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Sample records for conductor cables racc

  1. Roebel assembled coated conductor cables (RACC): Ac-Losses and current carrying potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, A.; Heller, R.; Goldacker, W.; Kling, A.; Schmidt, C.

    2008-02-01

    Low ac-loss HTS cables for transport currents well above 1 kA are required for application in transformers and generators and are taken into consideration for future generations of fusion reactor coils. Coated conductors (CC) are suitable candidates for high field application at an operation temperature in the range 50-77 K. Ac-field applications require cables with low ac-losses and hence twisting of the individual strands. We solved this problem using the Roebel technique. Short lengths of Roebel bar cables were prepared from industrial DyBCO and YBCO-CC. Meander shaped tapes of 4 or 5 mm width with twist pitches of 123 or 127 mm were cut from the 10 or 12 mm wide CC tapes using a specially designed tool. Eleven or twelve of these strands were assembled to a cable. The electrical and mechanical connection of the tapes was achieved using a silver powder filled conductive epoxy resin. Ac-losses of a short sample in an external ac-field were measured as a function of frequency and field amplitude as well as the coupling current decay time constant. We discuss the results in terms of available theories and compare measured time constants in transverse field with measured coupling losses. Finally the potential of this cable type for ac-use is discussed with respect to ac-losses and current carrying capability.

  2. Roebel assembled coated conductor cables (RACC): Ac-Losses and current carrying potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, A; Heller, R; Goldacker, W; Kling, A; Schmidt, C

    2008-01-01

    Low ac-loss HTS cables for transport currents well above 1 kA are required for application in transformers and generators and are taken into consideration for future generations of fusion reactor coils. Coated conductors (CC) are suitable candidates for high field application at an operation temperature in the range 50-77 K. Ac-field applications require cables with low ac-losses and hence twisting of the individual strands. We solved this problem using the Roebel technique. Short lengths of Roebel bar cables were prepared from industrial DyBCO and YBCO-CC. Meander shaped tapes of 4 or 5 mm width with twist pitches of 123 or 127 mm were cut from the 10 or 12 mm wide CC tapes using a specially designed tool. Eleven or twelve of these strands were assembled to a cable. The electrical and mechanical connection of the tapes was achieved using a silver powder filled conductive epoxy resin. Ac-losses of a short sample in an external ac-field were measured as a function of frequency and field amplitude as well as the coupling current decay time constant. We discuss the results in terms of available theories and compare measured time constants in transverse field with measured coupling losses. Finally the potential of this cable type for ac-use is discussed with respect to ac-losses and current carrying capability

  3. Ac-loss measurement of a DyBCO-Roebel assembled coated conductor cable (RACC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, S.; Goldacker, W.; Kling, A.; Krempasky, L.; Schmidt, C.

    2007-01-01

    Low ac-loss HTS cables for transport currents well above 1 kA are required for application in transformers and generators and are taken into consideration for future generations of fusion reactor coils. Coated conductors (CC) are suitable candidates for high field application at an operation temperature around 50-77 K, which is a crucial precondition for economical cooling costs. We prepared a short length of a Roebel bar cable made of industrial DyBCO coated conductor (Theva Company, Germany). Meander shaped tapes of 4 mm width with a twist pitch of 122 mm were cut from 10 mm wide CC tapes using a specially designed tool. Eleven of these strands were assembled to a cable. The electrical and mechanical connection of the tapes was achieved using a silver powder filled conductive epoxy resin. Ac-losses of a short sample in an external ac field were measured as a function of frequency and field amplitude in transverse and parallel field orientations. In addition, the coupling current time constant of the sample was directly measured

  4. Ac-loss measurement of a DyBCO-Roebel assembled coated conductor cable (RACC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, S.; Goldacker, W.; Kling, A.; Krempasky, L.; Schmidt, C.

    2007-10-01

    Low ac-loss HTS cables for transport currents well above 1 kA are required for application in transformers and generators and are taken into consideration for future generations of fusion reactor coils. Coated conductors (CC) are suitable candidates for high field application at an operation temperature around 50-77 K, which is a crucial precondition for economical cooling costs. We prepared a short length of a Roebel bar cable made of industrial DyBCO coated conductor (Theva Company, Germany). Meander shaped tapes of 4 mm width with a twist pitch of 122 mm were cut from 10 mm wide CC tapes using a specially designed tool. Eleven of these strands were assembled to a cable. The electrical and mechanical connection of the tapes was achieved using a silver powder filled conductive epoxy resin. Ac-losses of a short sample in an external ac field were measured as a function of frequency and field amplitude in transverse and parallel field orientations. In addition, the coupling current time constant of the sample was directly measured.

  5. Assessment of sodium conductor distribution cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The study assesses the barriers and incentives for using sodium conductor distribution cable. The assessment considers environmental, safety, energy conservation, electrical performance and economic factors. Along with all of these factors considered in the assessment, the sodium distribution cable system is compared to the present day alternative - an aluminum conductor system. (TFD)

  6. Frequency Dependent Losses in Transmission Cable Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Holbøll, Joachim; Guðmundsdóttir, Unnur Stella

    2011-01-01

    , such as thermal conditions in and around the cable, as well as the heat generated in conductors, screens, armours etc., taking into account proximity and skin effects. The work performed and presented in this paper is concerned with an improved determination of the losses generated in the conductor, by means...... of better calculation of the AC resistance of transmission cable conductors, in particular regarding higher frequencies. In this way, also losses under harmonics can be covered. Furthermore, the model is suitable for modelling of transient attenuation in high voltage cables. The AC resistance is calculated...... based on the current density distribution in different conductor designs by means of the Finite Element Method (FEM). The obtained results and methods are compared to available standards (IEC publication 60287-1-1)....

  7. Relative stiffness of flat conductor cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The measurement of the bending moment required to obtain a given deflection in short lengths of flat conductor cable (FCC) is presented in this report. Experimental data were taken on 10 different samples of FCC and normalized to express all bending moments (relative stiffness factor) in terms of a cable 5.1 cm (2.0 in.) in width. Data are presented in tabular and graphical form for the covenience of designers who may be interested in finding torques exerted on critical components by short lengths of FCC.

  8. High-temperature superconducting conductors and cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.E.; Maley, M.P.; Boulaevskii, L.; Willis, J.O.; Coulter, J.Y.; Ullmann, J.L.; Cho, Jin; Fleshler, S.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a 3-year LDRD project at LANL. High-temperature superconductivity (HTS) promises more efficient and powerful electrical devices such as motors, generators, and power transmission cables; however this depends on developing HTS conductors that sustain high current densities J c in high magnetic fields at temperatures near liq. N2's bp. Our early work concentrated on Cu oxides but at present, long wire and tape conductors can be best made from BSCCO compounds with high J c at low temperatures, but which are degraded severely at temperatures of interest. This problem is associated with thermally activated motion of magnetic flux lines in BSCCO. Reducing these dc losses at higher temperatures will require a high density of microscopic defects that will pin flux lines and inhibit their motion. Recently it was shown that optimum defects can be produced by small tracks formed by passage of energetic heavy ions. Such defects result when Bi is bombarded with high energy protons. The longer range of protons in matter suggests the possibility of application to tape conductors. AC losses are a major limitation in many applications of superconductivity such as power transmission. The improved pinning of flux lines reduces ac losses, but optimization also involves other factors. Measuring and characterizing these losses with respect to material parameters and conductor design is essential to successful development of ac devices

  9. Overcurrent experiments on HTS tape and cable conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Jensen, Kim Høj; Træholt, Chresten

    2001-01-01

    their critical current. In this light, it is important to investigate the response of HTS tapes and cable conductors to overcurrents several times the critical current. A number of experiments have been performed on HTS tapes and cable conductors, with currents up to 20 times the critical current. During...... overcurrent experiments, the voltage, and the temperature were measured as functions of time in order to investigate the dynamic behavior of the HTS tape and cable conductor. After each experiment, damage to the superconductors was assessed by measuring the critical current. Preliminary results show...... that within seconds an HTS tape (critical current=17 A) heats above room temperature with an overcurrent larger than 140 A. Similar overcurrent experiments showed that a HTS cable conductor could sustain damage with overcurrents exceeding 10 times the critical current of the cable conductor....

  10. Loss and Inductance Investigation in Superconducting Cable Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Krüger; Tønnesen, Ole; Træholt, Chresten

    1999-01-01

    An important parameter in the design and optimization of a superconducting cable conductor is the control of the current distribution among single tapes and layers. This distribution is to a large degree determined by inductances, since the resistances are low. The self and mutual inductances...... of transport current and current distribution.This presentation is based on a number of experiments performed on prototype superconducting cable conductors. The critical current (1uV/cm) of the conductor at 77K was 1590 A (cable #1) and 3240 A (cable #2) respectively.At an rms current of 2 kA (50 Hz) the AC......-loss was measured on cable #2 to 0.6W/mxphase. This is, to our knowledge, the lowest AC-loss (at 2kA and 77K) of a high temperature superconducting cable conductor reported so far....

  11. Thin film conductors for self-equalizing cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, G.; Trutna, W. R.; Orsley, T. J.; Lucia, F.; Daly, C. B.

    2017-10-01

    Self-equalizing cables using hollow conductors with wall thickness less than the skin depth were proposed in 1929. However, they do not appear ever to have been widely used, although the idea has resurfaced and been refined from time to time. In the early 2000's, self-equalizing conductors consisting of solid magnetic steel cores coated with silver were developed by W.L. Gore, and used in their 2.5 Gb/s "Eye-Opener" cables, although higher speed versions never appeared. We have revived the original 1929 idea, proposing to use glass as a solid insulating core. This technology can potentially work at frequencies of many 10's of GHz. Possible uses include short range GHz links such as USB and Thunderbolt, and intra-rack interconnections in data centers. Our feasibility experiments have validated the principle. Copper coated glass fibers can, in principle, be manufactured, but in these tests, the conductors were capillaries internally coated with silver as these are easily obtainable, relatively inexpensive and serve to test the concept. The performance of these experimental twin lead cables corresponds to calculations, confirming the general principle. By calculation, we have compared the performance of cables made from copper-on-insulator conductors to that of similar cables made with solid copper conductors, and verified that copper-on-insulator cables have significantly less frequency dependent loss. We have also made and tested cables with copper on PEEK conductors as surrogates for copper on glass fiber.

  12. Thin film conductors for self-equalizing cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Owen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-equalizing cables using hollow conductors with wall thickness less than the skin depth were proposed in 1929. However, they do not appear ever to have been widely used, although the idea has resurfaced and been refined from time to time. In the early 2000’s, self-equalizing conductors consisting of solid magnetic steel cores coated with silver were developed by W.L. Gore, and used in their 2.5 Gb/s “Eye-Opener” cables, although higher speed versions never appeared. We have revived the original 1929 idea, proposing to use glass as a solid insulating core. This technology can potentially work at frequencies of many 10’s of GHz. Possible uses include short range GHz links such as USB and Thunderbolt, and intra-rack interconnections in data centers. Our feasibility experiments have validated the principle. Copper coated glass fibers can, in principle, be manufactured, but in these tests, the conductors were capillaries internally coated with silver as these are easily obtainable, relatively inexpensive and serve to test the concept. The performance of these experimental twin lead cables corresponds to calculations, confirming the general principle. By calculation, we have compared the performance of cables made from copper-on-insulator conductors to that of similar cables made with solid copper conductors, and verified that copper-on-insulator cables have significantly less frequency dependent loss. We have also made and tested cables with copper on PEEK conductors as surrogates for copper on glass fiber.

  13. Thin film conductors for self-equalizing cables

    OpenAIRE

    G. Owen; W. R. Trutna; T. J. Orsley; F. Lucia; C. B. Daly

    2017-01-01

    Self-equalizing cables using hollow conductors with wall thickness less than the skin depth were proposed in 1929. However, they do not appear ever to have been widely used, although the idea has resurfaced and been refined from time to time. In the early 2000’s, self-equalizing conductors consisting of solid magnetic steel cores coated with silver were developed by W.L. Gore, and used in their 2.5 Gb/s “Eye-Opener” cables, although higher speed versions never appeared. We have revived the or...

  14. Tension layer winding of cable-in-conduit conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devernoe, A.; Ciancetta, G.; King, M.; Parizh, M.; Painter, T.; Miller, J.

    1996-01-01

    A 710 mm i.d. by 440 mm long, 6 layer Cable-in-Conduit (CIC) coil was precision tension layer wound with Incoloy 908 jacketed conductor to model winding technology that will be used for the Nb 3 Sn outsert coils of the 45 Tesla Hybrid Magnet Project at the US National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. This paper reports on the set up of a new winding facility with unique capabilities for insulating and winding long length CIC conductor and on special procedures which were developed to wind and support layer to layer transitions and to safely form conductor into and out of the winding. Analytical methods used to predict conduit keystoning, springback and back tensioning requirements before winding are reported in comparison to results obtained during winding and actual winding build-up dimensions on a layer by layer basis in comparison to design requirements

  15. Current distribution in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferri, M.A.

    1994-05-01

    A numerical study of the current distribution in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICC's) experiencing linearly ramping transport currents and transverse magnetic fields was conducted for both infinitely long, periodic cables and finite length cables terminated in low resistance joints. The goal of the study was to gain insight into the phenomenon known as Ramp Rate Limitation, an as yet unexplained correspondence between maximum attainable current and the ramp time taken to reach that current in CICC superconducting magnets. A discrete geometric model of a 27 strand multiply twisted CICC was developed to effectively represent the flux linkages, mutual inductances, and resistive contact points between the strands of an experimentally tested cable. The results of the numerical study showed that for fully periodic cables, the current imbalances due to ramping magnetic fields and ramping transport currents are negligible in the range of experimentally explored operating conditions. For finite length, joint terminated cables, however, significant imbalances can exist. Unfortunately, quantitative results are limited by a lack of knowledge of the transverse resistance between strands in the joints. Nonetheless, general results are presented showing the dependency of the imbalance on cable length, ramp time, and joint resistance for both ramping transverse magnet fields and ramping transport currents. At the conclusion of the study, it is suggested that calculated current imbalances in a finite length cable could cause certain strands to prematurely ''quench'' -- become non-superconducting --thus leading to an instability for the entire cable. This numerically predicted ''current imbalance instability'' is compared to the experimentally observed Ramp Rate Limitation for the 27 strand CICC sample

  16. Loss and Inductance Investigations in a 4-layer Superconducting Prototype Cable Conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Olsen, Søren Krüger; Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa

    1999-01-01

    One important issue in the design and optimization of a superconducting cable conductor is the control of the current distribution between single tapes and layers. This presentation is based on a number of experiments performed on a 4-layer three meter long prototype superconducting cable conductor......-losses are measured as a function of transport current and a given current distribution and compared with the monoblock model. Recommendations for design of future cable conductor prototypes are given....

  17. Twenty years of cable-in-conduit conductors: 1975-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews our progress during the last two decades in understanding cable-in-conduit conductors. The emphasis is on the physical principles governing the behavior of cable-in-conduit conductors, and no detailed mathematics is presented. The paper is constructed as a historical narrative

  18. Measuring ac-loss in high temperature superconducting cable-conductors using four probe methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa; Træholt, Chresten; Olsen, Søren Krüger

    1999-01-01

    Measuring the ac-loss of superconducting cable conductors have many aspects in common with measuring the ac-loss of single superconducting tapes. In a cable conductor all tapes are connected to each other and to the test circuit through normal metal joints in each end. This makes such measurement...

  19. Cable-in-conduit conductor optimization for fusion magnet applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.R.; Kerns, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Careful design of the toroidal-field (TF) and poloidal-field (PF) coils in a tokamak machine using cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC) can result in quite high overall winding-pack current densities - even with the high nuclear heat loads that may be imposed in operating a fusion reactor - and thereby help reduce the overall machine size. In our design process, we systematically examined the operational environment of a magnet, e.g., mechanical stresses, current, field, heat load, coolant temperature, and cooldown stresses, to determine the optimum amounts of copper, superconductor, helium, and sheath material for the CICC. This process is being used to design the superconducting magnet systems that comprise the Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor (TIBER II). 13 refs., 2 figs

  20. High temperature superconductor cable concepts for fusion magnets

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078397

    2013-01-01

    Three concepts of high temperature superconductor cables carrying kA currents (RACC, CORC and TSTC) are investigated, optimized and evaluated in the scope of their applicability as conductor in fusion magnets. The magnetic field and temperature dependence of the cables is measured; the thermal expansion and conductivity of structure, insulation and filling materials are investigated. High temperature superconductor winding packs for fusion magnets are calculated and compared with corresponding low temperature superconductor cases.

  1. Model for electromagnetic field analysis of superconducting power transmission cable comprising spiraled coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Katsutoku; Amemiya, Naoyuki; Nakamura, Taketsune; Maruyama, Osamu; Ohkuma, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Since the superconductor layers of YBCO-coated conductors are very thin, the ac loss of coated conductors is dominated by the magnetic flux density normal to the conductor face. In cables, most of the normal magnetic flux component is generated near gaps between coated conductors. Although the effects of gaps are significant, there are few reports on the electromagnetic field analysis of cables with spiral structures carried out while taking the gap effect into consideration. In a finitely long cable with a spiral structure, the electromagnetic field is naturally periodic along the cable axis. In a two-layer cable, the simplest period along the cable axis is the least common multiple of the spiral pitches in the inner and outer layers. However, we verified that there is a shorter period, and the same electromagnetic field distribution appears in all conductors of the same layer. Using these periodicities, we developed a three-dimensional model for the analysis of two-layer cables with a spiral structure. Current distributions of cables were analyzed using this model, and ac losses were calculated. In addition, these results were compared with ac losses calculated by two-dimensional analysis performed on the cross section of a cable. It was verified that the ac loss in a cable is correctly calculated by the 2D model when the spiral pitch is long enough. However, in the case of a tightly twisted cable, the ac losses calculated by the 2D model include some errors caused by an approximation in which the spiral structure is ignored.

  2. Impact of corrosion on the reliability of low voltage cables with aluminium conductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, A.; Kruizinga, B.; Wouters, P.A.A.F.; Steennis, E.F.

    2017-01-01

    Aluminium is widely used as conductor material for power cables, but corrosion taking place under specific circumstances can have impact on its reliability. Aluminium corrosion under the influence of an alternating current was studied experimentally. Submerged cable segments with inflicted damage

  3. Calculation of temperature rise for cable conductor of DCS cabinet power based on theory of numerical thermal transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yong; Zhang Longqiang; Yang Zhen; Yu Bin

    2014-01-01

    In order to ensure a long-term reliable operation of the DCS cabinet's 220 V AC power cable, it was needed to confirm whether the conductor temperature rise of power cable meet the requirement of the cable specification. Based on the actual data in site and the theory of numerical heat transfer, conservative model was established, and the conductor temperature was calculated. The calculation results show that the cable arrangement on the cable tray will not lead to the conductor temperature rise of power cable over than the required temperature in technical specification. (authors)

  4. Development and fabrication of superconducting hybrid Cable-In-Conduit-Conductor (CICC) for indigenous fusion programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.K.; Hussain, M.M.; Abdulla, K.K.; Singh, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    The Atomic Fuels Division has initiated development and fabrication of Cable-In-Conduit-Conductor (CICC) of various configurations, for superconducting fusion grade magnets required for their indigenous Fusion Programme. The process involves development of high grade superconducting multifilamentary wire, multi stage cabling of superconducting as well as copper wires and, finally, jacketing of the cables in SS316LN tubes. The overview of the development and fabrication of CICC is presented in this article. (author)

  5. Tension optimization of the conductor-and-support cable elements during stranding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Chayun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Steel lifting ropes, cables and other similar products are rod statically undeterminable prestressed structures. Preliminary deformations of their elements (wires are caused by their manufacturing technology. Wires suffer stretching, bending with torsion in a stage of elastoplastic deformation. In this work the mechanic-mathematical model of residual forces determination in the wires of polymetallic conductor-and-support cable is offered. Aim: The aim of the work is studying of the mechanical and mathematical model defining residual forces in the wires of conductor-and-support cable and also the optimization of parameters of a twist by the criterion of residual forces lack after production process finishing. Materials and methods: The method developed by the authors earlier to the study the strain-stressed state of twisted wire products off-loading from technological internal forces has been applied to assess the impact of the approximate value of the longitudinal stiffness of the product. In this paper, each wire is considered as an element of the product individually. This is necessary to investigate the impact of uneven wire tensions on defects of conductor-and-support cable (out-of-straight in a free state and stripping-down. Results: On the basis of the conducted deformation studies of conductor-and-support cable during off-loading process from twist tension of its elements the dependencies of residual forces on the level and interrelation of elements tension has been determined. The condition of ensuring of zero residual forces in the wires of conductor-and-support cable after production is formulated. It was found that calculated values of residual forces are almost identical when using of the approximate and exact values of longitudinal stiffness of conductor-and-support cable.

  6. Analytical investigation in bending characteristic of twisted stacked-tape cable conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayasu, Makoto; Chiesa, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    An analytical model to evaluate bending strains of a twisted stack-tape cable (TSTC) conductor has been developed. Through a comparison with experimental results obtained for a soldered 32-tape YBCO TSTC conductor, it has been found that a Perfect-Slip Model (PSM) taking into account the slipping between tapes in a stacked-tape cable during bending gives much better estimation of the bending performance compared to a No-Slip Model (NSM). In the PSM case the tapes can slip so that the internal longitudinal axial strain can be released. The longitudinal strains of compression and tension regions along the tape are balanced in one twist-pitch and cancel out evenly in a long cable. Therefore, in a cable the strains due to bending can be minimized. This is an important advantage of a TSTC conductor. The effect of the cable diameter size on the bending strain is also expected to be minor, and all tapes composing a TSTC conductor have the same strain response under bending, therefore the cable critical current can be characterized from a single tape behaviour. (paper)

  7. Analytical investigation in bending characteristic of twisted stacked-tape cable conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayasu, Makoto; Chiesa, Luisa

    2015-12-01

    An analytical model to evaluate bending strains of a twisted stack-tape cable (TSTC) conductor has been developed. Through a comparison with experimental results obtained for a soldered 32-tape YBCO TSTC conductor, it has been found that a Perfect-Slip Model (PSM) taking into account the slipping between tapes in a stacked-tape cable during bending gives much better estimation of the bending performance compared to a No-Slip Model (NSM). In the PSM case the tapes can slip so that the internal longitudinal axial strain can be released. The longitudinal strains of compression and tension regions along the tape are balanced in one twist-pitch and cancel out evenly in a long cable. Therefore, in a cable the strains due to bending can be minimized. This is an important advantage of a TSTC conductor. The effect of the cable diameter size on the bending strain is also expected to be minor, and all tapes composing a TSTC conductor have the same strain response under bending, therefore the cable critical current can be characterized from a single tape behaviour.

  8. Fabrication process of a superconducting multifilament conductor of a cable and resulting electric conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fevrier, A.; Verhaege, T.; Bonnet, P.

    1990-01-01

    Elementary conductors constituted of a plurality of superconducting filaments in a metallic matrix are prepared and then twisted. Elementary conductors with a diameter between 0.05 and 0.25 mm without electric insulation are twisted after heating with a pitch of four time the diameter, finally the conductor is insulated [fr

  9. Problems with conductors and dielectrics for cryogenic cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogner, G; Penczynski, P [Siemens A.G., Erlangen (F.R. Germany). Abt. Reaktortechnik

    1976-06-01

    The most important problems which need to be solved if superconducting power cables are to be used on a large scale are connected with the superconducting cable materials and the dielectrics used for insulation. Research work on superconducting materials for ac and dc cables is briefly reviewed together with stabilization problems for these materials. Three types of insulation are considered - vacuum, subcooled or supercritical helium, and foil wound insulation. The merits and problems encountered in each case are discussed.

  10. Influence of the air Layer Between the Conductor and the Layer Ofinsulating Material in Cable Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Evgenia V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are developed mathematical model of physical and chemical processes of polymerization adhesive coating stranded cable. There are shown difference in the temperature distribution along the radius of the finished product in the presence of an air gap between the conductor and the rubber sheath. Also, due to the need to change process parameters with possible loose contacts inside the cable. Such as the temperature of the heating surface, feeding speed and dwell time in the oven.

  11. New design of cable-in-conduit conductor for application in future fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jinggang; Wu, Yu; Li, Jiangang; Liu, Fang; Dai, Chao; Shi, Yi; Liu, Huajun; Mao, Zhehua; Nijhuis, Arend; Zhou, Chao; Yagotintsev, Konstantin A.; Lubkemann, Ruben; Anvar, V. A.; Devred, Arnaud

    2017-11-01

    The China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is a new tokamak device whose magnet system includes toroidal field, central solenoid (CS) and poloidal field coils. The main goal is to build a fusion engineering tokamak reactor with about 1 GW fusion power and self-sufficiency by blanket. In order to reach this high performance, the magnet field target is 15 T. However, the huge electromagnetic load caused by high field and current is a threat for conductor degradation under cycling. The conductor with a short-twist-pitch (STP) design has large stiffness, which enables a significant performance improvement in view of load and thermal cycling. But the conductor with STP design has a remarkable disadvantage: it can easily cause severe strand indentation during cabling. The indentation can reduce the strand performance, especially under high load cycling. In order to overcome this disadvantage, a new design is proposed. The main characteristic of this new design is an updated layout in the triplet. The triplet is made of two Nb3Sn strands and one soft copper strand. The twist pitch of the two Nb3Sn strands is large and cabled first. The copper strand is then wound around the two superconducting strands (CWS) with a shorter twist pitch. The following cable stages layout and twist pitches are similar to the ITER CS conductor with STP design. One short conductor sample with a similar scale to the ITER CS was manufactured and tested with the Twente Cable Press to investigate the mechanical properties, AC loss and internal inspection by destructive examination. The results are compared to the STP conductor (ITER CS and CFETR CSMC) tests. The results show that the new conductor design has similar stiffness, but much lower strand indentation than the STP design. The new design shows potential for application in future fusion reactors.

  12. Dependence of the ac loss on the aspect ratio in a cable in conduit conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cau, F; Bruzzone, P

    2010-01-01

    The coupling current loss in rectangular superconducting cables is strictly dependent on their aspect ratio, which has an impact on the area linked by the field variation and consequently on the currents induced between strands. The relation between the ac loss and aspect ratio is studied with reference to the testing of three short cable in conduit conductor (CICC) samples at the SULTAN test facility. The first conductor is a 25 kA NbTi cable for the JT60-SA tokamak; the second is a 20 kA Nb 3 Sn cable for the HZB hybrid magnet. The last CICC is a 68 kA Nb 3 Sn cable with layout similar to that of the ITER toroidal field (TF) conductor (called the 'European toroidal field (EUTF) alternate'). All the samples are assembled with two conductor sections differing only in their orientation with respect to the external variable field. In the first and third samples, the cable of one leg is rotated by 90 0 , while in the HZB sample it is rotated by 45 0 with respect to the other leg. The ac loss is measured at the SULTAN test facility using a gas flow calorimetric method. A sample length of 39 cm is exposed to a sinusoidal field with an amplitude of ± 0.3 or ± 0.2 T (depending on the superconductor) and frequency variable in the range 0.1-0.8 Hz. A background field of 2 T perpendicular both to the sinusoidal field and to the sample axis is also applied. The ac loss is assessed by measuring the variation of the He enthalpy, assuming the metal enthalpy to be negligible. The loss curve for both legs is discussed in terms of the respective aspect ratios and the results, including data from former test campaigns, are compared with the aim of finding an analytical relation between the loss and the conductor dimensions.

  13. Short-circuit experiments on a high Tc-superconducting cable conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Jensen, E.H.; Traholt, C.

    2002-01-01

    A high temperature superconductor (HTS) cable conductor (CC) with a critical current of 2.1 kA was tested over a range of short-circuit currents up to 20 kA. The duration of the short-circuit currents is 1 s. Between each short-circuit test the critical current of the HTS CC was measured in order...

  14. Conductor fabrication for ITER Model Coils. Status of the EU cabling and jacketing activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corte, A. della; Ricci, M.V.; Spadoni, M.; Bessette, D.; Duchateau, J.L.; Salpietro, E.; Garre, R.; Rossi, S.; Penco, R.; Laurenti, A.

    1994-01-01

    The conductors for the ITER magnets are being defined according to the operating requirements of the machine. To demonstrate the technological feasibility of the main features of the magnets, two model coils (central solenoid and toroidal field), with bores in the range 2-3 m, will be manufactured. This is the first significant industrial production of full-size conductor (a total of about 6.5 km for these coils). One cabling and one jacketing line have been assembled in Europe. The former can cable up to 1100 m (6 tons) unit lengths; the latter, which can also handle 1000 m conductor lengths, has been assembled in a shorter version (320 m). A description of the lines is reported, together with the results of the trials performed up to now. (author) 2 figs

  15. Analytical studies on hotspot temperature of cable-in-conduit conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Takigami, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Hiroatsu

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an analytical study to review the hotspot temperature design criteria of the cable-in-conduit conductors for the ITER magnet system. The ITER magnet system uses three kinds of cable-in-conduit conductors for the Toroidal Field (TF) coils, the Central Solenoid (CS) and the Poloidal Field (PF) coils. The amount of copper in the superconducting cable has been defined by using the classical hotspot temperature design criteria that is based on the adiabatic condition. In the current design, ITER superconducting cables include a large amount of pure copper strands to satisfy the classical criteria. However, temperature and stress in the conduit and insulations after quench can be simulated with the quench simulation program and stress analysis program using the latest analysis tools. This analysis shows that the strand temperature is dominated by the conduction along strands and the heat capacity of other conductor materials and coolant. The hotspot temperature depends strongly on the delay time for quench detection. This analysis provides an estimation of delay times for quench detection. The thermal and stress analysis can provide the maximum allowable temperature after quench by determination of a failure or a functional disorder condition of the jacket material and turn insulation. In conclusion, it is found that the current density of the cable space can be increased, by reducing the extra copper strand, thereby, allowing a reduction of the coil radial build. (author)

  16. Test of 60 kA coated conductor cable prototypes for fusion magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglietti, D.; Bykovsky, N.; Sedlak, K.; Stepanov, B.; Wesche, R.; Bruzzone, P.

    2015-12-01

    Coated conductors could be promising materials for the fabrication of the large magnet systems of future fusion devices. Two prototype conductors (flat cables in steel conduits), each about 2 m long, were manufactured using coated conductor tapes (4 mm wide) from Super Power and SuperOx, with a total tape length of 1.6 km. Each flat cable is assembled from 20 strands, each strand consisting of a stack of 16 tapes surrounded by two half circular copper profiles, twisted and soldered. The tapes were measured at 12 T and 4.2 K and the results of the measurements were used for the assessment of the conductor electromagnetic properties at low temperature and high field. The two conductors were assembled together in a sample that was tested in the European Dipole (EDIPO) facility. The current sharing temperatures of the two conductors were measured at background fields from 8 T up to 12 T and for currents from 30 kA up to 70 kA: the measured values are within a few percent of the values expected from the measurements on tapes (short samples). After electromagnetic cycling, T cs at 12 T and 50 kA decreased from about 12 K to 11 K (about 10%), corresponding to less than 3% of I c.

  17. Magnetization Losses of Roebel Cable Samples with 2G YBCO Coated Conductor Strands

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Y.; Falorio, I.; Young, E.A.; Kario, A.; Goldacker, W.; Dhallé, M. M. J.; van Nugteren, J.; Kirby, G.; Bottura, L.; Ballarino, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roebel cable with 2G YBCO strands is one of the promising HTS solutions of fully transposed high current conductors for high field accelerator magnets. Following the considerable research effort on the manufacturing of Roebel cables in recent years, sample conductors are now available in useful lengths with reproducible performances to allow detailed characterizations beyond the standard critical current measurements. The ac loss and strands coupling are of significant interest for the field quality of the accelerator magnets. We report a set of systematic ac loss measurements on two different Roebel cable samples prepared for the EuCARD2 collaboration. The measurements were performed over a wide range of temperature between 5 K and 90 K and the results were analyzed in the context of strands architecture and coupling. The results show that the transposed bundles are partially decoupled and the strands in transposition sections behave as an isolated single tape if the strands are insulated.

  18. The transfer impedance of cables with a nearby return conductor and a noncentral inner conductor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helvoort, van M.J.A.M.; Deursen, van A.P.J.; Laan, van der P.C.T.

    1995-01-01

    The transfer impedance Z/sub t/ of a cable is often assumed to be a characteristic of the shield only. We investigate the limits of this assumption by calculations and measurements. The first test cable was formed by a solid copper tube (ldquoshieldrdquo) and a wire inside; several positions, also

  19. Supercritical helium cooled, cabled, superconducting hollow conductors for large high field magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenig, M.O.; Iwasa, Y.; Montgomery, D.B.; Bejan, A.

    1976-01-01

    Within the last two years a new concept of cabled superconducting hollow conductors has been developed which are able to recover from transient instabilities by virtue of on-going, single-phase helium cooling. It has been possible to correlate small scale experimental results with an iterative computer program. The latter has been recently upgraded to include axial as well as radial heat transfer and predict more closely the chances of recovery. Nearly 1 g/s of supercritical helium has been circulated in a closed loop using a high speed centrifugal fan and up to 10 g/s using a reciprocating single pulse bellows pump. The loop is now being adapted to a 3 m length of a tightly wound 5000 A cabled hollow conductor equipped with pulse coils designed to fit inside a water cooled Bitter magnet. The combination will allow for a steady background field of 7.5 t with a 2 t superimposed pulse. (author)

  20. AC loss performance of cable-in-conduit conductor. Influence of cable mechanical property on coupling loss reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kunihiro; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Isono, Takaaki; Hamada, Kazuya; Nunoya, Yoshihiko

    2003-01-01

    The ITER Central Solenoid (CS) model coil, CS Insert and Nb 3 Al Insert were developed and tested from 2000 to 2002. The AC loss performances of these coils were investigated in various experiments. In addition, the AC losses of the CS and Nb 3 Al Insert conductors were measured using short CS and Nb 3 Al Insert conductors before the coil tests. The coupling time constants of these conductors were estimated to be 30 and 120 ms, respectively. On the other hand, the test results of the CS and Nb 3 Al Inserts show that the coupling currents induced in these conductors had multiple decay time constants. In fact, the existence of the coupling currents with long decay time constants, the order of which was in the thousands of seconds, was directly observed with hall sensors and voltage taps. Moreover, the AC loss test results show that electromagnetic force decreases coupling losses with exponential decay constants. This is because the weak sinter among the strands, which originated during heat treatment, was broken due to the electromagnetic force, and then the contact resistance among strands increased. It was found that this exponential decay constant was the function of a gap (i.e., a mechanical property of the cable) created between the cable and conduit due to electromagnetic force. The gap can be estimated by pressure drop, measured under the electromagnetic force. The pressure drop can easily be measured at an initial trial charge, and then it is possible to estimate the exponential decay constant before normal coil operation. Accordingly, it is possible to predict promptly how many times the trial operations are necessary to decrease the coupling losses to the designed value by measuring the coupling losses and the pressure drop during the initial coil operation trial. (author)

  1. Thermo-Hydraulic behaviour of dual-channel superconducting Cable-In-Conduit Conductors for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, B.

    2006-09-01

    In an effort to optimise the cryogenics of large superconducting coils for fusion applications (ITER), dual channel Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICC) are designed with a central channel spiral to provide low hydraulic resistance and faster helium circulation. The qualitative and economic rationale of the conductor central channel is here justified to limit the superconductor temperature increase, but brings more complexity to the conductor cooling characteristics. The pressure drop of spirals is experimentally evaluated in nitrogen and water and an explicit hydraulic friction model is proposed. Temperatures in the cable must be quantified to guarantee superconductor margin during coil operation under heat disturbance and set adequate inlet temperature. Analytical one-dimensional thermal models, in steady state and in transient, allow to better understand the thermal coupling of CICC central and annular channels. The measurement of a heat transfer characteristic space and time constants provides cross-checking experimental estimations of the internal thermal homogenization. A simple explicit model of global inter-channel heat exchange coefficient is proposed. The risk of thermosyphon between the two channels is considered since vertical portions of fusion coils are subject to gravity. The new hydraulic model, heat exchange model and gravitational risk ratio allow the thermohydraulic improvement of CICC central spirals. (author)

  2. Detection of the normal zone with cowound sensors in cable-in conduit conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martovetsky, N.N.; Chaplin, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Tokamaks in the future will use superconducting cable-in-conduit- conductors (CICC) in all poloidal field (PF) and toroidal field (TF) magnets. Conventional quench detection, the measurement of small resistive normal zone voltages ( 4 kV). In the quench detection design for TPX, we have considered several different locations for internal co-wound voltage sensors in the cable cross-section as the primary mechanism to cancel this inductive noise. The Noise Rejection Experiment (NRE) at LLNL has been designed to evaluate which internal locations will produce the best inductive- noise cancellation, and provide us with experimental data for comparison with previously developed theory. The details of the experiments and resulting data are presented and analyzed

  3. A new cable-in-conduit conductor magnet with insulated strands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Satarou; Yamamoto, Junya; Motojima, Osamu.

    1995-09-01

    Many studies have used cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) coils in trying to develop an AC superconducting magnet because of its enormous potential if AC losses were low and insulation voltage was high. The strands in the most recent CICC magnets are coated with chromium or another metal with high electrical resistance to order to induce current re-distribution among the strands and to avoid a quench caused by a current imbalance. Current re-distribution is highly complex and very difficult to analyze because the conditions of the strand surfaces and the contact areas vary greatly with the operation of the conductor. If, however, the cable currents were well-balanced, insulating the strands would be the best way to reduce AC losses. We propose a new CICC magnet structure featuring a current lead that balances the strand currents via its resistance. Having calculated current balances, we find that strand currents are well within the present parameters for nuclear fusion experiments and superconducting magnet energy storages. (author)

  4. Alternating current losses of a 10 metre long low loss superconducting cable conductor determined from phase sensitive measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger Olsen, S.; Kuehle, A.; Traeholt, C.; C Rasmussen, C.; Toennesen, O.; Daeumling, M.; Rasmussen, C.N.; Willen, D.W.A.

    1999-01-01

    The ac loss of a superconducting cable conductor carrying an ac current is small. Therefore the ratio between the inductive (out-of-phase) and the resistive (in-phase) voltages over the conductor is correspondingly high. In vectorial representations this results in phase angles between the current and the voltage over the cable close to 90 degrees. This has the effect that the loss cannot be derived directly using most commercial lock-in amplifiers due to their limited absolute accuracy. However, by using two lock-in amplifiers and an appropriate correction scheme the high relative accuracy of such lock-in amplifiers can be exploited. In this paper we present the results from ac-loss measurements on a low loss 10 metre long high temperature superconducting cable conductor using such a correction scheme. Measurements were carried out with and without a compensation circuit that could reduce the inductive voltage. The 1 μV cm -1 critical current of the conductor was 3240 A at 77 K. At an rms current of 2 kA (50 Hz) the ac loss was derived to be 0.6±0.15 W m -1 . This is, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest value of ac loss of a high temperature superconducting cable conductor reported so far at these high currents. (author)

  5. Embrittlement phenomenon of Ag core MP35N cable as lead conductor in medical device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Li, Bernie; Zhang, Haitao

    2013-02-01

    Ag core MP35N (Ag/MP35N) wire has been used in lead electric conductor wires in the medical device industry for many years. Recently it was noticed that the combination of silver and MP35N restricts its wire drawing process. The annealing temperature in Ag/MP35N has to be lower than the melting temperature of pure Ag (960 °C), which cannot fully anneal MP35N. The lower annealing temperature results in a highly cold worked MP35N, which significantly reduces Ag/MP35N ductility. The embrittlement phenomenon of Ag/MP35N cable was observed in tension and bending deformation. The effect of the embrittlement on the wire flex fatigue life was evaluated using a newly developed flex fatigue testing method. The Ag/MP35N cable fatigue results was analyzed with a Coffin-Manson approach and compared to the MP35N cable fatigue results. The root causes of the Ag/Mp35N embrittlement phenomenon are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Electromagnetic force effect on pressure drop and coupling loss of cable in conduit conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Kazuya; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Matsui, Kunihiro; Kato, Takashi; Okuno, Kiyoshi

    2002-01-01

    In the Engineering Design Activities of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), a Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) and a CS Insert Coil (CSIC) have been tested successfully. The CSIC conductor consists of 1,152 superconducting strands bundled on a central cooling channel. As interesting phenomena in the CSIC experiment, it was observed that a pressure drop of the CSIC decreased by about 12% during a current-carrying operation at 40 kA, and coupling losses indicated an operating current dependence. It is considered as a hypothesis that an electromagnetic force causes a compressive deformation of superconducting cable in a jacket and that new flow path was then generated between cable and jacket. Therefore it is also considered that the decreasing of contact resistance between strands as a result of the electromagnetic force derives an increase of coupling losses in the conductor. A pressure drop calculation model with a gap generated by electromagnetic force is constructed. The gap is estimated to be about 1.4 mm at nominal operating conditions (13 T, 44.3 kA). From this calculation, a void fraction as a function of electromagnetic force is evaluated during the current-carrying operation of CSIC. The coupling time constant (nτ c ) as a function of void fraction is then calculated from the coupling loss measurement result during the pulsed operation of CSMC and CSIC. The evaluated nτ c is about 24 ms and is close to nτ c of 20-30 ms of a heat treated short sample having a history of exposure to the electromagnetic force. We used the evaluated nτ c as a function of electromagnetic force to calculate the coupling losses, which varied from 24 ms to about 50 ms during pulsed current operation. These results show a good agreement with measured coupling losses, depending on coil current. To reduce the possibility of strand damage as a result of cable movement, we also here proposed that the void fraction of real ITER conductor should be smaller

  7. The effect on stability and thermal hydraulic quenchback of perforating the jacket of a cable-in-conduit conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.

    1994-01-01

    This Paper continues earlier work on the reduction of the quench pressure in a doubler cable-in-conduit conductor achieved by perforating the inner jacket. The present study examines the effect of the perforations on the stability margin and on the ononset of thermal hydraulic quenchback

  8. Alternating current losses of a 10 metre long low loss superconducting cable conductor determined from phase sensitive measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Krüger; Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa; Træholt, Chresten

    1999-01-01

    The ac loss of a superconducting cable conductor carrying an ac current is small. Therefore the ratio between the inductive (out-of-phase) and the resistive (in-phase) voltages over the conductor is correspondingly high. In vectorial representations this results in phase angles between the current......-in amplifiers can be exploited. In this paper we present the results from ac-loss measurements on a low loss 10 metre long high temperature superconducting cable conductor using such a correction scheme. Measurements were carried out with and without a compensation circuit that could reduce-the inductive...... voltage. The 1 mu V cm(-1) critical current of the conductor was 3240 A at 77 K. At an rms current of 2 kA (50 Hz) the ac loss was derived to be 0.6 +/- 0.15 W m(-1). This is, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest value of ac loss of a high temperature superconducting cable conductor reported so far...

  9. Measurement of stability of cabled conductors cooled by He I at reduced temperature, or He II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Y.H.; Purcell, J.R.; Chen, W.Y.; Alcorn, J.S.

    1980-09-01

    Stability tests of cabled NbTi alloy conductor are underway at the General Atomic High Field Test Facility, in support of the Team One effort of the DOE 12 Tesla Coil Development Program. A background field of up to 10 tesla within a 20 cm bore is provided by a nested pair of 4.2 0 K bath cooled NbTi coils. An insulated bore insert tube (coldfinger) is provided in order to perform heat pulse/recovery tests of coiled samples in cooling regimes anticipated for the 1 m O.D. coil to be tested at the LLNL 12 tesla facility during FY 82. Specifically, tests are being performed in the 2.5 to 3 0 K He I, and saturated superfluid (He II) regimes. The testing apparatus, procedures, and initial results are presented

  10. Fretting Wear Behaviors of Aluminum Cable Steel Reinforced (ACSR Conductors in High-Voltage Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchi Ma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the fretting wear behavior of aluminum cable steel reinforced (ACSR conductors for use in high-voltage transmission line. Fretting wear tests of Al wires were conducted on a servo-controlled fatigue testing machine with self-made assistant apparatus, and their fretting process characteristics, friction force, wear damage, and wear surface morphology were detailed analyzed. The results show that the running regime of Al wires changes from a gross slip regime to a mixed regime more quickly as increasing contact load. With increasing amplitudes, gross slip regimes are more dominant under contact loads of lower than 30 N. The maximum friction force is relatively smaller in the NaCl solution than in a dry friction environment. The primary wear mechanisms in dry friction environments are abrasive wear and adhesive wear whereas abrasive wear and fatigue damage are dominant in NaCl solution.

  11. Characterization of a high-temperature superconducting conductor on round core cables in magnetic fields up to 20 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Laan, D. C.; Noyes, P. D.; Miller, G. E.; Weijers, H. W.; Willering, G. P.

    2013-02-13

    The next generation of high-ï¬eld magnets that will operate at magnetic ï¬elds substantially above 20 T, or at temperatures substantially above 4.2 K, requires high-temperature superconductors (HTS). Conductor on round core (CORC) cables, in which RE-Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (RE = rare earth) (REBCO) coated conductors are wound in a helical fashion on a flexible core, are a practical and versatile HTS cable option for low-inductance, high-field magnets. We performed the first tests of CORC magnet cables in liquid helium in magnetic fields of up to 20 T. A record critical current I{sub c} of 5021 A was measured at 4.2 K and 19 T. In a cable with an outer diameter of 7.5 mm, this value corresponds to an engineering current density J{sub e} of 114 A mm{sup -2} , the highest J{sub e} ever reported for a superconducting cable at such high magnetic fields. Additionally, the first magnet wound from an HTS cable was constructed from a 6 m-long CORC cable. The 12-turn, double-layer magnet had an inner diameter of 9 cm and was tested in a magnetic field of 20 T, at which it had an I{sub c} of 1966 A. The cables were quenched repetitively without degradation during the measurements, demonstrating the feasibility of HTS CORC cables for use in high-field magnet applications.

  12. Minimizing coupling loss by selection of twist pitch lengths in multi-stage cable-in-conduit conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolando, G; Nijhuis, A; Devred, A

    2014-01-01

    The numerical code JackPot-ACDC (van Lanen et al 2010 Cryogenics 50 139–48, van Lanen et al 2011 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 21 1926–9, van Lanen et al 2012 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 25 025012) allows fast parametric studies of the electro-magnetic performance of cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs). In this paper the code is applied to the analysis of the relation between twist pitch length sequence and coupling loss in multi-stage ITER-type CICCs. The code shows that in the analysed conductors the coupling loss is at its minimum when the twist pitches of the successive cabling stages have a length ratio close to one. It is also predicted that by careful selection of the stage-to-stage twist pitch ratio, CICCs cabled according to long twist schemes in the initial stages can achieve lower coupling loss than conductors with shorter pitches. The result is validated by AC loss measurements performed on prototype conductors for the ITER Central Solenoid featuring different twist pitch sequences. (paper)

  13. Effect of current imbalance on stability of a cable-in-conduit conductor consisting of chrome-plated strands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Norikiyo; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Nishi, Masataka; Isono, Takaaki; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Ono, Michitaka; Hamajima, Takataro; Fujioka, Tsutomu.

    1997-02-01

    The effect of an unbalanced current distribution in a conductor consisting of chrome plated strands on stability was investigated using a cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) consisting of 27 NbTi chrome-plated strands. In addition, the quench behavior when a non-uniform current distribution was produced in the conductor was studied from the experimental results. Moreover, impedance of the chrome-plated strands was measured using the sample conductor. The results show that the stability is determined by the largest strand current when it is sufficiently large otherwise by the transport current when it is not high enough. It was found that it took a long time to make the conductor quench from the onset of the normal transition of the strand carrying the large current. This is explained by the good diffusivity of the coolant temperature in the conductor's cross section. Since the ramp-rate limitation cannot probably take place if the coolant temperature is diffused well in the conductor's cross section, it is expected the ramp-rate limitation can be prevented using this effect. It is also shown that the chrome-plated strands come into contact with one another with uniform transverse conductance on the order of 10 3 S/m. (author)

  14. A 40 kA NbTi cable in conduit conductor for the large poloidal field coils of net

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torossian, A.; Bessette, D.; Turck, B.; Kazimierzak, B.

    1990-01-01

    The main feature of this cable in conduit design is to separate the manufacture of the full length of the steel conduit (400 m) and of the cable in order to minimize the industrial risk and consequently the cost. A circular cross section for that cable seems to be the most suitable for that purpose: - axisymmetric cabling with full transposition of strands, - cable behaviour independent of the field orientation, - less deformation of subcables, - cross section remains circular when the cable is under tension and makes the slippage of the cable in the conduit easier, - butt welding of 8 m long tubes forming the conduit becomes simpler. The square external shape allows to minimize the amount of insulating material and consequently improves the overall current density of the coil. This conductor is aimed to large poloidal field coils for NET which do not require high field and in that case NbTi seems to be the best choice with regard to reliability and cost but Nb 3 Sn could be used as well. Stainless steel ribbons are inserted between subcables in order to reduce losses induced by the rapid field changes and also to improve the mechanical behaviour of the cable

  15. Design, development, manufacture, testing, and delivery of devices for connection of solar cell panel circuitry to flat conductor cable solar cell array harness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, P. A.; Waddington, D.

    1971-01-01

    The technology status and problem areas which exist for the application of flat conductor cabling to solar cell arrays are summarized. Details covering the design, connector manufacture, and prototype test results are also summarized.

  16. Electromagnetic field analyses of two-layer power transmission cables consisting of coated conductors with magnetic and non-magnetic substrates and AC losses in their superconductor layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahata, Masaaki; Amemiya, Naoyuki

    2008-01-01

    Two-dimensional electromagnetic field analyses were undertaken using two representative cross sections of two-layer cables consisting of coated conductors with magnetic and non-magnetic substrates. The following two arrangements were used for the coated conductors between the inner and outer layers: (1) tape-on-tape and (2) alternate. The calculated magnetic flux profile around each coated conductor was visualized. In the case of the non-magnetic substrate, the magnetic field to which coated conductors in the outer layer are exposed contains more perpendicular component to the conductor wide face (perpendicular field component) when compared to that in the inner layer. On the other hand, for the tape-on-tape arrangement of coated conductors with a magnetic substrate, the reverse is true. In the case of the alternate arrangement of the coated conductor with a magnetic substrate, the magnetic field to which the coated conductors in the inner and outer layers are exposed experiences a small perpendicular field component. When using a non-magnetic substrate, the AC loss in the superconductor layer of the coated conductors in the two-layer cables is dominated by that in the outer layer, whereas the reverse is true in the case of a magnetic substrate. When comparing the AC losses in superconductor layers of coated conductors with non-magnetic and magnetic substrates in two-layer cables, the latter is larger than the former, but the influence of the magnetism of substrates on AC losses in superconductor layers is not remarkable

  17. Study on the dynamic behavior of a current in cable-in-conduit conductors by using self magnetic field measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obana, Tetsuhiro, E-mail: obana.tetsuhiro@LHD.nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Takahata, Kazuya; Hamaguchi, Shinji; Imagawa, Shinsaku; Mito, Toshiyuki [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Kizu, Kaname; Murakami, Haruyuki; Yoshida, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    In order to understand the current behavior inside a cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC), self magnetic field measurements on the CICC were conducted. A prototype NbTi CICC, the configuration of which is a racket shape, for JT-60SA EF coil was used as a short conductor sample. By using Hall sensors arranged around the short conductor sample, the variation in the self magnetic field was measured. Taking into account the measurements, the current behavior inside the CICC was analyzed by using analytical models consisting of line currents. The analytical results indicate that the current distribution in the cross-section of the CICC would be non-uniform before a normal propagation, and the current distribution would be improved after the normal propagation.

  18. Electromagnetic analysis of a superconducting transformer for high current characterization of cable in conduit conductors in background magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangyang; Tan, Yunfei; Fang, Zhen; Jiang, Donghui; Chen, Zhiyou; Chen, Wenge; Kuang, Guangli

    2017-10-01

    A large cable-in-conduit-conductor (CICC) test facility has been designed and fabricated at the High Magnetic Field Laboratory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CHMFL) in order to meet the test requirement of the conductors which are applied to the future fusion reactor. The critical component of the test facility is an 80 kA superconducting transformer which consists of a multi-turn primary coil and a minor-turn secondary coil. As the current source of the conductor samples, the electromagnetic performance of the superconducting transformer determines the stability and safety of the test facility. In this paper, the key factors and parameters, which have much impact on the performance of the transformer, are analyzed in detail. The conceptual design and optimizing principles of the transformer are discussed. An Electromagnetic-Circuit coupled model built in ANSYS Multiphysics is successfully used to investigate the electromagnetic characterization of the transformer under the dynamic operation condition.

  19. First AC loss test and analysis of a Bi2212 cable-in-conduit conductor for fusion application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jinggang; Shi, Yi; Wu, Yu; Li, Jiangang; Wang, Qiuliang; He, Yuxiang; Dai, Chao; Liu, Fang; Liu, Huajun; Mao, Zhehua; Nijhuis, Arend; Zhou, Chao; Devred, Arnaud

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of the Chinese fusion engineering test reactor (CFETR) is to build a fusion engineering tokamak reactor with a fusion power of 50-200 MW, and plan to test the breeding tritium during the fusion reaction. This may require a maximum magnetic field of the central solenoid and toroidal field coils up to 15 T. New magnet technologies should be developed for the next generation of fusion reactors with higher requirements. Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi2212) is considered as a potential and promising superconductor for the magnets in the CFETR. R&D activities are ongoing at the Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences for demonstration of the feasibility of a CICC based on Bi2212 round wire. One sub-size conductor cabled with 42 wires was designed, manufactured and tested with limited strand indentation during cabling and good transport performance. In this paper, the first test results and analysis on the AC loss of Bi2212 round wires and cabled conductor samples are presented. Furthermore, the impact of mechanical load on the AC loss of the sub-size conductor is investigated to represent the operation conditions with electromagnetic loads. The first tests provide an essential basis for the validation of Bi2212 CICC and its application in fusion magnets.

  20. Comparison of Conductor-Temperature Calculations Based on Different Radial-Position-Temperature Detections for High-Voltage Power Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the calculation of the conductor temperature is related to the temperature sensor position in high-voltage power cables and four thermal circuits—based on the temperatures of insulation shield, the center of waterproof compound, the aluminum sheath, and the jacket surface are established to calculate the conductor temperature. To examine the effectiveness of conductor temperature calculations, simulation models based on flow characteristics of the air gap between the waterproof compound and the aluminum are built up, and thermocouples are placed at the four radial positions in a 110 kV cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE insulated power cable to measure the temperatures of four positions. In measurements, six cases of current heating test under three laying environments, such as duct, water, and backfilled soil were carried out. Both errors of the conductor temperature calculation and the simulation based on the temperature of insulation shield were significantly smaller than others under all laying environments. It is the uncertainty of the thermal resistivity, together with the difference of the initial temperature of each radial position by the solar radiation, which led to the above results. The thermal capacitance of the air has little impact on errors. The thermal resistance of the air gap is the largest error source. Compromising the temperature-estimation accuracy and the insulation-damage risk, the waterproof compound is the recommended sensor position to improve the accuracy of conductor-temperature calculation. When the thermal resistances were calculated correctly, the aluminum sheath is also the recommended sensor position besides the waterproof compound.

  1. Development of Nb3Sn cabled conductor by external diffusion process and the effect of strain on the critical current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasztor, G.; Ekin, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    The planned extension of the High Field Test Facility SULTAN at SIN to provide 12 T operation in a 60 cm bore has led to an increased involvements on the part of SIN in the development of reliable A15 multifilamentary conductors. It is the purpose of this paper to describe the development of stranded Nb 3 Sn conductors using the external diffusion technique. Although not fully optimized, the primary cables have high overall critical current densities. Problems associated with the diffusion of the tin into the copper matrix, such as tin coalescence and development of Kirkendall porosity were successfully solved using small diameter wires and by appropriate diffusion and reaction heat treatment conditions. The elastic strain sensitivity of the critical current of a previously developed cable was comparable to that of bronze processed monolithic Nb 3 Sn, while the irreversible strain limit of 1.2% was significantly higher, On the other hand a longer current transfer length (about 4 times that of bronze processed monolithic conductors) was found

  2. Helium flow dynamics and heat transfer in a cable in conduit conductor of superconducting magnets: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaghela, Hitensinh; Sarkar, Biswanath; Lakhera, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting (SC) magnets with Cable in Conduit Conductor (CICC) winding, cooled by helium at 4 K temperature are employed for many applications which require high magnetic field and high current densities. The construction of CICC aims to maintain superconductivity state by optimization of various parameters, i.e., thermal stability, ratio of normal conductor to superconductor material, mechanical strength, low hydraulic impedance, current density, magnetic field, etc. The cryogenic thermal stability of the CICC is of prime importance for the safe, stable and reliable operation of SC magnets. The prediction of thermal and hydraulic behaviour of CICC in large SC magnets is difficult due to the complex geometry, variation of fluid properties, various heat in-flux incidences over the long length of CICC and a complex heat transport phenomenon. A systematic review of the thermal and hydraulic studies of CICC has been presented in the paper highlighting the challenges and opportunities for further improvement in its design and performance. (author)

  3. Reliability studies, construction and test of a pilot cable installation with supra-conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, H.; Allgemeine Elektricitaets-Gesellschaft AEG Telefunken Kabelwerke A.G., Moenchengladbach; Kabel- und Metallwerke Gutehoffnungshuette A.G., Hannover; Linde A.G., Hoellriegelskreuth

    1980-01-01

    The basic knowledge of electrical insulation, of current carrying capacity of superconductors, of contraction of papers and of thermal insulation was extended. Different kinds of cable-joints were developed. Voltage tests of a testline were made. The line stands the operating voltage, the terminations must be improved to stand the test voltage. The cooling system of a larger cable installation was studied. (orig.) [de

  4. submitter Design and Manufacturing of a 45 kA at 10 T REBCO-CORC Cable-in-Conduit Conductor for Large-Scale Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Mulder, Tim; Mentink, Matthias; Silva, Helder; van der Laan, Danko; Dhalle, Marc; ten Kate, Herman

    2016-01-01

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) is developing high-current ReBCO-CORC strand-based cables for use in future large-scale detector magnets. A six-around-one, forced flow gas-cooled ReBCO-CORC cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) is envisioned for application in magnets operating in the 20-40 K temperature range. A CICC, rated for 45 kA at 4.2 K and 10 T, is designed and in production. The CICC comprises a cable of six CORC strands helically wound around a tube. The cable has an expected current density of 105 $A/mm^2$ at 10 T/4.2 K, which corresponds to an overall current density of 53 $A/mm^2$. A cable current density of 110 $A/mm^2$ can be reached when increasing the temperature to 20 K and operating in a magnetic field of 5 T.

  5. Successful performances of the EU-AltTF sample, a large size Nb{sub 3}Sn cable-in-conduit conductor with rectangular geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Della Corte, A; Corato, V; Di Zenobio, A; Fiamozzi Zignani, C; Muzzi, L; Polli, G M; Reccia, L; Turtu, S [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via E Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Bruzzone, P [EPFL-CRPP, Fusion Technology, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Salpietro, E [European Fusion Development Agreement, Close Support Unit, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Vostner, A, E-mail: antonio.dellacorte@enea.i [Fusion for Energy, c/ Josep Pla 2, Edificio B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    One of the design features which yet offers interesting margins for performance optimization of cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs), is their geometry. For relatively small size Nb{sub 3}Sn CICCs, operating at high electromagnetic pressure, such as those for the EDIPO project, it has been experimentally shown that a design based on a rectangular layout with higher aspect ratio leads to the best performance, especially in terms of degradation with electromagnetic loads. To extend this analysis to larger size Nb{sub 3}Sn CICCs, we manufactured and tested, in the SULTAN facility, an ITER toroidal field (TF) cable, inserted into a thick stainless steel tube and then compacted to a high aspect ratio rectangular shape. Besides establishing a new record in Nb{sub 3}Sn CICC performances for ITER TF type cables, the very good test results confirmed that the conductor properties improve not only by lowering the void fraction and raising the cable twist pitch, as already shown during the ITER TFPRO and the EDIPO test campaigns, but also by the proper optimization of the conductor shape with respect to the electromagnetic force distribution. The sample manufacturing steps, along with the main test results, are presented here.

  6. Performance of cable-in-conduit conductors in ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor] toroidal field coils with varying heat loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerns, J.A.; Wong, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The toroidal field (TF) coils in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) will operate with varying heat loads generated by ac losses and nuclear heating. The total heat load is estimated to be 2 kW per TF coil under normal operation and can be higher for different operating scenarios. Ac losses are caused by ramping the poloidal field (PF) for plasma initiation, burn, and shutdown; nuclear heating results from neutrons that penetrate into the coil past the shield. Present methods to reduce or eliminate these losses lead to larger and more expensive machines, which are unacceptable with today's budget constraints. A suitable solution is to design superconductors that operate with high heat loads. The cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) can operate with high heat loads. One CICC design is analyzed for its thermal performance using two computer codes developed at LLNL. One code calculates the steady state flow conditions along the flow path, while the other calculates the transient conditions in the flow. We have used these codes to analyze the superconductor performance during the burn phase of the ITER plasma. The results of these analyses give insight to the choice of flow rate on superconductor performance. 4 refs., 5 figs

  7. A continuous winding scheme for superconducting tokamak coils with cable-in-conduit conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-ho; Chung, Kie-hyung; Lee, Deok Kyo

    2001-01-01

    Superconducting magnet coils are essential for steady-state or long-pulse operation of tokamaks. In an advanced tokamak, the central solenoid (CS) coils are usually divided into several pairs of modules to provide for an extra plasma shaping capability in addition to those available from the shaping (poloidal field) coils. In the conventional pancake winding scheme of superconducting coils, each coil consists of separate superconducting 'double-pancake' coils connected together in series; however, such joints are not superconducting, which is one of the major disadvantages, especially in pulsed operations. A new type of winding was adopted for the ITER CS coil, which consists of cylindrical shell 'layers' joined in series. A disadvantage of this layer winding is its inability to yield modular coils that can provide certain degree of plasma shaping. Joints can be removed in a coil winding pack with the conventional pancake winding scheme, if the conductor is sufficiently long and the winding machine is properly equipped. The compactness, however, cannot be preserved with this scheme. The winding compactness is important since the radial build of the CS coils is one of the major parameters that determine the machine size. In this paper, we present a continuous winding scheme that requires no joints, allows coil fabrication at minimum dimension, and meets the flux swing requirement and other practical aspects

  8. Effect of non-uniform current distribution on the stability in Nb-Ti cable-in-conduit superconducting conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadayama, Y.; Koizumi, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Matsui, K.; Tsuji, H.; Shimamoto, S.

    1996-01-01

    30kA-NbTi Demo Poloidal Coil (DPC-U) exhibited instability such as the conductor quenches at 40% of the rated current which is still much smaller than the expected conductor critical current. It was found that this instability was caused by the non-uniform current distribution in the DPC-U conductor whose strands were insulated from each other. To investigate the instability of the DPC-U conductor, a stability experiment of a subsize conductor consisting of 27 strands was performed and the effect of the current imbalance on the stability was investigated. The current imbalance was forcibly established in the conductor using two current sources in this experiment. The experimental results indicate that the stability margin decreases as the current imbalance becomes larger and that the stability margin of the conductor is governed by the stability of the strand with the highest current in the conductor. Also, it is confirmed from the experimental results that the instability of DPC-U has to be attributed to the current imbalance in the conductor

  9. Metallographic autopsies of full-scale ITER prototype cable-in-conduit conductors after full testing in SULTAN: 1. The mechanical role of copper strands in a CICC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanabria, Carlos; Lee, Peter J; Starch, William; Blum, Timothy; Larbalestier, David C; Devred, Arnaud; Jewell, Matthew C; Pong, Ian; Martovetsky, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    Cables made with Nb 3 Sn-based superconductor strands will provide the 13 T maximum peak magnetic field of the ITER central solenoid (CS) coils and they must survive up to 60 000 electromagnetic cycles. Accordingly, prototype designs of CS cable-in-conduit-conductors (CICC) were electromagnetically tested over multiple magnetic field cycles and warm-up-cool-down scenarios in the SULTAN facility at CRPP. We report here a post-mortem metallographic analysis of two CS CICC prototypes which exhibited some rate of irreversible performance degradation during cycling. The standard ITER CS CICC cable design uses a combination of superconducting and Cu strands, and because the Lorentz force on the strand is proportional to the transport current in the strand, removing the copper strands (while increasing the Cu:SC ratio of the superconducting strands) was proposed as one way of reducing the strand load. In this study we compare the two alternative CICCs, with and without Cu strands, keeping in mind that the degradation after the SULTAN test was lower for the CICC without Cu strands. The post-mortem metallographic evaluation revealed that the overall strand transverse movement was 20% lower in the CICC without Cu strands and that the tensile filament fractures found were less, both indications of an overall reduction in high tensile strain regions. It was interesting to see that the Cu strands in the mixed cable design (with higher degradation) helped reduce the contact stresses on the high pressure side of the CICC, but in either case, the strain reduction mechanisms were not enough to suppress cyclic degradation. Advantages and disadvantages of each conductor design are discussed here aimed to understand the sources of the degradation. (paper)

  10. Electrical connection for aluminium conductors in automotive applications : Prestudy of available solutions for electrical connection methods of aluminium cables

    OpenAIRE

    Hamedi, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    Due to increasing weight of electrical component and wiring harnesses in a vehicle contrary to the demand of light constructed vehicles as well as the constantly increasing and fluctuating price of copper compared to aluminium’s stable and far lower price, the use of aluminium conductors as an alternative have been promoted.  This thesis work lay theoretical research of the available methods used for electrical connection of aluminium conductors in order to increase the knowledge about the av...

  11. A two-dimensional finite element method to calculate the AC loss in superconducting cables, wires and coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Z; Jiang, Y; Pei, R; Coombs, T A [Electronic, Power and Energy Conversion Group, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Ye, L [Department of Electrical Power Engineering, CAU, P. O. Box 210, Beijing 100083 (China); Campbell, A M [Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Zh223@cam.ac.uk

    2008-02-15

    In order to utilize HTS conductors in AC electrical devices, it is very important to be able to understand the characteristics of HTS materials in the AC electromagnetic conditions and give an accurate estimate of the AC loss. A numerical method is proposed in this paper to estimate the AC loss in superconducting conductors including MgB{sub 2} wires and YBCO coated conductors. This method is based on solving a set of partial differential equations in which the magnetic field is used as the state variable to get the current and electric field distributions in the cross sections of the conductors and hence the AC loss can be calculated. This method is used to model a single-element and a multi-element MgB{sub 2} wires. The results demonstrate that the multi-element MgB{sub 2} wire has a lower AC loss than a single-element one when carrying the same current. The model is also used to simulate YBCO coated conductors by simplifying the superconducting thin tape into a one-dimensional region where the thickness of the coated conductor can be ignored. The results show a good agreement with the measurement.

  12. Experimental investigation of cooling perimeter and disturbance length effect on stability of Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, J.R.

    1992-02-01

    The stability of three coils, with similar parameters besides having differing strand diameters, was investigated experimentally using inductive heaters to input disturbances. One of the coils stability was also tested by doubling the inductive heated disturbance length to 10 cm. By computationally deriving approximate inductive heater input energy at 12 T, stability curves show fair agreement with zero-dimensional and one-dimensional computer predictions. Quench velocity and limiting currents also show good agreement with earlier work. Also, the stability measured on one of the coils below its limiting current by disturbing a 10 cm length of conductor was much less than the same samples stability using a 5 cm disturbance length. (author)

  13. Test facility for joints of subsize cable-in-conduit conductors for NET/ITER winding studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager, B.; Chaussonnet, P.; Ciazynski, D.; Serries, J.P.; Simon, R.

    1996-01-01

    The joints between superconducting cables of the ITER coils present a major problem to be solved. A low resistance is required for the cooling, whereas small losses in variable magnetic field are needed for the stability. Different types of joints have already been suggested. Some preliminary measurements have already been made on prototypes of joints cooled in a helium bath at 4.2 K and for low currents. The test facility presented herein allows testing joint prototypes at the 1/8th scale (current up to 10 kA). These joints are cooled under the same conditions as those of ITER, by circulation of supercritical helium. A dipole allows submitting the joint to magnetic fields up to 4 teslas and to field variation rates up to dB/dt = 42 T/s

  14. Fabrication process of a superconducting multifilament conductor of a cable and resulting electric conductor. Procede de fabrication d'un conducteur a brins multifilamentaires supraconducteurs, et conducteur en resultant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fevrier, A; Verhaege, T; Bonnet, P

    1990-10-05

    Elementary conductors constituted of a plurality of superconducting filaments in a metallic matrix are prepared and then twisted. Elementary conductors with a diameter between 0.05 and 0.25 mm without electric insulation are twisted after heating with a pitch of four time the diameter, finally the conductor is insulated.

  15. Metallographic autopsies of full-scale ITER prototype cable-in-conduit conductors after full cyclic testing in SULTAN: II. Significant reduction of strand movement and strand damage in short twist pitch CICCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanabria, Carlos; Lee, Peter J; Starch, William; Larbalestier, David C; Devred, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    Prototype cable-in-conduit-conductors (CICCs) destined for use in the toroidal field and central solenoid coils of the ITER experimental fusion reactor underwent severe cyclic loading in the SULTAN facility. Their autopsies revealed significant and permanent transverse strand migration due to the large Lorentz forces of the SULTAN test. The movement resulted in a 3%–7% void fraction increase on the low pressure (LP) side of the longer twist pitch CICCs. However, short twist pitch conductors exhibited less than 1% void fraction increase in the LP side, as well as a complete absence of the Nb 3 Sn filament fractures observed in the longer twist pitch conductors. We report here a detailed strand-to-cable analysis of short and longer ‘baseline’ twist pitch CICCs. It was found that the use of internal tin (IT) strands in the longer ‘baseline’ twist pitch CICCs can be beneficial possibly because of their superior stiffness—which better resist strand movement—while the use of bronze process strands showed more movement and poorer cyclic test performance. This was not the case for the short twist pitch CICC. Such conductor design seems to work well with both strand types. But it was found that despite the absence of filament fractures, the short twist pitch CICC made from the IT strands studied here developed severe strand distortion during cabling which resulted in diffusion barrier breaks and Sn contamination of the Cu stabilizer during the heat treatment. Conversely, the short twist pitch CICC made from bronze process strands preserved diffusion barrier integrity. (paper)

  16. submitter Development of Joint Terminals for a New Six-Around-One ReBCO-CORC Cable-in-Conduit Conductor Rated 45 kA at 10T/4K

    CERN Document Server

    Mulder, Tim; Mentink, Matthias; Dhalle, Marc; Ten Kate, Herman

    2016-01-01

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) is developing a six-around-one conductor on round core (CORC)-strand-based cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) for use in detector and other large magnet systems. The CICC comprises six ReBCO-CORC strands helically wound around a central tube or rod and inserted in a square aluminum jacket. A major design challenge is finding a simple yet low-resistive method of injecting current homogeneously into the CORC strands of the CICC. In the production of joints for single-CORC cables, we are currently pursuing a method in which the different ReBCO layers at both ends of the CORC cable are trimmed into a staircase-like geometry. A similar trimming method is developed for joint terminals for the ReBCO-CORC-based CICC. A demonstration joint terminal is made to test the various steps of the trimming and manufacturing process before fabricating a joint terminal with real CORC strands. This paper presents an overview of CIC-joint terminal design, simulation results, and...

  17. Performance analysis of covered conductors and aerial bundled cables by the finite elements method; Analise de desempenho de cabos cobertos e pre-reunidos pelo metodo dos elementos finitos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Joao Jose dos Santos

    1996-12-31

    The covered conductors and the aerial bundled cables (abc) for overhead distribution systems 15 kV systems, has been a good solution for the main brazilian electrical utilities when applied in areas with to limited space on poles and to satisfy the performance claimed in tree areas or narrow streets, focusing people safety and electrical service continuity. Otherwise, in this work it is presented that these cables show failures that can be related to the solid isolants used. It is showed the laboratory tests results to characterize its thermal and electric behaviour and an application of the Finite Element Method through the software Flux 2 d was done. The results obtained showed the requirements to be demanded through the specification and proposals elements to change the standard. (author) 57 refs., 20 figs., 73 tabs.

  18. Performance analysis of covered conductors and aerial bundled cables by the finite elements method; Analise de desempenho de cabos cobertos e pre-reunidos pelo metodo dos elementos finitos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Joao Jose dos Santos

    1997-12-31

    The covered conductors and the aerial bundled cables (abc) for overhead distribution systems 15 kV systems, has been a good solution for the main brazilian electrical utilities when applied in areas with to limited space on poles and to satisfy the performance claimed in tree areas or narrow streets, focusing people safety and electrical service continuity. Otherwise, in this work it is presented that these cables show failures that can be related to the solid isolants used. It is showed the laboratory tests results to characterize its thermal and electric behaviour and an application of the Finite Element Method through the software Flux 2 d was done. The results obtained showed the requirements to be demanded through the specification and proposals elements to change the standard. (author) 57 refs., 20 figs., 73 tabs.

  19. The Danish Superconducting Cable Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The design and construction of a superconducting cable is described. The cable has a room temperature dielectric design with the cryostat placed inside the electrical insulation.BSCCO 2223 superconducting tapes wound in helix form around a former are used as the cable conductor. Results from...

  20. 30 CFR 7.407 - Test for flame resistance of electric cables and cable splices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test for flame resistance of electric cables... Electric Cables, Signaling Cables, and Cable Splice Kits § 7.407 Test for flame resistance of electric... material and 21/2 inches of conductor insulation. The type, amperage, voltage rating, and construction of...

  1. Power distribution: conductors in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, R.

    2007-01-01

    This article takes a look at the use of aluminium conductors in medium and low-voltage cables. The author discusses how the increasing price of copper has led to the increasing use of aluminium as a material for the production of the conductors used in medium and low-voltage power cables. Aid is provided that is to help purchasers make the correct decisions when buying medium and low-voltage cables. The current market situation is examined and the appropriate norms are looked at. Technical data and economic aspects are discussed, both for medium and low-voltage applications. The electrical characteristics of the type of cable to be used are examined and discussed

  2. Composite conductor containing superconductive wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, W.L.; Wong, J.

    1974-03-26

    A superconductor cable substitute made by coworking multiple rods of superconductive niobium--titanium or niobium--zirconium alloy with a common copper matrix to extend the copper and rods to form a final elongated product which has superconductive wires distributed in a reduced cross-section copper conductor with a complete metallurgical bond between the normal-conductive copper and the superconductor wires contained therein is described. The superconductor cable can be in the form of a tube.

  3. The CMS conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Horváth, I L; Marti, H P; Neuenschwander, J; Smith, R P; Fabbricatore, P; Musenich, R; Calvo, A; Campi, D; Curé, B; Desirelli, Alberto; Favre, G; Riboni, P L; Sgobba, Stefano; Tardy, T; Sequeira-Lopes-Tavares, S

    2000-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the experiments, which are being designed in the framework of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project at CERN, the design field of the CMS magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 13 m and the aperture is 6 m. This high magnetic field is achieved by means of a 4 layer, 5 modules superconducting coil. The coil is wound from an Al-stabilized Rutherford type conductor. The nominal current of the magnet is 20 kA at 4.5 K. In the CMS coil the structural function is ensured, unlike in other existing Al-stabilized thin solenoids, both by the Al-alloy reinforced conductor and the external former. In this paper the retained manufacturing process of the 50-km long reinforced conductor is described. In general the Rutherford type cable is surrounded by high purity aluminium in a continuous co-extrusion process to produce the Insert. Thereafter the reinforcement is joined by Electron Beam Welding to the pure Al of the insert, before being machined to the final dimensions. During the...

  4. Cable SGEMP Code Validation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, William Parker [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Center for CA Weapons Systems Engineering

    2013-05-01

    This report compared data taken on the Modular Bremsstrahlung Simulator using copper jacketed (cujac) cables with calculations using the RHSD-RA Cable SGEMP analysis tool. The tool relies on CEPXS/ONBFP to perform radiation transport in a series of 1D slices through the cable, and then uses a Green function technique to evaluate the expected current drive on the center conductor. The data were obtained in 2003 as part of a Cabana verification and validation experiment using 1-D geometries, but were not evaluated until now. The agreement between data and model is not adequate unless gaps between the dielectric and outer conductor (ground) are assumed, and these gaps are large compared with what is believed to be in the actual cable.

  5. Microminiature coaxial cable and methods manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongianni, W.L.

    1986-04-08

    A coaxial cable is provided having a ribbon inner conductor surrounded by a dielectric and a circumferential conductor. The coaxial cable may be microminiature comprising a very thin ribbon strip conductor from between 5 to 15 [mu]m thick and from 150 to 200 [mu]m wide, having a surrounding foamed dielectric or parylene applied thereon by a vapor plasma process and an outer conductor of an adhering high conductivity metal vacuum deposited on the dielectric. Alternately the foam dielectric embodiment may have a contiguous parylene coating applied adjacent the inner conductor or the outer conductor or both. Also, the cable may be fabricated by forming a thin ribbon of strip conductive material into an inner conductor, applying thereabout a dielectric by spraying on a solution of polystyrene and polyethylene and then vacuum depositing and adhering high conductivity metal about the dielectric. The cable strength may be increased by adding glass microfilament fibers or glass microballoons to the solution of polystyrene and polyethylene. Further, the outer conductive layer may be applied by electroless deposition in an aqueous solution rather than by vacuum deposition. A thin coating of parylene is preferably applied to the outer conductor to prevent its oxidation and inhibit mechanical abrasion. 2 figs.

  6. Nuclear instrumentation cable end seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, C.P.; Brown, D.P.

    1979-01-01

    An improved coaxial end seal for hermetically sealed nuclear instrumentation cable exhibiting an improved breakdown pulse noise characteristic under high voltage, high temperature conditions is described. A tubular insulator body has metallized interior and exterior surface portions which are braze sealed to a center conductor and an outer conductive sheath. The end surface of the insulator body which is directed toward the coaxial cable to which it is sealed has a recessed surface portion within which the braze seal material terminates

  7. Test and evaluation of conductors for superconducting magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schermer, R.I.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1976-01-01

    Pancake coils of a monolithic conductor and several different types of braid and cable, using a variety of insulating tapes and bonding resins were constructed. The coils were tested to quench in self-field at currents up to 2700 A. Results are presented for the training behavior of the various coils as compared to short-sample tests. A conductor composed of several braids or cables in parallel, which will be suitable for the in situ fabrication of large magnets is described

  8. Modelling of long High Voltage AC Cables in the Transmission System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella

    : conductor-insulation (with or without SC layers)-conductor-insulation(-conductor-insulation), whereas a transmission line single core XLPE cable will normally have the configuration: conductor-SC layerinsulation-SC layer-conductor-SC layer-conductor-insulation. Furthermore the existing cable models use......, EMTDC/PSCAD is provided. A typical HV AC underground power cable is formed by 4 main layers, namely; Conductor-Insulation-Screen-Insulation. In addition to these main layers, the cable also has semiconductive screens, swelling tapes and metal foil. For high frequency modelling in EMT-based software......-SC layer-solid hollow conductor) is implemented in the model. These improvements result in a more correct series impedance and hence a more correct damping of the simulations. Even though the series impedance is more correct, it does still not include the proximity effect and high frequency oscillations...

  9. Neutron detector with gamma compensated cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, H.D.

    1975-01-01

    An illustrative embodiment of the invention describes a technique for essentially eliminating the radiation induced background currents that are generated in the cable that connects an ''in-core'' neutron detector to an electrical terminal that is outside of the reactor's radiation field. This undesirable radiation-induced cable current is suppressed through an appropriate selection of conductor and cable sheath materials and sizes that generally satisfy the equation: Z/sub l/sup n/d/sub l/ = Z/sub s/sup m/d/sub s/ where Z is the atomic number of the material; d is a characteristic of the size of the cable component; m and/n have values between 1 and 5 to express the electron emissivity of the cable component from photoelectric and Compton effects; l represents the conductor; and s represents the sheath. Thus, the radiation-generated electrons emitted from the conductor and the oppositely-directed electrons emitted from the inner surface of the cable sheath are mutually cancelled if this equation is satisfied. A typical cable that does meet this criterion at low temperatures has a centrally disposed Zircaloy-2 inner conductor of 0.011 inch diameter, an annular insulation of magnesium oxide powder compacted to 100 percent density, and an Inconel sheath with an outside diameter of 0.062 inch and 0.011 inch wall thickness. (auth)

  10. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) contributes to neuropathic spontaneous pain-related aversion via NR2B receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Wang, Gongming; Ma, Jinben; Liu, Chengxiao; Liu, Xijiang; Zhan, Yufeng; Zhang, Mengyuan

    2016-10-01

    The rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) plays an important role in pain affect. Previous investigations have reported that the rACC mediates the negative affective component of inflammatory pain and contributed to the aversive state of nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an activity-dependent neuromodulator in the adult brain, is believed to play a role in the development and maintenance of inflammatory and neuropathic pain in the spinal cord. However, whether and how BDNF in the rACC regulates pain-related aversion due to peripheral nerve injury is largely unknown. Behaviorally, using conditioned place preference (CPP) training in rats, which is thought to reveal spontaneous pain-related aversion, we found that CPP was acquired following spinal clonidine in rats with partial sciatic nerve transection. Importantly, BDNF was upregulated within the rACC in of rats with nerve injury and enhanced the CPP acquisition, while a local injection of a BDNF-tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) antagonist into the rACC completely blocked this process. Finally, we demonstrated that the BDNF/TrkB pathway exerted its function by activating the NR2B receptor, which is widely accepted to be a crucial factor contributing to pain affect. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the BDNF/TrkB-mediated signaling pathway in the rACC is involved in the development of neuropathic spontaneous pain-related aversion and that this process is dependent upon activation of NR2B receptors. These findings suggest that suppression of the BDNF-related signaling pathway in the rACC may provide a novel strategy to overcome pain-related aversion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Aluminium cables in automotive applications : Prestudy of aluminium cable uses in Scania products&Failure analysis and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Man, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand of light constructed vehicles as well as soaring price of copper metal owing to limited nature resources have been promoting the use of aluminium metal as an alternative conductor of automotive cables. This thesis work is to lay theoretical foundations for further research and development regarding the introduction of new automotive cables i.e. aluminium cables. Current application of automotive aluminium cables in automotive industry as well as failure analysis and eval...

  12. Conductores recubiertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Garcés

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1960s, Nb–Ti, exhibiting a superconducting transition temperature Tc of 9K, and Nb3Sn, with a Tc of 18K have been the materials of choice for superconducting applications. The prospects for the future changed dramatically with the discovery of ceramic high temperature superconductors exhibiting Tc values well above the boiling temperature of liquid nitrogen (77K. These materials are now widely considered for large power applications, electronics and magnets as in microelectronics. The first case corresponding power transmission wires, motors, generators, fault current limiters, transformers, etc. and technology related small scale manufacturing SQUID superconductors. Nevertheless, the fabrication of useful conductors out of these layered cuprates encountered some problems such as chemical and structural purity, stability, oxygen stoichiometric and weak links limiting current carrying capacity. However, despite these difficulties a first generation of silver sheathed composites based on (Bi,PbSrCaCuO (solving the problem of inherent fragility of these materials has already been commercialized. It is now a widespread view that superconducting wires with high performance under strong magnetic fields and at elevated temperatures above liquid nitrogen, will need to be realized using the (REBaCuO (RE = rare earth materials. Chemical deposition techniques (CVD of thick films, appear as the most suitable for this purpose, so the study of various chemical deposition techniques that allow to grow superconducting films and buffer layers with the right texture to produce a coated conductor Proper alignment and high current carrying capacity (∼ 1 MA/cm2 are now booming.

  13. Rotation analysis on large complex superconducting cables based on numerical modeling and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Jinggang; Yue, Donghua; Zhang, Xingyi; Wu, Yu; Liu, Xiaochuan; Liu, Huajun; Jin, Huan; Dai, Chao; Nijhuis, Arend; Zhou, Chao; Devred, Arnaud

    2018-01-01

    The conductors used in large fusion reactors, e.g. ITER, CFETR and DEMO, are made of cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) with large diameters up to about 50 mm. The superconducting and copper strands are cabled around a central spiral and then wrapped with stainless-steel tape of 0.1 mm thickness. The

  14. Preliminary tests to determine the fatigue curve of the Ibis ACSR (Aluminum Cable Steel Reinforced) conductor; Ensaios preliminares para determinacao da curva de fadiga do cabo condutor ACSR Ibis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Daniel M. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB-Gama), DF (Brazil)], E-mail: danielrosa@unb.br; Fadel, Aida A.; Araujo, Jose Alexander; Ferreira, Jorge Luiz A.; Henriques, Antonio Manoel D. [Universidade de Brasilia (EnM/UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: aida@unb.br, alex07@unb.br, jorge@unb.br, Henriques@unb.br; Hortencio, Tania M.O.S. [Companhia Energetica de Goias Distribuicao S.A. (CELG D), Goiania, GO (Brazil)], E-mail: tania.hortencio@celg.com.br

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work was to present a fretting fatigue experimental rig for overhead conductors and to carry out a set of experiments to obtain life estimative for a standard Ibis ACSR, Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced. A preliminary S-N (Wohler) Curve was obtained in the medium high cycle fatigue regime. Experiments considered the occurrence of at least two wire breaks to obtain each point of the S-N curve, which was compared to CIGRE's Safe Border Line (CSBL). The experimental results showed five to ten times large lives than the ones provided by CSBL adoption. (author)

  15. Test of ITER conductors in SULTAN: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzone, Pierluigi; Stepanov, Boris; Wesche, Rainer; Herzog, Robert; Calzolaio, Ciro; Vogel, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The ITER Toroidal Field (TF) conductor qualification phase has been carried out by testing short sample prototype conductors in the SULTAN test facility. This phase, started in 2007, has been substantially completed after minor adjustment of the conductor specification and test procedures. All the parties involved in the TF conductor procurement passed the qualification phase. Starting 2010, the samples for TF process qualification phase are tested in SULTAN. A summary of the results for all the ITER Qualification samples and an updated statistics are presented for the V-I and V-T characteristics of the cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC), including Nb 3 Sn and NbTi samples assembled with either a 'bottom joint' or a 'U-bend'. The technical improvements of the test facility are reported, including the enhanced cyclic loading rate and the calibration of the current meter. An outlook of the ITER conductor tests in the coming years is also presented.

  16. Comparison study of cable geometries and superconducting tape layouts for high-temperature superconductor cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Wurui; Shao, Tianchong; Gao, Yuanwen

    2018-04-01

    High-temperature superconductor (HTS) rare-earth-barium-copper-oxide (REBCO) tapes are very promising for use in high-current cables. The cable geometry and the layout of the superconducting tapes are directly related to the performance of the HTS cable. In this paper, we use numerical methods to perform a comparison study of multiple-stage twisted stacked-tape cable (TSTC) conductors to find better cable structures that can both improve the critical current and minimize the alternating current (AC) losses of the cable. The sub-cable geometry is designed to have a stair-step shape. Three superconducting tape layouts are chosen and their transport performance and AC losses are evaluated. The magnetic field and current density profiles of the cables are obtained. The results show that arrangement of the superconducting tapes from the interior towards the exterior of the cable based on their critical current values in descending order can enhance the cable's transport capacity while significantly reducing the AC losses. These results imply that cable transport capacity improvements can be achieved by arranging the superconducting tapes in a manner consistent with the electromagnetic field distribution. Through comparison of the critical currents and AC losses of four types of HTS cables, we determine the best structural choice among these cables.

  17. LTS and HTS high current conductor development for DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzone, Pierluigi; Sedlak, Kamil; Uglietti, Davide; Bykovsky, Nikolay; Muzzi, Luigi; De Marzi, Gainluca; Celentano, Giuseppe; Della Corte, Antonio; Turtù, Simonetta; Seri, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Design and R&D for DEMO TF conductors. • Wind&react vs. react&wind options for Nb_3Sn high grade TF conductors. • Progress in the manufacture of short length Nb_3Sn proptotypes. • Design and prototype manufacture for high current HTS cabled conductors. - Abstract: The large size of the magnets for DEMO calls for very large operating current in the forced flow conductor. A plain extrapolation from the superconductors in use for ITER is not adequate to fulfill the technical and cost requirements. The proposed DEMO TF magnets is a graded winding using both Nb_3Sn and NbTi conductors, with operating current of 82 kA @ 13.6 T peak field. Two Nb_3Sn prototypes are being built in 2014 reflecting the two approaches suggested by CRPP (react&wind method) and ENEA (wind&react method). The Nb_3Sn strand (overall 200 kg) has been procured at technical specification similar to ITER. Both the Nb_3Sn strand and the high RRR, Cr plated copper wire (400 kg) have been delivered. The cabling trials are carried out at TRATOS Cavi using equipment relevant for long length production. The completion of the manufacture of the two 20 m long prototypes is expected in the end of 2014 and their test is planned in 2015 at CRPP. In the scope of a long term technology development, high current HTS conductors are built at CRPP and ENEA. A DEMO-class prototype conductor is developed and assembled at CRPP: it is a flat cable composed of 20 twisted stacks of coated conductor tape soldered into copper shells. The 10 kA conductor developed at ENEA consists of stacks of coated conductor tape inserted into a slotted and twisted Al core, with a central cooling channel. Samples have been manufactured in industrial environment and the scalability of the process to long production lengths has been proven.

  18. AC loss, interstrand resistance and mechanical properties of prototype EU DEMO TF conductors up to 30 000 load cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagotintsev, K.; Nijhuis, A.

    2018-07-01

    Two prototype Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit conductors conductors were designed and manufactured for the toroidal field (TF) magnet system of the envisaged European DEMO fusion reactor. The AC loss, contact resistance and mechanical properties of two sample conductors were tested in the Twente Cryogenic Cable Press under cyclic load up to 30 000 cycles. Though both conductors were designed to operate at 82 kA in a background magnetic field of 13.6 T, they reflect different approaches with respect to the magnet winding pack assembly. The first approach is based on react and wind technology while the second is the more common wind and react technology. Each conductor was tested first for AC loss in virgin condition without handling. The impact of Lorentz load during magnet operation was simulated using the cable press. In the press each conductor specimen was subjected to transverse cyclic load up to 30 000 cycles in liquid helium bath at 4.2 K. Here a summary of results for AC loss, contact resistance, conductor deformation, mechanical heat production and conductor stiffness evolution during cycling of the load is presented. Both conductors showed similar mechanical behaviour but quite different AC loss. In comparison with previously tested ITER TF conductors, both DEMO TF conductors possess very low contact resistance resulting in high coupling loss. At the same time, load cycling has limited impact on properties of DEMO TF conductors in comparison with ITER TF conductors.

  19. Testing of the 3M Company Composite Conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, John P [ORNL; Rizy, D Tom [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL

    2010-10-01

    The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum-Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of this new conductor design by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. A unique facility called the Powerline Conductor Accelerated Testing (PCAT) Facility was built at ORNL for testing overhead conductors. The PCAT has been uniquely designed for testing overhead bare transmission line conductors at high currents and temperatures after they have been installed and tensioned to the manufacturer's specifications. The ability to operate a transmission line conductor in this manner does not exist elsewhere in the United States. Four classes of ACCR cable designed by the 3M Company have been successfully test at ORNL small, medium, large and small/compact. Based on these and other manufacturer tests, the 3M Company has successfully introduced the ACCR into the commercial market and has completed over twenty installations for utility companies.

  20. Testing of the 3M Company ACCR Conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, J.P.; RIzy, D.T.; Kisner, R.A.; Deve, H.E. (3M Comp.)

    2010-09-15

    The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum- Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors so the core has a lower density and higher conductivity. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of these new conductor designs by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. Overhead transmission lines use bare aluminum conductor strands wrapped around a steel core strands to transmit electricity. The typical cable is referred to as aluminum-conductor steel-reinforced (ACSR). The outer strands are aluminum, chosen for its conductivity, low weight, and low cost. The center strand is of steel for the strength required to support the weight without stretching the aluminum due to its ductility. The power density of a transmission corridor has been directly increased by increasing the voltage level. Transmission voltages have increased from 115-kV to 765- kV over the past 80 years. In the United States, further increasing the voltage level is not feasible at this point in time, so in order to further increase the power density of a transmission corridor, conductor designs that increase the current carrying capability have been examined. One of the key limiting factors in the design of a transmission line is the conductor sag which determines the clearance of the conductor above ground or underlying structures needed for electrical safety. Increasing the current carrying capability of a conductor increases the joule heating in the conductor which increases the conductor sag. A conductor designed for high-temperature and lowsag operation requires an engineered modification of the conductor materials. To make an advanced cable, the 3M Company solution has been the development of a composite conductor consisting of Nextel ceramic fibers to replace the steel core and

  1. Selection of a cryostabilized Nb3Sn conductor cooling system for the large coil program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, J.W.H.; Murphy, J.H.; Jones, C.K.

    1977-01-01

    The Large Coil Project (LCP) is a program to design, fabricate and test relatively large superconducting toroidal field coils for tokamak fusion reactor applications. Some basic requirements that affect the conductor design are cryostabilization, 8 tesla peak magnetic field, and a specified maximum refrigeration load. The engineering considerations that led to the selection of a forced flow supercritical helium-cooled cable conductor are described. Comparisons of forced flow supercritical helium cooled cable conductors with pool boiling cooled monolithic conductors were made with regard to a number of factors such as the thermal capacity of the coolant, the thermal design margins, propensity for conductor normalization, predictability of the thermal-flow performance, controllability of the cooling conditions, etc. It was concluded that, although there exists a number of design uncertainties and engineering problems, forced flow supercritical helium cooled conductors can provide a far more reliable coil design than the pool boiling monolithic concept. The design of a cryostabilized Nb 3 Sn hollow cabled conductor involved detailed considerations of the need for fully transposed conductor strands, the nonuniform void and helium flow distributions, heat transfer from the twisted conductor strands, and helium flow rate and pump work requirements. The uncertainties in the design are discussed and the specifications of a reference Nb 3 Sn conductor concept that meets the design requirements and constraints are presented

  2. Parametric studh on coupling loss in subsize ITER Nb3Sn cabled specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, Arend; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Bruzzone, Pierluigi; Bottura, Luca

    1996-01-01

    The cable in conduit conductors for the various ITER coils are required to function under pulse conditions and fields up to 13 T. A parametric study, restricted to a limited variation of the reference cable lay out, is carried out to clarify the quantitative impact of various cable parameters on the

  3. Status of European manufacture of Toroidal Field conductor and strand for JT-60SA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zani, Louis, E-mail: louis.zani@jt60sa.org [Fusion for Energy, D-85748 Garching (Germany); CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Barabaschi, Pietro; Di Pietro, Enrico [Fusion for Energy, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    In the framework of the JT-60SA project, part of the Broader Approach (BA) agreement, EURATOM provides to Japan, the Toroidal Field (TF) magnet system, consisting of 18 superconducting coils. The procurement of the conductor for the TF coils is managed by Fusion for Energy, acting as EU representative in the BA agreement. The TF conductor procurement is split into two contracts, one dedicated to the production of Niobium Titanium (NbTi) and Cu strand and the other to TF conductor production through strand cabling and cable jacketing operations. The TF conductor is a rectangular-shaped cable-in-conduit conductor formed by 486 (0.81 mm diameter) strands (2/3 NbTi–1/3 Cu) wrapped in a stainless steel foil and embedded into a stainless steel jacket. The 18 TF coils require (including spares) 115 ‘Unit Lengths’ (UL) of such conductor, each 240 m long for a total of about 28 km. Correspondingly about 10,000 km for NbTi and 5000 km for Cu strand are produced. The Japanese company Furukawa Electric Co. (FEC) is in charge of TF strand manufacture while the Italian company Italian Consortium for Applied Superconductivity (ICAS) is in charge of cabling and jacketing of TF conductor ULs. In the paper, we provide information on the production stages presently achieved in TF strand and conductor contracts.

  4. Challenges and status of ITER conductor production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devred, A.; Backbier, I.; Bessette, D.; Bevillard, G.; Gardner, M.; Jong, C.; Lillaz, F.; Mitchell, N.; Romano, G.; Vostner, A.

    2014-04-01

    Taking the relay of the large Hadron collider (LHC) at CERN, ITER has become the largest project in applied superconductivity. In addition to its technical complexity, ITER is also a management challenge as it relies on an unprecedented collaboration of seven partners, representing more than half of the world population, who provide 90% of the components as in-kind contributions. The ITER magnet system is one of the most sophisticated superconducting magnet systems ever designed, with an enormous stored energy of 51 GJ. It involves six of the ITER partners. The coils are wound from cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs) made up of superconducting and copper strands assembled into a multistage cable, inserted into a conduit of butt-welded austenitic steel tubes. The conductors for the toroidal field (TF) and central solenoid (CS) coils require about 600 t of Nb3Sn strands while the poloidal field (PF) and correction coil (CC) and busbar conductors need around 275 t of Nb-Ti strands. The required amount of Nb3Sn strands far exceeds pre-existing industrial capacity and has called for a significant worldwide production scale up. The TF conductors are the first ITER components to be mass produced and are more than 50% complete. During its life time, the CS coil will have to sustain several tens of thousands of electromagnetic (EM) cycles to high current and field conditions, way beyond anything a large Nb3Sn coil has ever experienced. Following a comprehensive R&D program, a technical solution has been found for the CS conductor, which ensures stable performance versus EM and thermal cycling. Productions of PF, CC and busbar conductors are also underway. After an introduction to the ITER project and magnet system, we describe the ITER conductor procurements and the quality assurance/quality control programs that have been implemented to ensure production uniformity across numerous suppliers. Then, we provide examples of technical challenges that have been encountered and

  5. Challenges and status of ITER conductor production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devred, A; Backbier, I; Bessette, D; Bevillard, G; Gardner, M; Jong, C; Lillaz, F; Mitchell, N; Romano, G; Vostner, A

    2014-01-01

    Taking the relay of the large Hadron collider (LHC) at CERN, ITER has become the largest project in applied superconductivity. In addition to its technical complexity, ITER is also a management challenge as it relies on an unprecedented collaboration of seven partners, representing more than half of the world population, who provide 90% of the components as in-kind contributions. The ITER magnet system is one of the most sophisticated superconducting magnet systems ever designed, with an enormous stored energy of 51 GJ. It involves six of the ITER partners. The coils are wound from cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs) made up of superconducting and copper strands assembled into a multistage cable, inserted into a conduit of butt-welded austenitic steel tubes. The conductors for the toroidal field (TF) and central solenoid (CS) coils require about 600 t of Nb 3 Sn strands while the poloidal field (PF) and correction coil (CC) and busbar conductors need around 275 t of Nb–Ti strands. The required amount of Nb 3 Sn strands far exceeds pre-existing industrial capacity and has called for a significant worldwide production scale up. The TF conductors are the first ITER components to be mass produced and are more than 50% complete. During its life time, the CS coil will have to sustain several tens of thousands of electromagnetic (EM) cycles to high current and field conditions, way beyond anything a large Nb 3 Sn coil has ever experienced. Following a comprehensive R and D program, a technical solution has been found for the CS conductor, which ensures stable performance versus EM and thermal cycling. Productions of PF, CC and busbar conductors are also underway. After an introduction to the ITER project and magnet system, we describe the ITER conductor procurements and the quality assurance/quality control programs that have been implemented to ensure production uniformity across numerous suppliers. Then, we provide examples of technical challenges that have been

  6. Method of installing well conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houser, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method of installing a well conductor in a marine environment. It comprises sealing a well conductor with a watertight plug; submerging the conductor from an elevated platform; adding additional conductor lengths to the conductor as needed thereby forming a conductor string; adjusting the buoyancy of the string to control the lowering of the string to the sea floor; and drilling through the plug after the conductor string has achieved the desired penetration depth

  7. Device for testing continuity and/or short circuits in a cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Arthur R. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A device for testing current paths is attachable to a conductor. The device automatically checks the current paths of the conductor for continuity of a center conductor, continuity of a shield and a short circuit between the shield and the center conductor. The device includes a pair of connectors and a circuit to provide for testing of the conductive paths of the cable. The pair of connectors electrically connects the conductive paths of a cable to be tested with the circuit paths of the circuit. The circuit paths in the circuit include indicators to simultaneously indicate the results of the testing.

  8. Cable handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    In computerized axial tomography scanning, problems arise in exchanging electrical signals between fixed and rotating assemblies. A novel method of overcoming this problem is described in detail for both signal and high voltage cables. Apparatus using a sequence of drums and pulleys is used to maintain the interconnecting cables in a neat arrangement and free from mechanical strain. The apparatus is simple and relatively easy and inexpensive to assemble and maintain. (UK)

  9. Power cables now and in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanser, G

    1976-01-01

    A survey is presented of the problems to be faced with the underground supply of electric power to large, urban areas and of the contributions that improvements in power cable technology will make to solving these problems. It is concluded that the increase in population densities and the rising demand for energy on the part of individual consumers bring up problems for electricity supply and thus have a direct influence on development trends in cable engineering. During the last few years the increasing capacities required in power transmission have led to the use of higher voltages and to the application of special methods of cooling for the oil-filled cable. When the technical and economic possibilities with present-day cable techniques have been exhausted, we must anticipate the introduction of new types of cable, i.e., gas-insulated cables and superconducting cables. The problems involved in power distribution are being solved successfully by resorting to larger conductor cross-sectional areas and by raising the voltage levels. The advantages of plastic cables are also being utilized on a wide scale. The requirement that there be freedom from partial discharges in plastic cables operating at medium and higher voltages is becoming increasingly more widely adopted as a new quality criterion in cable engineering. New materials from the polymer range are permitting the introduction of fittings which are easier to install and which reduce costs. Cable engineering has already, to a considerable extent, adapted itself to face future problems. Even so, there are still a large number of problems in cable engineering requiring research, development and operation.

  10. Utilization of two-way multicore cables and comparison of various electrode configurations in electrical prospecting; Denki tansa ni okeru sohokogata tashin cable no riyo to kakushu dekyoku haichi no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takakura, S [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Matsushima, J [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    For more precise electrical prospecting, the new multicore cable was developed to allow high-density measurement by conventional equipment. Since conventional multicore cables are inferior in cost, length and weight, the new cable is composed of an n-conductor cable, two n-conductor male connectors and n lead wires. For connection of the multi-conductor cable and lead wires, cable sheath is peeled at n points at specific intervals. Sheath of the k-th conductor is peeled at k-th point from the terminal, and restored for insulation after connection of the conductor and lead wire. The male connectors are attached to the both ends of the multi-conductor cable. Since this two-way type cable can be used at every end, the measuring equipment can measure at one divisional point after another of a long measuring line while shifting the equipment from one point to another. All measurements are perfected only with two short cables. Resistivities were successfully measured along the long measuring line of 480m long with 97 electrodes arranged at intervals of 5m. Various electrode configurations were also compared. 1 ref., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. submitter On Roebel Cable Geometry for Accelerator Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Fleiter, J; Ballarino, A

    2016-01-01

    Roebel-type cables made of a ReBCO conductor are potential candidates for high-field accelerator magnets. The necessity to promote a large effective transverse section in a Roebel cable to avoid local overstress leading to degradation in electrical performance has been recently addressed. In this paper, a new geometry of meander tapes for a Roebel cable that enhances both the transverse effective section and the current margin at crossing segments is discussed. As Roebel cables are bent at the coil ends, the modulation of the bending radius of strands along the cable pitch leads to a shift of the strands with respect to each other. The shift magnitude is analytically investigated in this paper as a function of both cable features and coil geometry. Finally, the minimum transposition pitch of Roebel cables is determined on the basis of coil characteristics.

  12. Stationary operational behavior unsymmetrical superconducting three-phase cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iser, R.

    1974-01-01

    A superconducting cable with a coaxial conductor arrangement is electrically unsymmetrical. Voltage and current relationships are analyzed for such a cable where, as a result of reactance and capacitance matrices being unsymmetric, large voltage unsymmetry appears. This limits the practical length of this type of cable. It is shown that a significant gain in symmetry is attained by the use of two cables connected in parallel. The compensating current which then occurs involves no disadvantage. The circuit described permits overloads of up to 100 percent.

  13. Long-term test of the 22.9kV HTS power cable system in LS Cable Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hyun Man; Lee, Chang Young; Kim, Choon Dong; Kim, Do Hyung; Park, In Son; Ji, Bong Ki; Kim, Dong Wook; Cho, Jeonwook

    2006-01-01

    Since 2001, LS cable Ltd. has been developing the design, manufacturing and evaluation technologies for high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable system as a member of DAPAS (Dream for Advanced Power system by Applied Superconductivity technology) program in Korea. The 30 m HTS cable system that is rated at 22.9 kV and 1.2 kA giving a rated capacity of 50 MVA had been developed and tested. The cable was designed as a cold dielectric type employing Bi-2223 HTS tapes and polypropylene (PP) laminated paper as the conductor and electrical insulation, respectively. The cable is cooled with sub-cooled liquid nitrogen at temperature from 75 to 77 K. The manufacturing and the installation of the cable system were completed in 2004. Long-term performance test of the cable system has been conducted for six months to verify its electric and mechanical properties in 2005

  14. Cable Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottura, L [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    Superconductor stability is at the core of the design of any successful cable and magnet application. This chapter reviews the initial understanding of the stability mechanism, and reviews matters of importance for stability such as the nature and magnitude of the perturbation spectrum and the cooling mechanisms. Various stability strategies are studied, providing criteria that depend on the desired design and operating conditions.

  15. Heat resistant/radiation resistant cable and incore structure test device for FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Hajime; Shiono, Takeo; Sato, Yoshimi; Ito, Kazumi; Sudo, Shigeaki; Saito, Shin-ichi; Mitsui, Hisayasu.

    1995-01-01

    A heat resistant/radiation resistant coaxial cable of the present invention comprises an insulation layer, an outer conductor and a protection cover in this order on an inner conductor, in which the insulation layer comprises thermoplastic polyimide. In the same manner, a heat resistant/radiation resistant power cable has an insulation layer comprising thermoplastic polyimide on a conductor, and is provided with a protection cover comprising braid of alamide fibers at the outer circumference of the insulation layer. An incore structure test device for an FBR type reactor comprises the heat resistant/radiation resistant coaxial cable and/or the power cable. The thermoplastic polyimide can be extrusion molded, and has excellent radiation resistant by the extrusion, as well as has high dielectric withstand voltage, good flexibility and electric characteristics at high temperature. The incore structure test device for the FBR type reactor of the present invention comprising such a cable has excellent reliability and durability. (T.M.)

  16. Fabrication and tests of EF conductors for JT-60SA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kizu, Kaname, E-mail: kizu.kaname@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Kashiwa, Yoshitoshi; Murakami, Haruyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Obana, Tetsuhiro; Takahata, Kazuya [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Yoshida, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Hamaguchi, Shinji [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Matsui, Kunihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Nakamura, Kazuya; Takao, Tomoaki [Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Yanagi, Nagato; Imagawa, Shinsaku; Mito, Toshiyuki [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    The conductors for plasma equilibrium field (EF) coils of JT-60SA are NbTi cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductor with stainless steel 316L jacket. The production of superconductors for actual EF coils started from February 2010. Nine superconductors with 444 m in length were produced up to July 2010. More than 300 welding of jackets were performed. Six nonconformities were found by inspections as go gauge, visual inspection and X-ray test. In order to shorten the manufacturing time schedule, helium leak test was conducted at once after connecting the long length jacket not just after the welding. The maximum force to pull the cable into jacket was about 7.6 kN on average. The mass flow rates of 9 conductors showed almost same values indicating that there are no blockages in the conductors. The measured current sharing temperature agreed with the expectation values from strand performance indicating that no degradation was caused by production process. The coupling time constants of conductors ranged from 80 to 90 ms which are much smaller than the design value of 200 ms.

  17. Organic dielectrics in high voltage cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeer, J

    1962-03-01

    It appears that the limit has been reached in the applicability of oil-impregnated paper as the dielectric for ehv cables, as with rising voltages the prevention of conductor losses becomes increasingly difficult, while the dielectric losses of the insulation, increasing as the square of the voltage, contribute to a greater extent to the temperature rise of the conductor. The power transmitting capacity of ehv cables reaches a maximum at 500 to 600 kV for these reasons. Apart from artificial cooling, a substantial improvement can be obtained only with the use of insulating materials with much lower dielectric losses; these can moreover be applied with a smaller wall thickness, but this means higher field strengths. Synthetic polymer materials meet these requirements but can be used successfully only in the form of lapped film tapes impregnated with suitable liquids. The electrical properties of these heterogeneous dielectrics, in particular, their impulse breakdown strengths are studied in detail.

  18. NRC Information Notice No. 92-01: Cable damage caused by inadequate cable installation procedures and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    In June 1989, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) removed the cables from a conduit in the reactor protection system of the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Unit 2, to inspect for damage. TVA selected this conduit in response to an employee's concern that a welding arc that struck the conduit in response to an employee's concern that a welding arc that struck the conduit during construction may have damaged cables in the conduit. When the cables were removed, TVA found significant damage in the insulation of some cables. This damage was not attributed to heat generated by the alleged welding arc. The damage was principally attributed to the pulling stresses exerted during the initial installation of the cables. Some of the cables had insulation removed down to the conductors. To assess the extent of cable damage and determine the scope of its investigation, TVA removed more cables from conduits that constituted the most difficult pulls (worst case) and found varying degrees of damage that it attributed to pulling stresses. To fill a conduit at Watts Bar, personnel used pull cords to pull more cables through the conduits over the top of existing cables. This practice is called ''pull-by.'' This practice can cause damage to the existing cables from the sawing action of the pull cords and the friction of cables as they are pulled over existing cables. TVA instituted programs to assess the adequacy of cable installation at all its nuclear facilities and take appropriate corrective actions. At Watts Bar, TVA replaced cables in conduits which exceeded a calculated threshold value of side wall bearing pressure (SWBP) and performed a high-potential (hi-pot) tests on a number of other cables in conduits with SWBP below the calculated threshold value

  19. Optimized and practical electrical joints for CORC type HTS cables

    CERN Document Server

    Mulder, T; van der Laan, D C; Mentink, M G T; Dhallé, M; ten Kate, H H J

    2015-01-01

    Within CERN the development of REBCO-CORC (Conductor On Round Core) type cables is pursued in view of possible application in future detector and accelerator magnets. An important issue is the design and qualification of terminations for connecting CORC cables mutually or to bus-bars. A termination design is envisaged that combines a simple manufacturing process with a lowest possible joint terminal resistance in the few nΩ range at 4.2 K, first for a single CORC cable and subsequently for CORC based Cable-in-Conduit Conductors. The investigation concerns the effect of tapering the CORC cable within the joint to form a staircase like geometry, which allows current to pass more directly from the copper joint casing to the inner REBCO layers of the CORC cable. Simulations have shown a substantial decrease in joint resistance at operating current in the case both CORC cable and joint casing are tapered. The CORC cable and new joint were tested at CERN. In this paper, some details of the new joint design, fabric...

  20. Optimized and practical electrical joints for CORC type HTS cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, T; Dudarev, A; Mentink, M G T; Ten Kate, H H J; Van der Laan, D C; Dhallé, M

    2015-01-01

    Within CERN the development of REBCO-CORC (Conductor On Round Core) type cables is pursued in view of possible application in future detector and accelerator magnets. An important issue is the design and qualification of terminations for connecting CORC cables mutually or to bus-bars. A termination design is envisaged that combines a simple manufacturing process with a lowest possible joint terminal resistance in the few nΩ range at 4.2 K, first for a single CORC cable and subsequently for CORC based Cable-in-Conduit Conductors. The investigation concerns the effect of tapering the CORC cable within the joint to form a staircase like geometry, which allows current to pass more directly from the copper joint casing to the inner REBCO layers of the CORC cable. Simulations have shown a substantial decrease in joint resistance at operating current in the case both CORC cable and joint casing are tapered. The CORC cable and new joint were tested at CERN. In this paper, some details of the new joint design, fabrication process, and model are presented and the results are summarized. (paper)

  1. Storm on lightning conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomhead, Laurent.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive lightning conductors using radium or americium 241 sources are compared to Faraday cage and lightning rod. Americium source preparation is shortly described. Efficiency of the different systems is still controversed [fr

  2. Structural behavior of cable superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, H.; Marston, P.

    1983-01-01

    The structural properties of cable superconductor coils, for particle accelerators such as the Tevatron and the CBA (Colliding Beam Accelerator), depend upon direction of loading. For compression perpendicular to the ''flat faces'' of the conductor, the coils exhibit nonlinear, inelastic and time dependent behavior. The same is true for ''inplane'' compression loading perpendicular to the conductor edges. In the lengthwise direction, the coils display tension and compression stress-strain curves typical of structural metals. The loading of primary concern is compression perpendicular to the conductor faces since deformations in that direction can have a major influence on magnetic field quality. However, the coil behavior under that condition is uncertain because of the nonlinear stress strain curve complicated by creep and relaxation at the stress levels induced by preloading and Lorentz forces. Furthermore, the stiffness of the loading fixture appears to influence the data as shown by results from tests run under different conditions at Berkeley, Brookhaven and MIT. The paper displays test data on stress-strain curves for all three loading directions. Results are presented for RT, 77 K and 4 K behavior. Data of various investigators are compared. The applicability of a relatively simple power law between stress and strain is depicted

  3. Development of a superconducting cable for transmission of high electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moisson, F.; Leroux, J.M.

    1971-01-01

    The opportunities opened by the use of cryoresistive and superconducting materials in underground transmission systems have led to a cryocable program. A first set of problems associated with the development of cryogenic cables deals with the cable system, i.e., design, safety, terminal equipment including leads, cryogenic equipment, refrigerators, and problems related to overload capability and reliability. A second set concerns the cable itself, i.e., scientific and technological problems associated with the conductor, the electrical insulation, and the thermal exchange between conductor and helium. Useful experience is gained on the design problems and on the technological problems involved in the construction of a cryoconducting cable. A 20-M aluminum cable cooled down to 25 0 K with pressurized helium flow was built and tested with 3500-A dc under 20 Kv; results are presented. On this model the following types of problems were solved. First, mechanical problems concerning cooling of the cable, thermal contraction of the pipes, electrical insulation and conductors, construction of an invariable cable constituted by elementary helically wound conductors were solved. Second, thermal problems of reduction of heat leaks, conception of thermal insulation, and segmentation of vacuum jackets were solved. Third, electrical problems of design of 300 0 to 25 0 K leads were solved; this problem of losses at both ends is, in proportion, more important for the short model than for long cable. Finally, refrigeration problems of helium and nitrogen flows, thermal shields and design of refrigerators (optimal capacity and spacing) were solved

  4. A comparison of the screening performance of braided coaxial and triaxial cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.P.

    1975-03-01

    The screening performance of a coaxial screened circuit is derived from measurements of the surface transfer impedance, capacitive coupling and conductor eccentricity on short lengths of cable. This is then extended to a triaxial screen considering all the ways the two screens can be connected. Comparison of calculated performance and measured results on a 10m length show that the mechanisms of coupling interact to make triaxial cable screening worse than expected and, in fact, frequently no better than a coaxial cable. The use of superscreened cables is found to overcome all the problems known in triaxial cables. (author)

  5. Detection and characterization of corrosion of bridge cables by time domain reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Hunsperger, Robert G.; Folliard, Kevin; Chajes, Michael J.; Barot, Jignesh; Jhaveri, Darshan; Kunz, Eric

    1999-02-01

    In this paper, we develop and demonstrate a nondestructive evaluation technique for corrosion detection of embedded or encased steel cables. This technique utilizes time domain reflectometry (TDR), which has been traditionally used to detect electrical discontinuities in transmission lines. By applying a sensor wire along with the bridge cable, we can model the cable as an asymmetric, twin-conductor transmission line. Physical defects of the bridge cable will change the electromagnetic properties of the line and can be detected by TDR. Furthermore, different types of defects can be modeled analytically, and identified using TDR. TDR measurement results from several fabricated bridge cable sections with built-in defects are reported.

  6. Structural characteristics of proposed ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor] TF [toroidal field] coil conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, C.R.; Miller, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of transverse loading on a cable-in-conduit conductor which has been proposed for the toroidal field coils of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The primary components of this conductor are a loose cable of superconducting wires, a thin-wall tube for helium containment, and a U-shaped structural channel. A method is given where the geometry of this conductor can be optimized for a given set of operating conditions. It is shown, using finite-element modeling, that the structural channel is effective in supporting loads due to transverse forces and internal pressure. In addition, it is shown that the superconducting cable is effectively shielded from external transverse loads that might otherwise degrade its current carrying capacity. 10 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Design of force-cooled conductors for large fusion magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.; Lue, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    One type of conductor under consideration for tokamak toroidal field (TF) magnets is a cable-in-conduit cooled by supercritical helium in forced convection. The main problem is designing such force-cooled conductors (fcc) is to maintain adequate stability while keeping the pumping power tolerably low. The transit time of the helium through a coil is many minutes. Since recovery of the conductor from a thermomechanical perturbation takes on the order of tens of milliseconds, for purposes of calculation, the inventory of helium available to promote recovery is finite. This means that a large enough perturbation will quench the conductor. We can then judge the stability of a fcc by the maximum perturbation of some specified type against which the conductor is stable, i.e., can still return to the superconducting state. The simplest type of perturbation is a sudden, uniform heat input over the entire length of the conductor. The maximum, sudden, uniform heat input per unit volume of metal ΔH is called the ''stability margin.''

  8. Electro magnetic compatibility of cabling and wiring in buildings and installations

    OpenAIRE

    Steenstra, H.T.

    2008-01-01

    The thesis deals with the behaviour, with respect to EMC (Electro Magnetic Compatibility), of cabling and wiring in buildings and installations. Measurement and calculation methods are developed and applied to cabling in a large scale installation as well as to individual cables. Besides, the location and interconnection of conductors, especially concrete reinforcement, in a building is investigated. Finally a procedure is developed that is used to deal with EMC issues in a large installation...

  9. Arc tracking energy balance for copper and aluminum aeronautic cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    André, T; Valensi, F; Teulet, P; Cressault, Y; Zink, T; Caussé, R

    2017-01-01

    Arc tracking tests have been carried out between two voluntarily damaged aeronautic cables. Copper or aluminum conductors have been exposed to short circuits under alternating current. Various data have been recorded (arc voltage and current, radiated power and ablated mass), enabling to determine a power balance, in which every contribution is estimated. The total power is mainly transferred to the cables (between 50 and 65%, depending on the current and the cable type), and causes the melting and partial vaporization of the metallic core and insulating material, or is conducted or radiated. The other part is deposited into the arc column, being either radiated, convected or conducted. (paper)

  10. Plasma Generator Using Spiral Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatkowski, George N. (Inventor); Dudley, Kenneth L. (Inventor); Ticatch, Larry A. (Inventor); Smith, Laura J. (Inventor); Koppen, Sandra V. (Inventor); Nguyen, Truong X. (Inventor); Ely, Jay J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A plasma generator includes a pair of identical spiraled electrical conductors separated by dielectric material. Both spiraled conductors have inductance and capacitance wherein, in the presence of a time-varying electromagnetic field, the spiraled conductors resonate to generate a harmonic electromagnetic field response. The spiraled conductors lie in parallel planes and partially overlap one another in a direction perpendicular to the parallel planes. The geometric centers of the spiraled conductors define endpoints of a line that is non-perpendicular with respect to the parallel planes. A voltage source coupled across the spiraled conductors applies a voltage sufficient to generate a plasma in at least a portion of the dielectric material.

  11. Nb3Sn conductor development for the ITER magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, N.

    1997-01-01

    The ITER magnet system consists of Toroidal Field (TF) coils, Poloidal Field (PF) coils, the Central Solenoid (CS) and error field correction coils (CC). The conductors for the coils are Nb 3 Sn or NbTi cable in conduit type, forced flow cooled with supercritical helium having a maximum operating current in the range 40-60 kA. To qualify the Nb 3 Sn conductor, two large model coils (energy up to 640 MJ) are being wound by the Home Teams of the Parties to the ITER EDA Agreement. A total of 24 t of strand has been completed for the CS model coil and 4 t for the TF model coil, and fabricated into 7 km of conductor in unit lengths up to 210 m, by an international collaboration involving 12 companies in Europe, Japan, Russia and the USA

  12. Focus on Organic Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Uji, Takehiko Mori and Toshihiro Takahashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials are usually thought of as electrical insulators. Progress in chemical synthesis, however, has brought us a rich variety of conducting organic materials, which can be classified into conducting polymers and molecular crystals. Researchers can realize highly conducting molecular crystals in charge-transfer complexes, where suitable combinations of organic electron donor or acceptor molecules with counter ions or other organic molecules provide charge carriers. By means of a kind of chemical doping, the charge-transfer complexes exhibit high electrical conductivity and, thanks to their highly crystalline nature, even superconductivity has been observed. This focus issue of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials is devoted to the research into such 'organic conductors'The first organic metal was (TTF(TCNQ, which was found in 1973 to have high conductivity at room temperature and a metal–insulator transition at low temperatures. The first organic superconductor was (TMTSF2PF6, whose superconductivity under high pressures was reported by J´erome in 1980. After these findings, the research on organic conductors exploded. Hundreds of organic conductors have been reported, among which more than one hundred exhibit superconductivity. Recently, a single-component organic conductor has been found with metallic conductivity down to low temperatures.In these organic conductors, in spite of their simple electronic structures, much new physics has arisen from the low dimensionality. Examples are charge and spin density waves, characteristic metal–insulator transitions, charge order, unconventional superconductivity, superconductor–insulator transitions, and zero-gap conductors with Dirac cones. The discovery of this new physics is undoubtedly derived from the development of many intriguing novel organic conductors. High quality single crystals are indispensable to the precise measurement of electronic states.This focus issue

  13. Plasmonic transparent conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapis, Andreas C.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Black, Charles T.

    2016-09-01

    Many of today's technological applications, such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes, displays, and touch screens, require materials that are simultaneously optically transparent and electrically conducting. Here we explore transparent conductors based on the excitation of surface plasmons in nanostructured metal films. We measure both the optical and electrical properties of films perforated with nanometer-scale features and optimize the design parameters in order to maximize optical transmission without sacrificing electrical conductivity. We demonstrate that plasmonic transparent conductors can out-perform indium tin oxide in terms of both their transparency and their conductivity.

  14. MVAC Submarine cable, magnetic fields measurements and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentsen, Martin Trolle; Expethit, Adrian; Pedersen, Morten Virklund

    2017-01-01

    Standard 60287. Researchers believe that the wire armour of three phased submarine cables is the reason for the inaccurate calculations by the standard. Studies show that the magnetic behaviour of these cables are changed due to the wire armour. In order to investigate this hypothesis, this paper intends...... to supply the theoretical research with data from magnetic field measurements on a wire armoured 3-phase submarine cable, together with an investigation of the induced currents in the different cable components. The influence of the physical arrangement of the armour wires on the electric behaviour is also...... investigated, since several researchers believe that the twisting of the armour wires result in zero net induced voltage over one helix length. This is shown to be valid for the tested cable. Finally a replica of the armour has been built with just a single conductor in the centre. This setup was used...

  15. Losses in armoured three-phase submarine cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Thomas; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2014-01-01

    The number of offshore wind farms will keep increasing in the future as a part of the shift towards a CO2 free energy production. The energy harvested from the wind farm must be brought to shore, which is often done by using a three-phase armoured submarine power cable. The use of an armour...... increases the losses in armoured cables compared to unarmoured cables. In this paper a thorough state of the art analysis is conducted on armour losses in three-phase armoured submarine power cables. The analysis shows that the IEC 60287-1-1 standard overestimates the armour losses which lead...... to the installation of cables with excessive phase conductor cross section. This paper also presents an example of the potential economic benefits of having a better knowledge of the losses introduced by the armour....

  16. CABLES MUSCULARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Gómez

    Full Text Available Los cables musculares o fibras de nitinol presentan una excelente alternativa a los actuadores convencionales, con una fuerza de actuación muy alta, equivalente a la de los actuadores hidráulicos, proporcionalmente a su peso, además de su acción silenciosa. Este material, inventado en 1963, aún no es muy conocido y de ahí que se haya realizado una recopilación de sus propiedades. Entre ellas, la temperatura de transición es la más importante, por ser la que activa la aleación. Muchos sistemas se han creado para alcanzar adecuadamente la temperatura de transición, y también se continúa en la investigación de métodos que ayuden a lograr un control preciso del movimiento de la aleación con memoria de forma (SMA.

  17. Test results on prototype 50-kA conductors for tokamak induction heating coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollan, J.J.; Williamson, K.D. Jr.; Turck, B.

    1979-01-01

    Fabricability of a very large, 50-kA superconducting cable has been demonstrated. Test results of critical current and stability measurements are presented. The design critical current of 55 kA at 7 T was met. The recovery current was degraded as a result of the expectedly poor insulation system. Energy loss measurements on prototype advanced mixed matrix conductors, which will be incorporated into a second prototype cable, are presented

  18. Universal Cable Brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanvalkenburgh, C.

    1985-01-01

    Concept allows routing easily changed. No custom hardware required in concept. Instead, standard brackets cut to length and installed at selected locations along cable route. If cable route is changed, brackets simply moved to new locations. Concept for "universal" cable brackets make it easy to route electrical cable around and through virtually any structure.

  19. Cable line engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hak Sin; Kim, Sin Yeong

    1998-02-01

    This book is about cable line engineering. It is comprised of nine chapters, which deals with summary of cable communication such as way, process of cable communication and optical communication, Line constant of transmission on primary constant, reflection and crosstalk, communication cable line of types like flat cable, coaxial cable and loaded cable, Install of communication line with types and facility of aerial line, construction method of communication line facility, Measurement of communication line, Carrier communication of summary, PCM communication with Introduction, regeneration relay system sampling and quantization and Electric communication service and general information network with mobile communication technique and satellite communication system.

  20. Calculation of harmonic losses and ampacity in low-voltage power cables when used for feeding large LED lighting loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Milardovich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A numerical investigation on the harmonic disturbances in low-voltage cables feeding large LED loads is reported. A frequency domain analysis on several commercially-available LEDs was performed to investigate the signature of the harmonic current injected into the power system. Four-core cables and four single-core cable arrangements (three phases and neutral of small, medium, and large conductor cross sections, with the neutral conductor cross section approximately equal to the half of the phase conductors, were examined. The cables were modelled by using electromagnetic finite-element analysis software. High harmonic power losses (up to 2.5 times the value corresponding to an undistorted current of the same rms value of the first harmonic of the LED current were found. A generalized ampacity model was employed for re-rating the cables. It was found that the cross section of the neutral conductor plays an important role in the derating of the cable ampacity due to the presence of a high-level of triplen harmonics in the distorted current. The ampacity of the cables should be derated by about 40 %, almost independent of the conductor cross sections. The calculation have shown that an incoming widespread use of LED lamps in lighting could create significant additional harmonic losses in the supplying low-voltage lines, and thus more severely harmonic emission limits should be defined for LED lamps.

  1. Thermal Conductance and High-Frequency Properties of Cryogenic Normal or Superconducting Semi-rigid Coaxial Cables in the Temperature Range of 1-8 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushino, A.; Kasai, S.; Ukibe, M.; Ohkubo, M.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the characteristics of thin semi-rigid cables composed of different conductors and with outer diameters ranging from 0.86 to 1.19 mm were investigated at low temperatures. The thermal conductance was measured between approximately 1 and 8 K, and the frequency dependence of the attenuation in the cables was obtained at 3 K. The electrical conductors used in the cables were alloys: beryllium copper, brass, stainless steel (SUS304), phosphor bronze, cupronickel (CuNi), and niobium-titanium (NbTi). The thermal conductance of a commercial miniature coaxial cable with braided wires forming the outer electrical conductor was also examined for reference. The measured thermal conductance was compared to published data and that generated from material libraries and databases. Among the measured cables using normal metals, the semi-rigid cable composed of SUS304 conductors and a polytetrafluoroethylene insulator showed the lowest thermal conductance. The transmission performance of the semi-rigid cables using SUS304 or CuNi was improved by plating the central conductors with a silver coating of approximately 3 μm thickness, and their thermal conductance with the plating increased by approximately one order of magnitude. The superconducting NbTi semi-rigid cable exhibited the lowest thermal conductance of all the cables considered in the present study along with very small attenuation up to above 5 GHz.

  2. Development of innovative superconducting DC power cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushita, Teruo; Kiuchi, Masaru [Dept. of Computer Science and Electronics Kyushu Institute of Technology, Iizuka (Japan)

    2017-09-15

    It is required to reduce the cost of superconducting cable to realize a superconducting DC power network that covers a wide area in order to utilize renewable energy. In this paper a new concept of innovative cable is introduced that can enhance the current-carrying capacity even though the same superconducting tape is used. Such a cable can be realized by designing an optimal winding structure in such a way that the angle between the tape and magnetic field becomes small. This idea was confirmed by preliminary experiments for a single layer model cable made of Bi-2223 tapes and REBCO coated conductors. Experiments of three and four layer cables of practical sizes were also done and it was found that the current-carrying capacity increased as theoretically predicted. If the critical current properties of commercial superconducting tapes are further improved in a parallel magnetic field, the enhancement will become pronounced and this technology will surely contribute to realization of superconducting DC power network.

  3. Assessment of conductor degradation in the ITER CS insert coil and implications for the ITER conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, N.

    2007-01-01

    Nb3Sn cable in conduit-type conductors were expected to provide an efficient way of achieving large conductor currents at high field (up to 13 T) combined with good stability to electromagnetic disturbances due to the extensive helium contact area with the strands. Although ITER model coils successfully reached their design performance (Kato et al 2001 Fusion Eng. Des. 56/57 59-70), initial indications (Mitchell 2003 Fusion Eng. Des. 66-68 971-94) that there were unexplained performance shortfalls have been confirmed. Recent conductor tests (Pasztor et al 2004 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 14 1527-30) and modelling work (Mitchell 2005 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 18 396-404) suggest that the shortfalls are due to a combination of strand bending and filament fracture under the transverse magnetic loads. Using the new model, the extensive database from the ITER CS insert coil has been reassessed. A parametric fit based on a loss of filament area and n (the exponent of the power-law fit to the electric field) combined with a more rigorous consideration of the conductor field gradient has enabled the coil behaviour to be explained much more consistently than in earlier assessments, now fitting the Nb3Sn strain scaling laws when used with measurements of the conductor operating strain, including conditions when the insert coil current (and hence operating strain) were reversed. The coil superconducting performance also shows a fatigue-type behaviour consistent with recent measurements on conductor samples (Martovetsky et al 2005 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15 1367-70). The ITER conductor design has already been modified compared to the CS insert, to increase the margin and provide increased resistance to the degradation, by using a steel jacket to provide thermal pre-compression to reduce tensile strain levels, reducing the void fraction from 36% to 33% and increasing the non-copper material by 25%. Test results are not yet available for the new design and performance

  4. Qualification tests for ITER TF conductors in SULTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzone, P.; Stepanov, B.; Wesche, R.

    2009-01-01

    From February 2007 to May 2008, 18 short length conductor sections have been tested in SULTAN for design verification and manufacturer qualification of the ITER Toroidal Field (TF) conductor. The test program is focussed on the current sharing temperature, T cs , at the nominal operating conditions, 68 kA current and 11.15 T effective field, which can be fully reproduced in the SULTAN test facility. A broad range of results was observed, with over 2 K difference among the T cs of the conductors. In average, the results are poorer compared to the potential performance estimated from the strand scaling law. The key parameters to mitigate the degradation are not yet clearly identified. The experimental challenges to test conductors with performance degradation are highlighted, including enhanced instrumentation sets, the application of gas flow calorimetry to sense the current sharing power and the post-processing of voltage data to cancel the transverse potential across the cable. The updated schedule of the tests in SULTAN is presented with the short-term action plan for conductor test.

  5. Recent development of the Cu/Nb-Ti superconducting cables for SSC in Hitachi Cable, Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, S.; Iwaki, G.; Sawada, Y.; Moriai, H.; Ishigami, Y.

    1989-01-01

    In these few years, Cu/Nb-Ti superconducting cables for the dipole magnets of SSC projects have been developed in the industrial scale in Hitachi Cable, Ltd. The features of these developed conductors are as follows. (1) The diameter of Nb-Ti filaments is very small, 4-6 μm. (2) The critical current density (J c ) is very high, 2,850-3,050 A/mm 2 at 5 T on wires, 2750-2950 A/mm 2 at 5 T on cables in industrial scale. The champion J c of wires is 3,460 A/mm 2 at 5 T in the laboratory scale. (3) The RRR Residual Resistivity Ratio values of developed cables is very high, approximately 200, due to the newly developed high purity Oxygen Free Copper (OFC). (4) The conductors have been wound to the 1 m length dipole magnet in Hitachi Ltd., and it has generated 6.7 T in the central magnetic field at 6,595 A. The Cu/Cu-Mn/Nb-Ti composite wires which avoid the possibility of electrical coupling of the filaments have been produced in laboratory scale. The RRR of the copper stabilizer and J c properties have not degraded because of no metallurgical reactions between Cu and Mn, Nb-Ti and Mn. 7 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Transverse Load Optimisation in Nb3Sn CICC Design; Influence of Cabling, Void Fraction and Strand Stiffness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, Arend; Ilyin, Y.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a model that describes the transverse load degradation in Nb3Sn CICCs, based on strand and cable properties, and that is capable of predicting how such degradation can be prevented. The Nb3Sn cable in conduit conductors (CICCs) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental

  7. Physics of superionic conductors

    CERN Document Server

    1979-01-01

    Superionic conductors are solids whose ionic conductivities approach, and in some cases exceed, those of molten salts and electrolyte solutions. This implies an un­ usual state of matter in which some atoms have nearly liquidlike mobility while others retain their regular crystalline arrangement. This liquid-solid duality has much appeal to condensed matter physicists, and the coincident development of powerful new methods for studying disordered solids and interest in superionic conductors for technical applications has resulted in a new surge of activity in this venerable field. It is the purpose of this book to summarize the current re­ search in the physics of superionic conduction. with special emphasis on those aspects which set these materials apart from other solids. The volume is aimed to­ wards the materials community and will, we expect, stimulate further research on these potentially useful substances. The usual characterization of the superionic phase lists high ionic conductivity; low activat...

  8. Influence of the magnetic field profile on ITER conductor testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijhuis, A; Ilyin, Y; Kate, H H J ten

    2006-01-01

    We performed simulations with the numerical CUDI-CICC code on a typical short ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) conductor test sample of dual leg configuration, as usually tested in the SULTAN test facility, and made a comparison with the new EFDA-Dipole test facility offering a larger applied DC field region. The new EFDA-Dipole test facility, designed for short sample testing of conductors for ITER, has a homogeneous high field region of 1.2 m, while in the SULTAN facility this region is three times shorter. The inevitable non-uniformity of the current distribution in the cable, introduced by the joints at both ends, has a degrading effect on voltage-current (VI) and voltage-temperature (VT) characteristics, particularly for these short samples. This can easily result in an underestimation or overestimation of the actual conductor performance. A longer applied DC high field region along a conductor suppresses the current non-uniformity by increasing the overall longitudinal cable electric field when reaching the current sharing mode. The numerical interpretation study presented here gives a quantitative analysis for a relevant practical case of a test of a short sample poloidal field coil insert (PFCI) conductor in SULTAN. The simulation includes the results of current distribution analysis from self-field measurements with Hall sensor arrays, current sharing measurements and inter-petal resistance measurements. The outcome of the simulations confirms that the current uniformity improves with a longer high field region but the 'measured' VI transition is barely affected, though the local peak voltages become somewhat suppressed. It appears that the location of the high field region and voltage taps has practically no influence on the VI curve as long as the transverse voltage components are adequately cancelled. In particular, for a thin conduit wall, the voltage taps should be connected to the conduit in the form of an (open) azimuthally

  9. High power cable with internal water cooling 400 kV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasquin, W; Harjes, B

    1982-08-01

    The project was planned for a duration of 4 years. Afterwards it has been extended over 6 years and finally stopped after 3 1/2 years. Therefore, of course results of field tests with an internally cooled 400 kV cable are not available. Nevertheless, this conductor cooled high power cable has been developed to such an extend, that this manufactured cable could withstand type tests according to IEC/VDE recommendations. Even by missing field tests it is obvious that a high power cable for 400 kV is available.

  10. Superconducting ac cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, F.

    1980-11-01

    The components of a superconducting 110 kV ac cable for power ratings or = 2000 MVA were developed. The cable design is of the semiflexible type, with a rigid cryogenic envelope containing a flexible hollow coaxial cable core. The cable core consists of spirally wound Nb-A1 composite wires electrically insulated by high pressure polyethylene tape wrappings. A 35 m long single phase test cable with full load terminals rated at 110 kV and 10 kA was constructed and successfully tested. The results obtained prove the technical feasibility and capability of this cable design.

  11. Superconducting ac cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.

    1980-01-01

    The components of a superconducting 110 kV ac cable for power ratings >= 2000 MVA have been developed. The cable design especially considered was of the semiflexible type, with a rigid cryogenic envelope and flexible hollow coaxial cable cores pulled into the former. The cable core consists of spirally wound Nb-Al composite wires and a HDPE-tape wrapped electrical insulation. A 35 m long single phase test cable with full load terminations for 110 kV and 10 kA was constructed and successfully tested. The results obtained prove the technical feasibility and capability of our cable design. (orig.) [de

  12. Development of YBCO tape conductor fabrication technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, G W; Kim, C J; Lee, H G. and others

    2001-08-01

    Superconductor when fabricated into wire shape is applied for developing electric power transmission cable, transformer, generator and SMES. Such superconducting power devices are capable of maximizing the efficiency of electricity and are anticipated to contribute for solving the energy problem of humankind. Furthermore the high temperature oxide superconductor developed in late 1980s is superconducting above boiling temperature of liquid nitrogen temperature has strong potential to realize superconducting power device and a lot of researches are being done in this field. Superconducting wire is the most important core material for developing superconducting power device and thermo-mechanical powder in tube process was developed to fabricated Ag/Bi-2223 conductor in long length having high critical current carrying capacity. Several companies fabricate and sell Ag/Bi-2223 superconducting wire longer than km length and used for developed electrical power device. But because of its inherent property of sharp decrease in current carrying capacity when applying high magnetic field, the application of Bi-2223 sire is limited as low as 20 K when the power device is in operating under high magnetic field. The YBCO tape conductor has the advantages of maintaining high critical current applying high magnetic field and can be used to most of the power device without special limitation. The metal substrate having good crystallographic texture and deposition technique which can deposit the good quality superconducting thin film continuously in large area are need to fabricate coated conductor, and this technique can be applied to develop the superconducting current limiter or magnetic field shielding device. A superconducting wire for using in high magnetic field is play a critical role in developing maglev, MRI, SMES, transformer, generator and motor and the continuous film deposition technique can be applied in other industry very much.

  13. The CEA JOSEFA test facility for sub-size conductors and joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decool, P.; Libeyre, P.; Van Houtte, D.; Ciazynski, D.; Zani, L.; Serries, J.P.; Cloez, H.; Bej, S.

    2003-01-01

    The JOSEFA (Joint Sub-size Experiment FAcility) experimental test facility, installed at CEA/Cadarache is devoted to perform tests at cryogenic temperature on sub-size superconducting conductor and joint samples under parallel or transverse magnetic field. This facility was built in 1993 to investigate the performances of joints of cable-in-conduit conductors at sub-size level and further upgraded in the framework of European tasks. The samples of hairpin type using sub-size ITER conductors are cooled by a circulation of supercritical helium in a temperature range from 5 to 15 K and tested at a maximum current up to 10 kA. Two different helium bath cooled magnets allow to apply DC or AC transverse magnetic field up to 3.5 T or longitudinal magnetic field up to 7.5 T. A sliding system with a 240 mm stroke on the sample cryostat allows to test separately in the same sample either the conductor or the joint performances. The paper reports on how, through the conductor and joint development tasks, the facility performances were successfully increased and tested. The ITER TFMC joints using Nb3Sn conductors were first developed on this facility. The last developments, performed on ITER PF NbTi conductors and joints proved this facility to be a versatile and useful tool for superconducting magnet developments and showed the interest of possible upgrading to finalize conductor design. (author)

  14. Correlation of electrical reactor cable failure with materials degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuetzer, O.M.

    1986-03-01

    Complete circuit failure (shortout) of electrical cables typically used in nuclear power plant containments is investigated. Failure modes are correlated with the mechanical deterioration of the elastomeric cable materials. It is found that for normal reactor operation, electrical cables are reliable and safe over very long periods. During high temperature excursions, however, cables pulled across corners under high stress may short out due to conductor creep. Severe cracking will occur in short times during high temperatures (>150/sup 0/C) and in times of the order of years at elevated temperatures (100/sup 0/C to 140/sup 0/C). A theoretical treatment of stress distribution responsible for creep and for cracking by J.E. Reaugh of Science Applications, Inc. is contained in the Appendix. 29 refs., 32 figs.

  15. Stability of superconducting cables for use in large magnet systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateishi, Hiroshi; Schmidt, C.

    1992-01-01

    The construction of large superconducting magnets requires the development of complicated conductor types, which can fulfill the specific requirements of different types of magnets. A rather hard boundary condition for large magnets is the presence of fast changing magnetic fields. In the Institute of Technical Physics of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, Germany, a superconducting cable was developed for use in poloidal field coils in Tokamak experiments. This 'POLO'-cable exhibits low losses in a magnetic ac-field and a high stability margin. In the present article the requirements on a superconducting cable are described, as well as the mechanisms of ac-losses and the calculation of the stability limit. Calculated values are compared with experimental data. Some unresolved problems concerning the stability of large magnets are discussed taking the example of the POLO-cable. (author)

  16. Correlation of electrical reactor cable failure with materials degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuetzer, O.M.

    1986-03-01

    Complete circuit failure (shortout) of electrical cables typically used in nuclear power plant containments is investigated. Failure modes are correlated with the mechanical deterioration of the elastomeric cable materials. It is found that for normal reactor operation, electrical cables are reliable and safe over very long periods. During high temperature excursions, however, cables pulled across corners under high stress may short out due to conductor creep. Severe cracking will occur in short times during high temperatures (>150 0 C) and in times of the order of years at elevated temperatures (100 0 C to 140 0 C). A theoretical treatment of stress distribution responsible for creep and for cracking by J.E. Reaugh of Science Applications, Inc. is contained in the Appendix. 29 refs., 32 figs

  17. Stability measurements on cored cables in normal and superfluid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GHOSH, A.K.; SAMPSON, W.B.; KIM, S.W.; LEROY, D.; OBERLI, L.R.; WILSON, M.N.

    1998-01-01

    The relative stability of LHC type cables has been measured by the direct heating of one of the individual strands with a short duration current pulse. The minimum energy required to initiate a quench has been determined for a number of cables which have a central core to increase the effective inter-strand cross-over resistance. Experiments were performed in both normal helium at 4.4 K and superfluid at 1.9 K. Conductors in general are less stable at the lower temperature when measured at the same fraction of critical current. Results show that the cored-cables, even when partially filled with solder or with a porous-metal filler exhibit a relatively low stability at currents close to the critical current. It is speculated that the high inter-strand electrical and thermal resistance inherent in these cables may effect the stability at high currents

  18. An A15 conductor design and its implications for the NET-II TF coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluekiger, R.; Arendt, F.; Hofmann, A.; Jeske, U.; Juengst, K.P.; Komarek, P.; Krauth, H.; Lehmann, W.; Luehning, J.; Manes, B.; Maurer, W.; Nyilas, A.; Specking, W.; Turowski, P.; Zehlein, H.

    1985-06-01

    The paper describes the results of studies for a NET toroidal field coil conductor carried out at KfK-Karlsruhe. The conductor concept is based on the same design principles as used in the Euratom-LCT coil, well proven in all conductor tests and the domestic tests of the coil. These principles are applied to the peculiarities of Nb 3 Sn for a rated current of 20 kA at 12 T, taking into account ac losses and nuclear heating. A flat Nb 3 Sn cable is soldered to a surrounding CuNi tape after reaction. Around this rectangular conductor core, Cu profiles are cabled on distance by the Roebel-process and subsequently soldered onto the CuNi tape. The whole system is surrounded by a steel conduit. The conductor data result from electric, thermohydraulic and stability calculations as well as mechanical evaluations. Expected fabrication processes are discussed, and measurements on a first simplified subsize conductor model are presented. (orig.) [de

  19. Comparisons of internal self-field magnetic flux densities between recent Nb{sub 3}Sn fusion magnet CICC cable designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S. P. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The Cable-In-Conduit-Conductor (CICC) for the ITER tokamak Central Solenoid (CS) has undergone design change since the first prototype conductor sample was tested in 2010. After tests showed that the performance of initial conductor samples degraded rapidly without stabilization, an alternate design with shorter sub-cable twist pitches was tested and discovered to satisfy performance requirements, namely that the minimum current sharing temperature (Tcs) remained above a given limit under DC bias. With consistent successful performance of ITER CS conductor CICC samples using the alternate design, an attempt is made here to revisit the internal electromagnetic properties of the CICC cable design to identify any correlation with conductor performance. Results of this study suggest that there may be a simple link between the Nb3Sn CICC internal self-field and its Tcs performance. The study also suggests that an optimization process should exist that can further improve the performance of Nb3Sn based CICC.

  20. Long-term aging and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) testing of electrical cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C.F.; Gauthier, G.; Carlin, F.

    1996-10-01

    Experiments were performed to assess the aging degradation and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) behavior of electrical cables subjected to long-term aging exposures. Four different cable types were tested in both the U.S. and France: (1) U.S. 2 conductor with ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) insulation and a Hypalon jacket. (2) U.S. 3 conductor with cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulation and a Hypalon jacket. (3) French 3 conductor with EPR insulation and a Hypalon jacket. (4) French coaxial with polyethylene (PE) insulation and a PE jacket. The data represent up to 5 years of simultaneous aging where the cables were exposed to identical aging radiation doses at either 40 degrees C or 70 degrees C; however, the dose rate used for the aging irradiation was varied over a wide range (2-100 Gy/hr). Aging was followed by exposure to simulated French LOCA conditions. Several mechanical, electrical, and physical-chemical condition monitoring techniques were used to investigate the degradation behavior of the cables. All the cables, except for the French PE cable, performed acceptably during the aging and LOCA simulations. In general, cable degradation at a given dose was highest for the lowest dose rate, and the amount of degradation decreased as the dose rate was increased

  1. Energy cable engineering. Energiekabeltechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luecking, H W

    1981-01-01

    This textbook intends to explain cable elements and common cable constructions according to VDE, and in a second part, to review the theoretical fundamentals and their consequences with a view to the construction of cables for higher voltages and powers. It will give the student a picture of the variety of problems and solutions which make cable engineering so interesting and show the practising engineer how to derive a theoretical system from their extensive everyday experience.

  2. Cable Supported Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    Cable supported bridges in the form of suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridges are distinguished by their ability to overcome large spans.The book concentrates on the synthesis of cable supported bridges, covering both design and construction aspects. The analytical part covers simple methods...... to quantify the different structural configurations and allows a preliminary optimization of the main structure.Included are the most recent advances in structural design, corrosion protection of cables, aerodynamic safety, and erection procedures....

  3. Development of a single-phase 30 m HTS power cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jeonwook; Bae, Joon-Han; Kim, Hae-Jong; Sim, Ki-Deok; Kim, Seokho; Jang, Hyun-Man; Lee, Chang-Young; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2006-05-01

    HTS power transmission cables appear to be the replacement and retrofitting of underground cables in urban areas and HTS power transmission cable offers a number of technical and economic merits compared to the normal conductor cable system. A 30 m long, single-phase 22.9 kV class HTS power transmission cable system has been developed by Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI), LS Cable Ltd., and Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), which is one of the 21st century frontier project in Korea since 2001. The HTS power cable has been developed, cooled down and tested to obtain realistic thermal and electrical data on HTS power cable system. The evaluation results clarified such good performance of HTS cable that DC critical current of the HTS cable was 3.6 kA and AC loss was 0.98 W/m at 1260 Arms and shield current was 1000 Arms. These results proved the basic properties for 22.9 kV HTS power cable. As a next step, we have been developing a 30 m, three-phase 22.9 kV, 50 MV A HTS power cable system and long term evaluation is in progress now.

  4. Fabrication of Nb3Sn cables for ITER toroidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isono, Takaaki; Tsutsumi, Fumiaki; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Matsui, Kunihiro; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Nakajima, Hideo; Ishibashi, Tatsuji; Sato, Go; Chida, Kenji; Suzuki, Rikio; Tanji, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Cable-in-conduit conductors for ITER toroidal field (TF) coils will be operated at 68 kA and 11.8 T. The cable is composed of 1,422 strands with a diameter of 0.82 mm. There were two options for initial procurement. For option 2, the twist pitches at lower stages are longer than in option 1. Trials were performed to assess the feasibility of these options. In the trials for option 1, the nominal outer diameter of sub-cables and reduction schedule of final cables were evaluated and finalized. In the trials for option 2, problems were encountered at the third stage cabling. These problems were resolved through increasing the die size in that stage and improving the tension balance of the second-stage cables to reduce friction between the die and the cable, and also through avoiding loose twisting at both edges of the third cables. Option 2 was finally selected in 2009 based on superconducting performance enhancement of the cable. After the qualification of the fabrication procedure using fabrication of a 760-m dummy cable and a 415-m superconducting cable, mass production of the cables started in March 2010. (author)

  5. submitter Performance Test of an 8 kA @ 10-T 4.2-K ReBCO-CORC Cable

    CERN Document Server

    Mulder, Tim; Mentink, Matthias; van der Laan, Danko; Dhalle, Marc; ten Kate, Herman

    2016-01-01

    CERN is developing high-current ReBCO conductor on round core (CORC) cables for application in future detector and accelerator magnets. A characterization test on a ReBCO-CORC cable sample and its joints is performed in the 10-T FRESCA cable test facility at CERN. The sample is taken from the first 12-m-long CORC production. Key is the characterization of the field- and temperature-dependent critical currents of the CORC cable at 1.9 K and 4.2 K. Secondary objectives include evaluating the response of the CORC cable to quenches and the performance of cylindrical low resistive cable terminals especially designed and manufactured for use on CORC cables. The 7.6-mm CORC cable features 8 kA at 4.2 K and 10 T, and the joint terminals show a 25 ± 5 - nΩ resistance for 20-cm length.

  6. Cable Television: Franchising Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Walter S.; And Others

    This volume is a comprehensive reference guide to cable television technology and issues of planning, franchising, and regulating a cable system. It is intended for local government officials and citizens concerned with the development of cable television systems in their communities, as well as for college and university classes in…

  7. Colleges and Cable Franchising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Neal D.

    After noting issues of audience appeal and financial and philosophical support for educational broadcasting, this paper urges community colleges to play an active role in the process of cable franchising. The paper first describes a cable franchise as a contract between a government unit and the cable television (CATV) company which specifies what…

  8. Cable strengthened arches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    The structural efficiency of arches, subjected to several variable loads, can be increased by strengthening these arches with cables. For these structures it can be necessary, especially in case the permanent load is small, to post-tension the cables to avoid any compression acting on the cables. A

  9. Specification for high voltage cable plug and socket connections for medical X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Under the direction of the Light Engineering Standards Committee, a British Standard Specification has been prepared for three-conductor and four-conductor high-voltage cable plug and socket connections for medical X-ray equipment. The standard deals with the essential dimensions to ensure mechanical interchangeability, the recommended dimensions, the wiring connections to contacts of plug and socket and the marking of contacts of plug and socket. (U.K.)

  10. Losses and Inductive Parameters in Subsea Power Cables

    OpenAIRE

    Stølan, Ronny

    2009-01-01

    Four samples of galvanized steel armour for sub sea power cables are tested with an electric steel tester. The samples exhibit different remanence magnetization and permeability. The effects of permeability on loss in sub sea cables is found to be insignificant. Slight increase of conductor inductance due to increase in permeability of armour wires is observed. Mutual cancellation of inductance between circuits that are twisted opposite to each other, or with respect to one circuit, is confir...

  11. Contributions to the study of superconducting multifilamentary composites and cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turck, B.

    1992-03-01

    This report is a collection of published papers in French and in English on superconducting composites and cables. All domains concerning the behaviour of superconductors in coils for field generation have been covered: critical current, current distribution, instabilities, losses in varying field. This document provides with expressions and criteria for conductor design, with conditions for achieving given performances and with criteria for design and optimization of structures of multifilamentary composites and cables. These publications have played a determining role in the understanding of the behaviour of superconductors and in their use in high performing magnets

  12. DC Cable for Railway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Masaru

    The development of a superconducting cable for railways has commenced, assuming that a DC transmission cable will be used for electric trains. The cable has been fabricated based on the results of current testing of a superconducting wire, and various evaluation tests have been performed to determine the characteristics of the cable. A superconducting transmission cable having zero electrical resistance and suitable for railway use is expected to enhance regeneration efficiency, reduce power losses, achieve load leveling and integration of sub-stations, and reduce rail potential.

  13. Design of a termination for a high temperature superconduction power cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Carsten; Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa; Tønnesen, Ole

    1999-01-01

    ). This assembly is electrically insulated with an extruded polymer dielectric kept at room temperature. Cooling is provided by a flow of liquid nitrogen inside the former. The purpose of the termination is to connect the superconducting cable conductor at cryogenic temperature to the existing power grid at room...... temperatures, the transfer of liquid nitrogen over a high voltage drop and that of providing a well defined atmosphere inside the termination and around the cable conductor. Designs based on calculations and experiments will be presented. The solutions are optimized with respect to a low heat in-leak....

  14. Development of conductor feedthrough module of LV electrical penetration assembly for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Zhiyuan; Wang Guangjin; Zhou Bin

    2007-01-01

    A LV electrical penetration assembly with perfusion sealing conductor feedthrough module was developed, which can be used for the connection of internal and external cables through the wall of the research reactor workshop. The LV electrical penetration assembly was combined with several independent modules. The maintenance and replacement of the assembly can be easily done in service. The sealing of conductor feedthrough module was achieved with the perfusion of self-extinguishing epoxy. The leakage between the conductor feedthrough module and the end plate module was blocked with rubber rings. The result of the leakage test and the electrical performance test for the samples of conductor feedthrough module satisfied the requirement of research reactor. The structure of the new electrical penetration assembly is simple and compact. It can be manufactured with mature technology and cost low price. The performance of the assembly is steady. It can be used widely in research reactors. (authors)

  15. Solid-cryogen-stabilized, cable-in-conduit (CIC) superconducting cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voccio, J. P.; Michael, P. C.; Bromberg, L.; Hahn, S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper considers the use of a solid cryogen as a means to stabilize, both mechanically and thermally, magnesium diboride (MgB2) superconducting strands within a dual-channel cable-in-conduit (CIC) cable for use in AC applications, such as a generator stator winding. The cable consists of two separate channels; the outer channel contains the superconducting strands and is filled with a fluid (liquid or gas) that becomes solid at the device operating temperature. Several options for fluid will be presented, such as liquid nitrogen, hydrocarbons and other chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) that have a range of melting temperatures and volumetric expansions (from solid at operating temperature to fixed volume at room temperature). Implications for quench protection and conductor stability, enhanced through direct contact with the solid cryogen, which has high heat capacity and thermal conductivity (compared with helium gas), will be presented. Depending on the cryogen, the conductor will be filled initially either with liquid at atmospheric conditions or a gas at high pressure (∼100 atm). After cooldown, the cryogen in the stranded-channel will be solid, essentially locking the strands in place, preventing strand motion and degradation due to mechanical deformation while providing enhanced thermal capacity for stability and protection. The effect of cryogen porosity is also considered. The relatively high heat capacity of solid cryogens at these lower temperatures (compared to gaseous helium) enhances the thermal stability of the winding. During operation, coolant flow through the open inner channel will minimize pressure drop.

  16. Evaluation of inductive heating energy of a PF insert coil conductor by the calorimetric method (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kunihiro; Nabara, Yoshihiro; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Okuno, Kiyoshi

    2009-02-01

    The PF Insert Coil is a single layer solenoid coil using a superconducting conductor designed for ITER, housed in a Poloidal field coil and installed in the bore of the CS Model Coil. A stability test of the conductor will be performed in a magnetic field generated by the CS Model Coil. In this test, the inductive heat of an inductive heater attached to the conductor will be applied to initiate a normal zone in the conductor. Since the conductor for the PF Insert Coil is a cable-in-conduit conductor, it is quite difficult to estimate inductive heating energy theoretically. Thus, the inductive heating energy is measured experimentally by the calorimetric method. The heating energy is in proportion to a constant multiplied by the integrated square of an applied sinusoidal current wave over the heating period. Experimental results show that the proportional constants of the conductor, cable, conduit and dummy conductor are 0.138 [J/A 2 s], 0.028 [J/A 2 s], 0.118 [J/A 2 s] and 0.009 [J/A 2 s], respectively. The first three denote not only the inductive heating but also the joule heating of the inductive heater. The final value denotes joule heating only. Therefore, subtracting the first three constants by the last one, the proportional constants of inductive heating generated in the conductor, cable and conduit are estimated to be 0.129 [J/A 2 s], 0.019 [J/A 2 s] and 0.109 [J/A 2 s], respectively. (author)

  17. Current transfer between superconductor and normal layer in coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, S

    2007-01-01

    The current transfer between superconducting stripes coated with normal layer is examined in detail. It is shown that, in present YBCO coated conductors with striations, a considerable amount of the current flowing in the normal layer is not transferred into the superconducting stripes. This effect also influences the eddy currents and the coupling currents between the stripes. The effective resistance for the coupling currents is calculated. The maximum allowable twist length of such a striated structure is given, which ensures lower losses than in the corresponding normal conductor of the same volume as the total YBCO cable (including substrate, buffer layer, superconductor and normal coating). In addition, a new simple method for determining the transfer resistance between superconducting and normal parts is proposed

  18. Interacting with a Virtual Conductor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Pieter; Reidsma, Dennis; Ruttkay, Zsófia; Nijholt, Anton; Harper, Richard; Rauterberg, Matthias; Combetto, Marco

    This paper presents a virtual embodied agent that can conduct musicians in a live performance. The virtual conductor conducts music specified by a MIDI file and uses input from a microphone to react to the tempo of the musicians. The current implementation of the virtual conductor can interact with

  19. Quench Property of Twisted-Pair MgB$_2$ Superconducting Cables in Helium Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Spurrell, J; Falorio, I; Pelegrin, J; Ballarino, A; Yang, Y

    2015-01-01

    CERN's twisted-pair superconducting cable is a novel design which offers filament transposition, low cable inductance and is particularly suited for tape conductors such as 2G YBCO coated conductors, Ag-sheathed Bi2223 tapes and Ni/Monel-sheathed MgB2 tapes. A typical design of such twistedpair cables consists of multiple superconducting tapes intercalated with thin copper tapes as additional stabilizers. The copper tapes are typically not soldered to the superconducting tapes so that sufficient flexibility is retained for the twisting of the tape assembly. The electrical and thermal contacts between the copper and superconducting tapes are an important parameter for current sharing, cryogenic stability and quench propagation. Using an MgB2 twisted-pair cable assembly manufactured at CERN, we have carried out minimum quench energy (MQE) and propagation velocity (vp) measurements with point-like heat deposition localized within a tape. Furthermore, different contacts between the copper and superconductor aroun...

  20. Mechanical and Electrical Modeling of Strands in Two ITER CS Cable Designs

    CERN Document Server

    Torre, A; Ciazynski, D

    2014-01-01

    Following the test of the first Central Solenoid (CS) conductor short samples for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) in the SULTAN facility, Iter Organization (IO) decided to manufacture and test two alternate samples using four different cable designs. These samples, while using the same Nb$_{3}$Sn strand, were meant to assess the influence of various cable design parameters on the conductor performance and behavior under mechanical cycling. In particular, the second of these samples, CSIO2, aimed at comparing designs with modified cabling twist pitches sequences. This sample has been tested, and the two legs exhibited very different behaviors. To help understand what could lead to such a difference, these two cables were mechanically modeled using the MULTIFIL code, and the resulting strain map was used as an input into the CEA electrical code CARMEN. This article presents the main data extracted from the mechanical simulation and its use into the electrical modeling of individual s...

  1. AC losses in superconductors: a multi-scale approach for the design of high current cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escamez, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    The work reported in this PhD deals with AC losses in superconducting material for large scale applications such as cables or magnets. Numerical models involving FEM or integral methods have been developed to solve the time transient electromagnetic distributions of field and current densities with the peculiarity of the superconducting constitutive E-J equation. Two main conductors have been investigated. First, REBCO superconductors for applications operating at 77 K are studied and a new architecture of conductor (round wires) for 3 kA cables. Secondly, for very high current cables, 3-D simulations on MgB_2 wires are built and solved using FEM modeling. The following chapter introduced new development used for the calculation of AC losses in DC cables with ripples. The thesis ends with the use of the developed numerical model on a practical example in the european BEST-PATHS project: a 10 kA MgB_2 demonstrator [fr

  2. Study on AC loss measurements of HTS power cable for standardizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukoyama, Shinichi; Amemiya, Naoyuki; Watanabe, Kazuo; Iijima, Yasuhiro; Mido, Nobuhiro; Masuda, Takao; Morimura, Toshiya; Oya, Masayoshi; Nakano, Tetsutaro; Yamamoto, Kiyoshi

    2017-09-01

    High-temperature superconducting power cables (HTS cables) have been developed for more than 20 years. In addition of the cable developments, the test methods of the HTS cables have been discussed and proposed in many laboratories and companies. Recently the test methods of the HTS cables is required to standardize and to common in the world. CIGRE made the working group (B1-31) for the discussion of the test methods of the HTS cables as a power cable, and published the recommendation of the test method. Additionally, IEC TC20 submitted the New Work Item Proposal (NP) based on the recommendation of CIGRE this year, IEC TC20 and IEC TC90 started the standardization work on Testing of HTS AC cables. However, the individual test method that used to measure a performance of HTS cables hasn’t been established as world’s common methods. The AC loss is one of the most important properties to disseminate low loss and economical efficient HTS cables in the world. We regard to establish the method of the AC loss measurements in rational and in high accuracy. Japan is at a leading position in the AC loss study, because Japanese researchers have studied on the AC loss technically and scientifically, and also developed the effective technologies for the AC loss reduction. The JP domestic commission of TC90 made a working team to discussion the methods of the AC loss measurements for aiming an international standard finally. This paper reports about the AC loss measurement of two type of the HTS conductors, such as a HTS conductor without a HTS shield and a HTS conductor with a HTS shield. The AC loss measurement method is suggested by the electrical method..

  3. Numerical analysis of the stability of HTS power cable under fault current considering the gaps in the cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, J.; Li, H.F.; Zhu, J.H.; Zhou, Z.N.; Li, Y.X.; Shen, Z.; Dong, D.L.; Yu, T.; Li, Z.M.; Qiu, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The equivalent circuit equations and the heat balance equations were established. •The current distributions of the HTS cable under fault current were obtained. •The temperature curves of conductor layers under fault current were obtained. •The effect of the gap liquid nitrogen on the thermal characteristics was studied. -- Abstract: During the operation of a high temperature superconducting power cable in a real grid, the power cable can be impacted inevitably by large fault current. The study on current distribution and thermal characteristics in the cable under fault current is the foundation to analyze its stability. To analyze the operation situation of 110 kV/3 kA class superconducting cable under the fault current of 25 kA rms for 3 s, the equivalent circuit equations and heat balance equations were established. The current distribution curves and the temperature distribution curves were obtained. The liquid nitrogen which exists in the gaps of HTS cable was taken into consideration, the influence of gap liquid nitrogen on the thermal characteristics was investigated. The analysis results can be used to estimate the security and stability of the superconducting cable

  4. Numerical analysis of the stability of HTS power cable under fault current considering the gaps in the cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J., E-mail: fangseer@sina.com [School of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Li, H.F. [School of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Zhu, J.H.; Zhou, Z.N. [China Electric Power Research Institute, Beijing 100192 (China); Li, Y.X.; Shen, Z.; Dong, D.L.; Yu, T. [School of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Li, Z.M.; Qiu, M. [China Electric Power Research Institute, Beijing 100192 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •The equivalent circuit equations and the heat balance equations were established. •The current distributions of the HTS cable under fault current were obtained. •The temperature curves of conductor layers under fault current were obtained. •The effect of the gap liquid nitrogen on the thermal characteristics was studied. -- Abstract: During the operation of a high temperature superconducting power cable in a real grid, the power cable can be impacted inevitably by large fault current. The study on current distribution and thermal characteristics in the cable under fault current is the foundation to analyze its stability. To analyze the operation situation of 110 kV/3 kA class superconducting cable under the fault current of 25 kA{sub rms} for 3 s, the equivalent circuit equations and heat balance equations were established. The current distribution curves and the temperature distribution curves were obtained. The liquid nitrogen which exists in the gaps of HTS cable was taken into consideration, the influence of gap liquid nitrogen on the thermal characteristics was investigated. The analysis results can be used to estimate the security and stability of the superconducting cable.

  5. Characteristics of SUS-MI cables and it's application to wiring in nuclear power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Michio; Sato, Toshio; Handa, Katsue; Ohya, Shingo; Ioroi, Masaya

    1984-01-01

    SUS-MI cables are the inorganic insulation cables using austenitic stainless steel SUS 321 as the sheath, oxygen-free copper as the conductor and high purity magnesium oxide as the insulatingmaterial. Because of the excellent characteristics of the composing materials, the properties withstanding radiation, fire and heat, and sodium of the cables are superior. In the nuclear power facilities being developed such as fast breeder reactors and nuclear fusion reactors, there is the environment the cables with organic materials as the components cannot meet. As the cables to be applied to such places, the SUS-MI cables are most suitable. In this report, the electric properties and the mechanical strength of the cables and the examples of practical use are described. The highest temperature of using the SUS-MI cables is 800 deg C. The form and the composing materials of the SUS-MI cables, the characteristics and the cable laying are reported. Ceramic connectors and heat-resistant wall penetration parts were developed. The characteristics of the cables for the preheaters of fast breeder reactors are compared. (Kako, I.)

  6. Wire rope superconducting cable for diurnal load leveling SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a wire rope cable for a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit is discussed. The superconducting wires in the rope permit the passage of large currents in the relatively small conductors of the windings and hence cause large electromagnetic forces to act on the rope. The diameter of the rope, from a strength point of view, can be considerably reduced by supporting the rope at various points along its length

  7. Admittance of multiterminal quantum Hall conductors at kilohertz frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández, C.; Consejo, C.; Chaubet, C.; Degiovanni, P.

    2014-01-01

    We present an experimental study of the low frequency admittance of quantum Hall conductors in the [100 Hz, 1 MHz] frequency range. We show that the frequency dependence of the admittance of the sample strongly depends on the topology of the contacts connections. Our experimental results are well explained within the Christen and Büttiker approach for finite frequency transport in quantum Hall edge channels taking into account the influence of the coaxial cables capacitance. In the Hall bar geometry, we demonstrate that there exists a configuration in which the cable capacitance does not influence the admittance measurement of the sample. In this case, we measure the electrochemical capacitance of the sample and observe its dependence on the filling factor

  8. Admittance of multiterminal quantum Hall conductors at kilohertz frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández, C. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Carrera 11 101-80 Bogotá D.C. (Colombia); Consejo, C.; Chaubet, C., E-mail: christophe.chaubet@univ-montp2.fr [Université Montpellier 2, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR5221, F-34095 Montpellier, France and CNRS, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR5221, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Degiovanni, P. [Université de Lyon, Fédération de Physique Andrée Marie Ampère, CNRS, Laboratoire de Physique de l' Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 allée d' Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2014-03-28

    We present an experimental study of the low frequency admittance of quantum Hall conductors in the [100 Hz, 1 MHz] frequency range. We show that the frequency dependence of the admittance of the sample strongly depends on the topology of the contacts connections. Our experimental results are well explained within the Christen and Büttiker approach for finite frequency transport in quantum Hall edge channels taking into account the influence of the coaxial cables capacitance. In the Hall bar geometry, we demonstrate that there exists a configuration in which the cable capacitance does not influence the admittance measurement of the sample. In this case, we measure the electrochemical capacitance of the sample and observe its dependence on the filling factor.

  9. Signal processing of data from short sample tests for the projection of conductor performance in ITER magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martovetsky, Nicolai

    2008-01-01

    Qualification of the ITER conductor is absolutely necessary. Testing large scale conductors is expensive and time-consuming. To test 3-4 m long straight samples in a bore of a split solenoid is a relatively economical way in comparison with the fabrication of a coil to be tested in a bore of a background field solenoid. However, testing short samples may give ambiguous results due to different constraints in current redistribution in the cable or other end effects which are not present in the large magnet. This paper discusses the processes taking place in the ITER conductor, conditions when conductor performance could be distorted and possible signal processing to deduce the behaviour of ITER conductors in ITER magnets from the test data

  10. Cable aging tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the results from aging, condition monitoring, and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) testing of class 1E electrical cables, per NUREG/CR-5772. This test was designed to test the performance of cables which had been aged with simultaneous radiation and thermal exposure. The tested cables included crosslinked polyolefin cables, ethylene propylene rubber cables, and miscellaneous cable types. Cables were exposed to 20, 40, and 60 years equivalent aging, and then exposed to LOCA tests at the end of their qualified life to determine the minimum insulation thickness needed for survival of the test. Failures were found in a large number of the tested cables. As a result the NRC has sent information notices to the industry regarding potential insulation problems. The results have raised the question of whether the artificial aging methods provide adequate testing methods. As a result of this testing the NRC is reviewing the artificial aging procedures, the adequacy of environmental qualification requirements for cable safety, and reexamining data from condition monitoring of installed cables

  11. Understanding core conductor fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, D E

    2011-01-01

    ESD Association standard test method ANSI/ESD STM2.1 - Garments (STM2.1), provides electrical resistance test procedures that are applicable for materials and garments that have surface conductive or surface dissipative properties. As has been reported in other papers over the past several years 1 fabrics are now used in many industries for electrostatic control purposes that do not have surface conductive properties and therefore cannot be evaluated using the procedures in STM2.1 2 . A study was conducted to compare surface conductive fabrics with samples of core conductor fibre based fabrics in order to determine differences and similarities with regards to various electrostatic properties. This work will be used to establish a new work item proposal within WG-2, Garments, in the ESD Association Standards Committee in the USA.

  12. Low AC Loss in a 3 kA HTS Cable of the Dutch Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevtchenko, Oleg; Zuijderduin, Roy; Smit, Johan; Willén, Dag; Lentge, Heidi; Thidemann, Carsten; Traeholt, Chresten; Melnik, Irina; Geschiere, Alex

    Requirements for a 6 km long high temperature superconducting (HTS) AC power cable of the Amsterdam project are: a cable has to fit in an annulus of 160 mm, with two cooling stations at the cable ends only. Existing solutions for HTS cables would lead to excessively high coolant pressure drop in the cable, potentially affecting public acceptance of the project. A way out would be to substantially reduce AC losses from 1 down to about 0.1 W/m per phase at rated current of 3 kArms, frequency of 50 Hz and temperature of 77 K. In this paper we discuss a strategy towards this ambitious goal, a concept design of the single phase cable 3 kA conductor made of YBCO tapes and present corresponding experimental and simulation data supporting the developed approach leading directly to this goal. HTS cable model was made that show a drastically reduced AC loss. The low loss was achieved by using appropriate pitch angles for two-layer cable conductor of relatively large diameter, by minimizing the gaps between the HTS tapes, and by using narrow HTS tapes that conform well to the roundness of the underlying former. AC loss of 0.12 W/m at 3 kArms was measured at a frequency of 60 Hz and at a temperature of 77 K.

  13. Calorimetric method for current sharing temperature measurements in ITER conductor samples in SULTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnasco, M.

    2009-01-01

    Several Toroidal Field Conductor short samples with slight layout variations have been assembled and tested in the SULTAN facility at CRPP. The measurement campaigns started in 2007 and are still ongoing. The performance of every conductor is expressed in terms of current sharing temperature (T cs ), i.e. the temperature at which a defined electric field, 10 μV/m, is detected in the cable due to the incipient superconducting-to-normal state transition. The T cs at specific operating conditions is the key design parameter for the ITER conductors and is the main object of the qualification tests. Typically, the average electric field is measured with voltage tap pairs attached on the jacket along the conductor. The inability however to explain observed premature voltage developments opened the discussion about possible alternative measuring methods. The He flow calorimetric method is based on the measurement of the resistive power generation in the conductor. It relies on the detection of very small temperature increases along the conductor in steady state operation. The accuracy and the reliability of the calorimetric method in SULTAN are critically discussed, with particular emphasis on the instrumentation requirements and test procedures. The application of the calorimetric method to the recent SULTAN test campaigns is described with its merits and limits. For future tests of ITER conductors in SULTAN, the calorimetric method for T cs test is proposed as a routine procedure.

  14. A Novel Method for Detection and Classification of Covered Conductor Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Misak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medium-Voltage (MV overhead lines with Covered Conductors (CCs are increasingly being used around the world primarily in forested or dissected terrain areas or in urban areas where it is not possible to utilize MV cable lines. The CC is specific in high operational reliability provided by the conductor core insulation compared to Aluminium-Conductor Steel-Reinforced (ACSR overhead lines. The only disadvantage of the CC is rather the problematic detection of faults compared to the ACSR. In this work, we consider the following faults: the contact of a tree branch with a CC and the fall of a conductor on the ground. The standard protection relays are unable to detect the faults and so the faults pose a risk for individuals in the vicinity of the conductor as well as it compromises the overall safety and reliability of the MV distribution system. In this article, we continue with our previous work aimed at the method enabling detection of the faults and we introduce a method enabling a classification of the fault type. Such a classification is especially important for an operator of an MV distribution system to plan the optimal maintenance or repair the faulty conductors since the fall of a tree branch can be solved later whereas the breakdown of a conductor means an immediate action of the operator.

  15. [Fluid dynamics of supercritical helium within internally cooled cabled superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sciver, S.W.

    1995-01-01

    The Applied Superconductivity Center of the University of Wisconsin-Madison proposes to conduct research on low temperature helium fluid dynamics as it applies to the cooling of internally cooled cabled superconductors (ICCS). Such conductors are used in fusion reactor designs including most of the coils in ITER. The proposed work is primarily experimental involving measurements of transient and steady state pressure drop in a variety of conductor configurations. Both model and prototype conductors for actual magnet designs will be investigated. The primary goal will be to measure and model the friction factor for these complex geometries. In addition, an effort will be made to study transient processes such as heat transfer and fluid expulsion associated with quench conditions

  16. DESIGN, FABRICATION AND TEST OF THE REACT AND WIND, NB(3)SN, LDX FLOATING COIL CONDUCTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, B.A.; MICHAEL, P.C.; MINERVINI, J.V.; TAKAYASU, M.; SCHULTZ, J.H.; GREGORY, E.; PYON, T.; SAMPSON, W.B.; GHOSH, A.; SCANLAN, R.

    2000-01-01

    The Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX) is a novel approach for studying magnetic confinement of a fusion plasma. In this approach, a superconducting ring coil is magnetically levitated for up to 8 hours a day in the center of a 5 meter diameter vacuum vessel. The levitated coil, with on-board helium supply, is called the gloating Coil (F-Coil). Although the maximum field at the coil is only 5.3 tesla, a react-and-wind Nb 3 Sn conductor was selected because the relatively high critical temperature will enable the coil to remain levitated while it warms from 5 K to 10 K. Since pre-reacted Nb 3 Sn tape is no longer commercially available, a composite conductor was designed that contains an 18 strand Nb 3 Sn Rutherford cable. The cable was reacted and then soldered into a structural copper channel that completes the conductor and also provides quench protection. The strain state of the cable was continuously controlled during fabrication steps such as: soldering into the copper channel, spooling, and coil winding, to prevent degradation of the critical current. Measurements of strand and cable critical currents are reported, as well as estimates of the effect of fabrication, winding and operating strains on critical current

  17. Sizewell 'B' cable installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmell, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    N G Bailey and Co. Ltd., UK were awarded the contract for the procurement, manufacture, works testing, works finishing, supply, delivery, off-loading, storage, installation, site finishing, preservation, setting to work and site testing of the following; the main cable installation throughout the Station including the addition of the Radioactive Waste Building, earthing and lightning protection installation, cable supporting steelwork and carriers and glanding and termination of cables. The cabling installation comprises power distribution, control and instrumentation cabling including all the associated cabling accessories, terminal boxes and similar components. The way that the contract was set-up, awarded and is now being carried out is described. Planning and industrial relations have been key features of the contract. (Author)

  18. Cable support arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendleton, E.; Murray, A.

    1983-01-01

    A cable support arrangement extending from a refuelling level floor of a nuclear reactor to the inner shield of a double rotatable shield comprises a linearly extensible cable support and disciplining boom, reaching from the floor to the main shield, and a circumferentially extensible cable support and disciplining means running from the end of the boom to a fixed end on the inner shield. (author)

  19. High voltage dc cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjustrom, B

    1965-12-01

    How stress distribution in dc cables varies with temperature and stress level, influence of polarity reversals and space charges, and different types of overvoltage to which dc cable may be subjected are discussed. Design problems, especially as related to corrosion protection and to mechanical stress caused by wire armoring during manufacturing and laying, accessories and work done on test methods, and the possibility of designing 400 to 600 kV dc cables for transmitting 2000 to 4000 MW are described.

  20. External electromagnetic transient sources: analysis of its effect in underground power cables; Fuentes transitorias electromagneticas externas: analisis de su efecto en los cables de potencia subterraneos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escamilla Paz, Antonio

    2009-07-01

    over currents, as well as the effectiveness of the protective devices during those transient periods. The equipment and the circuits capsulated in cabinets or metal covers are generally immune to the external electromagnetic fields, due to the shield that these cabinets provide. Nevertheless, when external energy cable interconnections are realized in these cabinets, including the grounding conductors, the electromagnetic inductions in the outside tend to propagate towards their internal circuits. In order to reduce the electromagnetic couplings of cables they are commonly provided with a metallic screen. In this case, most of the induced currents flow through this screen, instead of doing it through the of the nucleus conductors of the cables. But, even in cables with screen, currents and voltages in the conductors of the nucleus can be induced that deserve consideration. On the other hand, the effectiveness of the power cable screens used to interconnect equipment modules, or subsystems, falls when the transient is increased. For these reasons, it is necessary to evaluate the effect of the currents and the voltages induced with cables with screen. In order to analyze the effects of the electromagnetic couplings in cables it is important to define the cable problem. This consists in defining the physical and electrical characteristics of the cable and the structure of the surrounding environment, as well as in evaluating the electric field that influences in the conductors of the cable nucleus. If the cable has a screen, is necessary to determine the screen connections and later the connections of the nucleus conductors. This investigation focuses on the development of a methodology for the analysis of electromagnetic high frequency transients that take place by the atmospheric discharges in underground power cables, which, when propagating through the ground, and under certain conditions, can alter the normal operation of these systems. [Spanish] En la mayoria de los

  1. Electrical power cable engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Thue, William A

    2011-01-01

    Fully updated, Electrical Power Cable Engineering, Third Edition again concentrates on the remarkably complex design, application, and preparation methods required to terminate and splice cables. This latest addition to the CRC Press Power Engineering series covers cutting-edge methods for design, manufacture, installation, operation, and maintenance of reliable power cable systems. It is based largely on feedback from experienced university lecturers who have taught courses on these very concepts.The book emphasizes methods to optimize vital design and installation of power cables used in the

  2. Ultra high-current superconducting cables for a 2.2-Tesla, 300-kilojoule energy storage magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, G.A.; Rhodenizer, R.; Rackov, P.; Punchard, W.F.B.; de Winter, T.A.

    1976-01-01

    These 2.2-T, 300-kJ magnets are to operate at 10 to 12 kA with a safety factor in critical current of about 50 percent at 10 kA. The conductor must exhibit low losses in addition to being stable. Magnetic Corporation of America (MCA) designed a flat conductor using 1224 copper-matrix, monofilament wires combined in two stages of cabling followed by two stages of flat braiding. Two of these conductors were constructed, one with wire already on hand and the second using wire made specifically for this application. Intermagnetics General Corporation (IGC) designed two rectangular conductors using 315 and 319 mixed-matrix multifilament wires combined in three stages of cabling followed by compaction in a Turk's head. The maximum transport current capabilities (I/sub t/) of these cables were measured in hairpin shaped samples with the straight section under test in perpendicularly applied fields. The measured results at 2.5 T for the two MCA cables were 11.7 kA and 15.4 kA, and for the IGC cables were 18.2 kA and 19.3 kA (extrapolated). In addition, samples of the compacted and uncompacted major strands from the IGC cables were tested. The results of these measurements are compred with values of I/sub t/ from the single-wire critical currents taking into account the adjacent conductor fields and the cable self-fields.Several causes of degradation of I/sub t/ in the compacted cable are discussed including those due to experimental factors

  3. Conductor for a fluid-cooled winding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Walter J.

    1983-01-01

    A conductor and method of making the conductor are provided for use in winding electrical coils which are cooled by a fluid communicating with the conductor. The conductor is cold worked through twisting and reshaping steps to form a generally rectangular cross section conductor having a plurality of helical cooling grooves extending axially of the conductor. The conductor configuration makes it suitable for a wide variety of winding applications and permits the use of simple strip insulation between turns and perforated sheet insulation between layers of the winding.

  4. COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelsea Hubbard

    2001-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D and D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D and D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D and D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness

  5. Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online

  6. Lightning in hybrid cable-overhead lines and consequent transient overvoltages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Schultz Pedersen, Kasper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2017-01-01

    Whereas lines that consist entirely of underground cable are naturally protected from lightning, the phenomenon must be considered for lines that are a mix of overhead lines and underground cables. The difference between overhead lines and underground cables wave impedances may lead to transient ...... conductor and for hits on the earth wire, with and without back flashover. For the most common situation, stroke on the earth wire, it is demonstrated that the cable’s ground propagation mode is dominant, reducing the impact of the reflections....

  7. Field test and theoretical analysis of electromagnetic pulse propagation velocity on crossbonded cable systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Flytkjær; Bak, Claus Leth; Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the electromagnetic pulse propagation velocity on a three-phase cable system, consisting of three single core (SC) cables in flat formation with an earth continuity conductor is under study. The propagation velocity is an important parameter for most travelling wave off- and online...... fault location methods and needs to be exactly known for optimal performance of these algorithm types. Field measurements are carried out on a 6.9 km and a 31.4 km 245 kV crossbonded cable system, and the results are analysed using the modal decomposition theory. Several ways for determining...

  8. Fiber optic sensors for monitoring sodium circuits and power grid cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasinathan, M.; Sosamma, S.; Pandian, C.; Vijayakumar, V.; Chandramouli, S.; Nashine, B. K.; Rao, C. B.; Murali, N.; Rajan, K. K.; Jayakumar, T. [IGCAR, Kalpakkam (India)

    2011-07-01

    At Kalpakkam, India, a programme on development of Raman Distributed Temperature sensor (RDTS) for Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR) application is undertaken. Leak detection in sodium circuits of FBR is critical for the safety and performance of the reactors. It is demonstrated that RDTS can be usefully employed in monitoring sodium circuits and in tracking the percolating sodium in case of any leak. Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR) cable is commonly used as overhead power transmission cable in power grid. A second application demonstrates the suitability of using RDTS to monitor this transmission cable for any defect. (authors)

  9. Results of Recent DOE Research on Development of Cable Condition Monitoring and Aging Management Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, C.J.; McConkey, J.B.; Hashemian, H.M.; Sexton, C.D.; Cummins, D.S.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis and Measurement Services (AMS) Corporation has been conducting two research projects focused on understanding cable aging and developing cable condition monitoring technologies for nuclear power plants. The goal of the first project is to correlate cable faults with testing techniques that can identify and locate the faults whether they are in the cable, conductor, or the insulation. This project involves laboratory experiments using low and medium voltage cable types typically installed in nuclear power plants. The second project is focused on development of an integrated cable condition monitoring system for nuclear facilities. This system integrates a number of cable testing and cable condition monitoring techniques, such as the time domain reflectometry (TDR), frequency domain reflectometry (FDR), inductance, capacitance, resistance (LCR), reverse TDR (RTDR), current-to-voltage (IV) for testing of nuclear instrumentation sensors, insulation resistance (IR) and other techniques. The purpose of the project is to combine all proven technologies into one system to detect and pinpoint problems in cable circuits as well as cable insulation, shield, or jacket material. (author)

  10. Noise propagation issues in Belle II pixel detector power cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, M.; Arteche, F.; Echeverria, I.; Pradas, A.; Rivetta, C.; Moser, H.-G.; Kiesling, C.; Rummel, S.; Arcega, F. J.

    2018-04-01

    The vertex detector used in the upgrade of High-Energy physics experiment Belle II includes DEPFET pixel detector (PXD) technology. In this complex topology the power supply units and the front-end electronics are connected through a PXD power cable bundle which may propagate the output noise from the power supplies to the vertex area. This paper presents a study of the propagation of noise caused by power converters in the PXD cable bundle based on Multi-conductor Transmission Line (MTL) theory. The work exposes the effect of the complex cable topology and shield connections on the noise propagation, which has an impact on the requirements of the power supplies. This analysis is part of the electromagnetic compatibility based design focused on functional safety to define the shield connections and power supply specifications required to ensure the successful integration of the detector and, specifically, to achieve the designed performance of the front-end electronics.

  11. Laplace Synthesis Validation through Measurements on Underground Transmission Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe-Campos Felipe Alejandro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Underground cable electrical parameters ZY as well as their modal propagation characteristics are highly frequency dependent which in certain cases turns its analysis difficult. To perform electromagnetic transient studies of cables the calculation of electrical parameters is essential to obtain the waves propagation solution through the multiconductor system. At the same time this requires to solve the inverse Laplace transform on a numerical form. Although the analytic Laplace transform has an indisputable accuracy, the application of its numerical version up-to-date has not been completely accepted. A complete methodology is developed in this work to guide analyst engineers or graduate students in the calculation of electromagnetic transients of underground cable systems. Finally, to help the validation of the numerical inverse Laplace transform a scaled prototype experiment is performed in the laboratory in which a transient step-response at the remote end of an energized conductor is measured.

  12. Automated Cable Preparation for Robotized Stator Cable Winding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hultman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A method for robotized cable winding of the Uppsala University Wave Energy Converter generator stator has previously been presented and validated. The purpose of this study is to present and validate further developments to the method: automated stand-alone equipment for the preparation of the winding cables. The cable preparation consists of three parts: feeding the cable from a drum, forming the cable end and cutting the cable. Forming and cutting the cable was previously done manually and only small cable drums could be handled. Therefore the robot cell needed to be stopped frequently. The new equipment was tested in an experimental robot stator cable winding setup. Through the experiments, the equipment was validated to be able to perform fully automated and robust cable preparation. Suggestions are also given on how to further develop the equipment with regards to performance, robustness and quality. Hence, this work represents another important step towards demonstrating completely automated robotized stator cable winding.

  13. Design and Application of Cables and Overhead Lines in Wind Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, M. R. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bellei, T.A. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bloethe, W.G. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bradt, M. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Brooks, C. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Camm, E H [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Dilling, W. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Goltz, B. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Hermanson, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Li, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Loy, P. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; McLean, K. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Niemira, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Nuckles, K. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Patino, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Reza, M [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Richardson, B. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Samaan, N. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Schoene, Jens [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Smith, Travis M [ORNL; Snyder, Isabelle B [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Tesch, M. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Walling, R. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Zahalka, G. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the most impor- tant considerations for wind power plant collection system un- derground and overhead cable designs. Various considerations, including conductor selection, soil thermal properties, installa- tion methods, splicing, concentric grounding, and NESC/NEC requirements are discussed.

  14. Electromagnetic losses in a three-phase high temperature superconducting cable determined by calorimetric measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traeholt, C.; Veje, E.; Tønnesen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    conventional phases (600 mm2 Cu) could be moved in the plane. It was possible to vary the inter-phase distance (centre to centre distance) from 9 to 48 cm. The HTS cable conductor was placed in a stainless steel cryostat and cooled with flowing liquid nitrogen (LN2). The losses were determined using...

  15. Stability analysis of NbTi-Ta-based high field conductor cooled by pool boiling below 4 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.Y.; Alcorn, J.S.; Hsu, Y.H.; Purcell, J.R.

    1980-09-01

    Stability analysis has been performed for cabled NbTi-Ta-based superconductors intended for the high field (12 T) toroidal field coils for a large scale tokamak device such as ETF. Ternary NbTi-Ta was selected as the superconductor because of its superior critical current density at high field as compared to the binary alloy NbTi. The operating temperature was chosen to be 2.5 K or below to optimize the performance of the superconductor. A cabled conductor was selected to minimize the pulsed field losses. The conductor is cooled by pool boiling in a subcooled (approx. 2.5 K, 0.25 atm) bath, or in a superfluid helium (He-II) bath (approx. 1.8 K, 0.02 atm). The analysis was based on numerically simulating the evolution of a normal zone in the conductor. Appropriate superconductor properties and heat transfer characteristics were utilized in the simulation

  16. High-field thermal transports properties of REBCO coated conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Bonura, M

    2015-01-01

    The use of REBCO coated conductors is envisaged for many applications, extending from power cables to high-field magnets. Whatever the case, thermal properties of REBCO tapes play a key role for the stability of superconducting devices. In this work, we present the first study on the longitudinal thermal conductivity (k) of REBCO coated conductors in magnetic fields up to 19 T applied both parallelly and perpendicularly to the thermal-current direction. Copper-stabilized tapes from six industrial manufacturers have been investigated. We show that zero-field k of coated conductors can be calculated with an accuracy of ‡ 15% from the residual resistivity ratio of the stabilizer and the Cu/non-Cu ratio. Measurements performed at high fields have allowed us to evaluate the consistency of the procedures generally used for estimating in-field k in the framework of the Wiedemann-Franz law from an electrical characterization of the materials. In-field data are intended to provide primary ingredients for the ...

  17. Nuclear qualified in-containment electrical connectors and method of connecting electrical conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. G.

    1991-01-01

    A nuclear qualified in-containment electrical connection comprises an insulated, sheathed instrument lead having electrical conductors extending from one end thereof to provide two exposed lead wires, a watertight cable having electrical conducting wires therein and extending from one end of the cable to provide two lead wires therefrom, two butt splice connectors each connecting the ends of respective ones of the lead wires from the instrument lead and cable, a length of heat shrinkable plastic tubing positioned over each butt splice connector and an adjacent portion of a respective lead wire from the cable and heat shrunk into position, a length of heat shrinkable plastic tubing on the end portion of the instrument lead adjacent the lead wires therefrom and heat shrunk thereon and a length of outer heat shrinkable plastic tubing extending over the end portion of the instrument lead and the heat shrinkable tubing thereon and over the butt splice connectors and a portion of the cable adjacent the cable lead lines, the outer heat shrinkable tubing being heat shrunk into sealing position on the instrument lead and cable.

  18. submitter Optimization of Nb$_{3}$Sn Rutherford Cables Geometry for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Fleiter, Jerome; Bonasia, Angelo; Bordini, Bernardo; Richter, David

    2017-01-01

    The quadrupole and dipole magnets for the LHC High Luminosity (HL-LHC) upgrade will be based on Nb$_{3}$Sn Rutherford cables that operate at 1.9 K and experience magnetic fields of up to about 12 T. An important step in the design of these magnets is the development of the high aspect ratio Nb$_{3}$Sn cables to achieve the nominal field with sufficient margin. The strong plastic deformation of unreacted $Nb_3Sn$ strands during the Rutherford cabling process may induce non negligible $I_c$ and RRR degradation. In this paper, the cabling degradation is investigated as a function of the cable geometry for both PIT and RRP conductors. Based on this analysis, new baseline geometries for both 11 T and QXF magnets of HL-LHC are proposed.

  19. submitter Optimization of Nb$_{3}$Sn Rutherford Cables Geometry for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Fleiter, Jerome; Bonasia, Angelo; Bordini, Bernardo; Richter, David

    2017-01-01

    The quadrupole and dipole magnets for the LHC High Luminosity (HL-LHC) upgrade will be based on Nb3Sn Rutherford cables that operate at 1.9 K and experience magnetic fields of up to about 12 T. An important step in the design of these magnets is the development of the high aspect ratio Nb3Sn cables to achieve the nominal field with sufficient margin. The strong plastic deformation of unreacted $Nb_3Sn$ strands during the Rutherford cabling process may induce non negligible $I_c$ and RRR degradation. In this paper, the cabling degradation is investigated as a function of the cable geometry for both PIT and RRP conductors. Based on this analysis, new baseline geometries for both 11 T and QXF magnets of HL-LHC are proposed.

  20. Transport losses in single and assembled coated conductors with textured-metal substrate with reduced magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amemiya, N.; Jiang, Z.; Li, Z.; Nakahata, M.; Kato, T.; Ueyama, M.; Kashima, N.; Nagaya, S.; Shiohara, S.

    2008-01-01

    Transport losses in a coated conductor with a textured-metal substrate with reduced magnetism were studied experimentally. The substrate is with a clad structure, and HoBCO superconductor layer is deposited on the substrate with buffer layers. The measured transport loss of a sample whose critical current is 126.0 A falls between Norris's strip value and Norris's ellipse value. The increase in the measured transport loss from Norris's strip value can be attributed to its non-uniform lateral J c distribution. The same buffered clad tape was placed under an IBAD-MOCVD coated conductor with a non-magnetic substrate, and its transport loss was measured. The comparison between the measured transport loss of this sample and that of the identical IBAD-MOCVD coated conductor without the buffered clad tape indicates that the increase in the transport loss due to this buffered clad tape is small. The transport losses of hexagonal assemblies of IBAD-MOCVD coated conductors, whose structure simulates that of superconducting power transmission cables, were also measured where the buffered clad tapes were under-lied or over-lied on the coated conductors. The increase in the transport loss of hexagonal assemblies of coated conductors due to the buffered clad tapes is at an allowable level

  1. Cable aging management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anandkumaran, A.; Sedding, H.

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, due to the age of the majority of nuclear generating stations significant attention is being paid to the condition of the major components, e.g., reactor, steam generator, turbine generator, transformer, etc., with respect to relicensing and life extension. However, there is recognition that cable systems are critical to the safe, reliable and economic operation of nuclear power plants. Consequently, there is great interest in ageing management of low and medium voltage cables in the nuclear environment. Successful implementation of such programs requires an understanding of how the materials associated with cables and their accessories behave under normal operating and accident conditions. However, there is also a great need to determine the actual condition of the materials and systems in order to make rational decisions on whether or not to replace cables to ensure long term assurance of reliable operation. This proposed contribution describes an approach to cable ageing management of low and medium voltage cables based on measurements of material and electrical properties obtained in the laboratory and in the field. The effectiveness of various chemical, mechanical and electrical test methods are discussed in the context of, • Cable configuration, i.e., low or medium voltage, shielded or unshielded • Material type, i.e., PVC, XLPE, EPR, etc., • Ageing stress, i.e., electrical, thermal, radiation, thermal plus radiation, etc. These factors are key to identifying the most appropriate test method (or methods) to enable understanding of the current condition of the cable. While electrical test methods, e.g., ac withstand testing, partial discharge and various dielectric loss measurement techniques have been found effective for medium voltage cables, they are of very limited use on low voltage cables that constitute the majority of cables in nuclear power plants. This limited effectiveness is due to the lack of a well defined ground plane that is a

  2. USING CONDITION MONITORING TO PREDICT REMAINING LIFE OF ELECTRIC CABLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LOFARO, R.; SOO, P.; VILLARAN, M.; GROVE, E.

    2001-01-01

    Electric cables are passive components used extensively throughout nuclear power stations to perform numerous safety and non-safety functions. It is known that the polymers commonly used to insulate the conductors on these cables can degrade with time; the rate of degradation being dependent on the severity of the conditions in which the cables operate. Cables do not receive routine maintenance and, since it can be very costly, they are not replaced on a regular basis. Therefore, to ensure their continued functional performance, it would be beneficial if condition monitoring techniques could be used to estimate the remaining useful life of these components. A great deal of research has been performed on various condition monitoring techniques for use on electric cables. In a research program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, several promising techniques were evaluated and found to provide trendable information on the condition of low-voltage electric cables. These techniques may be useful for predicting remaining life if well defined limiting values for the aging properties being measured can be determined. However, each technique has advantages and limitations that must be addressed in order to use it effectively, and the necessary limiting values are not always easy to obtain. This paper discusses how condition monitoring measurements can be used to predict the remaining useful life of electric cables. The attributes of an appropriate condition monitoring technique are presented, and the process to be used in estimating the remaining useful life of a cable is discussed along with the difficulties that must be addressed

  3. Proposed superscreened cables and connectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.P.

    1975-11-01

    The paper summarises the present availability of superscreened cables and proposes the specification of a family of cables to meet the foreseeable needs of the nuclear power industry. The cable numbering system is described, special tests outlined and important details given for the chosen cables. Appropriate connectors are also discussed and listed with an outline of their required screening performance. (author)

  4. Stray current interaction in the system of two extensive underground conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machczynski, W.

    1993-01-01

    The important problem, technically, is to evaluate the harmful effects that an electrified railway has on nearby earth-return circuits (cables, pipelines). This paper considers the effects of a DC-electrified railway system on two extensive metal conductors buried in parallel in the vicinity of the tracks. The interaction between currents flowing in both underground conductors is taken into account, whereas the reaction of the conductors' currents on the track current is disregarded. The analysis given is applicable to any DC railway system in which tracks may be represented by a single earth return circuit with current energization. It is assumed in the paper that the system considered is linear and that the earth is homogeneous. The technical application of the method is illustrated by an example of computer simulation

  5. Characterization of Nb$_{3}$Sn Rutherford cables for the LHC 11-T Dipole Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Wuis, A J; Ballarino, A; Oberli, L; Ten Kate, H H J

    2013-01-01

    The so-called CERN-LHC DS upgrade relies on the use of 11 T dipole magnets. For these magnets 40 strands Nb$_{3}$Sn type Rutherford cables based on 0.7 mm wires are being developed. Recently four samples of the cables were characterized in the CERN FRESCA cable test station. The critical current and the premature quench current due to magneto-thermal instability were measured at 1.9 K and 4.3 K in a background magnetic field between 0 and 9.6 T (the peak magnetic field on the conductor, including the self-field of the cable, ranges from ~ 2 T to ~ 12 T). Two cable samples were based on Powder-In-Tube (PIT) wire and two on Restacked-Rod-Process (RRP) wire. The PIT samples were identical and without a core in the cable while one of the RRP samples features a 25 μm thick stainless steel core. All cables samples tested have a width and a thickness of about 14.7 mm and 1.25 mm, respectively. Cables and sample holders were manufactured at CERN. In this paper we report and discuss the cable test results and compare...

  6. Response of Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation Cables Exposed to Fire Conditions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muna, Alice Baca [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LaFleur, Chris Bensdotter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brooks, Dusty Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report presents the results of instrumentation cable tests sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research and performed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The goal of the tests was to assess thermal and electrical response behavior under fire-exposure conditions for instrumentation cables and circuits. The test objective was to assess how severe radiant heating conditions surrounding an instrumentation cable affect current or voltage signals in an instrumentation circuit. A total of thirty-nine small-scale tests were conducted. Ten different instrumentation cables were tested, ranging from one conductor to eight-twisted pairs. Because the focus of the tests was thermoset (TS) cables, only two of the ten cables had thermoplastic (TP) insulation and jacket material and the remaining eight cables were one of three different TS insulation and jacket material. Two instrumentation cables from previous cable fire testing were included, one TS and one TP. Three test circuits were used to simulate instrumentation circuits present in nuclear power plants: a 4–20 mA current loop, a 10–50 mA current loop and a 1–5 VDC voltage loop. A regression analysis was conducted to determine key variables affecting signal leakage time.

  7. Terminal load response law of coaxial cable to continuous wave electromagnetic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Xiaodong; Wei Guanghui; Li Xinfeng; Lu Xinfu

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the coupling response law of continuous wave electromagnetic irradiation to coaxial cable, the typical RF coaxial cable is selected as the object under test. The equipment or subsystem connected by coaxial cable is equivalent to a lumped load. Continuous wave irradiation effect experiments under different conditions are carried out to analyze the terminal load response law of coaxial cable. The results indicate that the coaxial cable has a frequency selecting characteristic under electromagnetic irradiation, and the terminal load response voltage peak appears at a series of discrete frequency points where the test cable's relative lengths equal to semi-integers. When the coaxial cable is irradiated by continuous wave, the induced sheath current converts to the differential-mode induced voltage between inner conductor and shielding layer through transfer impedance, and the internal resistance of induced voltage source is the characteristic impedance of the coaxial cable. The change in terminal load value has no influence on the response curve. The voltages on the terminal load and the internal resistance of equivalent induced voltage source obey the principle of voltage division. Moreover, when the sheath current on the coaxial cable is in resonance, the distributed induced voltage between adjacent current nodes is in the same polarity, which can be equivalent to a single induced voltage source. The induced voltage source which is adjacent to the terminal load plays the leading role in the irradiation response process. (authors)

  8. Design and testing of low capacitance, 80-kV source cables for MFTF sustaining neutral beam power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhall, D.J.; Shimer, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper we summarize characteristics of several cable configurations and consider one design in detail, which consists of twelve, 250 MCM arc cables, ten 4/0 filament cables, and accel, gradient grid, control, and instrumentation cables within a circular split Al pipe. The pipe is air insulated from an outer 24-in. x 24-in. steel duct by utility pin insulators. Varying run lengths require adjustment of the arc inductance by variation of cross sectional cable position. Equilibrium heat transfer analysis indicates the pulse-off time for source conditioning must be somewhat greater than 60 s to keep conductor temperatures below 90 0 C. The results of a high voltage test of a model cable are presented

  9. Costly cables; Lange Leitung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautmann, Daniel

    2012-08-15

    Connection of offshore wind turbines to the onshore power supply grid requires costly cables for HV DC power transmission. The technology is mature enough to enable low-loss power transmission, but construction times may last several years.

  10. Cable Aerodynamic Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleissl, Kenneth

    to a categorization of the different control technics together with an identification of two key mechanisms for reduction of the design drag force. During this project extensive experimental work examining the aerodynamics of the currently used cable surface modifications together with new innovative proposals have...... been conducted. The two current prevailing systems consisting of helically filleted cables and cables with a pattern-indented surface were directly compared under the same conditions and both applications were found with attractive properties. The pattern-indented surface maintained a low supercritical...... of reducing the intensity of the axial flow and disrupting the near wake flow structures. Similar studies during wet conditions with artificial simulation of light rain in the wind tunnel showed that the plain cable suffered from severe rain-wind induced vibrations. But despite the presence of both upper...

  11. Magnet cable manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royet, J.

    1985-07-01

    The superconducting magnets used in the construction of particle accelerators are mostly built from flat, multistrand cables with rectangular or keystoned cross sections. The superconducting strands are mostly circular but a design of a cable made of preflattened wires was proposed a few years ago under the name of Berkeley flat; such cable shows some interesting characteristics. Another design consists of a few smaller precabled wires (e.g. 6 around 1). This configuration allows smaller filaments and a better transposition of the current elements. The Superconducting Super Collider project involves the largest amount of superconducting cable ever envisaged for a single machine. Furthermore, the design calls for exceptional accuracy and improved characteristics of the cable. A part of the SSC research and development program is focused on these important questions. In this paper we emphasize the difference between the conventional cabling and wires with superconducting. A new concept for the tooling will be introduced as well as the necessary characteristics of a specialized cabler. 5 figs

  12. High Critical Current Coated Conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranthaman, M. P.; Selvamanickam, V. (SuperPower, Inc.)

    2011-12-27

    One of the important critical needs that came out of the DOE’s coated conductor workshop was to develop a high throughput and economic deposition process for YBCO. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, the most critical steps in high technical micro fabrications, has been widely employed in semiconductor industry for various thin film growth. SuperPower has demonstrated that (Y,Gd)BCO films can be deposited rapid with world record performance. In addition to high critical current density with increased film thickness, flux pinning properties of REBCO films needs to be improved to meet the DOE requirements for various electric-power equipments. We have shown that doping with Zr can result in BZO nanocolumns, but at substantially reduced deposition rate. The primary purpose of this subtask is to develop high current density MOCVD-REBCO coated conductors based on the ion-beam assisted (IBAD)-MgO deposition process. Another purpose of this subtask is to investigate HTS conductor design optimization (maximize Je) with emphasis on stability and protection issues, and ac loss for REBCO coated conductors.

  13. Status Report and Research Plan for Cables Harvested from Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-20

    Harvested cables from operating or decommissioned nuclear power plants present an important opportunity to validate models, understanding material aging behavior, and validate characterization techniques. Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant is a pressurized water reactor that was licensed to operate from 1976 to 2013. Cable segments were harvested and made available to the Light Water Reactor Sustainability research program through the Electric Power Research Institute. Information on the locations and circuits within the reactor from whence the cable segments came, cable construction, sourcing and installation information, and photographs of the cable locations prior to harvesting were provided. The cable variations provided represent six of the ten most common cable insulations in the nuclear industry and experienced service usage for periods from 15 to 42 years. Subsequently, these cables constitute a valuable asset for research to understand aging behavior and measurement of nuclear cables. Received cables harvested from Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant consist of low voltage, insulated conductor surrounded by jackets in lengths from 24 to 100 feet each. Cable materials will primarily be used to investigate aging under simultaneous thermal and gamma radiation exposure. Each cable insulation and jacket material will be characterized in its as-received condition, including determination of the temperatures associated with endothermic transitions in the material using differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis. Temperatures for additional thermal exposure aging will be selected following the thermal analysis to avoid transitions in accelerated laboratory aging that do not occur in field conditions. Aging temperatures above thermal transitions may also be targeted to investigate the potential for artifacts in lifetime prediction from rapid accelerated aging. Total gamma doses and dose rates targeted for each material

  14. The forming of a superconductor cable during the winding of a large toroidal field coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messemer, G.; Zehlein, H.

    1984-01-01

    The feasible range for the tension force which acts on a superconductor cable during the winding of a large D-shaped toroidal field coil depends strongly on the mechanical properties of the cable, on the geometry of the winding pack and on the arrangement of the equipment. The upper limit is imposed by possible damage within the cable. The lower limit is set by the need to assure enough compaction and to overcome the friction forces between the layers. Within this 'corridor' optimal control of elastic prestresses is desirable: this may be chosen with regard to the residual stresses and/or the elastic springback after removal of the coil former. This paper presents a simplified elastica conductor model built by a finite chain of intervals with constant bending moment and curvature. This paper describes the discrete model as well as the iterative shooting method, which finds the equilibrium shape of the conductor. The distributions of bending moment and shear forces around the D-shaped contour, as well as along the conductor, are given. Desirable improvements are outlined. In particular, the possibility of mitigating the stress concentration effect by supporting rollers suitably placed along the 'free' conductor near the bobbin is discussed. (author)

  15. Contributions to the study of superconducting multifilamentary composites and cables; Contributions a l`etude du comportement des composites et cables supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turck, B

    1992-03-01

    This report is a collection of published papers in French and in English on superconducting composites and cables. All domains concerning the behaviour of superconductors in coils for field generation have been covered: critical current, current distribution, instabilities, losses in varying field. This document provides with expressions and criteria for conductor design, with conditions for achieving given performances and with criteria for design and optimization of structures of multifilamentary composites and cables. These publications have played a determining role in the understanding of the behaviour of superconductors and in their use in high performing magnets.

  16. Instrumentation Cables Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muna, Alice Baca [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LaFleur, Chris Bensdotter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    A fire at a nuclear power plant (NPP) has the potential to damage structures, systems, and components important to safety, if not promptly detected and suppressed. At Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant on March 22, 1975, a fire in the reactor building damaged electrical power and control systems. Damage to instrumentation cables impeded the function of both normal and standby reactor coolant systems, and degraded the operators’ plant monitoring capability. This event resulted in additional NRC involvement with utilities to ensure that NPPs are properly protected from fire as intended by the NRC principle design criteria (i.e., general design criteria 3, Fire Protection). Current guidance and methods for both deterministic and performance based approaches typically make conservative (bounding) assumptions regarding the fire-induced failure modes of instrumentation cables and those failure modes effects on component and system response. Numerous fire testing programs have been conducted in the past to evaluate the failure modes and effects of electrical cables exposed to severe thermal conditions. However, that testing has primarily focused on control circuits with only a limited number of tests performed on instrumentation circuits. In 2001, the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) conducted a series of cable fire tests designed to address specific aspects of the cable failure and circuit fault issues of concern1. The NRC was invited to observe and participate in that program. The NRC sponsored Sandia National Laboratories to support this participation, whom among other things, added a 4-20 mA instrumentation circuit and instrumentation cabling to six of the tests. Although limited, one insight drawn from those instrumentation circuits tests was that the failure characteristics appeared to depend on the cable insulation material. The results showed that for thermoset insulated cables, the instrument reading tended to drift

  17. Cable laying methods in a multi-cable elevator system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvornikov, V.I.; Makhinyan, V.V.

    1984-01-01

    Based on the solution of differential equations describing the stress and deformation state of cables during rolling on the drum, a conclusion is made concerning a rational method for hanging cables with a free-spinning end.

  18. Performing of recent real scale cable fire experiments and presentation of the results in the frame of the international collaborative fire modeling project ICFMP. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosser, Dietmar; Riese, Olaf; Klingenberg, Mark

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the Fire Risk Research Program, the German iBMB (Institut fuer Baustoffe, Massivbau und Brandschutz) of Braunschweig University of Technology and GRS (Gesellschaft fuer Anlagenund Reaktorsicherheit mbH) are participating in an International Collaborative Fire Modeling Project (ICFMP) to assess and validate fire computer codes for nuclear power plant applications. This assessment is being conducted through benchmarking and validation exercises. The tests are simulating cable fires scenarios in a single compartment. The goal of the actual cable fire series is to investigate the effects of a natural fire to vertically routed cables (worst case) with different cable insulation material (PVC and FRNC). Another important aspect of cable fire is the risk of function failure. Therefore in the test series the short circuit and the conduction loss of cables are measured. This report includes a first description of the experimental results for test 1 - test 4 of the International Collaborative Fire Model Project conducted in December 2003 at the iBMB in Germany. The experimental data are reported on the International Collaborative Fire Model Project - Platform. The measured data shall be the basis for fire simulations. The tests show that the FRNC cables have significantly better characteristics in case of fire. No substantial flame spread takes place even in case of preheating. PVC cables could be ignited with a burner output of 50 kW, in contrary, the FRNC cables could be ignited at burner output of 150 kW. The preheating has a complex effect on the fire behavior of the cables. It may occur that gases are pyrolysed which are not ignited during the phase of preheating. These gases are transported from the cable surrounding and may leave the fire room. Short circuits occur first in case ''conductor to conductor'' and later in case ''conductor to tray''. The time periods until short circuits occur are strongly dependent on the preheating of the cables. In case of

  19. The first cable for the HL-LHC produced at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2016-01-01

    A Rutherford cabling machine is operated in the superconducting laboratory in building 163. The machine was used for the production of the Nb-Ti cables in the LHC magnets. Today, it is operated for the assembly of the high-performance cables, made from state-of-the-art Nb3Sn conductor, for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade. Key elements of the machine are of a precision Turkshead equipped with a variable power drive, a caterpillar, a dimensional control bench, a data acquisition system, and a take-up unit. The video shows the production of a long length Rutherford cable, made from 40 Nb3Sn strands, that will be use in a 11 T LHC High Luminosity dipole magnet. The wiring machine is the only one left in Europe able to do such a job.

  20. The first cable for the HL-LHC produced at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2016-01-01

    A Rutherford cabling machine is operated in the superconducting laboratory in building 163. The machine was used for the production of the Nb-Ti cables in the LHC magnets. Today, it is operated for the assembly of the high-performance cables, made from state-of-the-art Nb$_{3}$Sn conductor, for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade. Key elements of the machine are of a precision Turkshead equipped with a variable power drive, a caterpillar, a dimensional control bench, a data acquisition system, and a take-up unit. The video shows the production of a long length Rutherford cable, made from 40 Nb$_{3}$Sn strands, that will be use in a 11 T LHC High Luminosity dipole magnet. The wiring machine is the only one left in Europe able to do such a job.

  1. Design of a 30 m long 1 kA 10 kV YBCO cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostila, L [Institute of Electromagnetics, Tampere University of Technology, PO Box 692, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland); Lehtonen, J [Institute of Electromagnetics, Tampere University of Technology, PO Box 692, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland); Masti, M [Institute of Electromagnetics, Tampere University of Technology, PO Box 692, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland); Lallouet, N [Nexas France, rue Mozart 4-10, 92587 Clichy (France); Saugrain, J-M [Nexas France, rue Mozart 4-10, 92587 Clichy (France); Allais, A [Nexans Deutschland Industries GmbH and Co. KG, Kabelkamp 20, D-30179 Hannover (Germany); Schippl, K [Nexans Deutschland Industries GmbH and Co. KG, Kabelkamp 20, D-30179 Hannover (Germany); Schmidt, F [Nexans Deutschland Industries GmbH and Co. KG, Kabelkamp 20, D-30179 Hannover (Germany); Balog, G [Nexans Norway, PO Box 6450, Etterstad, N-0605, Oslo, Norway (Norway); Marot, G [Air Liquide DTA, 2 rue de Clemenciere BP15, 38360 Sassenage (France); Ravex, A [Air Liquide DTA, 2 rue de Clemenciere BP15, 38360 Sassenage (France); Usoskin, A [European High Temperature Superconductors Gmbh and Co. KG, Windausweg 2, 37037 Goettingen (Germany); Goemoery, F [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 84104 Bratislava (Slovakia); Klincok, B [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 84104 Bratislava (Slovakia); Souc, J [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 84104 Bratislava (Slovakia); Freyhardt, H C [Institute of Materialphysic, University of Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    In this paper a 30 m long one-phase coaxial YBCO cable with 1 kA transport current and 10 kV operating voltage was designed for the Super3C project to check the feasibility of YBCO tapes for low-loss cables. The final design incorporates cryogenic, mechanical and electromagnetic aspects. The electromagnetic losses during normal operation must be minimized. The cryogenic design must also take into account the generation of heat during short circuit conditions. Mechanical restrictions set the minimum gaps between the coated conductor tapes and the minimum lay angles in order to make the cabling feasible and to enable handling of the cable. The design of the electric insulation should be according to the international standard as far as applicable. The final design has to take into account all of the above restrictions.

  2. Design of a 30 m long 1 kA 10 kV YBCO cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostila, L; Lehtonen, J; Masti, M; Lallouet, N; Saugrain, J-M; Allais, A; Schippl, K; Schmidt, F; Balog, G; Marot, G; Ravex, A; Usoskin, A; Goemoery, F; Klincok, B; Souc, J; Freyhardt, H C

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a 30 m long one-phase coaxial YBCO cable with 1 kA transport current and 10 kV operating voltage was designed for the Super3C project to check the feasibility of YBCO tapes for low-loss cables. The final design incorporates cryogenic, mechanical and electromagnetic aspects. The electromagnetic losses during normal operation must be minimized. The cryogenic design must also take into account the generation of heat during short circuit conditions. Mechanical restrictions set the minimum gaps between the coated conductor tapes and the minimum lay angles in order to make the cabling feasible and to enable handling of the cable. The design of the electric insulation should be according to the international standard as far as applicable. The final design has to take into account all of the above restrictions

  3. Pulse Propagation on close conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Dieckmann, A

    2001-01-01

    The propagation and reflection of arbitrarily shaped pulses on non-dispersive parallel conductors of finite length with user defined cross section is simulated employing the discretized telegraph equation. The geometry of the system of conductors and the presence of dielectric material determine the capacities and inductances that enter the calculation. The values of these parameters are found using an iterative Laplace equation solving procedure and confirmed for certain calculable geometries including the line charge inside a box. The evolving pulses and the resulting crosstalk can be plotted at any instant and - in the Mathematica notebook version of this report - be looked at in an animation. As an example a differential pair of microstrips as used in the ATLAS vertex detector is analysed.

  4. Flux-transfer losses in helically wound superconducting power cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clem, John R; Malozemoff, A P

    2013-01-01

    Minimization of ac losses is essential for economic operation of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) ac power cables. A favorable configuration for the phase conductor of such cables has two counter-wound layers of HTS tape-shaped wires lying next to each other and helically wound around a flexible cylindrical former. However, if magnetic materials such as magnetic substrates of the tapes lie between the two layers, or if the winding pitch angles are not opposite and essentially equal in magnitude to each other, current distributes unequally between the two layers. Then, if at some point in the ac cycle the current of either of the two layers exceeds its critical current, a large ac loss arises from the transfer of flux between the two layers. A detailed review of the formalism, and its application to the case of paramagnetic substrates including the calculation of this flux-transfer loss, is presented. (paper)

  5. Coated Conductors under Tensile Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonevici, Anca; Villaume, Alain; Villard, Catherine; Sulpice, Andre; Maron, Pierre Brosse; Bourgault, Daniel; Porcar, Laureline

    2006-01-01

    Critical current dependence versus strain is obtained for in-situ axial stress experiments on ISD YBCO and DyBCO coated conductors. The drop of critical current due to the apparition of first cracks in the superconducting ceramics is related to the passage in the plastic region of the substrate for a strain of about 0.3% and a stress higher then 500MPa. The superconductivity is preserved between the cracks

  6. Tetrathiapentalene-based organic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misaki, Yohji

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis, structure and properties of tetrathiapentalene-based (TTP) organic conductors are reviewed. Among various TTP-type donors, bis-fused tetrathiafulvalene, 2,5-bis(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (BDT-TTP) and its derivatives afford many metallic radical cation salts stable down to low temperatures, regardless of the size and shape of the counter anions. Most BDT-TTP conductors have a β-type donor arrangement with almost uniform stacks. Introduction of appropriate substituents results in molecular packing that differs from the β-type. A vinylogous TTP, 2-(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)-5-(2-ethanediylidene-1,3-dithiole) -1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (DTEDT) has yielded an organic superconductor (DTEDT) 3 Au(CN) 2 as well as metallic radical cation salts, regardless of the counter anions. (Thio)pyran analogs of TTP, namely (T)PDT-TTP and its derivatives produce molecular conductors with novel molecular arrangements. A TTP analog with reduced π-electron system 2,5-bis(1,3-dithian-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (BDA-TTP) has afforded several organic superconductors. Highly conducting molecular metals with unusual oxidation states (+1, +5/3 and neutral) have been developed on the basis of 2,5-bis(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (BDT-TTP) derivatives and analogous metal derivatives M(dt) 2 (M = Ni, Au). (topical review)

  7. Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar,; Harold J. , Harris; Kelvin, Christopher [Houston, TX

    2012-07-17

    A heater is described. The heater includes a ferromagnetic conductor and an electrical conductor electrically coupled to the ferromagnetic conductor. The ferromagnetic conductor is positioned relative to the electrical conductor such that an electromagnetic field produced by time-varying current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor confines a majority of the flow of the electrical current to the electrical conductor at temperatures below or near a selected temperature.

  8. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, Roger A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the worlds first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  9. Internal pressure effects in the AIRCO-LCT conductor sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luton, J.N.; Clinard, J.A.; Lue, J.W.; Gray, W.H.; Summers, L.T.; Kershaw, R.

    1985-01-01

    The large Nb 3 Sn superconducting test coil produced by Westinghouse Electric Corporation for the international Large Coil Task (LCT) utilizes a conductor composed of cabled multifilamentary strands immersed in flowing supercritical helium contained by a square structural sheath made of the high-strength stainless alloy JBX-75. Peak pressures of a few hundred atmospheres are predicted to occur during quench, and measurement of these pressures seems feasible only through penetrations of the sheath wall. Fully processed short lengths of conductor were taken from production ends, fitted with pressure taps and strain gauges, and pressurized with helium gas. Failure, at 1000 atm at liquid nitrogen temperature, was by a catastrophic splitting of the sheath at a corner. Strain measurements and burst pressure agreed with elastic-plastic finite element stress calculations made for the sheath alone. Neither the production seam weld nor the pressure tap penetrations or their fillet welds contributed to the failure, although the finite element calculations show that these areas were also highly stressed, and examination of the failed sample showed that the finite welds were of poor quality. Failure was by tensile overload, with no evidence of fatigue

  10. Cable indenter aging monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shook, T.A.; Gardner, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    This project was undertaken to develop a hand-held, nondestructive test device to assess the aged condition of electrical cable by in situ measurement of mechanical properties of polymeric jackets and insulations. The device is an indenter similar to those used to make hardness measurements. Comparison of measurements made on installed cables with previous measurements serving as baseline aging/mechanical property data will determine the state of aging of the field cables. Such a device will be valuable in nuclear and fossil plant life extension programs. Preliminary laboratory tests on cables covered with ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) and chlorosulfated polyethylene (CSPE) point to the measurement of the rate of force increase resulting from constant rate deformation as having the best correlation with progressive thermal aging. This first phase of the work has demonstrated the technical feasibility of the method. A second phase will include the generation of additional groundwork data and the design of the portable indenter for in situ plant measurements

  11. Radiation effects on power cables for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, R.; Munshi, P.; Badshah, M.G.Q.

    1988-01-01

    A large number of power and control cables, insulated with organic/polymeric materials, are installed quite near the reactor in nuclear power plants. The reliability of electrical equipment, receiving power through these cables, is critically important for the design and safety of the power stations. The radiation intensity inside the containment varies significantly from one location to another. The extent of material degradation is associated with the local radiation intensity. The cables used in the nuclear environment require several unique properties, the most obvious of these being radiation resistance, fire resistance, and the ability to withstand the loss-of-coolant accident in a nuclear power plant as specified in Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard 383. In this study, four specific electrical power cable samples insulated with polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, ethylene propylene rubber, and silicone rubber were chosen to investigate the effect of radiation in reactor environments on the electrical properties of the samples. Voltage breakdown tests and dielectric loss factor (tan δ) and conductor resistance measurements were carried out on each sample before and after irradiating them to near lifetime doses at ambient temperatures in atmospheric conditions

  12. Transverse load optimization in Nb3Sn CICC design; influence of cabling, void fraction and strand stiffness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijhuis, A; Ilyin, Y

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a model that describes the transverse load degradation in Nb 3 Sn CICCs, based on strand and cable properties, and that is capable of predicting how such degradation can be prevented. The Nb 3 Sn cable in conduit conductors (CICCs) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) show a significant degradation in their performance with increasing electromagnetic load. Not only do the differences in the thermal contraction of the composite materials affect the critical current and temperature margin, but mostly electromagnetic forces cause significant transverse strand contact and bending strain in the Nb 3 Sn layers. Here, we present the model for transverse electro-magnetic load optimization (TEMLOP) and report the first results of computations for the ITER type of conductors, based on the measured properties of the internal tin strand used for the toroidal field model coil (TFMC). As input, the model uses data describing the behaviour of single strands under periodic bending and contact loads, measured with the TARSIS set-up, enabling a discrimination in performance reduction per specific load and strand type. The most important conclusion of the model computations is that the problem of the severe degradation of large CICCs can be drastically and straightforwardly improved by increasing the pitch length of subsequent cabling stages. It is the first time that an increase of the pitches has been proposed and no experimental data are available yet to confirm this beneficial outcome of the TEMLOP model. Larger pitch lengths will result in a more homogeneous distribution of the stresses and strains in the cable by significantly moderating the local peak stresses associated with the intermediate-length twist pitches. The twist pitch scheme of the present conductor layout turns out to be unfortunately close to a worst-case scenario. The model also makes clear that strand bending is the dominant mechanism causing degradation. The

  13. Replacement of input/output cables of the digital control computers at Gentilly 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melancon, P.; Lafreniere, P.

    1991-01-01

    During the 1990 annual outage at Gentilly 2 the Preventive Maintenance Program inspections on the digital control computers (DCCs) revealed an alarming degradation of cable insulation at several locations. It was found that approximately 20% of the cable connector assemblies inspected showed signs of degradation. These findings raised the concern of an increased risk of random short-circuit faults at the very heart of the station control system. Given the excellent reliability of the Gentilly 2 DCCs and their inherent design robustness, it was decided to proceed with the replacement of all of the complete cable connector assemblies within a reasonable time frame. It is planned to replace all assemblies of DCCX and DCCY during the 1991 annual outage. The degradation of the insulation was traced to a material incompatibility problem originating during cable manufacture. A migration of the plastifier contained in the PVC of the transparent sheaths, surrounding many of the cable conductors to terminal block connections, resulted in the chemical attack of the conductor insulation. This paper summarizes the problem identification and disposition process followed by Gentilly 2 Technical Unit personnel

  14. Final Report: MATERIALS, STRANDS, AND CABLES FOR SUPERCONDUCTING ACCELERATOR MAGNETS [Grant Number DE-SC0010312

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumption, Mike D. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Center for Superconducting and Magnetic Materials (CSMM); Collings, Edward W. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Center for Superconducting and Magnetic Materials (CSMM)

    2014-10-29

    Our program consisted of the two components: Strand Research and Cable Research, with a focus on Nb3Sn, Bi2212, and YBCO for accelerator magnet applications. We demonstrated a method to refine the grains in Nb3Sn by a factor of two, reaching 45 nm grain sizes, and layer Jcs of 6 kA/mm2 at 12 T. W also measured conductor magnetization for field quality. This has been done both with Nb3Sn conductor, as well as Bi:2212 strand. Work in support of quench studies of YBCO coils was also performed. Cable loss studies in Nb3Sn focused on connecting and comparing persistent magnetization and coupling magnetization for considering their relative impact on HEP machines. In the area of HTS cables, we have investigated both the quench in multistrand YBCO CORC cables, as well as the magnetization of these cables for use in high field magnets. In addition, we examined the magnetic and thermal properties of large (50 T) solenoids.

  15. The performance of transmission lines and cables subjected to electromagnetic radiation from a nuclear explosion (NEMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguet, M.; Ianovici, M.; Lin, C.C.; Fornerod, F.

    1980-01-01

    The use of armoured cables for telecommunication and data transmission systems is practically essential to avoid electromagnetic interference. The authors have made a mathematical study of the probable effect of a high altitude nuclear explosion. Using a simplified model, the voltages and currents induced into single and multiple-sheathed, overhead and buried cables subjected to an intense magnetic pulse (50kV/m) from high altitude, are determined by computer. It is found that, contrary to expectations the current intensity in the second case is seven times greater than for the overhead conductor. (F.N.S.)

  16. An ultrasonic guided wave approach for the inspection of overhead transmission line cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yücel, Mehmet K.; Legg, Mathew; Kappatos, Vasileios

    2017-01-01

    as a non-destructive testing technique is well established for simple geometries such as plates, pipes, and rods. However, its application for multi-wire cables is still in development. In this study, ultrasonic guided waves excited by a shear mode transducer collar are utilised as a defect detection...... technique for untensioned aluminium conductor steel reinforced cable specimens. The identification and analysis of wave propagation for a broad range of frequencies is performed using a laser scanning vibrometer, and the effect of defect size on wave propagation is studied. Signal processing algorithms...

  17. Measurement and Numerical Evaluation of AC-Losses in a ReBCO Roebel Cable at 4.5 K

    CERN Document Server

    van Nugteren, J.; Gao, P.; Bottura, L,; Dhallé, M.; Goldacker, W.; Kario, A.; ten Kate, H.; Kirby, G.; Krooshoop, E.; de Rijk, G.; Rossi, L.; Senatore, C.; Wessel, S.; Yagotintsev, K.; Yang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    EUCARD2 aims to research ReBCO superconducting magnets for future accelerator applications. The properties of ReBCO conductors are very different from low temperature superconductors. To investigate dynamic field quality, stability and normal zone propagation an electrical network model for coated conductor cables was developed. To validate the model two identical samples were prepared at CERN after which measurements were taken at the University of Twente and Southampton University. The model predicts that for Roebel cable, in a changing magnetic field applied in the perpendicular direction, the hysteresis loss is much larger than the coupling loss. In the case of a changing magnetic field applied parallel to the cable coupling loss is dominant. In the first case the experiment is in good agreement with the model. In the second case the data can only be compared qualitatively because the calibration for the inductive measurement is not available.

  18. Study on interstrand coupling losses in Rutherford-type superconducting cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Y.Z.; Shintomi, T.; Terashima, A.; Hirabayashi, H.

    1993-02-01

    Two sets of experimental apparatus for measuring the AC losses in superconducting strands and Rutherford-type cable conductors have been constructed. A few strand samples and a number of compacted cable samples with and without a CuMn matrix have been measured. The hysteresis loss, loss from coupling within strands and loss from coupling between strands in cables have been distinguished from each other. The results show that, even for Rutherford cables without any soldering and coating, their AC losses may be quite different from each other due to the variation of the interstrand coupling loss. For cables without a CuMn matrix, interstrand coupling loss increases nearly according to a geometrical series with an increase of curing temperature simulating coil fabrication. However, cables with the CuMn matrix show a relatively small curing temperature dependence. For most of the samples, losses do not show any evident dependence on the mechanical pressure. Interstrand resistances in one of these cables have also been measured; the results indicate that the tendency for a decrease in the interstrand resistances is consistent with the results of AC loss measurements. (author)

  19. Transparent conductor based on aluminum nanomesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarkin, B; Mohammed, A S; Stsiapanau, A; Zhuk, S; Satskevich, Y; Smirnov, A

    2014-01-01

    We report a transparent conductor based on Al nanomesh, which was fabricated through Al anodization and etching processes. The Al anodization was performed at low temperature condition to slow down the anodization rate to achieve the well-controlled thickness of an Al nanomesh. By careful controlling of the anodization process, we can fabricate Al nanomesh transparent conductors with different sheet resistance and optical transparency in the visible spectrum range. We shall show that Al nanomesh transparent conductor is a strong contender for a transparent conductor dominated by ITO

  20. Tetrathiapentalene-based organic conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misaki, Yohji, E-mail: misaki@eng.ehime-u.ac.j [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)

    2009-04-15

    The synthesis, structure and properties of tetrathiapentalene-based (TTP) organic conductors are reviewed. Among various TTP-type donors, bis-fused tetrathiafulvalene, 2,5-bis(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (BDT-TTP) and its derivatives afford many metallic radical cation salts stable down to low temperatures, regardless of the size and shape of the counter anions. Most BDT-TTP conductors have a {beta}-type donor arrangement with almost uniform stacks. Introduction of appropriate substituents results in molecular packing that differs from the {beta}-type. A vinylogous TTP, 2-(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)-5-(2-ethanediylidene-1,3-dithiole) -1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (DTEDT) has yielded an organic superconductor (DTEDT){sub 3}Au(CN){sub 2} as well as metallic radical cation salts, regardless of the counter anions. (Thio)pyran analogs of TTP, namely (T)PDT-TTP and its derivatives produce molecular conductors with novel molecular arrangements. A TTP analog with reduced {pi}-electron system 2,5-bis(1,3-dithian-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (BDA-TTP) has afforded several organic superconductors. Highly conducting molecular metals with unusual oxidation states (+1, +5/3 and neutral) have been developed on the basis of 2,5-bis(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (BDT-TTP) derivatives and analogous metal derivatives M(dt){sub 2} (M = Ni, Au). (topical review)

  1. Development of Inspection Robots for Bridge Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Bum Yun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the bridge cable inspection robot developed in Korea. Two types of the cable inspection robots were developed for cable-suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridge. The design of the robot system and performance of the NDT techniques associated with the cable inspection robot are discussed. A review on recent advances in emerging robot-based inspection technologies for bridge cables and current bridge cable inspection methods is also presented.

  2. Development of inspection robots for bridge cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hae-Bum; Kim, Se-Hoon; Wu, Liuliu; Lee, Jong-Jae

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the bridge cable inspection robot developed in Korea. Two types of the cable inspection robots were developed for cable-suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridge. The design of the robot system and performance of the NDT techniques associated with the cable inspection robot are discussed. A review on recent advances in emerging robot-based inspection technologies for bridge cables and current bridge cable inspection methods is also presented.

  3. TOPICAL REVIEW: Development of high-current high-field conductors in Europe for fusion application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchateau, J.-L.; Spadoni, M.; Salpietro, E.; Ciazynski, D.; Ricci, M.; Libeyre, P.; della Corte, A.

    2002-06-01

    In the framework of the preparation for the realization of the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER), the construction and test of relevant models of seven different parts of the reactor was decided. Two of them are related to the superconducting coils: the toroidal field model coil (TFMC) and the central solenoid model coil (CSMC). For these superconducting coils, due to the expected high values of the current (≥60 kA) and voltage (≥5 kV with respect to the ground) the adopted technology was that of cable in conduit conductor (CICC). Until recently, little experience of this technology existed. Therefore, an extensive research and development programme has been carried out, in the last 10 years, by the ITER partners and particularly in Europe, to design, industrialize and test these large conductors and their joints. The EURATOM associations CEA and ENEA played a leading part in this phase. The CICC concept is described and the results of the developments are presented. About 7 km of conductors were manufactured in the industry and for that more than 10 tonnes of Nb3Sn strands were produced in Europe. In this large programme, Europe is particularly in charge of the TFMC, which will be tested this summer at Forschung Zentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). In the framework of this programme, three full size conductors and joint samples were tested at the European Sultan test facility (Centre de Recherches de Physique des Plasmas, Villigen, Switzerland), to validate the technological choices and check that the ITER specifications were met. The results of these tests are presented in detail. Starting from the strand critical properties, the conductors made of about 1000 strands did reach their expected performance. The joints of these large conductors are very special and delicate components. Their behaviour was quite successful and the joint resistance of these samples (of the order of 1 nΩ) was well within the specifications.

  4. AC losses for the various voltage-leads in a semi-triple layer BSCCO conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.; Ryu, K.; Hwang, S.D.; Cha, G.; Song, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Two voltage-leads (inner-lead, outer-lead) were soldered to the wires in each layer. Voltage-lead (total-lead) was soldered to the inner layer and arranged on the surface of the outer layer. The loss from the total-lead significantly differs from the sum of the wire losses. In order to investigate the AC loss of the multilayer conductor in a high temperature superconductor cable, a voltage-lead was generally attached to the outermost layer of the conductor. But the conductor's AC loss has not been completely cleared due to the various contact positions and arrangements of the voltage-lead. In this paper, we prepared a semi-triple layer conductor consisting of an inner layer and an outer layer with double layer structure. To measure the AC loss of the conductor, two voltage-leads (inner-lead, outer-lead) were soldered to the wires in each layer and arranged along their surfaces, as well as another voltage-lead (total-lead) was soldered to the inner layer and arranged on the surface of the outer layer. The results show that the AC losses for each layer measured from the inner-lead and the outer-lead, respectively, are identical to the sum of the wire losses. The AC losses in the semi-triple layer conductor measured from the total-lead and the outer-lead are identical for the uniform layer current density, and similar to the sum of the wire losses in both layers. However, the losses measured for the non-uniform layer current density from three voltage-leads are unequal to each other, and the loss from the total-lead significantly differs from the sum of the wire losses.

  5. Conceptual design of a 15T-class pulsed conductor with fiber-reinforced Nb3Sn superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateishi, Hiroshi; Arai, Kazuaki; Agatsuma, Koh

    1997-01-01

    We have been developing a new type of Nb 3 Sn superconductor with high elastic modulus fibers for the application of high field pulsed superconducting magnets. We call this type of conductor FRS(Fiber-Reinforced Superconductor). This paper tries to show that FRS has great potential for the construction of a 15T-class pulsed magnet, with the size of which equals to that of the central solenoid of ITER(International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), because each monofilamentary FRS can support the part of hoop stress under operation of the magnet. Conceptual design of a basic strand with monofilamentary FRS, construction of the first- and second- level subcable, cooling condition of CICC(Cable in conduit conductor), stability and ac losses of the conductor are discussed. (author)

  6. Aerodynamic instability of cables in transmission power lines; Inestabilidad aerodinamica en cables de lineas de transmision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Lopez, Alberto; Vilar Rojas, Jorge Ivan; Munoz Black, Celso J. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    One of the aerodynamic instabilities of transmission power lines cables is galloping, which consists in the appearance of important cable vibrations, mainly when the wind hits orthogonally the power line. In some cases the maximum amplitude that occurs reaches several meters, even when the wind velocities in a region are well below the value used for the mechanical design of the power lines. In general terms, galloping is associated with particular climatic conditions such as low temperatures and high humidities. In these conditions a coating of ice that adheres to the cable is formed, changing its transverse cross section, propitiating the galloping, although some authors have reported galloping without ice. These climatic conditions are presented mainly in the Northern part of our country and in the high regions of the mountain zones; nevertheless, the galloping phenomenon has been reported in few cases by Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). The possible expansion of the power lines in these regions of the country leads to prevent the measures needed to diminish the appearance of this phenomenon. In this paper mention is made in particular of the solution adopted to the galloping problem that has appeared in the transmission power line of Salamayuca to Reforma, Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (CFE,1991). [Espanol] Una de las inestabilidades aerodinamicas que se presentan en los cables de lineas de transmision es el galopeo, el cual consiste en la aparicion de vibraciones importantes de los cables, sobre todo cuando el flujo del viento incide ortogonalmente a la linea. En algunos casos las amplitudes maximas que se presentan llegan a ser de varios metros, aun cuando las velocidades del viento en una region esten muy por debajo del valor empleado para el diseno mecanico de las lineas. Generalmente, el galopeo se asocia con condiciones climaticas particulares como son las bajas temperaturas y altas humedades. En estas condiciones se forma una cubierta de hielo que se

  7. Aerodynamic instability of cables in transmission power lines; Inestabilidad aerodinamica en cables de lineas de transmision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Lopez, Alberto; Vilar Rojas, Jorge Ivan; Munoz Black, Celso J [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    One of the aerodynamic instabilities of transmission power lines cables is galloping, which consists in the appearance of important cable vibrations, mainly when the wind hits orthogonally the power line. In some cases the maximum amplitude that occurs reaches several meters, even when the wind velocities in a region are well below the value used for the mechanical design of the power lines. In general terms, galloping is associated with particular climatic conditions such as low temperatures and high humidities. In these conditions a coating of ice that adheres to the cable is formed, changing its transverse cross section, propitiating the galloping, although some authors have reported galloping without ice. These climatic conditions are presented mainly in the Northern part of our country and in the high regions of the mountain zones; nevertheless, the galloping phenomenon has been reported in few cases by Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). The possible expansion of the power lines in these regions of the country leads to prevent the measures needed to diminish the appearance of this phenomenon. In this paper mention is made in particular of the solution adopted to the galloping problem that has appeared in the transmission power line of Salamayuca to Reforma, Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (CFE,1991). [Espanol] Una de las inestabilidades aerodinamicas que se presentan en los cables de lineas de transmision es el galopeo, el cual consiste en la aparicion de vibraciones importantes de los cables, sobre todo cuando el flujo del viento incide ortogonalmente a la linea. En algunos casos las amplitudes maximas que se presentan llegan a ser de varios metros, aun cuando las velocidades del viento en una region esten muy por debajo del valor empleado para el diseno mecanico de las lineas. Generalmente, el galopeo se asocia con condiciones climaticas particulares como son las bajas temperaturas y altas humedades. En estas condiciones se forma una cubierta de hielo que se

  8. Progress in R and D of coated conductor in M-PACC project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, T.; Koizumi, T.; Kimura, K. [SWCC Showa Cable Systems Co., Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan); Kato, T. [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Aichi (Japan); Kiss, T. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Izumi, T.; Ibi, A.; Nakaoka, K. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, International Superconductivity Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); and others

    2014-06-15

    The five-year national project in Japan for R and D of coated conductors and applications, named as the Materials and Power Applications of Coated Conductors (M-PACC) project, was finished at the end of FY2013. The project consists of four sub-themes as cable, transformer, SMES and coated conductors. In the theme of coated conductors, the fabrication process had been developed to satisfy the requirements from the applications such as in-field I{sub c} performance, low AC loss in the long tapes etc. Through the project, the remarkable progress was achieved as follows; a high in-field minimum I-c value over 54A/cm-width under 3T at 77K was realized in a 200m long EuBCO tape with artificial pinning centers of BaHfO{sub 3} by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique on the IBAD template. On the other hand, the AC loss reduction was confirmed in the tapes fabricated by both PLD and the metal organic deposition (MOD) techniques by scribing 100 m tapes into 10-filaments. Additionally, the mechanism of the delamination phenomenon was systematically investigated and the strength was improved by eliminating the origins of the weak points in the films. Through the development, all targeted goals were accomplished and the several results were appreciated as a world champion data.

  9. Externalized conductors and insulation failure in Biotronik defibrillator leads: History repeating or a false alarm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maria, Elia; Borghi, Ambra; Bonetti, Lorenzo; Fontana, Pier Luigi; Cappelli, Stefano

    2017-02-16

    Conductor externalization and insulation failure are frequent complications with the recalled St. Jude Medical Riata implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads. Conductor externalization is a "unique" failure mechanism: Cables externalize through the insulation ("inside-out" abrasion) and appear outside the lead body. Recently, single reports described a similar failure also for Biotronik leads. Moreover, some studies reported a high rate of electrical dysfunction (not only insulation failure) with Biotronik Linox leads and a reduced survival rate in comparison with the competitors. In this paper we describe the case of a patient with a Biotronik Kentrox ICD lead presenting with signs of insulation failure and conductor externalization at fluoroscopy. Due to the high risk of extraction we decided to implant a new lead, abandoning the damaged one; lead reimplant was uneventful. Subsequently, we review currently available literature about Biotronik Kentrox and Linox ICD lead failure and in particular externalized conductors. Some single-center studies and a non-prospective registry reported a survival rate between 88% and 91% at 5 years for Linox leads, significantly worse than that of other manufacturers. However, the preliminary results of two ongoing multicenter, prospective registries (GALAXY and CELESTIAL) showed 96% survival rate at 5 years after implant, well within industry standards. Ongoing data collection is needed to confirm longer-term performance of this family of ICD leads.

  10. Analysis of DC properties and current distribution in TFAS ITER conductor samples using high Jc Nb3Sn advanced strands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zani, L.; Ciazynski, D.; Torre, A.; Bruzzone, P.; Stepanov, B.; Dewittler, R.; Staehli, F.

    2007-01-01

    Two full-size conductor samples using advanced Nb 3 Sn strands were tested in the SULTAN facility in 2005-2006 within (I,B,T) ranges close to the ITER operating conditions (B MAX ∼ 12 T, T ∼ 5 K). Each sample includes two conductor legs, connected together by a twin-box joint in their lower part. The conductor design is the same for the four legs, similar to that of the ITER Toroidal Field Model Coil, but each leg uses specific strands newly developed and industrially produced to reach higher J c performances than in previous samples. In addition to classical voltage taps and temperature sensors, the sample instrumentation included Hall probe (HP) heads positioned so as to discriminate current distribution between conductor main sub-cables (petals). In a first simple approach, we analyse the results supposing that the conductor drives a uniform current among strands. The model is mainly based on geometrical considerations associated with a global approach on strand mechanical behavior. In a second part, we model the conductor in a more realistic way with different currents shared between main sub-cables. Taking into account various geometrical aspects (spiral trajectories, precise self-field maps...) the current in all petals are reconstructed with help of HP's signals, expected to experience self-field from CICC's. The mechanical aspects are also tentatively considered (electromagnetic load, bending strain...). Global results for both samples are shown, and possible inaccuracies due to geometrical parameters (petals positioning) are discussed. Those data are then injected into a Matlab program for electrical and geometrical CICC modeling (derived from the previous ENSIC code from CEA) and compared with dedicated experimental runs. Results are finally commented on the basis of overall consistency with HP's signals. (authors)

  11. Modification of critical current in HTSC tape conductors by a ferromagnetic layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goemoery, F; Souc, J; Seiler, E; Vojenciak, M; Granados, X

    2008-01-01

    In some applications of tape conductors from high temperature superconductors (HTSC) the magnetic field is created by the transported current itself. This is e.g. the case of power transmission cables or current leads. Quite complex distribution of local magnetic field determines then the ability of the superconducting element to carry electrical current. We have investigated how much the critical current of a tape conductor can be changed by putting a ferromagnetic layer in the vicinity of the HTSC material. Numerical procedure has been developed to resolve the current and field distribution in such superconductor-ferromagnet composite tape. Theoretical predictions have been confirmed by experiments on sample made from Bi-2223/Ag composite tape. The critical current of such tape can be improved by placing a soft ferromagnetic material at the tape's edges. On the other hand, the calculations show that the ferromagnetic substrate of YBCO coated tape reduces its self-field critical current

  12. Evaluation of a cryostable low-loss conductor for pulsed field applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollan, J.J.; Walker, M.S.; Zeitlin, B.A.; Pollack, D.A.; Shen, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    A cryostable, low loss conductor as the basic strand in a 50 kA cable for a 20 MJ prototype, tokamak induction heating coil has been developed, fabricated, and evaluated. The conductor has a copper matrix multifilamentary NbTi core surrounded by a CuNi ring and stabilizing copper segmented by radial CuNi fins. Pulsed loss measurements have been made up to 2.2 T and for decay times from 0.7 to 278 ms. Measurements made on samples with various twists and portions etched away have allowed accurate evaluation of the loss components. Stability measurements were also made on insulated and uninsulated single strands and on subcables. Measured recovery heat flux for the bare strand is about 0.3 W/cm 2 ; however, the application of a 0.0005 in. layer of Omega insulation increases the value to about 0.5 W/cm 2

  13. Conductor qualification tests for the 30-MJ Bonneville Power Administration SMES coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schermer, R.I.; Boenig, H.J.; Henke, M.; Turner, R.D.; Schramm, R.

    1980-01-01

    The 30-MJ energy storage coil for the Bonneville Power Administration requires a low-loss, cryostable conductor that is able to carry 4.9 kA in a field of 2.8 T and will maintain its properties over 10 8 partial discharge cycles. The multi-level cable which satisfies these requirements has been extensively tested at various stages in its development and in its final form. Tests have been performed to determine the effect of manufacturing options on ac losses, low temperature electrical resistivity, stability, and fatigue resistance of the insulated conductor. This paper will concentrate on the stability and fatigue tests which have not previously been reported

  14. Carbon nanotube wires and cables: Near-term applications and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Paul; Schauerman, Christopher; Alvarenga, Jack; Moses, Brian; Mastrangelo, Thomas; Raffaelle, Ryne; Ridgley, Richard; Landi, Brian

    2011-11-01

    Wires and cables are essential to modern society, and opportunities exist to develop new materials with reduced resistance, mass, and/or susceptibility to fatigue. This article describes how carbon nanotubes (CNTs) offer opportunities for integration into wires and cables for both power and data transmission due to their unique physical and electronic properties. Macroscopic CNT wires and ribbons are presently shown as viable replacements for metallic conductors in lab-scale demonstrations of coaxial, USB, and Ethernet cables. In certain applications, such as the outer conductor of a coaxial cable, CNT materials may be positioned to displace metals to achieve substantial benefits (e.g. reduction in cable mass per unit length (mass/length) up to 50% in some cases). Bulk CNT materials possess several unique properties which may offer advantages over metallic conductors, such as flexure tolerance and environmental stability. Specifically, CNT wires were observed to withstand greater than 200,000 bending cycles without increasing resistivity. Additionally, CNT wires exhibit no increase in resistivity after 80 days in a corrosive environment (1 M HCl), and little change in resistivity with temperature (electrical conductivity of CNT materials must be improved. Recently, the conductivity of a CNT wire prepared through simultaneous densification and doping has exceeded 1.3 × 106 S/m. This level of conductivity brings CNTs closer to copper (5.8 × 107 S/m) and competitive with some metals (e.g. gold) on a mass-normalized basis. Developments in manipulation of CNT materials (e.g. type enrichment, doping, alignment, and densification) have shown progress towards this goal. In parallel with efforts to improve bulk conductivity, integration of CNT materials into cabling architectures will require development in electrical contacting. Several methods for contacting bulk CNT materials to metals are demonstrated, including mechanical crimping and ultrasonic bonding, along with a

  15. Doped LZO buffer layers for laminated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [Knoxville, TN; Schoop, Urs [Westborough, MA; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans [Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, Darren T [Oxford, MA; Rupich, Martin W [Framingham, MA

    2010-03-23

    A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising LZO and a dopant for mitigating metal diffusion through the LZO, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

  16. Cable networks, services, and management

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Cable Networks, Services, and Management is the first book to cover cable networks, services, and their management, in-depth, for network operators, engineers, researchers, and students. Thirteen experts in various fields have contributed their knowledge of network architectures and services, Operations, Administration, Maintenance, Provisioning, Troubleshooting (OAMPT) for residential and business services, cloud, Software Defined Networks (SDN), as well as virtualization concepts and their applications as part of the future directions of cable networks. The book begins by introducing architecture and services for Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) 3.0/ 3.1, Converged Cable Access Platform (CCAP), Content Distribution Networks (CDN, IP TV, and Packet Cable and Wi-Fi for Residential Services. Topics that are discussed in proceeding chapters include: operational systems and management architectures, service orders, provisioning, fault manageme t, performance management, billing systems a...

  17. 14 CFR 23.689 - Cable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in cable tension throughout the range of travel under operating conditions and temperature variations... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cable systems. 23.689 Section 23.689... Systems § 23.689 Cable systems. (a) Each cable, cable fitting, turnbuckle, splice, and pulley used must...

  18. THE TECHNOLOGICAL AND EXPLOITATIVE FACTORS OF LOCAL INCREASE OF ELECTRIC FIELD STRENGTH IN THE POWER CABLE OF COAXIAL DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Bezprozvannych

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Reliability of high voltage power cables in the process of long-term operation is largely due to the intensity of polymeric insulation aging. It is now established that the aging of polyethylene, which is the main material for the insulation of high voltage power cables, under the action of the electric field is determined primarily by the presence of structural heterogeneity arising both during cable production and during use. The cable is always there deviations from the ideal structure, which manifest in a deviation of diameters of conductors from nominal values; in the arrangement of the conductor and the insulation is not strictly coaxially and eccentrically; in elliptic (oval core and insulation; change in relative dielectric constant and thickness of insulation on cable length force the formation of low molecular weight products (including water in the flow at the manufacturing stage crosslinked polyethylene insulation and moisture during operation. Such defects are structural, technological and operational irregularities, which lead to a local change in the electric field. Purpose. Analysis of the influence of the eccentricity, elliptic and spherical inclusions in the electric field distribution in the power cable of a coaxial design with cross-linked polyethylene insulation, based on numerical simulation. Methodology. The bases of the numerical method of calculation of the electrical field strength are Fredholm integral equations of the first and second kind (method of secondary sources for an axially symmetric field. Analysis of the influence of irregularities, including water treeing, the shape of the sounding signal is made using the method of discrete resistive circuit inductance and capacitance of substitution with the initial conditions. Solving systems of linear algebraic equations nodal analysis performed by the sweep method. Results. The presence of the eccentricity and ellipticity in the construction of cable has

  19. Dynamic testing of cable structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caetano Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of dynamic testing in the study of cable structures. In this context, the identification of cable force based on vibration measurements is discussed. Vibration and damping assessment are then introduced as the focus of dynamic monitoring systems, and particular aspects of the structural behaviour under environmental loads are analysed. Diverse application results are presented to support the discussion centred on cable-stayed bridges, roof structures, a guyed mast and a transmission line.

  20. Electromagnetic transients in power cables

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Filipe Faria

    2013-01-01

    From the more basic concepts to the most advanced ones where long and laborious simulation models are required, Electromagnetic Transients in Power Cables provides a thorough insight into the study of electromagnetic transients and underground power cables. Explanations and demonstrations of different electromagnetic transient phenomena are provided, from simple lumped-parameter circuits to complex cable-based high voltage networks, as well as instructions on how to model the cables.Supported throughout by illustrations, circuit diagrams and simulation results, each chapter contains exercises,

  1. Superconducting flat tape cable magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayasu, Makoto

    2015-08-11

    A method for winding a coil magnet with the stacked tape cables, and a coil so wound. The winding process is controlled and various shape coils can be wound by twisting about the longitudinal axis of the cable and bending following the easy bend direction during winding, so that sharp local bending can be obtained by adjusting the twist pitch. Stack-tape cable is twisted while being wound, instead of being twisted in a straight configuration and then wound. In certain embodiments, the straight length should be half of the cable twist-pitch or a multiple of it.

  2. Measurement of the temperature distribution inside the power cable using distributed temperature system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaros, Jakub; Liner, Andrej; Papes, Martin; Vasinek, Vladimir; Mach, Veleslav; Hruby, David; Kajnar, Tomas; Perecar, Frantisek

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, the power cables are manufactured to fulfill the following condition - the highest allowable temperature of the cable during normal operation and the maximum allowable temperature at short circuit conditions cannot exceed the condition of the maximum allowable internal temperature. The distribution of the electric current through the conductor leads to the increase of the amplitude of electrons in the crystal lattice of the cables material. The consequence of this phenomenon is the increase of friction and the increase of collisions between particles inside the material, which causes the temperature increase of the carrying elements. The temperature increase is unwanted phenomena, because it is causing losses. In extreme cases, the long-term overload leads to the cable damaging or fire. This paper deals with the temperature distribution measurement inside the power cables using distributed temperature system. With cooperation with Kabex company, the tube containing optical fibers was installed into the center of power cables. These fibers, except telecommunications purposes, can be also used as sensors in measurements carrying out with distributed temperature system. These systems use the optical fiber as a sensor and allow the continual measurement of the temperature along the whole cable in real time with spatial resolution 1 m. DTS systems are successfully deployed in temperature measurement applications in industry areas yet. These areas include construction, drainage, hot water etc. Their advantages are low cost, resistance to electromagnetic radiation and the possibility of real time monitoring at the distance of 8 km. The location of the optical fiber in the center of the power cable allows the measurement of internal distribution of the temperature during overloading the cable. This measurement method can be also used for prediction of short-circuit and its exact location.

  3. Radiation damages on superionic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awano, T.; Ikezawa, M.; Matsuyama, T.

    1995-01-01

    Irradiation coloration on superionic conductors of MA 4 X 5 (M=K, Rb, NH 4 ; A=Ag, Cu; X=Cl, I) was observed. Five absorption bands were observed at 1.4, 1.8, 2.1, 2.3 and 2.9 eV in RbAg 4 I 5 . In these crystals, stable coloration was observed at lower temperature than in alkali halides. The absorption bands due to electronic centers and hole one were classified from the results of optical breaching and electron or hole doping. Growth rate and induced spectra by irradiation changed drastically at the temperatures just above the superionic phase transition. The growth rate increased drastically also at 40 K. ESR signal of γ-irradiated RbCu 4 Cl 3 I 2 showed that one of the induced defects is a hole trapped by a monovalent copper ion (Cu 2+ ). (author)

  4. Cable tray fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klamerus, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    Funds were authorized by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide data needed for confirmation of the suitability of current design standards and regulatory guides for fire protection and control in water reactor power plants. The activities of this program through August 1978 are summarized. A survey of industry to determine current design practices and a screening test to select two cable constructions which were used in small scale and full scale testing are described. Both small and full scale tests to assess the adequacy of fire retardant coatings and full scale tests on fire shields to determine their effectiveness are outlined

  5. Inducted circulation current in a conductor consisting of strands coated with a high resistive layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Norikiyo; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Kato, Takashi; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Shimamoto, Susumu

    2000-01-01

    Nonuniform current distribution is generated in a conductor consisting of strands coated by a high resistive layer, such as chromium plating, as a result of superimposition of transport and induce circulation currents. The characteristics of the induced circulation current are analytically studied by using a distributed model circuit. The parameters mostly used in this calculation are those of US-DPC coil, which at first exhibited instability and so-called ramp rate limitation (RRL) because of current imbalance in the conductor consisting of chrome-plated strands. Thus the conductance along strands and the inductance of unit length loop and length of the conductor are mostly assumed to be 10 kS/m, 0.5 μH/m and 150 m, respectively. The analysis results indicate that the induced circulation current can be classified into the boundary and interstrand-induce circulation currents hereafter referred to as BICC an IICC. BICC is induced only across the joint at the ends of the conductor, resulting in a constant along the conductor axis, when the total leakage magnetic flux of the loop is not zero. Its decay time constant is quite long, more than a few hours. In contrast, when the leakage magnetic flux distributes along the conductor axis, IICC is induced among strands in the conductor to eliminate this flux. Since the leakage magnetic flux normally becomes largest where the magnetic field is highest, it becomes larger where the time variation of the magnetic field is larger. Its decay time contrast is much less than that of BICC. If the leakage magnetic flux linearly changes along the US-DPC conductor, it is evaluated to be about 10 s. This IICC therefore becomes dominate in a pulse charge, whose ramping tine is less than 10 s. Moreover, it is found that the variation of the leakage a magnetic flux with the relatively long cycle, such as more than a few 10-meter lengths, causes IICC with a decay-time constant of more than several hundred milliseconds. Such and IICC can

  6. Quality analysis of superconducting wire and cable for SSC dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that a critical component of the SSC collider dipole magnets is superconducting cable. The uniformity and reliability requirements for the dipoles place stringent demands on the cable. These needs have been defined as various contract requirements in the material specifications for NbTi alloy, superconducting wire and cable. A supplied qualification program is being started by the SSCL with industry to establish reliable sources of superconductor cable. Key to this qualification program is the establishment by industry of detailed process methods and controls for wire and cable manufacture. To monitor conductor performance, a computer database is being developed by the SSCL Magnet Systems Division Quality Assurance Department. The database is part of a program for ensuring superconductor uniformity by focusing on the understanding and control of variation. A statistical and graphical summary of current data for key performance variables will be presented in light of the specification requirement for uniformity. Superconductor material characteristics to be addressed will include Wire Critical Current (I c ), Copper Ratio (Cu:SC), Wire Diameter, Wire Piece Length, and Cable Dimensional Control

  7. Normal state resistance and low temperature magnetoresistance of superconducting cables for accelerator magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, W.B.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.K.

    1988-01-01

    The normal state resistivity of the superconducting NbTi cable used in accelerator magnets is usually specified by the resistance per unit length at room temperature (295 K) and the residual resistance ratio (RRR). Using these resistance parameters, the amount of copper in the multifilamentary wire can be calculated. This method is consistent with the traditional etch and weigh technique, and as such is a alternative and convenient way of specifying the copper to superconductor ratio. In principle the magnetoresistance can be calculated from the RRR and the ''Kohler Plot'', for copper. In practice however, measurements of magnetoresistance for a wide variety of SSC inner cables show considerable disagreement with calculation. In this paper the magnetoresistance data on cables with RRR ranging from 50 to 175 are analyzed taking into account the conductor geometry and the effect of the small interfilamentary spacing on the resistivity of copper. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  8. Cooling unit for a superconducting power cable. Two years successful operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, Friedhelm [Messer Group GmbH, Krefeld (Germany); Kutz, Thomas [Messer Industriegase GmbH, Bad Soden (Germany); Stemmle, Mark [Nexans Deutschland GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Kugel, Torsten [Westnetz GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    High temperature super conductors (HTS) can efficiently be cooled with liquid nitrogen down to a temperature of 64 K (-209 C). Lower temperatures are not practical, because nitrogen becomes solid at 63 K (-210 C). To achieve this temperature level the coolant has to be vaporized below atmospheric pressure. Messer has developed a cooling unit with an adequate vacuum subcooler, a liquid nitrogen circulation system, and a storage vessel for cooling an HTS power cable. The cooling unit was delivered in 2013 for the German AmpaCity project of RWE Deutschland AG, Nexans and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Within this project RWE and Nexans installed the worldwide longest superconducting power cable in the city of Essen, Germany. The cable is in operation since March 10th, 2014.

  9. Cable deterioration analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Masahiko; Nitta, Makoto.

    1997-01-01

    At first, a hardness of a minute region and an elongation at break are measured relative to a plurality of reference samples having deterioration which is different stepwise, to obtain a relation between the hardness of the minute region and the elongation at break. They are obtained as information of correlation showing the degree of deterioration of cables. Then, samples are collected. The samples are collected from a PVC sheath. In this case, the samples to be used for the measurement are extremely small piece having the size of one side of about several hundred μm. Then, the hardness of the minute region of the samples is measured. The measured hardness of the minute region is corresponded to the previously obtained information of the correlation for deteriorations to judge the state of deterioration for the collected samples. With such procedures, the state of deterioration for electric wires and cables to be used in nuclear facilities such as power plants can easily be diagnosed substantially non destructively. (I.N.)

  10. Evaluation of inductive heating energy of sub-size improved DPC-C conductor by calorimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Toshinobu; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Wakabayashi, Hiroshi; Miura, Yuushi; Fujisaki, Hiroshi; Matsui, Kunihiro; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Hiroshi

    1996-08-01

    The improved DPC-U conductor consisting of 648 chrome plated NbTi strands was fabricated and its stability has been investigated using 1/24 sub-size conductor. In the stability experiment, the inductive heating method was applied to originate initial normal zone. Since it is difficult to calculate the inductive heating energy deposited on the conductor because of complicate geometry of the twisted multi-strand cable, inductive heating energy had to be experimentally evaluated using calorimetric method. The heating energy is in proportion to integration of square of an applied sinusoidal wave pulsed current over the heating period. The experimental result shows the proportional constants for the conductor and conduit are 2.062 x 10 -3 [J/A 2 s] and 0.771 x 10 -3 [J/A 2 s], respectively. The coupling between the eddy currents in the strands and conduit might take effect on the heating energy put in the strands. It was shown this effect was however small in this experiment. Consequently, the inductive heating energy applied in the strands was estimated to be the proportional constant of 1.291 x 10 -3 [J/A 2 s] from the difference of the heat energies in the conductor and conduit. (author)

  11. Cable Television in Sedalia, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamkin, Kathryn Janel

    A field study was conducted of the status of cable television in Sedalia, Missouri. Based on interviews of city council members and staff members of Cablevision, the Sedalia cable franchise holder, the following issues were investigated: (1) subscription rates; (2) franchise negotiations; (3) quality of existing services; and (4) possible…

  12. The optimum spanning catenary cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. Y.

    2015-03-01

    A heavy cable spans two points in space. There exists an optimum cable length such that the maximum tension is minimized. If the two end points are at the same level, the optimum length is 1.258 times the distance between the ends. The optimum lengths for end points of different heights are also found.

  13. Fundamental aspects of excitation and propagation of on-line partial discharge signals in three-phase medium voltage cable systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielen, van der P.C.J.M.; Steennis, E.F.; Wouters, P.A.A.F.

    2003-01-01

    On-line partial discharge (PD) detection of three-phase belted medium voltage cable connections results in a number of interpretation differences as compared to off-line measurements where only one phase is energized. The induced currents and charges in the phase conductors and earth screen upon a

  14. Photonic-powered cable assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Stephen N.; Appel, Titus James; Wrye, IV, Walter C.

    2013-01-22

    A photonic-cable assembly includes a power source cable connector ("PSCC") coupled to a power receive cable connector ("PRCC") via a fiber cable. The PSCC electrically connects to a first electronic device and houses a photonic power source and an optical data transmitter. The fiber cable includes an optical transmit data path coupled to the optical data transmitter, an optical power path coupled to the photonic power source, and an optical feedback path coupled to provide feedback control to the photonic power source. The PRCC electrically connects to a second electronic device and houses an optical data receiver coupled to the optical transmit data path, a feedback controller coupled to the optical feedback path to control the photonic power source, and a photonic power converter coupled to the optical power path to convert photonic energy received over the optical power path to electrical energy to power components of the PRCC.

  15. Cable Bacteria in Freshwater Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kristiansen, Michael; Frederiksen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable...... bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the freshwater stream Giber Å, Denmark, was incubated in the laboratory. After 2 weeks, pH signatures...... marine cable bacteria, with the genus Desulfobulbus as the closest cultured lineage. The results of the present study indicate that electric currents mediated by cable bacteria could be important for the biogeochemistry in many more environments than anticipated thus far and suggest a common evolutionary...

  16. Length of a Hanging Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Costello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shape of a cable hanging under its own weight and uniform horizontal tension between two power poles is a catenary. The catenary is a curve which has an equation defined by a hyperbolic cosine function and a scaling factor. The scaling factor for power cables hanging under their own weight is equal to the horizontal tension on the cable divided by the weight of the cable. Both of these values are unknown for this problem. Newton's method was used to approximate the scaling factor and the arc length function to determine the length of the cable. A script was written using the Python programming language in order to quickly perform several iterations of Newton's method to get a good approximation for the scaling factor.

  17. Rail industry job analysis : passenger conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This document describes the results of a job analysis that was conducted for the position of railroad Passenger Conductor. Key aspects of the position were identified, including main tasks and knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (...

  18. Rail industry job analysis : freight conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This document describes the results from a job analysis that was conducted for the position of Freight Conductor. Key aspects of the position were identified, including main tasks and knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) ne...

  19. Materials, Strands, and Cables for Superconducting Accelerator Magnets. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumption, Mike D. [Ohio State University, Columbia, OH (United States); Collings, Edward W. [Ohio State University, Columbia, OH (United States)

    2014-09-19

    This report focuses on Materials, Strands and Cables for High Energy Physics Particle accelerators. In the materials area, work has included studies of basic reactions, diffusion, transformations, and phase assemblage of Nb3Sn. These materials science aspects have been married to results, in the form of flux pinning, Bc2, Birr, and transport Jc, with an emphasis on obtaining the needed Jc for HEP needs. Attention has also been paid to the “intermediate-temperature superconductor”, magnesium diboride emphasis being placed on (i) irreversibility field enhancement, (ii) critical current density and flux pinning, and (iii) connectivity. We also report on studies of Bi-2212. The second area of the program has been in the area of “Strands” in which, aside from the materials aspect of the conductor, its physical properties and their influence on performance have been studied. Much of this work has been in the area of magnetization estimation and flux jump calculation and control. One of the areas of this work was strand instabilities in high-performance Nb3Sn conductors due to combined fields and currents. Additionally, we investigated quench and thermal propagation in YBCO coated conductors at low temperatures and high fields. The last section, “Cables”, focussed on interstrand contact resistance, ICR, it origins, control, and implications. Following on from earlier work in NbTi, the present work in Nb3Sn has aimed to make ICR intermediate between the two extremes of too little contact (no current sharing) and too much (large and unacceptable magnetization and associated beam de-focussing). Interstrand contact and current sharing measurements are being made on YBCO based Roebel cables using transport current methods. Finally, quench was investigated for YBCO cables and the magnets wound from them, presently with a focus on 50 T solenoids for muon collider applications.

  20. Analysis of the quench propagation along Nb$_{3}$Sn Rutherford cables with the THELMA code. Part II: application to the quench longitudinal propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Manfreda, G.; Bajas, H.; Perez, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    To improve the technology of the new generation of accelerator magnets, prototypes are being manufactured and tested in several laboratories. In parallel, many numerical analyses are being carried out to predict the magnets behaviour and interpret the experimental results. This paper focuses on the quench propagation velocity, which is a crucial parameter as regards the energy dissipation along the magnet conductor. The THELMA code, originally developed for cable-in-conduit conductors for fusion magnets, has been used to study such quench propagation. To this purpose, new code modules have been added to describe the Rutherford cable geometry, the material non-linear thermal properties and to describe the thermal conduction problem in transient regime. THELMA can describe the Rutherford cable at the strand level, modelling both the electrical and thermal contact resistances between strands and enabling the analysis of the effects of local hot spots and quench heaters. This paper describes the model application...

  1. 10BASE5 Ethernet Cable & Vampire Tap

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    10BASE5 Thick Ethernet Cable, 10Mbit/sec. In the 1980s and early 1990's, Ethernet became more popular and provided a much faster data transmission rate. This cable is one of the first ethernet cables from 1983, a thick, bulky affair. Computers were attached via "Vampire Taps" which were connectors screwed straight through the shielding of the cable.

  2. 14 CFR 27.1365 - Electric cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electric cables. 27.1365 Section 27.1365... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1365 Electric cables. (a) Each electric connecting cable must be of adequate capacity. (b) Each cable that would overheat...

  3. 30 CFR 18.45 - Cable reels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and locomotives shall maintain positive tension on the portable cable during reeling and unreeling. Such tension shall only be high enough to prevent a machine from running over its own cable(s). (e... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cable reels. 18.45 Section 18.45 Mineral...

  4. 14 CFR 25.689 - Cable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cable system must be designed so that there will be no hazardous change in cable tension throughout the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cable systems. 25.689 Section 25.689... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 25.689 Cable systems. (a...

  5. First tests of twisted-pair HTS 1 kA range cables for use in superconducting links

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A; Hurte, J; Sitko, M; Willering, G

    2011-01-01

    The requirement at CERN for 1 kA range High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables optimized for long electrical transfer has led to the design and assembly of a novel type of cable that can be made from pre-reacted MgB2, Bi-2223 or YBCO tapes. The cable consists of an assembly of twisted pairs, each of which is made from three superconducting tapes with the required copper stabilizer. The twisted pair cable is designed to transfer a DC current of ± 600 A in helium gas environment. The paper reports on the results of the electrical tests performed on twisted-pair cables of identical structure and made from commercially available MgB2, Bi-2223 and YBCO tapes. The twist pitch of the cables is adapted to match the mechanical properties of the different superconductors. Critical current tests were performed at both liquid helium and liquid nitrogen temperature. The electrical performance of several cables made from different conductors is reported and compared.

  6. Cables - a question of custom-design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doig, Tom

    1994-01-01

    Electrical equipment such as cabling can often be the limiting factor as far as machine operations in radioactive environments are concerned. Electronic and electrical equipment will degrade if exposed to ionising radiation, affecting equipment reliability, or causing complete failure. However, several companies provide custom-designed products directed specifically at the nuclear industry. One such company is Habia Cable which has built up its business in submarine cables, internal engine cables, and cables for high fire risk situations. It began supplying custom-designed cables to the nuclear industry in 1986, and has since then supplied cables throughout Europe from its plant in Sweden. (Author)

  7. AC Loss Reduction in Filamentized YBCO Coated Conductors with Virtual Transverse Cross-cuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yifei [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Ha, Tam T [ORNL; List III, Frederick Alyious [ORNL; Gouge, Michael J [ORNL; Chen, Y [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York; X, Xiong, [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York; Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York

    2011-01-01

    While the performance of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO)-based coated conductors under dc currents has improved significantly in recent years, filamentization is being investigated as a technique to reduce ac loss so that the 2nd generation (2G) high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires can also be utilized in various ac power applications such as cables, transformers and fault current limiters. Experimental studies have shown that simply filamentizing the superconducting layer is not effective enough to reduce ac loss because of incomplete flux penetration in between the filaments as the length of the tape increases. To introduce flux penetration in between the filaments more uniformly and further reduce the ac loss, virtual transverse cross-cuts were made in superconducting filaments of the coated conductors fabricated using the metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method. The virtual transverse cross-cuts were formed by making cross-cuts (17 - 120 {micro}m wide) on the IBAD (ion beam assisted deposition)-MgO templates using laser scribing followed by depositing the superconducting layer ({approx} 0.6 {micro}m thick). AC losses were measured and compared for filamentized conductors with and without the cross-cuts under applied peak ac fields up to 100 mT. The results were analyzed to evaluate the efficacy of filament decoupling and the feasibility of using this method to achieve ac loss reduction.

  8. Numerical investigation on transverse heat transfer properties in cross section of full size Nb3Sn CICC ITER conductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuming Jia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The contact mechanical characteristics in the cross section of the Nb3Sn cable are sensitive to the cryogenic cooling and cyclic transverse electromagnetic loads, which may affect the cable’s performance. In this paper, based on a proposed discrete dynamic model (DEM, where the contact heat transfer among strands and the convective heat transfer in liquid helium are taken into account, the cooling process under two heat transfer mechanisms is performed. Simulation results show that the temperature variation of Poloidal Field Insert Sample (PFIS cable with time agrees well with the existing experimental results, and the role of contact heat transfer cannot be neglected during cryogenic cooling. It is obtained from the further analysis that the effect of contact heat transfer becomes more prominent with the decrease of mass flow rate of liquid helium, which leads to the stress status within cable changed significantly. With the temperature boundary condition imposed on the cable radial direction, the effective thermal conductivity (ETC of cable can be obtained. It can be found that the ETC increases with increasing the transverse loads and is sensitive to the low temperature environment, while it is not affected by load cycles basically. These results may provide the guide for the design and application of the future CICC conductors.

  9. Motility of electric cable bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Holm, Simon Agner

    2016-01-01

    Cable bacteria are filamentous bacteria that electrically couple sulfide oxidation and oxygen reduction at centimeter distances, and observations in sediment environments have suggested that they are motile. By time-lapse microscopy, we found that cable bacteria used gliding motility on surfaces...... with a highly variable speed of 0.50.3 ms1 (meanstandard deviation) and time between reversals of 155108 s. They frequently moved forward in loops, and formation of twisted loops revealed helical rotation of the filaments. Cable bacteria responded to chemical gradients in their environment, and around the oxic......-anoxic interface, they curled and piled up, with straight parts connecting back to the source of sulfide. Thus, it appears that motility serves the cable bacteria in establishing and keeping optimal connections between their distant electron donor and acceptors in a dynamic sediment environment....

  10. Air flow around suspended cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gołębiowska Irena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of wind on construction structures is essential issue in design and operation. In particular, the wind can cause the dengerous vibrations of slender structures with low rigidity, eg. vibrations of cables of suspension and cable-stayed bridges or high voltage transmision lines, thus understanding of wind flow around such constructions is significant. In the paper the results of the analysis of wind flow around the cables for different Reynolds number is presented. The analysed flow meets the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations. The circle and elipse section of the cable is analysed. The discusion of vorticity, drag and lift coefficients and cases due to different angle of wind flow action is presented. The boundary layer and its infuence on total flow is analysed.

  11. Vehicle power supply cable with optical jacket monitoring and arcing interference detection; Bordnetzkabel mit optischer Mantelueberwachung und Stoerlichtbogendetektion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehmann, Matthias [Fachhochschule Nordhausen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Industrieelektronik; Kloss, Christina [Fachhochschule Nordhausen (Germany). Forschungsschwerpunkte Polymere/Elastomere und Lichtwellenleiter; Lustermann, Birgit [Fachhochschule Nordhausen (Germany). Forschungsschwerpunkte Lichtwellenleiter und Simulation optischer Systeme

    2012-10-15

    In vehicles with electrical drive, vehicle power supplies are used with high-voltage level, as well as with several voltage levels. In order to minimise any hazards through arcing faults associated with this, constructive and material-technical measures are necessary. Nordhausen Technical College presents a patented, opticalelectrical combination conductor - the main constituent of an innovative vehicle power supply cable with optical jacket monitoring and arcing interference detection. (orig.)

  12. Construction of a line for radiation cross-linking of cable insulators at the Kablo Vrchlabi plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourim, P.; Zidek, L.; Kopecky, B.

    1983-01-01

    In order to introduce radiation curing into the technology of manufacturing conductors with silicone insulation the suitability was tested of the individual brands of silicone rubber used for cables. The criterion was the range of doses guaranteeing the required mechanical and rheological properties of the rubber. The ELV 1 accelerator was used for irradiation. A description is given of the design of the technological equipment of the line which was put into experimental operation. (J.P.)

  13. Digital computers' cable replacement at the Hydro-Quebec Gentilly 2 nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gour, N.; Rivest, J.-M.

    1992-01-01

    During the 1990 annual outage of Gentilly-2, inspection of the digital control computers revealed signs of degradation in about 20% of the cable connector assemblies. This raised concern of increased risk of signal failure by short circuit. The degradation of the insulation was traced to a material incompatibility problem originating during manufacture of the cables. Migration of the plasticizer contained in the PVC of the transparent sheaths surrounding many of the conductors resulted in chemical attack on the insulation. All the cable assemblies were replaced during 1991-1992. The new cable assemblies were manufactured using the Raychem process, which lacked the faulty material. Also, the opportunity was taken to modify the ground network while the computer systems were stripped of their main components. Although the work cost over C$900,000, nevertheless planning and execution were nearly flawless, and the project a complete success. Integrity of cable insulation should not be a concern for the rest of the plant's life. 5 refs

  14. Experiment of 200-meter superconducting DC cable system in Chubu University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Kawahara, T.; Hamabe, M.; Watanabe, H.; Ivanov, Yu.; Sun, J.; Iiyoshi, A.

    2011-01-01

    We designed and constructed the experimental device of 200-meter superconducting DC cable system in the beginning of 2010 and did the first experiment until March, 2010, and the second experiment has been done from August to October 2010. This experimental device is called CASER-2, and the main aim of the experiment is to demonstrate high performance of DC superconducting cable system for comparing the copper cable system. Thermal contraction and expansion during the thermal cycle are discussed in the paper because if the thermal stress of the HTS tape conductor is high, the critical current of the HTS tape is reduced. Therefore, it is the first priority to keep the system in high performance and safety. We also mentioned several experiments and ideas in the paper, such as the low heat leaks of the terminal cryostat and the cryogenic pipe, and the low circulation power, energy storage function of the cable system. In this paper, we present the experimental results of the CASER-2, and discuss and estimate the performance of the system and several ideas. These discussions include the specification of the future long cable system, and show the subjects to solve for the future system.

  15. Static and Dynamic Characteristics of a Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridge with CFRP Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the scope of CFRP cables in cable-stayed bridges is studied by establishing a numerical model of a 1400-m span of the same. The mechanical properties and characteristics of CFRP stay cables and of a cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables are here subjected to comprehensive analysis. The anomalies in the damping properties of free vibration, nonlinear parametric vibration and wind fluctuating vibration between steel cables and CFRP cables are determined. The structural stiffness, wind resistance and traffic vibration of the cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables are also analyzed. It was found that the static performances of a cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables and steel cables are basically the same. The natural frequencies of CFRP cables do not coincide with the major natural frequencies of the cable-stayed bridge, so the likelihood of CFRP cable-bridge coupling vibration is minuscule. For CFRP cables, the response amplitudes of both parametric vibration and wind fluctuating vibration are smaller than those of steel cables. It can be concluded from the research that the use of CFRP cables does not change the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle-bridge coupling vibration. Therefore, they can be used in long-span cable-stayed bridges with an excellent mechanical performance.

  16. Static and Dynamic Characteristics of a Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridge with CFRP Cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xu; Li, Xiaozhang; Shen, Yonggang

    2014-06-23

    In this study, the scope of CFRP cables in cable-stayed bridges is studied by establishing a numerical model of a 1400-m span of the same. The mechanical properties and characteristics of CFRP stay cables and of a cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables are here subjected to comprehensive analysis. The anomalies in the damping properties of free vibration, nonlinear parametric vibration and wind fluctuating vibration between steel cables and CFRP cables are determined. The structural stiffness, wind resistance and traffic vibration of the cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables are also analyzed. It was found that the static performances of a cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables and steel cables are basically the same. The natural frequencies of CFRP cables do not coincide with the major natural frequencies of the cable-stayed bridge, so the likelihood of CFRP cable-bridge coupling vibration is minuscule. For CFRP cables, the response amplitudes of both parametric vibration and wind fluctuating vibration are smaller than those of steel cables. It can be concluded from the research that the use of CFRP cables does not change the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle-bridge coupling vibration. Therefore, they can be used in long-span cable-stayed bridges with an excellent mechanical performance.

  17. The feasibility of low-mass conductors for toroidal superconducting magnets for SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luton, J.N.

    1990-01-01

    An earlier study by Luton and Bonanos concluded that the design and fabrication of superconducting toroidal bending magnets would require a major effort but would be feasible. This study is an extension to examine the feasibility of low-mass conductors for such use. It included a literature search, consultations, with conductor manufacturers, and design calculations, but no experimental work. An unoptimized sample design that used a residual resistivity ratio for aluminum of 1360 and a current density of 3.5 kA/cm 2 over the uninsulated conductor for a 4.5-T toroid with 1 GJ of stored energy obtained a hot-spot temperature of 120 K with a maximum dump voltage of 3.6 kV and 24% of the initial current inductively transferred into the shorted aluminum structure. The stability margin was 200 mJ/cm 3 of cable space. Limiting the quench pressure to 360 atm to give conservative stresses in the sheath and assuming that the whole flow path quenched immediately resulted in helium taps that could be a kilometer apart if the flow friction factor were the same as that experienced in the Westinghouse (W) Large Coil Task (LCT) coil. This indicates that the 520-m conductor length of each of the 72 individual coil segments of a toroid would be a single flow path. If some practical uncertainties can be favorably resolved by producing and testing sample conductors, the use of a conductor with clad-aluminum stabilizer and extruded aluminum-alloy sheath should be feasible and economical. 9 refs., 3 figs

  18. Dynamic Test Method Based on Strong Electromagnetic Pulse for Electromagnetic Shielding Materials with Field-Induced Insulator-Conductor Phase Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Zhao, Min; Wang, Qingguo

    2018-01-01

    In order to measure the pulse shielding performance of materials with the characteristic of field-induced insulator-conductor phase transition when materials are used for electromagnetic shielding, a dynamic test method was proposed based on a coaxial fixture. Experiment system was built by square pulse source, coaxial cable, coaxial fixture, attenuator, and oscilloscope and insulating components. S11 parameter of the test system was obtained, which suggested that the working frequency ranges from 300 KHz to 7.36 GHz. Insulating performance is good enough to avoid discharge between conductors when material samples is exposed in the strong electromagnetic pulse field up to 831 kV/m. This method is suitable for materials with annular shape, certain thickness and the characteristic of field-induced insulator-conductor phase transition to get their shielding performances of strong electromagnetic pulse.

  19. Properties and applications of perovskite proton conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caetano Camilo de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A brief overview is given of the main types and principles of solid-state proton conductors with perovskite structure. Their properties are summarized in terms of the defect chemistry, proton transport and chemical stability. A good understanding of these subjects allows the manufacturing of compounds with the desired electrical properties, for application in renewable and sustainable energy devices. A few trends and highlights of the scientific advances are given for some classes of protonic conductors. Recent results and future prospect about these compounds are also evaluated. The high proton conductivity of barium cerate and zirconate based electrolytes lately reported in the literature has taken these compounds to a highlight position among the most studied conductor ceramic materials.

  20. Molecular dynamics studies of superionic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.; Vashishta, P.

    1983-01-01

    Structural and dynamical properties of superionic conductors AgI and CuI are studied using molecular dynamics (MD) techniques. The model of these superionic conductors is based on the use of effective pair potentials. To determine the constants in these potentials, cohesive energy and bulk modulus are used as input: in addition one uses notions of ionic size based on the known crystal structure. Salient features of the MD technique are outlined. Methods of treating long range Coulomb forces are discussed in detail. This includes the manner of doing Ewald sum for MD cells of arbitrary shape. Features that can be incorporated to expedite the MD calculations are also discussed. A novel MD technique which allows for a dynamically controlled variation of the shape and size of the MD cell is described briefly. The development of this novel technique has made it possible to study structural phase transitions in superionic conductors. 68 references, 17 figures, 2 tables

  1. Conductor Specification and Validation for High-Luminosity LHC Quadrupole Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, L. D.; Ghosh, A. K.; Dietderich, D. R.; Pong, I.

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity Upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) at CERN will replace the main ring inner triplet quadrupoles, identified by the acronym MQXF, adjacent to the main ring intersection regions. For the past decade, the U.S. LHC Accelerator R&D Program, LARP, has been evaluating conductors for the MQXFA prototypes, which are the outer magnets of the triplet. Recently, the requirements for MQXF magnets and cables have been published in P. Ferracin et al., IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond., vol. 26, no. 4, 2016, Art. no.4000207, along with the final specification for Ti-alloyed Nb3Sn conductor determined jointly by CERN and LARP. This paper describes the rationale beneath the 0.85 mm diameter strand’s chief parameters, which are 108 or more sub-elements, a copper fraction not less than 52.4%, strand critical current at 4.22 K not less than 631 A at 12 T and 331 A at 15 T, and residual resistance ratio of not less than 150. This paper also compares the performance for ~100 km production lots of the five most recent LARP conductors to the first 163 km of strand made according to the HL-LHC specification. Two factors emerge as significant for optimizing performance and minimizing risk: a modest increase of the sub-element diameter from 50 to 55 μm, and a Nb:Sn molar ratio of 3.6 instead of 3.4. Furthermore, the statistics acquired so far give confidence that the present conductor can balance competing demands in production for the HL-LHC project.

  2. Large superconducting conductors and joints for fusion magnets: From conceptual design to test at full size scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciazynski, D.; Duchateau, J.L.; Decool, P.; Libeyre, P.; Turck, B.

    2001-01-01

    A new kind of superconducting conductor, using the so-called cable-in-conduit concept, is emerging mainly involving fusion activity. It is to be noted that at present time no large Nb 3 Sn magnet in the world is operating using this concept. The difficulty of this technology which has now been studied for 20 years, is that it has to integrate major progresses in multiple interconnected new fields such as: large number (1000) of superconducting strands, high current conductors (50 kA), forced flow cryogenics, Nb 3 Sn technology, low loss conductors in pulsed operation, high current connections, high voltage insulation (10 kV), economical and industrial feasibility. CEA was very involved during these last 10 years in this development which took place in the frame of the NET and ITER technological programs. One major milestone was reached in 1998-1999 with the successful tests by our Association of three full size conductor and connection samples in the Sultan facility (Villigen, Switzerland). (author)

  3. Manufacture and test of Bi-2212 cable-in-conduit conductor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Jing Gang; Wu, Yu; Li, Jian Gang; Dai, Chao; Liu, Fang; Liu, Hua Jun; Liu, Pei Hang; Li, Chen-shan; Hao, Qing Bin; Zhou, Chao; Liu, Sheng

    2017-01-01

    The CFETR, "China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor," is a new tokamak device. Its magnet system includes the toroidal field (TF), central solenoid (CS), and poloidal field coils. The main goal of this study is to build a fusion engineering tokamak reactor with fusion power of 50-200 MW and

  4. Velocity measurement of conductor using electromagnetic induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gu Hwa; Kim, Ho Young; Park, Joon Po; Jeong, Hee Tae; Lee, Eui Wan

    2002-01-01

    A basic technology was investigated to measure the speed of conductor by non-contact electromagnetic method. The principle of the velocity sensor was electromagnetic induction. To design electromagnet for velocity sensor, 2D electromagnetic analysis was performed using FEM software. The sensor output was analyzed according to the parameters of velocity sensor, such as the type of magnetizing currents and the lift-off. Output of magnetic sensor was linearly depended on the conductor speed and magnetizing current. To compensate the lift-off changes during measurement of velocity, the other magnetic sensor was put at the pole of electromagnet.

  5. An FMM-FFT Accelerated SIE Simulator for Analyzing EM Wave Propagation in Mine Environments Loaded with Conductors

    KAUST Repository

    Yucel, Abdulkadir C.

    2018-02-05

    A fast and memory efficient 3D full wave simulator for analyzing electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in electrically large and realistic mine tunnels/galleries loaded with conductors is proposed. The simulator relies on Muller and combined field surface integral equations (SIEs) to account for scattering from mine walls and conductors, respectively. During the iterative solution of the system of SIEs, the simulator uses a fast multipole method - fast Fourier transform (FMM-FFT) scheme to reduce CPU and memory requirements. The memory requirement is further reduced by compressing large data structures via singular value and Tucker decompositions. The efficiency, accuracy, and real-world applicability of the simulator are demonstrated through characterization of EM wave propagation in electrically large mine tunnels/galleries loaded with conducting cables and mine carts.

  6. The RHIC transfer line cable database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholl, E.H.; Satogata, T.

    1995-01-01

    A cable database was created to facilitate and document installation of cables and wiring in the RHIC project, as well as to provide a data source to track possible wiring and signal problems. The eight tables of this relational database, currently implemented in Sybase, contain information ranging from cable routing to attenuation of individual wires. This database was created in a hierarchical scheme under the assumption that cables contain wires -- each instance of a cable has one to many wires associated with it. This scheme allows entry of information pertinent to individual wires while only requiring single entries for each cable. Relationships to other RHIC databases are also discussed

  7. Optical Measurement of Cable and String Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Achkire

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a non contacting measurement technique for the transverse vibration of small cables and strings using an analog position sensing detector. On the one hand, the sensor is used to monitor the cable vibrations of a small scale mock-up of a cable structure in order to validate the nonlinear cable dynamics model. On the other hand, the optical sensor is used to evaluate the performance of an active tendon control algorithm with guaranteed stability properties. It is demonstrated experimentally, that a force feedback control law based on a collocated force sensor measuring the tension in the cable is feasible and provides active damping in the cable.

  8. Static and Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridges Using CFRP Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Kuihua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The elastic modulus and deadweight of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP cables are different from those of steel cables. Thus, the static and dynamic behaviors of cable-stayed bridges using CFRP cables are different from those of cable-stayed bridges using steel cables. The static and dynamic performances of the two kinds of bridges with a span of 1000 m were studied using the numerical method. The effects of geometric nonlinear factors on static performance of the two kinds of cable-stayed bridges were analyzed. The live load effects and temperature effects of the two cable-stayed bridges were also analyzed. The influences of design parameters, including different structural systems, the numbers of auxiliary piers, and the space arrangement types of cable, on the dynamic performance of the cable-stayed bridge using CFRP cables were also studied. Results demonstrate that sag effect of the CFRP cable is much smaller than that of steel cable. The temperature effects of CFRP cable-stayed bridge are less than those of steel cable-stayed bridge. The vertical bending natural vibration frequency of the CFRP cable-stayed bridge is generally lower than that of steel cable-stayed bridge, whereas the torsional natural vibration frequency of the former is higher than that of the latter.

  9. UST-ID robotics: Wireless communication and minimum conductor technology, and end-point tracking technology surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holliday, M.A.

    1993-10-01

    This report is a technology review of the current state-of-the-art in two technologies applicable to the Underground Storage Tank (UST) program at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. The first review is of wireless and minimal conductor technologies for in-tank communications. The second review is of advanced concepts for independent tool-point tracking. This study addresses the need to provide wireless transmission media or minimum conductor technology for in-tank communications and robot control. At present, signals are conducted via contacting transmission media, i.e., cables. Replacing wires with radio frequencies or invisible light are commonplace in the communication industry. This technology will be evaluated for its applicability to the needs of robotics. Some of these options are radio signals, leaky coax, infrared, microwave, and optical fiber systems. Although optical fiber systems are contacting transmission media, they will be considered because of their ability to reduce the number of conductors. In this report we will identify, evaluate, and recommend the requirements for wireless and minimum conductor technology to replace the present cable system. The second section is a technology survey of concepts for independent end-point tracking (tracking the position of robot end effectors). The position of the end effector in current industrial robots is determined by computing that position from joint information, which is basically a problem of locating a point in three-dimensional space. Several approaches are presently being used in industrial robotics, including: stereo-triangulation with a theodolite network and electrocamera system, photogrammetry, and multiple-length measurement with laser interferometry and wires. The techniques that will be evaluated in this survey are advanced applications of the aforementioned approaches. These include laser tracking (3-D and 5-D), ultrasonic tracking, vision-guided servoing, and adaptive robotic visual tracking

  10. Resistive coating for current conductors in cryogenic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, C.; Wagner, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    This invention relates to a resistive or semiconducting coating for use on current conductors in cryogenic applications. This includes copper-clad superconductor wire, copper wire used for stabilizing superconductor magnets, and for hyperconductors. The coating is a film of cuprous sulfide (Cu2S) that has been found not to degrade the properties of the conductors. It is very adherent to the respective conductors and satisfies the mechanical, thermal and electrical requirements of coatings for the conductors

  11. Performance of Nb3Sn RRP strands and cables based on a 108/127 stack design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzi, E.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; /Fermilab /Oxford Supercond. Tech., Carteret

    2006-08-01

    The high performance Nb{sub 3}Sn strand produced by Oxford Superconducting Technology (OST) with the Restack Rod Process (RRP) is presently considered as a baseline conductor for the Fermilab's accelerator magnet R&D program. To improve the strand stability in the current and field range expected in magnet models, the number of subelements in the strand was increased by a factor of two (from 54 to 108), which resulted in a smaller effective filament size. The performance of the 1.0 and 0.7 mm strands of this design was studied using virgin and deformed strand samples. 27-strand Rutherford cables made of 1 mm strand were also tested using a superconducting transformer, small racetrack and 1-m shell-type dipole coils. This paper presents the RRP strand and cable parameters, and reports the results of strand, cable and coil testing.

  12. Performance of Nb3Sn RRP strands and cables based on a 108/127 stack design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzi, E.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Pishalnikov, Y.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; Field, M.; Hong, S.; Parrell, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The high performance Nb 3 Sn strand produced by Oxford Superconducting Technology (OST) with the Restack Rod Process (RRP) is presently considered as a baseline conductor for the Fermilab's accelerator magnet R and D program. To improve the strand stability in the current and field range expected in magnet models, the number of subelements in the strand was increased by a factor of two (from 54 to 108), which resulted in a smaller effective filament size. The performance of the 1.0 and 0.7 mm strands of this design was studied using virgin and deformed strand samples. 27-strand Rutherford cables made of 1 mm strand were also tested using a superconducting transformer, small racetrack and 1-m shell-type dipole coils. This paper presents the RRP strand and cable parameters, and reports the results of strand, cable and coil testing

  13. Critical Current Properties of HTS Twisted Stacked-Tape Cable in Subcooled- and Pressurized-Liquid Nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, M; Suzuki, K; Fukumoto, Y; Ishihara, A; Akasaka, T; Kobayashi, Y; Maeda, A; Takayasu, M

    2015-01-01

    A 2 m length Twisted Stacked-Tape Cable (TSTC) conductor which was fabricated by 32-YBCO-tapes (4 mm width) with a 200 mm twist pitch was investigated at various temperatures near 77 K in subcooled- and pressurized-liquid nitrogen. The critical current of the TSTC cable which was 1.45 kA at 77 K measured from 64 K to 85 K by controlling the equilibrium vapor pressure of nitrogen bath and were varied from 3.65 kA at 64 K to 0.42 kA at 85 K. The temperature dependence of cables’ critical current agrees with that of the 4 mm width YBCO tape. These results are encouraging for applications of a compact Twisted Stacked-Tape Cable application in railway systems. (paper)

  14. Umbilical Cable Recovery Load Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shu-wang; JIA Zhao-lin; FENG Xiao-wei; LI Shi-tao

    2013-01-01

    Umbilical cable is a kind of integrated subsea cable widely used in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas field.The severe ocean environment makes great challenges to umbilical maintenance and repair work.Damaged umbilical is usually recovered for the regular operation of the offshore production system.Analysis on cables in essence is a two-point boundary problem.The tension load at the mudline must be known first,and then the recovery load and recovery angle on the vessel can be solved by use of catenary equation.The recovery analysis also involves umbilicalsoil interaction and becomes more complicated.Calculation methods for recovery load of the exposed and buried umbilical are established and the relationship between the position of touch down point and the recovery load as well as the recovery angle and recovery load are analyzed.The analysis results provide a theoretical reference for offshore on-deck operation.

  15. Cable fire tests in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaercher, M.

    2000-01-01

    Modifications are being carried out in all French nuclear power plants to improve fire safety. These modifications are based on a three level defense in depth concept: fire preventing, fire containing and fire controlling. Fire containing requires many modifications such as protection of cable races and assessment of fire propagation which both need R and D development. On one hand, cable wraps made with mineral wool were tested in all configurations including effect of aging, overheating and fire and qualified for the use as protection from common failure modes. On the other hand, cables races in scale one were subject to gas burner or solvent pool fire to simulate ignition and fire propagation between trays and flash over situations. These tests have been performed under several typical lay out conditions. The results of the tests can be used as input data in computer modelling for validation of fire protection measures. (orig.) [de

  16. 33 CFR 183.425 - Conductors: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Electrical Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.425... than 30 inches. (g) This section does not apply to communications systems; electronic navigation... conductors and terminations that are in ignition systems; pigtails of less than seven inches of exposed...

  17. High Temperature Protonic Conductors by Melt Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-21

    A.R. de Arellano-López, A. Sayir. “Microestructura y Comportamiento Plástico de Perovsquitas Conductoras Protónicas de Alta Temperatura ”. Bol. Soc...Conductores Protónicos de Alta Temperatura Crecidos por Fusión de Zona Flotante”. VII Reunión Nacional y VI Conferencia Iberoamericana (Electrocerámica

  18. Reshaping the perfect electrical conductor cylinder arbitrarily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huanyang; Zhang Xiaohe; Luo Xudong; Ma Hongru; Chan Cheting

    2008-01-01

    A general method is proposed to design a cylindrical cloak, concentrator and superscatterer with an arbitrary cross section. The method is demonstrated by the design of a perfect electrical conductor (PEC) reshaper which is able to reshape a PEC cylinder arbitrarily by combining the concept of cloak, concentrator and superscatterer together. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate its properties.

  19. Control of Radioactive Lightning-Conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, E.

    2004-01-01

    The radioactive lightning-conductor production in Brazil was started in 1970 and after a period of 19 years of commercialization of these devices, the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), based in studies done in Brazil and abroad, proved that the radioactive lightning-conductor performance wasn't superior to the conventional one, so the use of radioactive source is not justified. Thence, the authorization for its production was suspended and the installation of this type of lightning-conductor was forbidden. The radioactive material that results from the dismount of these devices must be immediately sent to CNEN, for treatment and temporary storage. After this prohibition and its publication in several specialized magazines, CNEN was searched for several institutions, factories, churches, etc, interested in obtaining information about the handling and shipment procedures of radioactive lightning-conductors that are inoperative and that must be sent to CNEN's Institutes, in a correct and secure form. From this moment CNEN technicians realize that the owners of radioactive lightning-conductors didn't have any knowledge and training in radiation protection, neither in equipment to monitoring the radiation. The radioactive material from these sources is, in almost all cases, the radioisotope 241Am which has a maximum activity of an order of 5 mCi (1,85 x 10-2 TBq); as the radiation emitted by 241Am is of alpha type, whose range in the air, is just few centimeters and the gamma rays are of low energy, an irradiation offer small risk. However, there is a contamination risk on someone hands, by the contact with the source. Aiming to attend, in an objective way, the users' interests in obtaining some pertinent technical information about the shipping of radioactive lightning-conductor that is inoperative or is being replaced and also to optimize its receipt in CNEN's Institutes, because there still has a great number of these lightning-conductors installed and still

  20. Online Cable Tester and Rerouter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Mark; Medelius, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Hardware and algorithms have been developed to transfer electrical power and data connectivity safely, efficiently, and automatically from an identified damaged/defective wire in a cable to an alternate wire path. The combination of online cable testing capabilities, along with intelligent signal rerouting algorithms, allows the user to overcome the inherent difficulty of maintaining system integrity and configuration control, while autonomously rerouting signals and functions without introducing new failure modes. The incorporation of this capability will increase the reliability of systems by ensuring system availability during operations.

  1. Specifications for conductors and proposed conductor configurations: Milestone M5.3

    CERN Document Server

    Bordini, Bernardo; Dhallé, Marc

    2018-01-01

    This document summarises the specifications of a superconductor suitable to be used in a particle accelerator dipole magnet that can reach a field of 16 Tesla during regular operation. The document reports also on the conductor configuration. These specifications set the performance targets for industrial production requirements at large scale. The document motivates the specifications on one hand by taking a particular magnet baseline design as starting point and by considering the results of various conductor test campaigns carried out at partner institutes.

  2. Data Base On Cables And Connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Arlen R.; Oliver, John D.

    1995-01-01

    Report describes Connector Adapter Cable Information Data Base (CONNAID) computer program, managing data base containing necessary information concerning electrical connectors, breakout boxes, adapter cables, backshells, and pertinent torque specifications for engineering project.

  3. OTEC riser cable model and prototype testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, J. P.; Schultz, J. A.; Roblee, L. H. S.

    1981-12-01

    Two different OTEC riser cables have been developed to span the distance between a floating OTEC power plant and the ocean floor. The major design concerns for a riser cable in the dynamic OTEC environment are fatigue, corrosion, and electrical/mechanical aging of the cable components. The basic properties of the cable materials were studied through tests on model cables and on samples of cable materials. Full-scale prototype cables were manufactured and were tested to measure their electrical and mechanical properties and performance. The full-scale testing was culminated by the electrical/mechanical fatigue test, which exposes full-scale cables to simultaneous tension, bending and electrical loads, all in a natural seawater environment.

  4. Low ac loss geometries in YBCO coated conductors and impact on conductor stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; List III, Frederick Alyious [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Rupich, M. W. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Zhang, W. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Xie, Y. Y. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York; Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York

    2007-01-01

    Reduction of ac losses in applied ac fields can be accomplished through either the creation of filaments and bridging in YBCO coated conductors or an assembly of narrow width YBCO tapes. The ac losses for each of these geometries were measured at 77 K in perpendicular ac fields up to 100 mT. While ac loss reduction was achieved with YBCO filaments created through laser scribing and inkjet deposition, the assembly of stacked YBCO conductor provides an alternative method of ac loss reduction. When compared to a 4-mm wide YBCO coated conductor with a critical current of 60 A, the ac loss in a stack of 2-mm wide YBCO coated conductors with a similar total critical current was reduced. While the reduction in ac loss in a 2-mm wide stack coincided with the reduction in the engineering current density of the conductor, further reduction of ac loss was obtained through the splicing of the 2-mm wide tapes with low resistance solders. To better determine the practicality of these methods from a stability point of view, a numerical analysis was carried out to determine the influence of bridging and splicing on stability of a YBCO coated conductor for both liquid nitrogen-cooled and conduction cooled geometries.

  5. Correlation of superconductor strand, cable, and dipole critical currents in CBA magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.; Garber, M.; Sampson, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    A calibration between vendor critical current data for 0.0268'' diameter superconductor strand supplied to Fermilab, and the BNL 10 -12 Ωcm critical current specification is presented. Vendor critical current data for over 400 Fermilab type billets are shown, both as supplied by the vendor and converted to BNL units. Predictions of cable critical current are made using the sum of the critical currents of the 23 strands, where all strands from the same half billet are assigned the same critical current. The measured critical current shows excellent correlation to the predicted value and is approximately 14 +- 2 percent below it. Colliding Beam Accelerator (CBA) full length dipoles reach the conductor critical current limit, essentially without training. Magnet performance is predictable from the measured critical current of a short sample of cable to within 2%

  6. AC losses and stability on large cable-in-conduit superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzone, Pierluigi

    1998-12-01

    The cable-in-conduit superconductors are preferred for applications where the AC losses and stability are a major concern, e.g., fusion magnets and SMES. A review of coupling currents loss results for both NbTi and Nb 3Sn cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC) is presented and the AC loss relevant features are listed, with special emphasis for the role of the interstrand resistance and strand coating. The transient stability approach for CICCs is discussed and the analytical models are quoted as well as the relevant experimental database. The likely spectrum of transient disturbance in CICC is reviewed and the need to account for interstrand current sharing in the design is outlined. Eventually a practical criterion for the interstrand resistance is proposed to link the stability and AC loss design.

  7. Trenchless Replacement of Buried Cable Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joachim Bayer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An enormous amount of underground electricity and telecommunication cables have been worn over the time with technical defects or need capacity increases. Thus, new lines need to be installed. In urban areas, even in smaller communities and in natural reserves, open trenching is difficult and often not permitted.In response, new patented methods of trenchless cable replacement using the HDD equipment have been developed by the TT Group. The new technology is called “Wash-over-cable-replacement” and applies specially designed drill heads, cutting around the old cable string in various configurations (completely closed, U-shape or S-shape embracing, depending to the coating type of the old cable. This special cable replacement drill head separates the cable from the surrounding adhesive soil or the sand bedding by creating a very small annular space around the cable thus enabling the pulling or dragging out of the old cable section between the start and the exit pit. After the old cable has been loosened from the surrounding soil by means of the wash over process and pulled out, the new cable can be smoothly pulled into the void using the drill rods and embedding the new cable in a rich bed of Bentonite.The wash-over drill heads are slim and have inner and outer nozzles for Bentonite and bits to handle roots, pebbles, gravel and the like. These drill heads perform very quickly (up to 3 meters per minute to effectively wash over existing cables without damaging the cable coating and prepare the ground for a fast new laying of a new cable in the existing line. Network owners also benefit from the fact that new geodetic or topographic surveys and documentations of the new cable are not necessary. Only the documents, remarks, technical codes and existing geodetic data need to be updated.The paper will outline the technological background and include several practical job examples.

  8. Active optical cable for intrasatellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, J.; Cano, D.; Navasquillo, O.; Esteban, M. A.

    2017-11-01

    DAS Photonics and Airbus Defence and Space (Spain) have been working for more than six years in the concept of an Active Optical Cable (AOC) for copper cable substitution. The main advantages that AOC offers are significant mass and size saving, better flexibility and routing of the cable and immunity to EMI.

  9. Cable Television Report and Suggested Ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    League of California Cities, Sacramento.

    Guidelines and suggested ordinances for cable television regulation by local governments are comprehensively discussed in this report. The emphasis is placed on franchising the cable operator. Seventeen legal aspects of franchising are reviewed, and an exemplary ordinance is presented. In addition, current statistics about cable franchising in…

  10. Remote Acquisition Amplifier For 50-Ohm Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Jose J.

    1995-01-01

    Buffer-amplifier unit designed to drive 50-Ohm cables up to 100 ft. (30 m) long, compensating for attenuation in cables and enabling remote operation of oscilloscopes. Variable resistor provides for adjustment of gain of amplifier, such that overall gain from input terminals of amplifier to output end of cable set to unity.

  11. High current density aluminum stabilized conductor concepts for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, X.; Eyssa, Y.M.; Hilal, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Lightweight conductors are needed for space magnets to achieve values of E/M (energy stored per unit mass) comparable to the or higher than advanced batteries. High purity aluminum stabilized NbTi composite conductors cooled by 1.8 K helium can provide a winding current density up to 15 kA/cm/sup 2/ at fields up to 10 tesla. The conductors are edge cooled with enough surface area to provide recovery following a normalizing disturbance. The conductors are designed so that current diffusion time in the high purity aluminum is smaller than thermal diffusion time in helium. Conductor design, stability and current diffusion are considered in detail

  12. V-I transition and n-value of multifilamentary LTS and HTS wires and cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Arup K.

    2004-01-01

    For low T c multifilamentary conductors like NbTi and Nb 3 Sn, the V-I transition to the normal state is typically quantified by the parameter, n, defined by (ρ/ρ c )=(I/I c ) n . For NbTi, this parameterization has been very useful in the development of high J c wires, where the n-value is regarded as an index of the filament quality. In copper-matrix wires with undistorted filaments, the n-value at 5 T is ∼40-60, and drops monotonically with increasing field. However, n can vary significantly in conductors with higher resistivity matrices and those with a low copper fraction. Usually high n-values are associated with unstable resistive behavior and premature quenching. The n-value in NbTi Rutherford cables, when compared to that in the wires is useful in evaluating cabling degradation of the critical current due to compaction at the edges of the cable. In Nb 3 Sn wires, n-value has been a less useful tool, since often the resistive transition shows small voltages ∼ a few μV prior to quenching. However, in 'well behaved' wires, n is ∼30-40 at 12 T and also shows a monotonic behavior with field. Strain induced I c degradation in these wires is usually associated with lower n-values. For high T c multifilamentary wires and tapes, a similar power law often describes the resistive transition. At 4.2 K, Bi-2223 tapes as well as Bi-2212 wires exhibit n-values ∼15-20. In either case, n does not change appreciably with field. Rutherford cables of Bi-2212 wire show lower values of n than the virgin wire

  13. Models for electromagnetic coupling of lightning onto multiconductor cables in underground cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Matthew Benjamin

    This dissertation documents the measurements, analytical modeling, and numerical modeling of electromagnetic transfer functions to quantify the ability of cloud-to-ground lightning strokes (including horizontal arc-channel components) to couple electromagnetic energy onto multiconductor cables in an underground cavity. Measurements were performed at the Sago coal mine located near Buckhannon, WV. These transfer functions, coupled with mathematical representations of lightning strokes, are then used to predict electric fields within the mine and induced voltages on a cable that was left abandoned in the sealed area of the Sago mine. If voltages reached high enough levels, electrical arcing could have occurred from the abandoned cable. Electrical arcing is known to be an effective ignition source for explosive gas mixtures. Two coupling mechanisms were measured: direct and indirect drive. Direct coupling results from the injection or induction of lightning current onto metallic conductors such as the conveyors, rails, trolley communications cable, and AC power shields that connect from the outside of the mine to locations deep within the mine. Indirect coupling results from electromagnetic field propagation through the earth as a result of a cloud-to-ground lightning stroke or a long, low-altitude horizontal current channel from a cloud-to-ground stroke. Unlike direct coupling, indirect coupling does not require metallic conductors in a continuous path from the surface to areas internal to the mine. Results from the indirect coupling measurements and analysis are of great concern. The field measurements, modeling, and analysis indicate that significant energy can be coupled directly into the sealed area of the mine. Due to the relatively low frequency content of lightning (extremely well with analytical and computational models developed for the Sago site which take into account measured soil properties.

  14. 300 Area signal cable study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whattam, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    This report was prepared to discuss the alternatives available for removing the 300 Area overhead signal cable system. This system, installed in 1969, has been used for various monitoring and communication signaling needs throughout the 300 Area. Over the years this cabling system has deteriorated, has been continually reconfigured, and has been poorly documented to the point of nonreliability. The first step was to look at the systems utilizing the overhead signal cable that are still required for operation. Of the ten systems that once operated via the signal cable, only five are still required; the civil defense evacuation alarms, the public address (PA) system, the criticality alarms, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Facilities Management Control System (FMCS), and the 384 annunciator panel. Of these five, the criticality alarms and the FMCS have been dealt with under other proposals. Therefore, this study focused on the alternatives available for the remaining three systems (evacuation alarms, PA system, and 384 panel) plus the accountability aid phones. Once the systems to be discussed were determined, then three alternatives for providing the signaling pathway were examined for each system: (1) re-wire using underground communication ducts, (2) use the Integrated Voice/Data Telecommunications System (IVDTS) already installed and operated by US West, and (3) use radio control. Each alternative was developed with an estimated cost, advantages, and disadvantages. Finally, a recommendation was provided for the best alternative for each system

  15. Arrangement for guiding transport cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This patent relates especially to x-ray equipment such as that used for computerized tomography, and in particular to an arrangement for guiding and supporting a plurality of power transmission cables and cooling hoses in a flexible manner. (U.K.)

  16. Selecting a Cable System Operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

    Intended to assist franchising authorities with the process of selecting a cable television system operator from franchise applicants, this document provides a framework for analysis of individual applications. Section 1 deals with various methods which can be used to select an operator. The next section covers the application form, the vehicle a…

  17. Statistical Diagnosis Method of Conductor Motions in Superconducting Magnets to Predict their Quench Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Khomenko, B A; Rijllart, A; Sanfilippo, S; Siemko, A

    2001-01-01

    Premature training quenches are usually caused by the transient energy released within the magnet coil as it is energised. Two distinct varieties of disturbances exist. They are thought to be electrical and mechanical in origin. The first type of disturbance comes from non-uniform current distribution in superconducting cables whereas the second one usually originates from conductor motions or micro-fractures of insulating materials under the action of Lorentz forces. All of these mechanical events produce in general a rapid variation of the voltages in the so-called quench antennas and across the magnet coil, called spikes. A statistical method to treat the spatial localisation and the time occurrence of spikes will be presented. It allows identification of the mechanical weak points in the magnet without need to increase the current to provoke a quench. The prediction of the quench level from detailed analysis of the spike statistics can be expected.

  18. Offshore Cable Installation - Lillgrund. Lillgrund Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unosson, Oscar [Vattenfall Vindkraft AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-01-15

    This report describes the installation method and the experiences gained during the installation of the submarine cables for the offshore wind farm at Lillgrund. The wind farm consists of 48 wind turbines and is expected to produce 0.33 TWh annually. Different aspects of the installation, such as techniques, co-operation between the installation teams, weather conditions and regulatory and environmental issues are described in this report. In addition, recommendations and guidelines are provided, which hopefully can be utilised in future offshore wind projects. The trenches, in which the submarine cables were laid, were excavated weeks before the cable laying. This installation technique proved to be successful for the laying of the inter array cables. The export cable, however, was laid into position with difficulty. The main reason why the laying of the export cable proved more challenging was due to practical difficulties connected with the barge entrusted with the cable laying, Nautilus Maxi. The barge ran aground a number of times and it had difficulties with the thrusters, which made it impossible to manoeuvre. When laying the inter array cables, the method specification was closely followed, and the laying of the cables was executed successfully. The knowledge and experience gained from the offshore cable installation in Lillgrund is essential when writing technical specifications for new wind plant projects. It is recommended to avoid offshore cable installation work in winter seasons. That will lower the chances of dealing with bad weather and, in turn, will reduce the risks

  19. Benchmarking organic mixed conductors for transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Inal, Sahika; Malliaras, George G.; Rivnay, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Organic mixed conductors have garnered significant attention in applications from bioelectronics to energy storage/generation. Their implementation in organic transistors has led to enhanced biosensing, neuromorphic function, and specialized circuits. While a narrow class of conducting polymers continues to excel in these new applications, materials design efforts have accelerated as researchers target new functionality, processability, and improved performance/stability. Materials for organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) require both efficient electronic transport and facile ion injection in order to sustain high capacity. In this work, we show that the product of the electronic mobility and volumetric charge storage capacity (µC*) is the materials/system figure of merit; we use this framework to benchmark and compare the steady-state OECT performance of ten previously reported materials. This product can be independently verified and decoupled to guide materials design and processing. OECTs can therefore be used as a tool for understanding and designing new organic mixed conductors.

  20. Benchmarking organic mixed conductors for transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Inal, Sahika

    2017-11-20

    Organic mixed conductors have garnered significant attention in applications from bioelectronics to energy storage/generation. Their implementation in organic transistors has led to enhanced biosensing, neuromorphic function, and specialized circuits. While a narrow class of conducting polymers continues to excel in these new applications, materials design efforts have accelerated as researchers target new functionality, processability, and improved performance/stability. Materials for organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) require both efficient electronic transport and facile ion injection in order to sustain high capacity. In this work, we show that the product of the electronic mobility and volumetric charge storage capacity (µC*) is the materials/system figure of merit; we use this framework to benchmark and compare the steady-state OECT performance of ten previously reported materials. This product can be independently verified and decoupled to guide materials design and processing. OECTs can therefore be used as a tool for understanding and designing new organic mixed conductors.

  1. Superconducting homopolar motor and conductor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubser, Donald U.

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Navy has been developing superconducting homopolar motors for ship applications since 1969; a successful at-sea demonstration of the first motor, using NbTi wire for the magnet, was achieved in the early 1980s. Recently, this same motor was used as a test bed to demonstrate progress in high-critical-temperature superconducting magnet technology using bismuth-strontium- calcium-copper-oxide (BSCCO) compounds. In the fall of 1995, this motor achieved a performance of 124 kW operating at a temperature of 4.2 K and 91 kW while operating at 28 K. Future tests are scheduled using new magnets with conductors of both the 2223 and the 2212 BSCCO phases. This article describes the advantages of superconducting propulsion and recent progress in the development of BSCCO conductors for use in Navy power systems.

  2. Films of Carbon Nanomaterials for Transparent Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wei

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The demand for transparent conductors is expected to grow rapidly as electronic devices, such as touch screens, displays, solid state lighting and photovoltaics become ubiquitous in our lives. Doped metal oxides, especially indium tin oxide, are the commonly used materials for transparent conductors. As there are some drawbacks to this class of materials, exploration of alternative materials has been conducted. There is an interest in films of carbon nanomaterials such as, carbon nanotubes and graphene as they exhibit outstanding properties. This article reviews the synthesis and assembly of these films and their post-treatment. These processes determine the film performance and understanding of this platform will be useful for future work to improve the film performance.

  3. Local noise in a diffusive conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, E. S.; Shovkun, D. V.; Ercolani, D.; Rossella, F.; Rocci, M.; Sorba, L.; Roddaro, S.; Khrapai, V. S.

    2016-07-01

    The control and measurement of local non-equilibrium configurations is of utmost importance in applications on energy harvesting, thermoelectrics and heat management in nano-electronics. This challenging task can be achieved with the help of various local probes, prominent examples including superconducting or quantum dot based tunnel junctions, classical and quantum resistors, and Raman thermography. Beyond time-averaged properties, valuable information can also be gained from spontaneous fluctuations of current (noise). From these perspective, however, a fundamental constraint is set by current conservation, which makes noise a characteristic of the whole conductor, rather than some part of it. Here we demonstrate how to remove this obstacle and pick up a local noise temperature of a current biased diffusive conductor with the help of a miniature noise probe. This approach is virtually noninvasive for the electronic energy distributions and extends primary local measurements towards strongly non-equilibrium regimes.

  4. Future prospects of high T{sub c} superconductors-coated conductors and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiohara, Yuh [International Superconductivity Technology Center, 10-13 Shinonome 1-Chome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan); Yoshizumi, Masateru, E-mail: myoshizumi@istec.or.jp [International Superconductivity Technology Center, 10-13 Shinonome 1-Chome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan); Takagi, Yuji; Izumi, Teruo [International Superconductivity Technology Center, 10-13 Shinonome 1-Chome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► R and D results of M-PACC project and of rotating machinery are reviewed. ► Properties of coated conductors have been improved, meeting the market requirements. ► Future prospects of power applications and rotating machineries are discussed. -- Abstract: The research and development of high-temperature superconducting wires, especially yttrium-based coated conductors (CCs), and their energy applications have been expected to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. This article reviews recent progress in this area, mainly focusing on the results obtained by national projects in Japan. The I{sub c} (critical current) × L (wire length) value of CCs has been improved to reach 466,752 A m (572 A/cm-W, 816 m), which exceeds that of Bi-system wires. CCs have also been improved in terms of in-field performance and AC loss reduction to meet market requirements. Power applications such as superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, power cables and transformers have been developed using CCs in the current project. Because of fundamental research on high-capacity power cables, a low AC loss of 0.8 W/m-ph at 3 kA and 73.7 K was achieved. System design and fundamental research were performed on a 2GJ-class SMES system and a 20 MVA-class transformer. Based on the technologies developed by the end of the current project (FY2012), the innovation process of those applications will reach the implementation stage, where the long-term reliability tests will be performed. The process is expected to reach the penetration and propagation stage around 2020.

  5. AA, inner conductor of a magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    At the start-up of the AA and during its initial operation, magnetic horns focused the antiprotons emanating from the production target. These "current-sheet lenses" had a thin inner conductor (for minimum absorption of antiprotons), machined from aluminium to wall thicknesses of 0.7 or 1 mm. The half-sine pulses rose to 150 kA in 8 microsec. The angular acceptance was 50 mrad.

  6. Hall effect in organic layered conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.Hasan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hall effect in organic layered conductors with a multisheeted Fermi surfaces was considered. It is shown that the experimental study of Hall effect and magnetoresistance anisotropy at different orientations of current and a quantizing magnetic field relative to the layers makes it possible to determine the contribution of various charge carriers groups to the conductivity, and to find out the character of Fermi surface anisotropy in the plane of layers.

  7. Progress in scale-up of second-generation HTS conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvamanickam, V.; Chen, Y.; Xiong, X.; Xie, Y.; Zhang, X.; Qiao, Y.; Reeves, J.; Rar, A.; Schmidt, R.; Lenseth, K.

    2007-01-01

    Tremendous progress has been recently made in the achievement of high-performance, high-speed, long-length second-generation (2G) HTS conductors. Using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) MgO and metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), SuperPower has scaled up tape lengths to 427 m with a minimum critical current value of 191 A/cm corresponding to a critical current x length performance of 81,550 m. Tape speeds up to 120 m/h have been reached with IBAD MgO, up to 80 m/h with buffer deposition and up to 45 m/h with MOCVD, all in single pass processing of 12 mm wide tape. Critical current value of 227 A/cm has been achieved in a 203 m long tape produced in an all-high-speed fabrication process. Critical current values have been raised to 721 A/cm, 592 A/cm and 486 A/cm in short, reel-to-reel processed tape, over 1 m length and over 11.1 m, respectively, using thicker MOCVD HTS films. Finally, over 10,000 m of copper-stabilized, 4 mm wide conductor has been produced and tested for delivery to the Albany Cable project. The average critical current of the 10,000 m lot was 81 A

  8. Progress in scale-up of second-generation HTS conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)], E-mail: vselva@igc.com; Chen, Y.; Xiong, X.; Xie, Y.; Zhang, X.; Qiao, Y.; Reeves, J.; Rar, A.; Schmidt, R.; Lenseth, K. [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)

    2007-10-01

    Tremendous progress has been recently made in the achievement of high-performance, high-speed, long-length second-generation (2G) HTS conductors. Using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) MgO and metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), SuperPower has scaled up tape lengths to 427 m with a minimum critical current value of 191 A/cm corresponding to a critical current x length performance of 81,550 m. Tape speeds up to 120 m/h have been reached with IBAD MgO, up to 80 m/h with buffer deposition and up to 45 m/h with MOCVD, all in single pass processing of 12 mm wide tape. Critical current value of 227 A/cm has been achieved in a 203 m long tape produced in an all-high-speed fabrication process. Critical current values have been raised to 721 A/cm, 592 A/cm and 486 A/cm in short, reel-to-reel processed tape, over 1 m length and over 11.1 m, respectively, using thicker MOCVD HTS films. Finally, over 10,000 m of copper-stabilized, 4 mm wide conductor has been produced and tested for delivery to the Albany Cable project. The average critical current of the 10,000 m lot was 81 A.

  9. An optically coupled system for quantitative monitoring of MRI-induced RF currents into long conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, Marta G; Venook, Ross; Pauly, John M; Scott, Greig C

    2010-01-01

    The currents induced in long conductors such as guidewires by the radio-frequency (RF) field in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are responsible for potentially dangerous heating of surrounding media, such as tissue. This paper presents an optically coupled system with the potential to quantitatively measure the RF currents induced on these conductors. The system uses a self shielded toroid transducer and active circuitry to modulate a high speed light-emitting-diode transmitter. Plastic fiber guides the light to a photodiode receiver and transimpedance amplifier. System validation included a series of experiments with bare wires that compared wire tip heating by fluoroptic thermometers with the RF current sensor response. Validations were performed on a custom whole body 64 MHz birdcage test platform and on a 1.5 T MRI scanner. With this system, a variety of phenomena were demonstrated including cable trap current attenuation, lossy dielectric Q-spoiling and even transverse electromagnetic wave node patterns. This system should find applications in studies of MRI RF safety for interventional devices such as pacemaker leads, and guidewires. In particular, variations of this device could potentially act as a realtime safety monitor during MRI guided interventions.

  10. Determination analaysis of the power losses of transformers with continuously transpored conductors (CTC) based fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloko, Bambang Sri; Atsari, Erinna Dyah

    2017-03-01

    Electric motive force which flows into the iron core continuously on a plate - plate iron isolated may cause heat posed by current eddy (eddy current). No water loss occurs due to detainees on the circuit at the the flow of current load because this loss happened on the entanglement of the transformer is made of copper. Continuously Transposed Conductors (CTC) consist of a number of enameled rectangular wires (5-84 strands) made into an assembly. Each strand is transposed in turn to each position in the cable and is then covered with layers of insulation paper. Continuously Transposed Conductors are used in winding wires for medium and ultra high power transformers. CTC is manufactured by OFHC copper and indeed, is able to supply polyester roped. CTC which has been designed to reduce production cost, oil pocket and improve cooling efficiency. Hardened type CTC (CPR1, CPR2, and CPR3: BS1432) and Self-bonding CTC which can be used to improve mechanical and electrical strength are also available. This analysis is performed using the methods of fuzzy logic in taking account of the resources.

  11. Tubing and cable cutting tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcsmith, D. D.; Richardson, J. I. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A hand held hydraulic cutting tool was developed which is particularly useful in deactivating ejection seats in military aircraft rescue operations. The tool consists primarily of a hydraulic system composed of a fluid reservoir, a pumping piston, and an actuator piston. Mechanical cutting jaws are attached to the actuator piston rod. The hydraulic system is controlled by a pump handle. As the pump handle is operated the actuator piston rod is forced outward and thus the cutting jaws are forced together. The frame of the device is a flexible metal tubing which permits easy positioning of the tool cutting jaws in remote and normally inaccessible locations. Bifurcated cutting edges ensure removal of a section of the tubing or cable to thereby reduce the possibility of accidental reactivation of the tubing or cable being severed.

  12. Electromagnetic Transients in Power Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Faria Da; Bak, Claus Leth

    . The chapter ends by proposing a systematic method that can be used when doing the insulation co-ordination study for a line, as well as the modelling requirements, both modelling depth and modelling detail of the equipment, for the study of the different types of transients followed by a step-by-step generic...... typically used for the screens of cables (both-ends bonding and cross-boding) and also presents methods that can be used to estimate the maximum current of a cable for different types of soils, i.e. thermal calculations. The end of the chapter introduces the shunt reactor, which is an important element...... detail of the equipment, for the study of the different types of transients followed by a step-by-step generic example....

  13. Mechanical Effects of the Non-Uniform Current Distribution on HTS Coils for Accelerators Wound with REBCO Roebel Cable

    CERN Document Server

    Murtomaeki, Jaako; Kirby, Glen; Rossi, Lucio; Ruuskanen, Janne; Stenvall, Antti; Murtomaeki, Jaako

    2017-01-01

    Future high-energy accelerators will need very high magnetic fields in the range of 20 T. The EuCARD-2 WP10 Future Magnets collaboration is aiming at testing HTS-based Roebel cables in an accelerator magnet. The demonstrator should produce around 17 T, when inserted into the 100 mm aperture of Feather-M2 13 T outsert magnet. HTS Roebel cables are assembled from meander shaped REBCO coated conductor tapes. In comparison with fair level of uniformity of current distribution in cables made out of round Nb-Ti or Nb$_{3}$Sn strands, current distribution within the coils wound from Roebel cables is highly non-homogeneous. It results in nonuniform electromagnetic force distribution over the cable that could damage the very thin REBCO superconducting layer. This paper focuses on the numerical models to describe the effect of the non-homogenous current distribution on stress distribution in the demonstrator magnet designed for the EuCARD-2 project. Preliminary results indicate that the impregnation bonding betweenthe...

  14. Efficient Statistical Extraction of the Per-Unit-Length Capacitance and Inductance Matrices of Cables with Random Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Manfredi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cable bundles often exhibit random parameter variations due to uncertain or uncontrollable physical properties and wire positioning. Efficient tools, based on the so-called polynomial chaos, exist to rapidly assess the impact of such variations on the per-unit-length capacitance and inductance matrices, and on the pertinent cable response. Nevertheless, the state-of-the-art method for the statistical extraction of the per-unit-length capacitance and inductance matrices of cables suffers from several inefficiencies that hinder its applicability to large problems, in terms of number of random parameters and/or conductors. This paper presents an improved methodology that overcomes the aforementioned limitations by exploiting a recently-published, alternative approach to generate the pertinent polynomial chaos system of equations. A sparse and decoupled system is obtained that provides remarkable benefits in terms of speed, memory consumption and problem size that can be dealt with. The technique is thoroughly validated through the statistical analysis of two canonical structures, i.e. a ribbon cable and a shielded cable with random geometry and position.

  15. Mechanical test of the model coil wound with large conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiue, Hisaaki; Sugimoto, Makoto; Nakajima, Hideo; Yasukawa, Yukio; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Hasegawa, Mitsuru; Ito, Ikuo; Konno, Masayuki.

    1992-09-01

    The high rigidity and strength of the winding pack are required to realize the large superconducting magnet for the fusion reactor. This paper describes mechanical tests concerning the rigidity of the winding pack. Samples were prepared to evaluate the adhesive strength between conductors and insulators. Epoxy and Bismaleimide-Triazine resin (BT resin) were used as the conductor insulator. The stainless steel (SS) 304 bars, whose surface was treated mechanically and chemically, was applied to the modeled conductor. The model coil was would with the model conductors covered with the insulator by grand insulator. A winding model combining 3 x 3 conductors was produced for measuring shearing rigidity. The sample was loaded with pure shearing force at the LN 2 temperature. The bar winding sample, by 8 x 6 conductors, was measured the bending rigidity. These three point bending tests were carried out at room temperature. The pancake winding sample was loaded with compressive forces to measure compressive rigidity of winding. (author)

  16. Apparatus to examine pulsed parallel field losses in large conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.R.; Shen, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    Conductors in tokamak toroidal field coils will be exposed to pulsed fields both parallel and perpendicular to the current direction. These conductors will likely be quite high capacity (10 to 20 kA) and therefore probably will be built up out of smaller units. We have previously published measurements of losses in conductors exposed to a pulsed parallel field, but those experiments necessarily used monolithic conductors of relatively small cross section because the pulse coil, a torus that surrounded the test conductor, was itself small. Here we describe an apparatus that is conceptually similar but has been scaled up to accept conductors of much larger cross section and current capacity. The apparatus consists basically of a superconducting torus that contains a movable spool to allow test samples to be wound inside without unwinding the torus. Details of apparatus design and capabilities are described and preliminary results from tests of the apparatus and from loss measurements using it are reported

  17. Numerical investigation on transverse heat transfer properties in cross section of full size Nb{sub 3}Sn CICC ITER conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Shuming; Wang, Dengming [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Environment and Disaster in Western China, Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Mechanics, School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zheng, Xiaojing, E-mail: xjzheng@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Environment and Disaster in Western China, Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Mechanics, School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); School of Electronical and Machanical Engineering, Xidian University, Xi’an, 710071 (China)

    2015-05-15

    The contact mechanical characteristics in the cross section of the Nb{sub 3}Sn cable are sensitive to the cryogenic cooling and cyclic transverse electromagnetic loads, which may affect the cable’s performance. In this paper, based on a proposed discrete dynamic model (DEM), where the contact heat transfer among strands and the convective heat transfer in liquid helium are taken into account, the cooling process under two heat transfer mechanisms is performed. Simulation results show that the temperature variation of Poloidal Field Insert Sample (PFIS) cable with time agrees well with the existing experimental results, and the role of contact heat transfer cannot be neglected during cryogenic cooling. It is obtained from the further analysis that the effect of contact heat transfer becomes more prominent with the decrease of mass flow rate of liquid helium, which leads to the stress status within cable changed significantly. With the temperature boundary condition imposed on the cable radial direction, the effective thermal conductivity (ETC) of cable can be obtained. It can be found that the ETC increases with increasing the transverse loads and is sensitive to the low temperature environment, while it is not affected by load cycles basically. These results may provide the guide for the design and application of the future CICC conductors.

  18. Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure Measurement in Supercritical Reservoirs and EGS Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastouret, Alan [Draka Cableteq USA, Inc., North Dighton, MA (United States); Gooijer, Frans [Draka Cableteq USA, Inc., North Dighton, MA (United States); Overton, Bob [Draka Cableteq USA, Inc., North Dighton, MA (United States); Jonker, Jan [Draka Cableteq USA, Inc., North Dighton, MA (United States); Curley, Jim [Draka Cableteq USA, Inc., North Dighton, MA (United States); Constantine, Walter [Draka Cableteq USA, Inc., North Dighton, MA (United States); Waterman, Kendall Miller [Draka Cableteq USA, Inc., North Dighton, MA (United States)

    2015-11-13

    -temperature insulated wire conductors Prysmian Group has developed a geothermal fiber optic cable (GFOC) solution which incorporates novel glass chemistry for optical fibers to operate at the required bandwidths in high temperature/high pressure hydrogen rich environments with fiber protection, high temperature insulated conductors and protective cladding for cable components. The cable solution has been tested in a geothermal installation for 10 months. The electrical insulation and optical fibers have been validated through laboratory testing to ensure successful operation for greater than 5 years at 300°C, with the possibility of higher temperatures depending on the particular well environment. With the 300°C optical fiber and electrical insulation developments completed and validated in laboratory tests the greatest challenge to a complete 300°C cable solution was protecting the optical fibers in the cable. Optical fibers are typically incased in a protective tube where the tube is filled with a gel. The gel serves as mechanical protection, prevent moisture ingress, and can include hydrogen scavenging materials. A suitable gel for use at 300°C could not be identified and an industrialized alternative was not fully attained. Despite the problems encountered and the lower long-term operating temperature of the cable solution, the project showed success in developing a complete cable solution for a large portion of the geothermal wells in operation today. Further work to obtain the higher long-term temperature goal of the project can be achieved based on the knowledge gained in the current project. This project is significant for many reasons including the new materials science, manufacturing technology, energy independence, and jobs created and will create.

  19. Hearing status among Norwegian train drivers and train conductors

    OpenAIRE

    Lie, A.; Skogstad, M.; Johnsen, T. S.; Engdahl, B.; Tambs, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a general perception that train drivers and conductors may be at increased risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss. Aims To study job-related hearing loss among train drivers and train conductors. Methods Audiograms from train drivers and train conductors were obtained from the medical records of the occupational health service of the major Norwegian railway company. The results were compared with audiograms from an internal control group of railway workers and an ex...

  20. Normal zone propagation and Thermal Hydraulic Quenchback in a cable-in-conduit superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue, J.W.; Dresner, L.

    1993-01-01

    When a local normal zone appears in a cable-in-conduit superconductor, a slug of hot helium is produced. The pressure rises and the hot helium expands. Thus the normal zone propagation in such a conductor can be governed by the hot helium expansion, rather than the heat conduction along the conductor. The expansion of the hot helium compresses the cold helium outside of the normal zone. This raises th at sign temperature of the cold helium. When the temperature rise reaches the current sharing limit, the superconductor in contact goes normal. Thus a rapid increase in normal zone propagation occur. This phenomenon is termed Thermal Hydraulic Quenchback (THQ). An experiment was performed to investigate this process. The existence of THQ was verified. Thresholds of THQ were also observed by varying the conductor current, the magnetic field, the temperature, and the initial normal zone length. When THQ occurred, normal zone propagation approaching the velocity of sound was observed. A better picture of THQ is obtained by a careful comparison of the data with analytical studies

  1. An industrial cabling machine for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royet, J.; Armer, R.; Hannaford, R.; Scanlan, R.

    1989-02-01

    The SSC project will need the manufacturing of some 25,000 kilometers of keystoned flat cable. The technical specifications of the various cables to be produced are the result of five years of research and development work at LBL. An experimental cable machine was built and run in the laboratory; many improvements were implemented and tested. Semi-industrial production of the various cables was performed, and the resulting cables were used and tested in the one-meter model magnets and 17.5 meter dipole prototypes. From these experiments an industrial cabler specification was generated and used for an international RFQ. The winner of the contract is Dour Metal, a Belgium company that built the first industrial prototype which is now in a production line at New England Electric Wire Company. In this paper we describe the main characteristics of the machine and give the first industrial production results of superconducting keystoned cable for the SSC project. 4 refs

  2. Initial tension loss in cerclage cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Jérémie; Émard, Maxime; Canet, Fanny; Brailovski, Vladimir; Petit, Yvan; Laflamme, George Y

    2013-10-01

    Cerclage cables, frequently used in the management of fractures and osteotomies, are associated with a high failure rate and significant loosening during surgery. This study compared the capacity to maintain tension of different types of orthopaedic cable systems. Multifilament Cobalt-Chrome (CoCr) cables with four different crimp/clamp devices (DePuy, Stryker, Zimmer and Smith&Nephew) and one non-metallic Nylon (Ny) cable from Kinamed were instrumented with a load cell to measure tension during insertion. Significant tension loss was observed with crimping for all cables (Ptensioner led to an additional unexpected tension loss (CoCr-DePuy: 18%, CoCr-Stryker: 29%, CoCr-Smith&Nephew: 33%, Ny: 46%, and CoCr-Zimmer: 52%). The simple CoCr (DePuy) cable system outperformed the more sophisticated locking devices due to its significantly better ability to prevent tension loss. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fabrication of built-up conductors for large pulsed coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, M.D.; Schermer, R.I.

    1979-01-01

    The development work was performed to provide a low-loss, cryostable conductor capable of carrying 5 kA at 3 T for a 30-MJ coil cycled at 0.35 Hz. Much of the work is relevant to conductor development for other pulsed coils, such as a tokamak induction heating coil. As part of the development process, various conductor configurations were subjected to ac loss measurements, stability tests, electrical resistance measurements, and mechanical load-bearing and mechanical fatigue tests. The result is a conductor that appears to satisfy the design criteria with a considerable safety margin

  4. Fatigue of cable anchorage of large cable stayed bridge; Daikibo shachokyo cable teichaku kozo no hiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, T.; Matsumoto, T. [Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority, Tokyo (Japan); Tsukahara, H. [Yokogawa Bridge Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Miki, C. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-10-21

    Design considerations such as design schemes, the assemblage and welding of steel plates, and safety for fatigue of welded connections have to be taken for the cable anchorages of the steel cable stayed bridges. In this study, two full scale models, which have different shape of box anchorages welded to the web of the main girder, were made to investigate fatigue characteristics as well as assemblage of plate and gelding details. Finite element analyses for both test models and actual bridges here carried out to compare stress distribution. It was confirmed that the assemblage and welding of both types of box anchorage were attainable kith required quality and accuracy. According to the fatigue test, fatigue cracks originated from the weldings of the bearing plate to which the load from cable socket applied directly were caused by out-of-plane bending of the bearing plate. It was proved that the slight modifications of the details around the bearing plate resulted in sufficient fatigue strength in both types of anchorage. 1 ref., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. 47 CFR 76.802 - Disposition of cable home wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of cable home wiring. 76.802... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.802 Disposition of cable home wiring. (a)(1) Upon voluntary termination of cable service by a subscriber in a single unit installation, a...

  6. Low Friction Cryostat for HTS Power Cable of Dutch Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevtchenko, O.; Zuijderduin, R.; Smit, J.; Willen, D.; Lentge, H.; Thidemann, C.; Traeholt, C.

    2012-01-01

    Particulars of 6 km long HTS AC power cable for Amsterdam project are: a cable has to fit in an annulus of 160 mm, with only two cooling stations at the cable ends [1]. Application of existing solutions for HTS cables would result in excessively high coolant pressure drop in the cable, possibly

  7. Multi-contact behaviors among Nb3Sn strands associated with load cycles in a CS1 cable cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Shuming; Wang, Dengming; Zheng, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents the contact mechanical characteristics in the cable cross section. • Transverse compression stresses that affect cable performance are performed. • The effect of adjacent number on the stress distribution are also presented. - Abstract: Cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC) are an essential part of the superconducting magnets for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The cable performance maybe significantly influenced by the transverse compressive stresses among the strands, which is quite sensitive to the cyclic loading. To systematically explore the underlying mechanism within this complicated phenomenon, more cyclic transverse loads have been successfully applied on the CS1 cable based upon discrete element method (DEM) in Jia’s work (Jia et al., 2014). In this work, the effects of load cycles on the contact mechanical characteristics among strands in the cable cross section are studied in detail. The distribution characteristics of contact forces among strands are analyzed firstly. It can be found that the probability density of the normal and tangential contact forces all decay with an exponential law and they are unaffected by cycle numbers. Sequentially, the distribution and evolution features of the transverse compressive stresses of strands associated with cycle numbers are investigated. The numerical results show that the peak of the occurrence probability distribution decreases and the range of high stress becomes broader with increasing cycle numbers. In addition, the variation of each strand’s adjacent number with respect to cycle loads and its effect on the stress distribution are also presented. It is found that the stress distribution may be largely affected by the adjacent number, which is significantly related to the cycle numbers. It is promising to provide basic and useful instruction for further cable design

  8. Field application of a cable NDT system for cable-stayed bridge using MFL sensors integrated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Won; Choi, Jun Sung; Park, Seung Hee [Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Chan [Korea Maintance Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    In this study, an automated cable non-destructive testing(NDT) system was developed to monitor the steel cables that are a core component of cable-stayed bridges. The magnetic flux leakage(MFL) method, which is suitable for ferromagnetic continuum structures and has been verified in previous studies, was applied to the cable inspection. A multi-channel MFL sensor head was fabricated using hall sensors and permanent magnets. A wheel-based cable climbing robot was fabricated to improve the accessibility to the cables, and operating software was developed to monitor the MFL-based NDT research and control the climbing robot. Remote data transmission and robot control were realized by applying wireless LAN communication. Finally, the developed element techniques were integrated into an MFL-based cable NDT system, and the field applicability of this system was verified through a field test at Seohae Bridge, which is a typical cable-stayed bridge currently in operation.

  9. Field application of a cable NDT system for cable-stayed bridge using MFL sensors integrated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ju Won; Choi, Jun Sung; Park, Seung Hee; Lee, Eun Chan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, an automated cable non-destructive testing(NDT) system was developed to monitor the steel cables that are a core component of cable-stayed bridges. The magnetic flux leakage(MFL) method, which is suitable for ferromagnetic continuum structures and has been verified in previous studies, was applied to the cable inspection. A multi-channel MFL sensor head was fabricated using hall sensors and permanent magnets. A wheel-based cable climbing robot was fabricated to improve the accessibility to the cables, and operating software was developed to monitor the MFL-based NDT research and control the climbing robot. Remote data transmission and robot control were realized by applying wireless LAN communication. Finally, the developed element techniques were integrated into an MFL-based cable NDT system, and the field applicability of this system was verified through a field test at Seohae Bridge, which is a typical cable-stayed bridge currently in operation.

  10. High-voltage polymeric insulated cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, A

    1987-01-01

    Reviews developments in high-voltage (here defined as 25 kV, 66 kV and 132 kV) polymeric insulated cables in the UK over the period 1979-1986, with particular reference to the experience of the Eastern Electricity Board. Outlines the background to the adoption of XPLE-insulated solid cable, and the design, testing, terminations, jointing and costs of 25 kV, 66 kV and 132 kV cables.

  11. Device for guiding various diameter size cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinov, I.M.; Klauzer, L.P.; Yeganov, L.I.; Zaripov, A.M.

    1982-01-30

    A design is submitted for a device to guide cable of various diameters. This device consists of a profiled multiple-pass roller, and clamps for uniting cut cable. This design is simplified by allowing both the rollers and their supports to rotate on the roller axis thus facilitating interaction with the clamps. The working surface of the supports is evolute while the outside surfaces have screw-channels for transfering the cable from one roller pass to the other.

  12. AA, Inner Conductor of Magnetic Horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    Antiprotons emerging at large angles from the production target (hit by an intense 26 GeV proton beam from the PS), were focused into the acceptance of the injection line of the AA by means of a "magnetic horn" (current-sheet lens). Here we see an early protype of the horn's inner conductor, machined from solid aluminium to a thickness of less than 1 mm. The 1st version had to withstand pulses of 150 kA, 15 us long, every 2.4 s. See 8801040 for a later version.

  13. Flux pinning characteristics of YBCO coated conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, T.; Watanabe, T.; Fukumoto, Y.; Yamauchi, K.; Kiuchi, M.; Otabe, E.S.; Kiss, T.; Watanabe, T.; Miyata, S.; Ibi, A.; Muroga, T.; Yamada, Y.; Shiohara, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Flux pinning properties of PLD-processed YBCO coated conductors deposited on IBAD substrate are investigated. The thickness of YBCO layer is changed in the range of 0.27-1.0 μm. The thickness dependence of critical current density, n-value and irreversibility field are measured in a wide range of magnetic field. The results are compared with the theoretical flux creep-flow model. It is found that these pinning properties are strongly influenced by the thickness as well as the pinning strength. Optimum condition for high field application of this superconductor is discussed

  14. Vincennes University: Pioneer in Cable TV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckes, Isaac K.

    1972-01-01

    The development of cable educational television at Vincennes University (Indiana) is discussed in terms of the financing, securing of franchises, educational goals and plans for future expansion. (RN)

  15. How do you like them cables?

    CERN Multimedia

    Sergei Malyukov

    Cabling work is not for clautrophobic people! Cables are like the blood vessels and nervous system of ATLAS. With the help of all these cables, we can power ATLAS, control the detector and read out the data. Like the human blood vessels, they penetrate inside the ATLAS volume, reaching each of its elements. The ATLAS developers started to think about design of services, cables and pipes at the very first stages of the project. The cabling project has been developing most intensively during the last five years, passing through the projection and CAD design phases, then the installation of cable trays and finally the cables. The cable installation itself took two and a half years and was done by teams of technicians from several institutes from Russia, the Czech Republic and Poland. Here are some numbers to illustrate the scale of the ATLAS cabling system. More than 25000 optical fiber channels are used for reading the information from the sub-detectors and delivering the timing signals. The total numbe...

  16. Capacitor discharge process for welding braided cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rick D.

    1995-01-01

    A capacitor discharge process for welding a braided cable formed from a plurality of individual cable strands to a solid metallic electrically conductive member comprises the steps of: (a) preparing the electrically conductive member for welding by bevelling one of its end portions while leaving an ignition projection extending outwardly from the apex of the bevel; (b) clamping the electrically conductive member in a cathode fixture; (c) connecting the electrically conductive member clamped in the cathode fixture to a capacitor bank capable of being charged to a preselected voltage value; (d) preparing the braided cable for welding by wrapping one of its end portions with a metallic sheet to form a retaining ring operable to maintain the individual strands of the braided cable in fixed position within the retaining ring; (e) clamping the braided cable and the retaining ring as a unit in an anode fixture so that the wrapped end portion of the braided cable faces the ignition projection of the electrically conductive member; and (f) moving the cathode fixture towards the anode fixture until the ignition projection of the electrically conductive member contacts the end portion of the braided cable thereby allowing the capacitor bank to discharge through the electrically conductive member and through the braided cable and causing the electrically conductive member to be welded to the braided cable via capacitor discharge action.

  17. Analytical and numerical construction of equivalent cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, K A; Rosenberg, J R; Tucker, G

    2003-08-01

    The mathematical complexity experienced when applying cable theory to arbitrarily branched dendrites has lead to the development of a simple representation of any branched dendrite called the equivalent cable. The equivalent cable is an unbranched model of a dendrite and a one-to-one mapping of potentials and currents on the branched model to those on the unbranched model, and vice versa. The piecewise uniform cable, with a symmetrised tri-diagonal system matrix, is shown to represent the canonical form for an equivalent cable. Through a novel application of the Laplace transform it is demonstrated that an arbitrary branched model of a dendrite can be transformed to the canonical form of an equivalent cable. The characteristic properties of the equivalent cable are extracted from the matrix for the transformed branched model. The one-to-one mapping follows automatically from the construction of the equivalent cable. The equivalent cable is used to provide a new procedure for characterising the location of synaptic contacts on spinal interneurons.

  18. 30 CFR 77.601 - Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary splices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.601 Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary... or splices that heat or spark under load shall not be used. ...

  19. Switching Restrikes in HVAC Cable Lines and Hybrid HVAC Cable/OHL Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria; Bak, Claus Leth; Balle Holst, Per

    2011-01-01

    The disconnection of HV underground cables may, if unsuccessful, originate a restrike in the circuit breaker, leading to high overvoltages, and potentially damaging the cable and near equipment. Due to the cable high capacitance and low resistance the voltage damping is slow, resulting, half a cy...

  20. PREFACE: International Symposium on Molecular Conductors: Novel Functions of Molecular Conductors under Extreme Conditions (ISMC 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshihiro; Suzumura, Yoshikazu

    2008-02-01

    The International Symposium on Molecular Conductors 2008 (ISMC2008) was held as the second international symposium of the project entitled `Novel Functions of Molecular Conductors under Extreme Conditions', which was supported by the Grant-in-aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan. The project lasted from September 2003 to March 2008, and was completed by this symposium held at Okazaki Conference Center, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki, Japan (23-25 July 2008), which about 100 scientists attended. During the symposium, five project teams gave summary talks and exciting talks were given on the topics developed recently not only by the members of the project but also by other scientists including invited speakers from abroad, who are doing active research on molecular conductors. It is expected that papers presented in the symposium will give valuable hints for the next step in the research of this field. Therefore the organizers of this symposium decided to publish this proceedings in order to demonstrate these activities, not only for the local community of the project, but also for the broad society of international scientists who are interested in molecular conductors. The editors, who are also the organizers of this symposium, believe that this proceedings provides a significant and relevant contribution to the field of molecular conductors since it is the first time we have published such a proceedings as an electronic journal. We note that all papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed by expert referees. Editors made every effort to satisfy the criterion of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. Toshihiro Takahashi and Yoshikazu Suzumura Editors: Toshihiro Takahashi (Gakushuin University) (Chairman) Kazushi Kanoda (University of Tokyo) Seiichi Kagoshima (University of Tokyo) Takehiko Mori (Tokyo

  1. Characterization of Mechanical Properties of MgB$_2$ Conductor for the Superconducting Link Project at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Sugano, M; Bartova, B; Bjoerstad, R; Scheuerlein, C; Grasso, G

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of high luminosity upgrade of Large Hadron Collider at CERN, superconducting links are being developed. MgB2 wire is a candidate conductor for use in high-current cables. Mechanical properties of this material are of key importance for the definition of the cable design and operating conditions. In this study, we evaluated the Young's modulus of MgB2 filaments extracted from ex situ processed composite wires. The wires were produced in unit lengths of about 1 km and used in high-current cables. Single fiber tensile test was carried out on filaments composed of MgB2, Nb barrier, and Nb-Ni reaction layer. From the unloading modulus of filament specimens measured with different gauge lengths, the Young's modulus of composite filaments extracted from two different strands was determined to be 114 and 122 GPa at room temperature, respectively. By using the rule-of-mixture, the Young's modulus of MgB2 was estimated to be lower than that reported for highly dense MgB2 bulks. The reason for such diff...

  2. VAMAS Nb3Sn test conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    A bronze-process Nb 3 Sn conductor was measured as part of the second VAMAS (Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards) international critical-current round robin. The conductor specifications are given in Table 15. The critical current was measured as a function of magnetic field and axial tensile strain. The measured data are presented in Table 16 and in Figs. 23 and 24. The I c and J c values are based on an electric field criterion (E c ) of 1 μV/cm. In the first VAMAS round robin tests, differences in the test specimens' axial strain, caused by variations in the thermal contraction of different test fixtures, was a major source of interlaboratory variation in the critical-current data. Consequently, electromechanical characterization of the test specimen is important for data interpretation and error analysis. In the second round robin, the test apparatus and procedure were more rigidly specified. This increased experimental control reduced the critical-current variation by a factor of 3.5. The results of our measurements will be published in the final VAMAS report

  3. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  4. Conductor gestures influence evaluations of ensemble performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Steven J; Price, Harry E; Smedley, Eric M; Meals, Cory D

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has found that listener evaluations of ensemble performances vary depending on the expressivity of the conductor's gestures, even when performances are otherwise identical. It was the purpose of the present study to test whether this effect of visual information was evident in the evaluation of specific aspects of ensemble performance: articulation and dynamics. We constructed a set of 32 music performances that combined auditory and visual information and were designed to feature a high degree of contrast along one of two target characteristics: articulation and dynamics. We paired each of four music excerpts recorded by a chamber ensemble in both a high- and low-contrast condition with video of four conductors demonstrating high- and low-contrast gesture specifically appropriate to either articulation or dynamics. Using one of two equivalent test forms, college music majors and non-majors (N = 285) viewed sixteen 30 s performances and evaluated the quality of the ensemble's articulation, dynamics, technique, and tempo along with overall expressivity. Results showed significantly higher evaluations for performances featuring high rather than low conducting expressivity regardless of the ensemble's performance quality. Evaluations for both articulation and dynamics were strongly and positively correlated with evaluations of overall ensemble expressivity.

  5. Understanding losses in three core armoured submarine cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Ebdrup, Thomas; Bak, Claus Leth

    2016-01-01

    . For practical an economical reasons the preferred choice of cable for both the array and the transmission cables are three-core armoured submarine cables. Therefore, it has becoming increasingly important to be able to calculate the ampacity of such cables accurately. At present time, the ampacity of three......-core armoured submarine cables is calculated according to IEC 60287-1-1 [1]. Various measurements conducted both by cable manufacturers and transmission system operators (TSO) have shown that using the cable rating method stated in IEC 60287-1-1 underestimates the cable ampacity [2]-[6]. Furthermore......, measurements conducted within the cable industry have shown that an armoured three core cable has higher losses than equal unarmoured three core cables. It is also suggested that the inaccuracy in the IEC armour’s loss factor (λ2) is the main responsible for the conservatism in the IEC cable rating method...

  6. Ground Return Current Behaviour in High Voltage Alternating Current Insulated Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Benato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of ground return current in fault occurrence plays a key role in the dimensioning of the earthing grid of substations and of cable sealing end compounds, in the computation of rise of earth potential at substation sites and in electromagnetic interference (EMI on neighbouring parallel metallic conductors (pipes, handrails, etc.. Moreover, the ground return current evaluation is also important in steady-state regime since this stray current can be responsible for EMI and also for alternating current (AC corrosion. In fault situations and under some assumptions, the ground return current value at a substation site can be computed by means of k-factors. The paper shows that these simplified and approximated approaches have a lot of limitations and only multiconductor analysis can show the ground return current behaviour along the cable (not only the two end values both in steady-state regime and in short circuit occurrence (e.g., phase-to-ground and phase-to-phase-to-ground. Multiconductor cell analysis (MCA considers the cable system in its real asymmetry without simplified and approximated hypotheses. The sensitivity of ground return current on circuit parameters (cross-bonding box resistances, substation earthing resistances, soil resistivity is presented in the paper.

  7. Beyond the Beat: Modelling Intentions in a Virtual Conductor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maat, Mark; Ebbers, Rob M.; Reidsma, Dennis; Nijholt, Antinus

    We describe our research on designing and implementing a Virtual Conductor. That is, a virtual human (embodied agent) that acts like a human conductor in its interaction with a real, human orchestra. We reported previously on a first version that used a digital musical score to lead an orchestra.

  8. Elastically stretchable thin film conductors on an elastomeric substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones Harris, Joyelle Elizabeth

    Imagine a large, flat screen television that can be rolled into a small cylinder after purchase in the store and then unrolled and mounted onto the wall of a home. The electronic devices within the television must be able to withstand large deformation and tensile strain. Consider a robot that is covered with an electronic skin that simulates human skin. The skin would enable the machine to lift an elderly person with care and sensitivity. The skin will endure repeated deformation with the highest tensile strains being experienced at the robot's joints. These applications and many others will benefit from stretchable electronic circuitry. While several different methods have been employed to create stretchable electronics, all methods use a common tool -- stretchable conductors. Therefore, the goal of this thesis work was to fabricate elastically stretchable conductors that can be used in stretchable electronics. We deposited Au thin films on an elastomeric substrate, and the resulting conductors remained electrically continuous when stretched by 30% and more. We developed photolithographic processes that can be used to pattern elastically stretchable conductors with a 10 mum resolution. We fabricated bi-level stretchable conductors that are separated by an elastomeric insulator and are electrically connected through via holes in the insulator. We applied our bi-level conductors to create a stretchable resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) circuit with a tunable resonant frequency. We also used stretchable conductors to measure action potentials in biological samples. This thesis describes the fabrication and application of our elastically stretchable conductors.

  9. 21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. 868.1920 Section 868.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... stethoscope with electrical conductors. (a) Identification. An esophageal stethoscope with electrical...

  10. The Identification of Conductor-Distinguished Functions of Conducting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumm, Alan J.; Battersby, Sharyn L.; Simon, Kathryn L.; Shankles, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify whether conductors distinguish functions of conducting similarly to functions implied in previous research. A sample of 84 conductors with a full range of experience levels (M = 9.8) and of a full range of large ensemble types and ensemble age levels rated how much they pay attention to 82…

  11. Application of mineral insulated cable (MIC) in Tokamak fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Tianyong; Jiang Jiaming; Cen Yishun

    2014-01-01

    To avoid the instability of plasma and achieve some experimental tasks in Tokamak fusion reactor, many in-vessel coils are designed such as the coils to mitigate the effect of Edge Localized Modes (ELMs coils) and the coils to provide vertical stabilization (VS coils). The in-vessel location presents special challenges in terms of nuclear radiation and temperature, and requires the use of mineral-insulated conductors. The in-vessel coils in ITER are designed to be Mineral-insulated Cable (MIC) with three-layer structures. The inner is hollow-core tube made by OFHC or CuCrZr, the middle is the insulation layer made by Mgo and the outer is the jacket by SS316L or Inconel 718. To control the effect of Edge Localized Modes and vertical instability of plasma, the MIC in-vessel coils shall be used in HL-2M. More details about the application of MIC in Tokamak fusion reactor will be shown in this report. (authors)

  12. Cable Television: Citizen Participation After the Franchise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Monroe E.; Botein, Michael

    The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has incorporated several allowances in its regulations pertaining to cable television. Some of these enable citizen groups and communities to intervene in the cable franchise after the final issuance in order to correct deficiencies in the franchising process and the administration of the franchise.…

  13. Cable Technology: A Challenge for Adult Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchinsky, Jo

    The penetration of cable television throughout American communities makes it a potentially significant tool for improving the quality and accessibility of adult education. As cities begin to include in the cable franchise allotment monies for access by community members, adult educators need to become actively involved during the development of a…

  14. The Selling of Cable Television 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Cable Television Association, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The 1972 Cable Television Marketing Workshop reviewed in depth a wide variety of marketing and public relations techniques as they pertain to cable television. The workshop was attended by representatives of commercial television systems throughout the United States; it was intended to disseminate the sales and marketing experience of those…

  15. An ACLU Guide to Cable Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powledge, Fred

    Proceeding from the hypothesis that cable television (CATV) is one of the most significant developments in modern America, this booklet examines the medium itself and then devotes special attention to the capacity of CATV to serve the First Amendment interest in diversity of expression. The opening section deals with the size and growth of cable,…

  16. Cable Television: The Process of Franchising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Leland L.; Botein, Michael

    In an effort to insure that cable television franchising procedures at the local level are based on a competitive and well-conceived selection process, this report discusses some of the most important steps of the franchising process. Not only does it show how the community should assess its needs and appraise the merits of the cable operator, but…

  17. Cables for nuclear power generating stations, (6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, Tsunemi; Asakawa, Naoki; Yamamoto, Tomotaka; Watanabe, Mikio; Shingo, Yoshioki.

    1981-01-01

    New inorganic material insulated flexible triaxial cables have been developed for the purpose of applying around the primary circuit of fast breeder reactor (FBR). These cables were tested at high temperature and high #betta#-ray radiation environment, and they showed good electrical properties. Other noted results were that they showed good fire proof and flame resistant properties. (author)

  18. Cable Television and Educational Access: A Reconsideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lee R.; Greene, James C.

    1986-01-01

    Considers the possible impact of recent federal legislation on educational utilization of cable television. Stresses the importance of educators understanding the law's provisions and acting to initiate relationships with cable companies. Reviews public educational or governmental access provisions. Presents strategies for promoting reciprocity…

  19. Intermodal resonance of vibrating suspended cables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, S.W.

    2010-01-01

    The weakly nonlinear free vibrations of a single suspended cable, or a coupled system of suspended cables, may be classified as gravity modes (no tension variations to leading order) and elasto-gravity modes (tension and vertical displacement equally important). It was found earlier [12] that the

  20. A new multiconstraint method for determining the optimal cable stresses in cable-stayed bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, B; Osman, S A; Adnan, A

    2014-01-01

    Cable-stayed bridges are one of the most popular types of long-span bridges. The structural behaviour of cable-stayed bridges is sensitive to the load distribution between the girder, pylons, and cables. The determination of pretensioning cable stresses is critical in the cable-stayed bridge design procedure. By finding the optimum stresses in cables, the load and moment distribution of the bridge can be improved. In recent years, different research works have studied iterative and modern methods to find optimum stresses of cables. However, most of the proposed methods have limitations in optimising the structural performance of cable-stayed bridges. This paper presents a multiconstraint optimisation method to specify the optimum cable forces in cable-stayed bridges. The proposed optimisation method produces less bending moments and stresses in the bridge members and requires shorter simulation time than other proposed methods. The results of comparative study show that the proposed method is more successful in restricting the deck and pylon displacements and providing uniform deck moment distribution than unit load method (ULM). The final design of cable-stayed bridges can be optimised considerably through proposed multiconstraint optimisation method.

  1. Nonlinear Analysis of Cable Vibration of a Multispan Cable-Stayed Bridge under Transverse Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear vibrations of cable in a multispan cable-stayed bridge subjected to transverse excitation are investigated. The MECS (multielements cable system model, where multielements per cable stay are used, is built up and used to analyze the model properties of the multispan cable-stayed bridges. Then, a simplified two-degrees-of-freedom (2-DOFs model, where the tower or the deck is reduced to a beam, is proposed to analyze the nonlinear dynamic behaviors of the beam and cable. The results of MECS model analysis show that the main tower in the multispan cable-stayed bridge is prone to the transverse vibration, and the local vibration of cables only has a little impact on the frequency values of the global modes. The results of simplified model analysis show that the energy can be transformed between the modes of the beam and cable when the nature frequencies of them are very close. On the other hand, with the transverse excitation changing, the cable can exhibit richer quasi-periodic or chaotic motions due to the nonlinear terms caused by the coupled mode between the beam and cable.

  2. A New Multiconstraint Method for Determining the Optimal Cable Stresses in Cable-Stayed Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Asgari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cable-stayed bridges are one of the most popular types of long-span bridges. The structural behaviour of cable-stayed bridges is sensitive to the load distribution between the girder, pylons, and cables. The determination of pretensioning cable stresses is critical in the cable-stayed bridge design procedure. By finding the optimum stresses in cables, the load and moment distribution of the bridge can be improved. In recent years, different research works have studied iterative and modern methods to find optimum stresses of cables. However, most of the proposed methods have limitations in optimising the structural performance of cable-stayed bridges. This paper presents a multiconstraint optimisation method to specify the optimum cable forces in cable-stayed bridges. The proposed optimisation method produces less bending moments and stresses in the bridge members and requires shorter simulation time than other proposed methods. The results of comparative study show that the proposed method is more successful in restricting the deck and pylon displacements and providing uniform deck moment distribution than unit load method (ULM. The final design of cable-stayed bridges can be optimised considerably through proposed multiconstraint optimisation method.

  3. Nuclear power plant cable materials :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celina, Mathias C.; Gillen, Kenneth T; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2013-05-01

    A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostly inert aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on

  4. Parallel monostrand stay cable bending fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan Pawel

    This dissertation investigates the bending fatigue response of high-strength steel monostrands and multistrand stay cables to cyclic transverse deformations. Increasing bridge stock numbers and a push for longer cable-supported span lengths have led to an increased number of reported incidents...... of damage and replacement of bridge stay cables due to wind and traffic-induced fatigue. The understanding of fatigue mechanisms in most steel structures is well established. However, in the case of cables composed of steel strands, many important aspects related with bending fatigue remain to be clarified...... associated with variable loading, and different testing procedures. As most of the contemporary stay cables are comprised of a number of individual highstrength steel monostrands, the research study started with an extensive experimental work on the fatigue response of a single monostrand to cyclic flexural...

  5. Development of radiation resistant PEEK insulation cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mio, Keigo; Ogiwara, Norio; Hikichi, Yusuke; Furukori, Hisayoshi; Arai, Hideyuki; Nishizawa, Daiji; Nishidono, Toshiro

    2009-04-01

    Material characterization and development has been carried out for cable insulation suitable for use in the J-PARC 3-GeV RCS radiation environment. In spite of its high cost, PEEK (polyether-ether-ketone) has emerged as the leading candidate satisfying requirements of being non-halogen based, highly incombustible and with radiation resistant at least 10 MGy, along with the usual mechanical characteristics such as good elongation at break, which are needed in a cable insulation. Gamma-ray irradiation tests have been done in order to study radiation resistance of PEEK cable. Further, mechanical, electrical and fire retardant characteristics of a complete cable such as would be used at the J-PARC RCS were investigated. As a result, PEEK cables were shown to be not degraded by radiation up to at least 10 MGy, and thus could be expected to operate stably under the 3-GeV RCS radiation environment. (author)

  6. Behaviour of electrical cables under fire conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, R.; Chaussard, M.; Gonzalez, R.; Lacoue, J.; Mattei, J.M.; Such, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    A Fire Probabilistic Safety Assessment - called the Fire PSA - is being carried out by the French Institute of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN) to be used in the framework of the safety assessment of operating 900 MWe PWRs. The aim of this study is to evaluate the core damage conditional probability which could result from a fire. A fire can induce unavailability of safety equipment, notably damaging electrical cables introducing a significant risk contributor. The purpose of this paper is to present the electrical cable fire tests carried out by IPSN to identify the failure modes and to determine the cable damage criteria. The impact of each kind of cable failure mode and the methodology used to estimate the conditional probability of a failure mode when cable damage occurred is also discussed. (orig.) [de

  7. Irreversible properties of YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vostner, A.

    2001-02-01

    Over the past few years substantial efforts were made to optimize the fabrication techniques of various high temperature superconductors for commercial applications. In addition to Bi-2223 tapes, Y-123 coated conductors have the potential for large-scale production and are considered as the second generation of superconducting 'wires' for high current applications. This work reports on magnetic and transport current investigations of Y-123 thick films deposited on either single crystalline substrates by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) or on metallic substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). At the beginning, a short introduction of the general idea of a coated conductor and of the different production techniques is presented, followed by a description of the different experimental set-ups and the evaluation methods. The main part starts with the results obtained from SQUID magnetometry and ac-susceptibility measurements including the transition temperatures T c , the field dependence of the magnetic critical current densities and the irreversibility lines. In addition, some issues concerning the granular structure and the inter- and intragranular current distribution of the superconducting films are discussed. The investigations by transport currents are focused on the behavior of the application relevant irreversible parameters. These are the angular and the field dependence of the critical transport current densities at 77 and 60 K, as well as the temperature dependence of the irreversibility fields up to 6 T. To gain more insight into the defect structure of the films, neutron irradiation studies were performed on some samples. The introduction of these artificial pinning centers causes large enhancements of the magnetic J c in LPE specimens for the field parallel to the c-axis (H//c) at higher temperatures and magnetic fields. The granular structure of the samples does not change up to the highest neutron fluences. However, the enhancements of the transport J c

  8. Physical degradation assessment of generator station cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonkus, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary studies of fossil-fired and nuclear generator station cables indicate that the low voltage PVC insulated cables are in relatively good condition. The insulation is flexible and in the case of nuclear cables can withstand a design basis event after nearly 15 years of service. Cables insulated with styrene butadiene rubber have been found embrittled and cables insulated with SBR should be closely inspected in any plant assurance program. Thermal analysis using oxidative induction technique shows promise to indicate cable insulation degradation. Long term reliability assurance and plant life extension studies are being actively pursued at Ontario Hydro. A major study is currently underway to extend the life of the oldest operating fossil-fuel station, the 8-unit, 2400 MW Lakeview TGS in operation since the 1960s. Plant life assurance programs have been initiated at the 2000 MW Lambton TGS in operation since 1969, and for the oldest operating nuclear plant, Pickering NGS A in operation since the early 1970s. As cables are considered one of the critical components in a generator station due to the extreme difficulty and cost of cable replacement, test programs have been initiated to evaluate the physical degradation of the cables and relate the results to electrical diagnostic tests and to chemical changes. The decommissioning of two small nuclear stations, the 20 MW Nuclear Power Demonstration (NPD) and the 200 MW Douglas Point NGS, which were placed in service in 1962 and 1967 respectively, will provide an opportunity to perform destructive electrical and physical evaluation on field aged cables

  9. Wind-induced cable vibrations and countermeasures of cables of PC cable-stayed bridge. PC syachokyo keburu no kaze ni yoru shindo to sono taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, M. (Kawada Industries Inc., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-05-01

    In recent years, long span of cable-stayed bridges is remarkable. The wind-induced cable vibration called as line vibration and wake galloping was given as an important problem not only in the steel cable-stayed bridges but also in the PC cable-stayed bridges. The technical engineers in design of the cable-stayed bridges have many times to confront the problems on the vibration control of cables, it is considered that sufficient understand of the wind-induced vibration and countermeasures for cables of the PC cable-stayed bridges is necessary. Many reports on the countermeasure examples and trend of vibration control centred on cables of the cable-stayed bridges have been published. In this paper, the wind-induced vibration of cables in the cable-stayed bridges was reviewed, the examples of countermeasures of vibration control on cables in the PC cable-stayed bridges was mainly introduced. The remaining tasks and future prospects on vibration control of the PC cable-stayed bridges were described. 14 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Local structure of gallate proton conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannici, F; Messana, D; Martorana, A [Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Dipartimento di Chimica Inorganica ed Analitica, Viale delle Scienze, I-90128 Palermo (Italy); Longo, A [CNR, Istituto per lo studio dei materiali nanostrutturati, Via Ugo La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Sciortino, L, E-mail: sciortino@pa.ismn.cnr.i

    2009-11-15

    Lanthanum barium gallate proton conductors are based on disconnected GaO{sub 4} groups. The insertion of hydroxyls in the LaBaGaO{sub 4} network proceeds through self-doping with Ba{sup 2+}, consequent O{sup 2-} vacancy formation to fulfill charge neutrality. With a structural investigation on self-doped LaBaGaO{sub 4} oxides using synchrotron XRD and EXAFS on the Ga K-edge, we find that: (a) the GaO{sub 4} tetrahedra retain their size throughout the whole series; (b) the GaO{sub 4} tetrahedra rotate as rigid bodies on hydration, leading to the formation of a network of shorter O-O configurations that are stabilized by hydrogen bonds; (c) contraction of the lattice occurs along the a unit cell axis, as a consequence of an overall structural rearrangement of the hydrated solid.

  11. Local structure of gallate proton conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannici, F; Messana, D; Martorana, A; Longo, A; Sciortino, L

    2009-01-01

    Lanthanum barium gallate proton conductors are based on disconnected GaO 4 groups. The insertion of hydroxyls in the LaBaGaO 4 network proceeds through self-doping with Ba 2+ , consequent O 2- vacancy formation to fulfill charge neutrality. With a structural investigation on self-doped LaBaGaO 4 oxides using synchrotron XRD and EXAFS on the Ga K-edge, we find that: (a) the GaO 4 tetrahedra retain their size throughout the whole series; (b) the GaO 4 tetrahedra rotate as rigid bodies on hydration, leading to the formation of a network of shorter O-O configurations that are stabilized by hydrogen bonds; (c) contraction of the lattice occurs along the a unit cell axis, as a consequence of an overall structural rearrangement of the hydrated solid.

  12. Local structure of gallate proton conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannici, F.; Messana, D.; Longo, A.; Sciortino, L.; Martorana, A.

    2009-11-01

    Lanthanum barium gallate proton conductors are based on disconnected GaO4 groups. The insertion of hydroxyls in the LaBaGaO4 network proceeds through self-doping with Ba2+, consequent O2- vacancy formation to fulfill charge neutrality. With a structural investigation on self-doped LaBaGaO4 oxides using synchrotron XRD and EXAFS on the Ga K-edge, we find that: (a) the GaO4 tetrahedra retain their size throughout the whole series; (b) the GaO4 tetrahedra rotate as rigid bodies on hydration, leading to the formation of a network of shorter O-O configurations that are stabilized by hydrogen bonds; (c) contraction of the lattice occurs along the a unit cell axis, as a consequence of an overall structural rearrangement of the hydrated solid.

  13. [Trophoblast: conductor of the maternal immune tolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesdag, V; Salzet, M; Vinatier, D

    2014-11-01

    Pregnancy is a temporary semi-allograft that survives for nine months. The importance of this event for the survival of the species justifies several tolerance mechanisms that are put into place at the beginning of pregnancy, some of which occur even at the time of implantation. The description of these mechanisms underlines the leadership of the trophoblast. The trophoblast is the conductor of the events, protects himself by expressing specific antigens and regulates the environment of the decidua according to the calendar of the events of the pregnancy The trophoblast and the decidual environment attract the effectors of immunity, almost all present in the decidua. The immunological atmosphere of the decidua evolves during the pregnancy modulating the level of activation of the immunological cells and adapting the level of activation to the stage of the pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. ELECTRODYNAMIC STABILITY COMPUTATIONS FOR FLEXIBLE CONDUCTORS OF THE AERIAL LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In aerial transmission lines aluminium multiwire conductors are in use. Owing to their flexible design the electrodynamic effect of short circuit currents may lead to intolerable mutual rendezvous and even cross-whipping of the phase conductors. The increasing motion of the conductors caused by effect of the short-circuit electrodynamic force impulse is accompanied by the dynamic load impact affecting the conductors, insulating and supporting constructions of the aerial lines. Intensity of the short-circuit currents electrodynamic impact on the flexible conductors depends on the short circuit current magnitude. For research into electrodynamic endurance of the conductors of the aerial lines located at the vertices of arbitrary triangle with spans of a large length, the authors assume the conductor analytical model in the form of a flexible tensile thread whose mass is distributed evenly lengthwise the conductor. With this analytical model, by the action of the imposed forces the conductor assumes the form conditioned by the diagram of applied external forces, and resists neither bending nor torsion. The initial conditions calculation task reduces to solving the flexible thread statics equations. The law of motion of the conductor marginal points comes out of the conjoint solution of dynamic equations of the conductor and structural components of the areal electric power lines. Based on the proposed algorithm, the researchers of the Chair of the Electric Power Stations of BNTU developed a software program LINEDYS+, which in its characteristics yields to no foreign analogs, e. g. SAMSEF. To calculate the initial conditions they modified a software program computing the flexible conductor mechanics named MR 21. The conductor short-circuit electrodynamic interaction estimation considers structural elements of the areal lines, ice and wind loads, objective parameters of the short circuit. The software programs are accommodated with the simple and

  15. Frequency dependence of magnetic ac loss in a Roebel cable made of YBCO on a Ni-W substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, L. S.; Staines, M. P.; Badcock, R. A.; Long, N. J.; Majoros, M.; Collings, E. W.; Sumption, M. D.

    2010-08-01

    We have investigated the frequency dependent contributions to the magnetic ac loss in a 10 strand Roebel cable with 2 mm wide non-insulated strands and a transposition length of 90 mm. This cable is made from 40 mm wide YBCO coated conductor tape manufactured by AMSC and stabilized by electroplating 25 µm thick copper on either side prior to the mechanical punching of the cable strands. The measurements were carried out in both perpendicular and parallel field orientation, at frequencies in the range of 30-200 Hz. While the loss in the perpendicular orientation is predominantly hysteretic in nature, we observe some frequency dependence of the loss when the cable approaches full flux penetration at high field amplitudes. The magnitude is consistent with eddy current losses in the copper stabilization layer. This supports the fact that the inter-strand coupling loss is not significant in this frequency range. In the parallel field orientation, the hysteresis loss in the Ni-W alloy substrate dominates, but we see an unusually strong frequency dependent contribution to the loss which we attribute to intra-strand current loops.

  16. Simulation of the cabling process for Rutherford cables: An advanced finite element model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanes, J.; Garlasche, M.; Bordini, B.; Dallocchio, A.

    2016-12-01

    In all existing large particle accelerators (Tevatron, HERA, RHIC, LHC) the main superconducting magnets are based on Rutherford cables, which are characterized by having: strands fully transposed with respect to the magnetic field, a significant compaction that assures a large engineering critical current density and a geometry that allows efficient winding of the coils. The Nb3Sn magnets developed in the framework of the HL-LHC project for improving the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are also based on Rutherford cables. Due to the characteristics of Nb3Sn wires, the cabling process has become a crucial step in the magnet manufacturing. During cabling the wires experience large plastic deformations that strongly modify the geometrical dimensions of the sub-elements constituting the superconducting strand. These deformations are particularly severe on the cable edges and can result in a significant reduction of the cable critical current as well as of the Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) of the stabilizing copper. In order to understand the main parameters that rule the cabling process and their impact on the cable performance, CERN has developed a 3D Finite Element (FE) model based on the LS-Dyna® software that simulates the whole cabling process. In the paper the model is presented together with a comparison between experimental and numerical results for a copper cable produced at CERN.

  17. Non-cable vehicle guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugela, G.C.; Willott, A.M.; Chopiuk, R.G.; Thornton, S.E.

    1988-06-01

    The purpose is to determine the most promising driverless mine vehicle guidance systems that are not dependent on buried cables, and to plan their development. The project is presented in two phases: a preliminary study and literature review to determine whether suitable technologies exist to justify further work; and an in-depth assessment and selection of technologies for vehicle guidance. A large number of guidance elements are involved in a completely automated vehicle. The technologies that hold the best potential for development of guidance systems for mine vehicles are ultrasonics, radar, lasers, dead reckoning, and guidance algorithms. The best approach to adaptation of these technologies is on a step by step basis. Guidance modules that are complete in themselves and are designed to be integrated with other modules can provide short term benefits. Two modules are selected for development: the dragline operations monitor and automated machine control for optimized mining (AMCOM). 99 refs., 20 figs., 40 tabs.

  18. Self-healing cable for extreme environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Dryver R. (Inventor); Tolmie, Bernard R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Self-healing cable apparatus and methods disclosed. The self-healing cable has a central core surrounded by an adaptive cover that can extend over the entire length of the self-healing cable or just one or more portions of the self-healing cable. The adaptive cover includes an axially and/or radially compressible-expandable (C/E) foam layer that maintains its properties over a wide range of environmental conditions. A tape layer surrounds the C/E layer and is applied so that it surrounds and axially and/or radially compresses the C/E layer. When the self-healing cable is subjected to a damaging force that causes a breach in the outer jacket and the tape layer, the corresponding localized axially and/or radially compressed portion of the C/E foam layer expands into the breach to form a corresponding localized self-healed region. The self-healing cable is manufacturable with present-day commercial self-healing cable manufacturing tools.

  19. Recent progress in high-pressure studies on organic conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syuma Yasuzuka and Keizo Murata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent high-pressure studies of organic conductors and superconductors are reviewed. The discovery of the highest Tc superconductivity among organics under high pressure has triggered the further progress of the high-pressure research. Owing to this finding, various organic conductors with the strong electron correlation were investigated under high pressures. This review includes the pressure techniques using the cubic anvil apparatus, as well as high-pressure studies of the organic conductors up to 10 GPa showing extraordinary temperature and pressure dependent transport phenomena.

  20. Conductor development for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, E.

    1988-01-01

    This review investigates the developments in fine filamentary materials over the last three years and traces how the relations between the magnet requirements and property improvements have fashioned SSC conductor specifications. The review emphasizes factors that affect filament nonuniformity and the overall quality of the product. The elimination of proximity effect-induced coupling in SCC type conductors, by introducing small percentages of manganese into the copper between the filaments, is discussed. Modification of a Fermi kit has produced materials with improved critical current densities. The possibility of using this approach to make conductors for accelerator magnets is assessed

  1. Electrical circuit modeling of conductors with skin effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerst, D.W.; Sprott, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The electrical impedance of a lossy conductor is a complicated function of time (or frequency) because of the skin effect. By solving the diffusion equation for magnetic fields in conductors of several prototypical shapes, the impedance can be calculated as a function of time for a step function of current. The solution suggests an electrical circuit representation that allows calculation of time-dependent voltages and currents of arbitrary waveforms. A technique using an operational amplifier to determine the current in such a conductor by measuring some external voltage is described. Useful analytical approximations to the results are derived

  2. General relativistic galvano-gravitomagnetic effect in current carrying conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmedov, B.J.

    1998-11-01

    The analogy between general relativity and electromagnetism suggests that there is a galvano-gravitomagnetic effect, which is the gravitational analogue of the Hall effect. This new effect takes place when a current carrying conductor is placed in a gravitomagnetic field and the conduction electrons moving inside the conductor are deflected transversally with respect to the current flow. In connection with this galvano-gravitomagnetic effect, we explore the possibility of using current carrying conductors for detecting the gravitomagnetic field of the Earth. (author)

  3. Stability and quench of dual cooling channel cable-in-conduct superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blau, Bertrand

    1999-11-01

    Presently, the most ambitious experimental project towards controlled thermonuclear fusion is the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor ITER. All coils of its magnet system will be superconducting since for magnetic fields in the range between 6 - 13 T high current densities are required. During recent years, in particular for fusion applications, a special configuration of superconductor was favoured: the so-called Cable-In-Conduit Conductor (CICC). The CICCs for ITER consist of a superconducting cable made of a large number of superconducting wires (NbTi or Nb 3 Sn) twisted around a central cooling channel, which are tightly jacketed in a metal conduit, providing the desired mechanical stiffness of the conductor against magnetic forces. Pressurized supercritical helium is pumped through the cable interstices and the central channel. The direct contact between the coolant and the cable provides good thermal stability of the conductor against sudden energy inputs. These disturbances can lead to a transition into the normal state (quench) if the released energy is sufficiently high, so that the temperature of the superconductor exceeds locally its critical temperature and if the energy cannot be absorbed efficiently by the surrounding helium. Stability of superconductors against quenches is one of the most important issues in applied superconductivity. The recovery capabilities of a CICC after thermal disturbances are governed by the heat transfer rate from the strands to the helium. The heat transfer is greatly affected by the flow velocity of the coolant. It has been shown theoretically that a temporal thermal disturbance in a CICC can induce an additional strong helium flow, which enhances the heat transfer rate and, hence, the stability. This self-stabilizing effect is believed to play an important role for the recovery capabilities of a CICC. The scope of this thesis is the experimental assessment of the quench and stability behaviour of dual cooling

  4. Stability and quench of dual cooling channel cable-in-conduct superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Bertrand [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1999-11-01

    Presently, the most ambitious experimental project towards controlled thermonuclear fusion is the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor ITER. All coils of its magnet system will be superconducting since for magnetic fields in the range between 6 - 13 T high current densities are required. During recent years, in particular for fusion applications, a special configuration of superconductor was favoured: the so-called Cable-In-Conduit Conductor (CICC). The CICCs for ITER consist of a superconducting cable made of a large number of superconducting wires (NbTi or Nb{sub 3}Sn) twisted around a central cooling channel, which are tightly jacketed in a metal conduit, providing the desired mechanical stiffness of the conductor against magnetic forces. Pressurized supercritical helium is pumped through the cable interstices and the central channel. The direct contact between the coolant and the cable provides good thermal stability of the conductor against sudden energy inputs. These disturbances can lead to a transition into the normal state (quench) if the released energy is sufficiently high, so that the temperature of the superconductor exceeds locally its critical temperature and if the energy cannot be absorbed efficiently by the surrounding helium. Stability of superconductors against quenches is one of the most important issues in applied superconductivity. The recovery capabilities of a CICC after thermal disturbances are governed by the heat transfer rate from the strands to the helium. The heat transfer is greatly affected by the flow velocity of the coolant. It has been shown theoretically that a temporal thermal disturbance in a CICC can induce an additional strong helium flow, which enhances the heat transfer rate and, hence, the stability. This self-stabilizing effect is believed to play an important role for the recovery capabilities of a CICC. The scope of this thesis is the experimental assessment of the quench and stability behaviour of dual

  5. 46 CFR 111.60-5 - Cable installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-5 Cable installation. (a) Each cable installation must meet... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable installation. 111.60-5 Section 111.60-5 Shipping... incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1), including clause 8. (b) Each cable installation made in...

  6. TMI cable tracer operation and maintenance manual for assembly 417910

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumstine, R.L.

    1983-11-01

    This manual provides technical information and instructions to operate and maintain the cable tracer designed for the Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 Reactor Building. The TMI cable tracer was developed to allow TMI personnel to trace cables in cable trays that may be tested or sectioned for destructive examination

  7. Electrical cabling system associated at a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejeux, P.; Desfontaines, G.

    1988-01-01

    This cabling system for an electrical device in a nuclear reactor comprises at least a first cable issued of the device, a second cable comprising a first portion, a second portion and a third portion joining the second by a multiple quick fitting connector capable to connect at least ten second portions at ten other third portions of the second cable [fr

  8. Choice Of Computer Networking Cables And Their Effect On Data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computer networking is the order of the day in this Information and Communication Technology (ICT) age. Although a network can be through a wireless device most local connections are done using cables. There are three main computer-networking cables namely coaxial cable, unshielded twisted pair cable and the optic ...

  9. Non-linear stochastic response of a shallow cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Winther; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2004-01-01

    The paper considers the stochastic response of geometrical non-linear shallow cables. Large rain-wind induced cable oscillations with non-linear interactions have been observed in many large cable stayed bridges during the last decades. The response of the cable is investigated for a reduced two...

  10. The first DC performance test and analysis of CC conductor short sample at ASIPP conductor test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yi; Wu Yu; Liu Huajun; Long Feng; Qian Li; Ren Zhibin; Li Shaolei; Liu Bo; Chen Jinglin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In this study the first DC performance experiments of ITER correction coil conductor short sample have been carried out in ASIPP test facility. ► A CC conductor short sample was fabricated and tested to confirm the capability of this test facility for qualification tests of CC conductors. ► There is no obvious impact of cycling on DC performance measurement. ► Those measured results of current sharing temperature are in agreement with the expected results from strand scaling - Abstract: The first DC performance experiments of ITER correction coil (CC) conductor short sample have been carried out in the conductor test facility of Institute of Plasma Physics, CAS (ASIPP) in January this year. Those experiments aim to investigate the DC performance of ITER CC conductor. The tested conductor short sample is bended as a half circle with the diameter of 270 mm to meet the background magnetic field shape. The half circle part of sample is longer than the final twist pitch. The current sharing temperature (T cs ) in the 3.86 T external magnetic field (B ex ), ≤12 kA could be measured including the critical current (I c ) run. There is no obvious impact of 1000 cycles on DC performance. Those measured T cs results are in agreement with the expected results from strand scaling.

  11. Wire in the Cable-Driven System of Surgical Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. F.; Lv, N.; Mu, H. Z.; Xue, L. J.

    2017-07-01

    During the evolution of the surgical robot, cable plays an important role. It translates motion and force precisely from surgeon’s hand to the tool’s tips. In the paper, the vertical wires, the composition of cable, are mathematically modeled from a geometric point of view. The cable structure and tension are analyzed according to the characteristics of wire screw twist. The structural equations of the wires in different positions are derived for both non-bent cable and bent cable, respectively. The bending moment formula of bent cable is also obtained. This will help researchers find suitable cable and design more matched pulley.

  12. Current status and future prospects of Japanese national project on coated conductor development and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiohara, Y.; Yoshizumi, M.; Izumi, T.; Yamada, Y.

    2008-09-01

    Four years of the current five-year national project since 2003 for development of coated conductors using Y-system superconductors have passed and lots of remarkable results have been achieved. In this paper, the current status and the future prospect of this project are reviewed. The current national project comprises several groups of national laboratories, universities and private companies. The group of high performance tape development, consisting of Fujikura and SRL-NCCC, has worked on the tape by PLD-REBCO superconducting tapes on the PLD-CeO 2/IBAD-GZO buffered substrates. The high product of Ic and L equal to 112,166 A m was achieved in the 368 m-304.8 A GdBCO tape whose Ic value is mostly above 350 A/cm-w. The performance under the magnetic fields was also improved up to 42 A at 3 T in a GdBCO short film with doping of ZrO 2. About 61 m long GdBCO tape with ZrO 2 doping showed a high Ic value of 220 A at self field and 30 A at 3 T. On the other hand, the other group focusing on the low production cost has worked on processes of TFA-MOD and MOCVD, etc. The extremely high Ic value of 735 A/cm-w was attained in the TFA-MOD films on PLD-CeO 2/IBAD-GZO/Hastelloy C276 substrate by means of using the effect of Ba-poor nominal composition. In the efforts for long tape production, 200 m long tapes with high Ic values of 200 A/cm-w and 205 A/cm-w were obtained by MOD-YBCO/PLD-CeO 2/IBAD-GZO/Hastelloy C276 and PLD-HoBCO on buffered NiW substrate, respectively. The Ic × L value of the MOD-derived tape was 40,000 A m, which is the highest value in the world by the MOD process. Based on the above achievements on the coated conductor process development, two new additional goals were set in the project. One is the development for the extremely low cost tape and another is the development of the basic technologies for making the electric power devices including cables, transformers, motors, current-limiters and cryocoolers. Some of the new themes already revealed the

  13. Current status and future prospects of Japanese national project on coated conductor development and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiohara, Y. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, ISTEC, Shinonome 1-10-13, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)], E-mail: shiohara@istec.or.jp; Yoshizumi, M.; Izumi, T. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, ISTEC, Shinonome 1-10-13, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan); Yamada, Y. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, ISTEC, Nagoya Coated Conductor Center, 2-4-1, Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan)

    2008-09-15

    Four years of the current five-year national project since 2003 for development of coated conductors using Y-system superconductors have passed and lots of remarkable results have been achieved. In this paper, the current status and the future prospect of this project are reviewed. The current national project comprises several groups of national laboratories, universities and private companies. The group of high performance tape development, consisting of Fujikura and SRL-NCCC, has worked on the tape by PLD-REBCO superconducting tapes on the PLD-CeO{sub 2}/IBAD-GZO buffered substrates. The high product of I{sub c} and L equal to 112,166 A m was achieved in the 368 m-304.8 A GdBCO tape whose I{sub c} value is mostly above 350 A/cm-w. The performance under the magnetic fields was also improved up to 42 A at 3 T in a GdBCO short film with doping of ZrO{sub 2}. About 61 m long GdBCO tape with ZrO{sub 2} doping showed a high I{sub c} value of 220 A at self field and 30 A at 3 T. On the other hand, the other group focusing on the low production cost has worked on processes of TFA-MOD and MOCVD, etc. The extremely high I{sub c} value of 735 A/cm-w was attained in the TFA-MOD films on PLD-CeO{sub 2}/IBAD-GZO/Hastelloy C276 substrate by means of using the effect of Ba-poor nominal composition. In the efforts for long tape production, 200 m long tapes with high I{sub c} values of 200 A/cm-w and 205 A/cm-w were obtained by MOD-YBCO/PLD-CeO{sub 2}/IBAD-GZO/Hastelloy C276 and PLD-HoBCO on buffered NiW substrate, respectively. The I{sub c} x L value of the MOD-derived tape was 40,000 A m, which is the highest value in the world by the MOD process. Based on the above achievements on the coated conductor process development, two new additional goals were set in the project. One is the development for the extremely low cost tape and another is the development of the basic technologies for making the electric power devices including cables, transformers, motors, current

  14. Present status and future prospect of coated conductor development and its application in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiohara, Y.; Yoshizumi, M.; Izumi, T.; Yamada, Y.

    2008-03-01

    The current national project on coated conductors using Y-system superconductors has been carried out over the project period (FY2003-FY2007). In this paper, the current status and the future prospect of this project are reviewed. The high performance tape development group, consisting of Fujikura and SRL-NCCC, has worked on the tape by PLD-REBCO superconducting layers on PLD-CeO2/IBAD-GZO buffered substrates. A high product of Ic and L, higher than 112 166 A m, was achieved in a 368 m-304.8 A GdBCO tape whose Ic value is mostly above 350 A/cm in width. The performance under magnetic field was also improved up to 42 A at 3 T in a GdBCO short film with doping of ZrO2. 61 m long GdBCO tape with ZrO2 doping showed a high Ic value of 220 A at self field and 30 A at 3 T. On the other hand, another group focusing on low production cost has worked on TFA-MOD and MOCVD processes. The extremely high Ic value of 735 A/cm-w was obtained in TFA-MOD films on PLD-CeO2/IBAD-GZO/Hastelloy substrate due to the effect of Ba-poor nominal composition. In efforts towards long tape production by the SWCC group, a 200 m long tape with a high Ic value of 200 A/cm-w was obtained using a batch-type furnace. The Ic × L value of this tape was 40 000 A m, which is the highest value in the world obtained by the TFA-MOD process. Based on the above achievements in coated conductor process development, two new additional goals were set in the project. One is the development of extremely low cost tape and the other is the development of the basic technologies for making electric power devices of cables, transformers, motors, current-limiters and cryocoolers. Some of the new investigations have already revealed marvellous results, such as a 15 kW motor, low AC loss coils, low AC loss cables, etc.

  15. Current status and future prospects of Japanese national project on coated conductor development and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiohara, Y.; Yoshizumi, M.; Izumi, T.; Yamada, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Four years of the current five-year national project since 2003 for development of coated conductors using Y-system superconductors have passed and lots of remarkable results have been achieved. In this paper, the current status and the future prospect of this project are reviewed. The current national project comprises several groups of national laboratories, universities and private companies. The group of high performance tape development, consisting of Fujikura and SRL-NCCC, has worked on the tape by PLD-REBCO superconducting tapes on the PLD-CeO 2 /IBAD-GZO buffered substrates. The high product of I c and L equal to 112,166 A m was achieved in the 368 m-304.8 A GdBCO tape whose I c value is mostly above 350 A/cm-w. The performance under the magnetic fields was also improved up to 42 A at 3 T in a GdBCO short film with doping of ZrO 2 . About 61 m long GdBCO tape with ZrO 2 doping showed a high I c value of 220 A at self field and 30 A at 3 T. On the other hand, the other group focusing on the low production cost has worked on processes of TFA-MOD and MOCVD, etc. The extremely high I c value of 735 A/cm-w was attained in the TFA-MOD films on PLD-CeO 2 /IBAD-GZO/Hastelloy C276 substrate by means of using the effect of Ba-poor nominal composition. In the efforts for long tape production, 200 m long tapes with high I c values of 200 A/cm-w and 205 A/cm-w were obtained by MOD-YBCO/PLD-CeO 2 /IBAD-GZO/Hastelloy C276 and PLD-HoBCO on buffered NiW substrate, respectively. The I c x L value of the MOD-derived tape was 40,000 A m, which is the highest value in the world by the MOD process. Based on the above achievements on the coated conductor process development, two new additional goals were set in the project. One is the development for the extremely low cost tape and another is the development of the basic technologies for making the electric power devices including cables, transformers, motors, current-limiters and cryocoolers. Some of the new themes already

  16. Present status and future prospect of coated conductor development and its application in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiohara, Y; Yoshizumi, M; Izumi, T; Yamada, Y

    2008-01-01

    The current national project on coated conductors using Y-system superconductors has been carried out over the project period (FY2003-FY2007). In this paper, the current status and the future prospect of this project are reviewed. The high performance tape development group, consisting of Fujikura and SRL-NCCC, has worked on the tape by PLD-REBCO superconducting layers on PLD-CeO 2 /IBAD-GZO buffered substrates. A high product of I c and L, higher than 112 166 A m, was achieved in a 368 m-304.8 A GdBCO tape whose I c value is mostly above 350 A/cm in width. The performance under magnetic field was also improved up to 42 A at 3 T in a GdBCO short film with doping of ZrO 2 . 61 m long GdBCO tape with ZrO 2 doping showed a high I c value of 220 A at self field and 30 A at 3 T. On the other hand, another group focusing on low production cost has worked on TFA-MOD and MOCVD processes. The extremely high I c value of 735 A/cm-w was obtained in TFA-MOD films on PLD-CeO 2 /IBAD-GZO/Hastelloy substrate due to the effect of Ba-poor nominal composition. In efforts towards long tape production by the SWCC group, a 200 m long tape with a high I c value of 200 A/cm-w was obtained using a batch-type furnace. The I c x L value of this tape was 40 000 A m, which is the highest value in the world obtained by the TFA-MOD process. Based on the above achievements in coated conductor process development, two new additional goals were set in the project. One is the development of extremely low cost tape and the other is the development of the basic technologies for making electric power devices of cables, transformers, motors, current-limiters and cryocoolers. Some of the new investigations have already revealed marvellous results, such as a 15 kW motor, low AC loss coils, low AC loss cables, etc

  17. Present status and future prospect of coated conductor development and its application in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiohara, Y; Yoshizumi, M; Izumi, T [Superconductivity Research Laboratory-ISTEC, 10-13 Shinonome 1-Chome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan); Yamada, Y [Nagoya Coated Conductor Center, Superconductivity Research Laboratory-ISTEC, (c-o) Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 4-1 Mutsuno 2-Chome, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan)], E-mail: shiohara@istec.or.jp

    2008-03-01

    The current national project on coated conductors using Y-system superconductors has been carried out over the project period (FY2003-FY2007). In this paper, the current status and the future prospect of this project are reviewed. The high performance tape development group, consisting of Fujikura and SRL-NCCC, has worked on the tape by PLD-REBCO superconducting layers on PLD-CeO{sub 2}/IBAD-GZO buffered substrates. A high product of I{sub c} and L, higher than 112 166 A m, was achieved in a 368 m-304.8 A GdBCO tape whose I{sub c} value is mostly above 350 A/cm in width. The performance under magnetic field was also improved up to 42 A at 3 T in a GdBCO short film with doping of ZrO{sub 2}. 61 m long GdBCO tape with ZrO{sub 2} doping showed a high I{sub c} value of 220 A at self field and 30 A at 3 T. On the other hand, another group focusing on low production cost has worked on TFA-MOD and MOCVD processes. The extremely high I{sub c} value of 735 A/cm-w was obtained in TFA-MOD films on PLD-CeO{sub 2}/IBAD-GZO/Hastelloy substrate due to the effect of Ba-poor nominal composition. In efforts towards long tape production by the SWCC group, a 200 m long tape with a high I{sub c} value of 200 A/cm-w was obtained using a batch-type furnace. The I{sub c} x L value of this tape was 40 000 A m, which is the highest value in the world obtained by the TFA-MOD process. Based on the above achievements in coated conductor process development, two new additional goals were set in the project. One is the development of extremely low cost tape and the other is the development of the basic technologies for making electric power devices of cables, transformers, motors, current-limiters and cryocoolers. Some of the new investigations have already revealed marvellous results, such as a 15 kW motor, low AC loss coils, low AC loss cables, etc.

  18. Condition Monitoring of Cables Task 3 Report: Condition Monitoring Techniques for Electric Cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villaran, M.; Lofaro, R.; na

    2009-11-30

    For more than 20 years the NRC has sponsored research studying electric cable aging degradation, condition monitoring, and environmental qualification testing practices for electric cables used in nuclear power plants. This report summarizes several of the most effective and commonly used condition monitoring techniques available to detect damage and measure the extent of degradation in electric cable insulation. The technical basis for each technique is summarized, along with its application, trendability of test data, ease of performing the technique, advantages and limitations, and the usefulness of the test results to characterize and assess the condition of electric cables.

  19. On the Minimum Cable Tensions for the Cable-Based Parallel Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the minimum cable tension distributions in the workspace for cable-based parallel robots to find out more information on the stability. First, the kinematic model of a cable-based parallel robot is derived based on the wrench matrix. Then, a noniterative polynomial-based optimization algorithm with the proper optimal objective function is presented based on the convex optimization theory, in which the minimum cable tension at any pose is determined. Additionally, three performance indices are proposed to show the distributions of the minimum cable tensions in a specified region of the workspace. An important thing is that the three performance indices can be used to evaluate the stability of the cable-based parallel robots. Furthermore, a new workspace, the Specified Minimum Cable Tension Workspace (SMCTW, is introduced, within which all the minimum tensions exceed a specified value, therefore meeting the specified stability requirement. Finally, a camera robot parallel driven by four cables for aerial panoramic photographing is selected to illustrate the distributions of the minimum cable tensions in the workspace and the relationship between the three performance indices and the stability.

  20. Parametrically excited oscillation of stay cable and its control in cable-stayed bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bing-nan; Wang, Zhi-gang; Ko, J M; Ni, Y Q

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear dynamic model for simulation and analysis of a kind of parametrically excited vibration of stay cable caused by support motion in cable-stayed bridges. The sag, inclination angle of the stay cable are considered in the model, based on which, the oscillation mechanism and dynamic response characteristics of this kind of vibration are analyzed through numerical calculation. It is noted that parametrically excited oscillation of a stay cable with certain sag, inclination angle and initial static tension force may occur in cable-stayed bridges due to deck vibration under the condition that the natural frequency of a cable approaches to about half of the first model frequency of the bridge deck system. A new vibration control system installed on the cable anchorage is proposed as a possible damping system to suppress the cable parametric oscillation. The numerical calculation results showed that with the use of this damping system, the cable oscillation due to the vibration of the deck and/or towers will be considerably reduced.

  1. Influence of Icing on Bridge Cable Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koss, Holger; Frej Henningsen, Jesper; Olsen, Idar

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the relevance of ice accretion for wind-induced vibration of structural bridge cables has been recognised and became a subject of research in bridge engineering. Full-scale monitoring and observation indicate that light precipitation at moderate low temperatures between zero and -5......°C may lead to large amplitude vibrations of bridge cables under wind action. For the prediction of aerodynamic instability quasi-steady models have been developed estimating the cable response magnitude based on structural properties and aerodynamic force coefficients for drag, lift and torsion...... forces of different bridge cables types. The experiments were conducted in a wind tunnel facility capable amongst others to simulate incloud icing conditions....

  2. 47 CFR 32.2422 - Underground cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2422 Underground cable... manholes and ducts in connection with construction work and the cost of permits and privileges for the...

  3. 47 CFR 32.2423 - Buried cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2423 Buried cable. (a... of cleaning manholes and ducts in connection with construction work and the cost of permits and...

  4. Chinese Market for Fibres and Cables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This article presents a summary of Chinese market of optical fibres and cables based on the development of the optical communications industry. Analysis shows that the market will keep growing for sometime in the future.

  5. Calculating transport AC losses in stacks of high temperature superconductor coated conductors with magnetic substrates using FEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainslie, Mark D.; Flack, Tim J.; Campbell, Archie M.

    2012-01-01

    Properties of stacks of HTS coated conductors with and without a magnetic substrate. Non-magnetic substrate model is consistent with existing methods. Presence of a magnetic substrate increases the total AC loss of the stack. Differences and similarities between certain tapes within stacks are explained. Ferromagnetic loss of substrate negligible in most cases except small currents/fields. In this paper, the authors investigate the electromagnetic properties of stacks of high temperature superconductor (HTS) coated conductors with a particular focus on calculating the total transport AC loss. The cross-section of superconducting cables and coils is often modeled as a two-dimensional stack of coated conductors, and these stacks can be used to estimate the AC loss of a practical device. This paper uses a symmetric two dimensional (2D) finite element model based on the H formulation, and a detailed investigation into the effects of a magnetic substrate on the transport AC loss of a stack is presented. The number of coated conductors in each stack is varied from 1 to 150, and three types of substrate are compared: non-magnetic weakly magnetic and strongly magnetic. The non-magnetic substrate model is comparable with results from existing models for the limiting cases of a single tape (Norris) and an infinite stack (Clem). The presence of a magnetic substrate increases the total AC loss of the stack, due to an increased localized magnetic flux density, and the stronger the magnetic material, the further the flux penetrates into the stack overall. The AC loss is calculated for certain tapes within the stack, and the differences and similarities between the losses throughout the stack are explained using the magnetic flux penetration and current density distributions in those tapes. The ferromagnetic loss of the substrate itself is found to be negligible in most cases, except for small magnitudes of current. Applying these findings to practical applications, where AC

  6. Materials Science of High-Temperature Superconducting Coated Conductor Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beasley, M. R

    2007-01-01

    This program was broadly focused on the materials science of high temperature superconducting coated conductors, which are of potential interest for application in electric power systems of interest to the Air Force...

  7. Gravitomagnetic effects in conductor in applied magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmedov, B.J.; Karim, M.

    1999-11-01

    The electromagnetic measurements of general relativistic gravitomagnetic effects which can be performed within a conductor embedded in the space-time of slow rotating gravitational object in the presence of magnetic field are proposed. (author)

  8. High voltage switches having one or more floating conductor layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werne, Roger W.; Sampayan, Stephen; Harris, John Richardson

    2015-11-24

    This patent document discloses high voltage switches that include one or more electrically floating conductor layers that are isolated from one another in the dielectric medium between the top and bottom switch electrodes. The presence of the one or more electrically floating conductor layers between the top and bottom switch electrodes allow the dielectric medium between the top and bottom switch electrodes to exhibit a higher breakdown voltage than the breakdown voltage when the one or more electrically floating conductor layers are not present between the top and bottom switch electrodes. This increased breakdown voltage in the presence of one or more electrically floating conductor layers in a dielectric medium enables the switch to supply a higher voltage for various high voltage circuits and electric systems.

  9. Experimental and computational approaches to electrical conductor loading characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vary, M.; Goga, V.; Paulech, J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes cooling analyses of horizontally arranged bare electric conductor using analytical and numerical methods. Results of these analyses will be compared to the results obtained from experimental measurement. (Authors)

  10. Modelling natural electromagnetic interference in man-made conductors for space weather applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichtchenko, Larisa

    2016-04-01

    Power transmission lines above the ground, cables and pipelines in the ground and under the sea, and in general all man-made long grounded conductors are exposed to the variations of the natural electromagnetic field. The resulting currents in the networks (commonly named geomagnetically induced currents, GIC), are produced by the conductive and/or inductive coupling and can compromise or even disrupt system operations and, in extreme cases, cause power blackouts, railway signalling mis-operation, or interfere with pipeline corrosion protection systems. To properly model the GIC in order to mitigate their impacts it is necessary to know the frequency dependence of the response of these systems to the geomagnetic variations which naturally span a wide frequency range. For that, the general equations of the electromagnetic induction in a multi-layered infinitely long cylinder (representing cable, power line wire, rail or pipeline) embedded in uniform media have been solved utilising methods widely used in geophysics. The derived electromagnetic fields and currents include the effects of the electromagnetic properties of each layer and of the different types of the surrounding media. This exact solution then has been used to examine the electromagnetic response of particular samples of long conducting structures to the external electromagnetic wave for a wide range of frequencies. Because the exact solution has a rather complicated structure, simple approximate analytical formulas have been proposed, analysed and compared with the results from the exact model. These approximate formulas show good coincidence in the frequency range spanning from geomagnetic storms (less than mHz) to pulsations (mHz to Hz) to atmospherics (kHz) and above, and can be recommended for use in space weather applications.

  11. Cable system transients theory, modeling and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ametani, Akihiro; Nagaoka, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    A systematic and comprehensive introduction to electromagnetic transient in cable systems, written by the internationally renowned pioneer in this field Presents a systematic and comprehensive introduction to electromagnetic transient in cable systems Written by the internationally renowned pioneer in the field Thorough coverage of the state of the art on the topic, presented in a well-organized, logical style, from fundamentals and practical applications A companion website is available

  12. Torsion instability of Dynamic Cables during Installation

    OpenAIRE

    Opgård, Marie Finstad

    2017-01-01

    The oil and gas industry today is a heavily regulated segment, and current standard hasestablished restrictions which yields a very limited weather window for offshore cable installations. This is due to experience with cable failure in harsh weather. A limiting factor in current practice is the design criterion for the minimum allowable radius of curvature in the touchdown point. In addition, current practice does not allow for occurrence of compression in the touch down zone...

  13. Ecology: Electrical Cable Bacteria Save Marine Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2016-01-01

    Animals at the bottom of the sea survive oxygen depletion surprisingly often, and a new study identifies cable bacteria in the sediment as the saviors. The bacterial electrical activity creates an iron 'carpet', trapping toxic hydrogen sulfide.......Animals at the bottom of the sea survive oxygen depletion surprisingly often, and a new study identifies cable bacteria in the sediment as the saviors. The bacterial electrical activity creates an iron 'carpet', trapping toxic hydrogen sulfide....

  14. A Cable-Shaped Lithium Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xin; Weng, Wei; Ren, Jing; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-01-20

    A carbon nanostructured hybrid fiber is developed by integrating mesoporous carbon and graphene oxide into aligned carbon nanotubes. This hybrid fiber is used as a 1D cathode to fabricate a new cable-shaped lithium-sulfur battery. The fiber cathode exhibits a decent specific capacity and lifespan, which makes the cable-shaped lithium-sulfur battery rank far ahead of other fiber-shaped batteries. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. MVAC Submarine cable, impedance measurements and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentsen, Martin Trolle; Expethit, Adrian; Pedersen, Morten Virklund

    2017-01-01

    influence the losses. Secondly, cable parameters such as component impedances, positive-, zero-sequence impedances and losses are measured for varying currents and frequencies. Zero sequence is measured for two setups, one with armour grounded, and with armour open to match CIGREs formula assumption......-sequence impedance is found between the measurements and the CIGRÉ formulas. It is concluded that the formulas are not accurate for the specific cable under test....

  16. Polyethylene as a possible hvdc cable insulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, W.G.; Body, R.S.; Mason, J.H.

    1966-10-01

    Many cable authorities have expressed the view that polyethylene would be attractive for this application. The dc conductivity of polyethylene is lower than that of impregnated paper, and varies less with temperature and stress. Polyethylene also has higher thermal conductivity and is resistant to moisture and electrochemical deterioration. Furthermore, processing polyethylene cables should ultimately involve lower capital and manufacturing costs. However, polyethylene has a lower limiting short circuit temperature unless it is cross linked.

  17. Guanidinium nonaflate as a solid-state proton conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Tang, Haolin; Putzeys, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    Protic organic ionic plastic crystals (POIPCs) are a type of novel solid-state proton conductors. In this work, guanidinium nonaflate ([Gdm-H][NfO]) is reported to be a model POIPC. Its structure-property relationship has been investigated comprehensively. Infrared analysis of [Gdm-H][NfO] and its....... In addition, POIPC-based solid-state proton conductors are also expected to find applications in sensors and other electrochemical devices....

  18. Organic Conductors: Evidence for Correlation Effects in Infrared Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Schelde; Johannsen, Ib; Bechgaard, Klaus

    1984-01-01

    The infrared conductivities of four organic conductors with partially filled one-electron bands are compared. The behavior ranges from near Drude type in the best metal to semiconductorlike in the moderate conductor. Electron-molecular-vibration coupling effects of varying degree are seen in all...... materials. It is suggested that the combined effect of electron-electron interaction and electron-phonon interaction in producing 4kF charge-density waves is essential for interpreting the results....

  19. Chaotic Music Generation System Using Music Conductor Gesture

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shuai; Maeda, Yoichiro; Takahashi, Yasutake

    2013-01-01

    In the research of interactive music generation, we propose a music generation method, that the computer generates the music, under the recognition of human music conductor's gestures.In this research, the generated music is tuned by the recognized gestures for the parameters of the network of chaotic elements in real time. The music conductor's hand motions are detected by Microsoft Kinect in this system. Music theories are embedded in the algorithm, as a result, the generated music will be ...

  20. Music Conductor Gesture Recognized Interactive Music Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN, Shuai; MAEDA, Yoichiro; TAKAHASHI, Yasutake

    2012-01-01

    In the research of interactive music generation, we propose a music generation method, that the computer generates the music automatically, and then the music will be arranged under the human music conductor's gestures, before it outputs to us. In this research, the generated music is processed from chaotic sound, which is generated from the network of chaotic elements in realtime. The music conductor's hand motions are detected by Microsoft Kinect in this system. Music theories are embedded ...

  1. Spatial Analysis of Thermal Aging of Overhead Transmission Conductors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musílek, P.; Heckenbergerová, Jana; Bhuiyan, M.M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2012), s. 1196-1204 ISSN 0885-8977 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M100300904 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : aluminium conductor steel reinforced (ACSR) conductor * hot spot * loss of tensile strength * numerical weather prediction * power transmission lines * thermal aging Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use Impact factor: 1.519, year: 2012

  2. Tilt stability of rotating current rings with passive conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweibel, E.G.; Pomphrey, N.

    1984-12-01

    We study the combined effects of rotation and resistive passive conductors on the stability of a rigid current in an external magnetic field. We present numerical and approximate analytical solutions to the equations of motion, which show that the ring is always tilt unstable on the resistive decay timescale of the conductors, although rotation and eddy currents may stabilize it over short times. Possible applications of our model include spheromaks which rotate or which are encircled by energetic particle rings

  3. The analysis of cable forces based on natural frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suangga, Made; Hidayat, Irpan; Juliastuti; Bontan, Darwin Julius

    2017-12-01

    A cable is a flexible structural member that is effective at resisting tensile forces. Cables are used in a variety of structures that employ their unique characteristics to create efficient design tension members. The condition of the cable forces in the cable supported structure is an important indication of judging whether the structure is in good condition. Several methods have been developed to measure on site cable forces. Vibration technique using correlation between natural frequency and cable forces is a simple method to determine in situ cable forces, however the method need accurate information on the boundary condition, cable mass, and cable length. The natural frequency of the cable is determined using FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) Technique to the acceleration record of the cable. Based on the natural frequency obtained, the cable forces then can be determine by analytical or by finite element program. This research is focus on the vibration techniques to determine the cable forces, to understand the physical parameter effect of the cable and also modelling techniques to the natural frequency and cable forces.

  4. Transport AC losses in YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majoros, M [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ye, L [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Velichko, A V [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Coombs, T A [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Sumption, M D [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Collings, E W [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Transport AC loss measurements have been made on YBCO-coated conductors prepared on two different substrate templates-RABiTS (rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrate) and IBAD (ion-beam-assisted deposition). RABiTS samples show higher losses compared with the theoretical values obtained from the critical state model, with constant critical current density, at currents lower than the critical current. An origin of this extra AC loss was demonstrated experimentally by comparison of the AC loss of two samples with different I-V curves. Despite a difference in I-V curves and in the critical currents, their measured losses, as well as the normalized losses, were practically the same. However, the functional dependence of the losses was affected by the ferromagnetic substrate. An influence of the presence of a ferromagnetic substrate on transport AC losses in YBCO film was calculated numerically by the finite element method. The presence of a ferromagnetic substrate increases transport AC losses in YBCO films depending on its relative magnetic permeability. The two loss contributions-transport AC loss in YBCO films and ferromagnetic loss in the substrate-cannot be considered as mutually independent.

  5. Electron quantum optics in ballistic chiral conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocquillon, Erwann; Freulon, Vincent; Parmentier, Francois D.; Berroir, Jean-Marc; Placais, Bernard; Feve, Gwendal [Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain, Ecole Normale Superieure, CNRS (UMR 8551), Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Wahl, Claire; Rech, Jerome; Jonckheere, Thibaut; Martin, Thierry [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, CPT, UMR 7332, Marseille (France); Universite de Toulon, CNRS, CPT, UMR 7332, La Garde (France); Grenier, Charles; Ferraro, Dario; Degiovanni, Pascal [Universite de Lyon, Federation de Physique Andre Marie Ampere, CNRS - Laboratoire de Physique de l' Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, Lyon (France)

    2014-01-15

    The edge channels of the quantum Hall effect provide one dimensional chiral and ballistic wires along which electrons can be guided in an optics-like setup. Electronic propagation can then be analyzed using concepts and tools derived from optics. After a brief review of electron optics experiments performed using stationary current sources which continuously emit electrons in the conductor, this paper focuses on triggered sources, which can generate on-demand a single particle state. It first outlines the electron optics formalism and its analogies and differences with photon optics and then turns to the presentation of single electron emitters and their characterization through the measurements of the average electrical current and its correlations. This is followed by a discussion of electron quantum optics experiments in the Hanbury-Brown and Twiss geometry where two-particle interferences occur. Finally, Coulomb interactions effects and their influence on single electron states are considered. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Electron quantum optics in ballistic chiral conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocquillon, Erwann; Freulon, Vincent; Parmentier, Francois D.; Berroir, Jean-Marc; Placais, Bernard; Feve, Gwendal; Wahl, Claire; Rech, Jerome; Jonckheere, Thibaut; Martin, Thierry; Grenier, Charles; Ferraro, Dario; Degiovanni, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The edge channels of the quantum Hall effect provide one dimensional chiral and ballistic wires along which electrons can be guided in an optics-like setup. Electronic propagation can then be analyzed using concepts and tools derived from optics. After a brief review of electron optics experiments performed using stationary current sources which continuously emit electrons in the conductor, this paper focuses on triggered sources, which can generate on-demand a single particle state. It first outlines the electron optics formalism and its analogies and differences with photon optics and then turns to the presentation of single electron emitters and their characterization through the measurements of the average electrical current and its correlations. This is followed by a discussion of electron quantum optics experiments in the Hanbury-Brown and Twiss geometry where two-particle interferences occur. Finally, Coulomb interactions effects and their influence on single electron states are considered. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Applications of inorganic Ion-conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiki, Yoshinori [Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    1989-03-01

    Physical properties and application of solid electrolyte, particularly of inorganic solid electrolyte, are described. Ion conductors have been widely used not only for electric power application but also for sensors, gas separators, display elements, Coulomb meters, storage elements, etc. The most extensively used pacemakers now employ Li/I{sub 2}(PVP) primary batteries. Thin film lithium secondary battery has a feature of providing comparatively large electric current, with 2.5 V charging, 1.8 V discharging, and 3 mA.cm{sup {minus}2} short circuit current. The capacity of about 4 mAh per 1 cm{sup 2} electrode has been achieved. The most widely used solid electrolyte for the oxygen sensor is the stabilized ZrO{sub 2}. The relation of air/fuel mix proportion with the change in electromotive force is shown. Although solid electrolyte fuel cell is not yet put to practical use, a result of an experiment is introduced. Brief explanations are made on the oxygen pump, electrochromic display elements, Coulomb meter and voltage storage element. 18 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Conductor gestures influence evaluations of ensemble performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven eMorrison

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has found that listener evaluations of ensemble performances vary depending on the expressivity of the conductor’s gestures, even when performances are otherwise identical. It was the purpose of the present study to test whether this effect of visual information was evident in the evaluation of specific aspects of ensemble performance, articulation and dynamics. We constructed a set of 32 music performances that combined auditory and visual information and were designed to feature a high degree of contrast along one of two target characteristics: articulation and dynamics. We paired each of four music excerpts recorded by a chamber ensemble in both a high- and low-contrast condition with video of four conductors demonstrating high- and low-contrast gesture specifically appropriate to either articulation or dynamics. Using one of two equivalent test forms, college music majors and nonmajors (N = 285 viewed sixteen 30-second performances and evaluated the quality of the ensemble’s articulation, dynamics, technique and tempo along with overall expressivity. Results showed significantly higher evaluations for performances featuring high rather than low conducting expressivity regardless of the ensemble’s performance quality. Evaluations for both articulation and dynamics were strongly and positively correlated with evaluations of overall ensemble expressivity.

  9. Low ac loss geometries in YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckworth, R.C.; List, F.A.; Paranthaman, M.P.; Rupich, M.W.; Zhang, W.; Xie, Y.Y.; Selvamanickam, V.

    2007-01-01

    Reduction of ac losses in applied ac fields can be accomplished through either the creation of filaments and bridging in YBCO coated conductors or by an assembly of narrow width YBCO tapes. The ac losses for each of these geometries were measured at 77 K in perpendicular ac fields up to 100 mT. Despite physical isolation of the filaments, coupling losses were still present in the samples when compared to the expected hysteretic loss. In addition to filamentary conductors the assembly of stacked YBCO conductor provides an alternative method of ac loss reduction. When compared to a 4-mm wide YBCO coated conductor with a critical current of 60 A, the ac loss in a stack of 2-mm wide YBCO coated conductors with a similar total critical current was reduced. While the reduction in ac loss in a 2-mm wide stack coincided with the reduction in the engineering current density of the conductor, further reduction of ac loss was obtained through the splicing of the 2-mm wide tapes with low resistance solders

  10. Low ac loss geometries in YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckworth, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, One Bethel Valley Road, P.O. Box 2008, MS-6305, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6305 (United States)], E-mail: duckworthrc@ornl.gov; List, F.A.; Paranthaman, M.P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, One Bethel Valley Road, P.O. Box 2008, MS-6305, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6305 (United States); Rupich, M.W.; Zhang, W. [American Superconductor, Two Technology Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 (United States); Xie, Y.Y.; Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower, 450 Duane Ave, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)

    2007-10-01

    Reduction of ac losses in applied ac fields can be accomplished through either the creation of filaments and bridging in YBCO coated conductors or by an assembly of narrow width YBCO tapes. The ac losses for each of these geometries were measured at 77 K in perpendicular ac fields up to 100 mT. Despite physical isolation of the filaments, coupling losses were still present in the samples when compared to the expected hysteretic loss. In addition to filamentary conductors the assembly of stacked YBCO conductor provides an alternative method of ac loss reduction. When compared to a 4-mm wide YBCO coated conductor with a critical current of 60 A, the ac loss in a stack of 2-mm wide YBCO coated conductors with a similar total critical current was reduced. While the reduction in ac loss in a 2-mm wide stack coincided with the reduction in the engineering current density of the conductor, further reduction of ac loss was obtained through the splicing of the 2-mm wide tapes with low resistance solders.

  11. Theory and modelling of quench in cable-in-conduit superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shajii, A.

    1994-04-01

    A new simple, self consistent theoretical model is presented that describes the phenomena of quench propagation in Cable-In-Conduit superconducting magnets. The model (Quencher) circumvents many of the difficulties associated with obtaining numerical solutions in more general existing models. Specifically, a factor of 30-50 is gained in CPU time over the general, explicit time dependent codes used to study typical quench events. The corresponding numerical implementation of the new model is described and the numerical results are shown to agree very well with those of the more general models, as well as with experimental data. Further, well justified approximations lead to the MacQuench model that is shown to be very accurate and considerably more efficient than the Quencher model. The MacQuench code is suitable for performing quench studies on a personal computer, requiring only several minutes of CPU time. In order to perform parametric studies on new conductor designs it is required to utilize a model such as MacQuench because of the high computational efficiency of this model. Finally, a set of analytic solutions for the problem of quench propagation in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors is presented. These analytic solutions represent the first such results that remain valid for the long time scales of interest during a quench process. The assumptions and the resulting simplifications that lead to the analytic solutions are discussed, and the regimes of validity of the various approximations are specified. The predictions of the analytic results are shown to be in very good agreement with numerical as well as experimental results. Important analytic scaling relations are verified by such comparisons, and the consequences of some of these scalings on currently designed superconducting magnets are discussed

  12. Environmental assessment of submarine power cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isus, Daniel; Martinez, Juan D. [Grupo General Cable Sistemas, S.A., 08560-Manlleu, Barcelona (Spain); Arteche, Amaya; Del Rio, Carmen; Madina, Virginia [Tecnalia Research and Innovation, 20009 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    Extensive analyses conducted by the European Community revealed that offshore wind energy have relatively benign effects on the marine environment by comparison to other forms of electric power generation [1]. However, the materials employed in offshore wind power farms suffer major changes to be confined to the marine environment at extreme conditions: saline medium, hydrostatic pressure... which can produce an important corrosion effect. This phenomenon can affect on the one hand, to the material from the structural viewpoint and on the other hand, to the marine environment. In this sense, to better understand the environmental impacts of generating electricity from offshore wind energy, this study evaluated the life cycle assessment for some new designs of submarine power cables developed by General Cable. To achieve this goal, three approaches have been carried out: leaching tests, eco-toxicity tests and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. All of them are aimed to obtaining quantitative data for environmental assessment of selected submarine cables. LCA is a method used to assess environmental aspects and potential impacts of a product or activity. LCA does not include financial and social factors, which means that the results of an LCA cannot exclusively form the basis for assessment of a product's sustainability. Leaching tests results allowed to conclude that pH of seawater did not significantly changed by the presence of submarine three-core cables. Although, it was slightly higher in case of broken cable, pH values were nearly equals. Concerning to the heavy metals which could migrate to the aquatic medium, there were significant differences in both scenarios. The leaching of zinc is the major environmental concern during undersea operation of undamaged cables whereas the fully sectioned three-core cable produced the migration of significant quantities of copper and iron apart from the zinc migrated from the galvanized steel. Thus, the tar

  13. Environmental assessment of submarine power cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isus, Daniel; Martinez, Juan D.; Arteche, Amaya; Del Rio, Carmen; Madina, Virginia

    2011-03-01

    Extensive analyses conducted by the European Community revealed that offshore wind energy have relatively benign effects on the marine environment by comparison to other forms of electric power generation [1]. However, the materials employed in offshore wind power farms suffer major changes to be confined to the marine environment at extreme conditions: saline medium, hydrostatic pressure... which can produce an important corrosion effect. This phenomenon can affect on the one hand, to the material from the structural viewpoint and on the other hand, to the marine environment. In this sense, to better understand the environmental impacts of generating electricity from offshore wind energy, this study evaluated the life cycle assessment for some new designs of submarine power cables developed by General Cable. To achieve this goal, three approaches have been carried out: leaching tests, eco-toxicity tests and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. All of them are aimed to obtaining quantitative data for environmental assessment of selected submarine cables. LCA is a method used to assess environmental aspects and potential impacts of a product or activity. LCA does not include financial and social factors, which means that the results of an LCA cannot exclusively form the basis for assessment of a product's sustainability. Leaching tests results allowed to conclude that pH of seawater did not significantly changed by the presence of submarine three-core cables. Although, it was slightly higher in case of broken cable, pH values were nearly equals. Concerning to the heavy metals which could migrate to the aquatic medium, there were significant differences in both scenarios. The leaching of zinc is the major environmental concern during undersea operation of undamaged cables whereas the fully sectioned three-core cable produced the migration of significant quantities of copper and iron apart from the zinc migrated from the galvanized steel. Thus, the tar

  14. An Optically-Coupled System for Quantitative Monitoring of MRI-Induced RF Currents into Long Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, Marta G.; Venook, Ross; Pauly, John M.; Scott, Greig C.

    2010-01-01

    The currents induced in long conductors such as guidewires by the radio frequency (RF) field in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are responsible for potentially dangerous heating of surrounding media, such as tissue. This paper presents an optically-coupled system with the potential to quantitatively measure the RF currents induced on these conductors. The system uses a self shielded toroid transducer and active circuitry to modulate a high speed LED transmitter. Plastic fiber guides the light to a photodiode receiver and transimpedance amplifier. System validation included a series of experiments with bare wires that compared wire tip heating by fluoroptic thermometers with the RF current sensor response. Validations were performed on a custom whole body 64 MHz birdcage test platform and on a 1.5T MRI scanner. With this system, a variety of phenomena were demonstrated including cable trap current attenuation, lossy dielectric Q-spoiling and even transverse electromagnetic wave node patterns. This system should find applications in studies of MRI RF safety for interventional devices such as pacemaker leads, and guidewires. In particular, variations of this device could potentially act as a realtime safety monitor during MRI guided interventions. PMID:19758855

  15. Production and qualification of 40 km of Al-stabilized NbTi cable for the ATLAS experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Baccaglioni, G; Cartegni, G C; Horváth, I L; Neuenschwander, J; Pedrini, D; Rossi, L; Volpini, G

    2002-01-01

    The production of the conductor for the superconducting toroids of the ATLAS experiment at LHC (CERN) is now in progress. The toroid system, composed of one barrel toroid (BT) and two end cap toroids (ECTs), exploits aluminum-clad Rutherford-type NbTi conductors of large size (57 * 12 mm for BT, 42 * 12 mm for ECTs) and high critical current (Ic) (58 kA for BT and 60 kA for ECTs @ 4.2 K, 5 T). Some 55 km of conductor are required for the BT and 26 km for the ECTs, respectively. An Italian-Swiss (ETH Zurich and INFN) consortium is in charge of the delivery of half of the whole amount. This paper describes the results of this production with particular emphasis to the quality control system developed to monitor the production with both on-line controls and the post-production quality assessment protocols. The main result is the confirmation that the technologies selected and the whole process are reliable and reproducible over large production quantities. The overall degradation due to the cabling and the co-ex...

  16. Application study on the first cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuihua Mei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to push forward the development of CFRP cable-stayed bridge and accumulate experiences, the study on the application of the first cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables in China was carried out. The design essentials of main components of the bridge were introduced and its integral performances, including static properties, dynamic properties and seismic response were analyzed using finite element method. A new bond-type anchorage was developed and the processes of fabricating and installing CFRP cables were elaborated. Based on the results of construction simulation, a tension scheme for bridge was propound. During constructing, the stresses and displacement of girder and pylon, as well as the forces and stresses of cables, were tested. The results indicate that all sections of the bridge could meet the requirements of the ultimate bearing capacity and normal service; the performance of the anchorage is good and the stresses in each cable system are similar; the tested values accord well with the calculated values. Further, creep deformation of the resin in anchorages under service load is not obvious. All these results demonstrate that the first application of CFRP cables in the cable-stayed bridge in China is successful.

  17. Multi-contact behaviors among Nb{sub 3}Sn strands associated with load cycles in a CS1 cable cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Shuming; Wang, Dengming [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Environment and Disaster in Western China, Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Mechanics, School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zheng, Xiaojing, E-mail: xjzheng@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Environment and Disaster in Western China, Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Mechanics, School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); School of Electronical and Mechanical Engineering, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • This paper presents the contact mechanical characteristics in the cable cross section. • Transverse compression stresses that affect cable performance are performed. • The effect of adjacent number on the stress distribution are also presented. - Abstract: Cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC) are an essential part of the superconducting magnets for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The cable performance maybe significantly influenced by the transverse compressive stresses among the strands, which is quite sensitive to the cyclic loading. To systematically explore the underlying mechanism within this complicated phenomenon, more cyclic transverse loads have been successfully applied on the CS1 cable based upon discrete element method (DEM) in Jia’s work (Jia et al., 2014). In this work, the effects of load cycles on the contact mechanical characteristics among strands in the cable cross section are studied in detail. The distribution characteristics of contact forces among strands are analyzed firstly. It can be found that the probability density of the normal and tangential contact forces all decay with an exponential law and they are unaffected by cycle numbers. Sequentially, the distribution and evolution features of the transverse compressive stresses of strands associated with cycle numbers are investigated. The numerical results show that the peak of the occurrence probability distribution decreases and the range of high stress becomes broader with increasing cycle numbers. In addition, the variation of each strand’s adjacent number with respect to cycle loads and its effect on the stress distribution are also presented. It is found that the stress distribution may be largely affected by the adjacent number, which is significantly related to the cycle numbers. It is promising to provide basic and useful instruction for further cable design.

  18. Ship nuclear power device of cable aging management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Hua; Chen Miao; Chen Tao

    2012-01-01

    Cable for marine nuclear power plant continuous delivery of electrical energy. Cable is mostly in the high temperature and strong radiation and harsh working environment, and can not be replaced in the lifetime This should be the cable aging management methods through research, maintenance and repair program to provide a scientific basis. Cable aging management approach for a number of different levels of cable management at different levels, relying on computers and other modern tools, the use of information management database software maintenance of the cable through the science of aging control. Cable Aging Management including the scope of cable aging management, classification management basis and used for different levels of management supervision and implementation of means testing approach. Application of the ship that has the operational management science, both planned maintenance to improve the science, but also improves the efficiency of aging management. This management method can be extended to nuclear power plants of cable aging management. (authors)

  19. Cable condition monitoring in a pressurized water reactor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hussaini, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Oconee Nuclear Station is the first nuclear plant designed, engineered and constructed by Duke Power Company. Even though the accelerated aging method was available to determine the life expectancy of the cable used in the reactor building, no natural aging data was available at that time. In order to be able to verify the condition of the reactor building cable over the life of the plant, an on-going cable monitoring plan was instituted. Various types of cable were selected to be monitored, and they were installed in cable life evaluation circuits in the reactor building. At five year intervals over the life of the plant, cable samples would be removed from these cable life evaluation circuits and tested to determine the effects of the reactor building environment on the integrity of the cable. A review of the cable life evaluation circuits and the results of the evaluation program to date is presented

  20. Characterization of fiber optic cables under large tensile loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogle, J.W.; Looney, L.D.; Peterson, R.T.

    1984-01-01

    Fiber optic cables designed for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have to withstand an unusually harsh environment. Cables have been manufactured under a 6 year old DOE specification that has been slightly modified as the cable requirements are better understood. In order to better understand the cable properties a unique capability has been established at the NTS. Instrumentation has been developed to characterize the transmission properties of 1 km of fiber optic cable placed under a controlled tensile load up to 1500 lbs. The properties measured are cable tension, cable elongation, induced attenuation, attenuation vs. location, fiber strain, bandwidth, and ambient temperature. Preforming these measurements on cables from the two qualified NTS fiber optic cable manufacturers, Siecor and Andrew Corp., led to a new set of specifications