WorldWideScience

Sample records for conduit financing arrangements

  1. 26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... satisfaction of a repayment obligation is not an advance of money or other property. A financing arrangement... anticipated decline in the value of the property over its life. (2) Rate of tax. The rate at which tax is... the installment notes for FS. (ii) The C installment note now held by FS (as well as all of the...

  2. Optimization of lamp arrangement in a closed-conduit UV reactor based on a genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Tipu; Ahmad, Zeshan; Cho, Jinsoo

    2016-01-01

    The choice for the arrangement of the UV lamps in a closed-conduit ultraviolet (CCUV) reactor significantly affects the performance. However, a systematic methodology for the optimal lamp arrangement within the chamber of the CCUV reactor is not well established in the literature. In this research work, we propose a viable systematic methodology for the lamp arrangement based on a genetic algorithm (GA). In addition, we analyze the impacts of the diameter, angle, and symmetry of the lamp arrangement on the reduction equivalent dose (RED). The results are compared based on the simulated RED values and evaluated using the computational fluid dynamics simulations software ANSYS FLUENT. The fluence rate was calculated using commercial software UVCalc3D, and the GA-based lamp arrangement optimization was achieved using MATLAB. The simulation results provide detailed information about the GA-based methodology for the lamp arrangement, the pathogen transport, and the simulated RED values. A significant increase in the RED values was achieved by using the GA-based lamp arrangement methodology. This increase in RED value was highest for the asymmetric lamp arrangement within the chamber of the CCUV reactor. These results demonstrate that the proposed GA-based methodology for symmetric and asymmetric lamp arrangement provides a viable technical solution to the design and optimization of the CCUV reactor.

  3. 26 CFR 1.7701(l)-3 - Recharacterizing financing arrangements involving fast-pay stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... involving fast-pay stock. 1.7701(l)-3 Section 1.7701(l)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE....7701(l)-3 Recharacterizing financing arrangements involving fast-pay stock. (a) Purpose and scope. This... corporation has fast-pay stock outstanding for any part of its taxable year. (2) Fast-pay stock—(i)...

  4. LEASING ARRANGEMENTS AS A FORM OF FINANCING BUSINESS ENTITIES IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGICA ODZAKLIESKA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the modern conditions for working, the problems with providing appropriate sources for financing business entities are more emphasized. In fact, the access to the financing sources is one of the limiting factors for the business entities development. If the business entity is able to satisfy completely or on a higher degree its financing needs from its own sources, then it gains significant competitive advantage and possibility for growth, by decreasing the costs for financing and minimizing the risk. But, these sources most often are not sufficient for business financing. In R. Macedonia, most usually used sources for work financing are the bank loans, which is a result mainly to the nonsufficiently developed financial market, and generally, the low degree of the economic development. However, the bank loans are expensive source of financing, which is negatively reflected into the financial result of the business entities. Because of that, the business entities get down to use alternative financing sources, such as: portfolio investments, foreign direct investments, issue of shares and bonds and specific sources of financing ( factoring financing, forfeiting financing, leasing and financing by franchise. In this paper, the accent will be put on the leasing as a specific form for financing the business entities in R. Macedonia. A research for that how much the business entities are acquainted with the advantages of using this financing source, how much the leasing is present as a financing form and if there are limiting factors in its use, will be conducted. At the end, on the basis of the obtained results from the research, some measures and recommendations for higher leasing implementation in the business entities in Republic of Macedonia will be given

  5. The exchange rate arrangements-government finance relationship and the impact on debt management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Trifonova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The choice of exchange rate regime can have a significant impact on the development of the national economy, which affects the main economic indicators. Traditionally, researchers consider the effects of certain types of exchange rate regimes on economic indicators such as gross domestic product, inflation, current account, real exchange rate and investments, but is it possible that the exchange rate regime can also reflect the country's government finance and thus influence the management of public debt?

  6. 互联网金融的经济逻辑与演进安排%Economic Logic and Evolution Arrangement of the Internet Finance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鸿祥

    2014-01-01

    互联网金融是金融抑制宏观背景下的创新演绎,有着内在的形成机理和经济逻辑。互联网金融缓解了信息不对称,降低了交易成本和金融服务门槛,拓展了金融交易可能性边界,从而增加了普惠金融供给。但与此同时,互联网金融的快速发展也隐含着潜在风险,如缺乏法律依据、技术存在缺陷、期限结构错配、干扰货币政策调控效果等等,需要做出理性而适度的演进安排。%Internet finance is an innovative deduction under the macro background of financial repression, which has its intrinsic formation mechanism and economic logic. Internet finance eases the information asymmetry, reduces the transaction costs and threshold of financial services, and expands the possibility boundary of financial transaction, thus increasing the inclusive financial supply. But at the same time, the rapid development of internet financial also im-plies the potential risk, such as the lack of legal basis, technical flaws, the term structure mismatch, etc, which needs to make rational and moderate evolution arrangements.

  7. Gastric conduit perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Nilesh; Kaushal, Arvind; Jain, Amit; Saluja, Sundeep Singh; Mishra, Pramod Kumar

    2014-08-16

    As patients with carcinoma of the esophagus live longer, complications associated with the use of a gastric conduit are increasing. Ulcers form in the gastric conduit in 6.6% to 19.4% of patients. There are a few reports of perforation of a gastric conduit in the English literature. Almost all of these were associated with serious complications. We report a patient who developed a tension pneumothorax consequent to spontaneous perforation of an ulcer in the gastric conduit 7 years after the index surgery in a patient with carcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction. He responded well to conservative management. Complications related to a gastric conduit can be because of multiple factors. Periodic endoscopic surveillance of gastric conduits should be considered as these are at a higher risk of ulcer formation than a normal stomach. Long term treatment with proton pump inhibitors may decrease complications. There are no guidelines for the treatment of a perforated gastric conduit ulcer and the management should be individualized.

  8. Solar thermal financing guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T.A.; Cole, R.J.; Brown, D.R.; Dirks, J.A.; Edelhertz, H.; Holmlund, I.; Malhotra, S.; Smith, S.A.; Sommers, P.; Willke, T.L.

    1983-05-01

    This guidebook contains information on alternative financing methods that could be used to develop solar thermal systems. The financing arrangements discussed include several lease alternatives, joint venture financing, R and D partnerships, industrial revenue bonds, and ordinary sales. In many situations, alternative financing arrangements can significantly enhance the economic attractiveness of solar thermal investments by providing a means to efficiently allocate elements of risk, return on investment, required capital investment, and tax benefits. A net present value approach is an appropriate method that can be used to investigate the economic attractiveness of alternative financing methods. Although other methods are applicable, the net present value approach has advantages of accounting for the time value of money, yielding a single valued solution to the financial analysis, focusing attention on the opportunity cost of capital, and being a commonly understood concept that is relatively simple to apply. A personal computer model for quickly assessing the present value of investments in solar thermal plants with alternative financing methods is presented in this guidebook. General types of financing arrangements that may be desirable for an individual can be chosen based on an assessment of his goals in investing in solar thermal systems and knowledge of the individual's tax situation. Once general financing arrangements have been selected, a screening analysis can quickly determine if the solar investment is worthy of detailed study.

  9. Private Placement Debt Financing for Public Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Lance S.

    2010-01-01

    Private placement financing is a debt or capital lease obligation arranged between a municipality or a 501(c) (3) not-for-profit organization and a single sophisticated institutional investor. The investor can be a bank, insurance company, finance company, hedge fund, or high-net worth individual. Private placement financing is similar to…

  10. China’s Real Estate Finance:Undergoing Directional Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭琼; 宋燕华; 赵剑飞

    2008-01-01

    Influenced by a host of new policies on real property loans and foreign investment restrictions, real estate finance is in the midst of directional change characterized by fluctuations in domestic and overseas financing arrangements. The long-

  11. Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslantunali D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available D Arslantunali,1–3,* T Dursun,1,2,* D Yucel,1,4,5 N Hasirci,1,2,6 V Hasirci,1,2,7 1BIOMATEN, Center of Excellence in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Middle East Technical University (METU, Ankara, Turkey; 2Department of Biotechnology, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 3Department of Bioengineering, Gumushane University, Gumushane, Turkey; 4Faculty of Engineering, Department of Medical Engineering, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 5School of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 6Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 7Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey *These authors have contributed equally to this work Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem which could lead to loss of neuronal communication along sensory and motor nerves between the central nervous system (CNS and the peripheral organs and impairs the quality of life of a patient. The primary requirement for the treatment of complete lesions is a tension-free, end-to-end repair. When end-to-end repair is not possible, peripheral nerve grafts or nerve conduits are used. The limited availability of autografts, and drawbacks of the allografts and xenografts like immunological reactions, forced the researchers to investigate and develop alternative approaches, mainly nerve conduits. In this review, recent information on the various types of conduit materials (made of biological and synthetic polymers and designs (tubular, fibrous, and matrix type are being presented. Keywords: peripheral nerve injury, natural biomaterials, synthetic biomaterials

  12. Nonlinear wavetrains in viscous conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiden, Michelle; Hoefer, Mark

    2016-11-01

    Viscous fluid conduits provide an ideal system for the study of dissipationless, dispersive hydrodynamics. A dense, viscous fluid serves as the background medium through which a lighter, less viscous fluid buoyantly rises. If the interior fluid is continuously injected, a deformable pipe forms. The long wave interfacial dynamics are well-described by a dispersive nonlinear partial differential equation. In this talk, experiments, numerics, and asymptotics of the viscous fluid conduit system will be presented. Structures at multiple length scales are discussed, including solitons, dispersive shock waves, and periodic waves. Modulations of periodic waves will be explored in the weakly nonlinear regime with the Nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation. Modulational instability (stability) is identified for sufficiently short (long) periodic waves due to a change in dispersion curvature. These asymptotic results are confirmed by numerical simulations of perturbed nonlinear periodic wave solutions. Also, numerically observed are envelope bright and dark solitons well approximated by NLS. This work was partially supported by NSF CAREER DMS-1255422 (M.A.H.) and NSF GRFP (M.D.M.).

  13. Financing Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan; Flor, Christian Riis

    Intuition suggests that corporate investment should be decreasing in financing constraints. We show that even when financing is obtained using a standard debt contract and there is symmetric information between the firm and outside investors, the relation is actually U-shaped. We thus provide a new...... theoretical explanation for the recent empirical findings of Cleary et al. (2007). We split up the endogenously implied financing costs and propose a trade-off between expected liquidation costs and second-best investment costs. For rather unconstrained firms, the risk of costly liquidation dominates the cost...... of underinvestment and, hence, induces cutting down investment. On the other hand, severely constrained firms benefit more by getting closer to the first-best investment implying higher investment....

  14. Quantum Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.

    2007-09-01

    Foreword; Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Synopsis; Part I. Fundamental Concepts of Finance: 2. Introduction to finance; 3. Derivative securities; Part II. Systems with Finite Number of Degrees of Freedom: 4. Hamiltonians and stock options; 5. Path integrals and stock options; 6. Stochastic interest rates' Hamiltonians and path integrals; Part III. Quantum Field Theory of Interest Rates Models: 7. Quantum field theory of forward interest rates; 8. Empirical forward interest rates and field theory models; 9. Field theory of Treasury Bonds' derivatives and hedging; 10. Field theory Hamiltonian of forward interest rates; 11. Conclusions; Appendix A: mathematical background; Brief glossary of financial terms; Brief glossary of physics terms; List of main symbols; References; Index.

  15. Biological conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix to treat long-segment sciatic nerve defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transplantation of polylactic glycolic acid conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix gel for the repair of sciatic nerve injury is effective in some respects, but few data comparing the biomechanical factors related to the sciatic nerve are available. In the present study, rabbit models of 10-mm sciatic nerve defects were prepared. The rabbit models were repaired with autologous nerve, a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, or a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel. After 24 weeks, mechanical testing was performed to determine the stress relaxation and creep parameters. Following sciatic nerve injury, the magnitudes of the stress decrease and strain increase at 7,200 seconds were largest in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group, followed by the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group, and then the autologous nerve group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated that compared with the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group and the autologous nerve group, a more complete sciatic nerve regeneration was found, including good myelination, regularly arranged nerve fibers, and a completely degraded and resorbed conduit, in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group. These results indicate that bridging 10-mm sciatic nerve defects with a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel construct increases the stress relaxation under a constant strain, reducing anastomotic tension. Large elongations under a constant physiological load can limit the anastomotic opening and shift, which is beneficial for the regeneration and functional reconstruction of sciatic nerve. Better

  16. Sustainable finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma-de Jong, Margreet F.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence Sustai

  17. Computational Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lykke

    One of the major challenges in todays post-crisis finance environment is calculating the sensitivities of complex products for hedging and risk management. Historically, these derivatives have been determined using bump-and-revalue, but due to the increasing magnitude of these computations does...

  18. Financing strategic healthcare facilities: the growing attraction of alternative capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zismer, Daniel K; Fox, James; Torgerson, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Community health system leaders often dismiss use of alternative capital to finance strategic facilities as being too expensive and less strategically useful, preferring to follow historical precedent and use tax-exempt bonding to finance such facilities. Proposed changes in accounting rules should cause third-party-financed facility lease arrangements to be treated similarly to tax-exempt debt financings with respect to the income statement and balance sheet, increasing their appeal to community health systems. An in-depth comparison of the total costs associated with each financing approach can help inform the choice of financing approaches by illuminating their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  19. Xylem hydraulic conductivity related to conduit dimensions along chrysanthemum stems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, J.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Ieperen, van W.; Keijzer, C.J.; Meeteren, van U.

    2001-01-01

    The stem xylem conduit dimensions and hydraulic conductivity of chrysanthemum plants (Dendranthemaxgrandiflorum Tzvelev cv. Cassa) were analysed and quantified. Simple exponential relations describe conduit length distribution, height dependency of conduit length distribution, and height dependency

  20. Pumped Storage and Potential Hydropower from Conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-02-25

    Th is Congressional Report, Pumped Storage Hydropower and Potential Hydropower from Conduits, addresses the technical flexibility that existing pumped storage facilities can provide to support intermittent renewable energy generation. This study considered potential upgrades or retrofit of these facilities, the technical potential of existing and new pumped storage facilities to provide grid reliability benefits, and the range of conduit hydropower opportunities available in the United States.

  1. Phase distribution in complex geometry conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahey, R.T. Jr.; Lopez de Bertodano, M.; Jones, O.C. Jr.

    1992-12-31

    Some of the most important and challenging problems in two-phase flow today have to do with the understanding and prediction of multidimensional phenomena, in particular, lateral phase distribution in both simple and complex geometry conduits. A prior review paper summarized the state-of-the-art in the understanding of phase distribution phenomena, and the ability to perform mechanistic multidimensional predictions. The purpose of this paper is to update that review, with particular emphasis on complex geometry conduit predictive capabilities.

  2. Win-win finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panayotou, T.

    1997-07-01

    Sustainable development is grossly underfinanced. It will continue to be so, because the world is relying on conventional means to finance an unconventional idea. Official development assistance fell from 60 billion dollars in 1992 to 55 billion dollars in 1995 (in constant 1994 prices). The public sector in developing countries is underinvesting in environmental sustainability because of severe budget constraints, public sector deficits and more pressing expenditure needs. So is the private sector because, under prevailing institutional arrangements, it cannot recover costs and earn a decent rate of return from providing public goods. Other means of mobilising resources must be found. Such measures may include: phasing out subsidies, demand-scale management, better capture of resource vents, improved definition and security of property rights, and environmentally based taxation. Coal and petroleum based projects are frequently effectively subsidised. For sustainability energy efficiency measures should be subsidised, and energy consumption taxed. Increased use of economic instruments should be encouraged. 2 photos.

  3. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently specify

  4. Variability of permeability with diameter of conduit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J A Adegoke; J A Olowofela

    2008-05-01

    An entry length is always observed before laminar flow is achieved in fluid flowing in a conduit. This depends on the Reynolds number of the flow and the degree of smoothness of the conduit. This work examined this region and the point where laminar flow commences in the context of flow through conduit packed with porous material like beads, of known porosity. Using some theoretical assumptions, it is demonstrated that permeability varies from zero at wall-fluid boundary to maximum at mid-stream, creating a permeability profile similar to the velocity profile. An equation was obtained to establish this. We also found that peak values of permeability increase with increasing porosity, and therefore entry length increases with increasing porosity with all other parameters kept constant. A plot of peak permeability versus porosity revealed that they are linearly related.

  5. Chitosan Conduit for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Chitosan, the N-deacetylated form of chitin, has good biocompatibility and biodegradability.This paper investigates the feasibility of using chitosan conduits for peripheral nerve regeneration.Cell culture experiments were used to test the material's cytotoxicity and affinity to nerve cells.Conduit implantation experiments were used to study the degradation of the material and the regeneration of injured sciatic nerves.The primary results indicate that chitosan has good mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradability and it may be a promising biomaterial for peripheral nerve regeneration.

  6. Behavioral finance: Finance with normal people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meir Statman

    2014-06-01

    Behavioral finance substitutes normal people for the rational people in standard finance. It substitutes behavioral portfolio theory for mean-variance portfolio theory, and behavioral asset pricing model for the CAPM and other models where expected returns are determined only by risk. Behavioral finance also distinguishes rational markets from hard-to-beat markets in the discussion of efficient markets, a distinction that is often blurred in standard finance, and it examines why so many investors believe that it is easy to beat the market. Moreover, behavioral finance expands the domain of finance beyond portfolios, asset pricing, and market efficiency and is set to continue that expansion while adhering to the scientific rigor introduced by standard finance.

  7. A model of bubble growth leading to xylem conduit embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölttä, T; Vesala, T; Nikinmaa, E

    2007-11-01

    The dynamics of a gas bubble inside a water conduit after a cavitation event was modeled. A distinction was made between a typical angiosperm conduit with a homogeneous pit membrane and a typical gymnosperm conduit with a torus-margo pit membrane structure. For conduits with torus-margo type pits pit membrane deflection was also modeled and pit aspiration, the displacement of the pit membrane to the low pressure side of the pit chamber, was found to be possible while the emboli was still small. Concurrent with pit aspiration, the high resistance to water flow out of the conduit through the cell walls or aspirated pits will make the embolism process slow. In case of no pit aspiration and always for conduits with homogeneous pit membranes, embolism growth is more rapid but still much slower than bubble growth in bulk water under similar water tension. The time needed for the embolism to fill a whole conduit was found to be dependent on pit and cell wall conductance, conduit radius, xylem water tension, pressure rise in adjacent conduits due to water freed from the embolising conduit, and the rigidity and structure of the pits in the case of margo-torus type pit membrane. The water pressure in the conduit hosting the bubble was found to occur almost immediately after bubble induction inside a conduit, creating a sudden tension release in the conduit, which can be detected by acoustic and ultra-acoustic monitoring of xylem cavitation.

  8. Controlling Wavebreaking in a Viscous Fluid Conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dalton; Maiden, Michelle; Hoefer, Mark

    2015-11-01

    This poster will present a new technique in the experimental investigation of dispersive hydrodynamics. In shallow water flows, internal ocean waves, superfluids, and optical media, wave breaking can be resolved by a dispersive shock wave (DSW). In this work, an experimental method to control the location of DSW formation (gradient catastrophe) is explained. The central idea is to convert an initial value problem (Riemann problem) into an equivalent boundary value problem. The system to which this technique is applied is a fluid conduit resulting from high viscosity contrast between a buoyant interior and heavier exterior fluid. The conduit cross-sectional area is modeled by a nonlinear, conservative, dispersive, third order partial differential equation. Using this model, the aim is to predict the breaking location of a DSW by controlling one boundary condition. An analytical expression for this boundary condition is derived by solving the dispersionless equation backward in time from the desired step via the method of characteristics. This is used in experiment to generate an injection rate profile for a high precision piston pump. This translates to the desired conduit shape. Varying the jump height and desired breaking location indicates good control of DSW formation. This result can be improved by deriving a conduit profile by numerical simulation of the full model equation. Controlling the breaking location of a DSW allows for the investigation of dynamics independent of the boundary. Support provided by NSF CAREER DMS-1255422 , NSF EXTREEMS.

  9. Alternative Approaches to Financing Lifelong Learning. Country Report: Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzburg, Gregory

    One of the main strategies for achieving lifelong learning objectives in Denmark has been to steadily shore up and improve the efficiency of the institutional arrangements for adult learning and to progressively strengthen the arrangements for financing it. Because there has been no attempt to create totally new structures or programs, the trends…

  10. Drill pipes and casings utilizing multi-conduit tubulars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlett, H.B.

    1989-01-24

    A seal adapted for use with a multi-conduit well tubular, or the like, is described which consists of: a plate with fluid passages, each passage corresponding to an opening of a conduit of the multiconduit tubular, and a groove on the plate around each passage; and elastomer means partially embeddable into each groove for sealing each conduit of a tubular to a corresponding conduit of another similar tubular.

  11. Biological conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix to treat long-segment sciatic nerve defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wang; Zheng-wei Li; Min Luo; Ya-jun Li; Ke-qiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The transplantation of polylactic glycolic acid conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix gel for the repair of sciatic nerve injury is effective in some re-spects, but few data comparing the biomechanical factors related to the sciatic nerve are available. In the present study, rabbit models of 10-mm sciatic nerve defects were prepared. The rabbit models were repaired with autologous nerve, a polylactic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, or a polylactic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells+extracellular matrix gel. After 24 weeks, mechanical testing was performed to determine the stress relaxation and creep parameters. Following sciatic nerve injury, the magnitudes of the stress decrease and strain increase at 7,200 seconds were largest in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells+extracellular matrix gel group, followed by the polylactic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group, and then the autologous nerve group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated that compared with the poly-lactic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group and the autologous nerve group, a more complete sciatic nerve regeneration was found, including good myelination, regularly arranged nerve ifbers, and a completely degraded and resorbed conduit, in the polylac-tic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells+extracellular matrix gel group. These results indicate that bridging 10-mm sciatic nerve defects with a polylactic glycolic acid conduit+bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells+extracellular matrix gel construct increases the stress relaxation under a constant strain, reducing anastomotic tension. Large elongations under a constant physiological load can limit the anastomotic opening and shift, which is ben-eifcial for the regeneration and functional reconstruction of sciatic nerve. Better regeneration was found with the

  12. Silicic magma differentiation in ascent conduits. Experimental constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Carmen; Castro, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Crystallization of water-bearing silicic magmas in a dynamic thermal boundary layer is reproduced experimentally by using the intrinsic thermal gradient of piston-cylinder assemblies. The standard AGV2 andesite under water-undersaturated conditions is set to crystallize in a dynamic thermal gradient of about 35 °C/mm in 10 mm length capsules. In the hotter area of the capsule, the temperature is initially set at 1200 °C and decreases by programmed cooling at two distinct rates of 0.6 and 9.6 °C/h. Experiments are conducted in horizontally arranged assemblies in a piston cylinder apparatus to avoid any effect of gravity settling and compaction of crystals in long duration runs. The results are conclusive about the effect of water-rich fluids that are expelled out the crystal-rich zone (mush), where water saturation is reached by second boiling in the interstitial liquid. Expelled fluids migrate to the magma ahead of the solidification front contributing to a progressive enrichment in the fluxed components SiO2, K2O and H2O. The composition of water-rich fluids is modelled by mass balance using the chemical composition of glasses (quenched melt). The results are the basis for a model of granite magma differentiation in thermally-zoned conduits with application of in-situ crystallization equations. The intriguing textural and compositional features of the typical autoliths, accompanying granodiorite-tonalite batholiths, can be explained following the results of this study, by critical phenomena leading to splitting of an initially homogeneous magma into two magma systems with sharp boundaries. Magma splitting in thermal boundary layers, formed at the margins of ascent conduits, may operate for several km distances during magma transport from deep sources at the lower crust or upper mantle. Accordingly, conduits may work as chromatographic columns contributing to increase the silica content of ascending magmas and, at the same time, leave behind residual mushes that

  13. On arrangements of pseudohyperplanes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRIYAVRAT DESHPANDE

    2016-08-01

    To every realizable oriented matroid there corresponds an arrangement of real hyperplanes. The homeomorphism type of the complexified complement of such an arrangement is completely determined by the oriented matroid. In this paper we study arrangements of pseudohyperplanes; they correspond to non-realizable oriented matroids. These arrangements arise as a consequence of the Folkman--Lawrence topological representation theorem. We propose a generalization of the complexification process in this context. In particular we construct a space naturally associated with these pseudo-arrangements which is homeomorphic to the complexified complement in the realizable case. Further, we generalize the classical theorem of Salvetti and show that this space has the homotopy type of a cell complex defined in terms of the oriented matroid.

  14. Islamic versus conventional banking: A comparative analysis of financial arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Marinković, Srđan

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores the concept of Islamic banking by making comparison between the basic features of some key conventional and Islamic financial arrangements. Paradigm version of Islamic banking forbids arrangements based on a predetermined rate of return on financial investments, instead it proposes equity based modes of finance which promote partnership between financier and an entrepreneur. Nevertheless, the theoretically suggested concepts in current practice are faced with serious diffic...

  15. Assessment of conduit artery vasomotion using photoplethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanders, Karlis; Grabovskis, Andris; Marcinkevics, Zbignevs; Aivars, Juris Imants

    2013-11-01

    Vasomotion is a spontaneous oscillation of vascular tone. The phenomenon has been observed in small arterioles and capillaries as well as in the large conduit arteries. The layer of smooth muscle cells that surrounds a blood vessel can spontaneously and periodically change its tension and thereby the arterial wall stiffness also changes. As the understanding of the phenomenon is still rather obscure, researchers would benefit from a low-cost and reliable investigation technique such as photoplethysmography (PPG). PPG is an optical blood pulsation measurement technique that can offer substantial information about the arterial stiffness. The aims of this pilot study were to evaluate the usefulness of the PPG technique in the research of vasomotion and to investigate vasomotion in the relatively large conduit arteries. Continuous 15 minute long measurements of posterior tibial artery wall stiffness were taken. Artery diameter, electrocardiogram, blood pressure and respiration were also simultaneously registered. Fast Fourier Transform power spectra were calculated to identify unique stiffness oscillations that did not correspond to fluctuations in the systemic parameters and thus would indicate vasomotion. We concluded that photoplethysmography is a convenient method for the research of the vasomotion in large arteries. Local stiffness parameter b/a is more accurate to use and easier to measure than the pulse wave velocity which describes stiffness of a segment of an artery. Conduit arteries might exhibit a low amplitude high frequency vasomotion ( 9 to 27 cycles per minute). Low frequency vasomotion is problematic to distinguish from the passive oscillations imposed by the arterial pressure.

  16. Thermal damping and retardation in karst conduits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Luhmann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Water temperature is a non-conservative tracer in the environment. Variations in recharge temperature are damped and retarded as water moves through an aquifer due to heat exchange between water and rock. However, within karst aquifers, seasonal and short-term fluctuations in recharge temperature are often transmitted over long distances before they are fully damped. Using analytical solutions and numerical simulations, we develop relationships that describe the effect of flow path properties, flow-through time, recharge characteristics, and water and rock physical properties on the damping and retardation of thermal peaks/troughs in karst conduits. Using these relationships, one can estimate the thermal retardation and damping that would occur under given conditions with a given conduit geometry. Ultimately, these relationships can be used with thermal damping and retardation field data to estimate parameters such as conduit diameter. We also examine sets of numerical experiments where we relax some of the assumptions used to develop these relationships, testing the effects of variable diameter, variable velocity, open channels, and recharge shape on thermal damping and retardation to provide some constraints on uncertainty. Finally, we discuss a tracer experiment that provides field confirmation of our relationships. High temporal resolution water temperature data are required to obtain sufficient constraints on the magnitude and timing of thermal peaks and troughs in order to take full advantage of water temperature as a tracer.

  17. Optical Arrangement and Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Processing of electromagnetic radiation is described, said incoming electromagnetic radiation comprising radiation in a first wavelength interval and a plurality of spatial frequencies. An arrangement comprises a focusing arrangement for focusing the incoming electromagnetic radiation, a first...... cavity configured to comprise an intra cavity laser beam, a nonlinear crystal arranged in the first cavity such that it is capable of receiving the focused electromagnetic radiation and, in dependence on the spatial overlap between the focused electromagnetic radiation and the intra-cavity laser beam......, by interaction with the intra-cavity laser beam provide processed electromagnetic radiation, said processed electromagnetic radiation comprising radiation in a second wavelength interval and at least a subset of said plurality of spatial frequencies. In other words, such an arrangement is capable of enabling...

  18. Statistics for Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindström, Erik; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Jan Nygaard

    Statistics for Finance develops students’ professional skills in statistics with applications in finance. Developed from the authors’ courses at the Technical University of Denmark and Lund University, the text bridges the gap between classical, rigorous treatments of financial mathematics...

  19. Liver Transplantation Utilizing Mixed Biologic and Synthetic Arterial Conduits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio F. Chedid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Arterial conduits are necessary in nearly 5% of all liver transplants and are usually constructed utilizing segments of donor iliac artery. However, available segments of donor iliac artery may not be lengthy enough or may not possess enough quality to enable its inclusion in the conduit. Although there are few reports of arterial conduits constructed solely utilizing prosthetic material, no previous reports of conduits composed of a segment of donor iliac artery and prosthetic material (mixed biologic and synthetic arterial conduits were found in the medial literature to date. Two cases reporting successful outcomes after creation of mixed biologic and prosthetic arterial conduits are outlined in this report. Reason for creation of conduits was complete intimal dissection of the recipient’s hepatic artery in both cases. In both cases, available segments of donor iliac artery were not lengthy enough to bridge infrarenal aorta to porta hepatis. Both patients have patent conduits and normally functioning liver allografts, respectively, at 4 and 31 months after transplant. Mixed biologic and synthetic arterial conduits constitute a viable technical option and may offer potential advantages over fully prosthetic arterial conduits.

  20. Peak load arrangements : Assessment of Nordel guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Two Nordic countries, Sweden and Finland, have legislation that empowers the TSO to acquire designated peak load resources to mitigate the risk for shortage situations during the winter. In Denmark, the system operator procures resources to maintain a satisfactory level of security of supply. In Norway the TSO has set up a Regulation Power Option Market (RKOM) to secure a satisfactory level of operational reserves at all times, also in winter with high load demand. Only the arrangements in Finland and Sweden fall under the heading of Peak Load Arrangements defined in Nordel Guidelines. NordREG has been invited by the Electricity Market Group (EMG) to evaluate Nordel's proposal for 'Guidelines for transitional Peak Load Arrangements'. The EMG has also financed a study made by EC Group to support NordREG in the evaluation of the proposal. The study has been taken into account in NordREG's evaluation. In parallel to the EMG task, the Swedish regulator, the Energy Markets Inspectorate, has been given the task by the Swedish government to investigate a long term solution of the peak load issue. The Swedish and Finnish TSOs have together with Nord Pool Spot worked on finding a harmonized solution for activation of the peak load reserves in the market. An agreement accepted by the relevant authorities was reached in early January 2009, and the arrangement has been implemented since 19th January 2009. NordREG views that the proposed Nordel guidelines have served as a starting point for the presently agreed procedure. However, NordREG does not see any need to further develop the Nordel guidelines for peak load arrangements. NordREG agrees with Nordel that the market should be designed to solve peak load problems through proper incentives to market players. NordREG presumes that the relevant authorities in each country will take decisions on the need for any peak load arrangement to ensure security of supply. NordREG proposes that such decisions should be

  1. Optimization of Design of Steam Turbine Exhaust Conduits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Goldin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving effectiveness turbine was and remains a key issue for today. In order to improve the efficiency of the turbine is necessary to reduce losses in the steam turbine exhaust conduit.This paper presents the design optimization exhaust conduit steam turbine K-27-2.9 produced by JSC «KTW» at the design stage. The aims of optimizing the design were: decreasing hydraulic resistance of the conduit, reduction of non-uniformity of the flow at the outlet of the conduit, equalizing steam flow ahead of the condenser tube bundle.The conduit models were made and flows in it were simulated in environment of the Solid Works and its application COSMOS Flo Works.As the initial conduit model was selected exhaust conduit of turbine PT-25/34-3.4 produced by JSC «KTW». Was obtained by the calculated velocity field at the outlet of the conduit. The analysis of the calculation results revealed the necessity of changes to the initial design of the conduit. The changes were accompanied by calculating currents flow in the conduit, and assessed the impact of design changes on the nature of the course. Further transformation of the construction of the conduit was held on the results of these calculations. Construction changes are not touched by the outer geometry of the conduit, and were introduced to meet technological.According to calculation results, conclusions were drawn and selected three versions of the conduit.Given are the research results for the initial conduit model and modified design versions. In order to evaluate the flow degree of irregularity the momentum factor (Bussinesku factor for outlet crosssection of the selected conduit design version. Analysis of the research results made it possible to determine optimum design of the exhaust conduit.Introducing the suggested alterations in the conduit design will result in improvement of heat exchange in the condenser, an increase in reliability of the tube bundle operation, a decrease in noise and

  2. Alkylation of Chitosan as Nerve Conduit Biomaterial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓劲光; 公衍道; 程明愚; 赵南明; 张秀芳

    2002-01-01

    Chitosan under physiological conditions is a degradable and biocompatible biomaterial with a wide variety of useful physicochemical properties. However, as a nerve conduit biomaterial, its solubility was very low, so chitosan was modified chemically to enhance its solubility. The free amino groups of long molecular chains in chitosan are responsible for its solubility, and the solubility could be adjusted by controlling the free amidogen capacity with N-alkylation. The results show that the solubility of N-alkylation chitosan is increased to 10%, which is an increase of 500%.

  3. Gas slug ascent through rheologically stratified conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capponi, Antonio; James, Mike R.; Lane, Steve J.

    2016-04-01

    Textural and petrological evidence has indicated the presence of viscous, degassed magma layers at the top of the conduit at Stromboli. This layer acts as a plug through which gas slugs burst and it is thought to have a role in controlling the eruptive dynamics. Here, we present the results of laboratory experiments which detail the range of slug flow configurations that can develop in a rheologically stratified conduit. A gas slug can burst (1) after being fully accommodated within the plug volume, (2) whilst its base is still in the underlying low-viscosity liquid or (3) within a low-viscosity layer dynamically emplaced above the plug during the slug ascent. We illustrate the relevance of the same flow configurations at volcanic-scale through a new experimentally-validated 1D model and 3D computational fluid dynamic simulations. Applied to Stromboli, our results show that gas volume, plug thickness, plug viscosity and conduit radius control the transition between each configuration; in contrast, the configuration distribution seems insensitive to the viscosity of magma beneath the plug, which acts mainly to deliver the slug into the plug. Each identified flow configuration encompasses a variety of processes including dynamic narrowing and widening of the conduit, generation of instabilities along the falling liquid film, transient blockages of the slug path and slug break-up. All these complexities, in turn, lead to variations in the slug overpressure, mirrored by changes in infrasonic signatures which are also associated to different eruptive styles. Acoustic amplitudes are strongly dependent on the flow configuration in which the slugs burst, with both acoustic peak amplitudes and waveform shapes reflecting different burst dynamics. When compared to infrasonic signals from Stromboli, the similarity between real signals and laboratory waveforms suggests that the burst of a slug through a plug may represent a viable first-order mechanism for the generation of

  4. Alternative windpower ownership structures: Financing terms and project costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Kahn, E.

    1996-05-01

    Most utility-scale renewable energy projects in the United States are developed and financed by private renewable energy companies. Electric output is then sold to investor-owned and public utilities under long-term contracts. Limited partnerships, sale/leaseback arrangements, and project-financing have historically been the dominant forms of finance in the windpower industry, with project-finance taking the lead more recently. Although private ownership using project-finance is still the most popular form of windpower development, alternative approaches to ownership and financing are becoming more prevalent. U.S. public and investor-owned electric utilities (IOUs) have begun to participate directly in windpower projects by owning and financing their own facilities rather than purchasing windpower from independent non-utility generators (NUGs) through power purchase agreements (PPAs). In these utility-ownership arrangements, the wind turbine equipment vendor/developer typically designs and constructs a project under a turnkey contract for the eventual project owner (the utility). The utility will also frequently sign an operations and maintenance (O&M) contract with the project developer/equipment vendor. There appear to be a number of reasons for utility involvement in recent and planned U.S. wind projects. One important claim is that utility ownership and self-finance provides substantial cost savings compared to contracting with private NUGs to supply wind-generated power. In this report, we examine that assertion.

  5. Best connected rectangular arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnendra Shekhawat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It can be found quite often in the literature that many well-known architects have employed either the golden rectangle or the Fibonacci rectangle in their works. On contrary, it is rare to find any specific reason for using them so often. Recently, Shekhawat (2015 proved that the golden rectangle and the Fibonacci rectangle are one of the best connected rectangular arrangements and this may be one of the reasons for their high presence in architectural designs. In this work we present an algorithm that generates n-4 best connected rectangular arrangements so that the proposed solutions can be further used by architects for their designs.

  6. Budget Scoring: An Impediment to Alternative Financing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-06

    partnership between the customer and an energy service company ( ESCO ). The ESCO conducts a comprehensive energy audit and identifies improvements that...will save energy at the facility. In consultation with the agency customer, the ESCO designs and constructs a project that meets the agency’s needs...and arranges financing to pay for it. The ESCO guarantees savings sufficient to pay for the project over the term of the contract. After the

  7. Delayed complication of pelvic lymphocele: Ileal conduit obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanket S Bankar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radical cystectomy is the standard treatment for muscle invasive bladder cancer. Lymphocele is a common sequalae of pelvic lymphadenectomy. We report an unusual presentation of pelvic lymphocele developing after radical cystectomy reconstructed with an ileal conduit where the patient developed obstruction of the ileal conduit loop due to external pressure of the lymphocele. Catheter drainage of the conduit relieved the symptoms and a computerized tomography scan showed a large lymphocele causing acute angulation and resultant obstruction of the ileal conduit. The patient was treated with percutaneous drainage of the lymphocele and remains symptom-free on follow-up at 1 year.

  8. Power distribution arrangement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    An arrangement and a method for distributing power supplied by a power source to two or more of loads (e.g., electrical vehicular systems) is disclosed, where a representation of the power taken by a particular one of the loads from the source is measured. The measured representation of the amount...

  9. FINANCING OF INTERNATIONAL TRANSACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU NICOLAE BĂLUNĂ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Financing (funding is essentially the purchase of funds necessary for a business. This can be done from internal sources (company’s own funds or external (borrowed funds. The high value of goods traded in international trade makes revenues generated from internal resources not sufficient to settle the value of the goods. Thus, it is frequent to resort to borrowed funds. In International Business Transactions, external financing is done both by classical techniques of credit (credit supplier and buyer credit and modern techniques of financing (factoring, forfeiting, leasing all trade tailored. In terms of the length of financing, accounting funding is short-term (1-12 months and long-term financing (over a year. In principle, export and import operations prevailing short-term financing techniques, while international investment and industrial cooperation actions are specific long-term funding

  10. Digitally Financed Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Waldron, Daniel; Faz, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The expansion of digital finance systems in the developing world has altered this financial context and enabled new business models that rely on small, regular payments. In the off-grid energy sector a group of solar companies, primarily in East Africa and South Asia, are leveraging digital finance to offer pay-as-you-go (PAYG) energy. This brief explains how digital finance is enabling PA...

  11. Guidebook to financing CDM projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamel, S.

    2007-07-01

    One of the challenges facing Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects today is their limited ability to secure financing for the underlying greenhouse gas emission reduction activities, particularly in the least developed countries. Among the key reasons for this is the fact that most financial intermediaries in the CDM host countries have limited or no knowledge of the CDM Modalities and Procedures. Moreover, approaches, tools and skills for CDM project appraisal are lacking or are asymmetrical to the skills in comparable institutions in developed countries. Consequently, developing country financial institutions are unable to properly evaluate the risks and rewards associated with investing or lending to developers undertaking CDM projects, and therefore have, by-and-large, refrained from financing these projects. In addition, some potential project proponents lack experience in structuring arrangements for financing a project. This Guidebook - commissioned by the UNEP Risoe Centre as part of the activities of the Capacity Development for CDM (CD4CDM) project (http://www.cd4cdm.org) - addresses these barriers by providing information aimed at both developing country financial institutions and at CDM project proponents. It should be noted that while the Guidebook was developed particularly with the CDM in mind, most sections will also be relevant for Joint Implementation (JI) project activities. For more detailed information on JI modalities and procedures please consult: http://ji.unfccc.int The purpose of this Guidebook is two-fold: 1) To guide project developers on obtaining financing for the implementation of activities eligible under the CDM; and 2) To demonstrate to developing country financial institutions typical approaches and methods for appraising the viability of CDM projects and for optimally integrating carbon revenue into overall project financing. The target audiences for the Guidebook are therefore, primarily: 1) CDM project proponents in

  12. Pooled credit plans offer financing alternatives to independent hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziglar, J W

    1983-06-01

    Using the collective financial strength of a group of not-for-profit health care institutions to finance capital needs has become an increasingly popular concept. This article discusses the significant advantages and disadvantages of the concept, provides an overview of the development of multi-institutional financing arrangements, and describes the generic forms of credit poolings. It also outlines three broad areas of inquiry to be explored by potential participants before entering a pooled credit arrangement: the relationships among participants, the availability of assets to support debt, and corporate planning and strategy.

  13. Intermediate links of line arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Bodin, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    We investigate several topological properties of line arrangements. The first result is that two generic complex line arrangements are equivalent. In fact for a line arrangement A we associate its defining polynomial f= prod_i (a_ix+b_iy+c_i), so that A = (f=0). We even prove that the defining polynomials of two generic line arrangements are topologically equivalent. In higher dimension the related result is that within a family of equivalent hyperplane arrangements the defining polynomials are topologically equivalent. A second type of objects associated to a line arrangement are links A cap S^3_r(0) obtained by intersecting the arrangement with some spheres. Several topics are discussed: (a) some link configurations can be realized by complex line arrangements but not by real line arrangements; (b) if we intersect the arrangements with a vertical band instead of a sphere, what link configurations can be obtained? (c) relations between link configurations obtained by bands and spheres.

  14. Imaging arrangement and microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertsinidis, Alexandros; Chu, Steven

    2015-12-15

    An embodiment of the present invention is an imaging arrangement that includes imaging optics, a fiducial light source, and a control system. In operation, the imaging optics separate light into first and second tight by wavelength and project the first and second light onto first and second areas within first and second detector regions, respectively. The imaging optics separate fiducial light from the fiducial light source into first and second fiducial light and project the first and second fiducial light onto third and fourth areas within the first and second detector regions, respectively. The control system adjusts alignment of the imaging optics so that the first and second fiducial light projected onto the first and second detector regions maintain relatively constant positions within the first and second detector regions, respectively. Another embodiment of the present invention is a microscope that includes the imaging arrangement.

  15. Steerable catoptric arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambauske, W.R.

    1976-04-13

    Catoptric arrangements for steering a laser beam by moving one, or more, mirrors relative to two substantially orthogonal axis of rotation are shown. In the various embodiments illustrated, one of such axes of rotation, around which all of the mirrors in each embodiment are rotatable, is coincident with the longitudinal axis of the laser beam to be steered so as to direct such longitudinal axis toward different points on a first focal circle. Means are provided to rotate all of the mirrors in each embodiment, except the mirror irradiated by the laser beam to be steered, around the second axis of rotation to direct the longitudinal axis of such beam toward different points on a second focal circle substantially orthogonal to the first focal circle. Also shown are exemplary modifications to position the mirrors within each arrangement to aim the steered beam to points adjacent to the first and second focal circles.

  16. Hyperplane arrangements an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Dimca, Alexandru

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides an accessible introduction to the rich and beautiful area of hyperplane arrangement theory, where discrete mathematics, in the form of combinatorics and arithmetic, meets continuous mathematics, in the form of the topology and Hodge theory of complex algebraic varieties. The topics discussed in this book range from elementary combinatorics and discrete geometry to more advanced material on mixed Hodge structures, logarithmic connections and Milnor fibrations. The author covers a lot of ground in a relatively short amount of space, with a focus on defining concepts carefully and giving proofs of theorems in detail where needed. Including a number of surprising results and tantalizing open problems, this timely book also serves to acquaint the reader with the rapidly expanding literature on the subject. Hyperplane Arrangements will be particularly useful to graduate students and researchers who are interested in algebraic geometry or algebraic topology. The book contains numerous exercise...

  17. How to quantify conduits in wood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eScholz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Vessels and tracheids represent the most important xylem cells with respect to long distance water transport in plants. Wood anatomical studies frequently provide several quantitative details of these cells, such as vessel diameter, vessel density, vessel element length, and tracheid length, while important information on the three dimensional structure of the hydraulic network is not considered. This paper aims to provide an overview of various techniques, although there is no standard protocol to quantify conduits due to high anatomical variation and a wide range of techniques available. Despite recent progress in image analysis programs and automated methods for measuring cell dimensions, density, and spatial distribution, various characters remain time-consuming and tedious. Quantification of vessels and tracheids is not only important to better understand functional adaptations of tracheary elements to environment parameters, but will also be essential for linking wood anatomy with other fields such as wood development, xylem physiology, palaeobotany, and dendrochronology.

  18. How to quantify conduits in wood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Alexander; Klepsch, Matthias; Karimi, Zohreh; Jansen, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Vessels and tracheids represent the most important xylem cells with respect to long distance water transport in plants. Wood anatomical studies frequently provide several quantitative details of these cells, such as vessel diameter, vessel density, vessel element length, and tracheid length, while important information on the three dimensional structure of the hydraulic network is not considered. This paper aims to provide an overview of various techniques, although there is no standard protocol to quantify conduits due to high anatomical variation and a wide range of techniques available. Despite recent progress in image analysis programs and automated methods for measuring cell dimensions, density, and spatial distribution, various characters remain time-consuming and tedious. Quantification of vessels and tracheids is not only important to better understand functional adaptations of tracheary elements to environment parameters, but will also be essential for linking wood anatomy with other fields such as wood development, xylem physiology, palaeobotany, and dendrochronology.

  19. Nanofibrous nerve conduit-enhanced peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xu; Mi, Ruifa; Hoke, Ahmet; Chew, Sing Yian

    2014-05-01

    Fibre structures represent a potential class of materials for the formation of synthetic nerve conduits due to their biomimicking architecture. Although the advantages of fibres in enhancing nerve regeneration have been demonstrated, in vivo evaluation of fibre size effect on nerve regeneration remains limited. In this study, we analyzed the effects of fibre diameter of electrospun conduits on peripheral nerve regeneration across a 15-mm critical defect gap in a rat sciatic nerve injury model. By using an electrospinning technique, fibrous conduits comprised of aligned electrospun poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) microfibers (981 ± 83 nm, Microfiber) or nanofibers (251 ± 32 nm, Nanofiber) were obtained. At three months post implantation, axons regenerated across the defect gap in all animals that received fibrous conduits. In contrast, complete nerve regeneration was not observed in the control group that received empty, non-porous PCL film conduits (Film). Nanofiber conduits resulted in significantly higher total number of myelinated axons and thicker myelin sheaths compared to Microfiber and Film conduits. Retrograde labeling revealed a significant increase in number of regenerated dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons in the presence of Nanofiber conduits (1.93 ± 0.71 × 10(3) vs. 0.98 ± 0.30 × 10(3) in Microfiber, p regeneration. These results could provide useful insights for future nerve guide designs.

  20. Coloring and Guarding Arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, Prosenjit; Collette, Sébastien; Hurtado, Ferran; Korman, Matias; Langerman, Stefan; Taslakian, Perouz

    2012-01-01

    Given an arrangement of lines in the plane, what is the minimum number $c$ of colors required to color the lines so that no cell of the arrangement is monochromatic? In this paper we give bounds on the number c both for the above question, as well as some of its variations. We redefine these problems as geometric hypergraph coloring problems. If we define $\\Hlinecell$ as the hypergraph where vertices are lines and edges represent cells of the arrangement, the answer to the above question is equal to the chromatic number of this hypergraph. We prove that this chromatic number is between $\\Omega (\\log n / \\log\\log n)$. and $O(\\sqrt{n})$. Similarly, we give bounds on the minimum size of a subset $S$ of the intersections of the lines in $\\mathcal{A}$ such that every cell is bounded by at least one of the vertices in $S$. This may be seen as a problem on guarding cells with vertices when the lines act as obstacles. The problem can also be defined as the minimum vertex cover problem in the hypergraph $\\Hvertexcell$...

  1. Public Library Finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    This study reviews trends in public library finance; examines recent political, economic, and technological changes; and assesses the impact of these changes on public library services. A history of the public library in America is presented, as well as an analysis of the principles of economics and public finance which reveals that current…

  2. POST BEHAVIORAL FINANCE ADOLESCENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIAN MITROI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of behavioral finance combines the investigation and expertise from research and practice into smart portfolios of individual investors’ portfolios. Understanding cognitive errors and misleading emotions drive investors to their long-term goals of financial prosperity and capital preservation. 10 years ago, Behavioral Finance was still considered an incipient, adolescent science. First Nobel Prize in Economics awarded to the study of Behavioral Economics in 2002 established the field as a new, respected study of economics. 2013 Nobel Prize was awarded to three economists, one of them considered the one of the founders of the Behavioral Finance. As such, by now we are entering the coming of age of behavioral finance. It is now recognized as a science of understanding investors behaviors and their biased patterns. It applies quantitative finance and provides practical models grounded on robust understanding of investors behavior toward financial risk. Financial Personality influences investment decisions. Behavioral portfolio construction methods combine classic finance with rigorously quantified psychological metrics and improves models for financial advice to enhance investors chances in reaching their lifetime financial goals. Behavioral finance helps understanding psychological profile dissimilarities of individuals and how these differences manifest in investment decision process. This new science has become now a must topic in modern finance.

  3. Geothermal Financing Workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battocletti, E.C.

    1998-02-01

    This report was prepared to help small firm search for financing for geothermal energy projects. There are various financial and economics formulas. Costs of some small overseas geothermal power projects are shown. There is much discussion of possible sources of financing, especially for overseas projects. (DJE-2005)

  4. Caring finance practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe 2008 financial crisis has demonstrated the failure of both utilitarian and deontological ethics in finance. Alternatives do not need to be created from nothing, because the crisis itself has stimulated the emergence of ethically sound finance practices from within the sector. This ar

  5. When Art & Finance Collide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Fine art and big finance are proving a profitable combination in China but questions of authenticity need to be addressed CHINA’S art market is on fire.As sales and prices break records,a new force has appeared in the market - organized art finance in the form of art trust funds and artwork exchanges.

  6. Public Education Finances, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The United States Census Bureau conducts an Annual Survey of Government Finances as authorized by law under Title 13, United States Code, Section 182. The 2006 survey, similar to other annual surveys and censuses of governments conducted for many years, covers the entire range of government finance activities--revenue, expenditure, debt, and…

  7. Public Education Finances, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The United States Census Bureau conducts an Annual Survey of Government Finances as authorized by law under Title 13, United States Code, Section 182. The 2008 survey, similar to other annual surveys and censuses of governments conducted for many years, covers the entire range of government finance activities--revenue, expenditure, debt, and…

  8. Public Education Finances, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Every five years, the U.S. Census Bureau conducts a Census of Government Finance, as authorized by law under Title 13, U.S. Code, Section 182. The 2007 Census, similar to annual surveys and censuses of governments conducted for many years, covers the entire range of government finance activities--revenue, expenditure, debt, and assets (cash and…

  9. Public Education Finances, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Commerce, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The United States Census Bureau conducts an Annual Survey of Government Finances as authorized by law under Title 13, United States Code, Section 182. The 2003 survey, similar to other annual surveys and censuses of governments conducted for many years, covers the entire range of government finance activities--revenue, expenditure, debt, and…

  10. Public Education Finances, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The United States Census Bureau conducts an Annual Survey of Government Finances as authorized by law under Title 13, United States Code, Section 182. The 2005 survey, similar to other annual surveys and censuses of governments conducted for many years, covers the entire range of government finance activities--revenue, expenditure, debt, and…

  11. Debt Financing: Academia's Funding Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rudy M.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses debt financing as a way to help universities alleviate the problems of obsolete scientific equipment and facilities for research. Reviews several forms of tax-exempt financing and takes note of some of the advantages of debt financing. (CS)

  12. Private Housing or Alternative Financing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Nick

    1999-01-01

    Explores the history of privatizing university housing and some current financing options, including use of developer and private foundations. Examples of successful alternative financing methods are highlighted. (GR)

  13. Essays in Household Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanspal, Tobin

    This Ph.D. thesis, entitled Essays in Household Finance, analyzes the determinants and implications of investment biases, personal experiences in financial markets, and financing disruptions on households, individual investors, and entrepreneurs and small business owners. The first essay...... on risk taking is the potential bias resulting from inertia and inattention, which has been shown to be endemic in household finance. If individuals are inert or inattentive, it is difficult to establish whether changes in risk taking are caused by personal experiences or whether the change in risk taking...

  14. Spotlight on CERN : Le code de conduite

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2010-01-01

    Cette année 2010, le démarrage du LHC a été le témoignage de la réussite de la collaboration scientifique au CERN, rapprochant les personnes, hommes et femmes, tous ensemble pour la plus grande des réalisations. Cette collaboration nécessite une ouverture sur la diversité basée sur des valeurs solides. Pour s’assurer que l'Organisation continue sur la voie du succès, un consensus a été atteint sur des valeurs caractérisant le CERN et celles-ci ont été regroupées dans un Code de conduite, décrivant la norme de base du comportement que nous pouvons tous espérer de nous-mêmes et de nos collègues sur notre lieu de travail. Entrevues avec Rolf Heuer, Directeur Général du CERN, Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Chef du Département des Ressources Humaines, et Vincent Vuillemin, Ombuds au CERN.

  15. Biological conduit small gap sleeve bridging method for peripheral nerve injury: regeneration law of nerve fibers in the conduit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-xun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical effects of 2-mm small gap sleeve bridging of the biological conduit to repair peripheral nerve injury are better than in the traditional epineurium suture, so it is possible to replace the epineurium suture in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. This study sought to identify the regeneration law of nerve fibers in the biological conduit. A nerve regeneration chamber was constructed in models of sciatic nerve injury using 2-mm small gap sleeve bridging of a biodegradable biological conduit. The results showed that the biological conduit had good histocompatibility. Tissue and cell apoptosis in the conduit apparently lessened, and regenerating nerve fibers were common. The degeneration regeneration law of Schwann cells and axons in the conduit was quite different from that in traditional epineurium suture. During the prime period for nerve fiber regeneration (2-8 weeks, the number of Schwann cells and nerve fibers was higher in both proximal and distal ends, and the effects of the small gap sleeve bridging method were better than those of the traditional epineurium suture. The above results provide an objective and reliable theoretical basis for the clinical application of the biological conduit small gap sleeve bridging method to repair peripheral nerve injury.

  16. Biological conduit small gap sleeve bridging method for peripheral nerve injury:regeneration law of nerve ifbers in the conduit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-xun Zhang; Li-ya A; Yu-hui Kou; Xiao-feng Yin; Feng Xue#; Na Han; Tian-bing Wang; Bao-guo Jiang

    2015-01-01

    The clinical effects of 2-mm small gap sleeve bridging of the biological conduit to repair periph-eral nerve injury are better than in the traditional epineurium suture, so it is possible to replace the epineurium suture in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. This study sought to identify the regeneration law of nerve fibers in the biological conduit. A nerve regeneration chamber was constructed in models of sciatic nerve injury using 2-mm small gap sleeve bridging of a biodegradable biological conduit. The results showed that the biological conduit had good his-tocompatibility. Tissue and cell apoptosis in the conduit apparently lessened, and regenerating nerve ifbers were common. The degeneration regeneration law of Schwann cells and axons in the conduit was quite different from that in traditional epineurium suture. During the prime period for nerve fiber regeneration (2–8 weeks), the number of Schwann cells and nerve fibers was higher in both proximal and distal ends, and the effects of the small gap sleeve bridging method were better than those of the traditional epineurium suture. The above results provide an objec-tive and reliable theoretical basis for the clinical application of the biological conduit small gap sleeve bridging method to repair peripheral nerve injury.

  17. Auspicious tatami mat arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, Alejandro; Schurch, Mark; Woodcock, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    An \\emph{auspicious tatami mat arrangement} is a tiling of a rectilinear region with two types of tiles, $1 \\times 2$ tiles (dimers) and $1 \\times 1$ tiles (monomers). The tiles must cover the region and satisfy the constraint that no four corners of the tiles meet; such tilings are called \\emph{tatami tilings}. The main focus of this paper is when the rectilinear region is a rectangle. We provide a structural characterization of rectangular tatami tilings and use it to prove that the tiling is completely determined by the tiles that are on its border. We prove that the number of tatami tilings of an $n \\times n$ square with $n$ monomers is $n2^{n-1}$. We also show that, for fixed-height, the generating function for the number of tatami tilings of a rectangle is a rational function, and outline an algorithm that produces the generating function.

  18. Financing Professional Sports Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Baade, Robert A.; Victor A. Matheson

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines public financing of professional sports facilities with a focus on both early and recent developments in taxpayer subsidization of spectator sports. The paper explores both the magnitude and the sources of public funding for professional sports facilities.

  19. PUBLIC FINANCE FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VEZURE OANA SABINA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of public finances is due to objective causes needs and determined their main function being to obtain the financial resources it needs for the State to exercise its powers and on the way to intervene in the economy and society general. Public finances are necessary, subjectively and objectively, as it contributes to accomplishing the tasks and functions of the state, which could not be realized without financial leverage. Public finances are inextricably linked to the existence of the state, and public sector's role in the economy. Thus, they express "social relations, economic arising in the establishment and use of public funds between the state, on the one hand, and members of society on the other hand, to meet the needs of general interest of society" [1]. Thus, the role of public finance is to meet the needs of general interest or collective needs.

  20. Interacting agents in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hommes

    2008-01-01

    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response t

  1. Financing Public Service Broadcasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Christian Edelvold; Lund, Anker Brink

    2012-01-01

    Broadcasting (PSB) financing regimes in Europe, concluding that Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden may still be considered conventional, licence fee PSB countries, but with some interesting differences in relation to competitive and market oriented alternatives of resource provision...

  2. Financing Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejerskov, Adam Moe; Funder, Mikkel; Engberg-Pedersen, Lars

    In the fall of 2015, world leaders adopted the most ambitious global development agenda in history. Meeting the aspiring targets of the Sustainable Development Goals will require financing far beyond traditional aid. At the same time, aid itself is under major pressure as European governments cut...... aid budgets or divert them to meet refugee and migration issues. In this context of massive global ambition and concurrent uncertainty on the future of aid, other actors and sources of development financing seem ever more critical, such as the private sector, private foundations and the BRICS....... But what are in fact the interests and modes of operation of such actors in the context of development financing, and to what extent do they align with the aims of the SDGs? And how do national governments of developing countries themselves perceive and approach these new sources of financing?...

  3. Private sector finance for adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atteridge, A.; Pauw, W.P.; Terpstra, P.; Bedini, F.; Bosi, L; Costella, C.

    2016-01-01

    An emphasis on private finance has emerged in climate finance discussions, particularly in the context of international climate change negotiations. This is partly because the overall volume of finance needed to support adaptation in developing countries is beyond what many expect public finance to

  4. Exploring Higher Education Financing Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Powell, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Higher education can be financed privately, financed by governments, or shared. Given that the benefits of education accrue to the individual and the state, many governments opt for shared financing. This article examines the underpinnings of different options for financing higher education and develops a model to compare conditions to choices and…

  5. Guided regeneration with resorbable conduits in experimental peripheral nerve injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoli Aldini, N.; Fini, M; Rocca, M; Giavaresi, G.; Giardino, R.

    2000-01-01

    Guided tissue regeneration is a new approach in the reconstructive surgery of peripheral nerves. Artificial conduits can be constructed from biodegradable polymers. Lactic/caproic acid copolymers and polyphospazenes are biocompatible materials with a slow resorption rate. Conduits made from either poly-[l-lactide-co-6-caprolatone] or poly-[bis-(ethylalanate)-phosphazene] were assessed for use as guides for nerve regeneration in experimental animals. Under general anesthesia and by using a mic...

  6. Creative Capital Financing: Lease Purchase and Leasing Air Space (The Florida Approach).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Franklin L.

    1983-01-01

    Among recent creative financing arrangements for public sector construction in Florida are the Duval County Central Administration Building, constructed with a lease purchase arrangement, and state legislation that provides for the leasing or sale of air space by local school boards or boards of regents. (MLF)

  7. Biological and artificial nerve conduit for repairing peripheral nerve defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuetao Xie; Changqing Zhang

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recently, with the development of biological and artificial materials, the experimental and clinical studies on application of this new material-type nerve conduit for treatment of peripheral nerve defect have become the hotspot topics for professorial physicians.DATA SOURCES: Using the terms "nerve conduits, peripheral nerve, nerve regeneration and nerve transplantation" in English, we searched Pubmed database, which was published during January 2000 to June 2006, for the literatures related to repairing peripheral nerve defect with various materials. At the same time, we also searched Chinese Technical Scientific Periodical Database at the same time period by inputting" peripheral nerve defect, nerve repair, nerve regeneration and nerve graft" in Chinese.STUDY SELECTION: The materials were firstly selected, and literatures about study on various materials for repairing peripheral nerve defect and their full texts were also searched. Inclusive criteria: nerve conduits related animal experiments and clinical studies. Exclusive criteria: review or repetitive studies.DATA EXTRACTION: Seventy-nine relevant literatures were collected and 30 of them met inclusive criteria and were cited.DATA SYNTHESTS: Peripheral nerve defect, a commonly seen problem in clinic, is difficult to be solved. Autogenous nerve grafting is still the gold standard for repairing peripheral nerve defect, but because of its application limitation and possible complications, people studied nerve conduits to repair nerve defect. Nerve conduits consist of biological and artificial materials.CONCLUSION: There have been numerous reports about animal experimental and clinical studies of various nerve conduits, but nerve conduit, which is more ideal than autogenous nerve grafting, needs further clinical observation and investigation.

  8. Internationally Recommended Best Practices in Transportation Financing Public-Private Partnerships (P3s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Lawrence; Lawther, Wendell; Hodge, Graeme

    2013-01-01

    sector partner designs-builds-finances-operates- maintains (DBFOM) a transportation infrastructure asset (road, highway, bridge, tunnel, etc.) with an emphasis on financing. Under this type of arrangement, the private sector partner is primarily responsible for securing all or substantially all...... internationally recommended best practices in transportation financing P3s. Based upon the study findings, a checklist in then proposed that can be used by U.S. state and local governments to assess their current or proposed transportation financing P3 policies and procedures. The article makes a contribution...

  9. The Finance Curse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, John; Shaxson, Nick; Wigan, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    The Global Financial Crisis placed the utility of financial services in question. The crash, great recession, wealth transfers from public to private, austerity and growing inequality cast doubt on the idea that finance is a boon to the host economy. This article systematizes these doubts...... to highlight the perils of an oversized financial sector. States failing to harness natural resources for development led to the concept of the Resource Curse. In many countries, resource dependence generated slower growth, crowding out, reduced economic diversity, lost entrepreneurialism, unemployment......, economic instability, inequality, conflict, rent-seeking and corruption. The Finance Curse produces similar effects, often for similar reasons. Beyond a point, a growing financial sector can do more harm than good. Unlike the Resource Curse, these harms transcend borders. The concept of a Finance Curse...

  10. Guidebook to Geothermal Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, J. P.; Meurice, J.; Wobus, N.; Stern, F.; Duaime, M.

    2011-03-01

    This guidebook is intended to facilitate further investment in conventional geothermal projects in the United States. It includes a brief primer on geothermal technology and the most relevant policies related to geothermal project development. The trends in geothermal project finance are the focus of this tool, relying heavily on interviews with leaders in the field of geothermal project finance. Using the information provided, developers and investors may innovate in new ways, developing partnerships that match investors' risk tolerance with the capital requirements of geothermal projects in this dynamic and evolving marketplace.

  11. Rethinking SMEs’ Financing Predicament

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A waveofsharpcriticism has been aimed atthebanks concerning the difficulties for China’ss mallandmedium-sized enterprises(SMEs)in acquiring financing,whilethe Central Government began to strongly urge banks to provide loans for SMEs.Shouldall SMEs be financed while the bankst ake theblame?Is there anyother viable way to pull SMEs outof the financial predicament?Qiu Haiping,a professor with the School of Economics at Renmin University of China,recentlye xamined the issue and offered insights in the Guangming Daily.Edited excerpts follow

  12. Sciatic nerve repair using adhesive bonding and a modiifed conduit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangdang Liang; Hongfei Cai; Yongyu Hao; Geng Sun; Yaoyao Song; Wen Chen

    2014-01-01

    When repairing nerves with adhesives, most researchers place glue directly on the nerve stumps, but this method does not ifx the nerve ends well and allows glue to easily invade the nerve ends. In this study, we established a rat model of completely transected sciatic nerve injury and re-paired it using a modiifed 1 cm-length conduit with inner diameter of 1.5 mm. Each end of the cylindrical conduit contains a short linear channel, while the enclosed central tube protects the nerve ends well. Nerves were repaired with 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate and suture, which complement the function of the modiifed conduit. The results demonstrated that for the same conduit, the av-erage operation time using the adhesive method was much shorter than with the suture method. No signiifcant differences were found between the two groups in sciatic function index, motor evoked potential latency, motor evoked potential amplitude, muscular recovery rate, number of medullated nerve fibers, axon diameter, or medullary sheath thickness. Thus, the adhesive method for repairing nerves using a modiifed conduit is feasible and effective, and reduces the operation time while providing an equivalent repair effect.

  13. Nanofiber-reinforced biological conduit in cardiac surgery: preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhathakurta, Soma; Galla, Satish; Ramesh, Balasundari; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen

    2011-06-01

    Several options are available for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction, including commercially available bovine jugular vein and cryo-preserved homografts. Homograft non-availability and the problems of commercially available conduits led us to develop indigenously processed bovine jugular vein conduits with competent valves. They were made completely acellular and strengthened by non-conventional cross-linking without disturbing the extracellular matrix, which improved the luminal surface characteristics for hemocompatibility. Biocompatibility in vitro and in vivo, along with thermal stability, matrix stability, and mechanical strength have been evaluated. Sixty-nine patients received these conduits for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction. Seven conduits dilated and 4 required replacement. To counteract dilatation, biodegradable polymeric nanofibers in various combinations and in isolation (collagen, polycaprolactone, polylactic acid) were characterized and used to reinforce the conduit circumferentially. Physical validation by mechanical testing, scanning electron microscopy, and in-vitro cytotoxicity was conducted. Thermal stability, spectroscopy studies of the polymer, and preclinical studies of the coated bovine jugular vein in animals are in progress. The feasibility studies have been completed, and the final polymer selection depends on evaluation of the functional superiority of the coated bovine jugular vein.

  14. Finance Law Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Education Finance, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Reviews recent state and federal court decisions dealing with issues relevant to educational finance. Within the broad area of elementary-secondary education, specific cases involve allocation of federal school aid, fees charged by public schools for textbooks and instructional materials, property acquisition and school construction, and…

  15. Nuclear Physicists in Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoni, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    The financial services industry presents an interesting alternative career path for nuclear physicists. Careers in finance typically offer intellectual challenge, a fast pace, high caliber colleagues, merit-based compensation with substantial upside, and an opportunity to deploy skills learned as a physicist. Physicists are employed at a wide range of financial institutions on both the ``buy side'' (hedge fund managers, private equity managers, mutual fund managers, etc.) and the ``sell side'' (investment banks and brokerages). Historically, physicists in finance were primarily ``quants'' tasked with applying stochastic calculus to determine the price of financial derivatives. With the maturation of the field of derivative pricing, physicists in finance today find work in a variety of roles ranging from quantification and management of risk to investment analysis to development of sophisticated software used to price, trade, and risk manage securities. Only a small subset of today's finance careers for physicists require the use of advanced math and practically none provide an opportunity to tinker with an apparatus, yet most nevertheless draw on important skills honed during the training of a nuclear physicist. Intellectually rigorous critical thinking, sophisticated problem solving, an attention to minute detail and an ability to create and test hypotheses based on incomplete information are key to both disciplines.

  16. Campaign Finance: Reporter Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Campaign finance might seem like the exclusive province of political reporters, but there are many good reasons why authors should be paying attention--both in races for education positions and in other key races at the local, state, and federal levels with implications for education. Basic math is a necessary skill and familiarity with a…

  17. From Finance Capitalism to Financialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2014-01-01

    In this article I interpret 150 years of financial history with a focus on shifts in the role of finance in society. I argue that over time the role of finance has shifted twice from that of servant to that of master of society, and that this process has been driven by sense making through narrat...... narratives that legitimized and shaped these changes. When finance became a master rent seeking, cultural capture and out-of control financial innovation resulted in financial and social instability. Finance as a master was the characteristic of finance capitalism from around 1900......–1931 and of financialization from around 1980 to today. Finance capitalism and financialization were enabled by a dominant narrative that legitimized the power of finance. The shifts in the role of finance happened when crises undermined the meaning of the existing narrative and created for a new narrative able to make sense...

  18. The Challenge of Islamic Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Andrew; Singh, Ajit

    2012-01-01

    From its humble beginnings in the 1990s, Islamic finance has become a trillion US dollar industry. The market consensus is that Islamic finance has a bright future due to favourable demographics and rising incomes in the Muslim community. Moreover, despite voices sceptical of an accommodation between Islamic and global finance, leading global banks are buying Islamic bonds and forming subsidiaries specially to conduct Islamic finance business. Special laws have been passed in non-Muslim fi...

  19. Modeling Reactive Transport in Coupled Groundwater-Conduit Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiessl, S. M.; Sauter, M.; Zheng, C.; Viswanathan, H. S.

    2002-05-01

    Modeling reactive transport in coupled groundwater-conduit systems requires consideration of two transport time scales in the flow and transport models. Consider for example a subsurface mine consisting of a network of highly conductive shafts, drifts or ventilation raises (i.e., conduits) within the considerably less permeable ore material (i.e., matrix). In the conduits, potential contaminants can travel much more rapidly than in the background aquifer (matrix). Since conduits cannot necessarily be regarded as a continuum, double continuum models are only of limited use for simulation of contaminant transport in such coupled groundwater-conduit systems. This study utilizes a "hybrid" flow and transport model in which contaminants can in essence be transported at a slower time scale in the matrix and at a faster time scale in the conduits. The hybrid flow model uses an approach developed by Clemens et al. (1996), which is based on the modelling of flow in a discrete pipe network, coupled to a continuum representing the low-permeability inter-conduit matrix blocks. Laminar or turbulent flow can be simulated in the different pipes depending on the flow conditions in the model domain. The three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater flow model MODFLOW (Harbaugh and McDonald, 1996) is used to simulate flow in the continuum. Contaminant transport within the matrix is simulated with a continuum approach using the three-dimensional multi-species solute transport model MT3DMS (Zheng and Wang, 1999), while that in the conduit system is simulated with a one-dimensional advective transport model. As a first step for reactive transport modeling in such systems, only equilibrium reactions among multiple species are considered by coupling the hybrid transport model to a geochemical speciation package. An idealized mine network developed by Viswanathan and Sauter (2001) is used as a test problem in this study. The numerical experiment is based on reference date collected from

  20. Convective heat transfer of nanofluid flow through conduits with different cross-sectional shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salimpour, Mohammad Reza; Dehshiri-Parizi, Amir [Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    This study investigates the laminar forced convective heat transfer of TiO{sub 2}/water nanofluids through conduits with different cross sections, experimentally. The effects of different parameters, such as cross-sectional shape, Reynolds number, and concentration of nanoparticles, on the enhanced heat transfer are examined by designing and assembling an experimental apparatus. Results show that adding a small amount of nanoparticles to the base fluid improves heat transfer behavior in conduits. A conduit with a circular cross section performs better than conduits with square and triangular cross sections. However, conduits with square and triangular cross sections exhibit more relative enhancements than a conduit with a circular cross section.

  1. Information,Informal finance,and SME financing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Justin Yifu; SUN Xifang

    2006-01-01

    Informal finance exists extensively and has been playing an important role in small-and medium-sized enterprise (SME) financing in developing economies,This paper tries to rationalize the extensiveness of informal finance.SME financing suffers more serious information asymmetry to the extent that most SMEs are more opaque and can only provide less collateral.Informal lenders have an advantage over formal financial institutions in collecting "soft information" about SME borrowers.This paper establishes a model including formal and informal lenders and high-and low-risk borrowers with or without sufficient collateral and shows that the credit market in which informal finance is eliminated will allocate funds in some inefficient way,and the efficiency of allocating credit funds can be improved once informal finance is allowed to coexist with formal finance.

  2. Financing climate change adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwer, Laurens M; Aerts, Jeroen C J H

    2006-03-01

    This paper examines the topic of financing adaptation in future climate change policies. A major question is whether adaptation in developing countries should be financed under the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), or whether funding should come from other sources. We present an overview of financial resources and propose the employment of a two-track approach: one track that attempts to secure climate change adaptation funding under the UNFCCC; and a second track that improves mainstreaming of climate risk management in development efforts. Developed countries would need to demonstrate much greater commitment to the funding of adaptation measures if the UNFCCC were to cover a substantial part of the costs. The mainstreaming of climate change adaptation could follow a risk management path, particularly in relation to disaster risk reduction. 'Climate-proofing' of development projects that currently do not consider climate and weather risks could improve their sustainability.

  3. Statistics for Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindström, Erik; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Jan Nygaard

    Statistics for Finance develops students’ professional skills in statistics with applications in finance. Developed from the authors’ courses at the Technical University of Denmark and Lund University, the text bridges the gap between classical, rigorous treatments of financial mathematics...... that rarely connect concepts to data and books on econometrics and time series analysis that do not cover specific problems related to option valuation. The book discusses applications of financial derivatives pertaining to risk assessment and elimination. The authors cover various statistical......, identify interest rate models, value bonds, estimate parameters, and much more. This textbook will help students understand and manage empirical research in financial engineering. It includes examples of how the statistical tools can be used to improve value-at-risk calculations and other issues...

  4. Finance and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Panizza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanThis chapter reviews the literature on finance and economic development. It starts with a description of the roles of finance, a definition of financial efficiency, and a discussion of whether countries may have financial sectors that are ‘too large’ compared to the size of the domestic economy. Next, the author describes several indicators of financial development and reviews the literature on the relationship between financial development and economic growth. In the literature review, he discusses in detail some recent evidence indicating that the marginal contribution of financial development to gross domestic product (GDP growth becomes negative when credit to the private sector reaches 110 per cent of GDP. The chapter concludes with some policy conclusions targeted to developing countries.

  5. "Fraud alert": joint venture arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vipperman, R M

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services recently issued a special "Fraud Alert" identifying those characteristics of joint venture arrangements that it views as indicators of potentially unlawful activity. As discussed in this article, participants in joint ventures should examine their arrangements to see if one or more of the questionable features are present, and, if so, should take steps to eliminate them, to the extent possible.

  6. Design of barrier coatings on kink-resistant peripheral nerve conduits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Acan Clements

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report on the design of braided peripheral nerve conduits with barrier coatings. Braiding of extruded polymer fibers generates nerve conduits with excellent mechanical properties, high flexibility, and significant kink-resistance. However, braiding also results in variable levels of porosity in the conduit wall, which can lead to the infiltration of fibrous tissue into the interior of the conduit. This problem can be controlled by the application of secondary barrier coatings. Using a critical size defect in a rat sciatic nerve model, the importance of controlling the porosity of the nerve conduit walls was explored. Braided conduits without barrier coatings allowed cellular infiltration that limited nerve recovery. Several types of secondary barrier coatings were tested in animal studies, including (1 electrospinning a layer of polymer fibers onto the surface of the conduit and (2 coating the conduit with a cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel. Sixteen weeks after implantation, hyaluronic acid-coated conduits had higher axonal density, displayed higher muscle weight, and better electrophysiological signal recovery than uncoated conduits or conduits having an electrospun layer of polymer fibers. This study indicates that braiding is a promising method of fabrication to improve the mechanical properties of peripheral nerve conduits and demonstrates the need to control the porosity of the conduit wall to optimize functional nerve recovery.

  7. Design of barrier coatings on kink-resistant peripheral nerve conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Basak Acan; Bushman, Jared; Murthy, N Sanjeeva; Ezra, Mindy; Pastore, Christopher M; Kohn, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report on the design of braided peripheral nerve conduits with barrier coatings. Braiding of extruded polymer fibers generates nerve conduits with excellent mechanical properties, high flexibility, and significant kink-resistance. However, braiding also results in variable levels of porosity in the conduit wall, which can lead to the infiltration of fibrous tissue into the interior of the conduit. This problem can be controlled by the application of secondary barrier coatings. Using a critical size defect in a rat sciatic nerve model, the importance of controlling the porosity of the nerve conduit walls was explored. Braided conduits without barrier coatings allowed cellular infiltration that limited nerve recovery. Several types of secondary barrier coatings were tested in animal studies, including (1) electrospinning a layer of polymer fibers onto the surface of the conduit and (2) coating the conduit with a cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel. Sixteen weeks after implantation, hyaluronic acid-coated conduits had higher axonal density, displayed higher muscle weight, and better electrophysiological signal recovery than uncoated conduits or conduits having an electrospun layer of polymer fibers. This study indicates that braiding is a promising method of fabrication to improve the mechanical properties of peripheral nerve conduits and demonstrates the need to control the porosity of the conduit wall to optimize functional nerve recovery.

  8. Green building financing

    OpenAIRE

    Brunko, Pavlo

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of green buildings financing. It is noted that bank lending can be a major source of funds for construction. However, current trends in the economy of Ukraine shows that credit, especially lending to construction, is in poor condition. Accordingly, there is a need to explore the possibility of additional measures that can be applied to bringing financial resources into the construction.The author brings evidence in favor of feasibility of raising funds fo...

  9. When Art & Finance Collide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lintao

    2011-01-01

    CHINA'S art market is on fire.As sales and prices break records,a new force has appeared in the market-organized art finance in the form of art trust funds and artwork exchanges.It was reported that the anonymous winner of the bid for the Song Dynasty calligraphy work Dizhuming by Huang Tingjian (1045-1105).which was sold for a staggering 436.

  10. Combined physical and chemical nonequilibrium transport model for solution conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Malcolm S; Leij, Feike J

    2014-02-01

    Solute transport in karst aquifers is primarily constrained to relatively complex and inaccessible solution conduits where transport is often rapid, turbulent, and at times constrictive. Breakthrough curves generated from tracer tests in solution conduits are typically positively-skewed with long tails evident. Physical nonequilibrium models to fit breakthrough curves for tracer tests in solution conduits are now routinely employed. Chemical nonequilibrium processes are likely important interactions, however. In addition to partitioning between different flow domains, there may also be equilibrium and nonequilibrium partitioning between the aqueous and solid phases. A combined physical and chemical nonequilibrium (PCNE) model was developed for an instantaneous release similar to that developed by Leij and Bradford (2009) for a pulse release. The PCNE model allows for partitioning open space in solution conduits into mobile and immobile flow regions with first-order mass transfer between the two regions to represent physical nonequilibrium in the conduit. Partitioning between the aqueous and solid phases proceeds either as an equilibrium process or as a first-order process and represents chemical nonequilibrium for both the mobile and immobile regions. Application of the model to three example breakthrough curves demonstrates the applicability of the combined physical and chemical nonequilibrium model to tracer tests conducted in karst aquifers, with exceptionally good model fits to the data. The three models, each from a different state in the United States, exhibit very different velocities, dispersions, and other transport properties with most of the transport occurring via the fraction of mobile water. Fitting the model suggests the potentially important interaction of physical and chemical nonequilibrium processes.

  11. Clinical use of nerve conduits in peripheral-nerve repair : Review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Coert, JH

    2002-01-01

    The use of nerve conduits has evolved from a previous experimental idea to a clinical reality over the last ten years. An overview of the literature on the clinical use of nerve conduits in peripheral-nerve repair is presented.

  12. Budget Scoring of Alternative Financing Methods for Defense Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    a partnership between the customer and an energy service company ( ESCO ). The ESCO conducts a comprehensive energy audit and identifies improvements...that will save energy at the facility. In consultation with the agency customer, The ESCO designs and constructs a project that meets the agency’s...needs and arranges financing to pay for it. The ESCO guarantees savings sufficient to pay for the project over the term of the contract. After the

  13. Hemiresective reconstruction of a redundant ileal conduit with severe bilateral ileal conduit-ureteral re fl ux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Tetsuya; Minowada, Shigeru; Kishi, Hiroichi; Hamasaki, Kimihisa; Saito, Kiyoshi; Kitamura, Tadaichi

    2005-10-01

    A 58-year-old man was referred to our hospital with high fever and anuria. Since undergoing a total pelvic exenteration due to bladder-invasive sigmoid colon cancer, urinary tract infections had frequently occurred. We treated with the construction of a bilateral percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN), and chemotherapy. Although we replaced the PCN with a single J ureteral catheter after an improvement of infection, urinary infection recurred because of an obstruction of the catheter. Urological examinations showed that an ileal conduit-ureteral reflux caused by kinking of the ileal loop was the reason why frequent pyelonephritis occurred. We decided to resect the proximal segment to improve conduit-ureteral reflux for the resistant pyelonephritis. After the surgery, the excretory urogram showed improvement and the urinary retention at the ileal conduit disappeared. Three years after the operation, renal function has been stable without episodes of pyelonephritis. Here we report a case of open repair surgery of an ileal conduit in a patient with severe urinary infection.

  14. 30 CFR 75.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conduits enclosing power conductors. 75.700 Section 75.700 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Grounding § 75.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. All metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors shall be electrically continuous throughout...

  15. 30 CFR 77.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conduits enclosing power conductors. 77.700 Section 77.700 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH..., and conduits enclosing power conductors. Metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors shall be electrically continuous throughout and shall be grounded by methods approved by...

  16. Arranged marriages annulled by law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H

    1996-06-01

    The arranged marriages of 210 young people in Yongle Town in Zunyi County of Guizhou Province were dissolved in 1995. The proportion of child betrothals, which generally happens among close relatives, is as high as 85% in the town. Some engagements, known as fetus betrothals or belt betrothals, are arranged before the children are born or while they are still infants strapped (belted) to their mothers. Dissemination of information from the Constitution, the Marriage Law, and the Regulations on the Registration of Marriage concerning marriage, healthier births, and good upbringing of children, and other information on reproductive health, has shown young people that they have the freedom to love and marry of their own free will, that their marriage is protected by law, and that consanguineous marriage is harmful to the health of future generations. Some convinced their parents that their arranged marriages should be annulled.

  17. F# for quantitative finance

    CERN Document Server

    Astborg, Johan

    2013-01-01

    To develop your confidence in F#, this tutorial will first introduce you to simpler tasks such as curve fitting. You will then advance to more complex tasks such as implementing algorithms for trading semi-automation in a practical scenario-based format.If you are a data analyst or a practitioner in quantitative finance, economics, or mathematics and wish to learn how to use F# as a functional programming language, this book is for you. You should have a basic conceptual understanding of financial concepts and models. Elementary knowledge of the .NET framework would also be helpful.

  18. Cryovolcanic Conduit Evolution and Eruption on Icy Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    In silicate volcanism, such as on Earth or Io, eruptions typically result from fracture formation caused by interaction of tectonic stresses with inflating, pressurized magma sources, leading to transport of melt through an evolving conduit. On icy satellites the paradigm may be similar, resulting from some combination of tidal stresses and expansion of freezing water within, or near the base of, an ice shell. Such a fracture will result in eruption if mass continuity can be established, with buoyancy aided by exsolution and expansion of dissolved volatiles. After onset, conduit shape evolves due to: (1) shear-stresses or frictional erosional; (2) wallrock "bursting" due to massive wall stresses; (3) wall melting or condensation of particles due to heat transfer; or (4) changes in applied stresses. Preliminary thermodynamic and fluid mechanical analysis suggests some initial cooling during ascent resulting from exsolution and expansion of volatiles, thermally buffered by freezing, Conduit contraction may occur, and so evolution towards a deep, gas-filled plume chamber is difficult to accommodate without evoking a co-incidental process. Conduit flaring occurs near the surface where velocities are greatest, enhancing erosion. Here, viscous dissipative heating exceeds adiabatic cooling, and so some boiling (a few wt%) may occur. In contrast with silicate volcanism, decompression to below the triple point will occur within conduit, vent or jet, resulting in rapid freezing and boiling of the remaining water at a 6.8:1 ratio. Subsequent isentropic or adiabatic expansion within erupting jets may result in a few percent net of condensation or sublimation. These effects combined lead to ~4:1-7:1 solid:vapor ratios in the jet for most eruption conditions. These figures are consistent with the ~6:1 inferred in Enceladus' jets, supporting the hypothesis that the Enceladus plume draws from a subsurface body of liquids through a conduit. Similar results are anticipated if

  19. Manipulating Multistage Interconnection Networks Using Fundamental Arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gur

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing interconnection networks is a prime object in switching schemes. In this work the authors present a novel approach for obtaining a required channel arrangement in a multi-stage interconnectionnetwork, using a new concept – a fundamental arrangement. The fundamental arrangement is an initial N-1 stage switch arrangement that allows obtaining any required output channel arrangement given an input arrangement, using N/2 binary switches at each stage. The paper demonstrates how a fundamental arrangement can be achieved and how, once this is done, any required arrangement may be obtained within 2(N-1 steps.

  20. Empirical techniques in finance

    CERN Document Server

    Bhar, Ramaprasad

    2005-01-01

    This book offers the opportunity to study and experience advanced empi- cal techniques in finance and in general financial economics. It is not only suitable for students with an interest in the field, it is also highly rec- mended for academic researchers as well as the researchers in the industry. The book focuses on the contemporary empirical techniques used in the analysis of financial markets and how these are implemented using actual market data. With an emphasis on Implementation, this book helps foc- ing on strategies for rigorously combing finance theory and modeling technology to extend extant considerations in the literature. The main aim of this book is to equip the readers with an array of tools and techniques that will allow them to explore financial market problems with a fresh perspective. In this sense it is not another volume in eco- metrics. Of course, the traditional econometric methods are still valid and important; the contents of this book will bring in other related modeling topics tha...

  1. Financing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersdorf, R G

    1991-02-01

    The cost of a medical education may dissuade qualified young people from entering the medical profession or may so load them with debt that they cannot pursue relatively low-paid careers in primary care or clinical investigation. Three aspects of this problem are examined: (1) the cost of medical school, (2) the magnitude of student indebtedness, and (3) the effects of this indebtedness on career choices. High tuition and fees require many students to assume sizable educational debts, some of which are so large that the trainees will be unable to repay them unless they enter highly remunerative specialties. Also, high levels of indebtedness may increase default levels once graduates feel the full impact of scheduled repayments. Several steps would help to alleviate this problem, but are unlikely to solve it. First, medical schools should lower tuition or at least declare a moratorium on increases. Second, limits should be imposed on the amount of total education debt a student is allowed to assume. Third, hospitals with extensive residency programs should assume some responsibility for helping trainees manage their finances. Fourth, the government should institute a loan forgiveness program that addresses the need for physician-investigators, primary care physicians, those willing to practice in underserved areas, and those from underrepresented minorities. And fifth, all institutions involved in medical training and its finance should work together to advise students on managing their debts.

  2. Financing the New Economy : its Impact on Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzi, Jean-Hervé

    2000-01-01

    L’exceptionnelle performance de l’économie des Etats-Unis durant les années 1990 a conduit les économistes à s’interroger successivement sur le phénomène de la nouvelle économie, la réalité de ses effets favorables et les risques qu’elle engendre. Au cœur de ces trois interrogations, se situe celle du rôle que pourrait jouer en positif et en négatif les conditions nouvelles de financement de la croissance et singulièrement celles de la nouvelle économie. Dans une première partie, nous reviend...

  3. PFI redux? Assessing a new model for financing hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellowell, Mark

    2013-11-01

    There is a growing need for investments in hospital facilities to improve the efficiency and quality of health services. In recent years, publicly financed hospital organisations in many countries have utilised private finance arrangements, variously called private finance initiatives (PFIs), public-private partnerships (PPPs) or P3s, to address their capital requirements. However, such projects have become more difficult to implement since the onset of the global financial crisis, which has led to a reduction in the supply of debt capital and an increase in its price. In December 2012, the government of the United Kingdom outlined a comprehensive set of reforms to the private finance model in order to revive this important source of capital for hospital investments. This article provides a critical assessment of the 'Private Finance 2' reforms, focusing on their likely impact on the supply and cost of capital. It concludes that constraints in supply are likely to continue, in part due to regulatory constraints facing both commercial banks and institutional investors, while the cost of capital is likely to increase, at least in the short term.

  4. Financing options for public electric systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, C.M.

    Public utilities, traditionally restricted in sources of capital, in recent years have developed innovations in financing. The predominant method for raising capital is long-term revenue bonds. Newer devices include warrants (attached to bonds; must be exercised within stated time), variable rates, deep discount (bond carrying coupon 300 to 400 basis points less than market interest, purchased 20 to 30% below face value), calls and puts (call prohibits redemption for stated time; put allows early specified redemption), defeasance (issue of refunding bonds at lower interest rate to refund earlier issues), shelf registration (official statement ready on moment's notice), insurance on principal and interest, leasing arrangements, lines of credit, tax-exempt commercial paper, bond anticipation notes, minibonds, cash management, and techniques such as swaps, options, and futures. 3 figures, 1 table.

  5. Stable and Reactive Centering in Conduits for Karstic Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Karst groundwaters provide fresh water resources to supply cities. In the case of deep groundwater resources around the Mediterranean basin there is a need to explore karst aquifers and gather data about their structure. Robots are well adapted for this task especially when exploring karst conduits at depths greater than 200m. However, as karst aquifers environment is very complex, robots need to exhibit a collection of abilities to ensure a safe exploration. Among the...

  6. Explosive device of conduit using Ti Ni alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Kolobov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently, materials have been developed which are capable at changing temperate to return significant inelastic deformations, exhibit rubber-like elasticity, convert heat into mechanical work, etc. The aggregate of these effects is usually called the shape memory effect.At present a great number of compounds and alloys with a shape memory effect has been known.These are alloys based on titanium nickelide (TiNi, copper-based alloys (Cu-Al, Cu-Sn, Cu-Al-Ni, Cu-Zn-Si, etc., gold and silver (Ag-Cd, Au-Ag-Cd, Au-Cd-Cu, Au-Zn-Cu, etc., manganese (Mn-Cr, Fe-Cu, Mn-Cu-Ni, Mn-Cu-Zr, Mn-Ni, etc., iron (Fe-Mn, Fe-Ni, Fe-Al, etc., and other compounds.The alloys based on titanium nickelide (nitinol are the most widely used.Alloys with shape memory effect find various applications in engineering and medicine, namely connecting devices, actuators, transformable design, multipurpose medical implants, etc.There is a task of breaking fuel conduit during separating the spacecraft from the rocket in space technology.The paper examines the procedure for design calculation of the separating device of conduit with the use of Ti-Ni alloy. This device can be used instead of the pyro-knives.The device contains two semi-rings from Ti-Ni alloy. In the place of break on the conduit an annular radius groove is made.At a temperature of martensite passage the semi-rings undergo deformation and in the strained state are set in the device. With heating to the temperature of the austenitic passage of bushing macro-deformation the energy stored by the nitinol bushing is great enough to break the conduit on the neck.The procedures of design calculation and response time of device are given.

  7. Free-boundary models of a meltwater conduit

    KAUST Repository

    Dallaston, Michael C.

    2014-08-01

    © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. We analyse the cross-sectional evolution of an englacial meltwater conduit that contracts due to inward creep of the surrounding ice and expands due to melting. Making use of theoretical methods from free-boundary problems in Stokes flow and Hele-Shaw squeeze flow we construct an exact solution to the coupled problem of external viscous creep and internal heating, in which we adopt a Newtonian approximation for ice flow and an idealized uniform heat source in the conduit. This problem provides an interesting variant on standard free-boundary problems, coupling different internal and external problems through the kinematic condition at the interface. The boundary in the exact solution takes the form of an ellipse that may contract or expand (depending on the magnitudes of effective pressure and heating rate) around fixed focal points. Linear stability analysis reveals that without the melting this solution is unstable to perturbations in the shape. Melting can stabilize the interface unless the aspect ratio is too small; in that case, instabilities grow largest at the thin ends of the ellipse. The predictions are corroborated with numerical solutions using boundary integral techniques. Finally, a number of extensions to the idealized model are considered, showing that a contracting circular conduit is unstable to all modes of perturbation if melting occurs at a uniform rate around the boundary, or if the ice is modelled as a shear-thinning fluid.

  8. Collagen Type I Conduits for the Regeneration of Nerve Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvan Klein

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To date, reliable data to support the general use of biodegradable materials for bridging nerve defects are still scarce. We present the outcome of nerve regeneration following type I collagen conduit nerve repair in patients with large-diameter nerve gaps. Ten patients underwent nerve repair using a type I collagen nerve conduit. Patients were re-examined at a minimal follow-up of 14.0 months and a mean follow-up of 19.9 months. Regeneration of nerve tissue within the conduits was assessed by nerve conduction velocity (NCV, a static two-point discrimination (S2PD test, and as disability of arm shoulder and hand (DASH outcome measure scoring. Quality of life measures including patients’ perceived satisfaction and residual pain were evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS. No implant-related complications were observed. Seven out of 10 patients reported being free of pain, and the mean VAS was 1.1. The mean DASH score was 17.0. The S2PD was below 6 mm in 40%, between 6 and 10 mm in another 40% and above 10 mm in 20% of the patients. Eight out of 10 patients were satisfied with the procedure and would undergo surgery again. Early treatment correlated with lower DASH score levels. The use of type I collagen in large-diameter gaps in young patients and early treatment presented superior functional outcomes.

  9. Peripheral nerve regeneration with conduits: use of vein tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Guerra Sabongi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of peripheral nerve injuries remains a challenge to modern medicine due to the complexity of the neurobiological nerve regenerating process. There is a greater challenge when the transected nerve ends are not amenable to primary end-to-end tensionless neurorraphy. When facing a segmental nerve defect, great effort has been made to develop an alternative to the autologous nerve graft in order to circumvent morbidity at donor site, such as neuroma formation, scarring and permanent loss of function. Tubolization techniques have been developed to bridge nerve gaps and have been extensively studied in numerous experimental and clinical trials. The use of a conduit intends to act as a vehicle for moderation and modulation of the cellular and molecular ambience for nerve regeneration. Among several conduits, vein tubes were validated for clinical application with improving outcomes over the years. This article aims to address the investigation and treatment of segmental nerve injury and draw the current panorama on the use of vein tubes as an autogenous nerve conduit.

  10. Inferring conduit process from population studies of cinder cone craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemis, Karen G.

    2014-05-01

    One of the most observable aspects of magma conduits is of course their exit to the Earth's surface: the volcanic crater. The craters resulting from small mostly-monogenetic volcanic eruptions vary in considerable in size and shape, even after accounting for variation in size. Presumably, these variations tell us something about the state of the conduit at least in the ending stages of eruption. But what? This work explores the statistical properties of crater populations in Guatemala and elsewhere and speculates on the conduit processes that may explain the complex behavior. Crater depths are strongly correlated with cone slopes even when normalized by cone diameter, which suggests the importance of the impact of the volatile content (which may influence slope through fragmentation and the resulting grain size) and the duration of eruption (which may influence whether the cone is built to its maximum slope) despite erosion acting to reduce observed crater depths (cone slopes are known to decrease with erosion but cone diameters increase).

  11. Tracking dynamics of magma migration in open-conduit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, Sébastien; Lacanna, Giorgio; Coppola, Diego; Laiolo, Marco; Pistolesi, Marco; Donne, Dario Delle; Genco, Riccardo; Marchetti, Emanuele; Ulivieri, Giacomo; Allocca, Carmine; Cigolini, Corrado; Nishimura, Takeshi; Poggi, Pasquale; Ripepe, Maurizio

    2016-11-01

    Open-conduit volcanic systems are typically characterized by unsealed volcanic conduits feeding permanent or quasi-permanent volcanic activity. This persistent activity limits our ability to read changes in the monitored parameters, making the assessment of possible eruptive crises more difficult. We show how an integrated approach to monitoring can solve this problem, opening a new way to data interpretation. The increasing rate of explosive transients, tremor amplitude, thermal emissions of ejected tephra, and rise of the very-long-period (VLP) seismic source towards the surface are interpreted as indicating an upward migration of the magma column in response to an increased magma input rate. During the 2014 flank eruption of Stromboli, this magma input preceded the effusive eruption by several months. When the new lateral effusive vent opened on the Sciara del Fuoco slope, the effusion was accompanied by a large ground deflation, a deepening of the VLP seismic source, and the cessation of summit explosive activity. Such observations suggest the drainage of a superficial magma reservoir confined between the crater terrace and the effusive vent. We show how this model successfully reproduces the measured rate of effusion, the observed rate of ground deflation, and the deepening of the VLP seismic source. This study also demonstrates the ability of the geophysical network to detect superficial magma recharge within an open-conduit system and to track magma drainage during the effusive crisis, with a great impact on hazard assessment.

  12. LEASE FINANCING: A NEW DUAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Aurora, BUNEA-BONTAS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Leasing is an important additional financing technique used by many companies, enabling them to use property, plant and equipment without making large initial cash outlays. It also provides flexibility, allowing entities to address obsolescence risks. Under current accounting rules, when referring to the operating leasing in particular, there is a lack of comparability between the financial position and operating results of companies that buy assets and the financial position and operating results of those that lease similar assets. This has led critics to assert that the current accounting does not portray the economics of lease arrangements. In response to this criticism, the IASB and FASB have developed a new approach to lease accounting that would require a lessee to recognise assets and liabilities for the rights and obligations created by leases, this providing greater transparency and comparability for financial statements users. On the other hand, the proposals will affect almost every company and the impact of the proposed changes may be significant, as recognising additional assets and liabilities and finance expense will affect key performance ratios and, consequently, the ability to satisfy debt covenants.

  13. Financing, Overhead, and Profit: An In-Depth Discussion of Costs Associated with Third-Party Financing of Residential and Commercial Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, D.; Friedman, B.; Margolis, R.

    2013-10-01

    Previous work quantifying the non-hardware balance-of-system costs -- or soft costs -- associated with building a residential or commercial photovoltaic (PV) system has left a significant portion unsegmented in an 'other soft costs' category. This report attempts to better quantify the 'other soft costs' by focusing on the financing, overhead, and profit of residential and commercial PV installations for a specific business model. This report presents results from a bottom-up data-collection and analysis of the upfront costs associated with developing, constructing, and arranging third-party-financed residential and commercial PV systems. It quantifies the indirect corporate costs required to install distributed PV systems as well as the transactional costs associated with arranging third-party financing.

  14. Family control and financing decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croci, Ettore; Doukas, John A.; Gonenc, Halit

    2011-01-01

    This study uses a comprehensive European dataset to investigate the role of family control in corporate financing decisions during the period 1998-2008. We find that family firms have a preference for debt financing, a non-control-diluting security, and are more reluctant than non-family firms to ra

  15. Fair Finance: gaat dat samen?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Margreet

    2014-01-01

    Op 13 februari jl. organiseerden studievereniging HSE Faktor, het Instituut FEM en Oikocredit (een bedrijf dat microkredieten verstrekt aan arme mensen in ontwikkelingslanden) het Fair Finance Symposium. Margreet Boersma gaf een lezing over haar kijk op een betere (financiële) wereld, mede gericht o

  16. Mastering R for quantitative finance

    CERN Document Server

    Berlinger, Edina; Badics, Milán; Banai, Ádám; Daróczi, Gergely; Dömötör, Barbara; Gabler, Gergely; Havran, Dániel; Juhász, Péter; Margitai, István; Márkus, Balázs; Medvegyev, Péter; Molnár, Julia; Szucs, Balázs Árpád; Tuza, Ágnes; Vadász, Tamás; Váradi, Kata; Vidovics-Dancs, Ágnes

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who want to learn how to use R's capabilities to build models in quantitative finance at a more advanced level. If you wish to perfectly take up the rhythm of the chapters, you need to be at an intermediate level in quantitative finance and you also need to have a reasonable knowledge of R.

  17. Personal Finance: An Interdisciplinary Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Jane; Bagwell, Dorothy C; Bailey, William C.; DeVaney, Sharon A.; Grable, John E.; Leech, Irene E.; Lown, Jean M.; Sharpe, Deanna L.; Xiao, Jing J.

    2007-01-01

    This commentary recommends that financial counseling and planning research, education, and practice be framed as an interdisciplinary profession called personal finance. Authors summarize the history of the profession and key theories providing the conceptual foundation. In order for the emerging profession of personal finance to achieve…

  18. The Possibilities of Strategic Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Strategic finance is aligning financial decisions--regarding revenues, creating and maintaining institutional assets, and using those assets--with the institution's mission and strategic plan. The concept known as "strategic finance" increasingly is being seen as a useful perspective for helping boards and presidents develop a sustainable…

  19. Romanian SMEs Financing Options:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan E. Nistor

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most pressing problems faced by micro, small and medium sized enterprises (henceforth SMEs in Europe is the access to sufficient funds to sustain their long term growth. Romanian SMEs make no exception. In this context the present paper focuses on analyzing the extent to which external funding sources have contributed to the value added created by the Romanian SMEs between 2007 and 2011.The investigation’s results indicate the existence of a causal link between some forms of external financing (namely bank loans, leasing, factoring, guarantee products and European funds and the value added created by the Romanian micro, small and medium sized enterprises in the aforementioned period.

  20. Does literacy improve finance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Martha; Olen, Helaine

    2015-04-01

    When economists ask questions about basic financial principles, most ordinary people answer incorrectly. Economic experts call this condition "financial illiteracy," which suggests that poor financial outcomes are due to a personal deficit of reading-related skills. The analogy to reading is compelling because it suggests that we can teach our way out of population-wide financial failure. In this comment, we explain why the idea of literacy appeals to policy makers in the advanced industrial nations. But we also show that the narrow skill set laid out by economists does not satisfy the politically inclusive definition of literacy that literacy studies fought for. We identify several channels through which people engage with ideas about finance and demonstrate that not all forms of literacy will lead people to the educational content prescribed by academic economists. We argue that truly financial literate people can defy the demands of financial theory and financial institutions.

  1. Statistics and finance an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Ruppert, David

    2004-01-01

    This textbook emphasizes the applications of statistics and probability to finance. Students are assumed to have had a prior course in statistics, but no background in finance or economics. The basics of probability and statistics are reviewed and more advanced topics in statistics, such as regression, ARMA and GARCH models, the bootstrap, and nonparametric regression using splines, are introduced as needed. The book covers the classical methods of finance such as portfolio theory, CAPM, and the Black-Scholes formula, and it introduces the somewhat newer area of behavioral finance. Applications and use of MATLAB and SAS software are stressed. The book will serve as a text in courses aimed at advanced undergraduates and masters students in statistics, engineering, and applied mathematics as well as quantitatively oriented MBA students. Those in the finance industry wishing to know more statistics could also use it for self-study. David Ruppert is the Andrew Schultz, Jr. Professor of Engineering, School of Oper...

  2. Financing Infrastructure: A Spectrum of Country Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Sophia Chong; Emily Poole

    2013-01-01

    Over recent decades, there has been a shift away from public infrastructure financing towards private infrastructure financing, particularly in advanced economies. In this article, infrastructure financing in four countries – China, India, Australia and the United Kingdom – is examined to illustrate the different approaches taken by governments to finance infrastructure and encourage private financing. In all four countries, public financing of infrastructure remains significant, ranging from...

  3. Financing of cogeneration: new chances and strategic challenge. Energy economical frame conditions; KWK-Foerderung: Neue Chance und strategische Herausforderung. Energiewirtschaftliche Rahmenbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertshauser, Ulrich [PNO Consultants GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2008-11-15

    The German government aim at power generation from cogeneration up to 25% until 2020. The financing of cogeneration plants will be newly arranged for this aim: 1st September has started up financing for mini-cogeneration plants up to 50 kW. Otherwise at 1st January 2009 a novel of cogeneration law will become effective. (orig./GL)

  4. Behavioural Finance: Theory and Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Jurevičienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the importance of behavioural finance theories in household decision-making process. Behavioural finance theories investigate emotional characteristics to explain subjective factors and irrational anomalies in financial markets. In this regard, behavioural theories and behavioural anomalies in the decision-making process are examined; the application opportunities in the financial market are described. The aim of investigation is to determine the basic features and slopes of behavioural finance in concordance with financial decisions of a household. The survey method was applied to ascertain financial behaviour of literate households.

  5. PUBLIC FINANCING OF HEALTHCARE SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bem

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare in Poland is mainly financed by public sector entities, among them the National Health Fund (NFZ, state budget and local government budgets. The task of the National Health Fund, as the main payer in the system, is chiefly currently financing the services. The state budget plays a complementary role in the system, and finances selected groups of services, health insurance premiums and investments in healthcare infrastructure. The basic role of the local governments is to ensure access to the services, mostly by performing ownership functions towards healthcare institutions.

  6. Sensing turbulent flow and heat transport in a cave conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzman, D.; Lucia, F. J.; Jennings, J. W.; Wilson, J. L.; Tyler, S. W.; Jorgensen, A. M.; Dwivedi, R.; Boston, P.; Burger, P.

    2008-12-01

    Cave systems provide an extreme example of complex subsurface porous media, dominated by flow through an interconnected network of conduits. Whether water or air-filled, these flow systems have been largely observed subjectively, with only a few simple quantitative measurements of flow and pressure. In the spring of 2008 a joint campaign of New Mexico Tech and the University of Nevada Reno entered the 210m deep, ~8m "diameter," keyhole shaped, subhorizontal, Left Hand Tunnel, a large air-filled conduit in Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, with the intent to observe fluid flow with modern thermally-based instruments. The conduit experiences countercurrent, thermally stratified flow, with mean velocities in each layer less than 0.1m/s. It is part of a geothermally forced, large-scale convection cell. Two instruments were deployed. A distributed temperature sensing (DTS) fiber optic cable was stretched over 1km of the tunnel, and partially suspended by balloons to the roof, to sense spatial and low-frequency (0.01Hz) temporal variations of temperature with a resolution approaching 0.05 degree C. The mean temperature difference between layers was on the order of 0.5 degree and the caveward (subhorizontal) temperature gradient was 1 degree/400m. Influences of connecting subvertical shafts, wet areas of the cave, human activity, and diurnal fluctuations were observed. The second instrument, a 7m tall tower with an array of eight 300Hz thermocouple temperature sensors, with a sensitivity approaching 0.005 degree, was deployed 200m into the tunnel and used to detect high- frequency temperature fluctuations associated with turbulence and the stratified flow. Turbulence structure of each layer was similar. Temperature fluctuation (and turbulence intensity?) was significantly greater near the boundary between layers and its steep vertical gradient of mean temperature. Results from this 3-day campaign, as limited as they are, suggest that there is a wealth of information and

  7. Computing for Finance

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The finance sector is one of the driving forces for the use of distributed or Grid computing for business purposes. The speakers will review the state-of-the-art of high performance computing in the financial sector, and provide insight into how different types of Grid computing – from local clusters to global networks - are being applied to financial applications. They will also describe the use of software and techniques from physics, such as Monte Carlo simulations, in the financial world. There will be four talks of 20min each. The talk abstracts and speaker bios are listed below. This will be followed by a Q&A panel session with the speakers. From 19:00 onwards there will be a networking cocktail for audience and speakers. This is an EGEE / CERN openlab event organized in collaboration with the regional business network rezonance.ch. A webcast of the event will be made available for subsequent viewing, along with powerpoint material presented by the speakers. Attendance is free and open to all. R...

  8. Healthcare financing in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Kovač

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare financing system is of crucial importance for the functioning of any healthcare system, especially because there is no country in the world that is able to provide all its residents with access to all the benefits afforded by modern medicine. Lack of resources in general and rising healthcare expenditures are considered a difficult issue to solve in Croatia as well. Since Croatia gained its independence, its healthcare system has undergone a number of reforms, the primary objective of which was to optimize healthcare services to the actual monetary capacity of the Croatian economy. The objectives of the mentioned re - forms were partially achieved. The solutions that have been offered until now, i.e. consolidation measures undertaken in the last 10 years were necessary; however, they have not improved the operating conditions. There is still the issue of the deficit from the previous years, i.e. outstanding payments, the largest in the last decade. Analysis of the performance of healthcare institutions in 2011 shows that the decision makers will have to take up a major challenge of finding a solution to the difficulties the Croatian healthcare system has been struggling with for decades, causing a debt of 7 billion kuna. At the same time, they will need to uphold the basic principles of the Healthcare Act, i.e. to provide access to healthcare and ensure its continuity, comprehensiveness and solidarity, keeping in mind that the National Budget Act and Fiscal Responsibility Act have been adopted.

  9. Adequacy, Efficiency and Equity of Higher Education Financing: The Case of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Yasmine; Sami, Noha

    2011-01-01

    To meet its future challenges in financing higher education, Egypt has no option but to search for alternative funding arrangements. This article considers the question of how to do so, keeping in mind the need to ensure equitable access to good quality education for those who cannot afford it. To this end, the article begins by assessing public…

  10. 13 CFR 107.730 - Financings which constitute conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commitments received under any understanding, agreement, or cross dealing, reciprocal or circular arrangement). (3) Borrow money from: (i) A Small Business Financed by you; (ii) An officer, director, or owner of.... Without SBA' s prior written approval, your Associates must not, directly or indirectly: (1) Borrow...

  11. Tensile and fatigue qualification testing of ITER-CS conduit alloy JK2LB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, R. P.; McRae, D. M.; Han, K.; Martovetsky, N. N.

    2015-12-01

    The ITER Central Solenoid (CS) coils utilize cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) and the conduit alloy is JK2LB. The production grade conduit alloy (and it's welds) must meet strict requirements for strength, toughness, fatigue crack resistance, and fabricability. The conduit alloy must retain good mechanical properties after additional fabrication steps such as welding, coil winding strain and exposure to the Nb3Sn superconductor's reaction heat treatment. Here we present data from cryogenic tensile, fracture toughness, fatigue crack growth rate, and axial fatigue tests of JK2LB alloy and conduit butt welds, before and after the exposure to the reaction heat treatment. The tests of specimens removed directly from the conduit provide confirmation of the materials properties and the effect of the cold work and aging. The 4 K fatigue performance is extremely important to the reliability of the CS and is covered both by axial cyclic fatigue tests and the fatigue crack growth rate measurements.

  12. Moduli of weighted hyperplane arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Lahoz, Martí; Macrí, Emanuele; Stellari, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on a large class of geometric objects in moduli theory and provides explicit computations to investigate their families. Concrete examples are developed that take advantage of the intricate interplay between Algebraic Geometry and Combinatorics. Compactifications of moduli spaces play a crucial role in Number Theory, String Theory, and Quantum Field Theory – to mention just a few. In particular, the notion of compactification of moduli spaces has been crucial for solving various open problems and long-standing conjectures. Further, the book reports on compactification techniques for moduli spaces in a large class where computations are possible, namely that of weighted stable hyperplane arrangements.

  13. Study on Braiding Parameters of a Biodegradable Nerve Regeneration Conduit with Regular Braided Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guo-hua; ZHANG Pei-hua; WANG Wen-zu; FENG Xun-wei; LIU Hong-feng

    2004-01-01

    A biodegradable nerve regeneration conduit has been developed by the regular braided technique on a spindle-braiding machine. The geometry property indexes of braided nerve conduit consist of pitch, density, wall thickness and porosity etc. In this article, the influences of the braiding parameters i.e. the linear density of yarn, gear ratio and spindle number of the braiding machine on these geometry property indexes of nerve conduit were discussed from which the optimal braiding parameters were obtained.

  14. Enhancing Peripheral Nerve Regeneration with a Novel Drug Delivering Nerve Conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Products 21 7. Participants & Other Collaborating Organizations 22 8. Special Reporting Requirements 23 9. Appendices 24 3... Corning Inc) were also added to the nerve conduit. Figure 2 illustrates the nerve conduit in which the drug (NGF) stored in the orifice between...7525 DLG 7E, Evonik). The PLGA was dissolved in acetone and ethanol and conduits were then formed and emulsified in water. 15µm diffusion holes

  15. Financing Training: Issues and Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Christopher; Tan, Jee-Peng

    1999-01-01

    Economic changes and retrenchment have led to reconsideration of the role of government and the private sector in financing training. When private sector-sponsored training displays inadequacies, government intervention may be necessary. (SK)

  16. Educational Finance And Student Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallan, John P.

    1973-01-01

    Lists some developments in educational finance and stresses the need for community and junior college educators to understand the problems of educational economics and to ensure that their opinions are heard by the state and federal government. (Author/RK)

  17. Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizabeth Battocletti

    2006-04-06

    The ?Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing? project substantially added to the understanding of geothermal resources, technology, and small business development by both the general public as well as those in the geothermal community.

  18. Comparative Politics and Public Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Torsten; Roland, Gerard; Tabellini, Guido

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a model of electoral accountability to compare the public finance outcomes under a presidential-congressional and a parliamentary system. In a presidential-congressional system, contrary to a parliamentary system, there are no endogenous incentives for legislative cohesion, but this allows for a clearer separation of powers. These features lead to clear differences in the public finance performance of the two systems. A parliamentary system has redistribution towards a maj...

  19. Corporate Finance and Comparative Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Egger, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Since innovative firms are often financially constrained, access to external funds is important for the expansion of innovative industries. This paper reports four important results. First, comparative advantage is shaped by factor endowments as well as fundamental determinants of corporate finance. In particular, a larger equity ratio of firms and tough governance standards relax finance constraints and create a comparative advantage in innovative industries. Second, factor price equalizatio...

  20. 3D-engineering of Cellularized Conduits for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Wu, Yao; Gou, Zhiyuan; Tao, Jie; Zhang, Jiumeng; Liu, Qianqi; Kang, Tianyi; Jiang, Shu; Huang, Siqing; He, Jiankang; Chen, Shaochen; Du, Yanan; Gou, Maling

    2016-08-01

    Tissue engineered conduits have great promise for bridging peripheral nerve defects by providing physical guiding and biological cues. A flexible method for integrating support cells into a conduit with desired architectures is wanted. Here, a 3D-printing technology is adopted to prepare a bio-conduit with designer structures for peripheral nerve regeneration. This bio-conduit is consisted of a cryopolymerized gelatin methacryloyl (cryoGelMA) gel cellularized with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). By modeling using 3D-printed “lock and key” moulds, the cryoGelMA gel is structured into conduits with different geometries, such as the designed multichannel or bifurcating and the personalized structures. The cryoGelMA conduit is degradable and could be completely degraded in 2-4 months in vivo. The cryoGelMA scaffold supports the attachment, proliferation and survival of the seeded ASCs, and up-regulates the expression of their neurotrophic factors mRNA in vitro. After implanted in a rat model, the bio-conduit is capable of supporting the re-innervation across a 10 mm sciatic nerve gap, with results close to that of the autografts in terms of functional and histological assessments. The study describes an indirect 3D-printing technology for fabricating cellularized designer conduits for peripheral nerve regeneration, and could lead to the development of future nerve bio-conduits for clinical use.

  1. Environmental tracers as indicators of karst conduits in groundwater in South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, A.J.; Sawyer, J.F.; Putnam, L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental tracers sampled from the carbonate Madison aquifer on the eastern flank of the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA indicated the approximate locations of four major karst conduits. Contamination issues are a major concern because these conduits are characterized by direct connections to sinking streams, high groundwater velocities, and proximity to public water supplies. Objectives of the study were to estimate approximate conduit locations and assess possible anthropogenic influences associated with conduits. Anomalies of young groundwater based on chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), tritium, and electrical conductivity (EC) indicated fast moving, focused flow and thus the likely presence of conduits. ??18O was useful for determining sources of recharge for each conduit, and nitrate was a useful tracer for assessing flow paths for anthropogenic influences. Two of the four conduits terminate at or near a large spring complex. CFC apparent ages ranged from 15 years near conduits to >50 years in other areas. Nitrate-N concentrations >0.4 mg/L in groundwater were associated with each of the four conduits compared with concentrations ranging from <0.1 to 0.4 mg/L in other areas. These higher nitrate-N concentrations probably do not result from sinking streams but rather from other areas of infiltration. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  2. 3D-engineering of Cellularized Conduits for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Wu, Yao; Gou, Zhiyuan; Tao, Jie; Zhang, Jiumeng; Liu, Qianqi; Kang, Tianyi; Jiang, Shu; Huang, Siqing; He, Jiankang; Chen, Shaochen; Du, Yanan; Gou, Maling

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineered conduits have great promise for bridging peripheral nerve defects by providing physical guiding and biological cues. A flexible method for integrating support cells into a conduit with desired architectures is wanted. Here, a 3D-printing technology is adopted to prepare a bio-conduit with designer structures for peripheral nerve regeneration. This bio-conduit is consisted of a cryopolymerized gelatin methacryloyl (cryoGelMA) gel cellularized with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). By modeling using 3D-printed “lock and key” moulds, the cryoGelMA gel is structured into conduits with different geometries, such as the designed multichannel or bifurcating and the personalized structures. The cryoGelMA conduit is degradable and could be completely degraded in 2-4 months in vivo. The cryoGelMA scaffold supports the attachment, proliferation and survival of the seeded ASCs, and up-regulates the expression of their neurotrophic factors mRNA in vitro. After implanted in a rat model, the bio-conduit is capable of supporting the re-innervation across a 10 mm sciatic nerve gap, with results close to that of the autografts in terms of functional and histological assessments. The study describes an indirect 3D-printing technology for fabricating cellularized designer conduits for peripheral nerve regeneration, and could lead to the development of future nerve bio-conduits for clinical use. PMID:27572698

  3. Development of a new lacrimal drainage conduit using POSS nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloupka, Karla; Motwani, Meghna; Seifalian, Alexander Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Lacrimal surgery in cases of severely obstructed or missing canalicular ducts is highly challenging. In these cases, the placement of a bypass tube is currently the only option to restore the drainage of tears into the nose and reduce the symptomatic watery eye. Different approaches to achieve functional drainage have been tried using blood vessels or artificial implants. The implantation of the rigid Lester Jones tube is, since its introduction in the late 1960s, the gold standard. The functional success is satisfactory. However, complication rates are high and remain, even with many modifications of the original design, a major problem. These complications include mainly the displacement and blockage of the tube, requiring regular checkups, as well as irritation of the surrounding tissue including the nose and the eye. The objective of this study was to develop a new lacrimal duct conduit (LDC) to restore structural and functional integrity of the lacrimal drainage system. The conduit is constructed with a novel polymer, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-poly(carbonate-urea)urethane (POSS-PCU), that offers biocompatibility. We exploit nanotopography to evade the problems associated with current applications. A number of extrusion techniques were investigated for this purpose: ultrasonic atomization spraying, electrohydrodynamic atomization spraying/spinning, extrusion-coagulation, and high-pressure coagulation by autoclave and casting. Finally, the coagulation and cast technique were selected to construct an LDC superior to its predecessors, and its advantages highlighted.

  4. Conduit for high temperature transfer of molten semiconductor crystalline material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiegl, George (Inventor); Torbet, Walter (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A conduit for high temperature transfer of molten semiconductor crystalline material consists of a composite structure incorporating a quartz transfer tube as the innermost member, with an outer thermally insulating layer designed to serve the dual purposes of minimizing heat losses from the quartz tube and maintaining mechanical strength and rigidity of the conduit at the elevated temperatures encountered. The composite structure ensures that the molten semiconductor material only comes in contact with a material (quartz) with which it is compatible, while the outer layer structure reinforces the quartz tube, which becomes somewhat soft at molten semiconductor temperatures. To further aid in preventing cooling of the molten semiconductor, a distributed, electric resistance heater is in contact with the surface of the quartz tube over most of its length. The quartz tube has short end portions which extend through the surface of the semiconductor melt and which are lef bare of the thermal insulation. The heater is designed to provide an increased heat input per unit area in the region adjacent these end portions.

  5. Issues in energy finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokher, Zeigham Islam

    As opposed to the well developed and understood equity markets, the energy markets are still in their infancy. The explosion of contracts, of both the primary and derivative types, are testament both to the existing size and the untapped growth potential of this exciting industry. However, because of its relative youth many basic issues in the energy markets remain unresolved. This thesis introduces some interesting questions and provides insights into these issues. Thematically, the chapters of this thesis are linked by an emphasis on valuation and risk management decisions. A contribution of this thesis is to show that subtle differences between the endogenous price process in our general equilibrium setting and the exogenous processes considered in earlier papers can generate significant differences in both financial and real option values. In addition to these valuation concerns there has been much debate about the corporate risk management function. Finance theory suggests that a value maximizing corporation should either be indifferent to hedging or, in the presence of certain imperfections, it should completely hedge all exposures. Both these extremes contradict empirical evidence. We show that existing corporate hedging behaviour is best explained in light of both physical market imperfections and directional predictions on future prices. While these speculative motives may arise from corporate hubris or genuine informational advantages, we argue that it would be difficult to implement private information in the absence of noise traders. Related to the risk management decision is the existence of futures risk premia. These premia have been thought to be cause by covariance with priced factors or due to the hedging demands of consumers and producers. This thesis argues that inventories serve as a signal of available quantity, which coupled with consumers fears regarding stockouts can induce a positive relationship between premia and inventories. In

  6. SABER-School Finance: Data Collection Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth; Patrinos, Harry; Rogers, Halsey

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the SABER-school finance initiative is to collect, analyze and disseminate comparable data about education finance systems across countries. SABER-school finance assesses education finance systems along six policy goals: (i) ensuring basic conditions for learning; (ii) monitoring learning conditions and outcomes; (iii) overseeing…

  7. 12 CFR 226.4 - Finance charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finance charge. 226.4 Section 226.4 Banks and... LENDING (REGULATION Z) General § 226.4 Finance charge. (a) Definition. The finance charge is the cost of...) Charges by third parties. The finance charge includes fees and amounts charged by someone other than...

  8. On Security of Collateral in Danish Mortgage Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Karin

    2017-01-01

    on the balance principle that assigns risks and responsibility to market players in a self-disciplinary manner and protected the mortgage banks against cash flow mismatches even during deep crisis, as history attests. It is shown how property registers and effective enforcement have created transparent property......Specialized mortgage intermediaries in Denmark have for over two hundred years provided owners and buyers of real property wide access to credit. The present paper sets out to explore the safeguards that nurtured development of a robust, market based financing system and a deep mortgage market....... Observations are made on the nature of collateral performance in respect to property rights, mortgage law and market development in search of general features of required institutional arrangements. The robustness of the Danish mortgage finance system is largely accredited to the securitization model based...

  9. Alternative financing sources. ECRI. Emergency Care Research Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    A number of new capital sources have been developed and used by health care institutions unable to finance high-tech projects with equity or conventional tax-exempt debt instruments; these include REITs, MLPs, per-use rentals, venture capital, and banks as brokers. However, there are no magic capital acquisition solutions. Institutions with good credit will continue to find a number of doors open to them; poorer credit risks will have fewer options, and those available will carry greater risk, allow for less provider control over projects, and limit potential return on investment to some extent. It is essential to examine carefully the drawbacks inherent in each type of alternative financing source. Venture capital in particular requires specific analysis because of the wide variety of possible arrangements that exist. If you cannot find either traditional or alternative sources of funding for a proposed project, you should reexamine the project and its underlying utilization projections and reimbursement assumptions.

  10. 45 CFR 302.34 - Cooperative arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.34 Cooperative arrangements. The State plan shall provide that the State will enter into written agreements for cooperative arrangements under § 303.107 with appropriate courts, law... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative arrangements. 302.34 Section...

  11. 42 CFR 413.241 - Pharmacy arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pharmacy arrangements. 413.241 Section 413.241... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January 1, 2011, an ESRD facility that enters into an arrangement with a pharmacy to furnish renal...

  12. Free arrangements and coefficients of characteristic polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Takuro

    2011-01-01

    Ziegler showed that free arrangements have free restricted multiarrangements (multirestrictions). After Ziegler's work, several results concerning "reverse direction", namely characterizing freeness of an arrangement via that of multirestriction, have appeared. In this paper, we prove that the second Betti number of the arrangement plays a crucial role.

  13. The physics of custody arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Gomberoff, Andrés; Romagnoli, Pierre Paul

    2013-01-01

    Divorced individuals face complex situations when they have children with different ex-partners, or even more, when their new partners have children of their own. In such cases, and when kids spend every other weekend with each parent, a practical problem emerges: Is it possible to have such a custody arrangement that every couple has either all of the kids together or no kids at all? We show that in general, it is not possible, but that the number of couples that do can be maximized. The problem turns out to be equivalent to finding the ground state of a spin glass system, which is known to be equivalent to what is called a weighted max-cut problem in graph theory, and hence it is NP-Complete.

  14. MUSICAL ARRANGEMENT OF MEDIA ADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshov Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The music-compositional principles of commercial and political advertising and also the self-promotion of electronic media (radio, television, Internet are considered in this mediatext: from the elementary beeps, symbolic functions, emblems/logos and musical brands to the sound engineering technology to underscore the product's name and the complex synthesis between music and intra movements and color-light design of frames. Simultaneously examines, how the musical arrangement of ethereal advertising is involved in creation the emotional drama or bravado which reach the level of explicit or associative counterpoint 'music with the advertised object or subject' and which extend to expression of cultural image of all the broadcast channel. The article explores the works of the next genres like infomercial, teleshopping, film-ad, and autonomous commercials that have been produced in European countries or USA.

  15. Drill pipes and casings utilizing multi-conduit tubular; Flerkanals roerstreng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlett, H.B.

    1997-04-23

    The invention relates to a multi-conduit tubular having fluid conduits and electrical conduits, with associated surface fluid and electrical commutators, and downhole sensors for providing surface monitors with instantaneous formation data. Each tubular includes a plurality of uniform linear conduits there through, with a gasket seal plate interposed between joined tubular for assuring a high pressure seal between joined conduits. the seal plate includes an intermediate electrical connector for connecting electrical conduit connectors of one tubular to another. A coupling collar with uniform diameter internal coarse and fine threads joins the tubular ends having similar threads by differential thread action without respective tubular rotation. Each tubular end includes an inter-engaging index recess and index lug, and drive recesses and lugs for maintaining angular registry of the tubular string and for driving one drill tubular with another. A fluid commutator includes a rotating shaft with passages connected to the tubular conduits, and rotating in a manifold having annular grooves in communication with the shaft passages and external fluid sources. An adaptor couples each commutator shaft passage to one or more tubular conduits. Slip rings on a quill shaft and stationary brush means provide electrical continuity from the electrical conduit wires to surface equipment. A cross-over sub includes formation parameter sensors and telemetry equipment in a blocked off portion of a fluid conduit. An annular accumulator connected with the well bore annulus applies a pressure thereto in response to downhole sensors to change the effective density of the drill mud. The multi-conduit tubular is further adapted for use as a well casing to provide downhole access of a plurality of fluids and electrical parameter sensors. 28 figs.

  16. Manufacture of porous biodegradable polymer conduits by an extrusion process for guided tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, M. S.; Gupta, P. K.; Lu, L.; Meszlenyi, R. K.; Evans, G. R.; Brandt, K.; Savel, T.; Gurlek, A.; Patrick, C. W. Jr; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    We have fabricated porous, biodegradable tubular conduits for guided tissue regeneration using a combined solvent casting and extrusion technique. The biodegradable polymers used in this study were poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA). A polymer/salt composite was first prepared by a solvent casting process. After drying, the composite was extruded to form a tubular construct. The salt particles in the construct were then leached out leaving a conduit with an open-pore structure. PLGA was studied as a model polymer to analyze the effects of salt weight fraction, salt particle size, and processing temperature on porosity and pore size of the extruded conduits. The porosity and pore size were found to increase with increasing salt weight fraction. Increasing the salt particle size increased the pore diameter but did not affect the porosity. High extrusion temperatures decreased the pore diameter without altering the porosity. Greater decrease in molecular weight was observed for conduits manufactured at higher temperatures. The mechanical properties of both PLGA and PLLA conduits were tested after degradation in vitro for up to 8 weeks. The modulus and failure strength of PLLA conduits were approximately 10 times higher than those of PLGA conduits. Failure strain was similar for both conduits. After degradation for 8 weeks, the molecular weights of the PLGA and PLLA conduits decreased to 38% and 43% of the initial values, respectively. However, both conduits maintained their shape and did not collapse. The PLGA also remained amorphous throughout the time course, while the crystallinity of PLLA increased from 5.2% to 11.5%. The potential of seeding the conduits with cells for transplantation or with biodegradable polymer microparticles for drug delivery was also tested with dyed microspheres. These porous tubular structures hold great promise for the regeneration of tissues which require tubular scaffolds such as peripheral nerve

  17. Public-Private Partnerships for Government Financing, Controlling Risk, and Value-for-Money: The UK Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    into wider markets and other partnership arrangements where private-sector expertise and financing are used to exploit the commercial potential of...The major portion of the financing (80%) was loans from a consortium of six banks, with HSBC as the leading bank (Symes, 2006). The asset company...Processes Portfolio Optimization via KVA + RO MOSA Contracting Implications Strategy for Defense Acquisition Research Spiral Development BCA

  18. Algorithms for Optimally Arranging Multicore Memory Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Che Tseng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As more processing cores are added to embedded systems processors, the relationships between cores and memories have more influence on the energy consumption of the processor. In this paper, we conduct fundamental research to explore the effects of memory sharing on energy in a multicore processor. We study the Memory Arrangement (MA Problem. We prove that the general case of MA is NP-complete. We present an optimal algorithm for solving linear MA and optimal and heuristic algorithms for solving rectangular MA. On average, we can produce arrangements that consume 49% less energy than an all shared memory arrangement and 14% less energy than an all private memory arrangement for randomly generated instances. For DSP benchmarks, we can produce arrangements that, on average, consume 20% less energy than an all shared memory arrangement and 27% less energy than an all private memory arrangement.

  19. Energy Finance Data Warehouse Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sangkeun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chinthavali, Supriya [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shankar, Mallikarjun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zeng, Claire [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hendrickson, Stephen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-30

    The Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis s finance team (EPSA-50) requires a suite of automated applications that can extract specific data from a flexible data warehouse (where datasets characterizing energy-related finance, economics and markets are maintained and integrated), perform relevant operations and creatively visualize them to provide a better understanding of what policy options affect various operators/sectors of the electricity system. In addition, the underlying data warehouse should be structured in the most effective and efficient way so that it can become increasingly valuable over time. This report describes the Energy Finance Data Warehouse (EFDW) framework that has been developed to accomplish the defined requirement above. We also specifically dive into the Sankey generator use-case scenario to explain the components of the EFDW framework and their roles. An excel-based data warehouse was used in the creation of the energy finance Sankey diagram and other detailed data finance visualizations to support energy policy analysis. The framework also captures the methodology, calculations and estimations analysts used for the calculation as well as relevant sources so newer analysts can build on work done previously.

  20. Musharakah Tijarah Cross-Border Financing: Concept, Structure and Salient Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharullizuannizam Salehuddin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Musharakah Tijarah Cross-Border Financing (“Product” is the product to enable the Bank to undertake project and contract cross-border financing activities or other identified business ventures on “pure” Joint Venture basis, using the underlying Islamic financing contract of Musharakah. Musharakah concept has a low market share of less than 2.5% in the overall existing Islamic financing products in Malaysia. This product encourages mobilization of idle capital / cash entities and thus provides a basis for economic cooperation between these organizations in the society. The product also is expected to inject greater prosper to the Bank’s overall performance and ultimately able to assist small time landowners in a big way through business risk sharing. Musharakah provides an alternative investment, which will cater for Islamic investors and partners, especially from GCC, who may have been reluctant to invest in conventional or current debt-based financing scheme. With Musharakah concept, the most preferred and globally accepted Islamic financing, this can attract these investors to participate on similar risk-sharing arrangements through the creation of Specific Investment Account (SIA or Islamic Syndication to back financing made into the Joint Venture.

  1. Injunctions against mere conduit of information protected by copyright

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfeld Jakobsen, Søren; Petersen, Clement Salung

    2011-01-01

    requires rules, which take into due consideration the special aspects related to enforcement of copyright on the internet through IAPs. Secondly, it is shown that the termination of internet connections and the blocking of access to internet content may not support the public policies behind copyright law......This paper includes an in-depth analysis of EU law and Scandinavian law on injunctions against internet access providers (IAPs) performing as mere conduit of information protected by copyright. In recent Scandinavian case law, courts have granted preliminary injunctions which have caused IAPs...... to either shut down specific internet connections allegedly used to infringe copyright or to block access to internet content, which allegedly infringed applicable copyright rules. This paper considers some significant legal challenges, which are emerging in the wake of this case law, and which should...

  2. Experimental investigations of aeration efficiency in high-head gated circular conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihat Tuna, M; Ozkan, Fahri; Baylar, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of water aeration is to increase the oxygen saturation of the water. This can be achieved by using hydraulic structures because of substantial air bubble entrainment at these structures. Closed conduit aeration is a particular instance of this. While there has been a great deal of research on air-demand ratio within closed conduit, very little research has specifically addressed aeration efficiency of closed conduit. In the present work an experimental study was conducted to investigate the aeration efficiency of high-head gated circular conduits. Results showed that high-head gated circular conduits were effective for oxygen transfer. The effects of Froude number and ratio of the water cross-sectional flow area to the conduit cross-sectional area on aeration efficiency were particularly significant, whereas the effect of conduit length was only moderate. Further, a design formula for the aeration efficiency was presented relating the aeration efficiency to ratio of water cross-sectional flow area to conduit cross-sectional area and Froude number. The obtained results will be useful in future modeling processes and aid the practicing engineer in predicting aeration efficiency for design purposes.

  3. The Adaptation Finance Gap Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    UNEP’s Adaptation Gap Report series focuses on Finance, Technology and Knowledge gaps in climate change adaptation. It compliments the Emissions Gap Report series, and explores the implications of failing to close the emissions gap. The report builds on a 2014 assessment by the United Nations...... Environment Programme (UNEP), which laid out the concept of ‘adaptation gaps’ and outlined three such gaps: technology, finance and knowledge. The 2016 Adaptation Gap Report assesses the difference between the financial costs of adapting to climate change in developing countries and the amount of money...... actually available to meet these costs – a difference known as the “adaptation finance gap”. Like the 2014 report, the 2016 report focuses on developing countries, where adaptation capacity is often the lowest and needs the highest, and concentrates on the period up to 2050. The report identifies trends...

  4. Distributed measurement of flow rate in conduits using heated fiber optic distributed temperature sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Raúl; Zubelzu, Sergio; Rodríguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Juana, Luis

    2016-04-01

    In some cases flow varies along conduits, such as in irrigated land drainage pipes and channels, irrigation laterals and others. Detailed knowledge of flow rate along the conduit makes possible analytical evaluation of water distribution and collection systems performance. Flow rate can change continuously in some systems, like in drainage pipes and channels, or abruptly, like in conduits bifurcations or emitter insertions. A heat pulse along the conduit makes possible to get flow rate from continuity and heat balance equations. Due to the great value of specific heat of water, temperature changes along conduit are smaller than the noise that involves the measurement process. This work presents a methodology that, dealing with the noise of distributed temperature measurements, leads to flow rate determination along pressurized pipes or open channel flows.

  5. Large-scale tests of insulated conduit for the ITER CS coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R. P.; Walsh, R. P.; Schutz, J. B.

    Compression-fatigue tests at 77 K were conducted on test modules of insulated Incoloy 908 conduit. To replicate the operating conditions for the ITER central solenoid (CS) full-scale coil, fatigue loads up to 3.6 MN were applied for 10 5 cycles; no mechanical breakdowns occurred. The conduits were insulated with a preimpregnated resin system, a tetraglycidyl diaminodiphenyl methane (TGDM) epoxy cured with DDS aromatic amine. The conduits were joined by vacuum-pressure impregnation with a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-F epoxy/anhydride-cured resin system. In the 4×4 stacked-conduit test modules, the layer insulation (a high-pressure laminate of TGDM epoxy cured with DDS aromatic amine) was inserted. Periodically during the tests, breakdown voltage was measured across the conduits of both turn and layer insulation; throughout the test, breakdown voltages were at least 46 kV. The addition of a barrier increased structural and electrical reliability.

  6. Numerical Simulation of the Stress and Distortion of the Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastics Crust-Stainless Steel Liner Compound Conduit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyuan FANG; Chenglei FAN; Jianguo YANG; Ming LI; Zhen LUO; Xianzhong HOU

    2003-01-01

    A new type of compound conduit is designed and the finite element method (FEM) is applied to analyze the mechanicalperformance of a typical compound conduit. The results of the numerical simulation confirm that the distributionsof the strain

  7. Fiscal Content of Financial Programs Supported by Stand-by Arrangements in the Upper Credit Tranches, 1969-78 (Objectifs de finances publiques des programmes financiers soutenus par des accords de confirmation portant sur les tranches de crédit supérieures, 1969-78) (Componentes fiscales de los programas financieros respaldados por acuerdos de derecho de giro en los tramos superiores de crédito, 1969-78)

    OpenAIRE

    W. A. Beveridge; Margaret R. Kelly

    1980-01-01

    The paper catalogs and analyzes the fiscal policy content of financial programs under the 105 stand-by arrangements in the upper credit tranches approved by the Fund's Executive Board in the ten years to 1978. A growing tendency toward use of a fiscal performance clause was observed, with the most usual clauses being the use of bank credit by the government or the size of the overall budget balance. Evidence is presented indicating a close association between observance of the fiscal performa...

  8. Gelatin-methacrylamide gel loaded with microspheres to deliver GDNF in bilayer collagen conduit promoting sciatic nerve growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang H

    2016-04-01

    (GM + CT group were similar to AG group (P>0.05. Most myelinated nerves were matured and arranged densely with a uniform structure of myelin in a neat pattern along the long axis in the AG and GM + CT groups, however, regenerated nerve was absent in the BLANK group, left the 10 mm gap empty after resection, and the nerve fiber exhibited a disordered arrangement in the collagen tube group. These results indicated that the hybrid system of bilayer collagen conduit and GDNF-loaded gelatin microspheres combined with gelatin-methacrylamide hydrogels could serve as a new biodegradable artificial nerve guide for nerve tissue engineering. Keywords: controlled release of GDNF, gelatin microspheres, biodegradable nerve conduit, gelatin-methacrylamide hydrogel, sciatic nerve regeneration

  9. Engineering a multimodal nerve conduit for repair of injured peripheral nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, A. F.; Bulluss, K. J.; Kyratzis, I. L. B.; Gilmore, K.; Mysore, T.; Schirmer, K. S. U.; Kennedy, E. L.; O'Shea, M.; Truong, Y. B.; Edwards, S. L.; Peeters, G.; Herwig, P.; Razal, J. M.; Campbell, T. E.; Lowes, K. N.; Higgins, M. J.; Moulton, S. E.; Murphy, M. A.; Cook, M. J.; Clark, G. M.; Wallace, G. G.; Kapsa, R. M. I.

    2013-02-01

    Injury to nerve tissue in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) results in long-term impairment of limb function, dysaesthesia and pain, often with associated psychological effects. Whilst minor injuries can be left to regenerate without intervention and short gaps up to 2 cm can be sutured, larger or more severe injuries commonly require autogenous nerve grafts harvested from elsewhere in the body (usually sensory nerves). Functional recovery is often suboptimal and associated with loss of sensation from the tissue innervated by the harvested nerve. The challenges that persist with nerve repair have resulted in development of nerve guides or conduits from non-neural biological tissues and various polymers to improve the prognosis for the repair of damaged nerves in the PNS. This study describes the design and fabrication of a multimodal controlled pore size nerve regeneration conduit using polylactic acid (PLA) and (PLA):poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) fibers within a neurotrophin-enriched alginate hydrogel. The nerve repair conduit design consists of two types of PLGA fibers selected specifically for promotion of axonal outgrowth and Schwann cell growth (75:25 for axons; 85:15 for Schwann cells). These aligned fibers are contained within the lumen of a knitted PLA sheath coated with electrospun PLA nanofibers to control pore size. The PLGA guidance fibers within the nerve repair conduit lumen are supported within an alginate hydrogel impregnated with neurotrophic factors (NT-3 or BDNF with LIF, SMDF and MGF-1) to provide neuroprotection, stimulation of axonal growth and Schwann cell migration. The conduit was used to promote repair of transected sciatic nerve in rats over a period of 4 weeks. Over this period, it was observed that over-grooming and self-mutilation (autotomy) of the limb implanted with the conduit was significantly reduced in rats implanted with the full-configuration conduit compared to rats implanted with conduits containing only an alginate

  10. Flexible Working Time Arrangements in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Beleva, Iskra

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the flexible working time arrangements in Bulgaria, using a life-course perspective. Two important features have to be outlined, namely: underdeveloped flexible forms of employment in the country, including working time arrangement, and lack of previous analysis on flexible working time arrangements from the angle of life-course perspective. The author describes the regulatory framework, collective agreements at national and company level as a frame w...

  11. The financing of cooperative businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ispizua

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Concern for adequate funding, both at birth and consolidation of the cooperative enterprise, has been, is and will be a constant concern in the cooperative world. So, have emerged in the legal field, a number of financial instruments of various kinds: as equity securities or special interests that seek to cover traditional financing gaps.

  12. Australian University International Student Finances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati

    2009-01-01

    The omission of international students from the Australian Vice-Chancellor's Committee (AVCC) 2007 national study on student finances is indicative of a pattern of exclusion. The exclusion is unacceptable from a humane perspective and feeds the belief that Australians perceive international students primarily as "cash cows". This study…

  13. Raising financing through strategic timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, Elicia; Thomas, V. J.

    2017-02-01

    Strategic timing can be key for nano-drug-delivery ventures to get financing. Timely publications engage potential partners; early broad, blocking, relevant patents demonstrate the potential to appropriate value; and venture formation closer to clinical viability better aligns its timeline with that of venture capitalists.

  14. New Insights into Behavioral Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Baltussen (Guido)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis applies insights from psychology and other behavioral sciences to overcome the shortcomings of the traditional finance approach (which assumes that agents and markets are rational) and improves our understanding of financial markets and its participants. More specific, this t

  15. Operationalizing Counter Threat Finance Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    4, 2011, p. 359. 29. F. N. Baldwin , “The Financing of Terror in the Age of the Internet: Wilful Blindness, Greed or a Political Statement?” Jour...Jr. Director of Research Dr. Steven K. Metz Author Dr. Shima D. Keene Editor for Production Dr. James G. Pierce Publications Assistant Ms. Rita A

  16. Grassroots financing; Graswurzel-Finanzierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannen, Petra

    2013-05-01

    The idea of a common financing of a photovoltaic project is not new. It is new that interested parties no longer have to meet in community centers or clubhouses, but that a virtual meeting place is sufficient. Crowd funding projects on the world-wide web bring together solar projects and investors.

  17. Financing home care in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genet, N.; Gulácsi, L.; Boerma, W.; Hutchinson, A.; Garms-Homolova, V.; Naiditch, M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Financial incentives are widely used to get better value for money. Incentives can be applied to authorities responsible for home care, or to agencies that provide services or to clients who receive care. Details of the financing system of home care services very much determine the pos

  18. Three essays in pension finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Z.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the three major participants in pension finance, namely, pension funds, individuals, and sponsoring companies. In the light of the fragile financial market performance, prudential regulatory rules, including Value-at-Risk (VaR) constraints, are imposed widely all over the worl

  19. Optimal Financing with CDS Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Matta

    2013-01-01

    One could argue that CDSs improve risk sharing, hence credit supply and financing terms for firms. Accordingly, one would expect risky borrowers to benefit the most from CDS insurance. This is in contrast, however, with recent empirical evidence (Ashcraft and Santos (2009) and Hirtle (2009)). This p

  20. Off-Balance Sheet Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines off-balance sheet financing, the facilities use of outsourcing for selected needs, as a means of saving operational costs and using facility assets efficiently. Examples of using outside sources for energy supply and food services, as well as partnering with business for facility expansion are provided. Concluding comments address tax…

  1. Living Arrangements of Young Adults in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Schwanitz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparative research suggests that there are great cross-national and cross-temporal differences in living arrangements of young adults aged 18-34 in Europe. In this paper, we examine young adults’ living arrangements (1 across several European countries and different national contexts, and (2 by taking into account cross-time variability. In doing so, we pay careful attention to a comprehensive conceptualisation of living arrangements (including extended and non-family living arrangements. The aim of this paper is to deepen our understanding of family structure and household arrangements in Europe by examining and mapping the cross-national and cross-temporal variety of young adults’ living arrangements. For our analysis we use data from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series International (IPUMSi for the census rounds 1980, 1990, and 2000 for eight European countries (Austria, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Portugal, Romania, and Switzerland. We employ log-linear models to ascertain the influence of individual and contextual factors on living arrangements. The analyses lend further support to a North/West – South/East divide in living arrangements and general gender differentials in extended family living. Other interesting results are the heterogeneity in the living arrangements of single mothers across geographic areas, and the upward trend of extended household living for young men and women between 1980 and 2000.

  2. THE PROBLEM OF FINANCING INNOVATION OF ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ildyakov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main issues related to financing innovation in enterprises. The author proves the problem of financing innovation as a key deterrent to the innovative development of Russian enterprises.

  3. Imaging mud fluid conduits of the Gunshuiping mud volcano with Electric Resistivity Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ling-Rong; Lin, Ting-Li; Chang, Ping-Yu

    2016-04-01

    We conducted the resistivity survey at the Gunshuiping mud volcano and produced a 3D model in order to delineate the mud-fluid conduits in the mud volcano system. The Gunshuiping mud volcano is located in a 175-m × 90-m plateau in Southwest of Taiwan. There are three main mud-volcano craters: craters 1, 2 and 3. Crater 3 is active and the others are inactive. We conducted thirteen survey lines using the Wenner configuration to obtain the resistivity profile images. The lengths of the lines are about 155 m and 60 m, which can resolve the resistivity image down to 30 m and 10 m in depth, respectively. The results appeared that there is a vertical structure under the crater 3, and we suggest that it is the mud-fluid conduit. There is a chamber at depth between 3 and 14 m, and we interpret it is the temporary storage of mud fluid during the erupting process. Beneath the craters 1 and 2, there is a near-surface, horizontal conduit connecting the craters 1 and 2. At depth between 15 and 25 m, the vertical conduit beneath the crater 3 and the horizontal conduit beneath the craters 1 and 2 are connected. The resistivity images clearly delineate the conduit underneath the craters and suggest that the crater 3 is the main erupting conduit, which is consistent with the surface features, in the Gunshuiping mud volcano system.

  4. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit for repair of injured sciatic nerve: A mechanical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Zhao, Changfu; Li, Peng; Liu, Guangyao; Luo, Min

    2013-07-25

    Tensile stress and tensile strain directly affect the quality of nerve regeneration after bridging nerve defects by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation and autogenous nerve grafting for sciatic nerve injury. This study collected the sciatic nerve from the gluteus maximus muscle from fresh human cadaver, and established 10-mm-long sciatic nerve injury models by removing the ischium, following which poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts were transplanted. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the axon and myelin sheath were torn, and the vessels of basilar membrane were obstructed in the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit-repaired sciatic nerve following tensile testing. There were no significant differences in tensile tests with autogenous nerve graft-repaired sciatic nerve. Following poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation for sciatic nerve repair, tensile test results suggest that maximum tensile load, maximum stress, elastic limit load and elastic limit stress increased compared with autogenous nerve grafts, but elastic limit strain and maximum strain decreased. Moreover, the tendencies of stress-strain curves of sciatic nerves were similar after transplantation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts. Results showed that after transplantation in vitro for sciatic nerve injury, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits exhibited good intensity, elasticity and plasticity, indicating that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits are suitable for sciatic nerve injury repair.

  5. Modeling the closure of volcanic conduits with an application to Mount Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quareni, Francesca; Mulargia, Francesco

    1993-03-01

    The eruptive activity of a volcano is controlled by the opening and closure of conduits through which magma ascends to the surface. We develop a model to study the deformation of a cylindrical conduit surrounded by a viscoelastic cylindrical region in an infinite, elastic, homogeneous space. The viscoelastic behavior of the zone around the conduit is due to heat conduction from the hot magma, which raises the temperature beyond the brittle-ductile transition point. The effect of a tectonic regional stress which favors (compressive) or acts against (tensile) conduit closure is taken into account. Conduit closure is found to be ruled essentially by the extension of the viscoelastic region and by the ratio between its rigidity and the rigidity of the surrounding elastic medium, while tectonic stress is much less important. The model is applied to the last eruptive cycle of Mount Vesuvius. We find that an open conduit condition has been possible from 1631 to 1944, while the quiescence from 1944 on implies a closed conduit state.

  6. The vanishing effect of finance on growth

    OpenAIRE

    Gründler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the causes of the "vanishing effect of finance" detected in recent studies. The results highlight that the negative effect of the financial system on growth is mainly driven by advanced economies, whereas finance is still beneficial for income increases in developing countries. The reason is that finance and growth are associated via a nonlinear relationship, which is due to a fundamental change in the transmission mechanism of finance across different levels of econom...

  7. An Introduction to International Factoring & Project Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Glinavos, Ioannis

    2002-01-01

    This work consists of two essays on law and finance in international trade. It addresses the means of raising funds for investment through receivables financing and project finance. The first essay discusses the role of receivables financing and in particular factoring in international trade. It examines the nature of factoring transactions and presents the efforts at regulation on an international level aimed at overcoming the difficulties in enforcement. The second essay discusses project f...

  8. Discussion On The Theory Of Behavioral Finance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Lulu

    2014-01-01

    behavioral finance theory as a new research field is introduced into China from the last century 80's, the study not only explains many anomalies in the market, also poses a challenge to traditional finance theory, some could not be explained by traditional financial theory, behavioral finance theory provides a new vision for us.

  9. 78 FR 33755 - Project Financing Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... investments. In a ``project'' finance model, the assets and revenues from a particular investment form the... expand its project financing authority, especially for renewable energy investments, what infrastructure... Service 7 CFR Part 1710 [0572-AC21] Project Financing Loans AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA....

  10. 7 CFR 1738.19 - Facilities financed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... broadband loans to finance broadband facilities leased under the terms of a capital lease as defined in... under the terms of an operating lease as defined in generally accepted accounting principles. (c) RUS... Facilities financed. (a) RUS makes broadband loans to finance the construction, improvement, and...

  11. The financing behavior of Dutch firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Linda H.; Jiang, George J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates the financing behaviour of Dutch firms by testing whether a firm’s financing decisions are determined by certain factors identified in various theories. Since a firm’s financing decision is reflected in the changes of its leverage, our research focuses on the relationship bet

  12. Threshold Concepts in Finance: Student Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Susan; Kyng, Tim; Tickle, Leonie; Wood, Leigh N.

    2015-01-01

    Finance threshold concepts are the essential conceptual knowledge that underpin well-developed financial capabilities and are central to the mastery of finance. In this paper we investigate threshold concepts in finance from the point of view of students, by establishing the extent to which students are aware of threshold concepts identified by…

  13. Study on Risk Management in Financing and Operational of Grameen Bank Financing Concept in MBK Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobby Yulandika Putra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – Poverty is one of the most fundamental issues that still surround the life of 29.89 million people of Indonesia (National Statistical Bureau data from January 2, 2012. During this time, the pattern of poverty alleviation programs undertaken by the government is a pattern of generosity. This pattern can directly exacerbate the poor morals and behavior. Ideally, poverty alleviation efforts are made by concrete steps, which empower poor `communities themselves.In line with the theme of this research, one of the financial institutions (non-Banks who cares and has the spirit to empower people to overcome poverty is Mitra Bisnis Keluarga (MBK. This study aimed to assess the financial risks and operational risks of implementation of Grameen Bank financing concept in MBK.Methods - The method used in this research is literature review and qualitative descriptive study using actual MBK data.Results - Results from this research showed that products with the concept of Grameen Bank financing is relatively safe in the terms of the financing risk, but requires more attention on operational risk and which can be implemented for large-scale poverty alleviation program.Conclusion - The data showed that the risk of financing given to the poor (without collateral is minimal and MBK actual data shows that the Operational self-sufficiency is relatively high at> 90% Keywords : MBK, Grameen Bank, Poverty

  14. Instability of finance markets. Normal liquid markets vs. finance crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, J. L.

    2009-11-01

    This lecture focuses on the economic crisis in the world today, and can be seen as a continuation of my Geilo 2007 lecture where I observed that we had a Dollar crisis based on the worldwide flood of Dollars (M3) that began after 1971 [1,2]. Here, I want to focus on why we have a finance crisis, which is essentially a Dollar crisis, and what I think will need to be done to get out of it. Toward that end, the instability of normal liquid finance markets is contrasted with the worse instability of a liquidity drought, so I'll begin by explaining the former. The current liquidity drought can be compared with the Great Depression and is the covered in the second part of this paper.

  15. 75 FR 38158 - Korea Finance Corporation; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMISSION Korea Finance Corporation; Notice of Application June 25, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... Finance Corporation (``Applicant''). SUMMARY: Summary of Application: Applicant, a policy finance...-owned policy finance institution established by the Korean Government on October 28, 2009, pursuant...

  16. Encoding and Decoding Procedures for Arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Babaev

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses an algorithm based on the encoding procedure for representing a set of arrangement elements as a single number. Also the author provides the procedure for the inverse transformation of the code into arrangement elements. In addition the Article includes recommendations on the use of the above procedures in combinatorial algorithms of optimization.

  17. The making of local hospital discharge arrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burau, Viola; Bro, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    with doctors, nurses and secretaries conducted at two different stages in the process of the making of the local discharge arrangements. Results From the analysis, two distinct local models of discharge arrangements that connect more or less directly to existing professional practice emerge: an ‘add-on’ model...

  18. Hyperbolic structures on a toric arrangement complement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Dali

    2015-01-01

    This thesis studies the geometric structures on toric arrangement complements. Inspired by the special hypergeometric functions associated with a root system, we consider a family of connections on a total space which is the product of the complement of a toric arrangement (=finite union of hypertor

  19. Structure of a bacterial cell surface decaheme electron conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Thomas A; Edwards, Marcus J; Gates, Andrew J; Hall, Andrea; White, Gaye F; Bradley, Justin; Reardon, Catherine L; Shi, Liang; Beliaev, Alexander S; Marshall, Matthew J; Wang, Zheming; Watmough, Nicholas J; Fredrickson, James K; Zachara, John M; Butt, Julea N; Richardson, David J

    2011-06-07

    Some bacterial species are able to utilize extracellular mineral forms of iron and manganese as respiratory electron acceptors. In Shewanella oneidensis this involves decaheme cytochromes that are located on the bacterial cell surface at the termini of trans-outer-membrane electron transfer conduits. The cell surface cytochromes can potentially play multiple roles in mediating electron transfer directly to insoluble electron sinks, catalyzing electron exchange with flavin electron shuttles or participating in extracellular intercytochrome electron exchange along "nanowire" appendages. We present a 3.2-Å crystal structure of one of these decaheme cytochromes, MtrF, that allows the spatial organization of the 10 hemes to be visualized for the first time. The hemes are organized across four domains in a unique crossed conformation, in which a staggered 65-Å octaheme chain transects the length of the protein and is bisected by a planar 45-Å tetraheme chain that connects two extended Greek key split β-barrel domains. The structure provides molecular insight into how reduction of insoluble substrate (e.g., minerals), soluble substrates (e.g., flavins), and cytochrome redox partners might be possible in tandem at different termini of a trifurcated electron transport chain on the cell surface.

  20. [Reconstruction of the pulmonary outflow tract without external conduit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, N; Yamaguchi, M; Oka, S; Ootaki, Y; Yoshida, M; Hayashi, T; Shinkawa, T; Tei, T; Kuroe, K; Kido, S; Tsukuda, K; Oshima, Y

    2001-07-01

    Between October 1987 and December 2000, 50 patients underwent reconstruction of the pulmonary outflow tract without external conduit. The primary malformation was tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia in 37, double outlet of right ventricle in 4, corrected transposition of the great arteries in 4, transposition of the great arteries with ventricular septal defect and pulmonary stenosis in 4, and double outlet of left ventricle in 2. Mean age at operation was 7.2 years, and mean body weight was 18.3 kg. To reconstruct posterior wall of the pulmonary outflow tract, interposition of autologous pericardium was performed in 24, direct anastomosis between pulmonary trunk and ventriculotomy in 13, longitudinal incision from ventriculotomy through pulmonary trunk in 12, and interposition of left atrial appendage in 1. Anterior wall was reconstructed with monocusp valved outflow patch (MVOP). There was one hospital death and no late death. At 10 years, the freedom from reoperation for pulmonary outflow tract obstruction was 100%, and freedom from reoperation for any cause was 86.6%. Transcatheter stenting for peripheral pulmonary stenosis was performed in 6 patients 2 to 10 months after operation.

  1. Mapping the Hawaiian plume conduit with converted seismic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li; Kind; Priestley; Sobolev; Tilmann; Yuan; Weber

    2000-06-22

    The volcanic edifice of the Hawaiian islands and seamounts, as well as the surrounding area of shallow sea floor known as the Hawaiian swell, are believed to result from the passage of the oceanic lithosphere over a mantle hotspot. Although geochemical and gravity observations indicate the existence of a mantle thermal plume beneath Hawaii, no direct seismic evidence for such a plume in the upper mantle has yet been found. Here we present an analysis of compressional-to-shear (P-to-S) converted seismic phases, recorded on seismograph stations on the Hawaiian islands, that indicate a zone of very low shear-wave velocity (effects of the Hawaiian plume conduit in the asthenosphere and mantle transition zone with excess temperature of approximately 300 degrees C. Large variations in the transition-zone thickness suggest a lower-mantle origin of the Hawaiian plume similar to the Iceland plume, but our results indicate a 100 degrees C higher temperature for the Hawaiian plume.

  2. The International Finance Corporation and financing of sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The International Finance Corporation (IFC), a member of the World Bank Group, is the largest multilateral source of loan and equity financing for private sector projects in the developing world. IFC participates in an investment only when it can make a special contribution that complements the role of market operators. Since its founding 40 years ago, IFC has provided more than $18.8 billion in financing for 1,706 companies in developing countries. Its share capital is provided by its 170 member countries, which collectively determine its policies and activities. Strong shareholder support and a substantial paid-in capital base have allowed IFC to raise funds for its lending activities through its triple-A rated bond issues in international financial markets. IFC created an Infrastructure Department in 1992 in response to the growing demand for its services in this area. During fiscal 1996 IFC approved 33 projects for new investments of $715 million of which 27% were in the power sector. In recognition of the continuing demand growth for private power investments an expanded Power Department has been formed to handle IFC`s investments in electric power generation projects using renewable resources such as: run-of-the-river hydro, geothermal, biomass cogeneration, wind energy, and solar (photovoltaic, solar thermal, etc.), as well as conventional thermal generation projects, transmission and distribution projects, and energy efficiency investments.

  3. Cooling arrangement for a tapered turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, George

    2010-07-27

    A cooling arrangement (11) for a highly tapered gas turbine blade (10). The cooling arrangement (11) includes a pair of parallel triple-pass serpentine cooling circuits (80,82) formed in an inner radial portion (50) of the blade, and a respective pair of single radial channel cooling circuits (84,86) formed in an outer radial portion (52) of the blade (10), with each single radial channel receiving the cooling fluid discharged from a respective one of the triple-pass serpentine cooling circuit. The cooling arrangement advantageously provides a higher degree of cooling to the most highly stressed radially inner portion of the blade, while providing a lower degree of cooling to the less highly stressed radially outer portion of the blade. The cooling arrangement can be implemented with known casting techniques, thereby facilitating its use on highly tapered, highly twisted Row 4 industrial gas turbine blades that could not be cooled with prior art cooling arrangements.

  4. Risk Analysis of Telecom Enterprise Financing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hua; SHU Hua-ying

    2005-01-01

    The main research objects in this paper are the causes searching and risk estimating method for telecom enterprises' financial risks. The multi-mode financing for telecom enterprises makes it flexible to induce the capital and obtain the profit by corresponding projects. But there are also potential risks going with these financing modes. After making analysis of categories and causes of telecom enterprises' financing risk, a method by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is put forward to estimating the financing risk. And the author makes her suggestion and opinion by example analysis, in order to provide some ideas and basis for telecom enterprise's financing decision-making.

  5. MRI of the heart following implantation of a left ventricular apico-aortic conduit; Kernspintomografie zur umfassenden Untersuchung des Herzens nach Implantation von linksventrikulaeren apikoaortalen Conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhl, K.M.; Katoh, M.; Guenther, R.W.; Krombach, G.A. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Langebartels, G.; Autschbach, R. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Thorax-, Herz- und Gefaesschirurgie

    2007-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the potential of ECG-triggered MRI for the evaluation of postoperative anatomy and function of the heart and conduit following implantation of a left-ventricular apico-aortic conduit. Materials and Methods: 5 patients (2 female, 3 male, mean age 72.5 years) were examined using a 1.5 Tesla whole-body MRI (Gyroscan Intera, Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands) following apico-aortic conduit surgery due to severe aortic valve stenosis. The reason for performing conduit implantation instead of aortic valve replacement was the risk of injuring a bypass graft from prior coronary artery bypass surgery. Cine steady-state-free-precession (SSFP) sequences were used to assess ventricular function, navigator-gated 3D-SSFP and breath-hold, time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography was used to display the postoperative anatomy, and 2D-gradient echo sequences with an inversion pulse to suppress the signal of the healthy myocardium were used to evaluate potential myocardial scarring. Flow sensitive gradient echo sequences were performed to determine the blood flow in the conduit. Results: In all patients the apico-aortic conduit proved to be open with a maximum flow velocity of 126 (+ 43) cm/s. The postoperative anatomy was able to be evaluated in all patients and perioperative myocardial infarction was able to be ruled out. The mean ejection fraction of the left ventricle was 44.2 + 6.2 % with a mean volume of 80 + 20.6 ml per heart beat. (orig.)

  6. Chapitre VI. Prudence du financement

    OpenAIRE

    Jambard, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    L’histoire financière de la société permet de comprendre bien des traits de son histoire. Comme toutes les entreprises du bâtiment et des travaux publics, la Société Auxiliaire s’est trouvée devant la nécessité de disposer d’importants capitaux circulants. Grâce à une gestion financière efficace, elle est, en général, parvenue à dégager de son activité les fonds nécessaires, bien que l’aisance de la trésorerie quotidienne n’ait été acquise qu’avec la reconversion. Les années 1927-1946 sont ce...

  7. Finances publiques, sorties de crise...

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu, Catherine; Sterdyniak, Henri

    2011-01-01

    La crise financière de 2007-2009 a provoqué un fort gonflement des dettes et des déficits publics dans les pays développés. Les marchés financiers comme les institutions internationales réclament une politique de sortie de crise passant par une réduction rapide des déficits, une forte baisse du niveau des dettes, ceci grâce à une forte réduction des dépenses publiques (en particulier des dépenses sociales). L’article montre que la situation des finances publiques était globalement satisfaisan...

  8. Commodities, energy and environmental finance

    CERN Document Server

    Ludkovski, Michael; Sircar, Ronnie

    2015-01-01

    This volume is a collection of chapters covering the latest developments in applications of financial mathematics and statistics to topics in energy, commodity financial markets and environmental economics. The research presented is based on the presentations and discussions that took place during the Fields Institute Focus Program on Commodities, Energy and Environmental Finance in August 2013. The authors include applied mathematicians, economists and industry practitioners, providing for a multi-disciplinary spectrum of perspectives on the subject. The volume consists of four sections: Electricity Markets; Real Options; Trading in Commodity Markets; and Oligopolistic Models for Energy Production. Taken together, the chapters give a comprehensive summary of the current state of the art in quantitative analysis of commodities and energy finance. The topics covered include structural models of electricity markets, financialization of commodities, valuation of commodity real options, game-theory analysis of ...

  9. 12 CFR 908.71 - Practice before the Finance Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Practice before the Finance Board. 908.71 Section 908.71 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION... Finance Board § 908.71 Practice before the Finance Board. Practice before the Finance Board for...

  10. 12 CFR 985.4 - Finance Board oversight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finance Board oversight. 985.4 Section 985.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD OFFICE OF FINANCE THE OFFICE OF FINANCE § 985.4 Finance Board oversight. (a) Oversight and enforcement actions. The Finance Board shall have the same...

  11. Internationalisation and financing options of Ghanaian SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Abor

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a study of internationalisation and the financing options of Ghanaian small and medium scale nontraditional exporters. The article also examines how the age and size of an organisation affect the choice of financing. The results show a positive association between debt financing and the age of an organisation. Over time, organisations become more acceptable investments to lenders, and consequently older organisations are more likely to obtain debt financing than their younger counterparts. With respect to size, the results again indicate that larger organisations are more likely to receive debt financing. The results also show a positive relationship between degree of internationalisation and debt financing. The results suggest that as organisations engage more in international activities, they employ more debt but use less of equity financing. This is explained by the fact that organisations involved in international business tend to be more diversified and, as such, are capable of accommodating more debt capital

  12. Efficacy of nanofibrous conduits in repair of long-segment sciatic nerve defects*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Esmaeil Biazar; Saeed Heidari Keshel; Majid Pouya

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies have histomorphological y confirmed that nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) conduit can be used to repair 30-mm-long sciatic nerve defects. However, the repair effects on rat behaviors remain poorly understood. In this study, we used nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) conduit and autologous sciatic nerve to bridge 30-mm-long rat sciatic nerve gaps. Within 4 months after surgery, rat sciatic nerve functional re-covery was evaluated per month by behavioral analyses, including toe out angle, toe spread anal-ysis, walking track analysis, extensor postural thrust, swimming test, open-field analysis and noci-ceptive function. Results showed that rat sciatic nerve functional recovery was similar after nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) conduit and autologous nerve grafting. These findings suggest that nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) conduit is suitable in use for repair of long-segment sciatic nerve defects.

  13. Study on the air flow field of the drawing conduit in the spunbonding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Li-Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The air flow field of the drawing conduit in the spunbonding process has a great effect on the polymer drawing, the filament diameter and orientation. A numerical simulation of the process is carried out, and the results are compared with the experimental data, showing good accuracy of the numerical prediction. This research lays an important foundation for the optimal design of the drawing conduit in the spunbonding process.

  14. 12 CFR 987.2 - Law governing rights and obligations of Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States and Federal Reserve Banks; rights of any Person against Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States and Federal Reserve Banks. 987.2 Section 987.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD OFFICE OF FINANCE BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURE FOR...

  15. Hospitals, nursing homes turn to 3rd-party financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaff, J.

    1982-07-05

    Experience is teaching the administrators of hospitals and nursing homes how to make better arrangements for third-party financing of energy-management systems. Accustomed to health-insurance reimbursement for health-care costs, hospitals have lacked incentives for conservation. Plans now used most by hospitals and health-care facilities involve third-party arrangements where: (1) an equipment vendor installs equipment and takes a share of the energy-cost savings; or (2) energy-services firms both install capital-intensive equipment and implement a variety of low-cost conservation measures, again for a percentage of the savings. Although most users think these arrangements are satisfactory, they advise a preliminary low-cost audit and participation in a basic energy-management seminar before employing an energy-services firm. Accurate baseline energy-consumption data should be developed in order to evaluate results, and assurance is needed that staff members understand the accounting formulas. Also recommended are independent audits after installation and attention to the legal clauses in contracts. (DCK)

  16. The Himalayas: barrier and conduit for gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayden, Tenzin; Perez, Annabel; Persad, Patrice J; Bukhari, Areej; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Simms, Tanya; Maloney, Trisha; Rodriguez, Kristina; Herrera, Rene J

    2013-06-01

    The Himalayan mountain range is strategically located at the crossroads of the major cultural centers in Asia, the Middle East and Europe. Although previous Y-chromosome studies indicate that the Himalayas served as a natural barrier for gene flow from the south to the Tibetan plateau, this region is believed to have played an important role as a corridor for human migrations between East and West Eurasia along the ancient Silk Road. To evaluate the effects of the Himalayan mountain range in shaping the maternal lineages of populations residing on either side of the cordillera, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA variation in 344 samples from three Nepalese collections (Newar, Kathmandu and Tamang) and a general population of Tibet. Our results revealed a predominantly East Asian-specific component in Tibet and Tamang, whereas Newar and Kathmandu are both characterized by a combination of East and South Central Asian lineages. Interestingly, Newar and Kathmandu harbor several deep-rooted Indian lineages, including M2, R5, and U2, whose coalescent times from this study (U2, >40 kya) and previous reports (M2 and R5, >50 kya) suggest that Nepal was inhabited during the initial peopling of South Central Asia. Comparisons with our previous Y-chromosome data indicate sex-biased migrations in Tamang and a founder effect and/or genetic drift in Tamang and Newar. Altogether, our results confirm that while the Himalayas acted as a geographic barrier for human movement from the Indian subcontinent to the Tibetan highland, it also served as a conduit for gene flow between Central and East Asia.

  17. Polytetrafluoroethylene pulmonary valve conduit implantation for chronic pulmonary insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintessenza, James A

    2014-12-01

    Pulmonary valve replacement in patients with congenital cardiac disease is now being performed with more liberal indications in light of the data that chronic pulmonary insufficiency is not a benign lesion. The beneficial effects of valve replacement with low operative mortality and morbidity support this approach. Many options exist for a pulmonary valve prosthesis, which underscores the fact that there is no ideal valve available. Our efforts are focussed around a synthetic valve that avoids the bio-degeneration of a bio-prosthesis and avoids the need for life-long coumadin. We developed a bicuspid (bileaflet) polytetrafluoroethylene valve design, which has now gone through three major revisions in >200 patients over 14 years. We began the experience utilising a polytetrafluoroethylene hand-sewn bicuspid valve in the right ventricular outflow tract, initially using 0.6 mm and more recently 0.1 mm polytetrafluoroethylene. The 0.1 mm thickness material functions well as a leaflet, maintaining a relatively thin and flexible nature. It does not calcify or initiate thromboses at least for the first several years. We identified issues with dehiscence of the leaflet from the right ventricular outflow tract muscle, especially in the larger, potentially expansive right ventricular outflow tracts, and this prompted our latest design change to place the valve within a polytetrafluoroethylene tube. This current version of the polytetrafluoroethylene valve conduit has excellent short-to-intermediate-term function. Further follow-up is necessary to determine late durability and life-long valve-related procedural risk for our patients.

  18. Bijections for the Shi and Ish arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Leven, Emily; Rhoades, Brendon; Wilson, Andrew Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The {\\sf Shi hyperplane arrangement} Shi(n) was introduced by Shi to study the Kazhdan-Lusztig cellular structure of the affine symmetric group. The {\\sf Ish hyperplane arrangement} Ish(n) was introduced by Armstrong in the study of diagonal harmonics. Armstrong and Rhoades discovered a deep combinatorial similarity between the Shi and Ish arrangements. We solve a collection of problems posed by Armstrong and Armstrong-Rhoades by giving bijections between regions of Shi(n) and Ish(n) which pr...

  19. Exchange rate arrangements: From extreme to "normal"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beker Emilija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies theoretical and empirical location dispersion of exchange rate arrangements - rigid-intermediate-flexible regimes, in the context of extreme arrangements of a currency board, dollarization and monetary union moderate characteristics of intermediate arrangements (adjustable pegs crawling pegs and target zones and imperative-process "normalization" in the form of a managed or clean floating system. It is established that de iure and de facto classifications generate "fear of floating" and "fear of pegging". The "impossible trinity" under the conditions of capital liberalization and globalization creates a bipolar view or hypothesis of vanishing intermediate exchange rate regimes.

  20. Comparison of a karst groundwater model with and without discrete conduit flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saller, Stephen P.; Ronayne, Michael J.; Long, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Karst aquifers exhibit a dual flow system characterized by interacting conduit and matrix domains. This study evaluated the coupled continuum pipe-flow framework for modeling karst groundwater flow in the Madison aquifer of western South Dakota (USA). Coupled conduit and matrix flow was simulated within a regional finite-difference model over a 10-year transient period. An existing equivalent porous medium (EPM) model was modified to include major conduit networks whose locations were constrained by dye-tracing data and environmental tracer analysis. Model calibration data included measured hydraulic heads at observation wells and estimates of discharge at four karst springs. Relative to the EPM model, the match to observation well hydraulic heads was substantially improved with the addition of conduits. The inclusion of conduit flow allowed for a simpler hydraulic conductivity distribution in the matrix continuum. Two of the high-conductivity zones in the EPM model, which were required to indirectly simulate the effects of conduits, were eliminated from the new model. This work demonstrates the utility of the coupled continuum pipe-flow method and illustrates how karst aquifer model parameterization is dependent on the physical processes that are simulated.

  1. In vitro evaluation of carbon-nanotube-reinforced bioprintable vascular conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolati, Farzaneh; Yu, Yin; Zhang, Yahui; De Jesus, Aribet M.; Sander, Edward A.; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T.

    2014-04-01

    Vascularization of thick engineered tissue and organ constructs like the heart, liver, pancreas or kidney remains a major challenge in tissue engineering. Vascularization is needed to supply oxygen and nutrients and remove waste in living tissues and organs through a network that should possess high perfusion ability and significant mechanical strength and elasticity. In this paper, we introduce a fabrication process to print vascular conduits directly, where conduits were reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to enhance their mechanical properties and bioprintability. In vitro evaluation of printed conduits encapsulated in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells was performed to characterize the effects of CNT reinforcement on the mechanical, perfusion and biological performance of the conduits. Perfusion and permeability, cell viability, extracellular matrix formation and tissue histology were assessed and discussed, and it was concluded that CNT-reinforced vascular conduits provided a foundation for mechanically appealing constructs where CNTs could be replaced with natural protein nanofibers for further integration of these conduits in large-scale tissue fabrication.

  2. A biosynthetic nerve guide conduit based on silk/SWNT/fibronectin nanocomposite for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaghitalab, Fatemeh; Farokhi, Mehdi; Zaminy, Arash; Kokabi, Mehrdad; Soleimani, Masoud; Mirahmadi, Fereshteh; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Sadeghizadeh, Majid

    2013-01-01

    As a contribution to the functionality of nerve guide conduits (NGCs) in nerve tissue engineering, here we report a conduit processing technique through introduction and evaluation of topographical, physical and chemical cues. Porous structure of NGCs based on freeze-dried silk/single walled carbon nanotubes (SF/SWNTs) has shown a uniform chemical and physical structure with suitable electrical conductivity. Moreover, fibronectin (FN) containing nanofibers within the structure of SF/SWNT conduits produced through electrospinning process have shown aligned fashion with appropriate porosity and diameter. Moreover, fibronectin remained its bioactivity and influenced the adhesion and growth of U373 cell lines. The conduits were then implanted to 10 mm left sciatic nerve defects in rats. The histological assessment has shown that nerve regeneration has taken places in proximal region of implanted nerve after 5 weeks following surgery. Furthermore, nerve conduction velocities (NCV) and more myelinated axons were observed in SF/SWNT and SF/SWNT/FN groups after 5 weeks post implantation, indicating a functional recovery for the injured nerves. With immunohistochemistry, the higher S-100 expression of Schwann cells in SF/SWNT/FN conduits in comparison to other groups was confirmed. In conclusion, an oriented conduit of biocompatible SF/SWNT/FN has been fabricated with acceptable structure that is particularly applicable in nerve grafts.

  3. A biosynthetic nerve guide conduit based on silk/SWNT/fibronectin nanocomposite for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mottaghitalab

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the functionality of nerve guide conduits (NGCs in nerve tissue engineering, here we report a conduit processing technique through introduction and evaluation of topographical, physical and chemical cues. Porous structure of NGCs based on freeze-dried silk/single walled carbon nanotubes (SF/SWNTs has shown a uniform chemical and physical structure with suitable electrical conductivity. Moreover, fibronectin (FN containing nanofibers within the structure of SF/SWNT conduits produced through electrospinning process have shown aligned fashion with appropriate porosity and diameter. Moreover, fibronectin remained its bioactivity and influenced the adhesion and growth of U373 cell lines. The conduits were then implanted to 10 mm left sciatic nerve defects in rats. The histological assessment has shown that nerve regeneration has taken places in proximal region of implanted nerve after 5 weeks following surgery. Furthermore, nerve conduction velocities (NCV and more myelinated axons were observed in SF/SWNT and SF/SWNT/FN groups after 5 weeks post implantation, indicating a functional recovery for the injured nerves. With immunohistochemistry, the higher S-100 expression of Schwann cells in SF/SWNT/FN conduits in comparison to other groups was confirmed. In conclusion, an oriented conduit of biocompatible SF/SWNT/FN has been fabricated with acceptable structure that is particularly applicable in nerve grafts.

  4. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit for repair of injured sciatic nerve A mechanical analysis*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Yu; Changfu Zhao; Peng Li; Guangyao Liu; Min Luo

    2013-01-01

    Tensile stress and tensile strain directly affect the quality of nerve regeneration after bridging nerve defects by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation and autogenous nerve grafting for sciatic nerve injury. This study col ected the sciatic nerve from the gluteus maximus muscle from fresh human cadaver, and established 10-mm-long sciatic nerve injury models by removing the ischium, fol owing which poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts were transplanted. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the axon and myelin sheath were torn, and the vessels of basilar membrane were obstructed in the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) con-duit-repaired sciatic nerve fol owing tensile testing. There were no significant differences in tensile tests with autogenous nerve graft-repaired sciatic nerve. Fol owing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation for sciatic nerve repair, tensile test results suggest that maximum tensile load, maximum stress, elastic limit load and elastic limit stress increased compared with autogen-ous nerve grafts, but elastic limit strain and maximum strain decreased. Moreover, the tendencies of stress-strain curves of sciatic nerves were similar after transplantation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts. Results showed that after transplantation in vitro for sciatic nerve injury, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits exhibited good intensity, elasticity and plasticity, indicating that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits are suitable for sciatic nerve injury repair.

  5. MR and CT imaging of pulmonary valved conduits in children and adolescents: normal appearance and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenisch, Estelle V.; Alamo, Leonor T.; Gudinchet, Francois [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Lausanne (Switzerland); Sekarski, Nicole [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Lausanne (Switzerland); Hurni, Michel [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-12-15

    The Contegra registered is a conduit made from the bovine jugular vein and then interposed between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. It is used for cardiac malformations in the reconstruction of right ventricular outflow tract. To describe both normal and pathological appearances of the Contegra registered in radiological imaging, to describe imaging of complications and to define the role of CT and MRI in postoperative follow-up. Forty-three examinations of 24 patients (17 boys and 7 girls; mean age: 10.8 years old) with Contegra registered conduits were reviewed. Anatomical description and measurements of the conduits were performed. Pathological items examined included stenosis, dilatation, plicature or twist, thrombus or vegetations, calcifications and valvular regurgitation. Findings were correlated to the echographic gradient through the conduit when available. CT and MR work-up showed Contegra registered stenosis (n = 12), dilatation (n = 9) and plicature or twist (n = 7). CT displayed thrombus or vegetations in the Contegra registered in three clinically infected patients. Calcifications of the conduit were present at CT in 12 patients and valvular regurgitation in three patients. The comparison between CT and/or MR results showed a good correlation between the echographic gradient and the presence of stenosis in the Contegra registered. CT and MR bring additional information about permeability and postoperative anatomy especially when echocardiography is inconclusive. Both techniques depict the normal appearance of the conduit, and allow comparison and precise evaluation of changes in the postoperative follow-up. (orig.)

  6. 78 FR 76600 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... of computer science, including but not limited to survey, monitor, control, and protection systems; H... Proposed Subsequent Arrangement AGENCY: Office of Nonproliferation and International Security, Department... Strangis, Office of Nonproliferation and International Security, National Nuclear Security...

  7. 24 CFR 401.301 - Partnership arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (MARK-TO-MARKET) Participating Administrative Entity (PAE) and Portfolio Restructuring Agreement (PRA) § 401.301 Partnership arrangements. If the PAE is in a partnership, the PRA must specify the...

  8. Valve Technology Arrangement of Cryopump: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Y. Rajput

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A cryopump or a "cryogenic pump" is a vacuum pump that pumps the trap gases and vapours by condensing them on a cold surface. Helium gas which is very light can only be pumped by Cryopump. Cryopump cannot be used when working for continuous operation as it pumps the effluent till the saturation state is achieved. Then the absorbed gases are to be collected through other mechanical pump through regeneration process. Hence, valve technology arrangement is incorporated with the cryopump in order to achieve the continuous pumping when two cryopump are used in alternate processes (i.e. absorption and regeneration. Various design of Valve technology arrangement is proposed by different researcher all over the world. This review paper focuses on the different proposed valve technology arrangement and elaborately explains the various components of valve technology and concludes the best possible arrangement that can be used in Cryopump.

  9. Application of arrangement theory to unfolding models

    CERN Document Server

    Kamiya, Hidehiko; Tokushige, Norihide

    2010-01-01

    Arrangement theory plays an essential role in the study of the unfolding model used in many fields. This paper describes how arrangement theory can be usefully employed in solving the problems of counting (i) the number of admissible rankings in an unfolding model and (ii) the number of ranking patterns generated by unfolding models. The paper is mostly expository but also contains some new results such as simple upper and lower bounds for the number of ranking patterns in the unidimensional case.

  10. Optimal hash arrangement of tentacles in jellyfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Takuya; Yoshimura, Jin

    2016-06-01

    At first glance, the trailing tentacles of a jellyfish appear to be randomly arranged. However, close examination of medusae has revealed that the arrangement and developmental order of the tentacles obey a mathematical rule. Here, we show that medusa jellyfish adopt the best strategy to achieve the most uniform distribution of a variable number of tentacles. The observed order of tentacles is a real-world example of an optimal hashing algorithm known as Fibonacci hashing in computer science.

  11. The A daptations of SMEs into Rating Process within the S cope of Bas el Arrangements a Study in the city of Corum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Çakar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available SMEs operate in certain hardships when the developments in financial markets are taken into account. The primary of these hardships is the difficulty in reaching low-cost finance facilities which are crucial for competing and growing. When it comes to today, the most important developments affecting the SMEs in terms of finance are Basel arrangements. From now on, financial institutions will take the rating notes of SMEs into consideration while giving credits to them. Financial resources will be provided for SMEs in accordance with their rating, and therefore competition advantage and disadvantages of SMEs will be ensued.A hesitation about the orientation of SMEs to the financing technique which is brought by Basel arrangements occurred and thus a study was conducted relating to the matter in the city of Corum. When the results of the study were analysed, it was realised that the SMEs operating in Corum were not sufficiently informed about the rating system brought about Basel arrangements and also the ones who were knowledgeable about these arrangements did not demand rating due to the cost issues of this system. The first and foremost reason of adaptation problems into Basel process was the fact that the SMEs were run by the proprietors themselves not the professional managers, and there were not finance managers in those SMEs

  12. Characteristics and biocompatibility of a biodegradable genipin-cross-linked gelatin/β-tricalcium phosphate reinforced nerve guide conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Chin; Shen, Chiung-Chyi; Huang, Tsung-Bin; Chang, Shun-Hsung; Cheng, Hsu-Chen; Liu, Bai-Shuan

    2010-10-01

    To modulate the mechanical properties of nerve guide conduit for surgical manipulation, this study develops a biodegradable composite containing genipin cross-linked gelatin annexed with β-tricalcium phosphate ceramic particles as a nerve guide material. The conduit was dark bluish and round with a rough and compact outer surface compared to the genipin cross-linked gelatin conduit (without β-tricalcium phosphate). Water uptake and swelling tests indicate that the conduit noticeably increases the stability in water, and the hydrated conduit does not collapse and stenose. The conduit has a sufficiently high level of mechanical properties to serve as a nerve guide. After subcutaneous implantation on the dorsal side of a rat, the degraded conduit only evokes a mild tissue response, and the formation of a very thin fibrous capsule surrounds the conduit. This paper assesses the effectiveness of the conduit as a guidance channel when we use it to repair a 10 mm gap in the rat's sciatic nerve. The experimental results show no gross inflammatory reactions of the peripheral nerve tissues at the implantation site in either group. In overall gross examination, the diameter of the intratubular and newly formed nerve fibers in the conduits exceeds that of the silicone tubes during the implantation period. The quantitative results indicate the superiority of the conduits over the silicone tubes. This study microscopically observes the nerve regeneration in the tissue section at the middle region of all implanted conduits. Therefore, the histomorphometric assessment demonstrates that the conduit could be a candidate for peripheral nerve repair.

  13. Three essays in mathematical finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruming

    This dissertation uses mathematical techniques to solve three problems in mathematical finance. The first two problems are on model-independent pricing and hedging of financial derivatives. We use asymptotic expansions to express derivative prices and implied volatilities. Then just by using the first few terms in the expansions, we get simple and accurate formulas, which can also help us find connections between different products. The last problem is on optimal trading strategies in a limit order book. Under a very general setup, we solve explicitly for a dynamic decision problem involving choosing between limit order and market order.

  14. Polymeric Nerve Conduits with Contact Guidance Cues Used in Nerve Repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G DAI; X NIU; J YIN

    2016-01-01

    In the modern life, the nerve injury frequently happens due to mechanical, chemical or thermal accidents. In the trivial injuries, the peripheral nerves can regenerate on their own; however, in most of the cases the clinical treatments are required, where relatively large nerve injury gaps are formed. Currently, the nerve repair can be accomplished by direct suture when the injury gap is not too large;while the autologous nerve graft working as the gold standard of peripheral nerve injury treatment for nerve injuries with larger gaps. However, the direct suture is limited by heavy tension at the suture sites, and the autologous nerve graft also has the drawbacks of donor site morbidity and insufifcient donor tissue. Recently, artiifcial nerve conduits have been developed as an alternative for clinical nerve repair to overcome the limitations associated with the above treatments. In order to further improve the efifciency of nerve conduits, various guidance cues are incorporated, including physical cues, biochemical signals, as well as support cells. First, this paper reviewed the contact guidance cues applied in nerve conduits, such as lumen ifllers, multi-channels and micro-patterns on the inner surface. Then, the paper focused on the polymeric nerve conduits with micro inner grooves. The polymeric nerve conduits were fabricated using the phase inversion-based ifber spinning techniques. The smart spinneret with grooved die was designed in the spinning platform, while different spinning conditions, including flow rates, air-gap distances, and polymer concentrations, were adjusted to investigate the inlfuence of fabrication conditions on the geometry of nerve conduits. The inner groove size in the nerve conduits can be precisely controlled in our hollow ifber spinning process, which can work as the efifcient contact guidance cue for nerve regeneration.

  15. Evolution of karst conduit networks in transition from pressurised flow to free surface flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perne, M.; Covington, M. D.; Gabrovšek, F.

    2014-06-01

    We present a novel modelling approach to study the evolution of conduit networks in soluble rocks. Unlike the models presented so far, the model allows a transition from pressurised (pipe) flow to a free surface (open channel) flow in evolving discrete conduit networks. It calculates flow, solute transport and dissolutional enlargement within each time step and steps through time until a stable flow pattern establishes. The flow in each time step is calculated by calling the EPA Storm Water Management Model (EPA SWMM), which efficiently solves the 1-D Saint Venant equations in a network of conduits. We present several cases with low dip and sub-vertical networks to demonstrate mechanisms of flow pathway selection. In low dip models the inputs were randomly distributed to several junctions. The evolution of pathways progresses upstream: initially pathways linking outlets to the closest inputs evolve fastest because the gradient along these pathways is largest. When a pathway efficiently drains the available recharge, the head drop along the pathway attracts flow from the neighbouring upstream junctions and new connecting pathways evolve. The mechanism progresses from the output boundary inwards until all inputs are connected to the stable flow system. In the pressurised phase, each junction is drained by at least one conduit, but only one conduit remains active in the vadose phase. The selection depends on the initial geometry of a junction, initial distribution of diameters, the evolution in a pressurised regime, and on the dip of the conduits, which plays an important role in vadose entrenchment. In high dip networks, the vadose zone propagates downwards and inwards from the rim of the massif. When a network with randomly distributed initial diameters is supplied with concentrated recharge from the adjacent area, the sink point regresses up upstream along junctions connected to the prominent pathways. Large conductive structures provide deep penetration of high

  16. Evolution of karst conduit networks in transition from pressurised flow to free surface flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Perne

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel modelling approach to study the evolution of conduit networks in soluble rocks. Unlike the models presented so far, the model allows a transition from pressurised (pipe flow to a free surface (open channel flow in evolving discrete conduit networks. It calculates flow, solute transport and dissolutional enlargement within each time step and steps through time until a stable flow pattern establishes. The flow in each time step is calculated by calling the EPA Storm Water Management Model (EPA SWMM, which efficiently solves the 1-D Saint Venant equations in a network of conduits. We present several cases with low dip and sub-vertical networks to demonstrate mechanisms of flow pathway selection. In low dip models the inputs were randomly distributed to several junctions. The evolution of pathways progresses upstream: initially pathways linking outlets to the closest inputs evolve fastest because the gradient along these pathways is largest. When a pathway efficiently drains the available recharge, the head drop along the pathway attracts flow from the neighbouring upstream junctions and new connecting pathways evolve. The mechanism progresses from the output boundary inwards until all inputs are connected to the stable flow system. In the pressurised phase, each junction is drained by at least one conduit, but only one conduit remains active in the vadose phase. The selection depends on the initial geometry of a junction, initial distribution of diameters, the evolution in a pressurised regime, and on the dip of the conduits, which plays an important role in vadose entrenchment. In high dip networks, the vadose zone propagates downwards and inwards from the rim of the massif. When a network with randomly distributed initial diameters is supplied with concentrated recharge from the adjacent area, the sink point regresses up upstream along junctions connected to the prominent pathways. Large conductive structures provide deep

  17. Finance strategies of Finnish entrepreneurial fashion companies

    OpenAIRE

    Hasi, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The intention of this study is to describe and explain how internationally focused, Finnish entrepreneurial fashion companies are financed. Fashion industry has been recognized as a viable industry in Finland, but it seems that these businesses suffer from lack of financing. Thus, many of the firms fail to expand to international markets, which is crucial for their future survival. The objective of this study is to understand how these fashion companies are financed from start-up until today,...

  18. Access to bank finance for Scottish SMEs.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    There is evidence that some SMEs may still face difficulties in accessing bank finance from lenders (CEEDR, 2007). This paper reports an in-depth study into demand and supply side issues relating to access to bank finance by Scottish SMEs and whether there is still market failure associated with good, bankable business cases from SMEs that do not receive finance. We argue that our study utilises innovative methodology and is relatively rare as a robust study in this area. We combine demand...

  19. FINANCING MECHANISMS OF AGRICULTURE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUMBESCU SORINA SIMONA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to highlight the importance of the agriculture financing ways, existing an interdependence relationship between the stage of agriculture development and its funding mechanisms. This article presents in a complex way, the general theoretical framework of the agriculture financing, and the practical methods of agriculture finance from bank loans to European programs and projects, the impact of EU funds on agriculture. The research leads to two important categories of tangible results; on one hand it highlights the most important and used ways to finance the Romanian agriculture, and on the other hand, there is analised the impact of EU funds on rural development, their absorption.

  20. Redistributive effects in public health care financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honekamp, Ivonne; Possenriede, Daniel

    2008-11-01

    This article focuses on the redistributive effects of different measures to finance public health insurance. We analyse the implications of different financing options for public health insurance on the redistribution of income from good to bad health risks and from high-income to low-income individuals. The financing options considered are either income-related (namely income taxes, payroll taxes, and indirect taxes), health-related (co-insurance, deductibles, and no-claim), or neither (flat fee). We show that governments who treat access to health care as a basic right for everyone should consider redistributive effects when reforming health care financing.

  1. Mortgage Finance and Security of Collateral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Developing economies face a gigantic lack of financing for urbanization due to the absence of formal and transparent property markets. The paper discuss the interference between mortgage finance and collateral security by using the Danish mortgage financing model as an example, because of its 200...... years long history, and because the system is recommended as an option in emerging markets and as a possible model for remedying failures in mature housing finance markets. It is suggested that development policies in land administration need to be revised in order to support a widening of credit...

  2. Financing with Receivables: Factoring, Securitization and Collateral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Benea

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Short term financing is vital for the financial survival of any company, because very often they are facing deficits of cash during their activity. Therefore a company has to identify the optimal solutions in order to cover those (temporary deficits. A good solution to this problem is the financing with receivables using factoring, securitization and collateral. In this paper we try to analyze how this types of financing works and which are their advantages and costs. Also, we developed a reasoning pattern in order to evaluate the best receivables financing alternative for the Romanian companies.

  3. Finance organizations, decisions and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pixley, Jocelyn

    2002-03-01

    Analyses of global financial markets are dominated by atomized models of decision-making and behavioural psychology ('exuberance' or 'panic'). In contrast, this paper argues that overwhelmingly, finance organizations rather than 'individuals' make decisions, and routinely use emotions in formulating expectations. Keynes introduced emotion (business confidence and animal spirits) but in economics, emotion remains individualistic and irrational. Luhmann's system theory lies at the other extreme, where emotions like trust and confidence are central variables, functional in the reduction of complexity in sub-systems like the economy. The gap between irrational emotions aggregated to 'herd' behaviour in economics, and 'system trust' applied to finance and money as a 'medium of communication' in sociology, remains largely unfilled. This paper argues that while organizations cannot be said to 'think' or 'feel', they are rational and emotional, because impersonal trust, confidence and their contrary emotions are unavoidable in decision-making due to fundamental uncertainty. These future-oriented emotions are prevalent within and between organizations in the financial sector, primarily in generating expectations. The dynamic of corporate activities of tense and ruthless struggle is a more plausible level of analysis than either financial 'manias' in aggregate or 'system trust'.

  4. Organizing the finances for and the finances from transnational corporate bribery

    OpenAIRE

    Lord, Nicholas; Levi, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the finances for and the finances from corporate bribery in international business transactions and how they are organized. Transnational corporate bribery involves non-criminal commercial enterprises that operate in licit markets but that use corrupt means to win or maintain business contracts in foreign jurisdictions. This article first considers what needs to be financed, how much finance is needed, and how the bribes can be generated and distributed. Second, the arti...

  5. A model of the demand for Islamic banks debt-based financing instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, Mansor; Khalid, Norlin

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the demand for debt-based financing instruments of the Islamic banks. Debt-based financing, such as through baibithamanajil and al-murabahah, is by far the most prominent of the Islamic bank financing and yet it has been largely ignored in Islamic economics literature. Most studies instead have been focusing on equity-based financing of al-mudharabah and al-musyarakah. Islamic bank offers debt-based financing through various instruments derived under the principle of exchange (ukud al-mu'awadhat) or more specifically, the contract of deferred sale. Under such arrangement, Islamic debt is created when goods are purchased and the payments are deferred. Thus, unlike debt of the conventional bank which is a form of financial loan contract to facilitate demand for liquid assets, this Islamic debt is created in response to the demand to purchase goods by deferred payment. In this paper we set an analytical framework that is based on an infinitely lived representative agent model (ILRA model) to analyze the demand for goods to be purchased by deferred payment. The resulting demand will then be used to derive the demand for Islamic debt. We also investigate theoretically, factors that may have an impact on the demand for Islamic debt.

  6. Fairness through regulation? Reflections on a cosmopolitan approach to global finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Božina Beroš

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the last financial crisis a strong message prevails that ‘something’ has to be changed in the manner global finance is governed. What exactly this ‘something’ entails and what could constitute the ‘common ground’ of anticipated change is more difficult to determine. Many envisage future improvements of global financial governance by evoking deliberative democracy, political equality and cosmopolitanism. As financial regulation is the main instrument through which global finance is shaped and governed nowadays, these principles should then be transmitted to regulatory arrangements. This paper focuses on a new conceptual approach to regulatory and governance issues in global finance, by employing the philosophical idea of cosmopolitanism. It argues that although as a concept, cosmopolitanism cannot mitigate all the flaws attributed to contemporary finance, its development and extension to international financial regulation that is promulgated by institutions of the global financial system, would represent a worthwhile endeavour in making global finance more accountable and just in the eyes of many.

  7. Application of finance project for leverage of small size hydroelectric enterprising; Aplicacao do project finance para alavancagem de empreendimentos hidreletricos de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Silvana dos

    2003-07-01

    In the same way that the majority of the countries, project financing of substructure in Brazil, in project finance modality, depend on a skillful structure of guaranties and contracts to become possible. In the case of projects of centrals of generation of electrical energy, that financial engineering becomes still more complicated. In Brazil, due to particularities of the sectors of electricity, the arrangements of guaranties requested but creditors pass to present levels of complexity and exigency well elevated. The contractual appliances that give support to the project finance, originally projected to developed countries, request an extreme adaptation to these particularities. The development of Brazil is directly related to its capacity in expanding the offer of electric energy in the just measure of the national necessity. In this context, the small central hydroelectric (PCH's) represent, actually, an efficient and fast form to complete the offer of energy in such a way to supply the crescent demand the national market. For its characteristics, that type of undertaking can be developed by small manager, from among which are the owners of the areas in which on can find these hydraulic potentials which, however they do not dispose of capital to integral raising. These undertakings are tasks, normally, of low global cost, at the rate of US$ 1.000,00/k W, and of a smaller ambient impact, compared to the return that they give to the enterprise and to the Brazilian electric system as a whole, by having to receive special attention in the planned politics to the sector and to merit a series of incentives to become business still more attractive. By thinking in the found difficulty by small enterprises in rising undertakings of generation of electric energy of small port through the convectional mechanisms of financing is being proposed in that work a well-founded methodology in the concepts of the modality of financing project finance. (author)

  8. A novel electrospun nerve conduit enhanced by carbon nanotubes for peripheral nerve regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenwen; Jiang, Xinquan; Cai, Ming; Zhao, Wen; Ye, Dongxia; Zhou, Yong; Zhu, Chao; Zhang, Xiuli; Lu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Zhiyuan

    2014-04-01

    For artificial nerve conduits, great improvements have been achieved in mimicking the structures and components of autologous nerves. However, there are still some problems in conduit construction, especially in terms of mechanical properties, biomimetic surface tomography, electrical conductivity and sustained release of neurotrophic factors or cells. In this study, we designed and fabricated a novel electrospun nerve conduit enhanced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on the basis of a collagen/poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (collagen/PCL) fibrous scaffold. Our aim was to provide further knowledge about the mechanical effects and efficacy of MWNTs on nerve conduits as well as the biocompatibility and toxicology of MWNTs when applied in vivo. The results showed that as one component, carboxyl MWNTs could greatly alter the composite scaffold’s hydrophilicity, mechanical properties and degradability. The electrospun fibers enhanced by MWNTs could support Schwann cell adhesion and elongation as a substrate in vitro. In vivo animal studies demonstrated that the MWNT-enhanced collagen/PCL conduit could effectively promote nerve regeneration of sciatic nerve defect in rats and prevent muscle atrophy without invoking body rejection or serious chronic inflammation. All of these results showed that this MWNT-enhanced scaffold possesses good biocompatibility and MWNTs might be excellent candidates as engineered nanocarriers for further neurotrophic factor delivery research.

  9. Vegetable cells in urinary samples of patients with bricker ileal conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinšek, Tanja; Kladnik, Aleš; Pohar-Marinšek, Ziva; Fležar, Margareta Strojan

    2014-02-01

    During routine cytopathological evaluation of urines for malignant cells we have occasionally noticed vegetable cells that were only present in patients with Bricker ileal conduit. We wanted to identify the means and sources of contamination of urinary samples from these patients. During the period between May and November 2010, 637 urinary samples were routinely evaluated for malignant cells. Among them were 13 urinary samples from Bricker ileal conduit which we rescreened. We prepared all urinary samples by membrane filtration and stained them according to Papanicolaou. Subsequently, we prepared samples from ostomy adhesives made by Coloplast and by ConvaTec which are used to secure the ostomy bag onto urostomy. We also took samples from different constituents (hydrocolloids) of ostomy adhesives. On the cytopathological review, we found vegetable cells along with intestinal mucosa cells in urinary samples of seven patients with Bricker ileal conduit. With the light microscopic examination of the samples prepared from different ostomy adhesives, we found vegetable cells only in Coloplast adhesives. In preparations of hydrocolloids, we found vegetable cells only in guar gum. They were morphologically identical to those found in urine samples of patients with Bricker ileal conduit and in Sensura and Sensura Xpro (Coloplast) ostomy adhesives. We determined that the origin of vegetable cells in urines from Bricker ileal conduit is the ostomy adhesive. The vegetable cells differ from human intestinal epithelial cells regarding size, shape, and color so it is difficult to misinterpret them as dysplastic cells.

  10. Electrospun Polycaprolactone/Polylactic Acid Nanofibers as an Artificial Nerve Conduit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Ali Khatri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Development of conduits made of biodegradable nanofibers is gaining substantial interest due to their suitability for nerve regeneration. Among all polymeric nanofibers PCL (Poly ?-Caprolactone is distinctively found for mechanical stability and PLLA (Poly (L-Lactic Acid for relatively faster biodegradability. The aim of this study is to investigate blending compatibility between PCL and PLLA and the ability to fabricate nanofibers conduits via electro spinning. The PCL-PLLA nano-fiber tubular made from different blend ratios of PCL-PLLA were electro spun. The electro spun nanofibers were continuously deposited over high speed rotating mandrel to fabricate nanofibers conduit having inner diameter of 2mm and the wall thickness of 55-65µm. The diameters of nano-fibers were between 715-860nm. FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy used to analyze chemical change in the blends of nerve conduits, which revealed that the PCL-PLLA blend nanofiber exhibit characteristic peaks of both PCL and PLLA and was composition dependent. The crystallinity of PCL-PLLA tubes were studied using WAXD (Wide Angle Xray Diffraction. The morphology of nanofibers were investigated under SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope. The mechanical properties of the conduits were also tested; the Young?s modulus obtained for small diameter was 10MPa, twice as high as larger diameter.

  11. 12 CFR 995.9 - Reports to the Finance Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports to the Finance Board. 995.9 Section 995.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NON-BANK SYSTEM ENTITIES FINANCING CORPORATION OPERATIONS § 995.9 Reports to the Finance Board. The Financing Corporation shall file such reports as...

  12. Exchange rate regimes and monetary arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ribnikar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a close relationship between a country’s exchange rate regime and monetary arrangement and if we are to examine monetary arrangements then exchange rate regimes must first be analysed. Within the conventional and most widely used classification of exchange rate regimes into rigid and flexible or into polar regimes (hard peg and float on one side, and intermediate regimes on the other there, is a much greater variety among intermediate regimes. A more precise and, as will be seen, more useful classification of exchange rate regimes is the first topic of the paper. The second topic is how exchange rate regimes influence or determine monetary arrangements and monetary policy or monetary policy regimes: monetary autonomy versus monetary nonautonomy and discretion in monetary policy versus commitment in monetary policy. Both topics are important for countries on their path to the EU and the euro area

  13. Biobank Finances: A Socio-Economic Analysis and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Sally; Oliver, Rob; Corfield, Julie; Georghiou, Luke; Yuille, Martin

    2015-12-01

    This socio-economic study is based on the widely held view that there is an inadequate supply of human biological samples that is hampering biomedical research development and innovation (RDI). The potential value of samples and the associated data are thus not being realized. We aimed to examine whether the financing of biobanks contributes to this problem and then to propose a national solution. We combined three methods: a qualitative case study; literature analysis; and informal consultations with experts. The case study enabled an examination of the complex institutional arrangements for biobanks, with a particular focus on cost models. For the purposes of comparison, a typology for biobanks was developed using the three methods. We found that it is not possible to apply a standard cost model across the diversity of biobanks, and there is a deficit in coordination and sustainability and an excess of complexity. We propose that coordination across this diversity requires dedicated resources for a national biobanking distributed research infrastructure. A coordination center would establish and improve standards and support a national portal for access. This should be financed centrally by public funds, possibly supplemented by industrial funding. We propose that: a) sample acquisition continues to be costed into projects and project proposals to ensure biobanking is driven by research needs; b) core biobanking activities and facilities be supported by central public funds distributed directly to host public institutions; and c) marginal costs for access be paid for by the user.

  14. People management implications of virtual workplace arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ortlepp

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that led to an organisation implementing a particular form of virtual workplace arrangement, namely, home-based work. The benefits and disadvantages associated with this form of work arrangement are explored from both the managers' and home-based employees' perspectives. Design/Methodology/Approach: Given the exploratory nature of the empirical study on which this paper is based, a qualitative research design was adopted so as to ensure that the data collection process was dynamic and probing in nature. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were therefore used as instruments for data collection. Findings: The research findings indicate that virtual work arrangements such as home-based work arrangements have advantages for both employers and employees. For instance, reduction of costs associated with office space and facilities, decrease in absenteeism rates, increased employee job satisfaction and improvements in employees' general quality of life. However, a number of negative experiences related to this form of virtual work arrangement are also evident, for example, feelings of isolation as well as stress related to the inability to have firm boundaries between work and family responsibilities. Implications: Based on the insights gained from the findings in the empirical study, a number of areas that need to be given specific attention when organisations are introducing virtual workplace arrangements of this nature are identified. Recommendations made in this article are important for human resource management specialists as well as core business policy makers considering different forms of organisational design. Originality/Value: Maximising the quality of production and service provided has become the prime objective in most organisations in the 21st century. Technology has made it possible for some jobs to be performed at any place at any time and has facilitated the

  15. The Monodromy Conjecture for hyperplane arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Budur, Nero; Teitler, Zach

    2009-01-01

    The Monodromy Conjecture asserts that if c is a pole of the local topological zeta function of a hypersurface, then exp(2\\pi c) is an eigenvalue of the monodromy on the cohomology of the Milnor fiber. A stronger version of the conjecture asserts that every pole is a root of the Bernstein-Sato polynomial of the hypersurface. In this note we prove the weak version of the conjecture for hyperplane arrangements. Furthermore, we reduce the strong version to the following conjecture: -n/d is always a root of the Bernstein-Sato polynomial of an indecomposable essential central hyperplane arrangement of d hyperplanes in the affine n-space.

  16. Thermal energy recycling fuel cell arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, Paul R.

    2017-04-11

    An example fuel cell arrangement includes a fuel cell stack configured to receive a supply fluid and to provide an exhaust fluid that has more thermal energy than the supply fluid. The arrangement also includes an ejector and a heat exchanger. The ejector is configured to direct at least some of the exhaust fluid into the supply fluid. The heat exchanger is configured to increase thermal energy in the supply fluid using at least some of the exhaust fluid that was not directed into the supply fluid.

  17. Cooling arrangement for a gas turbine component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Heneveld, Benjamin E

    2015-02-10

    A cooling arrangement (82) for a gas turbine engine component, the cooling arrangement (82) having a plurality of rows (92, 94, 96) of airfoils (98), wherein adjacent airfoils (98) within a row (92, 94, 96) define segments (110, 130, 140) of cooling channels (90), and wherein outlets (114, 134) of the segments (110, 130) in one row (92, 94) align aerodynamically with inlets (132, 142) of segments (130, 140) in an adjacent row (94, 96) to define continuous cooling channels (90) with non continuous walls (116, 120), each cooling channel (90) comprising a serpentine shape.

  18. Arranged matches and mental illness: therapists' dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David; Buchbinder, Jacob Tuvia; Witztum, Eliezer

    2012-01-01

    Traditional societies place especial value on marriage and having children, and marriages are often arranged. A series of situations and dilemmas associated with arranged matches and their consequences are described in the course of mental health work with ultra-orthodox Jewish people with severe mental illness. Issues of confidentiality may arise with parents and matchmakers; on the other hand, respectful cooperation with religious authorities, counselors in the community, and family members is important. Information on genetic counseling, contraception, medication during pregnancy, and breastfeeding are considered and interact with communal structures and practices. There is a need for close support and evaluation during the process of marriage, childbearing, and parenthood.

  19. Shared services in accounting and finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swagerman, Dirk; Steenis, van Jorn; Sieber, Pascal; Griese, Joachim

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present examples of the current state of the Shared Services Concept as applied to the finance function. The paper arises out of the ongoing research after current developments in the finance function enabled by information and communication technology, at the Univers

  20. Tracking Changes in European Housing Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Jens; Whitehead, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the changing trends in the housing finance industry of Europe. The article further mentions that the modus operandi of the industry has remained stable amid economic fluctuations in the overall housing sector between 1990-2015. Moreover, the need to reduce the public spending...... on housing is considered as one of the reasons for introducing private housing finance....

  1. Federal Financing of Education: Issues and Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, Keith

    1989-01-01

    Compares federal financing of education in the United States, Canada, Australia, Brazil, India, and Nigeria. Examines methods for reducing vertical and horizontal fiscal imbalances and resulting inequalities in provision of education. Predicts increasingly centralized financing and control of education. Contains 31 references. (SV)

  2. Applying Threshold Concepts to Finance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Susan; Wood, Leigh N.; Tickle, Leonie; Kyng, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate and identify threshold concepts that are the essential conceptual content of finance programmes. Design/Methodology/Approach: Conducted in three stages with finance academics and students, the study uses threshold concepts as both a theoretical framework and a research methodology. Findings: The…

  3. Essays in corporate finance and financial intermediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempf, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters in corporate finance and financial intermediation. The first two chapters explore sources of incentives and learning for finance professionals. Specifically, the first chapter studies how the option to go work for an investment bank affects the incentives of cr

  4. Perspectives of Financing Higher Education in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frackmann, Edgar

    1991-01-01

    The general structure of higher education finance in Germany and current and possible future developments in German higher education financing are analyzed. A shift from input budgeting to a more output-oriented steering of higher education is identified. Methods of dealing with the problems introduced by new mechanisms of decision making and fund…

  5. Who's Reading What in Education Finance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quay, Richard H.

    1981-01-01

    Responses from 18 of 68 college professors who are members of the editorial boards of the "Economics of Education Review" and the "Journal of Education Finance" list the books and journals they consider essential reading for students of educational finance and give the two research issues they consider most important. (MLF)

  6. The Fundamental Equation in Tourism Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of the paper is to present the fundamental equation in tourism finance that connects tourism research to empirical finance and financial econometrics. The energy industry, which includes, oil, gas and bio-energy fuels, together with the tourism industry, are two of the most i

  7. Threshold Concepts in Finance: Conceptualizing the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Susan; Tickle, Leonie; Wood, Leigh N.; Kyng, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Graduates with well-developed capabilities in finance are invaluable to our society and in increasing demand. Universities face the challenge of designing finance programmes to develop these capabilities and the essential knowledge that underpins them. Our research responds to this challenge by identifying threshold concepts that are central to…

  8. Moving toward a Coherent School Finance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Heather

    2013-01-01

    California's current school finance system is a tangled web of funding programs, restrictions, inequities and confusion. Building a stronger finance system to benefit from resources is an important step in strengthening California's K-12 education system and better meeting the needs of its students. Gov. Brown has recently proposed the Local…

  9. Population ageing and public finance targets

    OpenAIRE

    Heikki Oksanen

    2003-01-01

    The paper incorporates intergenerational fairness into a framework to analyse long-term sustainability of public finances under population ageing. It establishes a link between ageing-related public expenditure projections and public finance targets, thereby clarifying the connection between pension reforms and general government budget balance and debt targets.

  10. Essays in Banking and Corporate Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Wang (Teng)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This dissertation bundles three empirical studies in the area of corporate finance and banking. These studies investigate corporates’ financing activity with a special focus on the interaction between the banking industry and corporate borrowers. By showing how changes

  11. 100th meeting of the Finance Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1969-01-01

    The Finance Committee is an advisory committee to the CERN Council. It has the exacting job of supervising CERN’s finances, being concerned with such things as examining budget proposals, salary structures and cost variation formulae and with approving the award of major contracts to industry.

  12. The Use of Degradable Nerve Conduits for Human Nerve Repair: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Meek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of peripheral nerve injury continues to be a major clinical challenge. The most widely used technique for bridging defects in peripheral nerves is the use of autologous nerve grafts. This technique, however, has some disadvantages. Many alternative experimental techniques have thus been developed, such as degradable nerve conduits. Degradable nerve guides have been extensively studied in animal experimental studies. However, the repair of human nerves by degradable nerve conduits has been limited to only a few clinical studies. In this paper, an overview of the available international published literature on degradable nerve conduits for bridging human peripheral nerve defects is presented for literature available until 2004. Also, the philosophy on the use of nerve guides and nerve grafts is given.

  13. A 6-year experience with radial artery conduit for myocardial revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sadeghpour-Tabaee

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excellent long-term patencies of arterial grafts are considered, superior to those of vein grafts. In this study, we present our 6 years experience in using radial artery as a conduit for myocardial revascularization. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and early and mid term results of using radial artery in coronary artery bypass graft. Methods: The radial artery used as a conduit in 308 cases was evaluated during past 6 years, and the results obtained were processed and analyzed. Results: The operative morbidity comprised re-operation for bleeding in 3.2%, MI in 5%, with paresthesis and stitch abscess of the hand in 10% in and 3.5% respectively. Hospital mortality included 2 patients, one case being directly due to complication of harvesting radial artery.Conclusion: The results of present study were satisfactory with acceptable morbidity and mortality and favored the application of this conduit to CABG patients.

  14. Magma fracture and hybrid earthquakes in the conduit of Augustine Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buurman, Helena; West, Michael E.

    2013-12-01

    exploit subtle but systematic shifts in seismic waveforms to examine a 2 h cluster of repeating hybrid volcanic earthquakes preceding the first magmatic explosions at Augustine Volcano in January 2006. We extract differential P wave traveltimes of <0.01 s to determine that the source locations migrated downward by approximately 35 m. Waveform characteristics, GPS observations, and visual reports of lava effusion at the summit suggest that the earthquakes were sourced by fracturing magma in the upper conduit. As the lava cooled and degassed at the surface, the conditions in the upper conduit changed causing the zone in which magma fracture could occur to move downward through the magma column. These changes may also have been the first indicators that the conduit was becoming choked, causing a buildup in pressure that resulted in the large magmatic explosions that followed 36 h later.

  15. Modeling magma flow in volcanic conduit with non-equilibrium crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulia, Tsvetkova

    2010-05-01

    Modeling magma flow in volcanic conduit including with non -equilibrium crystallization There is a set of models of magma flow in volcanic conduits which predicts oscillations in magma discharge during extrusion of lava domes. These models neglect heating of surrounding rocks and use 1D approximation of the flow in the conduit. Here magma flow is investigated with an account of heat exchange between surrounding rocks and magma and different dependences viscosity on temperature and crystal concentration. Stick-slip conditions were applied at the wall. The flow is assumed to be quasi-static and quasi 1D. Only vertical component of velocity vector is present, thus, we do not consider horizontal momentum balance. At the top of the conduit the pressure is assumed to be fixed, chamber pressure changes according with magma influx and outflux. First set of simulation was made for the viscosity that depends on cross-section average crystal concentration and parabolic velocity profile. In earlier models that account for crystal growth kinetics the temperature was allowed to change only due to the release of latent heat of crystallization. Heat transfer leads to cooling of the outer parts of the conduit leading to high crystal contents and high magma viscosities. Changes in viscosity result in changes in discharge rate. For the non-isothermal case there is no motion during most part of the cycle and a portion of magma solidifies at the top of the conduit forming a plug. During repose period chamber pressure is growing due to influx of fresh magma, and magma discharge rate starts to increase. Influx of hot magma into the conduit leads to decrease in friction resulting in a jump in discharge rate that lead to depressurization of magma chamber. Discharge rate decreases and magma solidifies again. For isothermal model with the same parameters discharge rate monotonically tends to the value of Qin. Simulation reveal that crystal content changes significantly across the conduit

  16. (Micro)Financing to Give

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the chapter is to engage with the relationship between the gift and the market in the context of philanthropic micro-lending. We seek to move beyond theorizing separate, ex-ante gift or market regimes and transactors who independently navigate between oppositional modes of transact......The purpose of the chapter is to engage with the relationship between the gift and the market in the context of philanthropic micro-lending. We seek to move beyond theorizing separate, ex-ante gift or market regimes and transactors who independently navigate between oppositional modes...... of transaction. We turn to recent efforts of hybridizing charity and venture finance, exemplified by microfinance platforms such as Kiva.org. We combine data from an existing study of Kiva and its online community, with additional participant observation and third-party accounts detailing the evolution...

  17. Finance salaries. Account the cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robling, Andy

    2003-02-06

    Post-qualification salaries have increased by 4-7 per cent, a slowdown on last year's figures when increases were often more than 10 per cent. The highest increases this year tended to be in medium-sized trusts where newly qualified accountants' salaries rose 8.2 per cent. Directors of finance in large trusts earn about 20 per cent more than in medium trusts and about 40 per cent more than in small ones. Newly qualified accountants in large trusts earn 5 per cent more than in medium-sized trusts and 13 per cent more than in small ones. The survey is based on an analysis of salaries from Hays' jobs database, and salaries of registered candidates.

  18. French public finances at risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creel Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using descriptive evidence, this paper contributes to the debate on French public finances’ consolidation by examining the long-term sustainability of France’s fiscal position. We trace the historical trends of government’s tax receipts and expenditures. We illustrate that while the level of public expenditure in France is larger than in the Euro Area, its trend is comparable to its neighbours. French net debt is comparable to Eurozone’s while French net wealth remains positive. However, the French tax system is not progressive with only 6% of compulsory levies raised that way, and too complex. The paper then acknowledges the efficient debt management of French authorities. As a conclusion, we see no risk of future unsustainability linked to the nature or the level of current French public finances.

  19. Financing the health care Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J C

    2000-01-01

    Internet-related health care firms have accelerated through the life cycle of capital finance and organizational destiny, including venture capital funding, public stock offerings, and consolidation, in the wake of heightened competition and earnings disappointments. Venture capital flooded into the e-health sector, rising from $3 million in the first quarter of 1998 to $335 million two years later. Twenty-six e-health firms went public in eighteen months, raising $1.53 billion at initial public offering (IPO) and with post-IPO share price appreciation greater than 100 percent for eighteen firms. The technology-sector crash hit the e-health sector especially hard, driving share prices down by more than 80 percent for twenty-one firms. The industry now faces an extended period of consolidation between e-health and conventional firms.

  20. Investment Timing When External Financing Is Costly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan; Uhrig-Homburg, Marliese

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the investment timing of firms facing two dimensions of financing constraints: Liquidity constraints and capital market frictions inducing financing costs. We show that liquidity constraints are not sufficient to explain voluntary investment delay. However, when additionally...... considering financing costs, we can explain both voluntary delay and acceleration of investment. More precisely, we find that investment thresholds are U-shaped in liquid funds. For high-liquidity firms, investment thresholds are decreasing (i.e. accelerated investment takes place) in either dimension...... of financing constraint. In contrast, investment thresholds are increasing (i.e. investment is further delayed) in either form of financing constraint for low-liquidity firms. For intermediate levels of liquidity, investment thresholds are U-shaped in market frictions....

  1. Havery Mudd 2014-2015 Computer Science Conduit Clinic Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspesi, G [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bai, J [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Deese, R [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shin, L [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-12

    Conduit, a new open-source library developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, provides a C++ application programming interface (API) to describe and access scientific data. Conduit’s primary use is for inmemory data exchange in high performance computing (HPC) applications. Our team tested and improved Conduit to make it more appealing to potential adopters in the HPC community. We extended Conduit’s capabilities by prototyping four libraries: one for parallel communication using MPI, one for I/O functionality, one for aggregating performance data, and one for data visualization.

  2. Small scale high resolution LiDAR measurements of a subglacial conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankoff, K. D.; Gulley, J.

    2012-04-01

    We present direct measurements of surface roughness in a sub-glacial conduit system underneath the Rieperbreen Glacier, Svalbard, Norway. Data was collected with a low-cost (129 USD) Microsoft Kinect video game device used as a LIDAR sensor. Surface roughness is a primary control on water flow in rivers, channels, and cave conduit systems and understanding the effects of surface roughness on water flow has been problematic due to lack of direct measurements of roughness in natural systems. We use the ice scallop dimensions to derive flow velocity and explore implications of the changing roughness parameters as the cave grows and shrinks.

  3. The grain-size distribution of pyroclasts: Primary fragmentation, conduit sorting or abrasion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, U.; Schauroth, J.; Taddeucci, J.

    2013-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions expel a mixture of pyroclasts and lithics. Pyroclasts, fragments of the juvenile magma, record the state of the magma at fragmentation in terms of porosity and crystallinity. The grain size distribution of pyroclasts is generally considered to be a direct consequence of the conditions at magma fragmentation that is mainly driven by gas overpressure in bubbles, high shear rates, contact with external water or a combination of these factors. Stress exerted by any of these processes will lead to brittle fragmentation by overcoming the magma's relaxation timescale. As a consequence, most pyroclasts exhibit angular shapes. Upon magma fragmentation, the gas pyroclast mixture is accelerated upwards and eventually ejected from the vent. The total grain size distribution deposited is a function of fragmentation conditions and transport related sorting. Porous pyroclasts are very susceptible to abrasion by particle-particle or particle-conduit wall interaction. Accordingly, pyroclastic fall deposits with angular clasts should proof a low particle abrasion upon contact to other surfaces. In an attempt to constrain the degree of particle interaction during conduit flow, monomodal batches of washed pyroclasts have been accelerated upwards by rapid decompression and subsequently investigated for their grain size distribution. In our set-up, we used a vertical cylindrical tube without surface roughness as conduit. We varied grain size (0.125-0.25; 0.5-1; 1-2 mm), porosity (0; 10; 30 %), gas-particle ratio (10 and 40%), conduit length (10 and 28 cm) and conduit diameter (2.5 and 6 cm). All ejected particles were collected after settling at the base of a 3.3 m high tank and sieved at one sieve size below starting size (half-Φ). Grain size reduction showed a positive correlation with starting grain size, porosity and overpressure at the vent. Although milling in a volcanic conduit may take place, porous pyroclasts are very likely to be a primary product

  4. Bricker's ileal conduit urinary diversion with a simple non-refluxing uretero ileal anastomosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, I T; Bennicke, K; Rørdam, P;

    1991-01-01

    Fifty consecutive patients had ileal conduits constructed with a technically and quick simple antireflux ureteroileal anastomosis. Complications related to the ureteral implantation were studied retrospectively, and at follow-up (8 months-12 years later, median 3 years) conduit dysfunction...... anastomosis. which was treated successfully by two weeks drainage. Hydronephrosis deteriorated in 18 (26%) of the renal units, remained unchanged in 39 (57%) and improved in 11 (16%). Increases in plasma creatinine concentrations up to 200 mumol/l were found in eight patients, and in one patient it increased...

  5. Arranging a Library to Support Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    When designing a school library space and deciding how to arrange resources, it is important to consider multiple components of adolescent development, including social, emotional, and behavioral aspects. Acknowledging these developmental facets and their importance can provide additional justification for some of the more controversial aspects of…

  6. Partnership Arrangements: Governmental Rhetoric or Governance Scheme?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.R. Teisman (Geert); E-H. Klijn (Erik-Hans)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIt has become popular to advocate partnership arrangements. Such partnerships may be seen as new forms of governance, which fit in with the imminent network society. However, the idea of partnership is often introduced without much reflection on the need to reorganize policy-making proce

  7. 75 FR 25150 - NVOCC Negotiated Rate Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... requirement inhibits the beneficial effects of competition for shippers (NYNJFFF&BA at 3); that the tariff... shippers can rely on tariff rates to be accurate, complete and in effect for 30 days; in the event of a... exemption for non-vessel-operating common carriers agreeing to negotiated rate arrangements from...

  8. Magmatic Conduit Metallogenic System - A New Model for the Origin of Ore-deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, S.; Tang, Z.; Wu, G.; Deng, J.; Xiao, Q.; Luo, Z.; Cui, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Origin and emplacement processes of ore-deposits connected with intrusions remains poorly understood. Here we propose a new model 'Magmatic Conduit Metallogenic System' to explain the origin of ore-deposits. Magmatic flow (or Melt-fluid flow) bearing metals will finally settle in the conduits at later stage of magma evolved in magma metallogenic system. Magmatic flow (or Melt-fluid flow) bearing metals include many types, such as sulfide melts and iron melts bearing fluids. Conduits will form along the zones of structural weakness, such as fault zone and interface of two different types of rocks. These conduits are usually very complicated in the magmatic system, exemplified by two typical ore-deposits, detailed as follows. The Jinchuan sulfide deposit, located in Gansu Province, China, is the third largest magmatic Cu-Ni Platinum Group Elements (PGE) in the world. There are mainly four orebodies (orebody 58, 24, 1, and 2) from west to east, with Ni/Cu value at 1.24, 1.56, 1.83 and 2.06 respectively; the content of Pt+Pd ranges from 0.4 to 10.3 ppm, with the highest value occurs in the west. This suggests that the direction of the melt flow bearing sulfide is from west to east and the front of the conduit system is in the east part of the deposit. Sulfide segregation in the magmatic chamber or in the conduits might have caused ore content to change in different part of the conduit systems. Another typical example is the Xishimen iron deposit, which is located in the South of Hebei Province, China. It has been considered as a skarn-type iron deposit conventionally. However, many geological evidence suggests that Xishimen iron deposit is a magmatic iron deposit instead. Such evidence includes: 1. The boundaries between iron orebodies and country rocks are obvious, no transitional relationship; 2. Iron ore body injected into the country rocks (including genesis, diorite, and marble); 3. There are some vesicular in the iron ores; 4. Magnetite as an interstitial mineral

  9. Structure Of Conduits Of The Acidic Volcanism And Related Deposits In The Paraná-Etendeka Magmatic Province, São Marcos Region, South Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, L. F.; De Campos, C. P.; Lima, E. F. D.; Janasi, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Voluminous acidic volcanics from the Paraná-Etendeka Magmatic Province crop out in the southern part of Brazil. The conduits responsible for the feeding of this intermediate/acid volcanism are preserved and well exposed in the São Marcos region (Lima et al. 2012; Geologia USP 12:49-64). Conduits are aligned along a NW-SE trend and have thicknesses up to 1 km. These structures are often characterized by mixing between dacitic and rhyodacitic magmas, with intercalation between two major zones: 1) reddish or grayish vitrophiricdacite/rhyodacite, sub-divided in massive or vesiculated; 2) reddish or grayish vitrophiric fragmented dacite/rhyodacite composed of bubble-rich angular to rounded blocks. Such fragments commonly deform coeval to the flow. A third zone dominated by filaments depicts a chaotic stretching-and-folding process from the mixture of the acid magmas. We used classical field measurements of flow structures and recognized main flow directions in these feeder-dikes. They follow two preferential directions: NW, ranging from N272° to N 355°, and NE, varying from N20° to N85°. These directions are indicative of a transtensive fissural system, which seems to be related to conjugated fractures. Evidence of an important fragmentation process in the conduits point towards the presence of related products in this region, thus rheomorphic deposits such as those observed elsewhere (e.g. Uruguay and Namibia) are expected to occur. Possible vestiges of these deposits could be represented by restricted outcrops of lens-shaped and banded hipohyaline, occasionally bubble-rich, dacites. The presence of continuous pseudotachylitic levels, tightly folded bands with horizontal axial planes together with local deformed bubble-rich pumice-like lens could be indicative of remelting and rheomorphism of previous vulcanoclastic material. Coulees and compound (lobed) dacitic lava flows, reaching up to 5-8 meters length, occur as the uppermost deposits and correspond to the

  10. Threshold concepts in finance: conceptualizing the curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Susan; Tickle, Leonie; Wood, Leigh N.; Kyng, Tim

    2015-08-01

    Graduates with well-developed capabilities in finance are invaluable to our society and in increasing demand. Universities face the challenge of designing finance programmes to develop these capabilities and the essential knowledge that underpins them. Our research responds to this challenge by identifying threshold concepts that are central to the mastery of finance and by exploring their potential for informing curriculum design and pedagogical practices to improve student outcomes. In this paper, we report the results of an online survey of finance academics at multiple institutions in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa and the United Kingdom. The outcomes of our research are recommendations for threshold concepts in finance endorsed by quantitative evidence, as well as a model of the finance curriculum incorporating finance, modelling and statistics threshold concepts. In addition, we draw conclusions about the application of threshold concept theory supported by both quantitative and qualitative evidence. Our methodology and findings have general relevance to the application of threshold concept theory as a means to investigate and inform curriculum design and delivery in higher education.

  11. Nitric oxide permits hypoxia-induced lymphatic perfusion by controlling arterial-lymphatic conduits in zebrafish and glass catfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Ejby Jensen, Lasse; Cao, Renhai; Hedlund, Eva-Maria;

    2009-01-01

    and lymphatic perfusion. Here we show in the adult zebrafish and glass catfish (Kryptopterus bicirrhis) that blood-lymphatic conduits directly connect arterial vessels to the lymphatic system. Under hypoxic conditions, arterial-lymphatic conduits (ALCs) became highly dilated and linearized by NO...

  12. A novel balloon assisted two-stents telescoping technique for repositioning an embolized stent in the pulmonary conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Gowda, Srinath T; Forbes, Thomas J

    2014-08-01

    A 9-year-old male, with history of pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect, status post complete repair with a 16 mm pulmonary homograft in the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) underwent 3110 Palmaz stent placement for conduit stenosis. Following deployment the stent embolized proximally into the right ventricle (RV). We undertook the choice of repositioning the embolized stent into the conduit with a transcatheter approach. Using a second venous access, the embolized stent was carefully maneuvered into the proximal part of conduit with an inflated Tyshak balloon catheter. A second Palmaz 4010 stent was deployed in the distal conduit telescoping through the embolized stent. The Tyshak balloon catheter was kept inflated in the RV to stabilize the embolized stent in the proximal conduit until it was successfully latched up against the conduit with the deployment of the overlapping second stent. One year later, he underwent Melody valve implantation in the pre-stented conduit relieving conduit insufficiency. This novel balloon assisted two-stents telescoping technique is a feasible transcatheter option to secure an embolized stent from the RV to the RVOT.

  13. Co-financing of Social Policy in the Brazilian Federalism Context of XXI Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evilasio Salvador

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The federal arrangement post Constitution comes indicating greater accountability of federal units and municipalities in the implementation of social policies at the same time as it gave greater autonomy in tax collection. From the 2000s, the new rules of social policies in education, health and social assitance has required a greater effort of budgetary resources of the states, the Federal District and municipalities, without the creation or injection of additional tax revenue. In social policies, important legislative changes mark the first decade of this century in Brazil with direct implications on federal arrangement and therefore the co-financing of social policies. The main objective of this article is to analyze the amount of funds invested by the federal government, states, Federal District and municipalities in budget functions: social assistance, health and education, from 2002 to 2012, highlighting the co-financing these social policies. As well as to identify some obstacles created by the fiscal adjustment underway in the country to expand the co-financing of social policies.

  14. Modeling and assessing international climate financing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Tang, Lichun; Mohamed, Rayman; Zhu, Qianting; Wang, Zheng

    2016-06-01

    Climate financing is a key issue in current negotiations on climate protection. This study establishes a climate financing model based on a mechanism in which donor countries set up funds for climate financing and recipient countries use the funds exclusively for carbon emission reduction. The burden-sharing principles are based on GDP, historical emissions, and consumptionbased emissions. Using this model, we develop and analyze a series of scenario simulations, including a financing program negotiated at the Cancun Climate Change Conference (2010) and several subsequent programs. Results show that sustained climate financing can help to combat global climate change. However, the Cancun Agreements are projected to result in a reduction of only 0.01°C in global warming by 2100 compared to the scenario without climate financing. Longer-term climate financing programs should be established to achieve more significant benefits. Our model and simulations also show that climate financing has economic benefits for developing countries. Developed countries will suffer a slight GDP loss in the early stages of climate financing, but the longterm economic growth and the eventual benefits of climate mitigation will compensate for this slight loss. Different burden-sharing principles have very similar effects on global temperature change and economic growth of recipient countries, but they do result in differences in GDP changes for Japan and the FSU. The GDP-based principle results in a larger share of financial burden for Japan, while the historical emissions-based principle results in a larger share of financial burden for the FSU. A larger burden share leads to a greater GDP loss.

  15. Le traitement fiscal du financement des sociétés dans les relations intragroupes en droit comparé français, allemand et camerounais.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jules Alain Petengoue Tassi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Un des problèmes les plus fréquents auxquels les entreprises se confrontent est sans doute celui relatif à la dotation des moyens financiers. Le problème de financement des entreprises est plus qu’actuel au regard du scandale des subprimes aux USA en 2007 ayant conduit au crash boursier de septembre 2008 mieux encore, l’affaire Maldoff. Ce phénomène financier qui touche sans exception toute la vie économique n’a pas pour autant épargné les groupes de sociétés. En fait, les groupes constituent...

  16. Financing Investment: The Cost Trade-Off

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan; Flor, Christian Riis

    theoretical explanation for the recent empirical findings of Cleary et al. (2007). We split up the endogenously implied financing costs and propose a trade-off between expected liquidation costs and second-best investment costs. For rather unconstrained firms, the risk of costly liquidation dominates the cost......Intuition suggests that corporate investment should be decreasing in financing constraints. We show that even when financing is obtained using a standard debt contract and there is symmetric information between the firm and outside investors, the relation is actually U-shaped. We thus provide a new...

  17. Financing Bologna Students’ Mobility, Taxation Papers 26

    OpenAIRE

    Gérard, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    The current system for financing cross-border students, based on the host country, is neither sustainable nor efficient: it produces too little cross-border education. On that background, and motivate as well by a recent decision of the European Court of Justice, we explore two alternative solutions. The first one substitutes to the financing by the host country, a financing by the country of origin, through vouchers that the student may use at home or abroad provided it is in a recognized in...

  18. Bank Accounts for Public Finance Agencies Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Lenio

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper are bank accounts for public finance agencies income. The article describes characteristics of accounts for all three kinds of agencies: government and municipal units working in regards to statue of education and units with headquarters in foreign countries. The author presents a detailed directory of income for particular accounts and the allocation of said income. This paper also deals with the optionality of those dedicated bank accounts and the competence for erecting them. In a smaller scope there are presented the controversies of establishing bank accounts for public finance agencies income in the past, before the current statue of public finance.

  19. PRIVATE FUNDS FINANCING OF EUROPEAN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA MĂCRIŞ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher education plays an important part in the European society, creating knowledge applicable to society and economy, and generating the process of economic and social evolution. Higher education institutions in Europe try to modernize both at the level of the courses they offer and at the level of their acting manner; European states as well as the private agents involved try to find out new, improved means of coordinating and financing. Starting from this idea, we would like to carry out an analysis of the manner of financing European higher education out of private funds with a view to identify new financing sources.

  20. Do SMEs follow Pecking Order Financing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Jan; Mateus, Cèsario; Olson, Dennis

    This paper tests for "pecking order" financing of small and medium size firms. The main sources and "pecking order" of financing for SMEs are equity (internally generated cash), trade credit paid on time, credit provided by institutions such as banks and leasing companies, other sources of debt...... and delayed payment on trade credit. The "pecking order" of financing is driven by the costs of asymmetric information (cost of gathering and analysing information) and financial distress costs. Empirical tests do not confirm that SMEs follow a pecking order....

  1. Finance leadership imperatives in clinical redesign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John; Holm, Craig E; Inniger, Meredith C

    2015-03-01

    As physicians embrace their roles in managing healthcare costs and quality, finance leaders should seize the opportunity to engage physicians in clinical care redesign to ensure both high-quality performance and efficient resource use. Finance leaders should strike a balance between risk and reward to achieve a portfolio of clinical initiatives that is organizationally sustainable and responsive to current external drivers of payment changes. Because these initiatives should be driven by physicians, the new skill set of finance leaders should include an emphasis on relationship building to achieve consensus and drive change across an organization.

  2. The Conduit and Whirlpooling: A New Theory of Knowledge Constitution and Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzegwu, Azuka

    2010-01-01

    There is a new epistemological approach for exploring knowledge constitution and dispersal in a dynamic Web ecosystem. The approach has three pivots. The first presents virtual whirlpools as knowledge systems. The second introduces the creator of the system as the Conduit. The third formulates a theory of knowledge that involves the collective…

  3. Percutaneous transthoracic computed tomography-guided AICD insertion in a patient with extracardiac Fontan conduit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Darra T

    2011-02-01

    Percutaneous pulmonary venous atrial puncture was performed under computed tomography guidance to successfully place an automated implantable cardiac defibrillator into a 26-year-old patient with extracardiac Fontan conduit who had presented with two out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. The procedure avoided the need for lead placement at thoracotomy.

  4. 76 FR 53678 - Calleguas Municipal Water District Notice of Surrender of Exemption (Conduit)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Calleguas Municipal Water District Notice of Surrender of Exemption (Conduit) Pursuant to section 4.95(a) of the Commission's regulations,\\1\\ Calleguas Municipal Water... exemption for Project No. 11651 on June 7, 1999. Calleguas Municipal Water District, 87 FERC ] 62,256...

  5. 78 FR 69847 - North Side Canal Company; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission North Side Canal Company; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On November 5, 2013, North Side Canal Company, filed a notice...

  6. 78 FR 62351 - North Side Canal Company; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission North Side Canal Company; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On October 3, 2013, North Side Canal Company, filed a notice...

  7. Nanofibrous nerve conduits for repair of 30-mm-long sciatic nerve defects*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Esmaeil Biazar; Saeed Heidari Keshel; Majid Pouya; Hadi Rad; Melody Omrani Nava; Mohammad Azarbakhsh; Shirin Hooshmand

    2013-01-01

    It has been confirmed that nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nerve conduit can promote peripheral nerve regeneration in rats. However, its efficiency in repair of over 30-mm-long sciatic nerve defects needs to be assessed. In this study, we used a nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nerve conduit to bridge a 30-mm-long gap in the rat sciatic nerve. At 4 months after nerve conduit implantation, regenerated nerves were macroscopi-cal y observed and histological y assessed. In the nanofibrous graft, the rat sciatic nerve trunk had been reconstructed by restoration of nerve continuity and formation of myelinated nerve fiber. There were Schwann cel s and glial cel s in the regenerated nerves. Masson’s trichrome staining showed that there were no pathological changes in the size and structure of gastrocnemius muscle cel s on the operated side of rats. These findings suggest that nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nerve conduit is suitable for repair of long-segment sciatic nerve defects.

  8. A New Equation Solver for Modeling Turbulent Flow in Coupled Matrix-Conduit Flow Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubinger, Bernhard; Birk, Steffen; Hergarten, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Karst aquifers represent dual flow systems consisting of a highly conductive conduit system embedded in a less permeable rock matrix. Hybrid models iteratively coupling both flow systems generally consume much time, especially because of the nonlinearity of turbulent conduit flow. To reduce calculation times compared to those of existing approaches, a new iterative equation solver for the conduit system is developed based on an approximated Newton-Raphson expression and a Gauß-Seidel or successive over-relaxation scheme with a single iteration step at the innermost level. It is implemented and tested in the research code CAVE but should be easily adaptable to similar models such as the Conduit Flow Process for MODFLOW-2005. It substantially reduces the computational effort as demonstrated by steady-state benchmark scenarios as well as by transient karst genesis simulations. Water balance errors are found to be acceptable in most of the test cases. However, the performance and accuracy may deteriorate under unfavorable conditions such as sudden, strong changes of the flow field at some stages of the karst genesis simulations.

  9. 3D bioprinting of heterogeneous aortic valve conduits with alginate/gelatin hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Bin; Hockaday, Laura A; Kang, Kevin H; Butcher, Jonathan T

    2013-05-01

    Heart valve disease is a serious and growing public health problem for which prosthetic replacement is most commonly indicated. Current prosthetic devices are inadequate for younger adults and growing children. Tissue engineered living aortic valve conduits have potential for remodeling, regeneration, and growth, but fabricating natural anatomical complexity with cellular heterogeneity remain challenging. In the current study, we implement 3D bioprinting to fabricate living alginate/gelatin hydrogel valve conduits with anatomical architecture and direct incorporation of dual cell types in a regionally constrained manner. Encapsulated aortic root sinus smooth muscle cells (SMC) and aortic valve leaflet interstitial cells (VIC) were viable within alginate/gelatin hydrogel discs over 7 days in culture. Acellular 3D printed hydrogels exhibited reduced modulus, ultimate strength, and peak strain reducing slightly over 7-day culture, while the tensile biomechanics of cell-laden hydrogels were maintained. Aortic valve conduits were successfully bioprinted with direct encapsulation of SMC in the valve root and VIC in the leaflets. Both cell types were viable (81.4 ± 3.4% for SMC and 83.2 ± 4.0% for VIC) within 3D printed tissues. Encapsulated SMC expressed elevated alpha-smooth muscle actin, while VIC expressed elevated vimentin. These results demonstrate that anatomically complex, heterogeneously encapsulated aortic valve hydrogel conduits can be fabricated with 3D bioprinting.

  10. Application of a venous conduit as a stent for repairing rabbit facial nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Recently,many investigators have tried to use natural biomaterials,such as,artery,vein,decalcified bone,etc.,as conduits for nerve repair.However,immunological rejection of conduits made of natural biomaterials limits their application.Therefore,it is essential to identify more suitable types of biomaterials.OBJECTIVE:To observe the characteristics of a bioengineering processing method using venous conduit as a stent for repairing facial nerve injury.DESIGN:A controlled observational experiment.SETTING:Animal Laboratories of the Third Hospital Affiliated to Sun Yat-sen University and the 157 Hospital.MATERIALS:Thirty-three male New Zealand rabbits of pure breed,weighing 1.5 to 2.0 kg,were provided by Medical Experimental Animal Room of Sun Yat-sen University.The protocol was carried out in accordance with animal ethics guidelines for the use and care of animals.Venous conduits and autogenous nerves were transplanted into the left and right cheeks,respectively.Eleven animals were chosen for anatomical observations at 5,10 and 15 weeks after surgery.METHODS:This experiment was carried out in the Animal Laboratories of the Third Hospital Affiliated to Sun Yat-sen University and the 157 Hospital between May and November 2006.After animals were anesthetized,15 mm of retromandibular vein was harvested for preparing a venous conduit.Approximately 3 cm of low buccal branch of facial nerve was exposed.A segment of 1.2 cm nerve was resected from the middle,and a gap of 1.5 cm formed due to bilateral retraction.The prepared venous conduit of 1.5 cm was sutured to the outer membrane of the severed ends of the nerve.Muscle and skin were sutured layer by layer.Using the same above-mentioned method,the low buccal branch of right autogenous facial nerve was resected,and the left facial nerve segment from the same animal was transplanted using end-to-end neurorrhaphy for control.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:①Post-operatively,food intake,vibrissae activity and wound healing of

  11. Regulating Finance After the Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moschella, Manuela; Tsingou, Eleni

    2013-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that regulatory failures contributed to the onset of the global financial crisis. Redressing such failures has, thus, been a key policy priority in the post-crisis reform agenda at both the domestic and international levels. This special issue investigates the process...... of post-crisis financial regulatory reform in a number of crucial issue areas, including the rules and arrangements that govern financial supervision, offshore financial centers and shadow banking, the financial industry's involvement in global regulatory processes, and macroeconomic modeling. In so doing......, the main purpose of this special issue is to shed light on an often understudied aspect in regulation literature: the variation in the dynamics of regulatory change. Contributors examine the different dynamics of regulatory change observed post-crisis and explain variations by accounting...

  12. Financial arrangement selection for energy management projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodroof, Eric Aubrey

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to develop a model (E-FUND) to help facility managers select financial arrangements for energy management projects (EMPs). The model was developed with the help of a panel of expert financiers. The panel also helped develop a list of key objectives critical to the decision process. The E-FUND model was tested by a population of facility managers in four case studies. Findings and conclusions. The results may indicate that having a high economic benefit (from an EMP) is not overwhelmingly important, when compared to other qualitative objectives. The results may also indicate that the true lease and performance contract may be the most applicable financial arrangements for EMPs.

  13. Creating flexible work arrangements through idiosyncratic deals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornung, Severin; Rousseau, Denise M; Glaser, Jürgen

    2008-05-01

    A survey of 887 employees in a German government agency assessed the antecedents and consequences of idiosyncratic arrangements individual workers negotiated with their supervisors. Work arrangements promoting the individualization of employment conditions, such as part-time work and telecommuting, were positively related to the negotiation of idiosyncratic deals ("i-deals"). Worker personal initiative also had a positive effect on i-deal negotiation. Two types of i-deals were studied: flexibility in hours of work and developmental opportunities. Flexibility i-deals were negatively related and developmental i-deals positively related to work-family conflict and working unpaid overtime. Developmental i-deals were also positively related to increased performance expectations and affective organizational commitment, while flexibility i-deals were unrelated to either.

  14. MOX fuel arrangement for nuclear core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantrowitz, Mark L.; Rosenstein, Richard G.

    1998-01-01

    In order to use up a stockpile of weapons-grade plutonium, the plutonium is converted into a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel form wherein it can be disposed in a plurality of different fuel assembly types. Depending on the equilibrium cycle that is required, a predetermined number of one or more of the fuel assembly types are selected and arranged in the core of the reactor in accordance with a selected loading schedule. Each of the fuel assemblies is designed to produce different combustion characteristics whereby the appropriate selection and disposition in the core enables the resulting equilibrium cycle to closely resemble that which is produced using urania fuel. The arrangement of the MOX rods and burnable absorber rods within each of the fuel assemblies, in combination with a selective control of the amount of plutonium which is contained in each of the MOX rods, is used to tailor the combustion characteristics of the assembly.

  15. Child Care Arrangements Of Working Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh H

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Children arrangements for infants and preschool children and the reasons for working outside the home were studied in 300 mothers of whom 100 were teachers (Group. I 100 clerks (groups II and 100 tabourers (Group III. The interview method was used. The most common (80% reason for working was financial needs, the next most frequent was utilization of specialized skills. In 58.7% of the cases, substitute childcare was provided by one of the family members, usually the grandmother. Sixty six percent of caretakers were illiterate. Most (93% of the working mothers had also to perform certain household chores. Bottle-feeding was stated at birth by 80% of these mothers: Childcare arrangements for children of working mothers must be considered in the future.

  16. SUIVI DE LA MIGRATION D’AVALAISON DES ANGUILLES PAR UNE CONDUITE DE DEBIT RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEGAULT A.

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Le suivi de la migration catadrome de l’anguille par une conduite de débit réservé a été réalisé sur le barrage de la retenue de Bois Joli sur le Frémur (dénivelé : 13,7 m ; 3 millions de m3. Une partie des migrateurs utilise cette conduite, au début de la saison de dévalaison quand elle représente la seule voie de transit mais également plus tard, lorsque le barrage déverse et que s’ouvre ainsi une seconde voie de passage. En raison des faibles débits d’alimentation et de l’implantation de l’entrée de la conduite on peut supposer que les anguilles prospectent la retenue pour trouver une voie de transit. L’efficacité de l’équipement, qui s’établit à 12 % de la dévalaison totale, concourt donc pour une part non négligeable au transit des anguilles. La partition des débits entre les différentes voies de migration semblerait essentielle pour définir leur efficacité. Malgré l’aménagement de la conduite, on observe une mortalité de 11 % des anguilles qui l’empruntent. Elle semble essentiellement liée à l’abrasion contre les parois et le papillon de la vanne. Dans de nombreux cas, la mortalité lors du passage dans les conduites de débit réservé doit être très importante, voire totale en raison de leur configuration et de leur mode de gestion. Cette mortalité tend à réduire le nombre des géniteurs produit par le bassin versant. Les anguilles marquées qui ont franchi le barrage grâce à la conduite avant le pic de migration stoppent leur progression en aval. Elles la reprennent quelques semaines plus tard quand le barrage déverse ou l’année suivante. Ce second constat confirme les effets des retenues sur la vitesse de migration. L’utilisation des conduites de débit réservé par les anguilles d’avalaison devrait être prise en compte lors de leur conception et de leur gestion afin de réduire les risques de mortalité.

  17. Generalized Lantern Relations and Planar Line Arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Hironaka, Eriko

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show that to each planar line arrangement defined over the real numbers, for which no two lines are parallel, one can write down a corresponding relation on Dehn twists that can be read off from the combinatorics and relative locations of intersections. This leads to an alternate proof of Wajnryb's generalized lantern relations, and of Endo, Mark and Horn-Morris' daisy relations.

  18. Simple Euclidean arrangements with one (>=5)-gon

    CERN Document Server

    Leaños, Jesus; Rivera-Martinez, Luis Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Let L be a simple Euclidean arrangement of n pseudolines. It is shown that if L has exactly one (>=5)=gon P, and k is the number of edges of P that are adjacent to an unbounded cell of the subarrangement of L induced by the pseudolines in P, then L has exactly n-k triangles and k+n(n-5)/2 quadrilaterals. We also prove that if each pseudoline of L is adjacent to P then L is stretchable.

  19. Hyperplane arrangements and Lefschetz's hyperplane section theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshinaga, Masahiko

    2005-01-01

    The Lefschetz hyperplane section theorem asserts that a complex affine variety is homotopy equivalent to a space obtained from its generic hyperplane section by attaching some cells. The purpose of this paper is to give an explicit description of attaching maps of these cells for the complement of a complex hyperplane arrangement defined over real numbers. The cells and attaching maps are described in combinatorial terms of chambers. We also discuss the cellular chain complex with coefficient...

  20. Valve Technology Arrangement of Cryopump: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjiv Y. Rajput

    2014-01-01

    A cryopump or a "cryogenic pump" is a vacuum pump that pumps the trap gases and vapours by condensing them on a cold surface. Helium gas which is very light can only be pumped by Cryopump. Cryopump cannot be used when working for continuous operation as it pumps the effluent till the saturation state is achieved. Then the absorbed gases are to be collected through other mechanical pump through regeneration process. Hence, valve technology arrangement is incorporated with the c...

  1. Optimum Arrangement of Taxi Drivers’ Working Hours

    OpenAIRE

    TANIZAKI, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Part 2: Knowledge Discovery and Sharing; International audience; We propose optimum arrangement of taxi drivers’ working hours. In Japan, income of taxi vehicle is decreasing about 11 thousand yen in the past 15 years. Then some taxi companies are investing to gain more customers. But there are many small taxi companies that are difficult to invest with much money. Therefore we have been researching the other method to gain more customers by little investment for small companies. In this pape...

  2. Numerical investigation of temporal changes in volcanic deformation caused by a gas slug ascent in the conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Ryohei; Nishimura, Takeshi

    2015-09-01

    Strombolian type eruptions are considered to be generated by a sudden release of a large gas slug that migrates upward in the conduit filled with a low viscous basaltic magma. We examine volcano deformations caused by such a gas slug to understand the Strombolian eruption mechanism from geodetic observation data. We model spatio-temporal pressure changes in the conduit by using a gas slug ascent model presented by James et al. (2008). As a gas slug ascends in the conduit, its volume expands because of depressurization. Hence, the magma head lifts up in the conduit and the upper part of the conduit wall is stressed. In the conduit, magma pressure increases with depth according to the bulk density of magma: the gas slug part with a low density is characterized by a small pressure gradient, while the other parts, consisting of melt, are characterized by a large pressure gradient. We numerically calculate volcano deformations caused by the spatio-temporal changes of magma pressure predicted from the basic equations representing gas slug locations in the conduit. Simulation results show that the radial and vertical displacements and tilt changes indicate volcano deformations that represent the inflation originating from the stress increase at the upper part of conduit. As the gas slug reaches the shallow part of conduit, the rate of inflation observed in the radial displacement decreases, the vertical displacement starts to move downward, and the tilt turns to show down toward the crater. These deflation signals are caused by a moving deflation source in the conduit that is formed beneath the gas slug. Since these predicted features are not observed in the tilt records associated with explosions at Stromboli volcano (Genco and Ripepe, 2010), it is necessary to modify the gas slug ascent model or to introduce other mechanisms to better understand the magma dynamics of Strombolian eruption.

  3. Recurring part arrangements in shape collections

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Youyi

    2014-05-01

    Extracting semantically related parts across models remains challenging, especially without supervision. The common approach is to co-analyze a model collection, while assuming the existence of descriptive geometric features that can directly identify related parts. In the presence of large shape variations, common geometric features, however, are no longer sufficiently descriptive. In this paper, we explore an indirect top-down approach, where instead of part geometry, part arrangements extracted from each model are compared. The key observation is that while a direct comparison of part geometry can be ambiguous, part arrangements, being higher level structures, remain consistent, and hence can be used to discover latent commonalities among semantically related shapes. We show that our indirect analysis leads to the detection of recurring arrangements of parts, which are otherwise difficult to discover in a direct unsupervised setting. We evaluate our algorithm on ground truth datasets and report advantages over geometric similarity-based bottom-up co-segmentation algorithms. © 2014 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2014 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Frequency Arrangement For 700 MHz Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancans G.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The 694-790 MHz (700 MHz band was allocated by the 2012 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-12 in ITU Region 1 (Europe included, to the mobile service on a co-primary basis with other services to which this band was allocated on the primary basis and identified for the International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT. At the same time, the countries of Region 1 will be able also to continue using these frequencies for their broadcasting services if necessary. This allocation will be effective immediately after 2015 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-15. In order to make the best possible use of this frequency band for mobile service, a worldwide harmonized frequency arrangement is to be prepared to allow for large economies of scale and international roaming as well as utilizing the available spectrum in the best possible way, minimizing possible interference between services, facilitating deployment and cross-border coordination. The authors analyze different possible frequency arrangements and conclude on the frequency arrangement most suitable for Europe.

  5. Modeling Solute Reactivity in a Phreatic Solution Conduit Penetrating a Karst Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, M.

    2014-12-01

    A two-dimensional model for solute migration, transformation, and sorption in a phreatic solution conduit penetrating a karst aquifer is presented in which the solute is anthropogenic to the natural system. Transformation of a reacting solute in a solution conduit has generally been accepted as likely occurring but actual physical measurements and mathematical analyses of the suspected process are lacking, primarily because of the logistics of sample collection and the complexities associated with solute transport through solution conduits. The model demonstrates how a reacting solute might be converted to a product solute some of which then diffuses to the solution conduit wall where it may become adsorbed. Model effects vary for laminar flow and turbulent flow in the axial direction. Laminar and turbulent diffusion in the radial direction also exhibits marked differences. In addition to single reaction zones simulations considered multiple adjacent and nonadjacent reaction zones, both with varying reaction rates. Reaction zones were found to enhance subsequent reactions due to some overlap resulting from the hydrodynamic dispersion caused by the axial flow. The simulations showed that varying the reaction rate coefficient strongly affects solute reactions, but that varying deposition coefficients had only minimal impacts. Application of the model to a tracer test that used the tracer dye, Rhodamine WT which readily converts to deaminoalkylated Rhodamine WT after release, illustrates how the model may be used to suggest a possible cause for less than 100% tracer mass recovery. In terms of pollutants in a karst aquifer the model suggests a possible explanation for pollutant transformation in a solution conduit.

  6. Welding of pyroclastic conduit infill: A mechanism for cyclical explosive eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolzenburg, S.; Russell, J. K.

    2014-07-01

    Vulcanian-style eruptions are small- to moderate-sized, singular to cyclical events commonly having volcanic explosivity indices of 1-3. They produce pyroclastic flows, disperse tephra over considerable areas, and can occur as precursors to larger (e.g., Plinian) eruptions. The fallout deposits of the 2360 B.P. eruption of Mount Meager, BC, Canada, contain bread-crusted blocks of welded breccia as accessory lithics. They display a range of compaction/welding intensity and provide a remarkable opportunity to constrain the nature and timescales of mechanical processes operating within explosive volcanic conduits during repose periods between eruptive cycles. We address the deformation and porosity/permeability reduction within natural pyroclastic deposits infilling volcanic conduits. We measure the porosity, permeability, and ultrasonic wave velocities for a suite of samples and quantify the strain recorded by pumice clasts. We explore the correlations between the physical properties and deformation fabric. Based on these correlations, we reconstruct the deformation history within the conduit, model the permeability reduction timescales, and outline the implications for the repressurization of the volcanic conduit. Our results highlight a profound directionality in the measured physical properties of these samples related to the deformation-induced fabric. Gas permeability varies drastically with increasing strain and decreasing porosity along the compaction direction of the fabric but varies little along the elongation direction of the fabric. The deformation fabric records a combination of compaction within the conduit and postcompaction stretching associated with subsequent eruption. Model timescales of these processes are in good agreement with repose periods of cyclic vulcanian eruptions.

  7. Fabrication of Off-the-Shelf Multilumen Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Nerve Guidance Conduits Using Stereolithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaute, Karina; Mann, Brenda K; Wicker, Ryan B

    2011-01-01

    A manufacturing process for fabricating off-the-shelf multilumen poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) was developed that included the use of stereolithography (SL). A rapid fabrication strategy for complex 3D scaffolds incorporated postprocessing with lyophilization and sterilization to preserve the scaffold, creating an implantable product with improved suturability. SL is easily adaptable to changes in scaffold design, is compatible with various materials and cells, and can be expanded for mass manufacture. The fabricated conduits were characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy, and measurements of swelling ratio, dimensional swelling factor, resistance to compression, and coefficient of friction were performed. Water absorption curves showed that the conduits after lyophilization and sterilization return easily and rapidly to a swollen state when placed in an aqueous solution, successfully maintaining their original overall structure as required for implantation. Postprocessed conduits at the swollen state were less slippery and therefore easier to handle than those without postprocessing. Suture pullout experiments showed that NGCs fabricated with a higher concentration of PEG were better able to resist suture pullout. NGCs having a multilumen design demonstrated a better resistance to compression than a single-lumen design with an equivalent surface area, as well as a greater force required to collapse the design. Conduits fabricated with a higher PEG concentration were shown to have compressive resistances comparable to those of commercially available NGCs. The use of SL with PEG and the manufacturing process developed here shows promise for improving the current state of the art in peripheral nerve repair strategies.

  8. Outside finance, dominant investors and strategic transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.C. Perotti; E.-L. von Thadden

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies optimal financial contracts and product market competition under a strategic transparency decision. When firms seeking outside finance resort to actively monitored debt in order to commit against opportunistic behaviour, the dominant lender can influence corporate transparency. Mo

  9. 7 CFR 1710.110 - Supplemental financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... supplemental financing according to their plant revenue ratio (PRR), as defined in § 1710.2, based on the most recent year-end data available on the date of loan approval, as follows: PRR Supplemental loan...

  10. Behavioral Finances versus Technical and Fundamental Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Mitroi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the field of modern finance has progressed impressively, it is still hard to explain on a scientific basis why people behave nonrationally when dealing with money. The classic finance assumes people rationalize and optimize their financial decisions. Behavioral Finance adds the importance of what investors should do and complements the mantra of classic finance with what people actually do, in terms of economic decisions. The new field of Neuroeconomy investigates the subtle and profound interactions within the human brain when faced with uncertainties of an economic decision. The most basic psychological traits of human being (fear, anger, greed and altruism stamp an indelible mark on our decisions about money. The intellect (understanding a situation, reason (long term consequences of the contemplated action and emotion (the judge of the course of action are all intercorrelated resorts behind human decision making.

  11. ANALYSIS OF MECHANISMS FINANCING OF CULTURAL SPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costandachi Gheorghe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work is made analysis concern basically state structures of culture and arts activities, is describes the problems are met during the reforming process the financial mechanisms in cultural sphere. Author disclosed the ways evolve private and estate financing cultural sphere, also is disclosed why is need estate financial support. The work contains something detailed measures actions to improve financial and mechanisms financing of cultural sphere. Analyzing questions of modernization of budgetary financing of branch the author have formulated effectiveness of use of budgetary funds at all levels in cultural structures and proposed the ways of finishing of market reforms in cinematography. In the final of work is presented scheme system of financing, formation and distribution of financial resources in cinematography and is making conclusions and is offered wais of the solutions created present situation in this sphere in Moldova.

  12. Development of the Executive Personal Finance Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinella, Marcello; Yang, Bijou; Lester, David

    2007-03-01

    There is accumulating evidence that prefrontal systems play an important role in management of personal finances, based on studies using clinical populations, functional neuroimaging, and both subjective and objective neuropsychological measures. This study developed the Executive Personal Finance Scale (EPFS) as a specific self-rating measure of executive aspects of personal money management. The resulting 20-item scale had good reliability and showed four factors: impulse control, organization, planning, and motivational drive. Validity was evidenced by correlations with income, credit card debt, and investments. The EPFS also showed logical correlations with compulsive buying and money attitudes. Second-order factor analysis of the EPFS and other scales revealed two higher-order factors of personal finance: cognitive (e.g., planning, organizing) and emotional (e.g., anxiety, impulse-spending, prestige). The EPFS shows good psychometric properties, is easy to use, and will make a convenient complement to other research methodologies exploring the neural basis of personal finance management.

  13. Financing strategy for Indonesian Nuclear Power Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subki, I.M.; Arbie, B.; Adiwardojo; Seotrisnanto, A.Y. [National Atomic Enegy Agency, Batan (Indonesia)

    1998-07-01

    In anticipation of the introduction in the early 2000s of a nuclear power plant, the Government of Indonesia (GOI), through the National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) , has formulated a Bid Invitation Specification (BIS) in parallel with the completion of the NPP Feasibility Study. This BIS formulation assumed an open international tender for the first unit of the NPP with project financing as a conventional loan. The GOI's recent policy is to minimize government financial support for power development. This paper summarizes a financing strategy for the Indonesian NPP project to make the NPP economically viable, and provides a general discussion on project financing using a conventional approach, Build--Own-Operate (BOO) and a counter-purchase approach. Innovative approaches for financing are still being pursued in order to obtain an optimum solution for investors and owners, to fulfill the Indonesian government's requirements. (author)

  14. Education and the Private Finance Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Clive

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the development of Private Finance Initiative schemes in the United Kingdom, and reflects on how profitable opportunities for private financiers and construction companies were created at the expense of the public sector. (Contains 72 notes.)

  15. Financing Public Security: Tax and Non-tax Instruments to Finance Citizen Security and Crime Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Isaias Coelho

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the innovative sources of financing for public security that have developed in Latin American and the Caribbean in recent years, this paper reviews the main revenue instruments that can be used to finance various aspects of citizen security. The paper focuses on the structure of financing for the security budget and does not attempt to provide an assessment of expenditure needs and efficiency. If an in-depth country analysis concludes that more resources are needed, the paper provi...

  16. Essays in corporate finance and financial intermediation

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters in corporate finance and financial intermediation. The first two chapters explore sources of incentives and learning for finance professionals. Specifically, the first chapter studies how the option to go work for an investment bank affects the incentives of credit rating analysts, and shows that this "revolving door" strengthens analysts' incentives to issue accurate ratings. The second chapter analyzes the value of experience for mutual fund managers a...

  17. Financing exponential growth at H3

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    H3 is a fast-food chain that introduced the concept of gourmet hamburgers in the Portuguese market. This case-study illustrates its financing strategy that supported an exponential growth represented by opening 33 restaurants within approximately 3 years of its inception. H3 is now faced with the challenge of structuring its foreign ventures and change its financial approach. The main covered topics are the options an entrepreneur has for financing a new venture and how it evolves along th...

  18. New Financing Schemes of Public Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio de la Riva

    2017-01-01

    Public works procurements and concessions are traditional legal techniques used to shape the financing of public infrastructure. Fiscal constraints faced by public administrations at the end of the 20th century, and the subsequent increase of private participation in the provision of public goods and services, encouraged the development of new legal schemes allowing a higher degree of private investment in public infrastructure; such as Public Private Partnerships, project finance, securitiza...

  19. MANAGEMENT OF LOCAL FINANCES IN POLITICAL PERSPECTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Uroš Pinteric

    2015-01-01

    Local finances are subject of only limited debate, connected usually with the unreasonable high expenditures and low efficiency. This situation is then abused for support to the amalgamation or simple reduction of the number of municipalities. In the article we are trying to understand if there is any connection between different perspective on local self-government and the distribution of the finances. The research shows only indirect connection that requires additional study in order to ful...

  20. Speleogenetic effects of interaction between deeply derived fracture-conduit flow and intrastratal matrix flow in hypogene karst settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tymokhina Elizaveta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In carbonate rocks, especially in those with high primary porosity such as most Cenozoic carbonates, the interaction between deeply derived rising flow through sub-vertical fracture-controlled conduits and intrastratal matrix flow of shallower systems can invoke mixing cor- rosion and result in prominent speleogenetic effects. This paper outlines a conceptual model of such interaction and provides instructive field examples of relevant morphological effects from two different regions within the Prichernomorsky (north Black Sea basin, where karst features are developed in lower Pliocene, Eocene and Paleocene limestones. In the Crimean fore-mountain region, extensive steep to ver- tical limestone scarps formed through recent exposure of hypogenic fracture-controlled conduits provide outstanding possibilities to directly examine details of the original karstic porosity. The morphological effects of the conduit/matrix interaction, documented in both caves and exposed scarps, include lateral widening of sub-vertical conduits within the interaction intervals (formation of lateral notches and niches and the development of side bedding-parallel conduits, pockets and vuggy-spongework zones. Natural convection circulation, invoked by interaction of the two flow systems, spreads the morphological effects throughout the conduit space above the interaction interval. Where the interaction of the two flow systems is particularly strongly localized, such as along junctions of two vertical fracture sets, the resultant morphological effect can take the form of isolated chambers. The variety of speleogenetic features developed through the conduit/matrix interaction, can be broadly grouped into two categories: 1 variously shaped swells of the major fracture conduit itself (morphological fea- tures of its walls – niches and pockets, and 2 features of the vuggy-spongework halo surrounding the conduit. This halo includes clustered and stratiform cavities, spongework

  1. Financing Human Capital: Families & Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neantro Saavedra-Rivano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD describes human capital as “knowledge, skills, competencies and attributes embodied in individuals that facilitate the creation of personal, social and economic wellbeing.”* It follows from this interpretation that investment in human capital includes the sum of all costs that allow a new being to reach economic autonomy. In this paper we analyze the family and social dimensions of human capital and discuss how decisions on human capital formation are taken and how its associated costs are shared. The discussion leads us to identify an important paradox underlying human capital formation, namely the fact that while families are its main contributors the benefits of such investment go primarily to society as a whole. This paradox and its consequences are central to two very important current issues. The first issue, one that is common to many developed countries, is low female fertility which is the source, in particular, of population aging. The second issue, affecting chiefly developing countries, is the inequality of opportunities, a problem lying at the root of underdevelopment. Two options are discussed to respond to this dilemma, one based on redistributive programs and another on market solutions. The paper discusses the limits inherent to redistributive programs and goes on to present at length the alternative market solution. In a nutshell this consists of securitizing the human capital of individuals so as to finance the expenses leading to their upbringing, from birth to adulthood. In addition to describing this scheme the paper analyzes its advantages as well as the difficulties associated with its implementation. It concludes by exploring possible interpretations of the scheme and feasible routes for its adoption.

  2. Adoption of alternative financing strategies to increase the diffusion of picture archiving and communication systems into the radiology marketplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, B; Siegel, E; McKay, P

    2000-05-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate current marketplace conditions and strategies employed by major picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) vendors in the creation of alternative financing strategies, to enhance the diffusion of filmless imaging. Data were collected from the major PACS vendors in the forms of survey questionnaires and review of existing leases. Topics evaluated in the survey included current financing options available, foreseeable changes in PACS financing, role of third-party financiers, and creation of risk-sharing arrangements. Generic leases were also reviewed evaluating the presence or absence of several key variables including technology obsolescence protection, hardware/software upgrades, end-of-term options, determination of fair market value, functionality/acceptance testing, uptime guarantees, and workflow management consulting. Eight of the 10 PACS vendors surveyed participated in the data collection. The vast majority of current PACS implementations (60% to 90%) occur through direct purchase, with conventional leasing (operating or capital) accounting for only 5% to 30% of PACS installations. The majority of respondents view fee-for-lease arrangements and other forms of risk sharing as increasing importance for future PACS financing. The specific targets for such risk-sharing arrangements consist of small hospital and privately owned imaging centers. Leases currently offered range in duration from 3 to 5 years and frequently offer technology obsolescence protection with upgrades, multiple end-of-term options, and some form of acceptance testing. A number of important variables frequently omitted from leases include uptime guarantees, flexibility in changing financing or vendors, and incorporation of expected productivity/operational efficiency gains. As vendors strive to increase the penetration of PACS into the radiology marketplace, there will be a shift from conventional financing (loan or purchase) to leasing. Fee

  3. Investing in Our Future: A Guide to Child Care Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoney, Louise; Groginsky, Scott; Poppe, Julie

    This book investigates the innovative ways being used to ensure and finance high quality care for children. Chapter 1, "Introduction," discusses the government's role in helping to structure, build, and finance the system, as well as financing strategies. Chapter 2, "Financing Child Care Supply," addresses center-based child care, supports for…

  4. 24 CFR 891.815 - Mixed-finance developer's fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixed-finance developer's fee. 891... Persons with Disabilities § 891.815 Mixed-finance developer's fee. (a) Mixed-finance developer's fee. A mixed-finance developer may include, on an up-front or deferral basis, or a combination of both, a...

  5. 12 CFR 980.6 - Finance Board consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finance Board consent. 980.6 Section 980.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NEW FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ACTIVITIES NEW BUSINESS ACTIVITIES § 980.6 Finance Board consent. The Finance Board may at any time provide consent for a Bank...

  6. 24 CFR 266.100 - Qualified housing finance agency (HFA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualified housing finance agency... AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Housing Finance Agency Requirements § 266.100 Qualified housing finance agency (HFA). (a)...

  7. 12 CFR 905.4 - Duties of the Finance Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duties of the Finance Board. 905.4 Section 905.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS DESCRIPTION OF ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Functions and Responsibilities of Finance Board §...

  8. 12 CFR 907.12 - Finance Board procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finance Board procedures. 907.12 Section 907.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND... Finance Board procedures. (a) Notice of Receipt of Petition or Request to Intervene. No later than...

  9. Effectiveness, Teaching, and Assessments: Survey Evidence from Finance Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ming Ming; Kwan, Jing Hui; Kadir, Hazlina Abdul; Abdullah, Mahdhir; Yap, Voon Choong

    2010-01-01

    The present article examines the effectiveness, teaching, assessment methods, and the importance of finance concepts in three undergraduate finance courses in a private university in Malaysia. Approximately 224 undergraduates (finance majors) were surveyed and demonstrated positive attitudes toward the effectiveness of the finance subjects. The…

  10. Inequality of pension arrangements among different segments of the labor force in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Social security for older people in China today has been established institutionally. However, there are substantial problems such as coverage, affordability, fund management, and corruption. This paper aims to provide a general picture of China's social security system for older people and to argue that the inequality of pension arrangements among different segments of the labor force is one of the most conspicuous problems challenging the Chinese government. Four unequal aspects of the pension system concerning the financing resources and pension levels are examined in this paper: (1) unequal institutional arrangements among different sectors, (2) unbalanced governmental expenditure in pension provision, (3) an increasing gap in pension levels between urban and rural areas, and (4) uncovered groups such as the unemployed and self-employed. Historical, economic, and political reasons all contribute to this unequal institution under transition from socialism to a market-oriented economy. At present, it is urgent for the central government to take measures to integrate the various pension arrangements into the unified Old Age Insurance and to reduce the gaps among different regions.

  11. Flow patterns and boundary conditions for inlet and outlet conduits of large pump system with low head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐磊; 陆伟刚; 陆林广; 董雷; 王兆飞

    2014-01-01

    The flow patterns in the inlet and outlet conduits have a decisive effect on the safe, stable, and highly efficient operation of the pump in a large pumping station with low head. The numerical simulation of three-dimensional (3D) turbulence flow in conduits is an important method to study the hydraulic performance and conduct an optimum hydraulic design for the conduits. With the analyses of the flow patterns in the inlet and outlet conduits, the boundary conditions of the numerical simulation for them can be determined. The main obtained conclusions are as follows: (i) Under normal operation conditions, there is essentially no pre-swirl flow at the impeller chamber inlet of an axial-flow pump system, based on which the boundary condition at the inlet conduit may be defined. (ii) The circulation at the guide vane outlet of an axial-flow pump system has a great effect on the hydraulic performance of the outlet conduit, and there is optimum circulation for the performance. Therefore, it is strongly suggested to design the guide vane according to the optimum circulation. (iii) The residual circulation at the guide vane outlet needs to be considered for the inlet boundary condition of the outlet conduit, and the value of the circulation may be measured in a specially designed test model.

  12. Minimum Energy Requirements in Complex Distillation Arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Ivar J.

    2001-07-01

    Distillation is the most widely used industrial separation technology and distillation units are responsible for a significant part of the total heat consumption in the world's process industry. In this work we focus on directly (fully thermally) coupled column arrangements for separation of multicomponent mixtures. These systems are also denoted Petlyuk arrangements, where a particular implementation is the dividing wall column. Energy savings in the range of 20-40% have been reported with ternary feed mixtures. In addition to energy savings, such integrated units have also a potential for reduced capital cost, making them extra attractive. However, the industrial use has been limited, and difficulties in design and control have been reported as the main reasons. Minimum energy results have only been available for ternary feed mixtures and sharp product splits. This motivates further research in this area, and this thesis will hopefully give some contributions to better understanding of complex column systems. In the first part we derive the general analytic solution for minimum energy consumption in directly coupled columns for a multicomponent feed and any number of products. To our knowledge, this is a new contribution in the field. The basic assumptions are constant relative volatility, constant pressure and constant molar flows and the derivation is based on Underwood's classical methods. An important conclusion is that the minimum energy consumption in a complex directly integrated multi-product arrangement is the same as for the most difficult split between any pair of the specified products when we consider the performance of a conventional two-product column. We also present the Vmin-diagram, which is a simple graphical tool for visualisation of minimum energy related to feed distribution. The Vmin-diagram provides a simple mean to assess the detailed flow requirements for all parts of a complex directly coupled arrangement. The main purpose in

  13. SMES' SECTOR ACCESS TO FINANCE: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Angela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Through their contribution to the creation of added value and new jobs, the small and medium enterprises (SMEs have a significant role in the economic and social development of a country. However, these enterprises are facing numerous obstacles that limit their performance, growth and development. Among the difficulties faced by SMEs, the access to finance is often reported as a major obstacle to the deployment and expansion of their activity. The access to finance is crucial for efficient allocation of financial resources and entrepreneurial development, which explains the major interest given to this subject both by the academic literature and the policy makers. The paper aims to highlight the difficulties faced by SMEs in securing financing resources, emphasizing the differences between countries and also between SMEs and large enterprises. Knowing the difficulties in SMEs financing is essential for policy makers in order to design and implement appropriate measures, which will help to improve the access to financing for these enterprises. Thus, another issue addressed, synthetically, in this paper aims the measures taken by public authorities in order to support the access to financing for SMEs. The research methodology used in this paper starts with a literature review in order to highlight the importance of the subject addressed in our research. The analysis conducted in this paper is based on data and statistics provided mainly by the World Bank surveys, by certain empirical studies and by the National Council of Small and Medium Sized Private Enterprises in Romania. Based on the methodology used, the paper indicates the difficulties in SMEs financing and the crucial importance of enhancing the public authorities concerns regarding their alleviation, especially by adopting measures focused on increasing financial development, which would ensure greater availability of financing for businesses and thus economic growth. The limited

  14. 12 CFR 987.7 - Liability of Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liability of Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. 987.7 Section 987.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD OFFICE OF FINANCE BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURE FOR CONSOLIDATED OBLIGATIONS § 987.7 Liability of Banks,...

  15. Shallow conduit processes during the 1158 AD explosive eruption of Hekla volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janebo, Maria; Houghton, Bruce; Thordarson, Thor; Larsen, Gudrun

    2015-04-01

    Hekla is one of the most frequently active silicic volcanic systems in the world, with multiple pre-historic large Plinian eruptions and 18 historical subplinian-Plinian eruptions. The common view is that the Plinian phases of the largest Hekla eruptions are all relatively homogeneous in style. Of the historical eruptions, only two were silicic: a Plinian eruption in 1104 and a smaller, less well characterized, eruption in 1158. We examine the dynamics of the 1158 eruption in detail with focus on the modulating role of shallow conduit processes. Grain size analysis, componentry, and density were used to characterize gradual and abrupt changes during the course of the eruption and quantitative vesicularity analysis was used to constrain the influence of bubble nucleation and coalescence. The 1158 eruption was a relatively steady, dry eruption with a more powerful opening phase followed by a lower intensity, waning phase accompanied by destabilization and collapse of the conduit walls. The juvenile pyroclasts are comprised of three types of microvesicular ragged pumice: white, grey, and banded. The abundance of grey pumice decreases as the eruption reaches maximum intensity, and then increases again during the waning phase of the eruption. The white pumices are more vesicular than the grey pumice, and the banded pumices have vesicularities that span predictably the range of the two end-members. The macroscopic differences between the white and grey pumice are accompanied by differences on a microscopic scale, most notably in a decrease in vesicle number density (VND) and a broadening of the vesicle size distribution, as well as increased crystal content. VND values of 0.5 to 1 E+6 mm-3 are similar to those recorded for the more powerful and sustained Plinian phases of the Novarupta 1912 and Taupo 181 eruptions in our laboratory. The 1158 pumice clasts display complex textures with adjacent domains of contrasting texture, alluding to complex nucleation, growth and

  16. Ventricular torsional relation to ventricular fiber arrangement

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjbar, Saeed; Meybodi, Mahmood Emami

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular torsion from helically oriented myofibers is a key parameter of cardiac performance. Physicians observing heart motion on echocardiograms, during cardiac catheterization, or in the operating room, are impressed by the twisting or rotary motion of the left ventricle during systole. Conceptually, the heart has been treated as a pressure chamber. The rotary or torsional deformation has been poorly understood by basic scientists and has lacked clinical relevance. The aim of this paper attempts to discuss about this question: Is ventricular twisting related to ventricular fiber arrangement? That is dependent to an assumed model of the left ventricular structure.

  17. A regional arrangement proposal for the UNASUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ferrari-Filho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the current process of economic integration in South America. Thus, concentrating our attention on the UNASUR regional integration process, two questions arise: First, is UNASUR the most viable institution to achieve a consistent economic integration process in South America? Second, what model of economic integration should be adopted in the case of UNASUR, which would ensure macroeconomic stability and avoid financial and exchange rate crises in the South America? To answer these questions, the article proposes, based on the Keynes (1944/1980's revolutionary analysis presented in his International Clearing Union, during the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944, a regional arrangement to UNASUR.

  18. Waveguide arrangements based on adiabatic elimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suchowski, Haim; Mrejen, Michael; Wu, Chihhui; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-09-13

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to nanophotonics. In one aspect, an arrangement of waveguides includes a substrate and three waveguides. Each of the three waveguides may be a linear waveguide. A second waveguide is positioned between a first waveguide and a third waveguide. The dimensions and positions of the first, the second, and the third waveguides are specified to substantially eliminate coupling between the first waveguide and the third waveguide over a distance of about 1 millimeter to 2 millimeters along lengths of the first waveguide, the second waveguide, and the third waveguide.

  19. Improved shock-detection pin arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erskine, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    Shockwave speeds are often measured by comparing arrival times at the tips of electrical shorting pins in a hexagonal array over two elevations (called up and down). In the conventional arrangement, the center pin is solely responsible for measuring the curvature of the wavefront. Without this datum the shock speed cannot be precisely determined. In some experiments this pin fail frequently enough to be a problem. We report a simple rearrangement between up and down designated pins which eliminates the critical reliance on a single.

  20. Conceptual Framework and Recent Trends in Project Financing

    OpenAIRE

    Dr Sunil Kumar,

    2012-01-01

    Project financing is a non-recourse financing which provides leverage, contractual structure, creates a special purpose vehicle and considers the revenue generated by the project not the general assets of the business at the time of financing. Project financingtechnique is prominently used for mines, toll road, pipeline, power station, hospital and other infrastructure projects. Past studies show that the Public-Private-Partnership, Take-out Finance, BondFinance, Securitisation, Viability Gap...

  1. Sustainable Development of New Rural Finance in China

    OpenAIRE

    Nie, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Rural finance is the weakest link in China's financial system. There are still many problems in the traditional rural finance, such as poor business conditions, imperfectly competitive financial markets, and credit information asymmetry; the phenomenon of farmers' loans difficulty has not been fundamentally changed. In order to improve the current situation of rural finance, the state proposes to develop new rural finance and innovate upon rural financial system. The new rural finance has man...

  2. Book Review of : The Theory of Corporate Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Georges Dionne

    2011-01-01

    The book proposes an original contribution to the economics and finance literature by developing the foundations of corporate finance. It also covers in detail various corporate governance issues faced by organizations. The common treatment of corporate finance and corporate governance started with the contribution of Williamson (Journal of Finance, 1988), who argued that corporate finance and corporate governance must be treated simultaneously because they are complementary. This book fills ...

  3. Finance Companies and Small Business Borrowers: An Empirical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Haynes, George; Watts, Myles

    1996-01-01

    Finance companies have been perceived as isolated and insignificant lenders, attracting high risk borrowers and charging these borrowers relatively high prices. Using the 1988 National Survey of Small Business Finance, this study examines the relationship between finance companies and other lenders, describes the characteristics of borrowers attracted to finance companies and assesses whether finance companies charge higher loan prices and impose more stringent collateral requirements on thei...

  4. Analysis of selected segments of Polish e-finance market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Ma ł achowski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Selected websites of Polish e-finance segment are analyzed, including news servic- es on finance and economy, portals of financial product and service suppliers, spe- cialized financial services websites. The aim of this paper is to present a functional and structural analysis of selected e-finance websites and portals, together with evaluation of their usability, based on own research and third party studies. Basic statistical data on Polish segment of finance and e-finance is presented

  5. Challenges of using electrical resistivity method to locate karst conduits-A field case in the Inner Bluegrass Region, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J.; Currens, J.C.; Dinger, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Conduits serve as major pathways for groundwater flow in karst aquifers. Locating them from the surface, however, is one of the most challenging tasks in karst research. Geophysical methods are often deployed to help locate voids by mapping variations of physical properties of the subsurface. Conduits can cause significant contrasts of some physical properties that can be detected; other subsurface features such as water-bearing fractures often yield similar contrasts, which are difficult to distinguish from the effects of the conduits. This study used electrical resistivity method to search for an unmapped karst conduit that recharges Royal Spring in the Inner Bluegrass karst region, Kentucky, USA. Three types of resistivity techniques (surface 2D survey, quasi-3D survey, and time-lapse survey) were used to map and characterize resistivity anomalies. Some of the major anomalies were selected as drilling targets to verify the existence of the conduits. Drilling near an anomaly identified by an electrical resistivity profile resulted in successful penetration of a major water-filled conduit. The drilling results also suggest that, in this study area, low resistivity anomalies in general are associated with water-bearing features. However, differences in the anomaly signals between the water-filled conduit and other water-bearing features such as water-filled fracture zones were undistinguishable. The electrical resistivity method is useful in conduit detection by providing potential drilling targets. Knowledge of geology and hydrogeology about the site and professional judgment also played important roles in locating the major conduit. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Data in support of in vivo studies of silk based gold nano-composite conduits for functional peripheral nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suradip Das

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present data article we report the in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of fabricated nerve conduits described in Das et al. [1]. Green synthesised gold nanoparticles (GNPs were evaluated for their cytotoxicity in rat Schwann cells (SCTM41. We also describe herein the adhesion and proliferation of Schwann cells over the nanofibrous scaffolds. Methods describing surgical implantation of conduits in a rat sciatic nerve injury model, confirming its accurate implantation as well as the porosity and swelling tendency of the nerve conduits are illustrated in the various figures and graphs.

  7. Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Partial Colpectomy and Intracorporeal Ileal Conduit Urinary Diversion (Bricker for Cervical Adenocarcinoma Recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Uzan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ileal conduit urinary diversion (Bricker is a standard surgical open procedure. The Da Vinci robot allowed precision for this surgical procedure, especially for intracorporeal suturing. Meanwhile, few reports of robot-assisted laparoscopic ileal conduit diversion (Bricker are described in the literature. We report the case of a 69-year-old patient with a vaginal recurrence of cervical adenocarcinoma associated with vesicovaginal fistula treated by robot-assisted laparoscopic partial colpectomy and ileal conduit urinary diversion (Bricker. The robot-assisted laparoscopic procedure followed all surgical steps of the open procedure. Postoperative period was free of complications.

  8. The Financing of Vocational Education and Training in Italy. Financing Portrait. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allulli, Giorgio; D'Agostino, Sandra

    This document details the sources and distribution of financing of vocational education and training (VET) in Italy. Part 1 presents basic information on the political, economic, legislative, and administrative contexts of financing VET. Part 2 describes the sources and distribution mechanisms of funds for the following forms of initial vocational…

  9. Gestion des finances publiques : une contribution à la bonne gouvernance financière

    OpenAIRE

    Leiderer, Stefan; Wolff, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Introduction : la gestion des finances publiques comme élément de la bonne gouvernance financière L’expression gestion des finances publiques (GFP) sert depuis quelques années de cadre à un débat animé sur les capacités et la réforme des finances publiques dans les pays en développement. L’importance de la GFP découle du rôle central que jouent les finances publiques dans un Etat démocratique désireux de se développer : une politique budgétaire axée sur des objectifs et une gestion budgétaire...

  10. Extra-anatomic right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit: the apical-aortic equivalent for complex right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Makoto; Siddharthan, Ragavan; Kogon, Brian

    2015-03-01

    We describe the case of a 22-year-old with tetralogy of Fallot, who underwent complete repair with ventricular septal defect closure and right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit placement. She has undergone numerous subsequent conduit changes, each complicated by early stenosis and failure. Unfortunately, serial conduit changes can become increasingly challenging. While extra-anatomic conduits have been described for complex left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, they have not been described for right-sided obstruction. Herein, we present a patient who underwent successful placement of an extra-anatomic valved right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit in the setting of complex right ventricular outflow tract obstruction.

  11. Inhibition of calpains fails to improve regeneration through a peripheral nerve conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausner, Thomas; Marvaldi, Letizia; Márton, Gábor; Pajer, Krisztián; Hopf, Rudolf; Schmidhammer, Robert; Hausott, Barbara; Redl, Heinz; Nógrádi, Antal; Klimaschewski, Lars

    2014-04-30

    Intramuscular injection of the calpain inhibitor leupeptin promotes peripheral nerve regeneration in primates (Badalamente et al., 1989 [13]), and direct positive effects of leupeptin on axon outgrowth were observed in vitro (Hausott et al., 2012 [12]). In this study, we applied leupeptin (2mg/ml) directly to collagen-filled nerve conduits in the rat sciatic nerve transection model. Analysis of myelinated axons and retrogradely labeled motoneurons as well as functional 'CatWalk' video analysis did not reveal significant differences between vehicle controls and leupeptin treated animals. Therefore, leupeptin does not improve nerve regeneration via protease inhibition in regrowing axons or in surrounding Schwann cells following a single application to a peripheral nerve conduit suggesting indirect effects on motor endplate integrity if applied systemically.

  12. Stability of cable-in-conduit, force-cooled conductors: elementary theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresner, L.

    1979-01-01

    The recovery of cable-in-conduit conductors cooled by supercritical helium has been studied. The initial perturbation is a sudden, uniform deposition of heat. The problem has been solved, and answers have been obtained in the form of simple closed formulas under the simplifying assumption of constant thermophysical properties. Stability-optimized conductors have been identified and simple formulas for their material composition are given. A rule of design of cable-in-conduit conductors based on the existence of stability-optimized conductors is suggested. Some ''zero-flow'' experiments of Miller et al. have been analyzed, and it has been determined that for these experiments the effective heat transfer coefficient during the period of recovery is approximately 1000 Wm/sup -2/K/sup -1/.

  13. Crab burrows as conduits for groundwater-surface water exchange in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Mason O.; Tarek, M. H.; Yeo, Darren C. J.; Badruzzaman, A. B. M.; Harvey, Charles F.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater recharge affects water budgets and groundwater quality on the deltas and floodplains of South and Southeast Asia. Rain and flooding rivers recharge groundwater during the monsoon; irrigated rice fields and surface water bodies recharge aquifers during the dry season. Groundwater throughout the region is severely contaminated by arsenic, and recent research suggests that quantifying and characterizing recharge is important to understand whether recharge flushes or mobilizes arsenic from aquifers. At a field site in Bangladesh, we found that burrows of terrestrial crabs short-circuit low-permeability surface sediments, providing the primary conduit for recharge. We combine field observations along with a model that couples isotope and water balances to quantify the effect of crab burrows on aquifer recharge. Given the wide distribution of burrowing crabs and the surficial geology, we suggest that crab burrows provide widespread conduits for groundwater recharge.

  14. On the connectivity of the realization spaces of line arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Nazir, Shaheen

    2010-01-01

    We prove that under certain combinatorial conditions, the realization spaces of line arrangements on the complex projective plane are connected. We also give several examples of arrangements with eight, nine and ten lines which have disconnected realization spaces.

  15. A brief history of mathematics in finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdinç Akyıldırım

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the list of possible scapegoats for the recent financial crises, mathematics, in particular mathematical finance has been ranked, without a doubt, as the first among many and quants, as mathematicians are known in the industry, have been blamed for developing and using esoteric models which are believed to have caused the deepening of the financial crisis. However, as Lo and Mueller (2010 state “Blaming quantitative models for the crisis seems particularly perverse, and akin to blaming arithmetic and the real number system for accounting fraud.” Throughout the history, mathematics and finance have always been in a close relationship. Starting from Babylonians, through Thales, and then Fibonacci, Pascal, Fermat, Bernoulli, Bachelier, Wiener, Kolmogorov, Ito, Markowitz, Black, Scholes, Merton and many others made huge contributions to the development of mathematics while trying to solve finance problems. In this paper, we present a brief historical perspective on how the development of finance theory has influenced and in turn been influenced by the development of mathematical finance theory.

  16. Guinea; Fourth Review Under the Three-Year Arrangement Under the Extended Credit Facility, and Financing Assurances Review

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2014-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Economic activity remained weak in early 2014. Activity was impacted by an outbreak of the Ebola virus since late 2013, but lagging structural reforms, energy shortages, and political uncertainty may also be at play. Economic growth is estimated to have been 2.3 percent in 2013, and is projected at 3.5 percent in 2014, supported by higher public investment and assuming a gradual start-up of new mining sector investment. Inflation fell to below 10 percent year-on-year in May ...

  17. Shallow conduit processes during the ad 1158 explosive eruption of Hekla volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janebo, Maria H.; Houghton, Bruce F.; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Larsen, Gudrun

    2016-10-01

    Hekla is one of the most frequently active felsic volcanic systems in the world, with several known pre-historic large Plinian eruptions and 18 historical subplinian to small Plinian eruptions. A common view is that Plinian eruptions of Hekla are relatively short lived and purely explosive events. In detail, these events exhibit subtle differences in terms of deposit characteristics, reflecting significant differences in eruption behaviour. Of the 18 historical eruptions, two had bulk magma compositions with >66 wt% SiO2: a Plinian eruption in ad 1104 and a smaller, less well characterised, but atypical subplinian eruption in ad 1158. The ad 1158 eruption was a relatively sustained, dry (magmatic) eruption with a more powerful opening phase followed by a lower intensity, waning phase accompanied by minor destabilisation and collapse of the conduit walls. We examine here the dynamics of the ad 1158 eruption, focussing on the role of shallow conduit processes in modulating eruption dynamics. Vesicularity data constrain the relative influence of bubble nucleation, growth, and coalescence. The juvenile pyroclasts are composed of two types of microvesicular pumice (white and grey) with contrasting vesicle number density, vesicle-size distribution, and phenocryst and microlite contents. Textural analysis shows that these pumices reflect heterogeneity developed pre- to syn-eruptively in the conduit and that entrainment of longer resident magma by faster ascending magma permitted magma of contrasting maturity to be fragmented simultaneously. In this regard, the mixed melt of the ad 1158 eruption contrasts with the compositionally homogeneous melt phase of the more powerful ad 1104 Plinian event, which was typified by more uniform conduit and eruption dynamics accompanying higher average ascent rates.

  18. Analysis of Cable-in-Conduit Conductors' DC Performance in Light of Strand's Experimental Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Yunfei; WENG Peide; LIU Fang; LI Shaolei

    2007-01-01

    Conductor qualification will be carried out with four Cable-in-Conduit Conductor (CICC) samples made of superconducting strands. The direct current (DC) performance of these samples will be tested in the SULTAN facility. The critical current densities of the strands can be well simulated by empirical equations. In this paper, a model is illustrated to predict the DC behaviour of the cable in light of the single strand's experimental properties. The simulation results were compared with experimental results.

  19. Large bifid ureteric calculus in a patient with an ileal conduit

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Urinary diversion after extirpative surgery of the bladder is done by various methods. Conduit urinary diversion is the most commonly practiced method of urinary diversion. It is relatively easy to perform and has a lower complication rate than other forms of diversion, e.g., orthotopic neobladder and continent cutaneous urinary diversion. Urolithiasis is a known and common complication of urinary diversion. Upper tract calculi in these cases often manifest symptomatically as occurs in the ge...

  20. Computational fluid dynamic simulations of cavopulmonary connections with an extracardiac lateral conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliavacca, F; de Leval, M R; Dubini, G; Pietrabissa, R; Fumero, R

    1999-04-01

    Complex congenital heart defects due to the absence of a ventricular chamber can often be treated by the Fontan surgical procedure. The objective of this work was to quantify the haemodynamics in the Fontan operation (cavopulmonary connection) with extracardiac lateral conduit. Four different models based on the finite element method were constructed with different lengths of inferior anastomosis (range 18-25 mm) and inclinations of the conduit (33 and 47.5 degrees). Mass conservation and Navier-Stokes equations were solved by means of the FIDAP code, based on the finite element method. The left-to-right pulmonary flow ratio and percentage inferior caval blood to the left lung were the highest with the smallest anastomosis and highest inclination: 1.35 and 83.26%, respectively. Dissipated power percentage was higher with the largest anastomosis than with the smallest (19.4 vs 15.8%). It was concluded that, when performing a total cavopulmonary connection, an extracardiac lateral conduit: (i) diverts more flow to the left lung, and (ii) shows higher energy losses when compared with a connection with intra-atrial tunnel. This study could be useful to evaluate the incidence of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.

  1. Cryopreserved allograft veins as alternative coronary artery bypass conduits: early phase results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laub, G W; Muralidharan, S; Clancy, R; Eldredge, W J; Chen, C; Adkins, M S; Fernandez, J; Anderson, W A; McGrath, L B

    1992-11-01

    Traditional autologous conduits are sometimes unavailable or unsuitable to permit total revascularization during coronary artery bypass grafting. In these patients the results of using nonautologous alternative conduits has been disappointing. Encouraged by the excellent long-term results seen with cryopreserved allograft valves, a clinical protocol was developed to evaluate the use of a commercially cryopreserved allograft saphenous vein (CPV). Our protocol consisted of using CPV when left internal mammary arteries and autologous saphenous vein grafts were unavailable or unsuitable for complete revascularization. Blood group (ABO) typed CPVs were thawed and implanted as required using standard surgical techniques. From December 1989 through June 1991, 19 of 1,602 patients who underwent coronary revascularization had CPVs implanted (1.2%). There were no operative deaths. An attempt was made to evaluate the patency of all grafts with coronary arteriography or ultrafast computed tomographic scans. Fourteen patients were available for patency evaluation. Patency rate in the 14 patients studied at a mean of 7 +/- 2 months (range, 2 to 16 months) were: internal mammary artery, 93% (14/15); saphenous vein graft, 80% (4/5); and CPV, 41% (7/17). The patency of the CPV was significantly less than the patency rate for the saphenous vein and internal mammary artery (p = 0.004). We conclude that the short-term patency rate of CPVs is inferior to that of autologous vessels. Due to its poor patency, we recommend that CPV should only be used when no other autologous conduit is available.

  2. Conduit enlargement during the precursory Plinian eruption of Aira Caldera, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geshi, Nobuo; Miyabuchi, Yasuo

    2016-09-01

    Increase in magma flux as the result of conduit enlargement is one of the key processes that triggered caldera collapse and eruption of the Ito ignimbrite from Aira Caldera at ~29 ka. We examine the total volume of the pumice fall deposit, vertical variations in grain size of pumice, and the lithic content in the Osumi pumice deposit to investigate the trigger for caldera collapse. Wider distribution of the later-stage unit and the upward coarsening of grain size throughout the Osumi pumice fall deposit indicate an increase in magma discharge toward the onset of collapse. The total volume of lithic fragments in the Osumi pumice fall deposit is estimated as ~1.6 km3, based on the lithic content in several representative outcrops and the total volume of the Osumi pumice fall deposit. The lithic fragments in the Osumi pumice fall deposit indicate intense mechanical erosion of the conduit during the Plinian eruption prior to caldera collapse. Caldera collapse requires decompression of the magma chamber by withdrawal of magma; effective enlargement of the conduit diameter during precursory eruptive phases is one of the important processes that subsequently allow the rapid discharge of a large volume of magma, which in turn facilitates decompression of the reservoir and induces caldera collapse.

  3. Natural Occurring Silks and Their Analogues as Materials for Nerve Conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Spider silk and its synthetic derivatives have a light weight in combination with good strength and elasticity. Their high cytocompatibility and low immunogenicity make them well suited for biomaterial products such as nerve conduits. Silk proteins slowly degrade enzymatically in vivo, thus allowing for an initial therapeutic effect such as in nerve scaffolding to facilitate endogenous repair processes, and then are removed. Silks are biopolymers naturally produced by many species of arthropods including spiders, caterpillars and mites. The silk fibers are secreted by the labial gland of the larvae of some orders of Holometabola (insects with pupa) or the spinnerets of spiders. The majority of studies using silks for biomedical applications use materials from silkworms or spiders, mostly of the genus Nephila clavipes. Silk is one of the most promising biomaterials with effects not only in nerve regeneration, but in a number of regenerative applications. The development of silks for human biomedical applications is of high scientific and clinical interest. Biomaterials in use for biomedical applications have to meet a number of requirements such as biocompatibility and elicitation of no more than a minor inflammatory response, biodegradability in a reasonable time and specific structural properties. Here we present the current status in the field of silk-based conduit development for nerve repair and discuss current advances with regard to potential clinical transfer of an implantable nerve conduit for enhancement of nerve regeneration. PMID:27775616

  4. Natural Occurring Silks and Their Analogues as Materials for Nerve Conduits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Radtke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Spider silk and its synthetic derivatives have a light weight in combination with good strength and elasticity. Their high cytocompatibility and low immunogenicity make them well suited for biomaterial products such as nerve conduits. Silk proteins slowly degrade enzymatically in vivo, thus allowing for an initial therapeutic effect such as in nerve scaffolding to facilitate endogenous repair processes, and then are removed. Silks are biopolymers naturally produced by many species of arthropods including spiders, caterpillars and mites. The silk fibers are secreted by the labial gland of the larvae of some orders of Holometabola (insects with pupa or the spinnerets of spiders. The majority of studies using silks for biomedical applications use materials from silkworms or spiders, mostly of the genus Nephila clavipes. Silk is one of the most promising biomaterials with effects not only in nerve regeneration, but in a number of regenerative applications. The development of silks for human biomedical applications is of high scientific and clinical interest. Biomaterials in use for biomedical applications have to meet a number of requirements such as biocompatibility and elicitation of no more than a minor inflammatory response, biodegradability in a reasonable time and specific structural properties. Here we present the current status in the field of silk-based conduit development for nerve repair and discuss current advances with regard to potential clinical transfer of an implantable nerve conduit for enhancement of nerve regeneration.

  5. Natural Occurring Silks and Their Analogues as Materials for Nerve Conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Christine

    2016-10-20

    Spider silk and its synthetic derivatives have a light weight in combination with good strength and elasticity. Their high cytocompatibility and low immunogenicity make them well suited for biomaterial products such as nerve conduits. Silk proteins slowly degrade enzymatically in vivo, thus allowing for an initial therapeutic effect such as in nerve scaffolding to facilitate endogenous repair processes, and then are removed. Silks are biopolymers naturally produced by many species of arthropods including spiders, caterpillars and mites. The silk fibers are secreted by the labial gland of the larvae of some orders of Holometabola (insects with pupa) or the spinnerets of spiders. The majority of studies using silks for biomedical applications use materials from silkworms or spiders, mostly of the genus Nephila clavipes. Silk is one of the most promising biomaterials with effects not only in nerve regeneration, but in a number of regenerative applications. The development of silks for human biomedical applications is of high scientific and clinical interest. Biomaterials in use for biomedical applications have to meet a number of requirements such as biocompatibility and elicitation of no more than a minor inflammatory response, biodegradability in a reasonable time and specific structural properties. Here we present the current status in the field of silk-based conduit development for nerve repair and discuss current advances with regard to potential clinical transfer of an implantable nerve conduit for enhancement of nerve regeneration.

  6. Chitosan conduits combined with nerve growth factor microspheres repair facial nerve defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huawei Liu; Weisheng Wen; Min Hu; Wenting Bi; Lijie Chen; Sanxia Liu; Peng Chen; Xinying Tan

    2013-01-01

    Microspheres containing nerve growth factor for sustained release were prepared by a compound method, and implanted into chitosan conduits to repair 10-mm defects on the right buccal branches of the facial nerve in rabbits. In addition, chitosan conduits combined with nerve growth factor or normal saline, as wel as autologous nerve, were used as controls. At 90 days post-surgery, the muscular atrophy on the right upper lip was more evident in the nerve growth factor and normal sa-line groups than in the nerve growth factor-microspheres and autologous nerve groups. Electro-physiological analysis revealed that the nerve conduction velocity and amplitude were significantly higher in the nerve growth factor-microspheres and autologous nerve groups than in the nerve growth factor and normal saline groups. Moreover, histological observation il ustrated that the di-ameter, number, alignment and myelin sheath thickness of myelinated nerves derived from rabbits were higher in the nerve growth factor-microspheres and autologous nerve groups than in the nerve growth factor and normal saline groups. These findings indicate that chitosan nerve conduits com-bined with microspheres for sustained release of nerve growth factor can significantly improve facial nerve defect repair in rabbits.

  7. Thermo-Hydraulic Characteristics of Anatase Titania Nanofluids Flowing Through a Circular Conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiawan, Budi; Kamal, Samsul; Yanuar

    2016-06-01

    The thermo-hydraulic characteristics of anatase titanium dioxide dispersed into distilled water with particle concentration of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 vol.% were investigated experimentally in this work. The influence of rheological behavior on hydrodynamic and convective heat transfer characteristics was evaluated under both laminar and turbulent flow conditions in a plain conduit and with twisted tape insert for twist ratio of 7. The nanofluids exhibited a strong shear-thinning behavior at low shear rate particularly higher particle concentration. The non-Newtonian titania nanofluids have also demonstrated a drag reduction phenomena in turbulent flow. At equal Reynolds number, the values of performance evaluation criterion in a conduit inserted a twisted tape were lower than those of in a plain conduit. It implies the unfavourable energy budget for twisted tape insert. The convective heat transfer coefficient does not gradually enhance with an increase of particle concentration. The flow features due mainly to the rheology of colloidal dispersions might be a reason for this phenomenon.

  8. Laminin-modified and aligned PHBV/PEO nanofibrous nerve conduits promote peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Hai-Xia; Ortiz, Lazarus Santiago; Xiao, Zhong-Dang; Huang, Ning-Ping

    2016-11-12

    Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) has received much attention for its biodegradability and biocompatibility, characteristics which are required in tissue engineering. In this study, polyethylene oxide (PEO)-incorporated PHBV nanofibers with random or aligned orientation were obtained by electrospinning. For further use in vivo, the nanofiber films were made into nerve conduits after treated with NH3 plasma, which could improve the hydrophilicity of inner surfaces of nerve conduits and then facilitate laminin adsorption via electrostatic interaction for promoting cell adhesion and proliferation. Morphology of the surfaces of modified PHBV/PEO nanofibrous scaffolds were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Schwann cell viability assay was conducted and the results confirmed that the functionalized nanofibers were favorable for cell growth. Morphology of Schwann cells cultured on scaffolds showed that aligned nanofibrous scaffolds provided topographical guidance for cell orientation and elongation. Furthermore, 3D PHBV/PEO nerve conduits made from aligned and random-oriented nanofibers were implanted into 12-mm transected sciatic nerve rat model and subsequent analysis were conducted at 1 and 2 months post-surgery. The above functionalized PHBV/PEO scaffolds provide a novel and promising platform for peripheral nerve regeneration.

  9. Continent catheterizable conduit for urinary diversion in children: Applicability and acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Solanki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Continent catheterizable conduit (CCC has made clean intermittent catheterization (CIC painless and easy. It is applicable in diverse clinical conditions. Nonetheless, convincing the parents for the need of conduit procedure is still difficult. Materials and Methods: A prospective study, included children who underwent CCC procedure from March 2008 to February 2013. The data were assessed for; diagnosis, type of conduit, number of preoperative counselling sessions before acceptance, role of "self-help group" in decision making, parental concern and satisfaction for the procedure. Results: Twenty-nine patients (males; 24, females; 5 underwent CCC procedure for various clinical conditions. The multiple preoperative counselling sessions and creation of "self-help groups" were helped them for decision making. The main concerns among parents were: (1 Impact of procedure on future fertility and sexual life. (2 Patency of native urethral channel. (3 Permanent urinary stoma over the abdomen. Conclusion: CCC procedures are applicable to a wide array of clinical situations with a good outcome. The acceptability of the CCC procedure improves with preoperative counselling of parent/child, initiation of preoperative per urethral CIC and creation of self-help groups.

  10. Optimum air-demand ratio for maximum aeration efficiency in high-head gated circular conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Fahri; Tuna, M Cihat; Baylar, Ahmet; Ozturk, Mualla

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen is an important component of water quality and its ability to sustain life. Water aeration is the process of introducing air into a body of water to increase its oxygen saturation. Water aeration can be accomplished in a variety of ways, for instance, closed-conduit aeration. High-speed flow in a closed conduit involves air-water mixture flow. The air flow results from the subatmospheric pressure downstream of the gate. The air entrained by the high-speed flow is supplied by the air vent. The air entrained into the flow in the form of a large number of bubbles accelerates oxygen transfer and hence also increases aeration efficiency. In the present work, the optimum air-demand ratio for maximum aeration efficiency in high-head gated circular conduits was studied experimentally. Results showed that aeration efficiency increased with the air-demand ratio to a certain point and then aeration efficiency did not change with a further increase of the air-demand ratio. Thus, there was an optimum value for the air-demand ratio, depending on the Froude number, which provides maximum aeration efficiency. Furthermore, a design formula for aeration efficiency was presented relating aeration efficiency to the air-demand ratio and Froude number.

  11. The formation and migration of sand ripples in closed conduits: experiments with turbulent water flows

    CERN Document Server

    Florez, Jorge Eduar Cardona

    2016-01-01

    The transport of solid particles by a fluid flow is frequently found in nature and industry. Some examples are the transport of sand in rivers and hydrocarbon pipelines. When the shear stresses exerted by a fluid flow on a granular bed remain moderate, some grains are set in motion without fluidizing the bed; the moving grains form a layer, known as bed load, that moves while maintaining contact with the fixed part of the bed. Under bed load conditions, the granular bed may become unstable, generating ripples and dunes. Sand ripples are commonly observed in closed conduits and pipes such as in petroleum pipelines, sewer systems, and dredging lines. Although of importance for many scientific domains and industrial applications, the formation of ripples in closed conduits is not well understood, and the problem is still open. This paper presents an experimental study on the formation and migration of sand ripples under a turbulent closed-conduit flow and bed-load conditions. In our experiments, fully-developed ...

  12. Large bifid ureteric calculus in a patient with an ileal conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaian, Shanmugasundaram; Kekre, Nitin S

    2012-09-01

    Urinary diversion after extirpative surgery of the bladder is done by various methods. Conduit urinary diversion is the most commonly practiced method of urinary diversion. It is relatively easy to perform and has a lower complication rate than other forms of diversion, e.g., orthotopic neobladder and continent cutaneous urinary diversion. Urolithiasis is a known and common complication of urinary diversion. Upper tract calculi in these cases often manifest symptomatically as occurs in the general population. Stones in the conduit can have a variable clinical presentation. Asymptomatic presentation is also noted in a few cases. We report a case of a large silent bifid ureteric calculus within an ileal conduit in a woman who had undergone urinary diversion 32 years earlier. Plain X-ray of the abdomen is the only investigation necessary to rule out urinary lithiasis in those who have had urinary diversion for a long time. This simple tool can diagnose the condition well in advance and aid in planning the management of this condition.

  13. Large bifid ureteric calculus in a patient with an ileal conduit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugasundaram Rajaian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary diversion after extirpative surgery of the bladder is done by various methods. Conduit urinary diversion is the most commonly practiced method of urinary diversion. It is relatively easy to perform and has a lower complication rate than other forms of diversion, e.g., orthotopic neobladder and continent cutaneous urinary diversion. Urolithiasis is a known and common complication of urinary diversion. Upper tract calculi in these cases often manifest symptomatically as occurs in the general population. Stones in the conduit can have a variable clinical presentation. Asymptomatic presentation is also noted in a few cases. We report a case of a large silent bifid ureteric calculus within an ileal conduit in a woman who had undergone urinary diversion 32 years earlier. Plain X-ray of the abdomen is the only investigation necessary to rule out urinary lithiasis in those who have had urinary diversion for a long time. This simple tool can diagnose the condition well in advance and aid in planning the management of this condition.

  14. Transcatheter Pulmonary Valve Replacement for Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Conduit Dysfunction After the Ross Procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillespie, Matthew J; McElhinney, Doff B; Kreutzer, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) conduit dysfunction is a limitation of the Ross procedure. Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (TPVR) could alter the impact of conduit dysfunction and the risk-benefit balance for the Ross procedure. METHODS: Retrospective review of databa...... early outcomes and durable valve function in the majority of Ross patients. Recurrent RVOT obstruction associated with stent fracture was the main reason for reintervention. Coronary compression is not uncommon in Ross patients and should be assessed prior to TPVR....... of databases from 3 prospective Melody TPV (Medtronic Inc, Minneapolis, MN) trials. RESULTS: Among 358 patients who were catheterized with the intent to implant a Melody TPV for RVOT conduit stenosis or regurgitation (PR) as part of 3 prospective multicenter studies, 67 (19%) had a prior Ross procedure....... Of these, 56 (84%) received a Melody valve; in 5 of the 11 patients who did not, the implant was aborted due to concern for coronary artery compression, and 1 implanted patient required emergent surgery for left coronary compression. The RVOT gradient decreased from a median 38 mm Hg to 13.5 mm Hg (p

  15. European top managers' support for work-life arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, W.M.

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, work-life arrangements increasingly became an integral part of the organization of work. Arrangements such as telecommuting, flextime, part-time hours, and various types of leave arrangements are available to employees in many organizations. Top managers, such as CEOs, CFOs and me

  16. 5 CFR 2634.306 - Agreements and arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... arrangement of the filer in existence at any time during the reporting period with respect to: (a) Future... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agreements and arrangements. 2634.306....306 Agreements and arrangements. Each financial disclosure report filed pursuant to this subpart...

  17. 48 CFR 252.239-7008 - Reuse arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reuse arrangements. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.239-7008 Reuse arrangements. As prescribed in 239.7411(a), use the following clause: Reuse Arrangements (DEC 1991) (a) When feasible, the Contractor shall reuse canceled...

  18. Introduction aux finances et à la fiscalité de Philippe le Bon dans les années 1420

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takemi Kanao

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Mes études sur la cour de Bourgogne, notamment sur les messagers et l’organisation des messageries 1, m’ont conduit à m’intéresser, plus récemment, au fonctionnement des finances et de la fiscalité ducale.  Entre avril 2003 et mars 2004, lors d’un séjour à Dijon, j’ai pu consulter les archives bourguignonnes et donner suite à mes recherches, dont on trouvera ici le compte-rendu, avec les perspectives générales de l'enquête.Pourquoi la Bourgogne et les années 1420 ?Dès les origines, Philippe l...

  19. Stochastic analysis for finance with simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Choe, Geon Ho

    2016-01-01

    This book is an introduction to stochastic analysis and quantitative finance; it includes both theoretical and computational methods. Topics covered are stochastic calculus, option pricing, optimal portfolio investment, and interest rate models. Also included are simulations of stochastic phenomena, numerical solutions of the Black–Scholes–Merton equation, Monte Carlo methods, and time series. Basic measure theory is used as a tool to describe probabilistic phenomena. The level of familiarity with computer programming is kept to a minimum. To make the book accessible to a wider audience, some background mathematical facts are included in the first part of the book and also in the appendices. This work attempts to bridge the gap between mathematics and finance by using diagrams, graphs and simulations in addition to rigorous theoretical exposition. Simulations are not only used as the computational method in quantitative finance, but they can also facilitate an intuitive and deeper understanding of theoret...

  20. Merging Educational Finance Reform and Desegregation Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah M. Kazal-Thresher

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Educational finance reforms and desegregation have both sought to address inequities in educational opportunities for minorities and low income families. The recent methods of addressing desegregation issues have tended to focus on attaining racial balance rather than educational quality, however. This paper explores how desegregation goals can be merged with educational finance reform to more systematically address educational quality in schools serving low income and minority populations. By moving toward centralized control over school financing, the inequity of school outcomes that are based on unequal school resources can be reduced. In addition, state determined expenditures when combined with desegregation monies, would meet the original intention of desegregation funds by clearly providing add-on monies for additional services for minority children, while at the same time, creating a better monitoring mechanism.

  1. Neural Stem Cell Affinity of Chitosan and Feasibility of Chitosan-Based Porous Conduits as Scaffolds for Nerve Tissue Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Aijun; AO Qiang; HE Qing; GONG Xiaoming; GONG Kai; GONG Yandao; ZHAO Nanming; ZHANG Xiufang

    2006-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are currently considered as powerful candidate seeding cells for regeneration of both spinal cords and peripheral nerves. In this study, NSCs derived from fetal rat cortices were co-cultured with chitosan to evaluate the cell affinity of this material. The results showed that NSCs grew and proliferated well on chitosan films and most of them differentiated into neuron-like cells after 4 days of culture. Then, molded and braided chitosan conduits were fabricated and characterized for their cytotoxicity, swelling, and mechanical properties. Both types of conduits had no cytotoxic effects on fibroblasts (L929 cells) or neuroblastoma (Neuro-2a) cells. The molded conduits are much softer and more flexible while the braided conduits possess much better mechanical properties, which suggests different potential applications.

  2. Conceptual Framework and Recent Trends in Project Financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sunil Kumar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Project financing is a non-recourse financing which provides leverage, contractual structure, creates a special purpose vehicle and considers the revenue generated by the project not the general assets of the business at the time of financing. Project financingtechnique is prominently used for mines, toll road, pipeline, power station, hospital and other infrastructure projects. Past studies show that the Public-Private-Partnership, Take-out Finance, BondFinance, Securitisation, Viability Gap Funding, and Infrastructure SPV are the prominent project finance structures being used now a day. The foremost advantage of project financing is that it is a nonrecourse financing which results in high leverage for the firms. It also helps in distributing the risk and provides efficient returns in comparison to conventional financing techniques. The shortcoming of project financing is that it is a time consumingprocess which is relatively expensive. Also, the transactions of project financing are very complex in comparison to traditional corporate financing. With the impact of privatization, deregulation and spread of globalisation project finance has emerged as a keyfinancing technique throughout the world. A year wise analysis of the project finance investment shows that in the year 2004 project finance investment rose by 466.59% over 1994. Region-wise analysis ofproject financing in the world shows that Western Europe and North America contributed nearly 53% of the total investments in the year 2000 but it was reduced to 36% only by the year 2004. Sector-wiseanalysis shows that Power sector accounted for maximum project finance followed by Infrastructure, Oil & Gas, Petrochemicals and Telecom etc. The study further reveals that project finance is catching up steadily in India because of emphasis given toinfrastructure given to infrastructure by the government. At present nearly 300 PPP projects are going on in the country.

  3. Factored Facade Acquisition using Symmetric Line Arrangements

    KAUST Repository

    Ceylan, Duygu

    2012-05-01

    We introduce a novel framework for image-based 3D reconstruction of urban buildings based on symmetry priors. Starting from image-level edges, we generate a sparse and approximate set of consistent 3D lines. These lines are then used to simultaneously detect symmetric line arrangements while refining the estimated 3D model. Operating both on 2D image data and intermediate 3D feature representations, we perform iterative feature consolidation and effective outlier pruning, thus eliminating reconstruction artifacts arising from ambiguous or wrong stereo matches. We exploit non-local coherence of symmetric elements to generate precise model reconstructions, even in the presence of a significant amount of outlier image-edges arising from reflections, shadows, outlier objects, etc. We evaluate our algorithm on several challenging test scenarios, both synthetic and real. Beyond reconstruction, the extracted symmetry patterns are useful towards interactive and intuitive model manipulations.

  4. Tendons Arrangement Effects on Reinforced Concrete Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad B. Bahnam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available  The tendons arrangement effects on the response of reinforced concrete frame experiencing blast loads is investigated in this paper. The structure is modeled using nonlinear finite elements employing a bilinear hysteretic model. So that elements are used so that yielding of the structures could be accurately modeled and captured. The frame is analyzed using a non-linear, elastic-plastic finite element program written in code MATLAB. Six tendon architectures were investigated. A single tendon was placed between different floors and its effects investigated. From the obtained results, the ideal case which causes a reduction in the maximum displacement and the amount of permanent deflection without increase in the maximum structural shear forces greatly is obtained.

  5. Arrangement Computation for Planar Algebraic Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Berberich, Eric; Kobel, Alexander; Sagraloff, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We present a new certified and complete algorithm to compute arrangements of real planar algebraic curves. Our algorithm provides a geometric-topological analysis of the decomposition of the plane induced by a finite number of algebraic curves in terms of a cylindrical algebraic decomposition of the plane. Compared to previous approaches, we improve in two main aspects: Firstly, we significantly reduce the amount of exact operations, that is, our algorithms only uses resultant and gcd as purely symbolic operations. Secondly, we introduce a new hybrid method in the lifting step of our algorithm which combines the usage of a certified numerical complex root solver and information derived from the resultant computation. Additionally, we never consider any coordinate transformation and the output is also given with respect to the initial coordinate system. We implemented our algorithm as a prototypical package of the C++-library CGAL. Our implementation exploits graphics hardware to expedite the resultant and gcd...

  6. Financing renewable energy: Obstacles and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.H.

    1994-06-01

    The majority of renewable energy technology projects now being developed use long term project financing to raise capital. The financial community scrutinizes renewables more closely than some conventionally fueled electric generation facilities because it perceives renewables as risky and expensive. Renewables pay for this perceived risk through higher interest charges and other more restrictive loan covenants. Risks that are not eliminated in the power sales agreement or through some other means generally result in higher project costs during financing. In part, this situation is a product of the private placement market and project finance process in which renewable energy facilities must function. The project finance process attracts banks and institutional lenders as well as equity investors (often pension funds) who do not want to place their capital at great risk. Energy project finance exists on the basis of a secure revenue stream and a thorough understanding of electric generation technology. Renewables, like all energy projects, operating in uncertain regulatory environments are often difficult to finance. In the uncertain regulatory environment in which renewables now operate, investors and lenders are nervous about challenges to existing contracts between independent power producers and utilities. Challenges to existing contracts could foretell challenges to contracts in the future. Investors and lenders now look to state regulatory environments as an indicator of project risk. Renewable energy technology evolves quickly. Yet, often the information about technological evolution is not available to those who invest in the energy projects. Or, those who have invested in new renewable energy technology in the past have lost money and are nervous about doing so in the future - even though technology may have improved. Inadequate or unfavorable information is a barrier to the development of renewables.

  7. Enhanced noradrenergic axon regeneration into schwann cell-filled PVDF-TrFE conduits after complete spinal cord transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee-Shuan; Wu, Siliang; Arinzeh, Treena Livingston; Bunge, Mary Bartlett

    2017-02-01

    Schwann cell (SC) transplantation has been utilized for spinal cord repair and demonstrated to be a promising therapeutic strategy. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of combining SC transplantation with novel conduits to bridge the completely transected adult rat spinal cord. This is the first and initial study to evaluate the potential of using a fibrous piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) conduit with SCs for spinal cord repair. PVDF-TrFE has been shown to enhance neurite growth in vitro and peripheral nerve repair in vivo. In this study, SCs adhered and proliferated when seeded onto PVDF-TrFE scaffolds in vitro. SCs and PVDF-TrFE conduits, consisting of random or aligned fibrous inner walls, were transplanted into transected rat spinal cords for 3 weeks to examine early repair. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)(+) astrocyte processes and GFP (green fluorescent protein)-SCs were interdigitated at both rostral and caudal spinal cord/SC transplant interfaces in both types of conduits, indicative of permissivity to axon growth. More noradrenergic/DβH(+) (dopamine-beta-hydroxylase) brainstem axons regenerated across the transplant when greater numbers of GFAP(+) astrocyte processes were present. Aligned conduits promoted extension of DβH(+) axons and GFAP(+) processes farther into the transplant than random conduits. Sensory CGRP(+) (calcitonin gene-related peptide) axons were present at the caudal interface. Blood vessels formed throughout the transplant in both conduits. This study demonstrates that PVDF-TrFE conduits harboring SCs are promising for spinal cord repair and deserve further investigation. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 444-456. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Conduit margin heating and deformation during the AD 1886 basaltic Plinian eruption at Tarawera volcano, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauroth, Jenny; Wadsworth, Fabian B; Kennedy, Ben; von Aulock, Felix W; Lavallée, Yan; Damby, David E; Vasseur, Jérémie; Scheu, Bettina; Dingwell, Donald B

    During explosive eruptions, a suspension of gas and pyroclasts rises rapidly within a conduit. Here, we have analysed textures preserved in the walls of a pyroclastic feeder dyke of the AD 1886 Tarawera basaltic Plinian fissure eruption. The samples examined consist of basaltic ash and scoria plastered onto a conduit wall of a coherent rhyolite dome and a welded rhyolitic dome breccia. We examine the textural evidence for the response of the wall material, built of ∼75 vol.% glass and ∼25 vol.% crystals (pore-free equivalent), to mass movement in the adjacent conduit. In the rhyolitic wall material, we quantify the orientation and aspect ratio of biotite crystals as strain markers of simple shear deformation, and interpret juxtaposed regions of vesiculation and vesicle collapse as evidence of conduit wall heating. Systematic changes occur close to the margin: (1) porosity is highly variable, with areas locally vesiculated or densified, (2) biotite crystals are oriented with their long axis parallel to the margin, (3) the biotites have greater aspect ratios close to the margin and (4) the biotite crystals are fractured. We interpret the biotite phenocryst deformation to result from crystal fracture, rotation and cleavage-parallel bookcase translation. These textural observations are inferred to indicate mechanical coupling between the hot gas-ash jet and the conduit wall and reheating of wall rock rhyolite. We couple these observations with a simple 1D conductive heating model to show what minimum temperature the conduit wall needs to reach in order to achieve a temperature above the glass transition throughout the texturally-defined deformed zone. We propose that conduit wall heating and resulting deformation influences conduit margin outgassing and may enhance the intensity of such large basaltic eruptions.

  9. Sciatic nerve regeneration in rats by a promising electrospun collagen/poly(ε-caprolactone nerve conduit with tailored degradation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xinquan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To cope with the limitations faced by autograft acquisitions particularly for multiple nerve injuries, artificial nerve conduit has been introduced by researchers as a substitute for autologous nerve graft for the easy specification and availability for mass production. In order to best mimic the structures and components of autologous nerve, great efforts have been made to improve the designation of nerve conduits either from materials or fabrication techniques. Electrospinning is an easy and versatile technique that has recently been used to fabricate fibrous tissue-engineered scaffolds which have great similarity to the extracellular matrix on fiber structure. Results In this study we fabricated a collagen/poly(ε-caprolactone (collagen/PCL fibrous scaffold by electrospinning and explored its application as nerve guide substrate or conduit in vitro and in vivo. Material characterizations showed this electrospun composite material which was made of submicron fibers possessed good hydrophilicity and flexibility. In vitro study indicated electrospun collagen/PCL fibrous meshes promoted Schwann cell adhesion, elongation and proliferation. In vivo test showed electrospun collagen/PCL porous nerve conduits successfully supported nerve regeneration through an 8 mm sciatic nerve gap in adult rats, achieving similar electrophysiological and muscle reinnervation results as autografts. Although regenerated nerve fibers were still in a pre-mature stage 4 months postoperatively, the implanted collagen/PCL nerve conduits facilitated more axons regenerating through the conduit lumen and gradually degraded which well matched the nerve regeneration rate. Conclusions All the results demonstrated this collagen/PCL nerve conduit with tailored degradation rate fabricated by electrospinning could be an efficient alternative to autograft for peripheral nerve regeneration research. Due to its advantage of high surface area for cell attachment, it

  10. New Financing Schemes of Public Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio de la Riva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Public works procurements and concessions are traditional legal techniques used to shape the financing of public infrastructure. Fiscal constraints faced by public administrations at the end of the 20th century, and the subsequent increase of private participation in the provision of public goods and services, encouraged the development of new legal schemes allowing a higher degree of private investment in public infrastructure; such as Public Private Partnerships, project finance, securitizations, the shadow toll, turn-key agreements, public leasing and public trusts.

  11. Stopping Illicit Procurement: Lessons from Global Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, Gretchen; Kurzrok, Andrew J.

    2014-06-19

    Government regulators and the financial sector cooperate to combat money laundering and terrorist financing. This information-sharing relationship is built upon a strong legislative foundation and effective operational procedures. As with money-laundering and terrorist financing, halting the illicit procurement of dual-use commodities requires close coordination between government and industry. However, many of the legal and operational features present in financial threat cooperation do not exist in the export control realm. This article analyzes the applicability of financial industry cooperative measures to nonproliferation.

  12. Essays in Finance and Environmental Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is comprised of three chapters, each of which contributes to the field of behavioral finance. Two of the chapters focus on topics in environmental economics and the third on U.S. household finance. All of the papers analyze the incentives and behavior of individuals (or firms in the case of the first chapter) to provide insight into macro phenomena."The Effects of Carbon Markets on Equity Prices and Volatility" uses a firm-level dataset of carbon assets and liabilities betwe...

  13. FINANCING MODE FOR SUSTAINABLE FARMLAND CONSOLIDATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Hai-jun; XU Bao-gen; WU Ci-fang; ZHOU Wang-yue

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable farmland consolidation covers ecology, economy and society, which means, its only goal is to protect eco-environment, in accordance with public benefits and economic laws. China is still a developing country, facing capital-lacking, an important but difficult problem, while sustainable farmland consolidation will need more money than common farmland consolidation. To solve the problem, this paper put forward and designed a new financing mode for farmland consolidation: BOT(Build-Operate-Transfer), which can effectively solve the financing problem and investment reclamation by the way of concession, and make sustainable farmland consolidation be realized in China.

  14. La finance islamique: fondements, theorie et realite.

    OpenAIRE

    MARTENS, André

    2001-01-01

    L’Islam interdit le riba , mot arabe signifiant à la fois usure et intérêt. L’interdiction du rib figure dans la loi islamique, née dans l’Arabie du Moyen Âge. Elle est à la base de la finance islamique qui connut une expansion remarquable durant la deuxième moitié du XX e siècle. Nous nous interrogeons sur les origines de cette interdiction, sur les problèmes que connaît actuellement la finance islamique et sur ses perspectives d’avenir.

  15. SMES' FINANCING, Hard Nut to Be Cracked?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rose Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are a crucial driving force for innovation,employment and development and the engines of growth in an economy. But as the sector is characterized by information asymmetries and high processing costs, banks are reluctant to lend to SMEs, which have long faced difficulties in financing. Amid capital depletion, risk aversion and credit contraction in the current global economic crisis, the issue of financing for SMEs isa pressing issue for all nations, which isnot exceptional to China.

  16. An introduction to the mathematics of finance

    CERN Document Server

    Pollard, A H

    1968-01-01

    An Introduction to the Mathematics of Finance provides a simple, nonmathematical introduction to the mathematics of finance. Topics discussed in this book include simple interest; compound interest-annual compounding; annuities-certain; use of compound interest; and sinking funds. The equations of value; compounding more frequently than annually; and contracts at """"flat"""" rates of interest are also deliberated. This text likewise elaborates on the loans repayable by equal annual installments when interest is charged only on the amount of principal from time to time outstanding. Exercis

  17. Community Wind: Once Again Pushing the Envelope of Project Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    bolinger, Mark A.

    2011-01-18

    In the United States, the 'community wind' sector - loosely defined here as consisting of relatively small utility-scale wind power projects that sell power on the wholesale market and that are developed and owned primarily by local investors - has historically served as a 'test bed' or 'proving grounds' for up-and-coming wind turbine manufacturers that are trying to break into the U.S. wind power market. For example, community wind projects - and primarily those located in the state of Minnesota - have deployed the first U.S. installations of wind turbines from Suzlon (in 2003), DeWind (2008), Americas Wind Energy (2008) and later Emergya Wind Technologies (2010), Goldwind (2009), AAER/Pioneer (2009), Nordic Windpower (2010), Unison (2010), and Alstom (2011). Thus far, one of these turbine manufacturers - Suzlon - has subsequently achieved some success in the broader U.S. wind market as well. Just as it has provided a proving grounds for new turbines, so too has the community wind sector served as a laboratory for experimentation with innovative new financing structures. For example, a variation of one of the most common financing arrangements in the U.S. wind market today - the special allocation partnership flip structure (see Figure 1 in Section 2.1) - was first developed by community wind projects in Minnesota more than a decade ago (and is therefore sometimes referred to as the 'Minnesota flip' model) before being adopted by the broader wind market. More recently, a handful of community wind projects built over the past year have been financed via new and creative structures that push the envelope of wind project finance in the U.S. - in many cases, moving beyond the now-standard partnership flip structures involving strategic tax equity investors. These include: (1) a 4.5 MW project in Maine that combines low-cost government debt with local tax equity, (2) a 25.3 MW project in Minnesota using a sale/leaseback structure

  18. Project finance of hydroelectric power plants in Brazil; 'Project finance' de usinas hidroeletricas no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro Filho, Valfredo de Assis; Ramos, Maria Olivia de Souza [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the modality of project finance of financing of enterprises, which is the main modality of structuring of hydroelectric projects in Brazil. In the discussion will be highlighted the importance of contracts EPC (Engineering, Search and Construction) in the structuring of project finances. This financing model has particular characteristics related to risk sharing and financial flexibility that enable the financing of projects with long-term capital, however, due to participation of various actors and the nature of the structure of project finance, the negotiation and drafting of contracts are always very complex.

  19. Essays in banking and international finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schäfer, Larissa

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters, two in banking and one in international finance. The first two chapters examine how bank business models and foreign ownership structures affect bank-firm lending relationships. In particular, the first chapter reveals that foreign banks can overcome their inf

  20. The Lingo of Library Finance: A Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Ann E.

    1977-01-01

    Basic terms used in the various aspects of library finance are briefly explained in a review of the funding sources of the different types of libraries. There is no attempt to go into the forms and purposes of various accounting methods or to delve into the terminology of accounting. (JPF)

  1. Interaction between Dynamic Financing and Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dockner, Engelbert J.; Mæland, Jøril; Miltersen, Kristian R.

    Debt priority rules, i.e., the rules determining how different classes of debt split the firm's assets after bankruptcy, influence the firm's investment decisions. Existing debt benefits from an investment either because the investment is equity financed or because new debt issued to (partly) fin...

  2. Mutual Guarantee Institutions and Small Business Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Columba, F.; Gambacorta, L.; Mistrulli, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    A large literature showed that small firms experience difficulties in accessing the credit market due to informational asymmetries; these may be mitigated by collateral or relationship lending, possibilities often precluded to small business. We investigate the effect on small business finance of an

  3. Community Crowd-Funded Solar Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagerson, Gordon " Ty" [Village Power Finance, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2016-07-08

    The award supported the demonstration and development of the Village Power Platform, which enables community organizations to more readily develop, finance and operate solar installations on local community organizations. The platform enables partial or complete local ownership of the solar installation. The award specifically supported key features including financial modeling tools, community communications tools, crowdfunding mechanisms, a mobile app, and other critical features.

  4. Welfare financing : Grant allocation and efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toolsema-Veldman, Linda; Allers, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Welfare is often administered locally, but financed through grants from the central government. This raises the question how the central government can prevent local governments from spending more than necessary. Block grants are more efficient than matching grants, because the latter reduce the loc

  5. Welfare Financing : Grant Allocation and Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toolsema, L.A.; Allers, Maarten A.

    2014-01-01

    Welfare is often administered locally, but financed through grants from the central government. This raises the question how the central government can prevent local governments from spending more than necessary. We analyze block grants used in The Netherlands, which depend on exogenous spending nee

  6. The Financing of Innovation : Learning and Stopping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergemann, D.; Hege, U.

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers the financing of a research project under uncertainty about the time of completion and the probability of eventual success.The uncertainty about future success gradually diminishes with the arrival of additional funding.The entrepreneur controls the funds and can divert them.We

  7. Rethinking Conventional Wisdom about Higher Ed Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dennis P.; Wellman, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Clearly, changing postsecondary finance without a lot of new money to grease the skids will be difficult. The status quo is always easier than change, particularly change that will be objectionable to those who benefited most in the previous system. But political objections aren't the only barrier to changing funding in higher education; a…

  8. Campaign Finance in Presidential and Congressional Elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Candice J.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the changes occurring in the U.S. presidential and congressional finance system from the 1970s to the present and the problems and proposed reforms of the current system. Concludes that escalating costs and special interest influence in congressional elections must be controlled. Lists suggested paper topics and readings. (GEA)

  9. Competition with evolution in ecology and finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprott, J.C

    2004-05-24

    A variant of the multi-species Lotka-Volterra model is studied in which species competing for fixed finite resources are replaced by new randomly chosen species whenever they become extinct. The model exhibits chaos, punctuated equilibria, leptokurtosis, and self-organized criticality. It has application to ecology, finance, and possibly other diverse systems.

  10. Essays in development economics and public finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoseini, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation studies a range of topics in development economics and public finance. The first two chapters contain empirical studies on India addressing the impact of financial development on poverty and informality. Using time and state-level variation across Indian states, the first study exa

  11. Complex evolutionary systems in behavioral finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Wagener, F.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional finance is built on the rationality paradigm. This chapter discusses simple models from an alternative approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex evolutionary systems. Agents are boundedly rational and base their investment decisions upon market forecasting heuristics. Pri

  12. Feedback options in nonlinear numerical finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hugger, Jens; Mashayekhi, Sima

    2012-01-01

    Feedback options are options where information about the trading of the underlying asset is fed back into the pricing model. This results in nonlinear pricing models. A survey of the literature about feedback options in finance is presented. The pricing model for the full feedback option...

  13. A New Key Unlocks Dormitory Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransdell, Gary A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how one university creatively financed its dormitory renovation without imposing undue hardships on students (and with approval from of the university's governing board and elected state leaders). Planners developed a nonprofit foundation to fund the recapitalization and renovation of the dormitories. The foundation owned the…

  14. Financing strategies for nuclear power decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-07-01

    The report analyzes several alternatives for financing the decommissioning of nuclear power plants from the point of view of assurance, cost, equity, and other criteria. Sensitivity analyses are performed on several important variables and possible impacts on representative companies' rates are discussed and illustrated.

  15. Students Perspectives toward Key Personal Finance Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Donald; Hite, Nancy Groneman; Slocombe, Tom; Railsback, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In the current economic climate, young people's attitudes and habits related to money management seem to be of great interest. The primary purpose of this study is to advance the knowledge base in the area of personal finance education. Methodology: This survey was administered by English teachers to a convenience sample population of 326…

  16. Educational Finance (Primary-Secondary Levels) Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulac, Claude

    This lengthy bibliography in English, French, and German lists documents and journal articles concerning educational finance. Most items were published in Canada and the United States, but listings are also included from France, Germany, Switzerland, and Ceylon. A few items include an ERIC accession number. The bibliography is not annotated and is…

  17. On Extreme Events in Banking and Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R.C. Oordt (Maarten)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractUncertainty and new developments spread at an astonishing speed across the globe in financial markets. The recent extreme events in banking and finance triggered many new questions among academics, policy makers and the general public. Is global diversification at financial institutions

  18. The Role of Banks in SME Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Norden (Lars)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Banks play a crucial role for the financing of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). SMEs represent a large fraction of all firms in many economies and contribute significantly to employment and growth. But, SMEs are more informationally opaque, more risky, more fi

  19. Management Mechanisms and Financing of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Hans-Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    Highlights the manner in which different models for financing higher education can contribute to the management of higher education in Germany. Includes discussions of the management of student distribution within a given university and the development of systems for performance analysis. (SLD)

  20. State Higher Education Finance FY 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Higher Education Executive Officers, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Financing higher education requires political leaders, policymakers, and educators to address broad public policy questions, including ascertaining: the levels of state funding to colleges and universities that are necessary to maintain the economic and social well-being of the American people; the tuition levels that are appropriate given the…

  1. Financing Higher Education: Lessons from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengliang, Li

    2012-01-01

    In China, debates about higher education finance led to the introduction of a cost-sharing model, whereby students were required to pay tuition fees, over a decade ago. However, there is still significant resistance towards such a system within the broader society. In order to share insights into the development of the cost-sharing policy in China…

  2. School Finance in a Transformed Education System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipho, Chris

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of the impact of systemic educational change on the school funding mechanism addresses the forces driving school finance and examines new outcome-driven funding models. The implications of decentralization of school districts are considered; and advantages, disadvantages, and implementation of voucher and incentive models are presented.…

  3. The Financing of Spanish Public Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Jose-Gines; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A discussion of new financing models for Spain's public universities first looks at recent institutional changes; the evolution of the university system over the last decade in terms of student, financial, and human resources; its situation within the international context; student demand; graduate output; and labor market demand for graduates.…

  4. Ethics Management in Banking and Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Boudewijn; Morris, Nicholas; Vines, David

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses how the values which individuals hold will help to frame choices and so influence the choices that are made. If ethical issues in finance have limited ‘moral intensity’ in comparison to other industries, banks will more often than in other industries fail to recognise an ethic

  5. Finance and supply management project execution plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENNION, S.I.

    1999-02-10

    As a subproject of the HANDI 2000 project, the Finance and Supply Management system is intended to serve FDH and Project Hanford major subcontractor with financial processes including general ledger, project costing, budgeting, and accounts payable, and supply management process including purchasing, inventory and contracts management. Currently these functions are performed with numerous legacy information systems and suboptimized processes.

  6. Measuring the Equity of School Finance Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garms, Walter I.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a new method of measuring the adequacy and equity of school finance systems using the multiple regression technique. It enables the separation of provisions for differences in district wealth from differences in tax rate, and of both of these from the differences in provision for needs and costs. (Author/IRT)

  7. School Financing: Movement Toward Equality of Expenditures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Josephine

    In this paper, the political and economic forces influencing attempts to reduce the inequalities in education expenditures are examined. Current programs for financing public education (local, State, and Federal) are compared. In general, State-local tax systems are found to be regressive and improvements are suggested. Inequitability of State aid…

  8. Optimization of finances into regional energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Yuryevich Domnikov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of modern Russian energy collides with the need for major investments in the modernization and renewal of generation and transmission capacity. In terms of attracting sufficient financial resources and find ways to increase, energy sector profitability and investment attractiveness of particular importance is the problem of investment financing optimizing aimed at minimizing the cost of financing while maintaining financial stability of the power companies and the goals and objectives of Russian energy system long-term development. The article discusses the problem of investment projects financing in power generation from the point of view of the need to achieve optimal investment budget. Presents the author’s approach to the investment financing optimization of power generation company that will achieve the minimum cost of resources involved, taking into account the impact of the funding structure for the power generating company financial sustainability. The developed model is applied to the problem of investment budget optimizing, for example, regional power generating company. The results can improve the efficiency of investment in energy, sustainable and competitive development of regional energy systems.

  9. Role of Appraisals in Energy Efficiency Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, V.; Bhargava, A.

    2012-05-01

    This research identifies barriers and challenges and current industry status including several key appraisal industry developments for identifying and valuing energy efficiency, critical obstacles to documenting and assessing the potential added value from energy efficiency improvements, current opportunities to support and standardize reporting on energy efficiency and to ensure proper valuation, and next steps towards enabling energy efficiency financing market transformation.

  10. Personal Finance Education in Recessionary Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hite, Nancy Groneman; Slocombe, Thomas Edwin; Railsback, Barbara; Miller, Donald

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the status of personal financial education in light of the recent economic crisis from the perspective of secondary school business teachers. Results showed that in the state of Kansas, 20% of the schools required a personal finance course prior to high school graduation, with 12% considering such a requirement. The recession…

  11. State Education Finance and Governance Profile: Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Naveed A.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents Louisiana's education finance and governance profile. Louisiana witnessed a 3.9% decline in population during the period from 2000 to 2007. Poverty persists both in urban and rural areas of the state, as demonstrated by visible poverty both in the agricultural parishes and in major cities such as New Orleans and Shreveport…

  12. Poverty & health: criticality of public financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Ravi

    2007-10-01

    Countries with universal or near universal access to healthcare have health financing mechanisms which are single-payer systems in which either a single autonomous public agency or a few coordinated agencies pool resources to finance healthcare. This contributes to both equity in healthcare as well as to low levels of poverty in these countries. It is only in countries like India and a number of developing countries, which still rely mostly on out-of-pocket payments, where universal access to healthcare is elusive. In such countries those who have the capacity to buy healthcare from the market most often get healthcare without having to pay for it directly because they are either covered by social insurance or buy private insurance. In contrast, a large majority of the population, who suffers a hand-to-mouth existence, is forced to make direct payments, often with a heavy burden of debt, to access healthcare from the market because public provision is grossly inadequate or non existent. Thus, the absence of adequate public health investment not only results in poor health outcomes but it also leads to escalation of poverty. This article critically reviews the linkages of poverty with healthcare financing using evidence from national surveys and concludes that public financing is critical to good access to healthcare for the poor and its inadequacy is closely associated with poverty levels in the country.

  13. Access to Finance and Corporate Social Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rusinova, Vanya; Wernicke, Georg

    We provide causal evidence that investments into Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) are affected by firms’ prior financial performance. More precisely we argue and test for a causal link between changes in firms’ cost of internal financing and CSR. To establish causality, we make use...

  14. Investment Lending as a Method Of Investment Projects Financing

    OpenAIRE

    Svitlana Urvantseva

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the genesis consideration of "investment loan" definition. The author provides comparative characteristics of the main forms of investment projects financing involving credit institution. A generalized definition of the project financing and investment lending essence are suggested.

  15. Patterns of financing for the largest hospital systems in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleverley, William O; Baserman, Sarah Jane

    2005-01-01

    The ten large systems reviewed in this column have greater degrees of financial leverage than do most freestanding hospitals. Larger firms typically have both greater capital access and lower costs of financing. Both voluntary and IO systems make extensive use of variable rate financing, but the percentage of variable rate financing is slightly higher for voluntary systems. This difference may be attributable to larger yield curve spreads for tax-exempt versus taxable securities. Interest rate swaps were used by 70 percent of the systems, but the actual amount swapped was relatively minor. This may change in the future as financial officers become more comfortable and familiar with interest rate swap arrangements. When compared to IO systems, voluntary systems have extensive levels of cash relative to their debt positions. Cash balances are more critical in the bond-rating process for voluntary hospitals, and the ability to raise new equity is much more limited in the voluntary sector. Very little capital leasing was used in any of the systems.

  16. Financing the End-to-end Supply Chain: A Reference Guide to Supply Chain Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Templar, Simon; Hofmann, Erik; Findlay, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Financing the End to End Supply Chain provides readers with a real insight into the increasingly important area of supply chain finance. It demonstrates the importance of the strategic relationship between the physical supply of goods and services and the associated financial flows. The book provides a clear introduction, demonstrating the importance of the strategic relationship between supply chain and financial communities within an organization. It contains vital information on how supply...

  17. Public Finance in China since the Late Qing Dynasty

    OpenAIRE

    Krug, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    textabstractHow is "public finance" organized in China? Is China’s public finance system different from that of other countries? Can we detect features which link today’s system to the past? Public finance refers to more than annual state budgets and constitutional procedures. It includes foreign debt, state monopolies or monetary policies, all of which played a crucial role in China’s public finance during the last hundred years. A purely legislative definition obscures the fact that changes...

  18. Residential Solar Photovoltaics: Comparison of Financing Benefits, Innovations, and Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speer, B.

    2012-10-01

    This report examines relatively new, innovative financing methods for residential photovoltaics (PV) and compares them to traditional self-financing. It provides policymakers with an overview of the residential PV financing mechanisms, describes relative advantages and challenges, and analyzes differences between them where data is available. Because these innovative financing mechanisms have only been implemented in a few locations, this report can inform their wider adoption.

  19. Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Deployment by Federal Government Agencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cory, K.; Coggeshall, C.; Coughlin, J.; Kreycik, C.

    2009-07-01

    The goal of this report is to examine how federal agencies can finance on-site PV projects. It explains state-level cash incentives available, the importance of solar renewable energy certificate revenues (in certain markets), existing financing structures, as well as innovative financing structures being used by federal agencies to deploy on-site PV. Specific examples from the DOD, DOE, and other federal agencies are highlighted to explain federal project financing in detail.

  20. Energy and low carbon development efforts in Ghana: institutional arrangements, initiatives, challenges and the way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Kofi Ackom

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, Ghana has invested considerable effort and resources together with international partners to develop the energy sector and to mainstream energy low carbon pathways into national development plans. Low carbon development (LCD provides a good opportunity, of not only building upon earlier energy and climate change local processes and structures but also help to mainstream low carbon agenda in economic activities and national development plans. For this to work however, require efficient institutions and effective institutional arrangements. Based on extensive literature analysis, personal communications and inputs from stakeholders, the paper highlights the key institutional arrangements, their interactions, challenges and proffers recommendations for improvements. To improve energy and low carbon development effort from the perspectives of institutional structures, would require, clearer institutional mandates, continuous improvements in institutional coordination (intra and inter, capacity and skills development, sustained visibility of the essence of energy and LCD at high political levels as well as engagement by civil societies. Equally important are the issues of finance, data availability and quality, monitoring and evaluation.

  1. Financing Sustainable Small-Scale Forestry: Lessons from Developing National Forest Financing Strategies in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Savenije

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems that hamper the financing of sustainable forest management (SFM are manifold and complex. However, forestry is also facing unprecedented opportunities. The multiple functions and values of forests are increasingly recognized as part of the solution to pressing global issues (e.g., climate change, energy scarcity, poverty, environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and raw material supply. Emerging initiatives to enhance forest carbon stocks and cut greenhouse gas emissions associated with forest clearing (known as REDD+, together with voluntary carbon markets, are offering additional funding options for SFM. Indigenous peoples, local communities and small scale farmers feature as key players in the discourse on implementing such initiatives. Based on the experience of countries developing national forest financing strategies and instruments, we suggest the following points be considered when financing such initiatives, particularly for small scale forestry: (1 Integrate financing of REDD+ and similar initiatives within broader national strategies for SFM financing; (2 Design REDD+ finance mechanisms that are ‘community ready’, i.e., tailored to local realities; (3 Consider existing livelihood strategies as the starting point; (4 Build on existing structures, but be mindful of their strengths and weaknesses; (5 Be strategic with your priority actions; and (6 Promote innovation, knowledge sharing and information exchange.

  2. Confort 15 model of conduit dynamics: applications to Pantelleria Green Tuff and Etna 122 BC eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnola, S.; Romano, C.; Mastin, L. G.; Vona, A.

    2016-06-01

    Numerical simulations are useful tools to illustrate how flow parameters and physical processes may affect eruption dynamics of volcanoes. In this paper, we present an updated version of the Conflow model, an open-source numerical model for flow in eruptive conduits during steady-state pyroclastic eruptions (Mastin and Ghiorso in A numerical program for steady-state flow of magma-gas mixtures through vertical eruptive conduits. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 00-209, 2000). In the modified version, called Confort 15, the rheological constraints are improved, incorporating the most recent constitutive equations of both the liquid viscosity and crystal-bearing rheology. This allows all natural magma compositions, including the peralkaline melts excluded in the original version, to be investigated. The crystal-bearing rheology is improved by computing the effect of strain rate and crystal shape on the rheology of natural magmatic suspensions and expanding the crystal content range in which rheology can be modeled compared to the original version ( Conflow is applicable to magmatic mixtures with up to 30 vol% crystal content). Moreover, volcanological studies of the juvenile products (crystal and vesicle size distribution) of the investigated eruption are directly incorporated into the modeling procedure. Vesicle number densities derived from textural analyses are used to calculate, through Toramaru equations, maximum decompression rates experienced during ascent. Finally, both degassing under equilibrium and disequilibrium conditions are considered. This allows considerations on the effect of different fragmentation criteria on the conduit flow analyses, the maximum volume fraction criterion ("porosity criterion"), the brittle fragmentation criterion and the overpressure fragmentation criterion. Simulations of the pantelleritic and trachytic phases of the Green Tuff (Pantelleria) and of the Plinian Etna 122 BC eruptions are performed to test the upgrades in

  3. Impact of pacing modality and biventricular pacing on cardiac output and coronary conduit flow in the post-cardiotomy patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Healy, David G

    2012-02-03

    We have previously demonstrated the role of univentricular pacing modalities in influencing coronary conduit flow in the immediate post-operative period in the cardiac surgery patient. We wanted to determine the mechanism of this improved coronary conduit and, in addition, to explore the possible benefits with biventricular pacing. Sixteen patients undergoing first time elective coronary artery bypass grafting who required pacing following surgery were recruited. Comparison of cardiac output and coronary conduit flow was performed between VVI and DDD pacing with a single right ventricular lead and biventricular pacing lead placement. Cardiac output was measured using arterial pulse waveform analysis while conduit flow was measured using ultrasonic transit time methodology. Cardiac output was greatest with DDD pacing using right ventricular lead placement only [DDD-univentricular 5.42 l (0.7), DDD-biventricular 5.33 l (0.8), VVI-univentricular 4.71 l (0.8), VVI-biventricular 4.68 l (0.6)]. DDD-univentricular pacing was significantly better than VVI-univentricular (P=0.023) and VVI-biventricular pacing (P=0.001) but there was no significant advantage to DDD-biventricular pacing (P=0.45). In relation to coronary conduit flow, DDD pacing again had the highest flow [DDD-univentricular 55 ml\\/min (24), DDD-biventricular 52 ml\\/min (25), VVI-univentricular 47 ml\\/min (23), VVI-biventricular 50 ml\\/min (26)]. DDD-univentricular pacing was significantly better than VVI-univentricular (P=0.006) pacing but not significantly different to VVI-biventricular pacing (P=0.109) or DDD-biventricular pacing (P=0.171). Pacing with a DDD modality offers the optimal coronary conduit flow by maximising cardiac output. Biventricular lead placement offered no significant benefit to coronary conduit flow or cardiac output.

  4. Nerve guidance conduit with a hybrid structure of a PLGA microfibrous bundle wrapped in a micro/nanostructured membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shih-Wen; Li, Ching-Wen; Chiu, Ing-Ming; Wang, Gou-Jen

    2017-01-01

    Nerve repair in tissue engineering involves the precise construction of a scaffold to guide nerve cell regeneration in the desired direction. However, improvements are needed to facilitate the cell migration/growth rate of nerves in the center of a nerve conduit. In this paper, we propose a nerve guidance conduit with a hybrid structure comprising a microfibrous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) bundle wrapped in a micro/nanostructured PLGA membrane. We applied sequential fabrication processes, including photolithography, nano-electroforming, and polydimethylsiloxane casting to manufacture master molds for the repeated production of the PLGA subelements. After demolding it from the master molds, we rolled the microfibrous membrane into a bundle and then wrapped it in the micro/nanostructured membrane to form a nerve-guiding conduit. We used KT98/F1B-GFP cells to estimate the migration rate and guidance ability of the fabricated nerve conduit and found that both elements increased the migration rate 1.6-fold compared with a flat PLGA membrane. We also found that 90% of the cells in the hybrid nano/microstructured membrane grew in the direction of the designed patterns. After 3 days of culturing, the interior of the nerve conduit was filled with cells, and the microfiber bundle was also surrounded by cells. Our conduit cell culture results also demonstrate that the proposed micro/nanohybrid and microfibrous structures can retain their shapes. The proposed hybrid-structured conduit demonstrates a high capability for guiding nerve cells and promoting cell migration, and, as such, is feasible for use in clinical applications. PMID:28138239

  5. A Linearized Model for Wave Propagation through Coupled Volcanic Conduit-crack Systems Filled with Multiphase Magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C.; Dunham, E. M.; OReilly, O. J.; Karlstrom, L.

    2015-12-01

    Both the oscillation of magma in volcanic conduits and resonance of fluid-filled cracks (dikes and sills) are appealing explanations for very long period signals recorded at many active volcanoes. While these processes have been studied in isolation, real volcanic systems involve interconnected networks of conduits and cracks. The overall objective of our work is to develop a model of wave propagation and ultimately eruptive fluid dynamics through this coupled system. Here, we present a linearized model for wave propagation through a conduit with multiple cracks branching off of it. The fluid is compressible and viscous, and is comprised of a mixture of liquid melt and gas bubbles. Nonequilibrium bubble growth and resorption (BGR) is quantified by introducing a time scale for mass exchange between phases, following the treatment in Karlstrom and Dunham (2015). We start by deriving the dispersion relation for crack waves travelling along the multiphase-magma-filled crack embedded in an elastic solid. Dissipation arises from magma viscosity, nonequilibrium BGR, and radiation of seismic waves into the solid. We next introduce coupling conditions between the conduit and crack, expressing conservation of mass and the balance of forces across the junction. Waves in the conduit, like those in the crack, are influenced by nonequilibrium BGR, but the deformability of the surrounding solid is far less important than for cracks. Solution of the coupled system of equations provides the evolution of pressure and fluid velocity within the conduit-crack system. The system has various resonant modes that are sensitive to fluid properties and to the geometry of the conduit and cracks. Numerical modeling of seismic waves in the solid allows us to generate synthetic seismograms.

  6. 48 CFR 32.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 32.502-2 Section 32.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... finance office clearance. The contracting officer shall obtain the approval of the contract finance...

  7. 48 CFR 1432.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 1432.502-2 Section 1432.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... finance office clearance. The CO shall obtain approval of the bureau finance office prior to...

  8. State Policy Initiatives for Financing Energy Efficiency in Public Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Business Officer, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Alternative financing methods (other than state financing) for developing cost-effective energy efficiency projects are discussed. It is suggested that by properly financing energy efficiency investments, state campuses can generate immediate positive cash savings. The following eight initiatives for maximizing energy savings potential are…

  9. International efforts to combat the financing of terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Matthews

    2003-01-01

    Following the terrorist attacks in September 2001, there have been a number of developments in measures to combat the financing of terrorism. This article discusses the characteristics of terrorist financing and summarises the international initiatives to counter the financing of terrorist activities, including measures taken by the United Nations, Financial Action Task Force, regional bodies and national authorities, including New Zealand.

  10. Pathways for School Finance in California. Technical Appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Heather; Sonstelie, Jon; Weston, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This is a technical appendix for the report, "Pathways for School Finance in California" (ED515651). "Pathways for School Finance in California" simulates alternatives to California's current school finance system. This appendix provides more information about the revenues used in those simulations. The first section describes the districts and…

  11. The Rationality and Irrationality of Financing Green Start-Ups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Bergset

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Green start-ups contribute towards a transition to a more sustainable economy by developing sustainable and environmentally friendly innovation and bringing it to the market. Due to specific product/service characteristics, entrepreneurial motivation and company strategies that might differ from that of other start-ups, these companies might struggle even more than usual with access to finance in the early stages. This conceptual paper seeks to explain these challenges through the theoretical lenses of entrepreneurial finance and behavioural finance. While entrepreneurial finance theory contributes to a partial understanding of green start-up finance, behavioural finance is able to solve a remaining explanatory deficit produced by entrepreneurial finance theory. Although some behavioural finance theorists are suggesting that the current understanding of economic rationality underlying behavioural finance research is inadequate, most scholars have not yet challenged these assumptions, which constrict a comprehensive and realistic description of the reality of entrepreneurial finance in green start-ups. The aim of the paper is thus, first, to explore the specifics of entrepreneurial finance in green start-ups and, second, to demonstrate the need for a more up-to-date conception of rationality in behavioural finance theory in order to enable realistic empirical research in this field.

  12. Finance and Growth for Microenterprises : Evidence from Rural China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Lu, L.; Yang, R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Using a survey dataset of Chinese rural households, we find that access to external finance is positively associated with the decision to become entrepreneur, the initial investment for microenterprises and the use of external finance. Also, we find that the use of informal finance is posi

  13. Personal Finance Education: An Early Start to a Secure Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Michele; Maniam, Balasundram

    2007-01-01

    The lack of mandated personal finance curriculum in American schools is an issue that has gained considerable momentum in recent years. Studies have indicated that personal finance education contributes to financial literacy and financial success. Although some strides have been made to incorporate personal finance education into core curriculum,…

  14. Hardship financing of healthcare among rural poor in Orissa, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Binnendijk (Erica); R. Koren (Ruth); D.M. Dror (David)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: This study examines health-related "hardship financing" in order to get better insights on how poor households finance their out-of-pocket healthcare costs. We define hardship financing as having to borrow money with interest or to sell assets to pay out-of-pocket healthcare

  15. Pathways for School Finance in California. Technical Appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Heather; Sonstelie, Jon; Weston, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This is a technical appendix for the report, "Pathways for School Finance in California" (ED515651). "Pathways for School Finance in California" simulates alternatives to California's current school finance system. This appendix provides more information about the revenues used in those simulations. The first section describes…

  16. Study on Urban Infrastructure Development Financing in China(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>4.Typical modes of infrastructure financing in China After summarizing the general situations of infrastructure financing in China,further analyses will be made on several typical modes of infrastructure financing on the basis of the interviews,surveys,and data collections in certain Chinese cities.

  17. 12 CFR 918.5 - Approval by Finance Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval by Finance Board. 918.5 Section 918.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS BANK DIRECTOR COMPENSATION AND EXPENSES § 918.5 Approval by Finance Board. Payments made to...

  18. 12 CFR 980.5 - Notice by the Finance Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice by the Finance Board. 980.5 Section 980.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NEW FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ACTIVITIES NEW BUSINESS ACTIVITIES § 980.5 Notice by the Finance Board. (a) Issuance. Within sixty days after receipt of a notice...

  19. 75 FR 16821 - Housing Finance Agency Risk-Sharing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Housing Finance Agency Risk-Sharing Program AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information... Risk Sharing Program authorizes qualified Housing Finance Agencies (HFAs) to underwrite and process...: Housing Finance Agency Risk-Sharing Program. OMB Approval Number: 2502-0500. Form Numbers: HUD-2703B,...

  20. Public Finance in China since the Late Qing Dynasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Krug (Barbara)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractHow is "public finance" organized in China? Is China’s public finance system different from that of other countries? Can we detect features which link today’s system to the past? Public finance refers to more than annual state budgets and constitutional procedures. It includes foreign de