is just coming into contact with an undercompacted bed of cohesionless grains. As the weight of the block compacts the bed, fluid pressures rise. If the fluid pressure approaches the weight of the overlying slide, the effective resistance to motion drops quickly. Initial results show that total distance the block moves is strongly dependent on the level of pressure increase in the fluid in the top 15 grains of the bed. When pressure increase is large enough the layer becomes transiently fluidized, with frictional resistance dropping to zero. Scaling indicates that this pressure should increase with compaction rate (slide velocity) and the length scale of the slide, and decreases with the mean permeability of the sediments (grain size).

  11. A Review of Quantum Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerade, Jean-Patrick

    2009-12-01

    A succinct history of the Confined Atom problem is presented. The hydrogen atom confined to the centre of an impenetrable sphere counts amongst the exactly soluble problems of physics, alongside much more noted exact solutions such as Black Body Radiation and the free Hydrogen atom in absence of any radiation field. It shares with them the disadvantage of being an idealisation, while at the same time encapsulating in a simple way particular aspects of physical reality. The problem was first formulated by Sommerfeld and Welker [1]—henceforth cited as SW—in connection with the behaviour of atoms at very high pressures, and the solution was published on the occasion of Pauli's 60th birthday celebration. At the time, it seemed that there was not much other connection with physical reality beyond a few simple aspects connected to the properties of atoms in solids, for which more appropriate models were soon developed. Thus, confined atoms attracted little attention until the advent of the metallofullerene, which provided the first example of a confined atom with properties quite closely related to those originally considered by SW. Since then, the problem has received much more attention, and many more new features of quantum confinement, quantum compression, the quantum Faraday cage, electronic reorganisation, cavity resonances, etc have been described, which are relevant to real systems. Also, a number of other situations have been uncovered experimentally to which quantum confinement is relevant. Thus, studies of the confined atom are now more numerous, and have been extended both in terms of the models used and the systems to which they can be applied. Connections to thermodynamics are explored through the properties of a confined two-level atom adapted from Einstein's celebrated model, and issues of dynamical screening of electromagnetic radiation by the confining shell are discussed in connection with the Faraday cage produced by a confining conducting shell

  12. PREFACE: Water in confined geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovere, Mauro

    2004-11-01

    The study of water confined in complex systems in solid or gel phases and/or in contact with macromolecules is relevant to many important processes ranging from industrial applications such as catalysis and soil chemistry, to biological processes such as protein folding or ionic transport in membranes. Thermodynamics, phase behaviour and the molecular mobility of water have been observed to change upon confinement depending on the properties of the substrate. In particular, polar substrates perturb the hydrogen bond network of water, inducing large changes in the properties upon freezing. Understanding how the connected random hydrogen bond network of bulk water is modified when water is confined in small cavities inside a substrate material is very important for studies of stability and the enzymatic activity of proteins, oil recovery or heterogeneous catalysis, where water-substrate interactions play a fundamental role. The modifications of the short-range order in the liquid depend on the nature of the water-substrate interaction, hydrophilic or hydrophobic, as well as on its spatial range and on the geometry of the substrate. Despite extensive study, both experimentally and by computer simulation, there remain a number of open problems. In the many experimental studies of confined water, those performed on water in Vycor are of particular interest for computer simulation and theoretical studies since Vycor is a porous silica glass characterized by a quite sharp distribution of pore sizes and a strong capability to absorb water. It can be considered as a good candidate for studying the general behaviour of water in hydrophilic nanopores. But there there have been a number of studies of water confined in more complex substrates, where the interpretation of experiments and computer simulation is more difficult, such as in zeolites or in aerogels or in contact with membranes. Of the many problems to consider we can mention the study of supercooled water. It is

  13. Gas solubility in hydrophobic confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzar, Alenka; Bratko, Dusan

    2005-12-01

    Measured forces between apolar surfaces in water have often been found to be sensitive to exposure to atmospheric gases despite low gas solubilities in bulk water. This raises questions as to how significant gas adsorption is in hydrophobic confinement, whether it is conducive to water depletion at such surfaces, and ultimately if it can facilitate the liquid-to-gas phase transition in the confinement. Open Ensemble molecular simulations have been used here to determine saturated concentrations of atmospheric gases in water-filled apolar confinements as a function of pore width at varied gas fugacities. For paraffin-like confinements of widths barely exceeding the mechanical instability threshold (spinodal) of the liquid-to-vapor transition of confined water (aqueous film thickness between three and four molecular diameters), mean gas concentrations in the pore were found to exceed the bulk values by a factor of approximately 30 or approximately 15 in cases of N2 and CO2, respectively. At ambient conditions, this does not result in visible changes in the water density profile next to the surfaces. Whereas the barrier to capillary evaporation has been found to decrease in the presence of dissolved gas (Leung, K.; Luzar, A.; and Bratko, D. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2003, 90, 065502), gas concentrations much higher than those observed at normal atmospheric conditions would be needed to produce noticeable changes in the kinetics of capillary evaporation. In simulations, dissolved gas concentrations corresponding to fugacities above approximately 40 bar for N2, or approximately 2 bar for CO2, were required to trigger expulsion of water from a hydrocarbon slit as narrow as 1.4 nm. For nanosized pore widths corresponding to the mechanical instability threshold or above, no significant coupling between adsorption layers at opposing confinement walls was observed. This finding explains the approximately linear increase in gas solubility with inverse confinement width and the

  14. Nuclear submarine utilization. Financial deadlock and search for its output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dovgusha, V.V.; Tikhonov, M.N.

    1995-01-01

    Program of nuclear submarine utilization in the Russian Federation is described. The program provides for complete solution of all problems, connected with nuclear submarine utilization, including reconstruction of ship-repair and ship-cutting plants, metal fabrication plants, construction of points of temporary radioactive waste storages, new burials, as well as required social support of personnel, working under unhealthy conditions. The program is based on guaranteed and sufficient financing from extra-budgetary sources, as well as on new technologies, enabling to utilize all written off ships during 10-15 years

  15. Nuclear submarine prototype post core removal decommissioning and life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.D.; Lyall, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Decommissioning of a nuclear plant normally brings it to the end of its life. This paper describes how the initial decommissioning of a nuclear submarine prototype was undertaken, how it was modified and its useful life extended. The Dounreay Submarine Prototype came to the end of critical operation in 1984. This was followed by defuel, decontamination and modification to convert the plant into a facility for the investigation of loss of coolant accidents. Following completion of this investigation, the plant has been used as a primary coolant pump test facility. (Author)

  16. Simulation of Wave-Plus-Current Scour beneath Submarine Pipelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eltard-Larsen, Bjarke; Fuhrman, David R.; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2016-01-01

    A fully coupled hydrodynamic and morphologic numerical model was utilized for the simulation of wave-plus-current scour beneath submarine pipelines. The model was based on incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations, coupled with k-ω turbulence closure, with additional bed and suspen......A fully coupled hydrodynamic and morphologic numerical model was utilized for the simulation of wave-plus-current scour beneath submarine pipelines. The model was based on incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations, coupled with k-ω turbulence closure, with additional bed...

  17. Case study of French and Spanish fan reception of Game of Thrones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Bourdaa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The reception of the American TV show Game of Thrones (2011– by French and Spanish fans and nonfans is addressed via a qualitative methodology, the goal of which is to understand how European viewers perceive themselves as fans and what it means for them to be fans. Analysis of characteristics of a specifically European reception helps us learn what fan studies tell us about fans and what fans really think about fandoms.

  18. Featured Image: Waves in a Coronal Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-09-01

    The inset in this Solar Dynamics Observatory image shows a close-up view of a stunning coronal fan extending above the Suns atmosphere. These sweeping loops were observed on 7 March 2012 by a number of observatories, revealing the first known evidence of standing slow magnetoacoustic waves in cool coronal fan loops. The oscillations of the loops, studied in a recent article led by Vaibhav Pant (Indian Institute of Astrophysics), were triggered by blast waves that were generated by X-class flares from the distant active region AR 11429 (marked withthe yellow box at left). The overplotted X-ray curve in the top right corner of the image (click for the full view) shows the evolution of the flares that perturbed the footpoints of the loops. You can check out the video of the action below, and follow the link to the original article to read more about what these oscillations tell us about the Suns activity. CitationV. Pant et al 2017 ApJL 847 L5. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa880f

  19. The Retarding Force on a Fan-Cart Reversing Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurora, Tarlok S.; Brunner, Bernard J.

    2011-01-01

    In introductory physics, students learn that an object tossed upward has a constant downward acceleration while going up, at the highest point and while falling down. To demonstrate this concept, a self-propelled fan cart system is used on a frictionless track. A quick push is given to the fan cart and it is allowed to move away on a track under…

  20. Fan Size and Foil Type in Recognition Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Richard T.; And Others

    An experiment involving 20 graduate and undergraduate students (7 males and 13 females) at West Virginia University (Morgantown) assessed "fan network structures" of recognition memory. A fan in network memory structure occurs when several facts are connected into a single node (concept). The more links from that concept to various…

  1. Using Fan Fiction to Teach Critical Reading and Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about fan fiction, which is defined by Jenkins (2008) as "original stories and novels which are set in the fictional universe of favorite television series, films, comics, games or other media properties." Fan fiction generally involves writing stories with a combination of established characters and established…

  2. The performance of a centrifugal fan with enlarged impeller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunxi; Song Lingwang; Jia Yakui

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The influence of impeller enlargement is evaluated numerically and experimentally. → Variation equations of the operation points for enlarged impellers are derived. → Impeller enlargement leads to louder fan noise due to reduced impeller-volute gap. - Abstract: The influence of enlarged impeller in unchanged volute on G4-73 type centrifugal fan performance is investigated in this paper. Comparisons are conducted between the fan with original impeller and two larger impellers with the increments in impeller outlet diameter of 5% and 10% respectively in the numerical and experimental investigations. The internal characteristics are obtained by the numerical simulation, which indicate there is more volute loss in the fan with larger impeller. Experiment results show that the flow rate, total pressure rise, shaft power and sound pressure level have increased, while the efficiency have decreased when the fan operates with larger impeller. Variation equations on the performance of the operation points for the fan with enlarged impellers are suggested. Comparisons between experiment results and the trimming laws show that the trimming laws for usual situation can predict the performance of the enlarged fan impeller with less error for higher flow rate, although the situation of application is not in agreement. The noise frequency analysis shows that higher noise level with the larger impeller fan is caused by the reduced impeller-volute gap.

  3. Motivational variables that influence fan attendance in domestic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is the support of sport fans that underpins the sports industry, where they are in supreme authority and without which the golden core of the game has no currency. ... The motivational measures revealed in the study may be used by sport marketers to develop marketing communication strategies in various aspects of fan ...

  4. Acoustic Measurements of an Uninstalled Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation Fan Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, L. Danielle; Brown, Clifford A.; Shook, Tony D.; Winkel, James; Kolacz, John S.; Podboy, Devin M.; Loew, Raymond A.; Mirecki, Julius H.

    2012-01-01

    Sound pressure measurements were recorded for a prototype of a spacecraft cabin ventilation fan in a test in the NASA Glenn Acoustical Testing Laboratory. The axial fan is approximately 0.089 m (3.50 in.) in diameter and 0.223 m (9.00 in.) long and has nine rotor blades and eleven stator vanes. At design point of 12,000 rpm, the fan was predicted to produce a flow rate of 0.709 cu m/s (150 cfm) and a total pressure rise of 925 Pa (3.72 in. of water) at 12,000 rpm. While the fan was designed to be part of a ducted atmospheric revitalization system, no attempt was made to throttle the flow or simulate the installed configuration during this test. The fan was operated at six speeds from 6,000 to 13,500 rpm. A 13-microphone traversing array was used to collect sound pressure measurements along two horizontal planes parallel to the flow direction, two vertical planes upstream of the fan inlet and two vertical planes downstream of the fan exhaust. Measurements indicate that sound at blade passing frequency harmonics contribute significantly to the overall audible noise produced by the fan at free delivery conditions.

  5. Procedure for Balancing an Air Distribution System with Decentralised Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunner, Amalie; Hultmark, Göran; Vorre, Anders

    2015-01-01

    there is a potential for energy saving. In this study the calculated saving in the power consumption for the main fan was found to be 40%. The results also show that when dampers are replaced with decentralised fans with the same efficiency the overall power saving potential was 16%. In the study a mock-up...

  6. Amateur mythographies: Fan fiction and the myth of myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Willis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on classical scholarship on myth in order to critically examine three ways in which scholars and fans have articulated a relationship between fan fiction and myth. These are (1 the notion of fan fiction as a form of folk culture, reclaiming popular story from corporate ownership; (2 the notion of myth as counterhegemonic, often feminist, discourse; (3 the notion of myth as a commons of story and a universal story world. I argue that the first notion depends on an implicit primitivizing of fan fiction and myth, which draws ultimately on the work of Gottfried von Herder in the 18th century and limits our ability to produce historically and politically nuanced understandings of fan fiction. The second notion, which is visible in the work of Henry Jenkins and Constance Penley, is more helpful because of its attention to the politics of narration. However, it is the third model of myth, as a universal story world, where we find the richest crossover between fan fiction's creative power and contemporary classical scholarship on myth, especially in relation to Sarah Iles Johnston's analysis of hyperserial narrative. I demonstrate this through some close readings of fan fiction from the Greek and Roman Mythology fandom on Archive of Our Own. I conclude the paper by extending Johnston's arguments to show that fan-fictional hyperseriality, specifically, can be seen as mythic because it intervenes not only in the narrative worlds of its source materials but also in the social world of its telling.

  7. Facilitating Attuned Interactions: Using the FAN Approach to Family Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkerson, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Erikson Institute's Fussy Baby Network® (FBN) is a national model prevention program known for its approach to family engagement called the FAN (Gilkerson & Gray, 2014; Gilkerson et al., 2012). The FAN is both a conceptual framework and a practical tool to facilitate attunement in helping relationships and promote reflective practice. This…

  8. Thermodynamics of confined gallium clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrachud, Prachi

    2015-11-11

    We report the results of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of Ga13 and Ga17 clusters confined inside carbon nanotubes with different diameters. The cluster-tube interaction is simulated by the Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential. We discuss the geometries, the nature of the bonding and the thermodynamics under confinement. The geometries as well as the isomer spectra of both the clusters are significantly affected. The degree of confinement decides the dimensionality of the clusters. We observe that a number of low-energy isomers appear under moderate confinement while some isomers seen in the free space disappear. Our finite-temperature simulations bring out interesting aspects, namely that the heat capacity curve is flat, even though the ground state is symmetric. Such a flat nature indicates that the phase change is continuous. This effect is due to the restricted phase space available to the system. These observations are supported by the mean square displacement of individual atoms, which are significantly smaller than in free space. The nature of the bonding is found to be approximately jellium-like. Finally we note the relevance of the work to the problem of single file diffusion for the case of the highest confinement.

  9. High Explosive Detonation–Confiner Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Mark; Quirk, James J.

    2018-01-01

    The primary purpose of a detonation in a high explosive (HE) is to provide the energy to drive a surrounding confiner, typically for mining or munitions applications. The details of the interaction between an HE detonation and its confinement are essential to achieving the objectives of the explosive device. For the high pressures induced by detonation loading, both the solid HE and confiner materials will flow. The structure and speed of a propagating detonation, and ultimately the pressures generated in the reaction zone to drive the confiner, depend on the induced flow both within the confiner and along the HE–confiner material interface. The detonation–confiner interactions are heavily influenced by the material properties and, in some cases, the thickness of the confiner. This review discusses the use of oblique shock polar analysis as a means of characterizing the possible range of detonation–confiner interactions. Computations that reveal the fluid mechanics of HE detonation–confiner interactions for finite reaction-zone length detonations are discussed and compared with the polar analysis. This includes cases of supersonic confiner flow; subsonic, shock-driven confiner flow; subsonic, but shockless confiner flow; and sonic flow at the intersection of the detonation shock and confiner material interface. We also summarize recent developments, including the effects of geometry and porous material confinement, on detonation–confiner interactions.

  10. c-fans and Newton polyhedra of algebraic varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarnovskii, B Ya

    2003-01-01

    To every algebraic subvariety of a complex torus there corresponds a Euclidean geometric object called a c-fan. This correspondence determines an intersection theory for algebraic varieties. c-fans form a graded commutative algebra with visually defined operations. The c-fans of algebraic varieties lie in the subring of rational c-fans. It seems that other subrings may be used to construct an intersection theory for other categories of analytic varieties. We discover a relation between an old problem in the theory of convex bodies (the so-called Minkowski problem) and the ring of c-fans. This enables us to define a correspondence that sends any algebraic curve to a convex polyhedron in the space of characters of the torus

  11. Sports Fans, Alcohol Use, and Violent Behavior: A Sociological Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowsky, Michael K

    2016-08-31

    This review makes four contributions to the sociological study of sports fans, alcohol use, and violent behavior. First, this article focuses explicitly on the relationship between alcohol use and violent behavior among sports fans. This is a worldwide social problem, yet it is quite understudied. Second, this article synthesizes the fragmented literature on alcohol use and violent behavior among sports fans. Third, this article identifies four broad sets of risk factors-sociocultural, event/venue, police, and crowd-that appear to be closely related to violent behavior among sports fans. Finally, to help explain the possible correlation between alcohol and violence among sports fans, this article draws upon the key understandings from the literature on alcohol and violence in wider society. The article concludes with suggestions for future research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Costs and benefits of energy efficiency improvements in ceiling fans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Nihar; Sathaye, Nakul; Phadke, Amol; Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technology Division

    2013-10-15

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, especially in developing countries with warm climates. The paper provides analysis of costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans to assess the global potential for electricity savings and green house gas (GHG) emission reductions. Ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terawatt hours per year could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize potential savings.

  13. The association between submarine service and multimorbidity: a cross-sectional study of Korean naval personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jihun; Song, Yun-Mi

    2017-09-24

    We aimed to estimate the prevalence of multimorbidity (≥2 chronic health problems) among Korean submariners and to evaluate the association between submarine service and multimorbidity and disease burden. This cross-sectional study included 590 naval personnel who visited a Korean primary care clinic during 2014-2015. Data regarding general characteristics and morbidities were collected from medical records, and disease burden was assessed using the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between submarine service and multimorbidity and disease burden. The prevalence of multimorbidity was 11.7% among 180 non-submariners and 32.2% among 410 submariners. The prevalence of multimorbidity and the CIRS scores gradually increased with age. Submarine service was associated with higher risk of multimorbidity and disease burden compared with non-submarine service even after adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, smoking status and naval rank. However, a dose-response relationship was not evident between the duration of submarine service and the risk of multimorbidity as well as high disease burden. Submarine service was significantly associated with a higher risk of multimorbidity and greater disease burden than non-submarine service. This finding suggests that multidimensional and holistic healthcare approaches are needed for submariners. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Correlations In Confined Quantum Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufty, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    This is the final report for the project 'Correlations in Confined Quantum Plasmas', NSF-DOE Partnership Grant DE FG02 07ER54946, 8/1/2007 - 7/30/2010. The research was performed in collaboration with a group at Christian Albrechts University (CAU), Kiel, Germany. That collaboration, almost 15 years old, was formalized during the past four years under this NSF-DOE Partnership Grant to support graduate students at the two institutions and to facilitate frequent exchange visits. The research was focused on exploring the frontiers of charged particle physics evolving from new experimental access to unusual states associated with confinement. Particular attention was paid to combined effects of quantum mechanics and confinement. A suite of analytical and numerical tools tailored to the specific inquiry has been developed and employed

  15. Life, death and revival of debris-flow fans on Earth and Mars : fan dynamics and climatic inferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374023190

    2016-01-01

    Alluvial fans are ubiquitous landforms in high-relief regions on Earth and Mars. They have a semi-conical shape and are located at the transition between highlands and adjacent basins. Alluvial fans can form by a range of processes including debris flows, which are water-laden masses of soil and

  16. Hermitian relativity, chromodynamics and confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treder, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    The extension of the Riemann metrics of General Relativity to the complex domain (substitution of the symmetry conditions for the fundamental tensor, the affinity and the Ricci curvature by the conditions of hermicity) leads to a 'Generalized Theory of Gravity' (Einstein) describing the Newton-Einstein gravodynamics combined with the chromodynamics of quarks. The interaction of gravodynamics and chromodynamics implied by the Einstein-Schroedinger field equations of the hermitian relativity theory enforces the 'confinement'. The 'confinement' prevents the gravitational potential from divergence which would result in the lack of a Riemann space-time metric

  17. Hermitian relativity, chromodynamics and confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treder, H.J. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Potsdam-Babelsberg. Einstein-Laboratorium fuer Theoretische Physik)

    1983-01-01

    The extension of the Riemann metrics of General Relativity to the complex domain (substitution of the symmetry conditions for the fundamental tensor, the affinity and the Ricci curvature by the conditions of hermicity) leads to a 'Generalized Theory of Gravity' (Einstein) describing the Newton-Einstein gravodynamics combined with the chromodynamics of quarks. The interaction of gravodynamics and chromodynamics implied by the Einstein-Schroedinger field equations of the hermitian relativity theory enforces the 'confinement'. The 'confinement' prevents the gravitational potential from divergence which would result in the lack of a Riemann space-time metric.

  18. Some aspects of geometrical confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novello, M.; De Lorenci, V.A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Elbaz, E. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    1998-04-01

    In this paper we present a toy model for the dynamics of a gauge field theory in such way that spin-one particles can be confined in a compact domain. We show that the property of confinement can be associated to the formation of a null surface identified to a horizon. This is due to the presence of an effective geometry generated by the self-interaction of the gauge field that guides the wave propagation of the field. This phenomenon has a striking analogy to the gravitational black hole in Einstein general theory of relativity, separating two domains of spacetime that can be trespassed only into one direction. (author) 4 refs.

  19. Morphodynamics of submarine channel inception revealed by new experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, J.; Eggenhuisen, J.T.; Cartigny, M.J.B.

    2016-01-01

    Submarine channels are ubiquitous on the seafloor and their inception and evolution is a result of dynamic interaction between turbidity currents and the evolving seafloor. However, the morphodynamic links between channel inception and flow dynamics have not yet been monitored in experiments and

  20. A submarine volcanic eruption leads to a novel microbial habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovaro, Roberto; Canals, Miquel; Tangherlini, Michael; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Gambi, Cristina; Lastras, Galderic; Amblas, David; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Frigola, Jaime; Calafat, Antoni M; Pedrosa-Pàmies, Rut; Rivera, Jesus; Rayo, Xavier; Corinaldesi, Cinzia

    2017-04-24

    Submarine volcanic eruptions are major catastrophic events that allow investigation of the colonization mechanisms of newly formed seabed. We explored the seafloor after the eruption of the Tagoro submarine volcano off El Hierro Island, Canary Archipelago. Near the summit of the volcanic cone, at about 130 m depth, we found massive mats of long, white filaments that we named Venus's hair. Microscopic and molecular analyses revealed that these filaments are made of bacterial trichomes enveloped within a sheath and colonized by epibiotic bacteria. Metagenomic analyses of the filaments identified a new genus and species of the order Thiotrichales, Thiolava veneris. Venus's hair shows an unprecedented array of metabolic pathways, spanning from the exploitation of organic and inorganic carbon released by volcanic degassing to the uptake of sulfur and nitrogen compounds. This unique metabolic plasticity provides key competitive advantages for the colonization of the new habitat created by the submarine eruption. A specialized and highly diverse food web thrives on the complex three-dimensional habitat formed by these microorganisms, providing evidence that Venus's hair can drive the restart of biological systems after submarine volcanic eruptions.

  1. Sedimentary characteristics of samples collected from some submarine canyons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Arnold H.

    Oriented rectangular cores of 20.3 × 30.5 cm and 45.7 cm high have been collected in a number of submarine canyons off southern California (U.S.A.) and off the southern tip of Baja California (Mexico) for a detailed study of their sedimentary structures. By applying several methods, mainly X-ray

  2. The brazilian nuclear submarine dossier: Navy's priority and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.P.

    1990-01-01

    This work discusses the feasibility of the brazilian nuclear submarine. It is related to navy's remodeling and is considered as a priority. It would bring Brazil closer to developed countries. It considers the slip, itself, the weapon's system as well as the nuclear propulsion. (author)

  3. Operational Planning for Theater Anti-Submarine Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Marina, I will truly miss sitting in class with you guys wondering what a basis is. Finally, to my dog, Dougie: thank you for not eating my homework...probability of detection required by a commander to comfortably state that a mission area is likely to be clear of any enemy submarines. Given the

  4. Anti-submarine warfare with continuously active sonar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, R. van; Beerens, S.P.; Spek, E. van der

    2011-01-01

    Existing surveillance sonar systems for anti-submarine warfare (ASW) use a pulsed sonar deployed at a low duty cycle. Continuously active sonar (CAS) is of special interest since the technique could provide better detection performance than conventional pulsed sonar, and it will provide the operator

  5. Dissolved Nutrients from Submarine Groundwater in Flic en Flac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—The aim of this study was to investigate dissolved nutrients in a submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in Flic en Flac lagoon on the west coast of the volcanic island of Mauritius. The SGD enters Flic en Flac lagoon through a thin blanket of unconsolidated sediment through a fracture system and is concentrated ...

  6. Non-linearity aspects in the design of submarine pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    An arbitrary attempt has been made to classify and discuss some non-linearity aspects related to design, construction and operation of submarine pipelines. Non-linearities usually interrelate and take part of a comprehensive design, making difficult to quantify their individual influence or

  7. Sustaining U.S. Nuclear Submarine Design Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    design. The great majority of firms indicated that they already had sufficient staff to meet the peak design demand from a new submarine program...is complete that would also need to be mitigated. We felt that this option would be appropriate only for suppliers with peak design demands greater

  8. Increasing the Mission Capability of the Attack Submarine Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Labs, Eric

    2002-01-01

    Today's U.S. Navy fleet includes 54 attack submarines (SSNs). In 1999, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff released a study concluding that the Navy would need 68 SSNs by 2015 and 76 by 2025 to carry out critical peacetime missions...

  9. The Ebro Deep-Sea Fan system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C.H.; Maldonado, A.; Coumes, F.; Got, H.; Manaco, A.

    1984-01-01

    The Ebro Fan System consists of en echelon channel-levee complexes, 50??20 km in area and 200-m thick. A few strong reflectors in a generally transparent seismic facies identify the sand-rich channel floors and levee crests. Numerous continuous acoustic reflectors characterize overbank turbidites and hemipelagites that blanket abandoned channel-levee complexes. The interlobe areas between channel complexes fill with homogeneous mud and sand from mass flow and overbank deposition; these exhibit a transparent seismic character. The steep continental rise and sediment 'drainage' of Valencia Trough at the end of the channel-levee complexes prevent the development of distributary channels and midfan lobe deposits. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  10. FOD impact testing of composite fan blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    The results of impact tests on large, fiber composite fan blades for aircraft turbofan engine applications are discussed. Solid composite blades of two different sizes and designs were tested. Both graphite/epoxy and boron/epoxy were evaluated. In addition, a spar-shell blade design was tested that had a boron/epoxy shell bonded to a titanium spar. All blades were tested one at a time in a rotating arm rig to simulate engine operating conditions. Impacting media included small gravel, two inch diameter ice balls, gelatin, and RTV foam-simulated birds, as well as starlings and pigeons. The results showed little difference in performance between the graphite and boron/epoxy blades. The results also indicate that composite blades may be able to tolerate ice ball and small bird impacts but need improvement to tolerate birds in the small duck and larger category.

  11. Impact testing on composite fan blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    The results of impact tests on large, fiber composite fan blades for aircraft turbofan engine applications are discussed. Solid composite blades of two different sizes and designs were tested. Both graphite/epoxy and boron/epoxy were evaluated. In addition, a spar-shell blade design was tested that had a boron/epoxy shell bonded to a titanium spar. All blades were tested one at a time in a rotating arm rig to simulate engine operating conditions. Impacting media included small gravel, two inch diameter ice balls, gelatin and RTV foam-simulated birds, as well as starlings and pigeons. The results showed little difference in performance between the graphite and boron/epoxy blades. The results also indicate that composite blades may be able to tolerate ice ball and small bird impacts but need improvement to tolerate birds in the small duck and larger category.

  12. Titan Submarine: Exploring The Depths of Kraken Mare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Paul, Michael V.

    2015-01-01

    The conceptual design of a submarine for Saturn's moon Titan was a funded NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase I for 2014. The effort investigated what science a submarine for Titan's liquid hydrocarbon approximately 93 Kelvin (-180 degrees Centigrade) seas might accomplish and what that submarine might look like. Focusing on a flagship class science system (approximately100 kilograms) it was found that a submersible platform can accomplish extensive and exciting science both above and below the surface of the Kraken Mare The submerged science includes mapping using side looking sonar, imaging and spectroscopy of the sea at all depths, as well as sampling of the sea's bottom and shallow shoreline. While surfaced the submarine will not only sense weather conditions (including the interaction between the liquid and atmosphere) but also image the shoreline, as much as 2 kilometers inland. This imaging requirement pushed the landing date to Titan's next summer period (approximately 2047) to allow for continuous lighted conditions, as well as direct-to-Earth (DTE) communication, avoiding the need for a separate relay orbiter spacecraft. Submerged and surfaced investigation are key to understanding both the hydrological cycle of Titan as well as gather hints to how life may have begun on Earth using liquid/sediment/chemical interactions. An estimated 25 megabits of data per day would be generated by the various science packages. Most of the science packages (electronics at least) can be safely kept inside the submarine pressure vessel and warmed by the isotope power system. This paper discusses the results of Phase I as well as the plans for Phase II.

  13. Exploring the submarine Graham Bank in the Sicily Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Coltelli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Sicily Channel, volcanic activity has been concentrated mainly on the Pantelleria and Linosa islands, while minor submarine volcanism took place in the Adventure, Graham and Nameless banks. The volcanic activity spanned mostly during Plio-Pleistocene, however, historical submarine eruptions occurred in 1831 on the Graham Bank and in 1891 offshore Pantelleria Island. On the Graham Bank, 25 miles SW of Sciacca, the 1831 eruption formed the short-lived Ferdinandea Island that represents the only Italian volcano active in historical times currently almost completely unknown and not yet monitored. Moreover, most of the Sicily Channel seismicity is concentrated along a broad NS belt extending from the Graham Bank to Lampedusa Island. In 2012, the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV carried out a multidisciplinary oceanographic cruise, named “Ferdinandea 2012”, the preliminary results of which represent the aim of this paper. The cruise goal was the mapping of the morpho-structural features of some submarine volcanic centres located in the northwestern side of the Sicily Channel and the temporary recording of their seismic and degassing activity. During the cruise, three OBS/Hs (ocean bottom seismometer with hydrophone were deployed near the Graham, Nerita and Terribile submarine banks. During the following 9 months they have recorded several seismo-acoustic signals produced by both tectonic and volcanic sources. A high-resolution bathymetric survey was achieved on the Graham Bank and on the surrounding submarine volcanic centres. A widespread and voluminous gas bubbles emission was observed by both multibeam sonar echoes and a ROV (remotely operated vehicle along the NW side of the Graham Bank, where gas and seafloor samples were also collected.

  14. New Mapping of Mariana Submarine Volcanoes with Sidescan and Multibeam Sonars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embley, R. W.; Chadwick, W. W.; Baker, E. T.; Johnson, P. D.; Merle, S. G.; Ristau, S.

    2003-12-01

    aprons of the islands and larger submarine volcanoes, sediment waves with wavelengths of up to 1.0 km and amplitudes up to 50 m commonly occur. Their crests are almost always oriented parallel to regional contours, indicating a formation mechanism related to down slope flow. In some places clear transitions occur between mass flows on the volcanoes' steeper flanks and the sediment waves on the gentler slopes of the apron. A preliminary interpretation is the sediment waves form during the transition from channelized to unconstrained flows. Sediment waves of similar scale are commonly observed on the levees of deep-sea channels and on deep-sea fans. The location and shape of the arc volcanoes are often controlled or influenced by tectonic control. Within the southern part of the Central Island Province, from about 15\\deg 50' N to 18\\deg 00' N, volcanoes often line up and/or are elongated in an E-W or an E-NE direction. There are several cross-chains of volcanoes in this region that penetrate 10's of kms into the back-arc basin. Along the northern part of the arc (the Northern Seamount Province), where the convergence direction is roughly parallel to the arc front, the structure is more complex. Several active volcanoes occur at the intersection of two or more structural lineaments northwest of Farallon de Pajaros Island. There are several volcanoes in the northern area that are narrow ridges striking in a S-SW trend 9 (arc-orthogonal).

  15. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  16. Confining membranes and dimensional reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, Dmitri

    2001-11-01

    The dual theory describing the 4D Coulomb gas of point-like magnetically charged objects, which confines closed electric strings, is considered. The respective generalization of the theory of confining strings to confining membranes is further constructed. The same is done for the analogous SU(3)-inspired model. We then consider a combined model which confines both electric charges and closed strings. Such a model is a mixture of the above-mentioned Coulomb gas with the condensate of the dual Higgs field, where the latter one is described by the dual abelian Higgs model. It is demonstrated that in a certain limit of this dual abelian Higgs model, the system under study undergoes naively the dimensional reduction and becomes described by the (completely integrable) 2D sine-Gordon theory. In particular, at finite temperature, this fact leads to the phase transition of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless type with the respective critical temperature expressed in terms of the parameters of the dual abelian Higgs model. However, it is finally discussed that the dimensional reduction is rigorously valid only in the strong coupling limit of the original 4D Coulomb gas. In such a limit, this reduction transforms the combined model into the 2D free bosonic theory.

  17. On the implications of confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors consider some implications of confinement starting from the basic observation that cross-sections for the production of colored asymptotic states, such as free quarks and gluons, from color singlet initial states must be zero if QCD is to be confining. The authors discuss two pictures of confinement: the failure of the cluster decomposition property and the absence of a pole at timelike momenta in the propagator of a confined particle. The authors use QCD-based models as a framework to relate the failure of the cluster decomposition property to other ideas, such as the role of a nonzero gluon condensate. The authors' primary interest is to address the question of the absence of a mass pole through a study of model Schwinger-Dyson equations. These equations contain some of the dynamical information that is present in the study of the cluster decomposition property. The authors discuss the problems within this idea and its study using the Schwinger-Dyson equations

  18. Turbulent jet in confined counterflow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The mean flowfield of a turbulent jet issuing into a confined, uniform counterflow was investigated computationally. Based on dimensional analysis, the jet penetration length was shown to scale with jet-to-counterflow momentum flux ratio. This scaling and the computational results reproduce the well-known correct ...

  19. Is confinement the ultimate truth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirrring, W.

    1980-01-01

    This seminar discusses a field theory which leads to a r-potential and therefore to a confinement. By comparison to the instability due to a resonance phenomenon, the author concentrates on the theory's ghost problem and concludes that for some couplings this does not occur and the theory behaves reasonably

  20. Turbulent jet in confined counterflow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mean flowfield of a turbulent jet issuing into a confined, uniform counterflow was investigated computationally. Based on dimensional analysis, the jet penetration length was shown to scale with jet-to-counterflow momentum flux ratio. This scaling and the computational results reproduce the well-known correct limit of ...

  1. Fans of Columbine shooters Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ryan Rico

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available On April 20, 1999, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold murdered 12 students and one teacher at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, in what was then the deadliest school shooting in American history. Despite causing a national panic and serving as a flash point for larger narratives on bullying, gun control, and media violence, both boys have gained active online fans. These fandoms dedicated to the Columbine shooters are widely referred to as dark examples of Internet communities, while the fans are also frequently denigrated as unstable and violent outcasts. Such dark online fandoms are yet to permeate mainstream culture or to challenge the preexisting perception of these communities as breeding grounds for the next wave of school shooters. While studies have covered the types of fans and their myriad interests, the field remains focused on more conventional examples of fan communities. In an effort to challenge and expand the object of focus when we study fandom, this qualitative study examines Columbine fans and their activity in order to understand the dominant motives they appear to have for engaging with and around such controversial figures and then concludes by exploring how this community might help us reflect more broadly on our concept of fandom. Redeeming these fans as part of diverse and complex communities of social relevance can demonstrate how even a dark fandom such as that of these Columbine shooters provides valuable cultural insights and benefits the field of fan studies.

  2. Soap operas and the history of fan discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Ford

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available For decades, fans of U.S. soap operas have formed social networks surrounding their shows, and they did so even before the concept entered the vernacular. Soap fans, who started on a geographically local scale and built their communities through grassroots efforts, have found a variety of venues to connect with one another over the past several decades. This study looks at the pre-Internet development of these social networks to show how that trajectory relates to the current online community of soap opera fans. Although several scholars have studied soap opera fandom, few have taken an historical approach at understanding the trajectory of soap fandom, a view especially necessary in an era where online social networks are at the center of audience studies and where cornerstone U.S. soap operas are struggling to retain relevance and audience. To fill this gap, I argue that understanding fan networks today requires looking back to previous methods of fan networking. Soaps' longevity (the youngest U.S. soap is more than 20 years old and frequency (all U.S. daytime soaps are daily make them crucial texts in demonstrating how the roots of fan social networks in a pre-Internet era helped shape that fandom's transition onto the Internet, and they also illustrate the continued evolution of these networks as fans move online.

  3. Reactive control of subsonic axial fan noise in a duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Choy, Y S; Huang, L; Cheng, L

    2014-10-01

    Suppressing the ducted fan noise at low frequencies without varying the flow capacity is still a technical challenge. This study examines a conceived device consisting of two tensioned membranes backed with cavities housing the axial fan for suppression of the sound radiation from the axial fan directly. The noise suppression is achieved by destructive interference between the sound fields from the axial fan of a dipole nature and sound radiation from the membrane via vibroacoustics coupling. A two-dimensional model with the flow effect is presented which allows the performance of the device to be explored analytically. The air flow influences the symmetrical behavior and excites the odd in vacuo mode response of the membrane due to kinematic coupling. Such an asymmetrical effect can be compromised with off-center alignment of the axial fan. Tension plays an important role to sustain the performance to revoke the deformation of the membrane during the axial fan operation. With the design of four appropriately tensioned membranes covered by a cylindrical cavity, the first and second blade passage frequencies of the axial fan can be reduced by at least 20 dB. The satisfactory agreement between experiment and theory demonstrates that its feasibility is practical.

  4. K-pop Reception and Participatory Fan Culture in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Yeon Sung

    2013-01-01

    K-pop’s popularity and its participatory fan culture have expanded beyond Asia and become significant in Europe in the past few years. After South Korean pop singer Psy’s “Gangnam Style” music video topped the Austrian chart in October 2012, the number and size of K-pop events in Austria sharply increased, with fans organizing various participatory events, including K-pop auditions, dance festivals, club meetings, quiz competitions, dance workshops, and smaller fan-culture gatherings. In the ...

  5. Design of flood protection for transportation alignments on alluvial fans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    The method of floodplain delineation on alluvial fans developed for the national flood insurance program is modified to provide estimates of peak flood flows at transportation alignments crossing an alluvial fan. The modified methodology divides the total alignment length into drainage design segments and estimates the peak flows that drainage structures would be required to convey as a function of the length of the drainage design segment, the return period of the event, and the location of the alignment on the alluvial fan. An example of the application of the methodology is provided. 16 refs., 5 figs

  6. Radon concentration in the springs of the alluvial fan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Kimiko; Ishii, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Rokugo alluvial fan is one of the typical stratified alluvial fans which have grown in the east edge of Yokote basin in Akita Prefecture. Many of Rokugo's springs are gushing out from 45 m to 50 m above the sea level where city town have been developed. Mechanism of gushing out of spring is closely bound up with the landform of this area. There is nearly no radon existing in the surface water, but in groundwater, radon concentrations are stable in every stratums and infiltration of groundwater to surface water. We would like to obtain some hydrological information by measuring radon concentration in water samples of Rokugo alluvial fan. (author)

  7. Multiple view fan beam polarimetry on Tokamak devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geck, W.R.; Domier, C.W.; Luhmann, N.C.

    1997-01-01

    A polarimeter diagnostic is under development which utilizes several fan beams to accumulate line integrated Faraday rotation data in a Tokamak plasma. The utilization of a fan beam configuration over that of conventional vertical view polarimeter systems significantly reduces access requirements. The high angular separation inherent in a fan beam implementation increases plasma coverage and eliminates the necessity of assumed plasma symmetries to generate high quality current density profiles. Codes have been developed to generate these high-resolution two-dimensional images of the plasma current profile from data collected at arbitrary positions and viewing angles. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  8. Large Fluvial Fans: Aspects of the Attribute Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Justin M.

    2015-01-01

    In arguing for a strict definition of the alluvial fan (coarse-grained with radii less than10 km, in mountain-front settings), Blair and McPherson (1994) proposed that there is no meaningful difference between large fluvial fans (LFF) and floodplains, because the building blocks of both are channel-levee-overbank deposits. Sediment bodies at the LFF scale (greater than 100 km long, fan-shaped in planform), are relatively unstudied although greater than 160 are now identified globally. The following perspectives suggest that the significance of LFF needs to be reconsidered.

  9. The Star Wars franchise, fan edits, and Lucasfilm [symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forrest Phillips

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fan edits assert that fan authority is on par with that of a work's original creator; this authority is generated not only through the argument, but through the structure of the text itself. Fan edits adhere to classical filmmaking techniques, creating coherent plots and editing for continuity. These recut texts are emblematic of current ownership debates; they are the read/write culture brought to fandom. The Star Wars series of films are among the most frequently recut texts and are my focus here.

  10. Channel systems and lobe construction in the Mississippi Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, L. E.; Kenyon, Neil H.; Bouma, A.H.

    1982-01-01

    Morphological features on the Mississippi Fan in the eastern Gulf of Mexico were mapped using GLORIA II, a long-range side-scan sonar system. Prominent is a sinuous channel flanked by well-developed levees and occasional crevasse splays. The channel follows the axis and thickest part of the youngest fan lobe; seismic-reflection profiles offer evidence that its course has remained essentially constant throughout lobe development. Local modification and possible erosion of levees by currents indicates a present state of inactivity. Superficial sliding has affected part of the fan lobe, but does not appear to have been a factor in lobe construction. ?? 1982 A. M. Dowden, Inc.

  11. Gender constructions and negotiations of female football fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2015-01-01

    While both the media and the academic literature focus primarily on male fans, in particular on violence and the prevention of hooliganism, little is known about female football supporters. This is also true of Denmark, a country that is known for its high degree of gender equality. This article...... aims to give insight into gender constructions and negotiations of female football fans in the stands. Drawing on a social constructivist perspective to gender and Bourdieu's (1984) approaches to field, capital and habitus, we explored the experiences and opinions of female fans. The methods employed...

  12. A Preliminary Hydrochemical and Isotopic Study of Submarine Fresh Water in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, Z.I.; Kazpard, V.

    2007-01-01

    The karstic aquifer system and the submarine springs in the Lebanese coast have been studied using chemical and isotopic methods in order to determine the different facies for submarine and groundwater springs. Chemical analysis showed that most submarine springs were derived from a Cenomanian - Turonian aquifer with a large influence for the bedrock type including calcite and dolomite. Different physical and chemical characteristics were obtained for some submarine samples located in the southern coast that showed high sulfate content. Isotopic data for δ1 8O / δ2 H showed that coastal freshwater are closer to the Mediterranean Meteoric Waterline (MMWL) than the submarine data. Submarine samples located in the southern part lied under the Global Meteoric Water Line indicating different characteristics from the fresh sources. The calculated percentage of freshwater in the submarine samples range from 10 to 96%, the highest percentage for M8 in Chekka region. Tritium values of submarine samples (ranging from 0.75 to 3.77 TU) were found comparable to the coastal freshwater samples (0.69 to 4.83 TU). Water are divided into two distinct groups: young meteoric water primarily the coastal freshwater and the submarine sample in Chekka region, and older water corresponding to other submarine samples.

  13. Surface motion and confinement potential for a microwave confined corona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensley, D.L.

    1979-07-01

    Approximate time dependent solutions for surface velocities and potentials are given for a plane polarized microwave field confining a hot, over-dense plasma corona. Steady state solutions to Poissons' equation can be applied to the time dependent case, provided transit time effects are included. The product of ion pressure and potential wave (surface) velocity gives an average heating rate approx. 7/32 NKT 0 V/sub theta/ directly to the ions

  14. 30 CFR 77.212 - Draw-off tunnel ventilation fans; installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Draw-off tunnel ventilation fans; installation... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.212 Draw-off tunnel ventilation fans; installation. When fans are used to ventilate draw-off tunnels the fans shall be: (a) Installed on the surface; (b...

  15. 78 FR 19606 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnace Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... Procedures for Residential Furnace Fans AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department... referred to as ``furnace fans.'' DOE proposes a test procedure that would be applicable to furnace fans..., even though DOE interprets its authority as encompassing more than just circulation fans used in...

  16. Representation of American versus non-American fans in Baillie Walsh's Springsteen & I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the representation of American versus non-American fans in Baillie Walsh's 2013 crowd/fan-sourced documentary Springsteen & I. The film—as much as it was fed by a wide and international range of fan-produced material—ultimately produced and presented one particular type of fan

  17. 14 CFR 33.27 - Turbine, compressor, fan, and turbosupercharger rotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbine, compressor, fan, and... Turbine, compressor, fan, and turbosupercharger rotors. (a) Turbine, compressor, fan, and... affect turbine, compressor, fan, and turbosupercharger rotor structural integrity will not be exceeded in...

  18. Conceptual design studies of a V/STOL civil lift fan transport including effect of size and fan pressure ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual design studies of V/STOL Lift Fan Commercial short-haul transport aircraft for the 1980-85 time period were studied to determine their technical and economic feasibility. The remote lift fan configurations with a variation in fan pressure ratio from 1.2 to 1.5 were investigated. Also studied were variation in stage length from 200 nautical miles to 800 nautical miles and cruise Mach numbers of 0.75 and 0.85. These results indicate a four engine configuration was feasible. The 95 PNdb noise footprint would be approximately 45 acres and the DOC's would be about 60% greater than conventional transports.

  19. Heat sends wimbledon fans to a&e.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-07

    Emergency nurses at the south London hospital that serves Wimbledon treated an influx of tennis fans suffering the effects of heatstroke last week. St George's in Tooting reported that the numbers were up on previous years.

  20. Pathological effects of cyanobacteria on sea fans in southeast Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryu, Y; Landsberg, J H; Peters, E C; Tichenor, E; Burleson, C; Perry, N

    2015-07-01

    In early August 2008, observations by divers indicated that sea fans, particularly Gorgonia ventalina, Gorgonia flabellum, and Iciligorgia schrammi, were being covered by benthic filamentous cyanobacteria. From August 2008 through January 2009 and again in April 2009, tissue samples from a targeted G. ventalina colony affected by cyanobacteria and from a nearby, apparently healthy (without cyanobacteria) control colony, were collected monthly for histopathological examination. The primary cellular response of the sea fan to overgrowth by cyanobacteria was an increase in the number of acidophilic amoebocytes (with their granular contents dispersed) that were scattered throughout the coenenchyme tissue. Necrosis of scleroblasts and zooxanthellae and infiltration of degranulated amoebocytes were observed in the sea fan surface tissues at sites overgrown with cyanobacteria. Fungal hyphae in the axial skeleton were qualitatively more prominent in cyanobacteria-affected sea fans than in controls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Quiet, High-Efficiency Vaneaxial Fans, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this Phase I effort, CRG proposes to demonstrate the ability to significantly reduce the acoustic signature of vaneaxial fans by establishing quiet...

  2. Acceptance test procedure MICON software exhaust fan control modifications; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SILVAN, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    This acceptance test verifies the MICON program changes for the new automatic transfer switch ATS-2 alarms, the Closed Loop Cooling isolator status, the CB-3 position alarm, and the alarms for the new emergency fan damper backup air compressor

  3. Fan fiction, early Greece, and the historicity of canon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahuvia Kahane

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The historicity of canon is considered with an emphasis on contemporary fan fiction and early Greek oral epic traditions. The essay explores the idea of canon by highlighting historical variance, exposing wider conceptual isomorphisms, and formulating a revised notion of canonicity. Based on an analysis of canon in early Greece, the discussion moves away from the idea of canon as a set of valued works and toward canon as a practice of containment in response to inherent states of surplus. This view of canon is applied to the practice of fan fiction, reestablishing the idea of canonicity in fluid production environments within a revised, historically specific understanding in early oral traditions on the one hand and in digital cultures and fan fiction on the other. Several examples of early epigraphic Greek texts embedded in oral environments are analyzed and assessed in terms of their implications for an understanding of fan fiction and its modern contexts.

  4. Autonomous Composite Fan Containment Integrity Monitoring (AUTOCONFIRM) System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New engine fan blade containment structures are being manufactured with advanced composite structures such that they can withstand blade-out events. The use of...

  5. Theory of rheology in confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerov, Artem A; Krüger, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    The viscosity of fluids is generally understood in terms of kinetic mechanisms, i.e., particle collisions, or thermodynamic ones as imposed through structural distortions upon, e.g., applying shear. Often the latter are more relevant, which allows a simpler theoretical description, and, e.g., (damped) Brownian particles can be considered good fluid model systems. We formulate a general theoretical approach for rheology in confinement, based on microscopic equations of motion and classical density functional theory. Specifically, we discuss the viscosity for the case of two parallel walls in relative motion as a function of the wall-to-wall distance, analyzing its relation to the slip length found for a single wall. The previously observed [A. A. Aerov and M. Krüger, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 094701 (2014).] deficiency of inhomogeneous (unphysical) stresses under naive application of shear in confinement is healed when hydrodynamic interactions are included.

  6. Physics of magnetic confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, F.

    2013-06-01

    Fusion is the energy source of the universe. The local conditions in the core of the Sun allow the transfer of mass into energy, which is finally released in the form of radiation. Technical fusion melts deuterons and tritons to helium releasing large amounts of energy per fusion process. Because of the conditions for fusion, which will be deduced, the fusion fuel is in the plasma state. Here we report on the confinement of fusion plasmas by magnetic fields. Different confinement concepts — tokamaks and stellarators — will be introduced and described. The first fusion reactor, ITER, and the most modern stellarator, Wendelstein 7-X, are under construction. Their basic features and objectives will be presented.

  7. Physics of magnetic confinement fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fusion is the energy source of the universe. The local conditions in the core of the Sun allow the transfer of mass into energy, which is finally released in the form of radiation. Technical fusion melts deuterons and tritons to helium releasing large amounts of energy per fusion process. Because of the conditions for fusion, which will be deduced, the fusion fuel is in the plasma state. Here we report on the confinement of fusion plasmas by magnetic fields. Different confinement concepts — tokamaks and stellarators — will be introduced and described. The first fusion reactor, ITER, and the most modern stellarator, Wendelstein 7-X, are under construction. Their basic features and objectives will be presented.

  8. Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebel, R.A.; Turner, L.; Tiouririne, T.N.; Barnes, D.C.; Nystrom, W.D.; Bussard, R.W.; Miley, G.H.; Javedani, J.; Yamamoto, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) is one of the earliest plasma confinement concepts, having first been suggested by P. T. Farnsworth in the 1950s. The concept involves a simple apparatus of concentric spherical electrostatic grids or a combination of grids and magnetic fields. An electrostatic structure is formed from the confluence of electron or ion beams. Gridded IEC systems have demonstrated neutron yields as high as 2 * 10 10 neutrons/sec. These systems have considerable potential as small, inexpensive, portable neutron sources for assaying applications. Neutron tomography is also a potential application. Atomic physics effects strongly influence the performance of all of these systems. Important atomic effects include elastic scattering, ionization, excitation, and charge exchange. This paper discusses how an IEC system is influenced by these effects and how to design around them. Theoretical modeling and experimental results are presented

  9. Confinement and diffusion in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliams, R.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of electric field fluctuations on confinement and diffusion in tokamak is discussed. Based on the experimentally determined cross-field turbolent diffusion coefficient, D∼3.7*cT e /eB(δn i /n i ) rms which is also derived by a simple theory, the cross-field diffusion time, tp=a 2 /D, is calculated and compared to experimental results from 51 tokamak for standard Ohmic operation

  10. Conceptual design studies of lift/cruise fans for military transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    A study program for conceptual design studies of remote lift and lift/cruise fan systems to meet the requirements of military V/STOL aircraft was conducted. Parametric performance and design data are presented for fans covering a range of pressure ratios, including both single and two stage fan concepts. The gas generator selected for these fan systems was the J101-GE-100 engine. Noise generation and transient response were determined for selected fan systems.

  11. Should electric fans be used during a heat wave?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Ollie; Cramer, Matthew N; Ravanelli, Nicholas M; Hodder, Simon G

    2015-01-01

    Heat waves continue to claim lives, with the elderly and poor at greatest risk. A simple and cost-effective intervention is an electric fan, but public health agencies warn against their use despite no evidence refuting their efficacy in heat waves. A conceptual human heat balance model can be used to estimate the evaporative requirement for heat balance, the potential for evaporative heat loss from the skin, and the predicted sweat rate, with and without an electrical fan during heat wave conditions. Using criteria defined by the literature, it is clear that fans increase the predicted critical environmental limits for both the physiological compensation of endogenous/exogenous heat, and the onset of cardiovascular strain by an air temperature of ∼3-4 °C, irrespective of relative humidity (RH) for the young and elderly. Even above these critical limits, fans would apparently still provide marginal benefits at air temperatures as high as 51.1 °C at 10%RH for young adults and 48.1 °C at 10%RH for the elderly. Previous concerns that dehydration would be exacerbated with fan use do not seem likely, except under very hot (>40 °C) and dry (fans by a minor amount (∼20-30 mL/h). Relative to the peak outdoor environmental conditions reported during ten of the most severe heat waves in recent history, fan use would be advisable in all of these situations, even when reducing the predicted maximum sweat output for the elderly. The protective benefit of fans appears to be underestimated by current guidelines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Soap operas and the history of fan discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Sam Ford

    2008-01-01

    For decades, fans of U.S. soap operas have formed social networks surrounding their shows, and they did so even before the concept entered the vernacular. Soap fans, who started on a geographically local scale and built their communities through grassroots efforts, have found a variety of venues to connect with one another over the past several decades. This study looks at the pre-Internet development of these social networks to show how that trajectory relates to the current online community...

  13. Design and Construction of a Remote Controlled Fan Regulator

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmud Shehu AHMED; Abubakar Sadiq MOHAMMED; Temitope George ONIMOLE; Paul Obafemi ATTAH

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a simple design and implementation of a remote controlled fan regulator. It enables the user to operate a fan regulator from approximately 10 meters away. The remote transmits a tone using an infrared light-emitting diode. This tone is decoded by a receiver, since the receiver only switches when the tone is received. The system was broken down into simpler functional blocks namely; infra-red transmitter, infra-red sensor, signal amplifier, control logic, sampler, control st...

  14. Flutter of a fan blade in supersonic axial flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielb, Robert E.; Ramsey, John K.

    1988-01-01

    An application of a simple aeroelastic model to an advanced supersonic axial flow fan is presented. Lane's cascade theory is used to determine the unsteady aerodynamic loads. Parametric studies are performed to determine the effects of mode coupling, Mach number, damping, pitching axis location, solidity, stagger angle, and mistuning. The results show that supersonic axial flow fan and compressor blades are susceptible to a strong torsional mode flutter having critical reduced velocities which can be less than one.

  15. Holographic confinement in inhomogeneous backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marolf, Donald; Wien, Jason [Department of Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2016-08-02

    As noted by Witten, compactifying a d-dimensional holographic CFT on an S{sup 1} gives a class of (d−1)-dimensional confining theories with gravity duals. The prototypical bulk solution dual to the ground state is a double Wick rotation of the AdS{sub d+1} Schwarzschild black hole known as the AdS soliton. We generalize such examples by allowing slow variations in the size of the S{sup 1}, and thus in the confinement scale. Coefficients governing the second order response of the system are computed for 3≤d≤8 using a derivative expansion closely related to the fluid-gravity correspondence. The primary physical results are that i) gauge-theory flux tubes tend to align orthogonal to gradients and along the eigenvector of the Hessian with the lowest eigenvalue, ii) flux tubes aligned orthogonal to gradients are attracted to gradients for d≤6 but repelled by gradients for d≥7, iii) flux tubes are repelled by regions where the second derivative along the tube is large and positive but are attracted to regions where the eigenvalues of the Hessian are large and positive in directions orthogonal to the tube, and iv) for d>3, inhomogeneities act to raise the total energy of the confining vacuum above its zeroth order value.

  16. [Medical-physiological characteristics of combat training of nuclear-power submarine crews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovgusha, V V; Myznikov, I L; Shalabodov, S A; Bumaĭ, O K

    2009-10-01

    The article presents an observe of general questions of peculiarities of military-professional activity of submarine staff These questions are defining value in ideology of medical supply of submarine troops of NAVY in now-days conditions. The article also presents the statistics of morbidity in long termed sails for last forty years, it's dynamics by different categories of sail staff, on different stages of combat training activity in dependence of perioditation of work cycle of submarine staff The authors have examined modern condition of medical supply of submarines; have presented statistics of quality indexes of health of submarine staff The authors have formed main problems of medical supply of submarines and have proposed ways of their solving on modern stage.

  17. Temporal variations of groundwater tables and implications for submarine groundwater discharge: a 3-decade case study in central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Jing; Yoshida, Takafumi

    2017-07-01

    Fresh submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is the key pathway of flux and nutrients for the groundwater from land to the ocean. SGD flux is a current issue of discussion and a means to clarify the coastal marine system under climate change. SGD flux accounts for about one-quarter of the river runoff in the Katakai alluvial fan in Uozu, Toyama, Japan, which is an ideal area to study SGD flux considering the need for a rapid response to climate change and the prior research on SGD there. In this paper, the monthly groundwater table's condition over 30 years is analyzed using monthly rainfall, snowfall, and the climate change index. Rainfall has been on an upward trend, but the snowfall has decreased over 40 years. Furthermore, the groundwater table at monitoring wells in the coastal area increased, as a result of the increased rainfall. However, the relationship between snowfall and groundwater is negative. As expected by Darcy's law, SGD flux was controlled by the hydraulic gradient of the coastal groundwater. The estimated historic SGD flux by groundwater table variation shows an upward trend of SGD. Considering the increase in precipitation and the groundwater table, SGD flux may increase under climate change.

  18. Submarine slope failures due to pipe structure formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elger, Judith; Berndt, Christian; Rüpke, Lars; Krastel, Sebastian; Gross, Felix; Geissler, Wolfram H

    2018-02-19

    There is a strong spatial correlation between submarine slope failures and the occurrence of gas hydrates. This has been attributed to the dynamic nature of gas hydrate systems and the potential reduction of slope stability due to bottom water warming or sea level drop. However, 30 years of research into this process found no solid supporting evidence. Here we present new reflection seismic data from the Arctic Ocean and numerical modelling results supporting a different link between hydrates and slope stability. Hydrates reduce sediment permeability and cause build-up of overpressure at the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. Resulting hydro-fracturing forms pipe structures as pathways for overpressured fluids to migrate upward. Where these pipe structures reach shallow permeable beds, this overpressure transfers laterally and destabilises the slope. This process reconciles the spatial correlation of submarine landslides and gas hydrate, and it is independent of environmental change and water depth.

  19. An IKBS approach to surveillance for naval nuclear submarine propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadas, C.N.; Bowskill, J.; Mayfield, T.; Clarke, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    This Paper describes work being carried out to develop an intelligent knowledge-based system (IKBS) for use in the surveillance of naval nuclear submarine propulsion plant. In recent years, modern process plants have increased automation and installed surveillance equipment while reducing the level of manpower operating and monitoring the plant. As a result, some of the local watchkeeping tasks have been transferred to control room operators, and the data reduction and warning filtering expertise inherent in local plant operators has been lost, while an additional workload has been placed upon operators. The surveillance systems installed to date have therefore been less usable than anticipated. The solution being achieved for submarine power plant is to introduce IKBS into surveillance to replace lost expertise and return to a situation in which operators receive small amounts of high quality information rather than large amounts of low quality information. (author)

  20. German assistance for the dismantling of nuclear submarines in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinsdorf, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    On October 9, 2003, the German Ministry of Economics and Labor signed an agreement with the Russian Federation's former Ministry of Atomic Energy for support in eliminating the nuclear weapons that the Russian Federation has pledged to reduce through the dismantlement of decommissioned nuclear submarines. This treaty, which is binding under international law, implements the Global Partnership against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction as agreed to at the G8 Summit in Kananaskis in 2002. The core element of the German-Russian project is the creation of a long-term interim storage facility for 120 nuclear submarine reactor compartments near Murmansk in northwestern Russia and the preparation of the reactor compartments for interim storage. This technically demanding project, which began not without some problems, has developed in a positive manner since the end of 2003. The provisions in the treaty and its supplementary documents, which were internationally publicized, have generally proven to be successful. (orig.)

  1. Submarine optical fiber cable: development and laying results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, N; Yabuta, T; Negishi, Y; Iwabuchi, K; Kawata, O; Yamashita, K; Miyajima, Y; Yoshizawa, N

    1982-03-01

    This paper describes the structural design, trial production, and laying results for submarine optical fiber cables that can be deployed in shallow seas between islands and/or channel crossings without repeaters. Structural design methods for the submarine optical fiber cable are proposed, which take into consideration suppressing cable elongation under tension and excess loss under hydraulic pressure. This paper describes good laying results for the cable using this structural design method. The average loss for single-mode fibers was 0.72 dB/km, and the average loss for multimode fibers was 0.81 dB/km for a 10.2-km long cable operated at 1.3-microm wavelength.

  2. DID A SUBMARINE SLIDE TRIGGER THE 1918 PUERTO RICO TSUNAMI?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Hornbach

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 1918 tsunami that inundated northwest Puerto Rico with up to 6 m waves has been attributed to seafloor faulting associated with the 1918 Mona Canyon earthquake. During the earthquake a series of submarine cable breaks occurred directly off the northwest coast of Puerto Rico where the largest tsunami waves came ashore. Here, we use a recently compiled geophysical data set to reveal that a 9 km long landslide headwall exists in the region where cable breaks occurred during the 1918 earthquake. We incorporate our interpretations into a near-field tsunami wave model to evaluate whether the slide may have triggered the observed 1918 tsunami. Our analysis indicates that this slide could generate a tsunami with phase, arrival times, and run-ups similar to observations along the northwest coast of Puerto Rico. We therefore suggest that a submarine slide offers a plausible alternative explanation for generation of this large tsunami.

  3. An IKBS approach to surveillance for naval nuclear submarine propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadas, C.N.; Bowskill, J.; Mayfield, T.; Clarke, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes work being carried out to develop an IKBS for use in surveillance of naval nuclear submarine propulsion plant. In recent years, modern process plants have increased automation and installed surveillance equipment while reducing the level of manpower operating and monitoring the plant. As a result, some of the local watchkeeping tasks have been transferred to control room operators, and the data reduction and warning filtering expertise inherent in local plant operators has been lost, while an additional workload has been placed upon operators. The surveillance systems installed to date have therefore been less usable than anticipated. The solution being achieved for submarine power plant is to introduce IKBS into surveillance to replace lost expertise, i.e. to return to a situation in which operators receive small amounts of high quality information rather than large amounts of low quality information

  4. Stresses in a submarine topography under ocean waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, C.C.; McTigue, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of submarine slope stability is of interest to both offshore engineering and geology. In an uneven topography, the weight above a horizontal plane induces two-dimensional variation in the static stress field. The action of wave pressure, which changes with depth, further introduces excess pore pressure and dynamic stresses in the sea bottom. In the present paper, we combine a simple analytical theory for the static stress by the present authors, and the recent solution by Mei and Foda for wave-induced stresses in a plane poro-elastic sea bed to account for mild bottom slope and wave shoaling, to obtain the effective stress field in a submarine topography under sea waves. Sample results are given for a ridge and a canyon. In particular the dynamic pore pressure and the combined static and dynamic effective stresses are presented. 10 references, 11 figures.

  5. Stresses in a submarine topography under ocean waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, C.C.; McTigue, D.F.

    1984-09-01

    The problem of submarine slope stability is of interest to both offshore engineering and geology. In an uneven topography, the weight above a horizontal plane induces two-dimensional variation in the static stress field. The action of wave pressure, which changes with depth, further introduces excess pore pressure and dynamic stresses in the sea bottom. In the present paper, we combine a simple analytical theory for the static stress by the present authors, and the recent solution by Mei and Foda for wave-induced stresses in a plane poro-elastic sea bed to account for mild bottom slope and wave shoaling, and obtain the effective stress field in a submarine topography under sea waves. Sample results are given for a ridge and a canyon. In particular, the dynamic pore pressure and the combined static and dynamic effective stresses are presented.

  6. Understanding losses in three core armoured submarine cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Ebdrup, Thomas; Bak, Claus Leth

    2016-01-01

    . For practical an economical reasons the preferred choice of cable for both the array and the transmission cables are three-core armoured submarine cables. Therefore, it has becoming increasingly important to be able to calculate the ampacity of such cables accurately. At present time, the ampacity of three......-core armoured submarine cables is calculated according to IEC 60287-1-1 [1]. Various measurements conducted both by cable manufacturers and transmission system operators (TSO) have shown that using the cable rating method stated in IEC 60287-1-1 underestimates the cable ampacity [2]-[6]. Furthermore......, measurements conducted within the cable industry have shown that an armoured three core cable has higher losses than equal unarmoured three core cables. It is also suggested that the inaccuracy in the IEC armour’s loss factor (λ2) is the main responsible for the conservatism in the IEC cable rating method...

  7. Losses in armoured three-phase submarine cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Thomas; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2014-01-01

    The number of offshore wind farms will keep increasing in the future as a part of the shift towards a CO2 free energy production. The energy harvested from the wind farm must be brought to shore, which is often done by using a three-phase armoured submarine power cable. The use of an armour...... increases the losses in armoured cables compared to unarmoured cables. In this paper a thorough state of the art analysis is conducted on armour losses in three-phase armoured submarine power cables. The analysis shows that the IEC 60287-1-1 standard overestimates the armour losses which lead...... to the installation of cables with excessive phase conductor cross section. This paper also presents an example of the potential economic benefits of having a better knowledge of the losses introduced by the armour....

  8. MVAC Submarine cable, magnetic fields measurements and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentsen, Martin Trolle; Expethit, Adrian; Pedersen, Morten Virklund

    2017-01-01

    to supply the theoretical research with data from magnetic field measurements on a wire armoured 3-phase submarine cable, together with an investigation of the induced currents in the different cable components. The influence of the physical arrangement of the armour wires on the electric behaviour is also...... Standard 60287. Researchers believe that the wire armour of three phased submarine cables is the reason for the inaccurate calculations by the standard. Studies show that the magnetic behaviour of these cables are changed due to the wire armour. In order to investigate this hypothesis, this paper intends...... investigated, since several researchers believe that the twisting of the armour wires result in zero net induced voltage over one helix length. This is shown to be valid for the tested cable. Finally a replica of the armour has been built with just a single conductor in the centre. This setup was used...

  9. Broadband Liner Optimization for the Source Diagnostic Test Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    The broadband component of fan noise has grown in relevance with the utilization of increased bypass ratio and advanced fan designs. Thus, while the attenuation of fan tones remains paramount, the ability to simultaneously reduce broadband fan noise levels has become more appealing. This paper describes a broadband acoustic liner optimization study for the scale model Source Diagnostic Test fan. Specifically, in-duct attenuation predictions with a statistical fan source model are used to obtain optimum impedance spectra over a number of flow conditions for three liner locations in the bypass duct. The predicted optimum impedance information is then used with acoustic liner modeling tools to design liners aimed at producing impedance spectra that most closely match the predicted optimum values. Design selection is based on an acceptance criterion that provides the ability to apply increased weighting to specific frequencies and/or operating conditions. Typical tonal liner designs targeting single frequencies at one operating condition are first produced to provide baseline performance information. These are followed by multiple broadband design approaches culminating in a broadband liner targeting the full range of frequencies and operating conditions. The broadband liner is found to satisfy the optimum impedance objectives much better than the tonal liner designs. In addition, the broadband liner is found to provide better attenuation than the tonal designs over the full range of frequencies and operating conditions considered. Thus, the current study successfully establishes a process for the initial design and evaluation of novel broadband liner concepts for complex engine configurations.

  10. THz Beam Shaper Realizing Fan-Out Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, K.; Rachon, M.; Siemion, A.; Suszek, J.; But, D.; Knap, W.; Sypek, M.

    2017-08-01

    Fan-out elements create an array of beams radiating at particular angles along the propagation axis. Therefore, they are able to form a matrix of equidistant spots in the far-field diffraction region. In this work, we report on the first fan-out structures designed for the THz range of radiation. Two types of light-dividing fan-out structures are demonstrated: (i) the 3×1 matrix fan-out structure based on the optimized binary phase grating and (ii) the 3×3 fan-out structure designed on the basis of the well-known Dammann grating. The structures were generated numerically and manufactured using the 3D printing technique with polyamide PA12. To obtain equal powers and symmetry of diffracted beams, the computer-aided optimization algorithm was used. Diffractive optical elements designed for 140 and 282 GHz were evaluated experimentally at both these frequencies using illumination with the wavefront coming from the point-like source. Described fan-out elements formed uniform intensity and equidistant energy distribution in agreement with the numerical simulations.

  11. "The florals": Female fans over 50 in the Sherlock fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Nybro Petersen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article uses e-mail interviews with nine female fans to explore what it means to be a fan over the age of 50 of the popular BBC drama Sherlock (2010–. The research aims to better understand the role of fandom in later life, in particular how the participants in this study negotiate their perceptions of their subjective age in relation to being a fan in this part of their life course. This study combines theory on cultural gerontology with fan studies and mediatization theory in order to understand the dynamics and processes that guide fans' negotiations of subjective age as well as the role of fan practices and the affordances of social media in these processes. I argue that fandom, as a manifestation of a mediatized culture, augments the relevance of subjective age and informs the way in which participants in middle and later life perceive and negotiate their own subjective age specifically in relation to fandom as youth culture, women's passion, and creativity.

  12. D0 Cryo Ventilation Fan Controls and Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markley, D.

    1990-01-01

    This engineering note describes how exhaust fan 6 (EF-6) and exhaust fan 7 (EF-7) are controlled and monitored. Since these two fans are a vital link in the ODH safety system, they will be monitored, controlled and periodically operated by the programmable logic controller (PLC). If there should be a fault in the ventilation system, the PLC will print a warning message to the cryo control room printer and flash a descriptive warning on the ODH/ventilation graphics page. This fault is also logged to the Xpresslink graphics alarm page and to an alarm history hard disk file. The ventilation failure is also an input to the auto dialer which will continue it's automatic sequence until acknowledged. EF-6 delivers 13000 C.F.M. and is considered emergency ventilation. EF-7 delivers 4500 C.F.M. and will run 24 hrs a day. Both ventilation fans are located in an enclosed closet in the TRD gas room. Their ductwork, both inlets and outlets run along side the pipe chase, but are separated by an airtight wall. Their combination motor control starter cabinets are located in the TRD room in plain visible sight of the fans with the closet door open. The fans have signs that state they are automatically controlled and can energize at any time.

  13. Potential Global Benefits of Improved Ceiling Fan Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Nakul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-10-31

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, both in an absolute sense and as a proportion of household consumption in many locations, especially in developing countries in warm climates. However, there has been little detailed assessment of the costs and benefits of efficiency improvement options for ceiling fans and the potential resulting electricity consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. We analyze the costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans and assess the global potential for electricity savings and GHG emission reductions with more detailed assessments for India, China, and the U.S. We find that ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terrawatt hours per year (TWh/year) could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize this savings potential.

  14. Introduction to the special issue on submarine geohazard records and potential seafloor instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Chuen Chen Jia-Jyun Dong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Submarine landslides frequently occur in passive continental margins or active margins (Hampton et al. 1996; Wynn et al. 2000; Mienert et al. 2002; Korup et al. 2007; Twichell et al. 2009; Cukur et al. 2016. Submarine landslides have been studied extensively not only for scientific research but also for submarine geohazards. Submarine landslides could jeopardize marine infrastructures, such as offshore drilling platforms or submarine telecommunication cables, and could even trigger disastrous tsunamis (Bondevik et al. 2005; Harbitz et al. 2006; Hornbach et al. 2007, 2008; Hsu et al. 2008; Su et al. 2012; Tappin et al. 2014; Li et al. 2015. For instance, one disastrous tsunami hitting the coastal area of southwestern Taiwan in 1781 or 1782 was reported (Chen 1830; Hsu 1983; the tsunami event was probably generated by submarine landslides in the offshore area of southwestern Taiwan (Li et al. 2015. Moreover, several submarine landslides triggered by the 2006 Pingtung earthquake have induced turbidity currents off southwest Taiwan and destroyed about 14 submarine telecommunication cables off SW Taiwan (Hsu et al. 2008. The area of southwest Taiwan currently has a dense population (more than 3 million people in total, one deep-water Kaohsiung Port, several tanks of liquefied natural gas and a nuclear power plant on the coast (Fig. 1. Numerous submarine telecommunication cables exist off SW Taiwan. If a considerable tsunami event would hit again the costal area of SW Taiwan, the damage could very serious. Likewise, there are two nuclear power plants on the coast of northern Taiwan (Fig. 2, and the population in northern Taiwan has more than 10 million people. Submarine telecommunication cables also exist off northern Taiwan. In any case, it is important to understand the status of seafloor stability in the offshore areas of SW and NE Taiwan. For that, this special issue of submarine geohazard records and potential seafloor instability is aimed to

  15. The red danger in times of peace. Radiation risks of dumped nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetsers, R.C.G.M.

    1998-01-01

    Many of the radioactive contamination problems in Russia are related to its nuclear Northern Fleet of submarines. Dumped nuclear submarines are rusting in the bays of the peninsula Kola. Recently, results of a number of international studies on those and similar problems were presented. In this article, those results are summarized, focusing on the problems of the Russian nuclear submarines, in order to find out how serious the problems are. 8 refs

  16. The characters of emergency rescue and the measures to prevent accidents for nuclear-powered submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuexing

    1999-01-01

    The characteristics of emergency rescue and the measures for preventing and decreasing accidents in nuclear-powered submarine have been presented. The breakdown of equipment and human factors are the main reasons which lead to accidents. Four preventive measures are suggested: enhancing capabilities to take precautions against fire, seriously controlling the environmental factors which affect the health of the submariners, reinforcing the constitutions of the submariners, and working out emergency planning against serious accidents in advance

  17. Radiation protection for submarine forces; Aspects de la radioprotection dans les forces sous-marines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laroche, P. [Medecin Major de L' ile Longue, 29 - Brest (France); Rousset, J.; Defrance, J.P.; Grivart de Kerstrat, R.; Amabile, J.C.; Feraud, M.; Roe, H. [Medecin des Armees (France)

    2001-03-01

    We report on the strategic site of Ile Longue in Brittany and describe the medical and dosimetric monitoring of nuclear submarine crews. Over the past eleven years, dosimetric results of nuclear submarine crews have been compared to those of workers employed by outside companies and the Directorate of naval constructions. Since the utilization of the first nuclear submarine, none of the crew members has been overexposed. (author)

  18. A local area network and information management system for a submarine overhaul facility

    OpenAIRE

    Bushmire, Jeffrey D

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary design of a local area network for a submarine overhaul facility is developed using System Engineering concepts. SOFLAN, the Submarine Overhaul Facility Local Area Network, is necessary to provide more timely and accurate information to submarine overhaul managers in order to decrease the overhaul time period and become more competitive. The network is a microcomputer based system following the Ethernet and IEEE 802.3 standards with a server .. client architecture. SOFLAN serves...

  19. Coastal submarine hydrothermal activity off northern Baja California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, V.M.V.; Vidal, F.V.; Isaacs, J.D.; Young, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    In situ observations of submarine hydrothermal activity have been conducted in Punta Banda. Baja Califronia, Mexico, approximately 400 m from the coast and at a seawater depth of 30 m. The hydrothermal activity occurs within the Agua Blanca Fault, a major transverse structure of Northern Baja California. Hot springwater samples have been collected and analyzed. Marked differences exist between the submarine hot springwater, local land hot springwaters, groundwater, and local seawater. SiO 2 , HCO 3 , Ca, K, Li, B, Ba, Rb, Fe, Mn, As, and Zn are enriched in the submarine hot springwater, while Cl, Na, So 4 2 , Mg, Cu, Ni, Cd, Cr, and perhaps Pb are depleted in relation to average and local seawater values. Very high temperatures, at the hydrothermal vents, have been recorded (102 0 C at 4-atm pressure). Visible gaseous emanations rich in CH 4 and N 2 coexist with the hydrothermal solutions. Metalliferous deposits, pyrite, have been encountered with high concentrations of Fe, S, Si, Al, Mn, Ca, and the volatile elements As, Hg, Sb, and Tl, X ray dispersive spectrometry (1500-ppm detection limit). X ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy of the isolated metalliferous precipitates indicate that the principal products of precipitation are pyrite and gypsum accompanied by minor amounts of amorphous material containing Si and Al. Chemical analyses and XRD of the reference control rocks of the locality (volcanics) versus the hydrothermally altered rocks indicate that high-temperature and high-pressure water-rock interactions can in part explain the water chemistry characteristics of the submarine hydrothermal waters. Their long residence time, the occurrence of an extensive marine sedimentary formation, their association with CH 4 and their similarities with connate waters of oil and gas fields suggest that another component of their genesis could be in cation exchange reactions within deeply buried sediments of marine origin

  20. Multicore fibers for high-capacity submarine transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nooruzzaman, Md.; Morioka, Toshio

    2018-01-01

    Applications of multicore fibers (MCFs) in undersea transmission systems are investigated, and various potential architectures of branching units for MCF-based undersea transmission systems are presented. Some MCF-based submarine network architectures based on the amount of data traffic are also...... proposed. It is shown how different architectures of branching units affect the number of network components. The effects of intercore crosstalk on the network components are also investigated....

  1. Review: Bettina Fritzsche (2003. Pop-Fans. Studie einer Mädchenkultur [Pop-Fans: Study of a Girl Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lothar Mikos

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the "girl culture" created by fans of boy groups and girl groups. The central case study is used to examine fan practices as cultural practices using reconstructive and documentary methodologies, and to assess the normative demands placed on young people. The study centers on the question of gender socialization by mediated symbolic resources, and shows that fan culture is a self-determined space in which girls can negotiate normative demands and engage with questions of gender, sexuality and the body, testing conformity and obstinacy. Fan activities are presented as part of the self-empowerment of girls. The study makes an important contribution to the research of a specific girl culture. It shows in a brilliant way how media representations are used as symbolic material in everyday cultural practices. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0603187

  2. Source term analysis for a nuclear submarine accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B.J.; Hugron, J.J.M.R.

    1999-01-01

    A source term analysis has been conducted to determine the activity release into the environment as a result of a large-break loss-of-coolant accident aboard a visiting nuclear-powered submarine to a Canadian port. This best-estimate analysis considers the fractional release from the core, and fission product transport in the primary heat transport system, primary containment (i.e. reactor compartment) and submarine hull. Physical removal mechanisms such as vapour and aerosol deposition are treated in the calculation. Since a thermalhydraulic analysis indicated that the integrity of the reactor compartment is maintained, release from the reactor compartment will only occur by leakage; however, it is conservatively assumed that the secondary containment is not isolated for a 24-h period where release occurs through an open hatch in the submarine hull. Consequently, during this period, the activity release into the atmosphere is estimated as 4.6 TBq, leading to a maximum individual dose equivalent of 0.5 mSv at 800 metres from the berthing location. This activity release is comparable to that obtained in the BEREX TSA study (for a similar accident scenario) but is four orders of magnitude less than that reported in the earlier Davis study where, unrealistically, no credit had been taken for the containment system or for any physical removal processes. (author)

  3. Underwater drag-reducing effect of superhydrophobic submarine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Songsong; Ouyang, Xiao; Li, Jie; Gao, Shan; Han, Shihui; Liu, Lianhe; Wei, Hao

    2015-01-01

    To address the debates on whether superhydrophobic coatings can reduce fluid drag for underwater motions, we have achieved an underwater drag-reducing effect of large superhydrophobic submarine models with a feature size of 3.5 cm × 3.7 cm × 33.0 cm through sailing experiments of submarine models, modified with and without superhydrophobic surface under similar power supply and experimental conditions. The drag reduction rate reached as high as 15%. The fabrication of superhydrophobic coatings on a large area of submarine model surfaces was realized by immobilizing hydrophobic copper particles onto a precross-linked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface. The pre-cross-linking time was optimized at 20 min to obtain good superhydrophobicity for the underwater drag reduction effect by investigating the effect of pre-cross-linking on surface wettability and water adhesive property. We do believe that superhydrophobic coatings may provide a promising application in the field of drag-reducing of vehicle motions on or under the water surface.

  4. Environmental assessment of the dismantling of 12 Russian nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffett, D.; Gerchikov, M.; Washer, M.J.; Craig, P.; Kulikov, K.

    2006-01-01

    The project to dismantle 12 out-of-service nuclear submarines ('the dismantling project') consists of all operations and activities that are required for the defuelling and recycling of 12 Russian nuclear submarines at Zvezdochka shipyard in Severodvinsk, northwest Russia. The dismantling began in late 2004 and will continue over the next four years. The dismantling project will secure the highly-enriched spent nuclear fuel (SNF) currently onboard the 12 submarines by re-incorporating it into the Russian nuclear fuel cycle, thereby combating the proliferation of weapons and materials of mass destruction. The assessment was conducted over a two month period in 2004, including a study team visit to the dismantling site. A systemic multi-step screening approach was used to focus a team visit to the site and allow production of a thorough Screening Report on an accelerated schedule. Potential effects were methodically assessed and opportunities for environmental performance improvement identified. Methods and procedures for conducting EAs on Canadian nuclear projects were applied in this challenging international project. The assessment concluded that the project is not likely to result in any significant adverse effects on the environment, taking into account identified mitigation measures. A follow-up program is planned to confirm the validity of this conclusion. (author)

  5. Estimating the empirical probability of submarine landslide occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Thomas E.; Mosher, David C.; Shipp, Craig; Moscardelli, Lorena; Chaytor, Jason D.; Baxter, Christopher D. P.; Lee, Homa J.; Urgeles, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The empirical probability for the occurrence of submarine landslides at a given location can be estimated from age dates of past landslides. In this study, tools developed to estimate earthquake probability from paleoseismic horizons are adapted to estimate submarine landslide probability. In both types of estimates, one has to account for the uncertainty associated with age-dating individual events as well as the open time intervals before and after the observed sequence of landslides. For observed sequences of submarine landslides, we typically only have the age date of the youngest event and possibly of a seismic horizon that lies below the oldest event in a landslide sequence. We use an empirical Bayes analysis based on the Poisson-Gamma conjugate prior model specifically applied to the landslide probability problem. This model assumes that landslide events as imaged in geophysical data are independent and occur in time according to a Poisson distribution characterized by a rate parameter λ. With this method, we are able to estimate the most likely value of λ and, importantly, the range of uncertainty in this estimate. Examples considered include landslide sequences observed in the Santa Barbara Channel, California, and in Port Valdez, Alaska. We confirm that given the uncertainties of age dating that landslide complexes can be treated as single events by performing statistical test of age dates representing the main failure episode of the Holocene Storegga landslide complex.

  6. Recurrence Periods of Earthquake-Induced Submarine Landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ochoa, R.; Nadim, F.

    2014-12-01

    Submarine landslides represent a constant threat to offshore installations deployed along the continental slope, therefore the estimation of the recurrence period of slope failures is a key parameter to assess the risk associated with potential massive transport of soil sediments. The initiation of submarine slope failures may be due to long-term triggers like the formation of weak layers, sedimentation rates and fault displacements, as well as short-term triggers like earthquakes and storm waves, or a combination of both of them. The recurrence period of submarine slope failures can be linked to the recurrence period of their triggers. When the main trigger of slope failure is an earthquake, it is possible to estimate numerically the probability density of the return period for slope failure by using the seismic hazard curve and a mechanical model for earthquake-triggered slope instability. This paper presents a procedure to calculate the conditional probability of slope failure with the maximum probability density (peak) to obtain the return period of the earthquake event with the largest probability of inducing a slope failure. The conditional probability corresponding to the maximum probability density is estimated after obtaining several conditional cumulative probability points for different earthquake return periods, and matching a cumulative distribution function (CDF) to those points; finally, the maximum probability density of the corresponding probability density function (PDF) is obtained. The suggested analytical procedure is applied and compared with available geological evidence in a site located in the Gulf of Mexico.

  7. The sinking of the Soviet Mike class nuclear powered submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study is to assess the quantities of the longer-lived or persistent radioactive materials, or source terms, that have been lost at sea with the sinking of the Soviet MIKE class submarine off Bear Island on 7 April 1989. The report arrives at an assessment of the amount of radioactivity and compares this to the quantities of radioactive materials dumped by the UK from 1953 to 1982 at which time sea dumping of radioactive wastes was suspended by international resolve. This comparison can be used to assess the relative significance of the sinking of this submarine. The study does not extrapolate the estimated radioactive source terms to an environmental or radiological significance of the sinking, although it is concluded that unless the submarine is recovered intact from the ocean floor, the by far greater part of the radioactive materials on board will disperse to the marine environment at some future time, if they are not doing so already. (author)

  8. Fuel-cell-propelled submarine-tanker-system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Court, K.E.; Kumm, W.H.; O'Callaghan, J.E.

    1982-06-01

    This report provides a systems analysis of a commercial Arctic Ocean submarine tanker system to carry fossil energy to markets. The submarine is to be propelled by a modular Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell system. The power level is 20 Megawatts. The DOE developed electric utility type fuel cell will be fueled with methanol. Oxidant will be provided from a liquid oxygen tank carried onboard. The twin screw submarine tanker design is sized at 165,000 deadweight tons and the study includes costs and an economic analysis of the transport system of 6 ships. The route will be under the polar icecap from a loading terminal located off Prudhoe Bay, Alaska to a transshipment facility postulated to be in a Norwegian fjord. The system throughput of the gas-fed methanol cargo will be 450,000 barrels per day. The total delivered cost of the methanol including well head purchase price of natural gas, methanol production, and shipping would be $25/bbl from Alaska to the US East Coast. Of this, the shipping cost is $6.80/bbl. All costs in 1981 dollars

  9. Fuel-cell-propelled submarine-tanker-system study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Court, K E; Kumm, W H; O' Callaghan, J E

    1982-06-01

    This report provides a systems analysis of a commercial Arctic Ocean submarine tanker system to carry fossil energy to markets. The submarine is to be propelled by a modular Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell system. The power level is 20 Megawatts. The DOE developed electric utility type fuel cell will be fueled with methanol. Oxidant will be provided from a liquid oxygen tank carried onboard. The twin screw submarine tanker design is sized at 165,000 deadweight tons and the study includes costs and an economic analysis of the transport system of 6 ships. The route will be under the polar icecap from a loading terminal located off Prudhoe Bay, Alaska to a transshipment facility postulated to be in a Norwegian fjord. The system throughput of the gas-fed methanol cargo will be 450,000 barrels per day. The total delivered cost of the methanol including well head purchase price of natural gas, methanol production, and shipping would be $25/bbl from Alaska to the US East Coast. Of this, the shipping cost is $6.80/bbl. All costs in 1981 dollars.

  10. Environmental assessment of the dismantling of 12 Russian nuclear submarines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffett, D. [Golder Associates Ltd., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: dmoffett@golder.com; Gerchikov, M. [Nuclear Safety Solutions Ltd., Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Washer, M.J. [Foreign Affairs Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Craig, P. [Golder Associates Ltd., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Kulikov, K. [NIPTB Onega, Severodvinsk (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    The project to dismantle 12 out-of-service nuclear submarines ('the dismantling project') consists of all operations and activities that are required for the defuelling and recycling of 12 Russian nuclear submarines at Zvezdochka shipyard in Severodvinsk, northwest Russia. The dismantling began in late 2004 and will continue over the next four years. The dismantling project will secure the highly-enriched spent nuclear fuel (SNF) currently onboard the 12 submarines by re-incorporating it into the Russian nuclear fuel cycle, thereby combating the proliferation of weapons and materials of mass destruction. The assessment was conducted over a two month period in 2004, including a study team visit to the dismantling site. A systemic multi-step screening approach was used to focus a team visit to the site and allow production of a thorough Screening Report on an accelerated schedule. Potential effects were methodically assessed and opportunities for environmental performance improvement identified. Methods and procedures for conducting EAs on Canadian nuclear projects were applied in this challenging international project. The assessment concluded that the project is not likely to result in any significant adverse effects on the environment, taking into account identified mitigation measures. A follow-up program is planned to confirm the validity of this conclusion. (author)

  11. Environmental assessment of the dismantling of 12 Russian nuclear submarines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffett, D.; Craig, P. [Golder Associates Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Gerchikov, M. [Nuclear Safety Solutions Limited, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Washer, M.J. [Foreign Affairs Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Kulikov, K. [NIPTB Onega, Severodvinsk (Russian Federation)

    2005-06-15

    The project to dismantle 12 out-of-service nuclear submarines ('the dismantling project') consists of all operations and activities that are required for the defuelling and recycling of 12 Russian nuclear submarines at Zvezdochka shipyard in Severodvinsk, northwest Russia. The dismantling began in late 2004 and will continue over the next four years. The dismantling project will secure the highly enriched spent nuclear fuel (SNF) currently onboard the 12 submarines by re-incorporating it into the Russian nuclear fuel cycle, thereby combating the proliferation of weapons and materials of mass destruction. The assessment was conducted over a two-month period in 2004, including a study team visit to the dismantling site. A systemic multi-step screening approach was used to focus a team visit to the site and allow production of a thorough Screening Report on an accelerated schedule. Potential effects were methodically assessed and opportunities for environmental performance improvement identified. Methods and procedures for conducting EAs on Canadian nuclear projects were applied in this challenging international project. The assessment concluded that the project is not likely to result in any significant adverse effects on the environment, taking into account identified mitigation measures. A follow-up program is planned to confirm the validity or this conclusion. (author)

  12. Modern trends in submarine design: from contemporary conventional and nuclear systems to hybrid and mono-submarines of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Guimaraes, L. dos.

    1991-10-01

    During the 20th century, the world Navies has seen an evaluation of the capital ship concept, moving from the battleship to the aircraft carrier and from this last one to the submarine. We have no doubts that this three warship classes are the most sophisticated and complex products of Naval Engineering. Submarine supremacy, today a clear trend, will be completely consolidated during the 21st century. Naval Engineering would be prepared to cope, on technological aspects, with the growing operational performance demands for this warship class along next decades. This work aims to introduce and discuss that demands and identify, through a analysis of trends, the technical solutions, in design and construction fields, will satisfy the future requirements. (author)

  13. Confinement dynamics in the reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenberg, K.F.

    1988-01-01

    The study of basic transport and confinement dynamics is central to the development of the reversed field pinch (RFP) as a confinement concept. Thus, the goal of RFP research is to understand the connection between processes that sustain the RFP configuration and related transport/confinement properties. Recently, new insights into confinement have emerged from a detailed investigation of RFP electron and ion physics. These insights derive from the recognition that both magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and electron kinetic effects play an important and strongly coupled role in RFP sustainment and confinement dynamics. In this paper, we summarize the results of these studies on the ZT-40M experiment. 8 refs

  14. Genes2FANs: connecting genes through functional association networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Protein-protein, cell signaling, metabolic, and transcriptional interaction networks are useful for identifying connections between lists of experimentally identified genes/proteins. However, besides physical or co-expression interactions there are many ways in which pairs of genes, or their protein products, can be associated. By systematically incorporating knowledge on shared properties of genes from diverse sources to build functional association networks (FANs), researchers may be able to identify additional functional interactions between groups of genes that are not readily apparent. Results Genes2FANs is a web based tool and a database that utilizes 14 carefully constructed FANs and a large-scale protein-protein interaction (PPI) network to build subnetworks that connect lists of human and mouse genes. The FANs are created from mammalian gene set libraries where mouse genes are converted to their human orthologs. The tool takes as input a list of human or mouse Entrez gene symbols to produce a subnetwork and a ranked list of intermediate genes that are used to connect the query input list. In addition, users can enter any PubMed search term and then the system automatically converts the returned results to gene lists using GeneRIF. This gene list is then used as input to generate a subnetwork from the user’s PubMed query. As a case study, we applied Genes2FANs to connect disease genes from 90 well-studied disorders. We find an inverse correlation between the counts of links connecting disease genes through PPI and links connecting diseases genes through FANs, separating diseases into two categories. Conclusions Genes2FANs is a useful tool for interpreting the relationships between gene/protein lists in the context of their various functions and networks. Combining functional association interactions with physical PPIs can be useful for revealing new biology and help form hypotheses for further experimentation. Our finding that disease genes in

  15. Authigenic Carbonate Fans from Lower Jurassic Marine Shales (Alberta, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, R. C.; Them, T. R., II; Gill, B. C.; Knoll, A. H.

    2016-12-01

    Authigenic aragonite seafloor fans are a common occurrence in Archean and Paleoproterozoic carbonates, as well as Neoproterozoic cap carbonates. Similar carbonate fans are rare in Phanerozoic strata, with the exception of two mass extinction events; during the Permo-Triassic and Triassic-Jurassic boundaries, carbonate fans formed at the sediment-water interface and within the sediment, respectively. These crystal fans have been linked to carbon cycle perturbations at the end of the Permian and Triassic periods driven by rapid flood volcanism. The Early Jurassic Toarcian Ocean Anoxic Event (T-OAE) is also correlated with the emplacement of a large igneous province, but biological consequences were more modest. We have identified broadly comparable fibrous calcite layers (2-10 cm thick) in Pliensbachian-Toarcian cores from Alberta, Canada. This work focuses on the geochemical and petrographic description of these fans and surrounding sediment in the context of the T-OAE. At the macroscale, carbonates exhibit a fan-like (occasionally cone-in-cone) structure and displace the sediment around them as they grew. At the microscale, the carbonate crystals (pseudomorphs of aragonite) often initiate on condensed horizons or shells. Although they grow in multiple directions (growth within the sediment), the predominant crystal growth direction is towards the sediment-water interface. Resedimentation of broken fans is evidence that crystal growth was penecontemporaneous with sedimentation. The carbon isotope composition of the fans (transects up bladed crystals) and elemental abundances within the layers support shallow subsurface, microbially mediated growth. The resemblance of these Early Jurassic fibrous calcite layers to those found at the end-Triassic and their paucity in the Phanerozoic record suggest that analogous processes occurred at both events. Nevertheless, the Pliensbachian-Toarcian carbonate fans occur at multiple horizons and while some are within the T

  16. Scientific Ocean Drilling to Assess Submarine Geohazards along European Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ask, M. V.; Camerlenghi, A.; Kopf, A.; Morgan, J. K.; Ocean DrillingSeismic Hazard, P. E.

    2008-12-01

    Submarine geohazards are some of the most devastating natural events in terms of lives lost and economic impact. Earthquakes pose a big threat to society and infrastructure, but the understanding of their episodic generation is incomplete. Tsunamis are known for their potential of striking coastlines world-wide. Other geohazards originating below the sea surface are equally dangerous for undersea structures and the coastal population: submarine landslides and volcanic islands collapse with little warning and devastating consequences. The European scientific community has a strong focus on geohazards along European and nearby continental margins, especially given their high population densities, and long historic and prehistoric record of hazardous events. For example, the Mediterranean is surrounded by very densely-populated coastline and is the World's leading holiday destination, receiving up 30% of global tourism. In addition, its seafloor is criss-crossed by hydrocarbon pipelines and telecommunication cables. However, the governing processes and recurrence intervals of geohazards are still poorly understood. Examples include, but are not limited to, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions along the active tectonic margins of the Mediterranean and Sea of Marmara, landslides on both active and passive margins, and tsunamites and seismites in the sedimentary record that suggest a long history of similar events. The development of geophysical networks, drilling, sampling and long-term monitoring are crucial to the understanding of earthquake, landslide, and tsunami processes, and to mitigate the associated risks in densely populated and industrialized regions such as Europe. Scientific drilling, particularly in the submarine setting, offers a unique tool to obtain drill core samples, borehole measurements and long-term observations. Hence, it is a critical technology to investigate past, present, and possible future influences of hazardous processes in this area. The

  17. Structural evolution of deep-water submarine intraplate volcanoes / Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakemann, Josefine; Huebscher, Christian; Beier, Christoph; Hildenbrand, Anthony; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Terrinha, Pedro; Weiß, Benedikt

    2017-04-01

    We present multibeam and high-resolution reflection seismic data which elucidate the architecture of three submarine intraplate volcanoes located in the southern Azores Archipelago. Data have been collected during RV Meteor cruise M113 in 2015. Four GI-Guns served as the seismic source. The digital streamer comprised 144 channels distributed over a length of 600 m. The three cones are situated in a depth down to 2300 m with heights varying between 200 m and 243 m, an average diameter of 1360 m and an average slope angle of ca. 22°. All three circular cones are surrounded by a circular channel. These features, previously named "fried eggs" were previously interpreted as impact crater (Dias et al., 2009). A comparison with nearby submarine volcanoes close to São Miguel island (Weiß et al., 2015), however, strongly suggests a volcanic origin. The seismic data indicate that the volcanic cones formed on top of a ca. 100 m thick pelagic succession covering the igneous basement. Magma ascent deformed the volcanic basement, displaced the pelagic sediments and a first eruption phase formed a small, seismically transparent volcanic cone. Further eruptions created a volcanic cone with rather transparent reflections within the inferior region changing to strong reflection amplitudes with a chaotic pattern in the superior area. Compared to the igneous basement internal reflection amplitudes are mainly weak. The seismic transparency and slope angle exclude the presence of effusive rocks, since lavas usually create strong impedance contrasts. A comparison of the seismic characteristics with those from submarine Kolumbo volcano (Hübscher et al., 2015) suggests volcaniclastic lithologies from explosive eruptions. The circular channel around the volcanic cone shows the characteristics of a moat channel created by bottom currents. References: Dias, F.C., Lourenco, N., Lobo, A., Santos de Campos, A., Pinto de Abreu, M., 2009. "Fried Egg": An Oceanic Impact Crater in the Mid

  18. Cylindrical confinement of semiflexible polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Montejo, Pablo; McDargh, Zachary; Deserno, Markus; Guven, Jemal

    2015-06-01

    Equilibrium states of a closed semiflexible polymer binding to a cylinder are described. This may be either by confinement or by constriction. Closed completely bound states are labeled by two integers: the number of oscillations, n, and the number of times it winds the cylinder, p, the latter being a topological invariant. We examine the behavior of these states as the length of the loop is increased by evaluating the energy, the conserved axial torque, and the contact force. The ground state for a given p is the state with n=1; a short loop with p=1 is an elliptic deformation of a parallel circle; as its length increases it elongates along the cylinder axis with two hairpin ends. Excited states with n≥2 and p=1 possess n-fold axial symmetry. Short (long) loops possess energies ≈pE(0)(nE(0)), with E(0) the energy of a circular loop with same radius as the cylinder; in long loops the axial torque vanishes. Confined bound excited states are initially unstable; however, above a critical length each n-fold state becomes stable: The folded hairpin cannot be unfolded. The ground state for each p is also initially unstable with respect to deformations rotating the loop off the surface into the interior. A closed planar elastic curve aligned along the cylinder axis making contact with the cylinder on its two sides is identified as the ground state of a confined loop. Exterior bound states behave very differently, if free to unbind, as signaled by the reversal in the sign of the contact force. If p=1, all such states are unstable. If p≥2, however, a topological obstruction to complete unbinding exists. If the loop is short, the bound state with p=2 and n=1 provides a stable constriction of the cylinder, partially unbinding as the length is increased. This motif could be relevant to an understanding of the process of membrane fission mediated by dynamin rings.

  19. Lava delta deformation as a proxy for submarine slope instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Traglia, Federico; Nolesini, Teresa; Solari, Lorenzo; Ciampalini, Andrea; Frodella, William; Steri, Damiano; Allotta, Benedetto; Rindi, Andrea; Marini, Lorenzo; Monni, Niccolò; Galardi, Emanuele; Casagli, Nicola

    2018-04-01

    The instability of lava deltas is a recurrent phenomenon affecting volcanic islands, which can potentially cause secondary events such as littoral explosions (due to interactions between hot lava and seawater) and tsunamis. It has been shown that Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a powerful technique to forecast the collapse of newly emplaced lava deltas. This work goes further, demonstrating that the monitoring of lava deltas is a successful strategy by which to observe the long-term deformation of subaerial-submarine landslide systems on unstable volcanic flanks. In this paper, displacement measurements derived from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery were used to detect lava delta instability at Stromboli volcano (Italy). Recent flank eruptions (2002-2003, 2007 and 2014) affected the Sciara del Fuoco (SdF) depression, created a "stacked" lava delta, which overlies a pre-existing scar produced by a submarine-subaerial tsunamigenic landslide that occurred on 30 December 2002. Space-borne X-band COSMO-SkyMED (CSK) and C-band SENTINEL-1A (SNT) SAR data collected between February 2010 and October 2016 were processed using the SqueeSAR algorithm. The obtained ground displacement maps revealed the differential ground motion of the lava delta in both CSK and SNT datasets, identifying a stable area (characterized by less than 2 mm/y in both datasets) within the northern sector of the SdF and an unstable area (characterized by velocity fields on the order of 30 mm/y and 160 mm/y in the CSK and SNT datasets, respectively) in the central sector of the SdF. The slope stability of the offshore part of the SdF, as reconstructed based on a recently performed multibeam bathymetric survey, was evaluated using a 3D Limit Equilibrium Method (LEM). In all the simulations, Factor of Safety (F) values between 0.9 and 1.1 always characterized the submarine slope between the coastline and -250 m a.s.l. The critical surfaces for all the search volumes corresponded to

  20. Confinement of high temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, R.W.; Ferguson, H.R.; Fletcher, H.J.; Gardner, J.H.; Harrison, B.K.; Larsen, K.M.

    1980-01-01

    A high temperature plasma is confined in the shape of a topological torus by a topologically stable magnetic field which is everywhere constant on and tangent to the surface of the torus. There are exactly an even finite number of closed magnetic field lines on the plasma surface and all other magnetic field lines on the surface are asymptotic to the closed field lines. This magnetic field configuration is achieved by a set of current carrying conductors appropriately arranged with respect to the plasma and carrying suitably selected currents