WorldWideScience

Sample records for conductivity meter indications

  1. Conducted interference on smart meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyer, Cornelis H.A.; Leferink, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The increasing conducted interference caused by modern electronic equipment is causing more problems for electronic, or static, energy meters. These meters are called smart meters when equipped with a communication link, and are replacing the conventional electromechanical meters. It is known that

  2. An inductive conductivity meter for monitoring the salinity of dialysis water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, J.M.

    1970-01-01

    An inductive conductivity meter is described, especially adapted as a salinity monitor for dialysis water. Salinity are given. The principal problems of the inductive conductivity meter result from the low conductivity of electrolytes. The weak coupling due to the electrolyte means that stray...

  3. Iatrogenic hypernatremia in hemodialysis patients: A result of erroneous online conductivity monitor and conductivity meter reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obialo, Chamberlain I; John, Smitha; Bashir, Khalid

    2017-10-01

    Hyponatremia is common in chronic kidney disease and in end stage kidney disease (ESKD) but hypernatremia is infrequent in ESKD. The incidence of hypernatremia is higher in ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (PD) than in hemodialysis (HD) patients. In PD patients it is often a result of excessive ultrafiltration but in HD it is often a result of dialysate composition errors. Dialysate composition errors can inadvertently cause either hyponatremia or hypernatremia. We present two cases of symptomatic hypernatremia which manifested as increased thirst, excessive weight gain and worsening hypertension in HD patients. The hypernatremia was caused by a combination of errors in online conductivity reading and a faulty hand held conductivity meter. Symptoms were relieved in both patients after replacement of the dialysis machine. © 2017 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  4. Design of a conductivity meter for highly insulating liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medrano, M; Perez, A T; Soria-Hoyo, C [Dep. Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2007-03-07

    The accurate measurement of the electrical conductivity of low conducting liquids is an important issue in many industrial applications. The lack of repeatability is a common problem to the available procedures and commercial techniques. In this paper, we present a device to measure the electrical conductivity of low conducting liquids. The variable inter-electrode gap allows us to assure the existence of an ohmic regime, since only under ohmic regime conditions is the value of the conductivity meaningful.

  5. Design of a conductivity meter for highly insulating liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrano, M; Perez, A T; Soria-Hoyo, C

    2007-01-01

    The accurate measurement of the electrical conductivity of low conducting liquids is an important issue in many industrial applications. The lack of repeatability is a common problem to the available procedures and commercial techniques. In this paper, we present a device to measure the electrical conductivity of low conducting liquids. The variable inter-electrode gap allows us to assure the existence of an ohmic regime, since only under ohmic regime conditions is the value of the conductivity meaningful

  6. Investigated conductive fracture in the granitic rocks by flow-meter logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Nobuhisa; Koide, Kaoru; Takeichi, Atsushi

    1997-01-01

    Test of the use of a measurement technique for the hydraulic conductivity of geological structures which act as flow paths or are impermeable to groundwater flow. In order to prove the value of flow-meter logging as an in-situ technique for detecting conductive fractures in granitic rocks, the method has been applied to a borehole near the Tono uranium mine, Gifu, Japan. This study in involved with detecting a conductive fracture and calculating the hydraulic conductivities. The results were as follows: (1) In a zone of groundwater inflow into the borehole, the hydraulic conductivity was calculated to be of the order of the 10 -3 - 10 -4 (cm/sec) from flow-meter logging. This value agreed with the results of a in-situ borehole permeability test carried out with a similar depth interval. (2) The study showed that flow-meter logging is effective for detecting the distribution of high conductivity fractures and calculating the hydraulic conductivity. (author)

  7. Design and Fabrication of a Soil Moisture Meter Using Thermal Conductivity Properties of Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subir DAS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Study of soil for agricultural purposes is one of the main focuses of research since the beginning of civilization as food related requirements is closely linked with the soil. The study of soil has generated an interest among the researchers for very similar other reasons including understanding of soil water dynamics, evolution of agricultural water stress and validation of soil moisture modeling. In this present work design of a soil moisture measurement meter using thermal conductivity properties of soil has been proposed and experimental results are reported.

  8. Measurements of void fraction by an improved multi-channel conductance void meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Chul-Hwa; Chung, Moon Ki; No, Hee Cheon

    1998-01-01

    An improved multi-channel Conductance Void Meter (CVM) was developed to measure a void fraction. Its measuring principle is basically based upon the differences of electrical conductance of a two-phase mixture due to the variation of void fraction around a sensor. The sensor is designed to be flush-mounted to the inner wall of the test section to avoid the flow disturbances. The signal processor with three channels is specially designed so as to minimize the inherent error due to the phase difference between channels. It is emphasized that the guard electrodes are electrically shielded in order not to affect the measurements of two-phase mixture conductance, but to make the electric fields evenly distributed in a measuring volume. Void fraction is measured for bubbly and slug flow regimes in a vertical air-water loop, and statistical signal processing techniques are applied to show that CVM has a good dynamic resolution which is required to investigate the structural developments of bubbly flow and the propagation of void waves in a flow channel. (author)

  9. Characterization of meter-scale spatial variability of riverbed hydraulic conductivity in a lowland river (Aa River, Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghysels, Gert; Benoit, Sien; Awol, Henock; Jensen, Evan Patrick; Debele Tolche, Abebe; Anibas, Christian; Huysmans, Marijke

    2018-04-01

    An improved general understanding of riverbed heterogeneity is of importance for all groundwater modeling studies that include river-aquifer interaction processes. Riverbed hydraulic conductivity (K) is one of the main factors controlling river-aquifer exchange fluxes. However, the meter-scale spatial variability of riverbed K has not been adequately mapped as of yet. This study aims to fill this void by combining an extensive field measurement campaign focusing on both horizontal and vertical riverbed K with a detailed geostatistical analysis of the meter-scale spatial variability of riverbed K . In total, 220 slug tests and 45 standpipe tests were performed at two test sites along the Belgian Aa River. Omnidirectional and directional variograms (along and across the river) were calculated. Both horizontal and vertical riverbed K vary over several orders of magnitude and show significant meter-scale spatial variation. Horizontal K shows a bimodal distribution. Elongated zones of high horizontal K along the river course are observed at both sections, indicating a link between riverbed structures, depositional environment and flow regime. Vertical K is lognormally distributed and its spatial variability is mainly governed by the presence and thickness of a low permeable organic layer at the top of the riverbed. The absence of this layer in the center of the river leads to high vertical K and is related to scouring of the riverbed by high discharge events. Variograms of both horizontal and vertical K show a clear directional anisotropy with ranges along the river being twice as large as those across the river.

  10. An assessment of morphometric indices, blood chemistry variables and an energy meter as indicators of the whole body lipid content in Micropterus dolomieu, Sander vitreus and Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Rose, Brien P.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of several non-lethal techniques as indicators of total lipid content in smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, walleye Sander vitreus and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was investigated. The techniques included (1) the Fulton and relative condition factors, (2) relative mass, (3) plasma indicators of nutritional status (alkaline phosphatase, calcium, cholesterol, protein, triglycerides and glucose) and (4) readings from a hand-held, microwave energy meter. Although simple linear regression analysis showed that lipid content was significantly correlated with several predictor variables in each species, the r2 values for the relations ranged from 0·17 to 0·50 and no single approach was consistent for all species. Only one model, between energy-meter readings and lipid content in I. punctatus, had an r2 value (0·83) high enough to justify using it as a predictive tool. Results indicate that no single variable was an accurate and reliable indicator of whole body lipid content in these fishes, except the energy meter for I. punctatus.

  11. Construction, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of an in-house conductance meter for measurement of skin hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Saja H; Altrabsheh, Bilal; Assa'd, Tareq; Jaradat, Said; Alshra'ah, Mohammad; Aljamal, Abdulfattah; Alkhatib, Hatim S; Almalty, Abdul-Majeed

    2012-12-01

    Different probes are used in dermato-cosmetic research to measure the electrical properties of the skin. The principle governing the choice of the geometry and material of the measuring probe is not well defined in the literature and some device's measuring principles are not accessible for the scientific community. The purpose of this work was to develop a simple inexpensive conductance meter for the objective in vivo evaluation of skin hydration. The conductance meter probe was designed using the basic equation governing wave propagation along Transverse Electromagnetic transmission lines. It consisted of two concentric copper circular electrodes printed on FR4 dielectric material. The performance of the probe was validated by evaluating its measurement depth, its ability to monitor in vitro water sorption-desorption and in vivo skin hydration effect in comparison to that of the Corneometer CM 825. The measurement depth of the probe, 15 μm, was comparable to that of CM 825. The in vitro readings of the probe correlated strongly with the amount of water adsorbed on filter paper. Skin hydration after application of a moisturizer was monitored effectively by the new probe with good correlation to the results of CM 825. In conclusion, a simple probe for evaluating skin hydration was made from off-the-shelf materials and its performance was validated in comparison to a commercially available probe. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Conductivity data from moored current meter casts in the North Pacific Ocean from 1979-04-23 to 1981-10-01 (NODC Accession 8200163)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity data were collected using moored current meter casts in the North Pacific Ocean from April 23, 1979 to October 1, 1981. Data were submitted by...

  13. Conductivity data from moored current meter casts in the North Pacific Ocean from 1980-08-05 to 1981-08-01 (NODC Accession 8300053)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity data were collected using moored current meter casts in the North Pacific Ocean from August 5, 1980 to August 1, 1981. Data were submitted by University...

  14. Temperature and conductivity data from moored current meter casts in the North Pacific Ocean from 1978-10-18 to 1980-08-01 (NODC Accession 8200188)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and conductivity data were collected using moored current meter casts in the North Pacific Ocean from October 18, 1978 to August 1, 1980. Data were...

  15. Do indices of coronary conductance after reperfusion reflect the extent of salvaged myocardium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Takahiro; Watanabe, Hisashi; Tsurusaki, Tetsushi; Minai, Kousuke; Ogawa, Takayuki; Iwano, Keiji; Tamura, Tetsutarou; Yoshida, Satoshi; Mutou, Makoto; Imai, Kamon; Horie, Toshinobu; Mochizuki, Seibu

    2004-05-01

    Existing indices of coronary conductance (hyperemic flow-versus-pressure slope index, FPSI, and zero flow pressure, Pzf) have been developed as measures of microcoronary resistance. These indices, however, refer to cases of normal hearts, and there are no reports studying these indices following acute myocardial infarction. In this study, we investigated whether FPSI and Pzf truly measure the extent of myocardial salvage after successful reperfusion therapy. We also developed a new index of zero pressure flow, Fzp. Nineteen patients who underwent successful reperfusion therapy to the proximal portion of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) were studied. After successful reperfusion therapy, a Doppler wire was placed into the LAD. Aortic pressure was recorded in real time. Results from the aortic pressure and flow meter were combined to produce FPSI, Pzf, and Fzp. All cases underwent a resting thallium (Tl) and BMIPP scintigram within five days of successful reperfusion therapy. Infarcted myocardium was estimated using a severity score calculated from the Tl scintigraphy (TlSS), and the BMIPP (BMIPPSS) was estimated using a severity score. Patients with a TlSS/BMIPPSS ratio of less than 0.4 were assigned to the successful salvage group (group S), while the others were assigned to the failed salvage group (group F). FPSI of group F was 1.91 +/- 0.26 m/sec and of group S was 0.92 +/- 0.43 m/sec (P < 0.01). Pzf of group F was 51 +/- 3 mmHg and of group S was 51 +/- 5 mmHg (NS). Fzp of group F was -98 +/- 16 cm/sec and of group S was -46 +/- 4 cm/sec (P < 0.05). FPSI and the new index of Fzp were useful in estimating the extent of myocardial salvage. Our results suggest that the Pzf index could not differentiate between the two groups.

  16. Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of cores from a 26 meter deep borehole drilled in Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, A.; Vieira, G.; Ramos, M.

    2012-06-01

    During the month of January of 2008 a borehole (Permamodel-Gulbenkian 1 — PG1) 26 m deep was drilled on the top of Mount Reina Sofia (275 m a.s.l.) near the Spanish Antarctic Station of Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands. Cores from 1.5 m to about 26 m deep were collected for measuring several physical properties. The objective of the present work is to report the values of the thermal conductivity and the thermal diffusivity that were measured in the cores from the borehole and the heat production that was estimated for the geological formations intercepted by it. Seven cores were selected to measure the thermal conductivity and the thermal diffusivity. The measured values for the thermal conductivity vary from 2.6 W/mK to 3.3 W/mK while the measured values for the thermal diffusivity vary from 1.1 × 10- 6 m2/s to 1.6 × 10- 6 m2/s. Both thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity, on average, show a slight increase with depth. Average heat production was also estimated for two portions of the borehole: one from 2 to 12 m and the other from 12 to 25 m. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to estimate the concentrations of uranium, thorium, and potassium of the cores, from which the heat production per unit volume was calculated. The estimated heat production for the first half of the borehole is 2.218 μW/m3 while for the second half it is 2.173 μW/m3; these heat production values are compatible with acidic rock types. Porosity and density were also estimated for the same cores.

  17. Study of interaction between ionic liquids and orange G in aqueous solution with UV-vis spectroscopy and conductivity meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Jin-Ping; Zhu, Meng-Ting; Qin, Li; Wang, Xin-Hong

    2018-05-05

    The interactions between Orange G (OG) with three kinds of ionic liquid surfactants (C 10 mimBF 4 , C 12 mimBF 4 , C 16 mimBF 4 ) and CTAB were studied with UV-Vis spectra and conductivity measurements. The systematic changes in UV-Vis spectra with an increase of carbon-chain length may be observed in presence of OG. They correspond to CMC of every system, respectively, and the CMCs of four systems have exhibit the decrease of CMCs compared to pure surfactant. The binding constants are calculated from the results of conductivity measurements in the order of C 16 mimBF 4 >CTAB>C 12 mimBF 4 >C 10 mimBF 4 . Furthermore, system behaviors presented significant association of complex formation and micelles formation, i.e. the change in UV-Vis spectra before and after the formation of micelles in mixed systems. In addition, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and 1 H NMR analysis further confirmed that the complexes are formed by hydrogen bond and van der Waal force. These findings could provide scientific guidance for extraction and separation of dyes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Study of interaction between ionic liquids and orange G in aqueous solution with UV-vis spectroscopy and conductivity meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Jin-Ping; Zhu, Meng-Ting; Qin, Li; Wang, Xin-Hong

    2018-05-01

    The interactions between Orange G (OG) with three kinds of ionic liquid surfactants (C10mimBF4, C12mimBF4, C16mimBF4) and CTAB were studied with UV-Vis spectra and conductivity measurements. The systematic changes in UV-Vis spectra with an increase of carbon-chain length may be observed in presence of OG. They correspond to CMC of every system, respectively, and the CMCs of four systems have exhibit the decrease of CMCs compared to pure surfactant. The binding constants are calculated from the results of conductivity measurements in the order of C16mimBF4 > CTAB > C12mimBF4 > C10mimBF4. Furthermore, system behaviors presented significant association of complex formation and micelles formation, i.e. the change in UV-Vis spectra before and after the formation of micelles in mixed systems. In addition, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and 1H NMR analysis further confirmed that the complexes are formed by hydrogen bond and van der Waal force. These findings could provide scientific guidance for extraction and separation of dyes.

  19. Conductivity gradients as inferred by electromagnetic-induction meter (EM38) readings within a salt-affected wetland in Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirck, Jaconette; Schroeder, William

    2018-01-01

    The change from deep-rooted grass and shrub vegetation to annual-cropping dryland farming has contributed to serious soil salinization challenges on the semi-arid North American Great Plains. In some cases, cultivation of the Great Plains has increased the availability of water, causing dominant sulfate salts to travel from the uphill areas to depressions where it will surface when water evaporates at the soil surface. A potential solution could include the replanting of the native deep-rooted vegetation, which requires knowledge of the spatial distribution of soil salinity. This study tested the soil factors influencing electromagnetic-induction meter (EM38) readings of soil salinity distribution around wetlands. The objectives were to: (1) predict growth and survival of Salix dasyclados Wimm. (cv. `India') along a salinity gradient in a small wetland, and (2) investigate whether newly established willows affected water-table fluctuations, which would indicate their phreatophytic nature or their ability to obtain their water supply from the zone of saturation. Results indicated significantly lower salinity values for sampling points with EM38 readings above 175 and 250 mS m-1 for height and survival, respectively. In addition, diurnal fluxes of the water table in areas of good willow growth and lower salinity indicated that cultivar `India' was phreatophytic in these areas and therefore has great potential for being used to combat saline seeps.

  20. EMMNet: Sensor Networking for Electricity Meter Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ting Lin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Smart sensors are emerging as a promising technology for a large number of application domains. This paper presents a collection of requirements and guidelines that serve as a basis for a general smart sensor architecture to monitor electricity meters. It also presents an electricity meter monitoring network, named EMMNet, comprised of data collectors, data concentrators, hand-held devices, a centralized server, and clients. EMMNet provides long-distance communication capabilities, which make it suitable suitable for complex urban environments. In addition, the operational cost of EMMNet is low, compared with other existing remote meter monitoring systems based on GPRS. A new dynamic tree protocol based on the application requirements which can significantly improve the reliability of the network is also proposed. We are currently conducting tests on five networks and investigating network problems for further improvements. Evaluation results indicate that EMMNet enhances the efficiency and accuracy in the reading, recording, and calibration of electricity meters.

  1. EMMNet: sensor networking for electricity meter monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhi-Ting; Zheng, Jie; Ji, Yu-Sheng; Zhao, Bao-Hua; Qu, Yu-Gui; Huang, Xu-Dong; Jiang, Xiu-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Smart sensors are emerging as a promising technology for a large number of application domains. This paper presents a collection of requirements and guidelines that serve as a basis for a general smart sensor architecture to monitor electricity meters. It also presents an electricity meter monitoring network, named EMMNet, comprised of data collectors, data concentrators, hand-held devices, a centralized server, and clients. EMMNet provides long-distance communication capabilities, which make it suitable suitable for complex urban environments. In addition, the operational cost of EMMNet is low, compared with other existing remote meter monitoring systems based on GPRS. A new dynamic tree protocol based on the application requirements which can significantly improve the reliability of the network is also proposed. We are currently conducting tests on five networks and investigating network problems for further improvements. Evaluation results indicate that EMMNet enhances the efficiency and accuracy in the reading, recording, and calibration of electricity meters.

  2. Charge Meter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 4. Charge Meter: Easy Way to Measure Charge and Capacitance: Some Interesting Electrostatic Experiments. M K Raghavendra V Venkataraman. Classroom Volume 19 Issue 4 April 2014 pp 376-390 ...

  3. Fitting of an 8.5-millimeter abutment for bone conduction devices: indications and postintervention course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dun, C.A.J.; Hol, M.K.S.; Mylanus, E.A.M.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We present indications and clinical outcomes of fitting an 8.5-mm abutment for bone conduction devices. METHODS: In 39 cases with a follow-up time of more than 12 months after fitting of an 8.5-mm abutment, the preintervention and postintervention courses were retrospectively evaluated.

  4. Large scale network management. Condition indicators for network stations, high voltage power conductions and cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggen, Arnt Ove; Rolfseng, Lars; Langdal, Bjoern Inge

    2006-02-01

    In the Strategic Institute Programme (SIP) 'Electricity Business enters e-business (eBee)' SINTEF Energy research has developed competency that can help the energy business employ ICT systems and computer technology in an improved way. Large scale network management is now a reality, and it is characterized by large entities with increasing demands on efficiency and quality. These are goals that can only be reached by using ICT systems and computer technology in a more clever way than what is the case today. At the same time it is important that knowledge held by experienced co-workers is consulted when formal rules for evaluations and decisions in ICT systems are developed. In this project an analytical concept for evaluation of networks based information in different ICT systems has been developed. The method estimating the indicators to describe different conditions in a network is general, and indicators can be made to fit different levels of decision and network levels, for example network station, transformer circuit, distribution network and regional network. Moreover, the indicators can contain information about technical aspects, economy and HSE. An indicator consists of an indicator name, an indicator value, and an indicator colour based on a traffic-light analogy to indicate a condition or a quality for the indicator. Values on one or more indicators give an impression of important conditions in the network, and make up the basis for knowing where more detailed evaluations have to be conducted before a final decision on for example maintenance or renewal is made. A prototype has been developed for testing the new method. The prototype has been developed in Excel, and especially designed for analysing transformer circuits in a distribution network. However, the method is a general one, and well suited for implementation in a commercial computer system (ml)

  5. Radiofrequency energy exposure from the Trilliant smart meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kenneth R; Tell, Richard A

    2013-08-01

    This paper reviews radiofrequency (RF) field levels produced by electric utility meters equipped with RF transceivers (so-called Smart Meters), focusing on meters from one manufacturer (Trilliant, Redwood City, CA, USA, and Granby, QC, Canada). The RF transmission levels are summarized based on publicly available data submitted to the U.S. Federal Communications Commission supplemented by limited independent measurements. As with other Smart Meters, this meter incorporates a low powered radiofrequency transceiver used for a neighborhood mesh network, in the present case using ZigBee-compliant physical and medium access layers, operating in the 2.45 GHz unlicensed band but with a proprietary network architecture. Simple calculations based on a free space propagation model indicate that peak RF field intensities are in the range of 10 mW m or less at a distance of more than 1-2 m from the meters. However, the duty cycle of transmission from the meters is very low (meter that were consistent with data reported by the vendor to the U.S. Federal Communications Commission. Limited measurements conducted in two houses with the meters were unable to clearly distinguish emissions from the meters from the considerable electromagnetic clutter in the same frequency range from other sources, including Wi-Fi routers and, when it was activated, a microwave oven. These preliminary measurements disclosed the difficulties that would be encountered in characterizing the RF exposures from these meters in homes in the face of background signals from other household devices in the same frequency range. An appendix provides an introduction to Smart Meter technology. The RF transmitters in wireless-equipped Smart Meters operate at similar power levels and in similar frequency ranges as many other digital communications devices in common use, and their exposure levels are very far below U.S. and international exposure limits.

  6. Lessons learned in the conduct of a global, large simple trial of treatments indicated for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolitsopoulos, Francesca M; Strom, Brian L; Faich, Gerald; Eng, Sybil M; Kane, John M; Reynolds, Robert F

    2013-03-01

    Large, "practical" or streamlined trials (LSTs) are used to study the effectiveness and/or safety of medicines in real world settings with minimal study imposed interventions. While LSTs have benefits over traditional randomized clinical trials and observational studies, there are inherent challenges to their conduct. Enrollment and follow-up of a large study sample of patients with mental illness pose a particular difficulty. To assist in overcoming operational barriers in future LSTs in psychiatry, this paper describes the recruitment and observational follow-up strategies used for the ZODIAC study, an international, open-label LST, which followed 18,239 persons randomly assigned to one of two treatments indicated for schizophrenia for 1 year. ZODIAC enrolled patients in 18 countries in North America, South America, Europe, and Asia using broad study entry criteria and required minimal clinical care intervention. Recruitment of adequate numbers and continued engagement of both study centers and subjects were significant challenges. Strategies implemented to mitigate these in ZODIAC include global study expansion, study branding, field coordinator and site relations programs, monthly site newsletters, collection of alternate contact information, conduct of national death index (NDI) searches, and frequent sponsor, contract research organization (CRO) and site interaction to share best practices and address recruitment challenges quickly. We conclude that conduct of large LSTs in psychiatric patient populations is feasible, but importantly, realistic site recruitment goals and maintaining site engagement are key factors that need to be considered in early study planning and conduct. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Advanced Metering Infrastructure based on Smart Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi

    By specifically designating penetrations rates of advanced meters and communication technologies, devices and systems, this paper introduces that the penetration of advanced metering is important for the future development of electric power system infrastructure. It examines the state of the technology and the economical benefits of advanced metering. One result of the survey is that advanced metering currently has a penetration of about six percent of total installed electric meters in the United States. Applications to the infrastructure differ by type of organization. Being integrated with emerging communication technologies, smart meters enable several kinds of features such as, not only automatic meter reading but also distribution management control, outage management, remote switching, etc.

  8. Radiation meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, P H

    1990-05-30

    Measuring means comprising first and second silicon PIN diode detectors both being covered with a thin layer of conducting material and the second detector being additionally covered with a relatively thick layer of material, the thickness being chosen such that beta radiation dose rate can be measured in beta radiation fields of high or medium energy, and in the presence of X and gamma radiation. (author). 2 figs.

  9. Quality indicators for the hospital transfusion chain : A national survey conducted in 100 dutch hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlker-Jansen, Pauline Y.; Janssen, M. P.; van Tilborgh-de Jong, A. J W; Schipperus, M. R.; Wiersum-Osselton, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The 2011 Dutch Blood Transfusion Guideline for hospitals incorporates seven internal quality indicators for evaluation of the hospital transfusion chain. The indicators aim to measure guideline compliance as shown by the instatement of a hospital transfusion committee and transfusion

  10. Conductivity as an indicator of surface water quality in the proximity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-05

    Oct 5, 2015 ... FeCr smelting did not significantly impact surface water quality, but that surface run-off and/or groundwater leaching ... (EIAs) were required, or for older FeCr smelters during the .... then used for the determination of conductivity with a Hanna ... significant differences in the conductivity values measured at.

  11. Highly sensitive antibody-aptamer sensor for vascular endothelial growth factor based on hybridization chain reaction and pH meter/indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huifeng; Kou, Fangxia; Ye, Hongzhi; Wang, Zongwen; Huang, Suixin; Liu, Xianxiang; Zhu, Xi; Lin, Zhenyu; Chen, Guonan

    2017-12-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a crucial signaling protein for the tumor growth and metastasis, which is also acted as the biomarkers for various diseases. In this research, we fabricate an aptamer-antibody sensor for point-of-care test of VEGF. Firstly, target VEGF is captured by antibody immobilized on the microplate, and then binds with aptamer to form the sandwich structure. Next, with the assist of glucose oxidase (GOx)-functionalized ssDNAs, hybridization chain reaction occurs using the aptamer as the primer. Thus, GOx are greatly gathered on the microplate, which catalyzes the oxidization of glucose, leading to the pH change. As a result, the detect limit at a signal-to-noise was estimated to be 0.5pg/mL of target by pH meter, and 1.6pg/mL of VEGF was able to be distinguished by naked eyes. Meanwhile, this method has been used assay VEGF in the serum with the satisfactory results. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. A Preliminary Study of the Application of Electromagnetic Conductivity Meter on Soil Properties of Paddy Cultivation Areas at Wue Village, Jantho, Aceh Besar District, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Marwan,

    2015-01-01

    Conventional soil sampling is time consuming and requires meticulous laboratory analysis. Hence, mapping of soil apparent in respect to electrical conductivity (ECa) has been developed to identify areas of contrasting soil properties. Such ECa values are represent measures of soil properties. The sensor system, GF Instrument model CMD-4 were used to analyze soil physical properties. This system consists of three important parts, ECa sensor, data logger and Global Positioning System (DGPS) rec...

  13. Changes in muscle fiber conduction velocity indicate recruitment of distinct motor unit populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtman, C J; Stegeman, D F; Van Dijk, J P; Zwarts, M J

    2003-09-01

    To obtain more insight into the changes in mean muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) during sustained isometric exercise at relatively low contraction levels, we performed an in-depth study of the human tibialis anterior muscle by using multichannel surface electromyogram. The results show an increase in MFCV after an initial decrease of MFCV at 30 or 40% maximum voluntary contraction in all of the five subjects studied. With a peak velocity analysis, we calculated the distribution of conduction velocities of action potentials in the bipolar electromyogram signal. It shows two populations of peak velocities occurring simultaneously halfway through the exercise. The MFCV pattern implies the recruitment of two different populations of motor units. Because of the lowering of MFCV of the first activated population of motor units, the newly recruited second population of motor units becomes visible. It is most likely that the MFCV pattern can be ascribed to the fatiguing of already recruited predominantly type I motor units, followed by the recruitment of fresh, predominantly type II, motor units.

  14. Derivation of the canopy conductance from surface temperature and spectral indices for estimating evapotranspiration in semiarid vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morillas, L.; Garcia, M.; Zarco-Tejada, P.; Ladron de Guevara, M.; Villagarcia, L.; Were, A.; Domingo, F.

    2009-01-01

    This work evaluates the possibilities for estimating stomata conductance (C) and leaf transpiration (Trf) at the ecosystem scale from radiometric indices and surface temperature. The relationships found between indices and the transpiration component of the water balance in a semiarid tussock ecosystem in SE Spain are discussed. Field data were collected from spring 2008 until winter 2009 in order to observe the annual variability of the relationships and the behaviour of spectral indices and surface temperature. (Author) 11 refs.

  15. Smart meter status report from Toronto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, D.

    2006-01-01

    An update of Toronto Hydro's smart metering program was presented. Electricity demand is expected to keep increasing, and there is presently insufficient generation to match supply needs in Ontario. The smart metering program was introduced to aid in the Ontario government's energy conservation strategy, as well as to address peak supply problems that have led to power outages. It is expected that the smart metering program will reduce provincial peak supply by 5 per cent, as the meters support both time-of-use rates and critical peak pricing. Over 800,000 smart meters will be supplied to customers by 2007, and all 4.3 million homes in Toronto will have a smart meter by 2010. In order to meet targets for 2010, the utility will continue to install more 15,000 meters each month for the next 4 years. While the Ontario government has planned and coordinated the rollout and developed smart metering specifications and standards, Toronto Hydro is responsible for the purchase, installation, operation and maintenance of the meters. Advance testing of each meter is needed to ensure billing accuracy, and customer education on meter use is also. The complexity of the metering program has led the utility to establish a rigid project management process. Customer education pilot program are currently being conducted. Experience gained during the earlier phases of the program have enabled the utility to select appropriate metering systems based on density, topography and physical conditions. Project expenditures have been within budget due to improved project estimating and planning. The metering program has been conducted in tandem with the utility's peakSAVER program, a residential and small commercial load control program that has been successful in reducing summer peak demand by cycling air conditioners without causing discomfort. It was concluded that the utility will continue with its mass deployment of smart meters, and is currently preparing its call center to handled

  16. Interest in smart metering project surprises utility, IBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, D.

    2006-01-01

    This article provided an outline of Hydro Ottawa and IBM's smart metering pilot project, which has resulted in high approval ratings from the public. The project features 375 participants broken down into 3 separate groups to look for potential consumption differences between customers charged according to standard time-of-use pricing; time-of-use with critical peak pricing; and time-of-use with critical peak rebates. The Ontario Smart Price Pilot project will be run for 5 months, and is expected to provide detailed energy information about usage. Past projects have indicated that customers respond quickly to smart metering, as they are able to monitor their energy usage and more effectively manage their energy consumption. Ontario plans to have all homes and small businesses using smart meters by 2010, as high seasonal demand has indicated that conservation and balanced resource use are now top priorities for many utility companies. At least 10 states in the United States have conducted smart metering pilot projects. The California Public Utilities Commissions has recently approved a $1.7 billion statewide plan to replace old meters with smart meters. In Ontario, customers have ordered 10,000 electricity monitors that Hydro One is giving away. It was concluded that research results from an earlier Hydro One demonstration project with 500 Ontario homeowners showed that real time electricity monitors can help homeowners reduce their consumption of electricity by up to 15 per cent. 4 figs

  17. A Preliminary Study of the Application of Electromagnetic Conductivity Meter on Soil Properties of Paddy Cultivation Areas at Wue Village, Jantho, Aceh Besar District, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Marwan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional soil sampling is time consuming and requires meticulous laboratory analysis. Hence, mapping of soil apparent in respect to electrical conductivity (ECa has been developed to identify areas of contrasting soil properties. Such ECa values are represent measures of soil properties. The sensor system, GF Instrument model CMD-4 were used to analyze soil physical properties. This system consists of three important parts, ECa sensor, data logger and Global Positioning System (DGPS receiver. This research was aimed to evaluate the relationships between ECa and soil properties as well as the yield of rice (paddy in paddy’s farming fields. One study site was chosen. The sensor was pulled through a plotted area of 0.25 km2. The distribution map of ECa was developed to identify the contrast of ECa. More than 100 ECa of data points were collected in 3-hour for the large plot. The data was later transferred to a notebook computer for generation of ECa maps using Surfer 11 software. According to the data analyses, field and ECa showed positive correlation. The average values of ECa are significantly different between hilly area and drainage canal area signifying differences in soil structure. Soil ECa could provide a measure of the spatial differences associated with soil physical and chemical properties, which for paddy soil may be a measure of soil suitability for crop growth and its productivity. This sensor can measure the soil ECa through the field quickly for detailed features of the soil and can be operated by just one worker. The ECa map provides some ideas for future soil management

  18. Sensitivity and specificity of a hand-held milk electrical conductivity meter compared to the California mastitis test for mastitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosgate, G T; Petzer, I M; Karzis, J

    2013-04-01

    Screening tests for mastitis can play an important role in proactive mastitis control programs. The primary objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of milk electrical conductivity (EC) to the California mastitis test (CMT) in commercial dairy cattle in South Africa using Bayesian methods without a perfect reference test. A total of 1848 quarter milk specimens were collected from 173 cows sampled during six sequential farm visits. Of these samples, 25.8% yielded pathogenic bacterial isolates. The most frequently isolated species were coagulase negative Staphylococci (n=346), Streptococcus agalactiae (n=54), and Staphylococcus aureus (n=42). The overall cow-level prevalence of mastitis was 54% based on the Bayesian latent class (BLC) analysis. The CMT was more accurate than EC for classification of cows having somatic cell counts >200,000/mL and for isolation of a bacterial pathogen. BLC analysis also suggested an overall benefit of CMT over EC but the statistical evidence was not strong (P=0.257). The Bayesian model estimated the sensitivity and specificity of EC (measured via resistance) at a cut-point of >25 mΩ/cm to be 89.9% and 86.8%, respectively. The CMT had a sensitivity and specificity of 94.5% and 77.7%, respectively, when evaluated at the weak positive cut-point. EC was useful for identifying milk specimens harbouring pathogens but was not able to differentiate among evaluated bacterial isolates. Screening tests can be used to improve udder health as part of a proactive management plan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiation dose rate meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, S.; Siebentritt, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    A combined dose rate meter and charger unit therefor which does not require the use of batteries but on the other hand produces a charging potential by means of a piezoelectric cylinder which is struck by a manually triggered hammer mechanism. A tubular type electrometer is mounted in a portable housing which additionally includes a geiger-muller (Gm) counter tube and electronic circuitry coupled to the electrometer for providing multi-mode operation. In one mode of operation, an rc circuit of predetermined time constant is connected to a storage capacitor which serves as a timed power source for the gm tube, providing a measurement in terms of dose rate which is indicated by the electrometer. In another mode, the electrometer indicates individual counts

  20. Stakeholder perceptions of indicators of tourism use and codes of conduct in a coastal protected area in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily F. Pomeranz; Mark D. Needham; Linda E. Kruger

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on a collaborative approach for addressing impacts of watercraft-based tourism in Tracy Arm-Fords Terror Wilderness, Alaska. This approach is the Wilderness Best Management Practices (WBMP) and involves codes of conduct for managing use in this area. This article examines use-related indicators that stakeholders prioritize for inclusion in the WBMP...

  1. ORNL Pocket Meter Program: internal operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.D.; Miller, J.H.; Dunsmore, M.R.

    1984-12-01

    The ORNL Pocket Meter Program is designed for auditing the approximate photon radiation exposure of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) radiation workers. Although pocket meters are considered to be a secondary personnel dosimetry system at ORNL, they are valuable indicators of unplanned exposures if proper procedures are followed for testing, calibrating, deploying, wearing, processing, and recording data. 4 figures, 1 table

  2. Digital temperature meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacki, S

    1982-01-01

    Digital temperature meter for precise temperature measurements is presented. Its parts such as thermostat, voltage-frequency converter and digital frequency meter are described. Its technical parameters such as temperature range 50degC-700degC, measurement precision 1degC, measurement error +-1degC are given. (A.S.).

  3. Radioisotope conveyor ash meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savelov, V.D.

    1994-01-01

    Radioisotope conveyor ash meter realizes persistent measuring of ashiness of coal and products of its enrichment on the belt conveyor without contact. The principle of ash meter acting is based on functional dependence of the gamma radiation flows backscattering intensity of radioisotope sources from the ash volume content in the controlled fuel. Facility consists from the ashiness transducer and the processing and control device

  4. Optical cycle power meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A bicycle power meter for measuring power generated when riding a bicycle, the power meter comprising a position-sensitive radiation detector (409) attachable to a component of a crank set (404) of bicycle, and a radiation source (408) attachable to the component of the crank set and configured t...

  5. Ultrasonic flow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lötters, Joost Conrad; Snijders, G.J.; Volker, A.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to an ultrasonic flow meter comprising a flow tube for the fluid whose flow rate is to be determined. The flow meter comprises a transmitting element for emitting ultrasonic waves, which is provided on the outer jacket of the flow tube. A receiving element, which is provided on

  6. Analysis of nano-meter structure in Ti implanted polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Gu; Wu Yuguang; Zhang Tonghe; Zhao Xinrong

    2001-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is modified with Ti ion implantation to a dose of 1x10 17 to 2 x 10 17 cm -2 by using a metal vapor vacuum arc(MEVVA)source. Nano-meter structures in the implanted sample are observed by means of transmission electron microscope (TEM). The influence of ion dose on the structure is indicated. The results show that dense nano-meter phases are dispersed uniformly in the implanted layer. TEM cross section indicates that there is a three-layer structure in the implanted PET. It is found that a metallurgical surface is formed. Therefore the hardness, wear resistance and conductive properties of PET are improved after metal ion implantation. The mechanism of electrical conduction will be discussed

  7. Cr(VI) and Conductivity as Indicators of Surface Water Pollution from Ferrochrome Production in South Africa: Four Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loock-Hattingh, M. M.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Tiedt, L. R.

    2015-10-01

    South Africa is one of the largest ferrochromium (FeCr) producers. Most FeCr is exported to developed countries. Therefore the impact of this industry is of national and international importance. Cr(VI) and conductivity of surface water in four case study areas, near five FeCr smelters were monitored for approximately 1 year. Results indicated that FeCr production in three case study areas had a negative influence on the Cr(VI) concentration and/or the conductivity of surface waters. In the remaining case study areas, drinking water, originating from groundwater, was severely polluted with Cr(VI). The main factors causing pollution were surface run-off and/or seepage, while atmospheric deposition did not seem to contribute significantly. The extinction of diatoms during a severe Cr(VI) surface water pollution event (concentrations up to 216 µg/L) in one of the case study areas was also observed, which clearly indicates the ecological impact of such surface water pollution events.

  8. Your Glucose Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco ... 164KB) En Español Basic Facts 7 Tips for Testing Your Blood Sugar and Caring for Your Meter ...

  9. Hydrogen meter prooftesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, J.J.; Mettler, G.W.

    1976-04-01

    Two diffusion type hydrogen meters have been tested on the Prototype Applications Loop (PAL). The ANL designed unit was used to monitor hydrogen in sodium during FFTF startup and over a wide range of hydrogen concentrations resulting from chemical additions to the sodium and cover gas. A commercially available meter was added and its performance compared with the ANL unit. Details of the test work are described

  10. Portable wireless metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPaola, L [Powtel Monitoring Systems, Inc., Ajax, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Portable meters were discussed as alternatives to standard billing meters for temporary installations. Current, voltage and power factor at a distribution station were measured to calculate kW and kVAR, using an easy to install product that communicates live readings directly to the existing billing system. A background of situations where temporary metering is a possible alternative to regular meters was presented. Use of electronic, clamp on Electronic Recording Ammeters (ERA) and their drawbacks were discussed. An improved temporary metering solution using FM radio transmission to deliver live data to a receiving device, the Eagle Series 3500, was introduced. Improvements over previous ERA systems were discussed, including accuracy, lack of batteries, immediate confirmation of functionality, current, voltage and power factor monitoring, direct feed to billing system, line crew savings, need for only a single unit at any given site, bi-directional power flow metering, independent report storage media, and a portable voltage and P.F. diagnostic tool. Details of trial applications at the Utopia distribution station west of Barrie, ON were presented. This technology was said to be still in the testing stage, but its flexibility and economy were sonsidered to be very promising for future application.

  11. Smart meter users give a thumbs up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, D.

    2007-01-01

    The Ontario Energy Board conducted a pilot study with the support of Hydro Ottawa to better understand how consumers change their electricity consumption behaviour with smart meters and time-of-use (TOU) prices. The project enabled consumers to learn the most cost-effective times to use energy. Results from the Ontario Smart Price Pilot reveal that consumers like to have control over how much and when they use their electricity. Although the savings were only small for some clients involved in the study, they appreciated having their metering bills in greater detail. At the end of the pilot project, participants reduced electricity consumption by 6 per cent. Nearly 90 per cent of the participants paid lower energy bills and nearly 80 per cent indicated they would recommend TOU pricing to their friends because it motivated them to shift some of their electricity use away from peak hours. The average reduction in electricity demand among the two-thirds of participants on critical pricing plans was more than 20 per cent during high demand or critical peak hours in summer. Demand reduction on winter critical peak days was much lower for all participants. 1 fig

  12. Understanding pressurized metered dose inhaler performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, James W; Vehring, Reinhard; Finlay, Warren H

    2015-06-01

    Deepening the current understanding of the factors governing the performance of the pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI) has the potential to benefit patients by providing improved drugs for current indications as well as by enabling new areas of therapy. Although a great deal of work has been conducted to this end, our knowledge of the physical mechanisms that drive pMDI performance remains incomplete. This review focuses on research into the influence of device and formulation variables on pMDI performance metrics. Literature in the areas of dose metering, atomization and aerosol evolution and deposition is covered, with an emphasis on studies of a more fundamental nature. Simple models which may be of use to those developing pMDI products are summarized. Although researchers have had good success utilizing an empirically developed knowledge base to predict pMDI performance, such knowledge may not be applicable when pursuing innovations in device or formulation technology. Developing a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms is a worthwhile investment for those working to enable the next generation of pMDI products.

  13. Digital reactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zongbing

    1996-02-01

    The importance and the usual methods of reactivity measurement in a nuclear reactor are presented. Emphasis is put upon the calculation principle, software and hardware components, main specifications, application, as well as the features of the digital reactivity meter. The test results of operation in various reactors shown that the meter possess the following features: high accuracy, short response time, low output noise, high resolution, wide measuring range, simple and flexible to operate, high stability and reliability. In addition, the reactivity meter can save the measuring data automatically and have a perfect capability of self-verifying. It not only meet the requirement of the reactivity measurement in nuclear power plant, but also can be applied to various types of reactors. (1 tab.)

  14. Hydrogen meter for service in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, J.J.

    1983-11-01

    This standard establishes the requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, quality assurance, examination, and acceptance testing of a hydrogen meter and auxiliary equipment for use in radioactive or nonradioactive liquid sodium service. The meter shall provide a continuous and accurate indication of the hydrogen impurity concentration over the range 0.03 to 10 ppM hydrogen in sodium at temperatures between 800 and 1000 0 F (427 and 538 0 C). The meter may also be used to rapidly monitor changes in hydrogen concentration, over the same concentration range, and, therefore can be used as a sensor for sodium-water reactions in LMFBR steam generators

  15. Digital reactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkus, B.; Anac, H.; Alsan, S.; Erk, S.

    1991-01-01

    Nowadays, various digital methods making use of microcomputers for neutron detector signals and determining the reactivity by numerical calculations are used in reactor control systems in place of classical reactivity meters. In this work, a calculation based on the ''The Time Dependent Transport Equation'' has been developed for determining the reactivity numerically. The reactivity values have been obtained utilizing a computer-based data acquisition and control system and compared with the analog reactivity meter values as well as the values calculated from the ''Inhour Equation''

  16. Sector smart meter audit review report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-31

    This paper presented the results of an electricity distributor sector smart meter audit review conducted by the Ontario Energy Board (OEB) for the period of January 1, 2006 to September 30, 2009. The review summarized the results of a questionnaire related to distributors' smart meter regulatory accounting treatment. Seventy-eight distributors responded to the survey. The review included details of: (1) total investments in smart metering initiative for capital expenditures (CAPEX) and operating maintenance and administrative expenses (OM and A), (2) funding dollars received by the distributors, (3) board-approved recoveries for CAPEX and OM and A, (4) recorded stranded meter costs, and (5) number of smart meters installed in the review period. The audit review demonstrated that some distributors incorrectly recorded carrying charges related to smart meter OM and A expenses, and that some smart meter transactions were recorded in accounts other than OEB established accounts in the general ledger. Results of the audit will be used to provide further accounting assistance to electricity distributors. 7 tabs.

  17. Water velocity meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C. W.; Smith, D. L.

    1970-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive drag sphere velocity meter with a zero to 6 ft/sec range measures steady-state flow. When combined with appropriate data acquisition system, it is suited to applications where large numbers of simultaneous measurements are needed for current mapping or velocity profile determination.

  18. Carbon activity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, P.; Krankota, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    A carbon activity meter utilizing an electrochemical carbon cell with gaseous reference electrodes having particular application for measuring carbon activity in liquid sodium for the LMFBR project is described. The electrolyte container is electroplated with a thin gold film on the inside surface thereof, and a reference electrode consisting of CO/CO 2 gas is used. (U.S.)

  19. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density measurements in laser metrology of moving bodies. To illustrate part of the principle of operation of the phase meter, the figure includes a simplified block diagram of a basic singlechannel digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  20. Net metering study of switching effects on electromechanical meters[Report prepared for the Measurement Canada Electricity Net Metering Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Overberghe, L. [Measurement Canada, London, ON (Canada)

    2006-03-03

    The feasibility of introducing net metering in the electricity sector was evaluated with particular reference to a project administered by Measurement Canada and Electro-Federation Canada (MicroPower Connect) in collaboration with Natural Resources Canada. The objective of the Measurement Canada Electricity Net Metering Project is to identify and eliminate the barriers introduced by the Electricity and Gas Inspection Act regarding the introduction of net metering. The purpose was to design a device that would allow rotation reversal in a residential electromechanical single phase meter. The device should approximate any fluctuations found in a typical net metering system. A series of tests were conducted to understand the influences, on errors, of forward-to-reverse and reverse-to-forward transitions, specifically to find evidence of error migration and mechanical stress. The project was designed to find and measure the effects of forward reverse switching on an electromechanical meter resulting from a change in energy flow. Twenty metres were calibrated in the forward direction in series from light load to high load. Power factor was not adjustable. Test points were then applied in both the forward and reverse directions. The exercise yielded individual errors which were aggregated to show average found errors after 3,000 transitions. Small shifts in errors were apparent and there was no evidence to support a disk flutter theory. refs., tabs., figs.

  1. New consumer services provided by smart metering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daminov Ildar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the issues of smart metering market and considers different services provided by smart metering from consumer point of view. Firstly, smart metering deployment challenges emerging and conventional tariffs, which modify a consumer behavior and thus, the entire electric energy market can be optimized since the customer is motivated to consume less energy. Secondly, the authors illustrate changes in electricity quality, which have an impact on consumer relations with utility. Additionally, two main indices of grid resilience – SAIDI and SAIFI – are exemplified to reveal the improvement potential of smart metering implementation in certain regions of Russia that also influence the consumer. Finally, in-home display and privacy problem directly reflect the consumer’s behavior, thus the private life rights should not be violated as they are guaranteed by law.

  2. Selection of quality indicators for nutritional therapy in pediatrics: a cross-sectional study conducted in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Bertoldi; Aline Ferreira; Luiza Scancetti; Patricia Padilha

    2018-01-01

    Background Quality indicators for nutritional therapy (QINT) are important in assessing care and monitoring of resources. Among the 30 indicators proposed by International Life Sciences Institute, Brazil, there is still no evaluation of the most pertinent for Pediatrics. Objective To list the 10 main quality indicators for nutritional therapies (QINTs) for Pediatrics. Methods This was a two-phase cross-sectional study. Firstly, a questionnaire was answered by physicians, nutritionists, nurses...

  3. Gamma absorption meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincklage, R.D. von.

    1984-01-01

    The absorption meter consists of a radiation source, a trough for the absorbing liquid and a detector. It is characterized by the fact that there is a foil between the detector and the trough, made of a material whose binding energy of the K electrons is a little greater than the energy of the photons emitted by the radiation source. The source of radiation and foil are replaceable. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Intervention on early-onset conduct problems as indicated prevention for substance use: A seven-year follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Estrella; Rodríguez, Concepción; Villar, Paula; Gómez-Fraguela, X Antón

    2017-06-28

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term effects of a manualised program which intervenes on children with early-onset conduct problems, their families and teachers. The program evaluation involved 14 primary schools which were randomly assigned to the intervention (45 participating families) and control (30 families) conditions during 2007-2008. After a screening process which identified children with significant conduct problems both at home with their family and at school, the program was implemented in eight schools. Seven years later, 58 families (37 from the intervention group and 21 from the control group), with characteristics equivalent to those of the study's entire initial group, were contacted again. With measures administered to the children and their parents, comparisons through multivariate analyses of variance between intervention and control groups supported the program's efficacy in reducing both conduct problems and relations with antisocial peers. Furthermore, the program fostered social and communication skills. As regards drug use, the intervention group showed less favourable attitudes towards drugs, lower intention of drug use, lower frequency of tobacco use and lower intensity of alcohol use. These results support the usefulness of multicomponent programs for conduct problems as a way to prevent, in the long term, unfavourable developmental trajectories, where drug use is a key element.

  5. MULTICHANNEL DISTRIBUTION METER: A VERITABLE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Usually, commercial home owners preferred the installation of one or few .... communication (GSM) based solution were presented. The authors ... meters. The proposed meters in their work uses .... The most probable data entry component to ...

  6. Metering Plan: Intelligent Operational Strategies Through Enhanced Metering Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, Jason E.

    2016-07-27

    The Sustainability Program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has adopted a “triple-bottom-line” approach of environmental stewardship, social responsibility, and economic prosperity to its operations. Metering at PNNL works in support of all three, specifically to measure and inform building energy use and greenhouse gas emissions and minimize water use. The foundation for metering at PNNL is a core goal set, which consists of four objectives: providing accurate data without interruption, analyzing data while it is still new, providing actionable recommendations to operations management, and ensuring PNNL’s compliance with contract metering requirements. These core objectives guide the decisions that we make during annual planning and as we operate throughout the year. This 2016 edition of the Metering Plan conveys the metering practices for and vision of the Sustainability Program. Changes in this plan from the 2015 edition include updated tables and an enhanced discussion on energy tracking systems used at PNNL. This plan also discusses updated benchmarking strategies using PNNL’s graphics and analytics tool, BuildingOS by Lucid Design Group. This plan presents our progress toward the metering goals shared by all federal agencies and highlights our successful completion of metering requirements. Currently, PNNL is fully compliant with the applicable legislative and Executive Order metering requirements. PNNL’s approach to the installation of new meters will be discussed. Perhaps most importantly, this plan details the analysis techniques utilized at PNNL that rely on the endless streams of data newly available as a result of increased meter deployment over the last several years. Previous Metering Plans have documented specific meter connection schemes as PNNL focused on deploying meters in a first step toward managing energy and water use. This plan serves not only to highlight PNNL’s successful completion of agency metering goals, but

  7. Streamlining Smart Meter Data Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2015-01-01

    Today smart meters are increasingly used in worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring customer energy consumption at a fine-grained time interval, e.g., every 15 minutes. The data are very sizable, and might be from different sources, along with the other social-economic metrics such as the geographic information of meters, the information about users and their property, geographic location and others, which make the data management very complex. On the other hand, ...

  8. Conduction-corrected modified effective temperature as the indices of combined and separate effect of environmental factors on sensational temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito [School of Life Studies, Sugiyama Jogakuen University, 17-3 Hoshigaoka-motomachi, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8662 (Japan); Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro [School of Human Science and Environment, University of Hyogo, 1-1-12 Hon-cho, Shinzaike, Himeji, Hyogo 670-0092 (Japan); Kondo, Emi [Graduate School Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cyo, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 468555 (Japan); Horikoshi, Tetsumi [Department of Techno-Business Administration, Graduate School of Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 468555 (Japan); Matsubara, Naoki [Division of Environmental Sciences, Graduate School of Kyoto Prefectural University, Nakaragi-cho, Shimogamo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 608522 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    In living spaces, people sit or lie on the floor and adopt a posture in which much of the surface of the body is in contact with the floor. When the temperature of the spatial structure or the surface temperature of an object in contact with the human body is not equivalent to the air temperature, these effects are non-negligible. Most research examining the physiological and psychological responses of the human body has involved subjects sitting in chairs. Research that takes into account body heat balance and assessments of thermal conduction into the environment is uncommon. Thus, in this study, conduction-corrected modified effective temperature (ETF), which is a new thermal environmental index incorporating heat conduction, is defined in order to make possible the evaluation of thermal environments that take into account different postures. This sensational temperature index converts the effects of the following parameters into a temperature equivalent: air velocity, thermal radiation, contact material surface temperature and humidity. This index has the features of a summation formula. Through the use of these parameters, it is possible to represent and quantify their composite influence on bodily sensation and the effects of discrete meteorological elements through an evaluation on an identical axis. (author)

  9. Smart meter incorporating UWB technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, T.A.; Khan, A.B.; Babar, M.; Taj, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    Smart Meter is a key element in the evolving concept of Smart Grid, which plays an important role in interaction between the consumer and the supplier. In general, the smart meter is an intelligent digital energy meter that measures the consumption of electrical energy and provides other additional

  10. Smart metering design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Weranga, K S K; Chandima, D P

    2013-01-01

    Taking into account the present day trends and the requirements, this Brief focuses on smart metering of electricity for next generation energy efficiency and conservation. The contents include discussions on the smart metering concepts and existing technologies and systems as well as design and implementation of smart metering schemes together with detailed examples.

  11. Net metering: zero electricity bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangi, A.; Khan, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide move towards renewable energy sources, environmental concerns and decentralization of the power sector have made net metering an attractive option for power generation at small scale. This paper discusses the net metering, economical issues of renewable sources in Pakistan, technical aspects, installation suitability according to varying terrain, existing utility rules and formulation of legislation for net metering making it economically attractive. (author)

  12. Good standards for smart meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenkamp, R.A.; Huitema, G.B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines what lessons can be learned from the rollout of smart meters in the Netherlands to improve the European smart meter standardization. This study is based on the case of the Dutch meter rollout which preparations started in 2005 but finally was delayed until 2011 by governmental

  13. Selection of quality indicators for nutritional therapy in pediatrics: a cross-sectional study conducted in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Bertoldi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Quality indicators for nutritional therapy (QINT are important in assessing care and monitoring of resources. Among the 30 indicators proposed by International Life Sciences Institute, Brazil, there is still no evaluation of the most pertinent for Pediatrics. Objective To list the 10 main quality indicators for nutritional therapies (QINTs for Pediatrics. Methods This was a two-phase cross-sectional study. Firstly, a questionnaire was answered by physicians, nutritionists, nurses, and pharmacists, all with having experience in nutritional therapy (NT with Pediatrics, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Participants assessed four attributes of QINT by using the Likert scale. A Top 10 ranked QINT list for Pediatrics was established. To verify the consistency of the questionnaire, Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient was calculated. Secondly, the opinions of the participants on the results that were obtained were requested and the percentages of the positive responses were calculated. Results A total of 33 professionals participated in the first phase and 92% (n = 23 of 25 in the second phase approved the results of the selected indicators. Among the Top 10 QINTs, the three main ones were: #1: “Frequency of diarrhea in those patients on enteral nutrition” (mean = 13.194; α = 0.827; #2: “Frequency of dietary nutritional prescriptions upon the hospital discharge of the NT patients” (mean = 12.871; α = 0.822; #3: “Frequency of the NT patients who recovered their oral intake” (mean = 12.839; α = 0.859. Conclusion When considering the consistency and the concordance that were obtained, it can be suggested that the list of Top 10 QINTs as proposed in this study will help in the evaluation of NT quality indicators for Pediatrics.

  14. A radon meter chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, R.

    1990-01-01

    The meter consists of a cylindrical house with two openings, at the ends, one of which is equipped with an alpha particle detector and the other covered with a metal net. The house is manufactured in an isolating material e.g. plastic, with a metallic layer applied to all internal surfaces. The metallic layer and net are kept at a positive electric potential, compared to the alpha detector, in order to attract the radon daughters to the detector and achieve a high efficiency. (L.E.)

  15. Derivation of the canopy conductance from surface temperature and spectral indices for estimating evapotranspiration in semiarid vegetation; Monitorizacion de conductancia en vegetacion semiarida a partir de indices espectrales y temperatura de supeficie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morillas, L.; Garcia, M.; Zarco-Tejada, P.; Ladron de Guevara, M.; Villagarcia, L.; Were, A.; Domingo, F.

    2009-07-01

    This work evaluates the possibilities for estimating stomata conductance (C) and leaf transpiration (Trf) at the ecosystem scale from radiometric indices and surface temperature. The relationships found between indices and the transpiration component of the water balance in a semiarid tussock ecosystem in SE Spain are discussed. Field data were collected from spring 2008 until winter 2009 in order to observe the annual variability of the relationships and the behaviour of spectral indices and surface temperature. (Author) 11 refs.

  16. Assessment of the implementation regulations for smart meters; Beoordeling uitvoeringsregelingen Slimme Meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boekema, J.

    2011-03-15

    TNO (Netherlands) assessed whether the smart meter is reliable and future proof. By request of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation (ELI) an assessment was conducted of the requirements for smart meters and, as formulated in the Order in Council 'Decree on remotely readable metering devices', based on 48 tests regarding security, privacy and future stability. Taking into account a number of described recommendations, TNO deems the legislation and implementation schemes sufficient to allow for safe, reliable and future proof implementation of smart meters in the Netherlands. [Dutch] TNO heeft beoordeeld of de slimme meter betrouwbaar en toekomstvast is. Ten behoeve van het ministerie van Economische Zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie (ELI) zijn de eisen die aan slimme meters worden gesteld, en zoals verwoord in de AmvB 'Besluit op afstand uitleesbare meetinrichtingen', beoordeeld aan de hand van 48 toetsen over zekerheid (security), persoonlijke levenssfeer (privacy) en toekomstvastheid. Met inachtneming van een aantal omschreven aanbevelingen, vindt TNO wetgeving en uitvoeringsregelingen zodanig dat daarmee een veilige, betrouwbare en toekomstvaste slimme meter geimplementeerd kan worden in Nederland.

  17. Evaluation of different disinfectants on the performance of an on-meter dosed amperometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmaga, Don; Dubois, Jeffrey A; Lyon, Martha E

    2011-11-01

    Off-meter dosed photometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meters have been reported to be susceptible to interference by hydrogen-peroxide-based disinfecting agents. The objective of this study was to determine if a single application of hydrogen-peroxide-containing Accel® wipe to disinfect an on-meter dosed amperometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meter will influence its performance. The performance of five on-meter dosed amperometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meters was determined before and after disinfecting the devices with a single application of either CaviWipes® (14.3% isopropanol and 0.23% diisobutyl-phenoxy-ethoxyethyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride) or Accel (0.5% hydrogen peroxide) wipes. Replicate glucose measurements were conducted before disinfecting the devices, immediately after disinfecting, and then 1 and 2 min postdisinfecting, with measurements in triplicate. Analysis was sequentially completed for five different meters. Results were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance (Analyze-it software). No clinical ( .05) in glucose concentration were detected when the on-meter dosed amperometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meters were disinfected with either CaviWipes or Accel wipes and measured immediately or 1 or 2 min postdisinfecting. No clinically significant difference in glucose concentration was detected between meters (glucose oxidase amperometric-based glucose meters are not analytically susceptible to interference by a single application of hydrogen-peroxide-containing Accel disinfectant wipes. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  18. Thin, Conductive Permafrost Surrounding Lake Fryxell Indicates Salts From Past Lakes, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, N.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Gooseff, M. N.; Myers, K. F.; Doran, P. T.; Auken, E.; Dugan, H. A.; Mikucki, J.; Virginia, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    In the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV), permafrost should be thick and liquid water rare. However, despite the well below zero mean annual temperature in this cryospheric desert, liquid water can be found in lakes, summer melt streams, subglacial outflow, and - recent work has shown - underneath anomalously thin permafrost. In part, this niche hydrosphere is maintained by the presence of salts, which depress the freezing point of water to perhaps as cold as -10° Celsius. We detected widespread salty water across the MDV in lakes and at depth using a helicopter-borne Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) sensor. By using the presence of brines to mark the transition from frozen permafrost (near the surface) to unfrozen ground (at depth), we have created a map of permafrost thickness in Lower Taylor Valley (LTV), a large MDV with a complex history of glaciation and occupation by lakes. Our results show that permafrost is thinner ( 200m) than would be expected based on geothermal gradient measurements (up to 1000m), a result of the freezing point depression caused by salt and potentially enhanced by an unfinished transient freezing process. Near Lake Fryxell, a large, brackish lake in the center of LTV, permafrost is very thin (about 30-40m) and notably more electrically conductive than more distal permafrost. This thin ring of conductive permafrost surrounding the lake basin most likely reflects the high presence of salts in the subsurface, preventing complete freezing. These salts may be a remnant of the salty bottom waters of a historic larger lake (LGM glacially dammed Lake Washburn) or the remnant of salty basal water from a past advance of Taylor Glacier, which now sits many km up-valley but is known to contain brines which currently flow onto the surface and directly into the subsurface aquifer.

  19. Development of the impedance void meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Moon Ki; Song, Chul Hwa; Won, Soon Yeon; Kim, Bok Deuk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-01

    An impedance void meter is developed to measure the area-averaged void fraction. Its basic principle is based on the difference in the electrical conductivity between phases. Several methods of measuring void fraction are briefly reviewed and the reason why this type of void meter is chosen to develop is discussed. Basic principle of the measurement is thoroughly described and several design parameters to affect the overall function are discussed in detail. As example of applications is given for vertical air-water flow. It is shown that the current design has good dynamic response as well as very fine spatial resolution. (Author) 47 refs., 37 figs.

  20. Household Classification Using Smart Meter Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll Paula

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a project conducted in conjunction with the Central Statistics Office of Ireland in response to a planned national rollout of smart electricity metering in Ireland. We investigate how this new data source might be used for the purpose of official statistics production. This study specifically looks at the question of determining household composition from electricity smart meter data using both Neural Networks (a supervised machine learning approach and Elastic Net Logistic regression. An overview of both classification techniques is given. Results for both approaches are presented with analysis. We find that the smart meter data alone is limited in its capability to distinguish between household categories but that it does provide some useful insights.

  1. Survey indicated that core outcome set development is increasingly including patients, being conducted internationally and using Delphi surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggane, Alice M; Brading, Lucy; Ravaud, Philippe; Young, Bridget; Williamson, Paula R

    2018-02-17

    There are numerous challenges in including patients in a core outcome set (COS) study, these can vary depending on the patient group. This study describes current efforts to include patients in the development of COS, with the aim of identifying areas for further improvement and study. Using the COMET database, corresponding authors of COS projects registered or published from 1 January 2013 to 2 February 2017 were invited via a personalised email to participate in a short online survey. The survey and emails were constructed to maximise the response rate by following the academic literature on enhancing survey responses. Personalised reminder emails were sent to non-responders. This survey explored the frequency of patient input in COS studies, who was involved, what methods were used and whether or not the COS development was international. One hundred and ninety-two COS developers were sent the survey. Responses were collected from 21 February 2017 until 7 May 2017. One hundred and forty-six unique developers responded, yielding a 76% response rate and data in relation to 195 unique COSs (as some developers had worked on multiple COSs). Of focus here are their responses regarding 162 COSs at the published, completed or ongoing stages of development. Inclusion of patient participants was indicated in 87% (141/162) of COSs in the published completed or ongoing stages and over 94% (65/69) of ongoing COS projects. Nearly half (65/135) of COSs included patient participants from two or more countries and 22% (30/135) included patient participants from five or more countries. The Delphi survey was reported as being used singularly or in combination with other methods in 85% (119/140) of projects. Almost a quarter (16/65) of ongoing studies reported using a combination of qualitative interviews, Delphi survey and consensus meeting. These findings indicated that the Delphi survey is the most popular method of facilitating patient participation, while the combination of

  2. Portable wireless metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPaola, L

    1996-12-31

    Electric utilities often face situations where conventional distribution station billing meters have been removed from service. This paper presents an innovative alternative to traditional solutions to the temporary billing situation such as the use of clamp-on devices called electronic recording ammeters. It examines how Ontario Hydro is measuring current, voltage, and power factor at a distribution station to calculate kilowatts and kVAR using an easy-to-install product that communicates its live readings directly to an existing billing system. The devices used for the measurements can be easily attached to a power line with a hotstick and contain a special core which senses current flow and powers appropriate electronics, which digitizes voltage and current data and transmits it via low-power FM radio for subsequent data storage and processing. The paper includes results of field trials and outlines the advantages of using the device.

  3. GAS METERING PUMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, C.M.

    1957-12-31

    A liquid piston gas pump is described, capable of pumping minute amounts of gas in accurately measurable quantities. The pump consists of a flanged cylindrical regulating chamber and a mercury filled bellows. Sealed to the ABSTRACTS regulating chamber is a value and having a gas inlet and outlet, the inlet being connected by a helical channel to the bellows. A gravity check valve is in the gas outlet, so the gas passes through the inlet and the helical channel to the bellows where the pumping action as well as the metering is accomplished by the actuation of the mercury filled bellows. The gas then flows through the check valve and outlet to any associated apparatus.

  4. Water table and the neutron moisture meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visvalingam, M [Hull Univ. (UK). Geography Dept.

    1975-12-01

    Measurements with a neutron moisture meter at Westlands, near Hull, showed count rates at capillary saturation to be within the error limits of count rates at full saturation. However, the saturation profiles in themselves were interesting as they indicated not only the zonation of the soil but also differences in drainable porosity when compared to count-rate profiles at the end of November.

  5. Two laboratory methods for the calibration of GPS speed meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yin; Sun, Qiao; Du, Lei; Yu, Mei; Bai, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The set-ups of two calibration systems are presented to investigate calibration methods of GPS speed meters. The GPS speed meter calibrated is a special type of high accuracy speed meter for vehicles which uses Doppler demodulation of GPS signals to calculate the measured speed of a moving target. Three experiments are performed: including simulated calibration, field-test signal replay calibration, and in-field test comparison with an optical speed meter. The experiments are conducted at specific speeds in the range of 40–180 km h −1 with the same GPS speed meter as the device under calibration. The evaluation of measurement results validates both methods for calibrating GPS speed meters. The relative deviations between the measurement results of the GPS-based high accuracy speed meter and those of the optical speed meter are analyzed, and the equivalent uncertainty of the comparison is evaluated. The comparison results justify the utilization of GPS speed meters as reference equipment if no fewer than seven satellites are available. This study contributes to the widespread use of GPS-based high accuracy speed meters as legal reference equipment in traffic speed metrology. (paper)

  6. How to use your peak flow meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meter - how to use; Asthma - peak flow meter; Reactive airway disease - peak flow meter; Bronchial asthma - peak ... 2014:chap 55. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program website. How to use a peak flow meter. ...

  7. Micro-gen metering solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elland, J.; Dickson, J.; Cranfield, P.

    2003-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project to investigate the regulation of domestic electricity metering work and identify the most economic options for micro-generator installers to undertake work on electricity meters. A micro-generation unit is defined as an energy conversion system converting non-electrical energy into electrical energy and can include technologies such as photovoltaic systems, small-scale wind turbines, micro-hydroelectric systems, and combined heat and power systems. Details of six tasks are given and cover examination of the existing framework and legal documentation for metering work, the existing technical requirements for meter operators, meter operator personnel accreditation, appraisal of options for meter changes and for micro-generation installation, document change procedures, industry consultation, and a review of the costs implications of the options.

  8. 77 FR 40586 - Draft NIST Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7823, Advanced Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ...-01] Draft NIST Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7823, Advanced Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter... Technology (NIST) seeks comments on Draft NISTIR 7823, Advanced Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter... conformance test requirements for the firmware upgradeability process for the Advanced Metering Infrastructure...

  9. Metering apparatus and tariffs for electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Conference papers presented cover system economies and tariff structure with papers on pricing of electricity and new metering technologies. Other topics reviewed include metering apparatus design, electronic metering apparatus and solid phase metering technology. Meter data retrieval, bulk supply metering, test equipment and maintenance, and legal requirements and standards are discussed. (author)

  10. PELATIHAN RENANG GAYA DADA 8 KALI 25 METER 4 SET LEBIH MENINGKATKAN KECEPATAN RENANG 100 METER GAYA DADA DARIPADA 4 KALI 50 METER 4 SET PADA RENANG PEMULA PUTRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Suarta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sports pool in Indonesia are well known to the public, which is reduced when driving (after the end of the recovery to begin hand pull another hand, the breaststroke is the style of the most interesting because it does not quickly tiring when compared with other styles, because the process of respiration take place with ease, making them easier use in long-distance swim, at the start to affect the pace to continue this next movement needs to get training and a variety of training models, especially at students aged 10-12 years. Training pool 8 times 25 times 50 meters and 4 meters is one of the training methods that can speed up travel time. The best training model has not been encountered in the data. So do the research to find a model training 25 meter pool 8 times and 4 times 4 sets of 50 meters. The study was conducted with pretest-postes group design. Samples taken from the novice swimmer Toya Ening on Dalung Badung, as many as 26 people were randomly selected simple. Samples were divided into 2 groups each group totaled 13 people. Both groups were equally give training in the first group to pool 8 by 25 feet 4 sets, and 4 times the second group of 4 sets of 50 meters. 0.05 ab. Differences in results were analyzed statistically with  The data analyzed were age, height, weight, leg length and physical fitness.  13.49 seconds.± 107.69, and 126.38 ±The mean test results of the final 100 meter breaststroke swimming in a row 12.14 seconds  F count the results obtained respectively by 0.95 seconds with p = 0.59 and 0.93 seconds with a value of p = 0.34. Data showed significant differences significant (p> 0.05. These results indicate that the training of swimming the breaststroke 8 by 25 feet 4 sets is better than 4 times in 4 sets of 50 meter speed up travel time 100-meter breaststroke swimming novice men (p <0.05. Suggested the use of breaststroke swimming training method 8 by 25 feet 4 sets to be intensified to provide training pool at 100

  11. Digital reactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copie, M.; Valantic, B.

    1978-01-01

    Digital reactivity meters (DRM) are mostly used as measuring instruments, e.g. for calibration of control rods, and there are only a few cases of their incorporation into the control systems of the reactors. To move in this direction there is more development work needed. First of all, fast algorithms are needed for inverse kinetics equations to relieve the computer for more important tasks of reactor model solving in real time. The next problem, currently under investigation, is the incorporation of the reactor thermal-hydraulic model into the DRM so that it can be used in the power range. Such an extension of DHM allows presentation not only of the instantaneous reactivity of the system, but also the inserted reactivity can be estimated from the temperature reactivity feed-backs. One of the applications of this concept is the anomalous digital reactivity monitor (ADRN) as part of the reactor protection system. As a solution of the first problem, a fast algorithm for solving the inverse kinetics equations has been implemented in the off-line program RODCAL on CDC 1700 computer and tested for its accuracy by performing different control rod calibrations on the reactor TRIGA

  12. Calibration of reference KAP-meters at SSDL and cross calibration of clinical KAP-meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetland, Per O.; Friberg, Eva G.; Oevreboe, Kirsti M.; Bjerke, Hans H.

    2009-01-01

    In the summer of 2007 the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL) in Norway established a calibration service for reference air-kerma product meter (KAP-meter). The air-kerma area product, PKA, is a dosimetric quantity that can be directly related to the patient dose and used for risk assessment associated with different x-ray examinations. The calibration of reference KAP-meters at the SSDL gives important information on parameters influencing the calibration factor for different types of KAP-meters. The use of reference KAP-meters calibrated at the SSDL is an easy and reliable way to calibrate or verify the PKA indicated by the x-ray equipment out in the clinics. Material and methods. Twelve KAP-meters were calibrated at the SSDL by use of the substitution method at five diagnostic radiation qualities (RQRs). Results. The calibration factors varied from 0.94 to 1.18. The energy response of the individual KAP-meters varied by a total of 20% between the different RQRs and the typical chamber transmission factors ranged from 0.78 to 0.91. Discussion. It is important to use a calibrated reference KAP-meter and a harmonised calibration method in the PKA calibration in hospitals. The obtained uncertainty in the PKA readings is comparable with other calibration methods if the information in the calibration certificate is correct used, corrections are made and proper positioning of the KAP-chamber is performed. This will ensure a reliable estimate of the patient dose and a proper optimisation of conventional x-ray examinations and interventional procedures

  13. Streamlining Smart Meter Data Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2015-01-01

    of the so-called big data possible. This can improve energy management, e.g., help utilities improve the management of energy and services, and help customers save money. As this regard, the paper focuses on building an innovative software solution to streamline smart meter data analytic, aiming at dealing......Today smart meters are increasingly used in worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring customer energy consumption at a fine-grained time interval, e.g., every 15 minutes. The data are very sizable, and might be from different sources, along with the other social......-economic metrics such as the geographic information of meters, the information about users and their property, geographic location and others, which make the data management very complex. On the other hand, data-mining and the emerging cloud computing technologies make the collection, management, and analysis...

  14. Development of quick-response area-averaged void fraction meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hironori; Iguchi, Tadashi; Kimura, Mamoru; Anoda, Yoshinari

    2000-11-01

    Authors are performing experiments to investigate BWR thermal-hydraulic instability under coupling of neutronics and thermal-hydraulics. To perform the experiment, it is necessary to measure instantaneously area-averaged void fraction in rod bundle under high temperature/high pressure gas-liquid two-phase flow condition. Since there were no void fraction meters suitable for these requirements, we newly developed a practical void fraction meter. The principle of the meter is based on the electrical conductance changing with void fraction in gas-liquid two-phase flow. In this meter, metal flow channel wall is used as one electrode and a L-shaped line electrode installed at the center of flow channel is used as the other electrode. This electrode arrangement makes possible instantaneous measurement of area-averaged void fraction even under the metal flow channel. We performed experiments with air/water two-phase flow to clarify the void fraction meter performance. Experimental results indicated that void fraction was approximated by α=1-I/I o , where α and I are void fraction and current (I o is current at α=0). This relation holds in the wide range of void fraction of 0∼70%. The difference between α and 1-I/I o was approximately 10% at maximum. The major reasons of the difference are a void distribution over measurement area and an electrical insulation of the center electrode by bubbles. The principle and structure of this void fraction meter are very basic and simple. Therefore, the meter can be applied to various fields on gas-liquid two-phase flow studies. (author)

  15. Six Functions of Conducting: A New Foundation for Music Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumm, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    This article poses six functions of conducting as a new foundation for music educators. Two traditional functions focus on music: the mechanical precision function indicates beat, tempo, meter, rhythm, cues, entrances and cutoff releases, and the expressive function indicates dynamics and other expressive characteristics interpreted in a score.…

  16. Importance of manually entering blood glucose readings when wireless-compatible meters are not being used with an insulin pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Kimberly A; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett; Wang, Yuxia; Tang, Yuanyuan; Gill, Elizabeth C; Mitchell, Adela; Wright, Nancy; Deeb, Larry C

    2013-07-01

    The objective was to determine if there were differences in blood glucose monitoring (BGM) data downloaded from insulin pumps of patients who use meters that wirelessly transmit data to their insulin pumps (i.e., wireless group) and those who do not (i.e., nonwireless group). Blood glucose monitoring data were downloaded from the meters and insulin pumps of 47 children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Independent and paired t tests compared BGM data downloaded from meters and BGM data downloaded from insulin pumps. There were significant differences in BGM data downloaded from the insulin pumps of patients using wireless meters compared to those using nonwireless meters. Wireless patients appeared to engage in more BGM, had more low and in-range BG readings and fewer very high BG readingss than nonwireless patients. However, a comparison of BGM data downloaded from meters and insulin pumps of nonwireless patients indicated that their insulin pump data significantly underestimated the number of BGM readings conducted, as well as the number of low and in-range readings, while overestimating the number of very high BGM readings. Because patients who use nonwireless-compatible meters do not manually enter their low and in-range BGM readings into the insulin pump, BGM data downloaded only from pumps may provide an incomplete representation of BGM frequency or results. It is recommended that patients use meters that directly communicate with pumps or perform bolus calculations. Patients should be educated about the importance of manually entering all BGM readings if they do not use a wireless-compatible meter with their insulin pump. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  17. Calibration of ionization chamber and GM counter survey meters, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingo, Kazuyoshi; Kajimoto, Yoichi; Suga, Shin-ichi

    1978-01-01

    Three types of ionization chamber survey meters and a type of GM counter survey meter were calibrated for measuring the β-ray absorbed dose rate in a working area. To estimate the β-ray absorbed dose rate, a survey meter was used without and with a filter. A reading of survey meter's indicator measured with the filter was subtracted from a reading measured without the filter, and then the absorbed dose rate was obtained by multiplying this remainder by a conversion coefficient. The conversion coefficients were roughly constant with distance more than 8 cm (ionization chamber survey meters) and with distance more than 5 cm (GM counter survey meter). The conversion coefficient was dependent on β-ray energies. In order to measure the absorbed dose rate of tissue whose epidermal thickness is 40 mg/cm 2 , the constant value, 4 (mrad/h)/(mR/h), was chosen independently of β-ray energies as the conversion coefficient of three types of ionization chamber survey meters. The conversion coefficient of the GM counter survey meter was more energy dependent than that of every type of ionization chamber survey meter. (author)

  18. Smart metering - energy data management at every meter point; Smart Metering - Energiedatenmanagement an jedem Zaehlpunkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller-Giessbach, D.; Kiel, E. [LogicaCMG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    The demise of monopolistic structures in the German energy market has also led to a change of perspective on metering. New requirements have to be met. Even in mass processing jobs such as meter reading it is no longer sufficient to simply read consumption data off a technically reliable meter or have customers do this themselves in preparation of billing. Currently used meters were not designed with a mind to demand management, environmental protection through energy conservation, changes in consumer behaviour or new service offers. This has been recognised in many European countries since the beginning of the present decade. The traditional task of metering is developing into a more comprehensive energy data management that takes account of the needs of customers, energy suppliers and regulatory requirements.

  19. Instrumentation in the Rapsodie test circuits of 1 and 10 MW - flow-meters, manometers, level indicators, blockage indicators; L'instrumentation dans les cilicuits d'essais rapsodie 1 et 10 MW - debitmetres, manometres, indicateurs de niveau, indicateurs de bouchage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisle, J.P. de; Lions, N [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The main measuring instruments, which operate in the presence of liquid metals and which have been developed by the liquid metal section over the last few years, are electromagnetic flowmeters, differential manometers, level indicators and blockage indicators. We give here results obtained with these instruments during trial, in the 1 and 10 MW test circuits, together with the conclusions drawn about their possible use in the reactor Rapsodie, The flow rate measurements are carried out using electromagnetic flow meters with permanent magnets. We have studied more particularly the reliability of these instruments. The measurements matte show that the induction in the space between the poles is very constant with time and in the presence of the prevailing demagnetization phenomena to which the magnets are subjected. The differential manometers placed in the test circuits are very accurate. It is nevertheless necessary to carry out some technological modifications on them in order that they may operate satisfactorily over long periods. The continuous and discontinuous level-indicators tried out operate on the principle of a change in resistance. Studies carried out on the test loops of the reliability and of the accuracy of this equipment have shown the existence of phenomena convected with the condensation of sodium vapour on the upper parts of the reservoir, and have shown the importance of the condensed deposits when the oxygen content of the covering gas is appreciable. From the various blockage indicators tried out, the one chosen for equipping the reactor circuits is an automatic model with continuous recording. The development and testing of this apparatus has been going on for one year on an industrial scale circuit and has made it possible to show clearly an effect of a double blockage temperature. (authors) [French] Les principaux instruments de mesure, fonctionnant en presence de metal liquide, qui ont ete developpes et mis au point a la Section des Metaux

  20. Beyond revenue metering -- a new age for automatic meter reading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chebra, R. J. [RJC Consulting L.L.C., PQ (Canada)

    2002-10-01

    Advanced metering, data management, and communications possibilities of automated meter reading are explored. Applications in the area of demand side management, including load reduction, peak shaving and load shifting, new tariff structures based on the 'time of use incentive/penalty' approach, and information grade metering are emphasized. Based on trends and expectations, it is predicted that AMR will continue to experience rapid growth and deployment as new services are made available to the mass market. For example, technological advances will enable the industry to make 'time of use metering ' more attractive and beneficial to residential consumers, and embedded intelligence will make it possible to achieve more holistic energy environments.

  1. Automated borehole gravity meter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenhiser, Th.V.; Wirtz, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    An automated borehole gravity meter system for measuring gravity within a wellbore. The gravity meter includes leveling devices for leveling the borehole gravity meter, displacement devices for applying forces to a gravity sensing device within the gravity meter to bring the gravity sensing device to a predetermined or null position. Electronic sensing and control devices are provided for (i) activating the displacement devices, (ii) sensing the forces applied to the gravity sensing device, (iii) electronically converting the values of the forces into a representation of the gravity at the location in the wellbore, and (iv) outputting such representation. The system further includes electronic control devices with the capability of correcting the representation of gravity for tidal effects, as well as, calculating and outputting the formation bulk density and/or porosity

  2. Moisture meter calibration for untreated and ACQ-treated southern yellow pine plywood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Charles G. Carll

    2009-01-01

    Conductance moisture meter readings using stainless steel screws as electrodes were compared with gravimetric moisture content for 1) southern yellow pine (SYP) dimensioned lumber, 2) untreated (underlayment grade) SYP plywood, and 3) SYP plywood treated with alkaline copper quaternary. Meter readings were taken with the meter set to the manufacturer-provided species...

  3. KVP meter errors induced by plastic wrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferies, D.; Morris, J.W.; White, V.P.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether erroneous kVp meter readings, induced by plastic wrap, affected the actual kVp (output) of a dental X-ray machine. To evaluate the effect of plastic wrap on dental X-ray machine kVp meters, a radiation output device was used to measure output in mR/ma.s. An intraoral dental X-ray unit (S.S. White Model number-sign 90W) was used to make the exposures. First, the kVp meter was not covered with plastic wrap and output readings were recorded at various kVp settings with the milliamperage and time held constant. Secondly, the same kVp settings were selected before the plastic wrap was placed. Milliamperage and time were again held to the same constant. The X-ray console was then covered with plastic wrap prior to measuring the output for each kVp. The wrap possessed a static charge. This charge induced erroneous kVp meter readings. Out-put readings at the various induced kVp settings were then recorded. A kVp of 50 with no wrap present resulted in the same output as a kVp of 50 induced to read 40 or 60 kVp by the presence of wrap. Similar results were obtained at other kVp settings. This indicates that the plastic wrap influences only the kVp meter needle and not the actual kilovoltage of the X-ray machine. Dental X-ray machine operators should select kVp meter readings prior to placing plastic wrap and should not adjust initial settings if the meter is deflected later by the presence of wrap. The use of such a procedure will result in proper exposures, fewer retakes, and less patient radiation. If plastic wrap leads to consistent exposure errors, clinicians may wish to use a 0.5% sodium hypochlorite disinfectant as an alternative to the barrier technique

  4. Development of quick-response area-averaged void fraction meter. Application to BWR condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, Tadashi; Watanabe, Hironori; Kimura, Mamoru; Anoda, Yoshinari [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-05-01

    Authors have been developed a practical conductance-type void fraction meter to measure instantaneously area-averaged void fraction in rod bundle. The principle of the meter is based on the fact that the electrical conductance changes with the change of void fraction in gas-liquid two-phase flow. According to air/water two-phase flow experiment, the void fraction was approximated by {alpha}=1-I/I{sub 0}, where {alpha} and I are void fraction and current (I{sub 0} is current at {alpha}=0). Authors investigated the performance of the void fraction meter under high temperature/high pressure conditions (BWR condition; 290degC, 7MPa). The results indicated that the void fraction was approximated by {alpha}=1-I/I{sub 0} even under high temperature/high pressure condition of stem/water flow. However, it is necessary to take account of temperature dependency of water specific conductance. Therefore, authors derived a correction equation for temperature dependency. Further, for applying the void fraction meter to a large-scale facility, it was found to be necessary to reduce the capacitance of the circuit. Then, authors developed the method to reduce the capacitance effect. Finally, authors succeeded to measure the void fraction in 2 x 2 bundle flow path at the range of 0% - 70% in the error of 10% under high temperature/high pressure and mass flux of less than 133 kg/m{sup 2}s. Developed void fraction meter is theoretically not affected by flow rate. Therefore, it can be applied to the condition of oscillating flow. (author)

  5. The Impact of 200 Meter Breast Stroke Swimming Activity on Blood Glucose Level of The Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahrastani, S.; Badri, H.; Argantos, A.; Yuniarti, E.

    2018-04-01

    Blood sugar in the human body is very important, as it is a source of energy for humans. Fasting blood sugar needs to be recognized, because it is an indicator of a person’s health. The research that has been done aims to determine the effect of physical activity on fasting blood sugar. This research is a quasi-experimental research. The research was conducted on 15 students of FIK UNP Padang, who have passed the swimming course. Blood was taken before and after doing physical exercise activity of 200 meter breaststroke swimming. Data collection was conducted with tests and measurements. The data analysis technique used inference statistics with t test formula, with α = 0.05. From the results it is obtained that there is a very significant impact on blood sugar levels after 200 meters breaststroke swimming activity with p <0.05

  6. Position indication apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, T

    1964-02-24

    A plurality of magnetically operated switches are spaced equally in the hollow tube of a control rod actuating mechanism. One side of each switch is connected, via a low resistance, to a corresponding tap of a low resistance voltage divider network consisting of an equivalent number of low resistance sections with the opposite side of each switch connected to a common conducting wire A. To both ends of the voltage dividing network are connected, respectively, conducting wires B and C. Wires A, B, and C are further coupled to a fuel rod position indicator comprising a voltmeter and power source external to the control rod actuating member. The control rod actuating member is adapted to slide in the hollow tube so that switches passing a position facing a magnet secured to the lower end of the actuating member are rendered closed. Hence, the position of the control rod may be read by reading the voltage off the meter.

  7. Feasibility of using acoustic velocity meters for estimating highly organic suspended-solids concentrations in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Eduardo

    1996-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at the Levee 4 canal site below control structure G-88 in the Everglades agricultural area in northwestern Broward County, Florida, to study the relation of acoustic attenuation to suspended-solids concentrations. Acoustic velocity meter and temperature data were obtained with concurrent water samples analyzed for suspended-solids concentrations. Two separate acoustic velocity meter frequencies were used, 200 and 500 kilohertz, to determine the sensitivity of acoustic attenuation to frequency for the measured suspended-solids concentration range. Suspended-solids concentrations for water samples collected at the Levee 4 canal site from July 1993 to September 1994 ranged from 22 to 1,058 milligrams per liter, and organic content ranged from about 30 to 93 percent. Regression analyses showed that attenuation data from the acoustic velocity meter (automatic gain control) and temperature data alone do not provide enough information to adequately describe the concentrations of suspended solids. However, if velocity is also included as one of the independent variables in the regression model, a satisfactory correlation can be obtained. Thus, it is feasible to use acoustic velocity meter instrumentation to estimate suspended-solids concentrations in streams, even when suspended solids are primarily composed of organic material. Using the most comprehensive data set available for the study (500 kiloherz data), the best fit regression model produces a standard error of 69.7 milligrams per liter, with actual errors ranging from 2 to 128 milligrams per liter. Both acoustic velocity meter transmission frequencies of 200 and 500 hilohertz produced similar results, suggesting that transducers of either frequency could be used to collect attenuation data at the study site. Results indicate that calibration will be required for each acoustic velocity meter system to the unique suspended-solids regime existing at each site. More robust solutions may

  8. Route Optimization for Offloading Congested Meter Fixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Min; Zelinski, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The Optimized Route Capability (ORC) concept proposed by the FAA facilitates traffic managers to identify and resolve arrival flight delays caused by bottlenecks formed at arrival meter fixes when there exists imbalance between arrival fixes and runways. ORC makes use of the prediction capability of existing automation tools, monitors the traffic delays based on these predictions, and searches the best reroutes upstream of the meter fixes based on the predictions and estimated arrival schedules when delays are over a predefined threshold. Initial implementation and evaluation of the ORC concept considered only reroutes available at the time arrival congestion was first predicted. This work extends previous work by introducing an additional dimension in reroute options such that ORC can find the best time to reroute and overcome the 'firstcome- first-reroute' phenomenon. To deal with the enlarged reroute solution space, a genetic algorithm was developed to solve this problem. Experiments were conducted using the same traffic scenario used in previous work, when an arrival rush was created for one of the four arrival meter fixes at George Bush Intercontinental Houston Airport. Results showed the new approach further improved delay savings. The suggested route changes from the new approach were on average 30 minutes later than those using other approaches, and fewer numbers of reroutes were required. Fewer numbers of reroutes reduce operational complexity and later reroutes help decision makers deal with uncertain situations.

  9. Proposal of a synchro panel meter instrument to replace the obsolete Synchro/Resolver reading device used as position indicator of safety rods assembly of the Brazilian IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, Fabio de; Brancaccio, Franco; Cardenas, Jose Patricio N.

    2015-01-01

    IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares) was founded in 1956 (as Atomic Energy Institute - IEA) as a facility complex, for the research, development and application, in the nuclear technology field. The institute is recognized as a national leader in nuclear research and development (R and D), including the areas of reactor operation, radiopharmaceuticals, industrial and laboratory applications, materials science and laser technologies and applications. IPEN's main facility is the IEA-R1, nuclear research reactor (NRR), today, the only one in Brazil with a power level suitable for applications in physics, chemistry, biology and engineering. Some radioisotopes are also produced in IEA-R1, for medical and other applications. A common problem faced in the IEA-R1 maintenance is instrumentation obsolescence; spare parts are no more available, because of discontinued production, and an updating program is mandatory, aiming at modernization of old-aged I and C systems. In the presented context, an electronic system is here proposed, as a replacement for the reactor safety (shim) rods assembly position indicator, based on an open-source physical computing platform called Arduino, which includes a simple microcontroller board and a software-code development environment. A mathematical algorithm for the synchro-motor signal processing was developed, and the obtained resolution was better than 1.5%. (author)

  10. Proposal of a synchro panel meter instrument to replace the obsolete Synchro/Resolver reading device used as position indicator of safety rods assembly of the Brazilian IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, Fabio de; Brancaccio, Franco; Cardenas, Jose Patricio N., E-mail: fatoledo@ipen.br, E-mail: fbrancac@ipen.br, E-mail: ahiru@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares) was founded in 1956 (as Atomic Energy Institute - IEA) as a facility complex, for the research, development and application, in the nuclear technology field. The institute is recognized as a national leader in nuclear research and development (R and D), including the areas of reactor operation, radiopharmaceuticals, industrial and laboratory applications, materials science and laser technologies and applications. IPEN's main facility is the IEA-R1, nuclear research reactor (NRR), today, the only one in Brazil with a power level suitable for applications in physics, chemistry, biology and engineering. Some radioisotopes are also produced in IEA-R1, for medical and other applications. A common problem faced in the IEA-R1 maintenance is instrumentation obsolescence; spare parts are no more available, because of discontinued production, and an updating program is mandatory, aiming at modernization of old-aged I and C systems. In the presented context, an electronic system is here proposed, as a replacement for the reactor safety (shim) rods assembly position indicator, based on an open-source physical computing platform called Arduino, which includes a simple microcontroller board and a software-code development environment. A mathematical algorithm for the synchro-motor signal processing was developed, and the obtained resolution was better than 1.5%. (author)

  11. Low Cost Digital Vibration Meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, W Vance; Geist, Jon

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the development of a low cost, digital Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) vibration meter that reports an approximation to the RMS acceleration of the vibration to which the vibration meter is subjected. The major mechanical element of this vibration meter is a cantilever beam, which is on the order of 500 µm in length, with a piezoresistor deposited at its base. Vibration of the device in the plane perpendicular to the cantilever beam causes it to bend, which produces a measurable change in the resistance of a piezoresistor. These changes in resistance along with a unique signal-processing scheme are used to determine an approximation to the RMS acceleration sensed by the device.

  12. Smart Metering System for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacios-Garcia, Emilio; Guan, Yajuan; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    suppliers, but they can also play a big role in the control of the Microgrid since the recorded power and energy profiles can be integrated in energy management systems (EMS). In addition, basic power quality (PQ) disturbance can de detected and reported by some advanced metering systems. Thus, this paper...... will expose an example of Smart Meters integration in a Microgrid scenario, which is the Intelligent Microgrid Lab of Aalborg University (AAU). To do this, first the installation available in the Microgrid Lab will be introduced. Then, three different test scenarios and their respective results...... will be presented, regarding the capabilities of this system and the advantages of integration the Smart Meters information in the Microgrid control....

  13. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee; Muzakkir, Amir

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr −1 ). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr −1 determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr

  14. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd, E-mail: nur-aira@nm.gov.my; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Muzakkir, Amir [Sinaran Utama Teknologi Sdn Bhd, 43650, Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr{sup −1}). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr{sup −1} determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr.

  15. Metering in the gas supply sector; Metering in der Gasversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernekinck, U. [RWE Westfalen-Weser-Ems, Recklinghausen (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    The new conditions of competition in the gas supply sector have strongly increased the requirements on gas grid operators. Mainly an exact gas metering and -accouting will become more and more important. The systems and procedures are presented in detail in this contribution. (GL)

  16. Microprocessor controlled digital period meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.; McDowell, W.P.; Rusch, G.K.

    1980-01-01

    A microprocessor controlled digital period meter has been developed and tested operationally on a reactor at Argonne National Laboratory. The principle of operation is the mathematical relationship between asymptotic periods and pulse counting circuitry. This relationship is used to calculate and display the reactor periods over a range of /plus or minus/1 second to /plus or minus/999 seconds. The time interval required to update each measurement automatically varies from 8 seconds at the lowest counting rates to 2 seconds at higher counting rates. The paper will describe hardware and software design details and show the advantages of this type of Period Meter over the conventional circuits. 1 ref

  17. Arrival metering fuel consumption analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Arrival metering is a method of time-based traffic management that is used by the Federal Aviation Administration to plan and manage streams of arrival traffic during periods of : high demand at busy airports. The Traffic Management Advisor is an aut...

  18. The Thirty-Meter Telescope

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The Thirty-Meter Telescope international observatory will enable transformational observations over the full cosmic timeline all the way from the first luminous objects in the Universe to the planets and moons of our own solar system. To realize its full scientific potential, TMT will be equipped with a powerful ...

  19. Rate meter design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peon Aguirre, R.; Fonseca Araujo, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    An electric diagram is proposed to build a geiger detector Rate Meter, to count gamma radiation and X ray. This idea was made up with the prototype construction which has a five scales analogue display (100, 300, 1000, 3000 and 10000 c/s). (Author)

  20. Smart metering. Conformance tests for electricity meters; Smart Metering. Konformitaetstests an Stromzaehlern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bormann, Matthias; Pongratz, Siegfried [VDE Pruef- und Zertifizierungsinstitut, Offenbach (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Introduction of communication technologies into today's energy network enables the interworking between the domains of smart metering, smart grid, smart home and e-mobility as well as the creation and provisioning of new innovative services such as efficient load adjustment. Due to this convergence the new energy networks are becoming increasingly complex. Ensuring the interworking between all network elements (e.g. electricity meters, gateways) in these smart energy networks is of utmost importance. To this end conformance and interoperability tests have to be defined to ensure that services work as expected. (orig.)

  1. Justification of the Utility of Introducing Smart Meters in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunickis, M.; Dandens, A.; Bariss, U.

    2015-12-01

    Automatic data reading from smart meters is being developed in many parts of the world, including Latvia. The key drivers for that are developments of smart technologies and economic benefits for consumers. Deployment of smart meters could be launched in a massive scale. Several pilot projects were implemented to verify the feasibility of smart meters for individual consumer groups. Preliminary calculations indicate that installation of smart meters for approximately 23 % of electricity consumers would be economically viable. Currently, the data for the last two years is available for an in-depth mathematical analysis. The continuous analysis of consumption data would be established, when more measurements from smart meters are available. The extent of introduction of smart meters should be specified during this process in order to gain the maximum benefit for the whole society (consumers, grid companies, state authorities), because there are still many uncertain and variable factors. For example, it is necessary to consider statistical load variations by hour, dependence of electricity consumption on temperature fluctuations, consumer behaviour and demand response to market signals to reduce electricity consumption in the short and long term, consumer's ambitions and capability to install home automation for regulation of electricity consumption. To develop the demand response, it is necessary to analyse the whole array of additional factors, such as expected cost reduction of smart meters, possible extension of their functionality, further development of information exchange systems, as well as standard requirements and different political and regulatory decisions regarding the reduction of electricity consumption and energy efficiency.

  2. Smart meter data: Balancing consumer privacy concerns with legitimate applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, Eoghan; Richardson, Ian; Thomson, Murray

    2012-01-01

    Smart meters are being rolled out in large numbers throughout the world, with proponents claiming they are a critical step in the transition to a low-carbon economy. Yet there are significant unresolved negative reactions to smart meters, principally based on the concern that smart meters might be used to infer the private activities that occur within a dwelling. Though smart meter data is classified as personal data, and as such protected under existing data protection frameworks in the EU, there are relevant exceptions, notably where the data is required for legitimate applications associated with the performance of 'regulated duties'. This paper contributes to this debate by examining the data requirements for some of the proposed applications of smart meter data within the electricity supply industry, and investigates whether the use of personal data can be minimized or even avoided. The discussion includes system balancing, demand reduction, demand response and distribution network operation and planning, and indicates that, for most of these applications, the requirements for personal data can indeed be minimized. 'Privacy friendly' alternatives are discussed. - Highlights: ▶ Current smart meter systems provide a strong indication of occupancy. ▶ This will have important implications for external and internal home privacy. ▶ Personal data requirements within legitimate applications are discussed. ▶ 'Privacy friendly' techniques are suggested that minimize the use of personal data. ▶ Distribution network operator has strongest claim for data from each household.

  3. Squid based beam current meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.

    1983-01-01

    A SQUID based beam current meter has the capability of measuring the current of a beam with as little as 30 x 155 antiprotons (with a signal to noise ratio of 2). If low noise dc current is used to cancel most of the beam or an up-down counter is used to count auto-resets this sensitivity will be available at any time in the acumulation process. This current meter will therefore be a unique diagnostic tool for optimizing the performance of several Tev I components. Besides requiring liquid helium it seems that its only drawback is not to follow with the above sensitivity a sudden beam change larger than 16 μA, something that could be done using a second one in a less sensitive configuration

  4. NUCLEAR MIXING METERS FOR CLASSICAL NOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Keegan J.; Iliadis, Christian; Downen, Lori; Champagne, Art [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); José, Jordi [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, EUETIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, E-08036 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-11-10

    Classical novae are caused by mass transfer episodes from a main-sequence star onto a white dwarf via Roche lobe overflow. This material possesses angular momentum and forms an accretion disk around the white dwarf. Ultimately, a fraction of this material spirals in and piles up on the white dwarf surface under electron-degenerate conditions. The subsequently occurring thermonuclear runaway reaches hundreds of megakelvin and explosively ejects matter into the interstellar medium. The exact peak temperature strongly depends on the underlying white dwarf mass, the accreted mass and metallicity, and the initial white dwarf luminosity. Observations of elemental abundance enrichments in these classical nova events imply that the ejected matter consists not only of processed solar material from the main-sequence partner but also of material from the outer layers of the underlying white dwarf. This indicates that white dwarf and accreted matter mix prior to the thermonuclear runaway. The processes by which this mixing occurs require further investigation to be understood. In this work, we analyze elemental abundances ejected from hydrodynamic nova models in search of elemental abundance ratios that are useful indicators of the total amount of mixing. We identify the abundance ratios ΣCNO/H, Ne/H, Mg/H, Al/H, and Si/H as useful mixing meters in ONe novae. The impact of thermonuclear reaction rate uncertainties on the mixing meters is investigated using Monte Carlo post-processing network calculations with temperature-density evolutions of all mass zones computed by the hydrodynamic models. We find that the current uncertainties in the {sup 30}P(p, γ){sup 31}S rate influence the Si/H abundance ratio, but overall the mixing meters found here are robust against nuclear physics uncertainties. A comparison of our results with observations of ONe novae provides strong constraints for classical nova models.

  5. Variability of Heart Rate in Primitive Horses and Their Relatives as an Indicator of Stress Level, Behavioural Conduct Towards Humans and Adaptation to Living in Wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pluta Michał

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of using heart rate (HR as a metric parameter that can be used for the characterisation of behaviour of primitive horses and their relatives, related to reactions to the stress resulting from the contact with humans and adaptation to living in various conditions, including natural environment. This characterisation served the authors to expand the knowledge of such behaviour of primitive horses, and to assess the impact of the environmental and genetic factors. Studies were conducted in three populations of horses: two herds of Polish Konik and one herd of Biłgoraj horses. The studies were performed between 1993 and 2010. They concerned the behaviour of horses during grooming - breeding procedures (hooves clearing, body measurements performed cyclically and the daily observations when HR was monitored continuously. HR results for the respective age categories, during particular grooming - breeding procedures and reserve observations indicate that Polish Konik horses, closely related to the primitive Tarpan breed, are genetically better adapted to living in conditions similar to the natural (reserve than the Biłgoraj horses. They show less stress symptoms, which are evidenced by HR values noted during inhabiting the natural environment.

  6. Solid state semiconductor detectorized survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Eisuke; Nagase, Yoshiyuki; Furuhashi, Masato

    1987-01-01

    Survey meters are used for measurement of gamma ray dose rate of the space and the surface contamination dencity that the atomic energy plant and the radiation facility etc. We have recently developed semiconductor type survey meter (Commercial name: Compact Survey Meter). This survey meter is a small-sized dose rate meter with excellent function. The special features are using semiconductor type detector which we have developed by our own technique, stablar wide range than the old type, long life, and easy to carry. Now we introduce the efficiency and the function of the survey meter. (author)

  7. Federal Building Metering Guidance (per 42 U.S.C. 8253(e), Metering of Energy Use)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-11-01

    Guidance defines which federal buildings are appropriate to meter, provides metering prioritization recommendations for agencies with limited resources, and discusses the requirement for agencies to submit metering implementation plans to the U.S. Department of Energy.

  8. Smart Metering Guide. Energy Saving and the Customer. Edition 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kester, J.C.P. (ed.) [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Gonzalez Burgos, M.J. (ed.) [Endesa Ingenieria, Madrid (Spain); Parsons, J. (ed.) [British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association BEAMA, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    Smart metering can provide the foundations for a radically different approach to energy reduction schemes. However, the implementation of smart metering is a complex undertaking and its success depends on getting many factors right, from technology choice to how the information is presented to final customers. Making the expected reduction in energy consumption depends on achieving a positive reaction from final customers. Maintaining and increasing these savings will need the engagement of Energy Retailers, energy agencies and others. This Guide has been produced to bring together the lessons learnt from smart metering systems and trials, targeted on the promotion of End Use Energy Efficiency. The aim is to assist those groups who are considering implementing smart metering for this purpose and to maximise the benefits arising from those implementations. . The main target audience for the Guide are utilities, ESCO's and service providers across Europe. In most countries these are the parties investing in the smart metering systems and providing the smart metering services. In addition to these, governments, regulators, consumer bodies and energy agencies, as well as suppliers and system integrators, will also find valuable information in the Guide. As the subtitle of the Guide indicates, the focus of this Guide is on the application of smart metering for delivering energy saving. Making the expected reduction in energy consumption depends on achieving a positive reaction from final customers. In general, the successful provision of smart metering services is highly dependent on the right involvement of the energy final customer. This guide is not a ready-to-go manual for the installation of a specific type of smart metering system. Rather, the authors have tried to give the reader an insight into some of the complexities of the whole implementation process of smart metering systems. Also the guide is impartial regarding different technologies unless there is

  9. Development and applications of new type isotope level-meters for cement factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shiqing; Min Hainian; Zhang Zhaoqing; Fu Heping; Dang Congjun; Wang Jingmin; Xia Junming

    1998-01-01

    According to the situation of current domestic switch isotope level-meters used for the level measurement and control in cement factories, a new type isotope level-meter is developed. The level-meter includes digit display circuit, count detection and control circuit and two ways control export, its response time is less than 1 second. The quenching circuit in the detector lengthens the using lifespan of G-M counter. The application in the factories indicates that the level-meter has the advantages of sensitive, strong anti-disturbance, reliable and adjustment simplicity. The use of the level-meter can make the better economy benefit and society benefit

  10. Index of Refraction Measurements Using a Laser Distance Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Romulo; Fiorillo, Richard; Ochoa, Cris

    2014-01-01

    We present a simple method to determine the refractive indices of transparent media using a laser distance meter. Indices of refraction have been obtained by measuring the speed of light in materials. Some speed of light techniques use time-of-flight measurements in which pulses are emitted by lasers and the time interval is measured for the pulse…

  11. Cross-cultural differences in meter perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalender, Beste; Trehub, Sandra E; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2013-03-01

    We examined the influence of incidental exposure to varied metrical patterns from different musical cultures on the perception of complex metrical structures from an unfamiliar musical culture. Adults who were familiar with Western music only (i.e., simple meters) and those who also had limited familiarity with non-Western music were tested on their perception of metrical organization in unfamiliar (Turkish) music with simple and complex meters. Adults who were familiar with Western music detected meter-violating changes in Turkish music with simple meter but not in Turkish music with complex meter. Adults with some exposure to non-Western music that was unmetered or metrically complex detected meter-violating changes in Turkish music with both simple and complex meters, but they performed better on patterns with a simple meter. The implication is that familiarity with varied metrical structures, including those with a non-isochronous tactus, enhances sensitivity to the metrical organization of unfamiliar music.

  12. Net metering in British Columbia : white paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, T.

    2003-01-01

    Net metering was described as being the reverse registration of an electricity customer's revenue meter when interconnected with a utility's grid. It is a provincial policy designed to encourage small-distributed renewable power generation such as micro-hydro, solar energy, fuel cells, and larger-scale wind energy. It was noted that interconnection standards for small generation is an important issue that must be addressed. The British Columbia Utilities Commission has asked BC Hydro to prepare a report on the merits of net metering in order to support consultations on a potential net metering tariff application by the utility. This report provides information on net metering with reference to experience in other jurisdictions with net metering, and the possible costs and benefits associated with net metering from both a utility and consumer perspective. Some of the barriers and policy considerations for successful implementation of net metering were also discussed. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Versatile operation meter for nuclear information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yong; Xiao Yabin; Wang Shuyuan; Shu Jingfang; Di Shaoliang; Wu Hongbin

    1995-01-01

    This paper states a low-cost, small-volume, multi-function, reproducible and new model intelligent nuclear electronic meter. It's hardware and Software were detailed and the 137 Cs spectrum with this meter was presented

  14. Calibration of dose meters used in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This manual is a practical guide, not a comprehensive textbook, to the instrumentation and procedures necessary to calibrate a radiation dose meter used in clinical practice against a secondary standard dose meter

  15. Hardware Design of a Smart Meter

    OpenAIRE

    Ganiyu A. Ajenikoko; Anthony A. Olaomi

    2014-01-01

    Smart meters are electronic measurement devices used by utilities to communicate information for billing customers and operating their electric systems. This paper presents the hardware design of a smart meter. Sensing and circuit protection circuits are included in the design of the smart meter in which resistors are naturally a fundamental part of the electronic design. Smart meters provides a route for energy savings, real-time pricing, automated data collection and elimina...

  16. Intelligent Metering for Urban Water: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rodney Stewart; Stuart White; Candice Moy; Ariane Liu; Pierre Mukheibir; Damien Giurco; Thomas Boyle

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the drivers, development and global deployment of intelligent water metering in the urban context. Recognising that intelligent metering (or smart metering) has the potential to revolutionise customer engagement and management of urban water by utilities, this paper provides a summary of the knowledge-base for researchers and industry practitioners to ensure that the technology fosters sustainable urban water management. To date, roll-outs of intelligent metering have been ...

  17. Ultrasonic flow-meter test in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Y.; Uno, O.; Kamei, M.

    1978-01-01

    As a part of the R and D programme for the prototype fast breeder reactor MONJU, an ultrasonic flow-meter (USFM) test is being carried out in sodium in the O-Arai Engineering Center of PNC. Prior to the present test, an in-water test was done at the manufacturer's as a preliminary investigation. The results reported here are the results up to the present. Calibration tests using the actual fluid were conducted on a 12-inch ultrasonic flow-meter with guide rods fabricated for sodium flow measurement. The test conditions in sodium were a temperature of 200 approximately 400 0 C and flow-rates of 0 approximately 6m/s. The main results are: (1) The linearity of output signal was good and accuracy was within 1%; (2) The alternating type of the USFM was much better than the fixed type in temperature change; (3) 2MHz of transducer frequency was better than 3MHz in sodium; (4) The S/N ratio of the ultrasonic signal and the length/diameter effect in a wide range in sodium surpassed the in-water test. (author)

  18. Smart Metering. Technological, economic and legal aspects. 2. ed.; Smart Metering. Technologische, wirtschaftliche und juristische Aspekte des Smart Metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler-Schute, Christiana (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    Smart metering comprises more than just meter technology, and the use of information and communication technologies is indispensable. Processes, roles and business models must be reconsidered as further challenges arise in the context of smart metering. For one, there is the operator of the metering points. Secondly, there is the end user who is in the role of an active market partner. Further, there is smart metering as a basic technology, e.g. for smart grids and smart homes. In spite of the need for action, many utilities are reluctant to introduce smart metering. Reasons for this are the cost, a lack of defined standards, and an unclear legal situation. On the other hand, smart metering offers potential for grids and distribution that should be made use of. The authors discuss all aspects of the subject. The point out the chances and limitations of smart metering and present their own experience. [German] Smart Metering geht weit ueber die Zaehlertechnologie hinaus und der Einsatz von Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien ist unabdingbar. Damit einhergehend muessen Prozesse, Rollen und auch Geschaeftsmodelle neu durchdacht werden. Denn weitere Herausforderungen stehen im direkten Zusammenhang mit Smart Metering. Das ist zum einen die Rolle des Messstellenbetreibers / Messdienstleisters. Das ist zum anderen der Endnutzer, dem die Rolle des aktiven Marktpartners zugedacht wird. Das ist des Weiteren das Smart Metering als Basistechnologie beispielsweise fuer Smart Grid und Smart Home. Trotz des Handlungsdrucks stehen viele Unternehmen der Energiewirtschaft dem Smart Metering zurueckhaltend gegenueber. Drei gewichtige Gruende werden ins Feld gefuehrt: die Kostenfrage, nicht definierte Standards und die in vielen Bereichen ungeklaerte Gesetzeslage. Demgegenueber bietet das Smart Metering Potenziale fuer Netz und Vertrieb, die es zu nutzen gilt. Die Autoren setzen sich in ihren Beitraegen mit diesen Themen auseinander, zeigen Chancen, aber auch Grenzen des

  19. Fundamental principles of rotary displacement meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, J. [Schlumberger Industries, Owenton, KY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The gas meter exists to continually and accurately measure the volume of gas supplied over the complete flow range of the load. In effect the gas meter serves as the {open_quotes}cash register{close_quotes} of the gas industry; its accurate and dependable performance ensures fair dealings for both the supplier and the user. An investment both in and of itself, the gas meter should be chosen as a function of its usefullness both over the short term and the long term. Thus in addition to initial cost, one must take into account various associated factors, costs and benefits, including the following: Design Characteristics Application, suitability, Meter features and options, Operation constraints, Installation, Service and maintenance, Repair and replacement, Life expectancy, Compatibility with complimentary products, Correcting devices, Remote reading capabilities, Data generation and gathering, Upgradeabilty. This paper will look at one positive displacement meter, the Rotary meter, and address the fundamentals principals of the technology as well as looking at some of the benefits derived from its application. Rotary positive displacement meters were introduced at the end of last century. Used primarily for metering transmission sized loads, the meters` measuring capabilities have extended to cover nearly all areas of distribution with exception of domestic applications. Rotary meters are available in rated capacities from 800 cfh to 102,000 cfh and operating pressures from 175 PSIG to 1440 PSIG. The use of rotary meters on load ranges in the 800 to 10,000 cfh category has increased and is replacing the use of diaphragm meters because of the smaller relative size of rotaries, and improvements in rangeabilities in the last few years. Turbine meters are usually the meter of choice on loads over 16,000 cfh unless a meter with high rangeability is required because of varying load characteristics, in which case a large foot mounted rotary might still be selected.

  20. Metering revisited - innovative concepts for electrical monitoring and reporting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbins, W.L.

    1993-01-01

    For the first three-quarters of this century, the monitoring of electrical power and energy has been dominated by conventional electromechanical voltmeters, ammeters, and watthour meters. Only in the last decade have solid state microprocessor-based distal devices become available for application in the commercial and industrial marketplace. These new devices perform the tasks of up to 24 conventional indicating meters for about the price of three. Communication via a RS-485 data link to a PC allows monitoring of up to 70 values including times and dates, min/max history, temperature indications, and energy management alarms. Complex waveform analysis can also be carried out for harmonic problems typically associated with adjustable speed drives that have been installed on fans and pumps for energy management savings. Since metering systems are absolutely essential to a successful Energy Management Process, consideration should be given to applying the latest in metering technology. It should be noted that meters by themselves do not save money, they only cost money to install and maintain. Proper monitoring, recording, and analysis lead to corrective actions which produce the desired result of reducing energy per unit of production or per service performed. Experience has shown that a 1 to 2% reduction can be achieved after meters are installed just by letting the users know that they are being monitored. Up to a 5% reduction can occur when the users then become proactive toward better managing of their energy. Ultimately up to 10% reduction can be achieved when metering is tied directly to the process through a PLC or DCS, in a closed loop automated process control arrangement

  1. Analysing Smart Metering Systems from a Consumer Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesudas, Rani

    Many countries are deploying smart meters and Advanced Metering Infrastructure systems as part of demand management and grid modernisation efforts. Several of these projects are facing consumer resistance. The advertised benefits to the consumer appear mainly monetary but detailed analysis shows that financial benefits are hard to realise since the fixed services charges are high. Additionally, the data collected from smart meters have security and privacy implications for the consumer. These projects failed to consider end-users as an important stakeholder group during planning stages resulting in the design and roll-out of expensive systems, which do not demonstrate clear consumer benefits. The overall goal of the research reported in this thesis was to improve the smart metering system to deliver consumer benefits that increase confidence and acceptance of these projects. The smart metering system was examined from an end-user perspective for realistic insights into consumer concerns. Processes from Design Science Research methodology were utilised to conduct this research due to the utilitarian nature of the objective. Consumer segmentation was central to the proposed measures. Initially, a consumer-friendly risk analysis framework was devised, and appropriate requirement elicitation techniques were identified. Control options for smart meter data transfer and storage were explored. Various scenarios were analysed to determine consumer-friendly features in the smart metering system, including control options for smart meter data transfer and storage. Proposed functionalities (billing choices, feedback information and specific configurations to match the needs of different user segments) were studied using the Australian smart metering system. Smart meters vary in capabilities depending on the manufacturer, mode and place of deployment. The research showed that features proposed in this thesis are implementable in smart meters, by examining their applicability

  2. Handheld Multi-Gas Meters Assessment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Gustavious [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Wald-Hopkins, Mark David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Obrey, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Akhadov, Valida Dushdurova [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-27

    Handheld multi-gas meters (MGMs) are equipped with sensors to monitor oxygen (O2) levels and additional sensors to detect the presence of combustible or toxic gases in the environment. This report is limited to operational response-type MGMs that include at least four different sensors. These sensors can vary by type and by the monitored chemical. In real time, the sensors report the concentration of monitored gases in the atmosphere near the MGM. In April 2016 the System Assessment and Validation for Emergency Responders (SAVER) Program conducted an operationally-oriented assessment of MGMs. Five MGMs were assessed by emergency responders. The criteria and scenarios used in this assessment were derived from the results of a focus group of emergency responders with experience in using MGMs. The assessment addressed 16 evaluation criteria in four SAVER categories: Usability, Capability, Maintainability, and Deployability.

  3. Multitasking metering enhances generation, transmission operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, E.

    2008-11-15

    The Dairyland Power Cooperative (DPC) which operates from La Crosse, Wisconsin has the capacity to generate and transmit 1000 MW of power to 25 member cooperatives and 20 municipalities who serve over 500,000 customers. When DPC was experiencing diminished service within its analog cellular-based data communications system, it was presented with an opportunity to install a new automated telecommunications system that would provide secure collection of meter readings from all of its substations. DPC decided to evaluate an advanced multifunctional digital meter from Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL). The SEL-734 Revenue Metering System offers complete instantaneous metering functions, including voltages, currents, power, energy and power factor. Other capabilities include predictive demand, time-of-use metering, automatic voltage monitoring, harmonics metering and synchrophasor measurement. From a metering perspective, DPC wanted to perform daily load profiles and interval-by-interval metering of their delivery points for billing purposes. They also wanted to provide real-time monitoring of electricity being delivered for both generation and transmission purposes and to make that information available to a distribution SCADA system for their members. The SEL-734 Revenue Meter was well suited to those needs. The SEL-734 provides very high-accuracy energy metering, load profile data collection, instantaneous power measurements, power quality monitoring, and communicates simultaneously over a modem, serial ports, and wide area networks (WAN). The meter is backed with a ten-year warranty as well as field support engineers. 5 figs.

  4. The 59 meter dash - automatic rapid meter reading in Ronneby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottosson, Hans [Enersearch (Sweden); Selander, Lars [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden); Bergstroem, Ulrika [Sydkraft (Sweden)

    1999-02-01

    As a result of deregulation of the telecommunications and energy markets, the utilities in Sweden see opportunities to use power lines for additional profitable applications such as transmission of data; the technology is called Power Line Telecommunications (PLT). The potential advantages are said to be 'massive'. The potential applications include remote security, automatic meter reading, load management and 'smart' home automation. A small scale feasibility study has been carried out in Ronneby in Sweden where it was shown that load management and efficiency improvements can reduce the costs of supplying the town with heat and electricity by about 3%. The Ronneby trial is described in detail. Since Scandinavia makes use of weather-dependent renewables for much of its power generation, load management is an attractive potential application of PLT. (UK)

  5. Too cheap to meter what?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedekind, Lothar

    2004-01-01

    Full text: 50 years ago, at 17:30 hours, 26 June 1954, in the town of Obninsk, near Moscow, the first nuclear power plant sent electricity to residences and businesses. Atomic energy had crossed the divide from military uses to peaceful ones, demonstrating the potential to fuel civilian electric power plants. The milestone is being marked this year at an IAEA international nuclear power conference in Obninsk. Past experience will be reviewed, but the focus is on meeting future challenges. Though it has come a long way in 50 years, nuclear energy today finds itself in a struggle of the fittest to carve a niche over the next fifty - in the marketplace and in the public eye. Cliches and sound bites tell part of the nuclear story. Visionary talk by nuclear proponents in 1954 was about future energy sources that would be 'too cheap to meter', a phrase critics pounced upon. Today in 2004 the 'too cheap to meter' phrase occasionally haunts the atom, but pops up more often than not in promotional ads for anything from wind power to web sites. Talk of nuclear energy now is of a 'renaissance' and 'second wind.' New nuclear plants are most attractive where energy demand is growing and resources are scarce, and where energy security, air pollution and greenhouse gases are priorities, IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei points out. In cities, towns, and villages, reality is different, or too much the same, depending how you see and live it. Cheap or not, nuclear energy today supplies one-sixth of the world's electricity in some 30 countries. Still, it does not produce enough power. Neither does any other energy source. More than 1.5 billion people have no electricity to meter whatsoever - not from renewables, solar, nuclear, biomass, wind, coal, oil, gas, firewood, or hydrogen, the publicized promise of tomorrow. So what will it take? Maybe bigger blackouts or hotter days than the world has seen. Certainly needed are more attention, action, and money. In dollar terms

  6. ATD-2 Surface Scheduling and Metering Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppenbarger, Richard A.; Jung, Yoon Chul; Capps, Richard Alan; Engelland, Shawn A.

    2017-01-01

    This presentation describes the concept of ATD-2 tactical surface scheduling and metering. The concept is composed of several elements, including data exchange and integration; surface modeling; surface scheduling; and surface metering. The presentation explains each of the elements. Surface metering is implemented to balance demand and capacity• When surface metering is on, target times from surface scheduler areconverted to advisories for throttling demand• Through the scheduling process, flights with CTOTs will not get addedmetering delay (avoids potential for ‘double delay’)• Carriers can designate certain flights as exempt from metering holds• Demand throttle in Phase 1 at CLT is through advisories sent to rampcontrollers for pushback instructions to the flight deck– Push now– Hold for an advised period of time (in minutes)• Principles of surface metering can be more generally applied to otherairports in the NAS to throttle demand via spot-release times (TMATs Strong focus on optimal use of airport resources• Flexibility enables stakeholders to vary the amount of delay theywould like transferred to gate• Addresses practical aspects of executing surface metering in aturbulent real world environment• Algorithms designed for both short term demand/capacityimbalances (banks) or sustained metering situations• Leverage automation to enable surface metering capability withoutrequiring additional positions• Represents first step in Tactical/Strategic fusion• Provides longer look-ahead calculations to enable analysis ofstrategic surface metering potential usage

  7. Structured Literature Review of Electricity Consumption Classification Using Smart Meter Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tureczek, Alexander Martin; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2017-01-01

    utilizing smart meter data for deepening our knowledge of consumption patterns. This paper applies a modification of Okoli's method for conducting structured literature reviews to generate an overview of research in electricity customer classification using smart meter data. The process assessed 2099 papers...

  8. Additional functions of remotely read kWh-meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Vehvilaeinen, S. [Mittrix Oy (Finland); Rantanen, J. [Helsinki Energy Board, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In this presentation the possibilities to include new applications into remotely read smart kWh-meters are considered. New electronic meters can measure various electric quantities and have some extra calculating capacity. So they can be used to provide functions that distribution automation and the customer need and thus share the costs. Some applications like monitoring the state of the distribution network or locating faults are only for the utility, but many applications also need an interface to the customer or his automation system. Among those are monitoring the quality of electricity, estimating load curves, applying dynamic tariffs and selling electricity and accounting. As a special item, the continuous monitoring of the quality of electricity is discussed. This includes voltage levels, total distortion, asymmetry and so on. If such a kWh-meter indicates quality problems the situation can be detected with a suitable portable quality meter. The poor quality can be detected before it causes harm to equipment owned by the customers or the power distribution company. This presentation also presents a prototype of such a quality monitoring kWh-meter

  9. Additional functions of remotely read kWh-meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Vehvilaeinen, S [Mittrix Oy (Finland); Rantanen, J [Helsinki Energy Board, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    In this presentation the possibilities to include new applications into remotely read smart kWh-meters are considered. New electronic meters can measure various electric quantities and have some extra calculating capacity. So they can be used to provide functions that distribution automation and the customer need and thus share the costs. Some applications like monitoring the state of the distribution network or locating faults are only for the utility, but many applications also need an interface to the customer or his automation system. Among those are monitoring the quality of electricity, estimating load curves, applying dynamic tariffs and selling electricity and accounting. As a special item, the continuous monitoring of the quality of electricity is discussed. This includes voltage levels, total distortion, asymmetry and so on. If such a kWh-meter indicates quality problems the situation can be detected with a suitable portable quality meter. The poor quality can be detected before it causes harm to equipment owned by the customers or the power distribution company. This presentation also presents a prototype of such a quality monitoring kWh-meter

  10. Alteration in Business Models of Electricity Distribution Companies - A Case of Smart Metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trygg, P.

    2013-09-01

    Smart metering is currently implemented in many countries. The change from traditional metering is significant and impacts many of the Distribution system operator's (DSO's) activities. This dissertation aims to provide a structured model for analysing the impacts of Smart metering on a DSO's business. Research was conducted by gathering a theoretical framework for understanding how the business operates. The concept of business model has been presented. It is used as a framework of metering business. Detailed studies on specific parts of the business model have been carried out. These concentrate on finding a theoretical background of what Smart metering can provide. Cost analyses were conducted to better understand resources required by Smart metering. Problems related to ICT resources have also been studied based on the DSO's experiences. Partner network was studied based on DSO's experiences related to service purchasing and finally experiences in working with IT services provided to the DSOs has been presented. This dissertation presents a development trend that has taken place regarding Smart metering in implementation and operation. Results are presented in a business model framework to provide a more structured view on issues related to Smart metering. Also non-technical issues should be analysed to fully understand the extent of the changes taking place when implementing Smart metering. The information presented can be utilized when significant change factors to the DSO's business models can be recognized. (orig.)

  11. Wide Range Portable Radiation Survey Meter for Emergency Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangadharan, P.; Bhave, D. G.; Gokarn, R. S.; Khadake, R. G. [Directorate Of Radiation Protection, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Bombay (India)

    1969-05-15

    The paper describes a portable battery-operated radiation survey meter for monitoring a wide range of X- and gamma-ray exposure rates from 1 mR/h to 100 R/h. The instrument Incorporates a halogen GM tube as the detector and a count-rate meter for indication. A transistorized d.c. -d.c. converter supplies the necessary high voltage to the GM counter. The instrument response has been made energy independent in the energy range 80 keV to 1.25 MeV. Further, the response is linear over the entire range of exposure rates. Suitable extension rods have been designed to provide sufficient separation between the probe and the meter in cases where remote monitoring is necessary because of high fields. (author)

  12. Balanced Flow Meters without Moving Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R.; VanBuskirk, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Balanced flow meters are recent additions to an established class of simple, rugged flow meters that contain no moving parts in contact with flow and are based on measurement of pressure drops across objects placed in flow paths. These flow meters are highly accurate, minimally intrusive, easily manufacturable, and reliable. A balanced flow meter can be easily mounted in a flow path by bolting it between conventional pipe flanges. A balanced flow meter can be used to measure the flow of any of a variety of liquids or gases, provided that it has been properly calibrated. Relative to the standard orifice-plate flow meter, the balanced flow meter introduces less turbulence and two times less permanent pressure loss and is therefore capable of offering 10 times greater accuracy and repeatability with less dissipation of energy. A secondary benefit of the reduction of turbulence is the reduction of vibration and up to 15 times less acoustic noise generation. Both the balanced flow meter and the standard orifice-plate flow meter are basically disks that contain holes and are instrumented with pressure transducers on their upstream and downstream faces. The most obvious difference between them is that the standard orifice plate contains a single, central hole while the balanced flow meter contains multiple holes. The term 'balanced' signifies that in designing the meter, the sizes and locations of the holes are determined in an optimization procedure that involves balancing of numerous factors, including volumetric flow, mass flow, dynamic pressure, kinetic energy, all in an effort to minimize such undesired effects as turbulence, pressure loss, dissipation of kinetic energy, and non-repeatability and nonlinearity of response over the anticipated range of flow conditions. Due to proper balancing of these factors, recent testing demonstrated that the balanced flow-meter performance was similar to a Venturi tube in both accuracy and pressure recovery, but featured reduced

  13. RFID-BASED Prepaid Power Meter

    OpenAIRE

    Teymourzadeh, Rozita

    2013-01-01

    An Electric power meter is an important component in electric energy service. In the past, many consumers have complained about reading inaccurate of the electric meter. This research presents the development of an electrical power meter equipped with RFID reader. The RFID reader reads a valid RFID card and activates the power meter so that it can supply electricity. When the credit is about low or before the electricity is auto cut off, an SMS message will be sent to the user’s handphone to ...

  14. Cancer-meter: measure and cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Sunil Kumar; Sharma, Birendra Kumar; Banerjee, Amitabh

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a theory and system on "Cancer-Meter'. This idea came through the statement that "cancer is curable if it is measurable". The Cancer-Meter proves that it is possible. This paper proposes the cancer-meter in two ways, theoretical and electronically, as per the measurement and treatment. By the mathematics, first part is defined but the second part is based on computer programming, electrical and electronics. Thus, the cancer-meter is a programmed-electrical-electronic device which measures and cures the cancer both.

  15. Monitoring of prestressed concrete pressure vessels. II. performance of selected concrete embedment strain meters under normal and extreme environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Hurtt, C.C.

    1978-10-01

    Unique types of instrumentation are used in prestressed concrete pressure vessels (PCPVs) to measure strains, stresses, deflections, prestressing forces, moisture content, temperatures, and possibly cracking. Their primary purpose is to monitor these complex structures throughout their 20- to 30-year operating lifetime in order to provide continuing assurance of their reliability and safety. Numerous concrete embedment instrumentation systems are available commercially. Since this instrumentation is important in providing continuing assurance of satisfactory performance of PCPVs, the information provided must be reliable. Therefore, laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the reliability of these commercially available instrumentation systems. This report, the second in a series related to instrumentation embedded in concrete, presents performance-reliability data for 13 types of selected concrete embedment strain meters which were subjected to a variety of loading environments, including unloaded, thermally loaded, simulated PCPV, and extreme environments. Although only a limited number of meters of each type were tested in any one test series, the composite results of the investigation indicate that the majority of these meters would not be able to provide reliable data throughout the 20- to 30-year anticipated operating life of a PCPV. Specific conclusions drawn from the study are: (1) Improved corrosion-resistant materials and sealing techniques should be developed for meters that are to be used in PCPV environments. (2) There is a need for the development of meters that are capable of surviving in concretes where temperatures in excess of 66 0 C are present for extended periods of time. (3) Research should be conducted on other measurement techniques, such as inductance, capacitance, and fluidics

  16. Development of simple band-spectral pyranometer and quantum meter using photovoltaic cells and bandpass filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilguun, Amarsaikhan, E-mail: bilguun@pes.ee.tut.ac.jp; Nakaso, Tetsushi; Harigai, Toru; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi, E-mail: takikawa@ee.tut.ac.jp [Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Habarigaoka, Tempaku, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Tanoue, Hideto [Kitakyushu National College of Technology, 5-20-1, Kokuraminami, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 802-0985 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, greenhouse automatic-control, based on the measurement of solar irradiance, has been attracting attention. This control is an effective method for improving crop production. In the agricultural field, it is necessary to measure Photon Flux Density (PFD), which is an important parameter in the promotion of plant growth. In particular, the PFD of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) and Plant Biologically Active Radiation (PBAR, 300-800 nm) have been discussed in agricultural plant science. The commercial quantum meter (QM, PAR meter) can only measure Photosynthetically Photon Flux Density (PPFD) which is the integrated PFD quantity on the PAR wavelength. In this research, a band-spectral pyranometer or quantum meter using PVs with optical bandpass filters for dividing the PBAR wavelength into 100 nm bands (five independent channels) was developed. Before field testing, calibration of the instruments was carried out using a solar simulator. Next, a field test was conducted in three differing weather conditions such as clear, partly cloudy and cloudy skies. As a result, it was found that the response rate of the developed pyranometer was faster by four seconds compared with the response rate of the commercial pyranometer. Moreover, the outputs of each channel in the developed pyranometer were very similar to the integrated outputs of the commercial spectroradiometer. It was confirmed that the solar irradiance could be measured in each band separately using the developed band-spectral pyranometer. It was indicated that the developed band-spectral pyranometer could also be used as a PV band-spectral quantum meter which is obtained by converting the band irradiance into band PFD.

  17. Development of simple band-spectral pyranometer and quantum meter using photovoltaic cells and bandpass filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilguun, Amarsaikhan; Nakaso, Tetsushi; Harigai, Toru; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Tanoue, Hideto

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, greenhouse automatic-control, based on the measurement of solar irradiance, has been attracting attention. This control is an effective method for improving crop production. In the agricultural field, it is necessary to measure Photon Flux Density (PFD), which is an important parameter in the promotion of plant growth. In particular, the PFD of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) and Plant Biologically Active Radiation (PBAR, 300-800 nm) have been discussed in agricultural plant science. The commercial quantum meter (QM, PAR meter) can only measure Photosynthetically Photon Flux Density (PPFD) which is the integrated PFD quantity on the PAR wavelength. In this research, a band-spectral pyranometer or quantum meter using PVs with optical bandpass filters for dividing the PBAR wavelength into 100 nm bands (five independent channels) was developed. Before field testing, calibration of the instruments was carried out using a solar simulator. Next, a field test was conducted in three differing weather conditions such as clear, partly cloudy and cloudy skies. As a result, it was found that the response rate of the developed pyranometer was faster by four seconds compared with the response rate of the commercial pyranometer. Moreover, the outputs of each channel in the developed pyranometer were very similar to the integrated outputs of the commercial spectroradiometer. It was confirmed that the solar irradiance could be measured in each band separately using the developed band-spectral pyranometer. It was indicated that the developed band-spectral pyranometer could also be used as a PV band-spectral quantum meter which is obtained by converting the band irradiance into band PFD.

  18. Development of simple band-spectral pyranometer and quantum meter using photovoltaic cells and bandpass filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilguun, Amarsaikhan; Nakaso, Tetsushi; Harigai, Toru; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Tanoue, Hideto

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, greenhouse automatic-control, based on the measurement of solar irradiance, has been attracting attention. This control is an effective method for improving crop production. In the agricultural field, it is necessary to measure Photon Flux Density (PFD), which is an important parameter in the promotion of plant growth. In particular, the PFD of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) and Plant Biologically Active Radiation (PBAR, 300-800 nm) have been discussed in agricultural plant science. The commercial quantum meter (QM, PAR meter) can only measure Photosynthetically Photon Flux Density (PPFD) which is the integrated PFD quantity on the PAR wavelength. In this research, a band-spectral pyranometer or quantum meter using PVs with optical bandpass filters for dividing the PBAR wavelength into 100 nm bands (five independent channels) was developed. Before field testing, calibration of the instruments was carried out using a solar simulator. Next, a field test was conducted in three differing weather conditions such as clear, partly cloudy and cloudy skies. As a result, it was found that the response rate of the developed pyranometer was faster by four seconds compared with the response rate of the commercial pyranometer. Moreover, the outputs of each channel in the developed pyranometer were very similar to the integrated outputs of the commercial spectroradiometer. It was confirmed that the solar irradiance could be measured in each band separately using the developed band-spectral pyranometer. It was indicated that the developed band-spectral pyranometer could also be used as a PV band-spectral quantum meter which is obtained by converting the band irradiance into band PFD

  19. Voltage Harmonics Monitoring in a Microgrid Based on Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi; Guan, Yajuan; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2015-01-01

    Smart meters are the main part of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and are usually able to provide detailed information on customers’ energy consumptions, voltage variations and interruptions. In addition, these meters are potentially able to provide more information about power quality (PQ......) disturbances. This paper will address the monitoring of voltage harmonics utilizing the features of smart meters and AMI system. To do this, the first step is to select proper indices to quantify the distortion. An important point which should be considered in this regard is the limited processing power...

  20. Lessons from wet gas flow metering systems using differential measurements devices: Testing and flow modelling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazin, J.; Couput, J.P.; Dudezert, C. et al

    2005-07-01

    A significant number of wet gas meters used for high GVF and very high GVF are based on differential pressure measurements. Recent high pressure tests performed on a variety of different DP devices on different flow loops are presented. Application of existing correlations is discussed for several DP devices including Venturi meters. For Venturi meters, deviations vary from 9% when using the Murdock correlation to less than 3 % with physical based models. The use of DP system in a large domain of conditions (Water Liquid Ratio) especially for liquid estimation will require information on the WLR This obviously raises the question of the gas and liquid flow metering accuracy in wet gas meters and highlight needs to understand AP systems behaviour in wet gas flows (annular / mist / annular mist). As an example, experimental results obtained on the influence of liquid film characteristics on a Venturi meter are presented. Visualizations of the film upstream and inside the Venturi meter are shown. They are completed by film characterization. The AP measurements indicate that for a same Lockhart Martinelli parameter, the characteristics of the two phase flow have a major influence on the correlation coefficient. A 1D model is defined and the results are compared with the experiments. These results indicate that the flow regime influences the AP measurements and that a better modelling of the flow phenomena is needed even for allocation purposes. Based on that, lessons and way forward in wet gas metering systems improvement for allocation and well metering are discussed and proposed. (author) (tk)

  1. Electricity. Metering and services: a natural marriage; Electricite. Comptage et services: un mariage naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, M.

    2002-07-01

    The metering of electricity is no longer only a problem of automatic recording. With the deregulation of electricity markets, a strong potential of services with added value has been included in the metering activity. These services use the new communication means (Internet) to supply some convenient indicators to the clients: consumption data, energy performances and costs etc.. (J.S.)

  2. FLOW METERS WITH VERY GOOD PERFORMANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Dimitrie CAZACU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the theoretical calculus of a patented flow meter, concerning such the thermodynamic and aerodynamic calculus, as well as the offered precision to measure the flow of the air in any meteorological conditions. In the same time we remark that the proposed flow meter, by its positioning, has not loss of head.

  3. Adjustment equipment for reactor radioactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, V.P.; Malishev, A.N.; Shebanova, L.E.; Kirilyuk, N.A.; Maksimov, Yu.N.; Bessalov, G.G.; Vikhorev, Yu.V.; Lukyanov, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    An activity meter is described movably located in a channel placed in the peripheral biological shielding of a nuclear reactor. It is connected to a weight moving in a second channel by means of a pulley. This arrangement allows locating the radioactivity meter drive on the outer side of the biological shield and vacating space above the reactor body. (Ha)

  4. 10 CFR 451.7 - Metering requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metering requirements. 451.7 Section 451.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.7 Metering requirements. The net electric energy generated and sold (kilowatt-hours) by the owner or operator of a qualified...

  5. Some problems in calibrating surface contamination meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zigen; LI Xingyuan; Shuai Xiaoping.

    1984-01-01

    It is necessary that instruments are calibrated accurately in order to obtain reliable survey data of surface contamination. Some problems in calibrating surface contamination meters are expounded in this paper. Measurement comparison for beta surface contamination meters is organized within limited scope, thus survey quality is understood, questions are discovered, significance of calibration is expounded further. (Author)

  6. The reactivity meter and core reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siltanen, P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discussed in depth the point kinetic equations and the characteristics of the point kinetic reactivity meter, particularly for large negative reactivities. From a given input signal representing the neutron flux seen by a detector, the meter computes a value of reactivity in dollars (ρ/β), based on inverse point kinetics. The prompt jump point of view is emphasised. (Author)

  7. Optimal leaf positions for chlorophyll meter measurement in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaofeng eYuan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD chlorophyll meter is one of the most commonly used diagnostic tools to measure crop nitrogen status. However, the measurement method of the meter could significantly affect the accuracy of the final estimation. Thus, this research was undertaken to develop a new methodology to optimize SPAD meter measurements in rice (Oryza sativa L.. A flatbed color scanner was used to map the dynamic chlorophyll distribution and irregular leaf shapes. Calculus algorithm was adopted to estimate the potential positions for SPAD meter measurement along the leaf blade. Data generated by the flatbed color scanner and SPAD meter were analysed simultaneously. The results suggested that a position 2/3 of the distance from the leaf base to the apex (2/3 position could represent the chlorophyll content of the entire leaf blade, as indicated by the relatively low variance of measurements at that positon. SPAD values based on di-positional leaves and the extracted chlorophyll a and b contents were compared. This comparison showed that the 2/3 position on the lower leaves tended to be more sensitive to changes in chlorophyll content. Finally, the 2/3 position and average SPAD values of the fourth fully expanded leaf from the top were compared with leaf nitrogen concentration. The results showed the 2/3 position on that leaf was most suitable for predicting the nitrogen status of rice. Based on these results, we recommend making SPAD measurements at the 2/3 position on the fourth fully expanded leaf from the top. The coupling of dynamic chlorophyll distribution and irregular leaf shapes information can provide a promising approach for the calibration of SPAD meter measurement, which can further benefit the in situ nitrogen management by providing reliable estimation of crops nitrogen nutrition status.

  8. Development of a contour meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrada C, F.A.; Sanz, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    The dosimetric calculation in patients that receive radiotherapy treatment it requires the one knowledge of the geometry of some anatomical portions, which differs from a patient to another. Making reference to the specific case of mammary neoplasia, one of the measurements that is carried out on the patient is the acquisition of the contour of the breast, which is determined from a point marked on the breastbone until another point marked on the lateral of the thorax, below the armpit, with the patient located in the irradiation position. This measurement is carried out with the help of a mechanical contour meter that is a device conformed by a series of wires with a polymeric coating, which support on the breast of the patient and it reproduces its form. Then it is transported in the more careful possible form on a paper and the contour is traced with a tracer one. The geometric error associated to this procedure is of ±1 cm, which is sensitive of being reduced. The present work finds its motivation in the patient's radiological protection radiotherapy. The maximum error in dose allowed in radiotherapeutic treatments is 5%. It would be increase the precision and with it to optimize the treatment received by the patient, reducing the error in the acquisition process of the mammary contour. With this objective, a digital device is designed whose operation is based in the application of a spatial transformation on a picture of the mammary contour, which corrects the geometric distortion introduced in the process of the photographic acquisition. An algorithm that allows to obtain a front image (without distortion) of the plane of the contour was developed. A software tool especially developed carries out the processing of the digital images. The maximum geometric error detected in the validation process is 2 mm located on a small portion of the contour. (Author)

  9. Ambiguity effects of rhyme and meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallot, Sebastian; Menninghaus, Winfried

    2018-04-23

    Previous research has shown that rhyme and meter-although enhancing prosodic processing ease and memorability-also tend to make semantic processing more demanding. Using a set of rhymed and metered proverbs, as well as nonrhymed and nonmetered versions of these proverbs, the present study reveals this hitherto unspecified difficulty of comprehension to be specifically driven by perceived ambiguity. Roman Jakobson was the 1st to propose this hypothesis, in 1960. He suggested that "ambiguity is an intrinsic, inalienable feature" of "parallelistic" diction of which the combination of rhyme and meter is a pronounced example. Our results show that ambiguity indeed explains a substantial portion of the rhyme- and meter-driven difficulty of comprehension. Longer word-reading times differentially reflected ratings for ambiguity and comprehension difficulty. However, the ambiguity effect is not "inalienable." Rather, many rhymed and metered sentences turned out to be low in ambiguity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Hydro Ottawa achieves Smart Meter milestone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    As Ontario's second largest municipal electricity company, Hydro Ottawa serves more than 285,000 residential and business customers in the city of Ottawa and the village of Casselman. Since 2006, the utility has installed more than 230,000 Smart Meters throughout its service territory in an effort to provide better services to its customers. This initiative represents the largest operational advanced metering infrastructure network in Canada. This move was necessary before time-of-use rates can be implemented in Ottawa. The Smart Meters deliver data wirelessly to Hydro Ottawa's Customer Information System for billing and eliminating manual readings. The Smart Meters are designed to promote more efficient use of electricity. The Government of Ontario has passed legislation requiring the installation of Smart Meters throughout the province by the end of 2010

  11. Efficiency of portable chlorophyll meters in assessing the nutritional status of wheat plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessana F. Schlichting

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to verify the efficiency of two portable chlorophyll meters (Minolta SPAD® 502 and Falker ClorofiLOG® 1030 in assessing the nutritional status of wheat plants, correlating the indices from the devices and the direct determination of chlorophyll content with the concentration of nitrogen (N in the plant. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in pots with 5 dm3 of Oxisol, in a completely randomized design, with six N doses (0, 80, 160, 240, 320 and 400 mg dm-3 and five replicates. At 47 days after emergence, the readings of SPAD and Falker indices and the quantification of chlorophyll content and N concentration in wheat plants were performed, as well as analysis of variance and correlation test, both at 0.05 probability level. The chlorophyll meters Minolta SPAD® 502 and Falker ClorofiLOG® 1030 do not differ with respect to the indirect determination of chlorophyll in wheat plants. The Falker chlorophyll index was statistically equal to the chlorophyll content. Indirect chlorophyll indices and chlorophyll content showed a high correlation with the N concentration in the plant.

  12. Development and evaluation of an ultrasonic ground water seepage meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, R J; Smith, C F; O'Rourke, D; Wong, T F

    2001-01-01

    Submarine ground water discharge can influence significantly the near-shore transport and flux of chemicals into the oceans. Quantification of the sources and rates of such discharge requires a ground water seepage meter that provides continuous measurements at high resolution over an extended period of time. An ultrasonic flowmeter has been adapted for such measurements in the submarine environment. Connected to a steel collection funnel, the meter houses two piezoelectric transducers mounted at opposite ends of a cylindrical flow tube. By monitoring the perturbations of fluid flow on the propagation of sound waves inside the flow tube, the ultrasonic meter can measure both forward and reverse fluid flows in real time. Laboratory and field calibrations show that the ultrasonic meter can resolve ground water discharges on the order of 0.1 microm/sec, and it is sufficiently robust for deployment in the field for several days. Data from West Neck Bay, Shelter Island, New York, elucidate the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of submarine ground water discharge and its interplay with tidal loading. A negative correlation between the discharge and tidal elevation was generally observed. A methodology was also developed whereby data for the sound velocity as a function of temperature can be used to infer the salinity and source of the submarine discharge. Independent measurements of electrical conductance were performed to validate this methodology.

  13. Additional functions of remotely read kWh-meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Vehvilaeinen, S [Mittrix Oy (Finland); Rantanen, J [Helsinki Energy Board (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    In this chapter the possibilities to include new applications into remotely read smart kWh-meters are considered. New electronic meters can measure various electric quantities and have some extra calculating capacity. So they can be used to provide functions that distribution automation and the customer need and thus share the costs. Some applications like monitoring the state of the distribution network or locating faults are only for the utility, but many applications also need an interface to the customers or their automation systems. Among those are monitoring the quality of electricity, estimating load curves, applying dynamic tariffs and selling electricity and accounting. As a special item, the continuous monitoring of the quality of electricity is discussed. This includes voltage levels, total distortion, asymmetry and so on. If such a kWh-meter indicates quality problems it is possible to go there with a portable quality meter that is suitable for the case and inspect the situation. The poor quality can be detected before it causes harm to equipment owned by the customers or the power distribution company. This article also presents a prototype of such a quality monitoring kWh-meter. Dynamic tariffs and free electricity markets require two way communication with the utility and the customer and measurement of the time variations of the energy consumption. The customers or their energy management system must receive the energy prices from the utility and calculate the energy costs and decide upon the energy consumption control actions. Some alternative ways to meet these customer interface requirements are compared. Remote reading of kWh-meters requires a certain investment in meters and their data communication with the utility. Because smart meters can have some additional memory and calculating capacity and are capable of measuring various electric quantities, it is possible to share the costs with other applications that use the same hardware and data

  14. Investigation and Comparison of Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out Control Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Skoubo, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    In the later years, there has been an increased focus on new valve types, which yield the possibility to do Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out (SMISMO) control. This includes both digital valves, but proportional valves with separate metering spools and build in pressure sensors are also emerging....... The possibility to independently control the meter-in and meter-out side not only increase the functionality of the system, but also opens up for better performance and/or lowered energy consumption. The focus of the current paper is therefore on investigation and comparison of what may be obtained using...

  15. On Calibration of pH Meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Ming Zhu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The calibration of pH meters including the pH glass electrode, ISE electrodes,buffers, and the general background for calibration are reviewed. Understanding of basicconcepts of pH, pOH, and electrode mechanism is emphasized. New concepts of pH, pOH,as well as critical examination of activity, and activity coefficients are given. Theemergence of new solid state pH electrodes and replacement of the salt bridge with aconducting wire have opened up a new horizon for pH measurements. A pH buffer solutionwith a conducting wire may be used as a stable reference electrode. The misleadingunlimited linear Nernstian slope should be discarded. Calibration curves with 3 nonlinearportions for the entire 0—14 pH range due to the isoelectric point change effect areexplained. The potential measurement with stirring or unstirring and effects by double layer(DL and triple layer (TL will be discussed.

  16. INFLUENCE OF FUNCTIONAL ABILITY IN RUNNING 400 AND 800 METERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Elezi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Goal of the research was to assess on the grounds of data collected that were used to assess the functional ability of the cardio-respiratory system and the results of running to determine the relation of these sum of variables. Basic statistical indicators of the physiological variables and results of running were calculated. For determining the relation, the regression analysis was used in the manifested space. Criterion variable (running for 100 meters did not demonstrate statistically significant coefficient of multiple variation with predictor variables. The time span in running 400 meters is short in order to engage mechanisms that supply and transform the energy for oxidative processes. Criterion variable (of running 800 meters has demonstrated statistically significant coefficient of multiple correlations with predictor variable and its value was 0.377 tested through F-test. This is understandable given that the time effect of engagement of systems responsible for transfer and transformation of energy compared to time needed for running 400 meters.

  17. Water metering in England and Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zetland

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of water services that began with the privatisation of water companies in 1989 extended to households with the implementation of water metering. Meters 'privatised' water and the cost of provision by allocating to individual households costs that had previously been shared within the community. This (ongoing conversion of common pool to private good has mostly improved economic, environmental and social impacts, but the potential burden of metering on poorer households has slowed the transition. Stronger anti-poverty programmes would be better at addressing this poverty barrier than existing coping mechanisms reliant on subsidies from other water consumers.

  18. A neutron dose equivalent meter at CAEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Shihai; Lu Yan; Wang Heyi; Yuan Yonggang; Chen Xu

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of neutron dose equivalent has been a widespread need in industry and research. In this paper, aimed at improving the accuracy of neutron dose equivalent meter: a neutron dose counter is simulated with MCNP5, and the energy response curve is optimized. The results show that the energy response factor is from 0.2 to 1.8 for neutrons in the energy range of 2.53×10 -8 MeV to 10 MeV Compared with other related meters, it turns that the design of this meter is right. (authors)

  19. An experimental investigation of electrical conductivities in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    by HIOKI 3522 LCR/Z Meter (Japan). The a.c. conductivities were measured to depict the. Arrhenius behaviour of solid specimen with temperature variation setup and HIOKI 3522 LCR/Z Meter by using two-probe method. The temperature variation of a.c. con- ductivities were recorded by Tektronix DTM 900 Thermo-.

  20. Survey meter using novel inorganic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Akira; Fukuda, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Kamada, Kei; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yokota, Yuui; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Yanagida, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    Single crystal scintillator materials are widely used for detection of high-energy photons and particles. There is continuous demand for new scintillator materials with higher performance because of increasing number of medical, industrial, security and other applications. This article presents the recent development of three novel inorganic scintillators; Pr-doped Lu 3 Al 5 O 12 (Pr:LuAG), Ce doped Gd 3 (Al, Ga) 5 O 12 (Ce:GAGG) and Ce or Eu-doped 6 LiCaAlF 6 (Ce:LiCAF, Eu:LiCAF). Pr:LuAG shows very interesting scintillation properties including very fast decay time, high light yield and excellent energy resolution. Taking the advantage of these properties, positron emission mammography (PEM) equipped with Pr:LuAG were developed. Ce:GAGG shows very high light yield, which is much higher than that of Ce:LYSO. Survey meter using Ce:GAGG is developed using this scintillator. Ce:LiCAF and Eu:LiCAF were developed for neutron detection. The advantage and disadvantage are discussed comparing with halide scintillators. Eu-doped LiCAF indicated five times higher light yield than that of existing Li-glass. It is expected to be used as the alternative of 3 He. (author)

  1. Meter-wavelength VLBI. III. Pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, N.R.; Clark, T.A.; Clark, W.C.; Erickson, W.C.; Resch, G.M.; Broderick, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    The results and analysis of observations of pulsars, especially the Crab Nebula pulsar, taken during a series of meter-wavelength very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) experiments are discussed. Based on a crude 144 MHz visibility curve which is consistent with a Gaussian brightness distribution, the measured visibilities at 196, 111, and 74 MHz were interpreted to yield apparent angular diameters (at half-power) of 0 .03 +- 0 .01, 0 .07 +- 0 .01, and 0 .18 +- 0 .01, respectively. These sizes scale approximately as wavelength-squared, and the 74 MHz size agrees with recent observations using interplanetary scintillation techniques.The VLBI-measured total flux densities lie on the extrapolation from higher frequencies of the pulsing flux densities. Variations in the total flux density up to 25 percent were observed. A lack of fine structure other than the pulsar in the nebula is indicated by our simple visibility curves. The pulse shapes observed with the interferometer are similar to single-dish measurements at 196 MHz but reveal a steady, nonpulsing component at 111 MHz. The ratio of pulsing to total power was approximately equal to one-half but varied with time. No pulsing power was detected at 74 MHz. It was found that four strong, low-dispersion pulsars were only slightly resolved

  2. INFLUENCE OF FUNCTIONAL ABILITY IN RUNNING 400 AND 800 METERS

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulla Elezi; Hasim Rushiti; Afrim Koca

    2013-01-01

    Goal of the research was to assess on the grounds of data collected that were used to assess the functional ability of the cardio-respiratory system and the results of running to determine the relation of these sum of variables. Basic statistical indicators of the physiological variables and results of running were calculated. For determining the relation, the regression analysis was used in the manifested space. Criterion variable (running for 100 meters) did not demonstrate statistically si...

  3. Bandwidth Analysis of Smart Meter Network Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balachandran, Kardi; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is a net-work infrastructure in Smart Grid, which links the electricity customers to the utility company. This network enables smart services by making it possible for the utility company to get an overview of their customers power consumption and also control...... devices in their costumers household e.g. heat pumps. With these smart services, utility companies can do load balancing on the grid by shifting load using resources the customers have. The problem investigated in this paper is what bandwidth require-ments can be expected when implementing such network...... to utilize smart meters and which existing broadband network technologies can facilitate this smart meter service. Initially, scenarios for smart meter infrastructure are identified. The paper defines abstraction models which cover the AMI scenarios. When the scenario has been identified a general overview...

  4. USGS Digital Orthophoto Quad (DOQ) - 3 meter

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — These data files are a collection of the USGS standard DOQs that have been resampled to a 3-meter cell resolution and mosaiced into quad format vs quarter quad...

  5. A simple reactivity-meter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, P.S.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a new version of a reactivity meter developed at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (IPEN) (Brazil). The reactivity meter computes the reactor reactivity utilizing a programmable electrometer that performs the data aquisition. The software commands the main functions of the electrometer, the data acquisition, data transfer, and reactivity calculation. The necessary hardware for this reactivity meter are a programmable electrometer, a microcomputer, and interfaces for the microcomputer to communicate with the electrometer. If it is necessary, it is possible to connect a graphic register to the microcomputer. With this conventional hardware, available in any nuclear reactor facility, one can build a powerful reactivity meter. Adding to these advantages, one can use the microcomputer on-line to analyze the data, store the data on diskettes, or create graphics

  6. Opportunities for smart meters in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, J.

    2010-10-01

    Germany has the ambitious goal of lowering its CO2 emission with 80 percent until 2050 as compared to 1990. Sustainable energy and the deployment of smart meters are starting to play increasingly important roles. [nl

  7. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Nency Takara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. METHODS: Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® peak flow meters. The highest value recorded for each subject for each device was compared to the corresponding spirometric values using Friedman's test with Dunn's post-hoc (p<0.05, Spearman's correlation test and Bland-Altman's agreement test. RESULTS: The median and interquartile ranges for the spirometric values and the Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® meters were 428 (263-688 L/min, 450 (350-800 L/min, 420 (310-720 L/min, 380 (300-735 L/min, 400 (310-685 L/min and 415 (335-610 L/min, respectively. Significant differences were found when the spirometric values were compared to those recorded by the Air Zone® (p<0.001 and Galemed ® (p<0.01 meters. There was no agreement between the spirometric values and the five PEF meters. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the values recorded from Galemed® meters may underestimate the actual value, which could lead to unnecessary interventions, and that Air Zone® meters overestimate spirometric values, which could obfuscate the need for intervention. These findings must be taken into account when interpreting both devices' results in younger people. These differences should also be considered when directly comparing values from different types of PEF meters.

  8. Intelligent Metering for Urban Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Stewart

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the drivers, development and global deployment of intelligent water metering in the urban context. Recognising that intelligent metering (or smart metering has the potential to revolutionise customer engagement and management of urban water by utilities, this paper provides a summary of the knowledge-base for researchers and industry practitioners to ensure that the technology fosters sustainable urban water management. To date, roll-outs of intelligent metering have been driven by the desire for increased data regarding time of use and end-use (such as use by shower, toilet, garden, etc. as well as by the ability of the technology to reduce labour costs for meter reading. Technology development in the water sector generally lags that seen in the electricity sector. In the coming decade, the deployment of intelligent water metering will transition from being predominantly “pilot or demonstration scale” with the occasional city-wide roll-out, to broader mainstream implementation. This means that issues which have hitherto received little focus must now be addressed, namely: the role of real-time data in customer engagement and demand management; data ownership, sharing and privacy; technical data management and infrastructure security, utility workforce skills; and costs and benefits of implementation.

  9. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Glaucia Nency; Ruas, Gualberto; Pessoa, Bruna Varanda; Jamami, Luciana Kawakami; Di Lorenzo, Valéria Amorim Pires; Jamami, Mauricio

    2010-05-01

    To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF) from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone, Assess, Galemed, Personal Best and Vitalograph peak flow meters. The highest value recorded for each subject for each device was compared to the corresponding spirometric values using Friedman's test with Dunn's post-hoc (pmeters were 428 (263-688 L/min), 450 (350-800 L/min), 420 (310-720 L/min), 380 (300-735 L/min), 400 (310-685 L/min) and 415 (335-610 L/min), respectively. Significant differences were found when the spirometric values were compared to those recorded by the Air Zone(R) (pmeters. There was no agreement between the spirometric values and the five PEF meters. The results suggest that the values recorded from Galemed meters may underestimate the actual value, which could lead to unnecessary interventions, and that Air Zone meters overestimate spirometric values, which could obfuscate the need for intervention. These findings must be taken into account when interpreting both devices' results in younger people. These differences should also be considered when directly comparing values from different types of PEF meters.

  10. Handheld Multi-Gas Meters Market Survey Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Gustavious [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Wald-Hopkins, Mark David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Obrey, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Akhadov, Valida Dushdurova [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-23

    Handheld multi-gas meters (MGMs) are equipped with sensors to monitor oxygen (O2) levels and additional sensors to detect the presence of combustible or toxic gases in the environment. This report is limited to operational response-type MGMs that include at least four different sensors. These sensors can vary by type and by the chemical monitored. In real time, the sensors report the concentration of monitored gases in the atmosphere near the MGM. To provide emergency responders with information on handheld multi-gas meters, the System Assessment and Validation for Emergency Responders (SAVER) Program conducted a market survey. This market survey report is based on information gathered between November 2015 and February 2016 from vendors, Internet research, industry publications, an emergency responder focus group, and a government issued Request for Information (RFI) that was posted on the Federal Business Opportunities website.

  11. Smart meters. Smart metering. A solution module for a future-oriented energy system; Intelligente Zaehler. Smart Metering. Ein Loesungsbaustein fuer ein zukunftsfaehiges Energiesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, Nadia; Seidl, Hans [comps.

    2011-12-15

    The German Energy Agency GmbH (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on smart metering as a solution module for a future-oriented energy system by means of the following contributions: (1) Key role for smart meters; (2) What is smart metering? (3) Implementation of smart metering in Europe; (4) The market development to date in Germany; (5) Practical experiences with smart metering in Germany; (6) Frequently asked questions; (7) Smart metering in intelligent networks; (8) Legal framework conditions; (9) Data security and data protection in the utilisation of smart meters; (10) Ongoing information; (11) Efficient energy systems.

  12. ARPANSA preliminary measurements of radiofrequency transmissions from a Mesh Radio Smart meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijayasinghe, Don; Karipidis, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Smart meters have been deployed in buildings initially in Victoria and increasingly across other areas of Australia. They utilise radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic energy (EME) at levels very much below the levels permitted in the RF Standard. Despite the low levels of RF EME, there is some public concern about exposures from smart meters and whether the RF transmissions may cause a variety of health effects. ARPANSA has undertaken some preliminary RF measurements of an installed mesh network smart meter at the home of a staff member in a suburb of Melbourne. It must be emphasised that these measurements by ARPANSA cannot be considered representative of all smart meters. A typical RF pulse from the smart meter had an average intensity of 7 mW/m 2 measured at a distance of half a metre from the smart meter with the door to the meter box open. This is 0.00015% of the instantaneous exposure limit in the Australian RF standard for the general public. The measured level with the meter box door closed, or on the other side of the wall on which the meter was mounted was about 20 times lower. The RF transmissions that were measured were not continuous and occurred less than 0.08% of the time that the measurements took place. The RF electromagnetic energy transmitted in a single pulse from the smart meter is similar to that from a car remote unlocking fob and much less than a single GSM SMS transmission. The measurements do not provide any indication of why smart meter transmissions would provoke symptoms in people otherwise unaffected by other wireless technologies such as mobile phone handsets. Indeed the low levels and short transmission times make any effects highly unlikely.

  13. Flow measurement of liquid hydrocarbons with positive displacement meters: the correction for slippage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Berrocal, Agustín; Montalvo, Cristina; Balbás, Miguel; Blázquez, Juan

    2013-01-01

    In the oil industry, the economical and fiscal impact of the measurements accuracy on the custody transfer operations implies fulfilling strict requirements of legal metrology. In this work, we focus on the positive displacement meters (PD meters) for refined liquid hydrocarbons. The state of the art of the lack of accuracy due to slippage flow in these meters is revised. The slippage flow due to the pressure drop across the device has been calculated analytically by applying the Navier–Stokes equation. No friction with any wall of the slippage channel has been neglected and a more accurate formula than the one found in the literature has been obtained. PD meters are calibrated against a bidirectional prover in order to obtain their meter factor which allows correction of their indications. Instead of the analytical model, an empirical one is proposed to explain the variation of the meter factor of the PD meters with flow rate and temperature for a certain hydrocarbon. The empirical model is based on the historical calibration data, of 9 years on average, of 25 m with four types of refined hydrocarbon. This model has been statistically validated by linear least-squares fitting. By using the model parameters, we can obtain the meter factor corresponding to different conditions of temperature and flow rate from the conditions in which the devices were calibrated. The flow parameter is such that a 10% flow rate variation implies a meter factor variation lower than 0.01%. A rule of thumb value for the temperature parameter is 0.005% per degree Celsius. The model residuals allow surveillance of the device drift and quantifying its contribution to the meter factor uncertainty. The observed drift is 0.09% at 95% confidence level in the analyzed population of meters. (paper)

  14. [Development and test of a wheat chlorophyll, nitrogen and water content meter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bo; Sun, Ming; Han, Shu-Qing; Xia, Jin-Wen

    2011-08-01

    A portable meter was developed which can detect chlorophyll, nitrogen and moisture content of wheat leaf simultaneously, and can supply enough data for guiding fertilization and irrigation. This meter is composed of light path and electronic circuit. And this meter uses 660, 940 and 1450 nm LED together with narrow band filters as the active light source. The hardware circuit consists of micro-controller, LED drive circuit, detector, communication circuit, keyboard and LCD circuit. The meter was tested in the field and performed well with good repeatability and accuracy. The relative errors of chlorophyll and nitrogen test were about 10%, relative error for water content was 4%. The coefficients of variation of the three indices were all below 1.5%. All of these prove that the meter can be applied under the field condition to guide the wheat production.

  15. Robust Meter Network for Water Distribution Pipe Burst Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Donghwi Jung; Joong Hoon Kim

    2017-01-01

    A meter network is a set of meters installed throughout a water distribution system to measure system variables, such as the pipe flow rate and pressure. In the current hyper-connected world, meter networks are being exposed to meter failure conditions, such as malfunction of the meter’s physical system and communication system failure. Therefore, a meter network’s robustness should be secured for reliable provision of informative meter data. This paper introduces a multi-objective optimal me...

  16. Design and Realization of a Condition Management System for the Gateway Electrical Energy Metering Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Tang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the construction of firm and intelligent power grid in China, it is difficult for the traditional management method of electrical energy metering device to meet the prospecting requirements. Using the computer and internet techniques to realize the information and intelligentization of the electrical energy metering management has become a necessary guarantee of improving power supply ability, marketing control, and customer service. This paper introduced a kind of large and intelligent condition management system of the gateway electrical energy metering device. The key technologies and realize process were analyzed. Moreover, a detailed description of the application modules such as the GIS smart display of metering point, the condition management of metering devices and the visual monitoring of metering point was presented. The trial operation in the selected transformer substations and the power stations of Chongqing Power Electrical Corp. indicated that, the condition management system is very open, safety and efficient. According to the data exchange with the production and scheduling platform, the system improved the efficient operation of the electrical energy metering devices. Meanwhile, combined with the real-time visual monitoring, the condition management system improved the prevention ability of electricity filching, realized the unified automatic large-scale management of electrical energy metering devices.

  17. A Framework for Reliable Reception of Wireless Metering Data using Protocol Side Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchior Jacobsen, Rasmus; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    the deterministic protocol structure to obtain side information and group the packets from the same meter. We derive the probability of falsely pairing packets from different senders in the simple case of no channel errors, and show through simulation and data from an experimental deployment the probability...... of false pairing with channel errors. The pairing is an essential step towards recovery of metering data from as many as possible meters under harsh channel conditions. From the experiment we find that more than 15% of all conducted pairings are between two erroneous packets, which sets an upper bound...

  18. St. Lawrence action plan meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    The purpose of this bulletin is to report on the progress achieved under the St. Lawrence Action Plan. Under each of the Action Plan`s five objectives, it outlines environmental management indicators which identify actions taken and shows the results. This report presents the data collected in late August 1992 on the activities carried out by all partners of both governments involved in SLAP. The objectives examined in the bulletin are: to reduce by 90% the liquid toxic waste discharged by the 50 plants targeted for priority action; to prepare remediation plans for contaminated federal sites and restore wetlands; to conserve 5000 additional hectares of habitat and create a marine park; to develop and implement recovery plans for mammals, fish, birds, amphibians, reptiles, and plants; and to determine the state of the St. Lawrence River.

  19. Gas exchanges in peach palms as a function of the spad chlorophyll meter readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Sant'anna Tucci

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The close relationship between the chlorophyll-meters readings and the total chlorophyll and nitrogen contents in leaves, has allowed their evaluation both in annual and perennial species. Besides, some physiological events such as the CO2 assimilation have also been estimated by chlorophyll meters. This work was carried out aiming to evaluate the gas exchanges of peach palms as a function of the chlorophyll SPAD-Meter readings. Three year-old peach palms from Yurimaguas, Peru were studied in Ubatuba, SP, Brazil, spaced 2 x 1 m in area under a natural gradient of organic matter which allowed four plots to be considered, according to the peach palms leaves colors, from light yellow to dark green. The SPAD readings and the stomatal frequency of leaflets were evaluated. The photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD, μmol m-2 s-1, the leaf temperature (Tleaf, ºC, the CO2 assimilation (A, μmol m-2 s-1, the stomatal conductance (g s, mol m-2 s-1, the transpiration (E, mmol m-2 s-1 and the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci, μmol mol-1 were evaluated with a portable infrared gas analyzer (LCA-4, ADC BioScientific Ltd., Great Amwell, U.K.. A linear increase in the CO2 assimilation as a function of the SPAD readings (y = -0.34 + 0.19x, R² = 0.99, indicates that they can be a rapid and cheap complementary method to evaluate in peach palms some important physiological events, such as CO2 assimilation.

  20. Energy metering, management and accounting; Comptage, gestion, et comptabilite de l`energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foucherand, P. [Agence de l`environnement et de la maitrise de l`energie, Rhone-Alpes (France)

    1996-12-31

    The activities of the French Energy Conservation Agency (ADEME) in the field of energy management and conservation through energy metering in industrial plants, and more especially in mechanical and metal industries, are presented. Audit and diagnostic procedures and information/awareness measures are presented and discussed with the example of a regional program, and two operations conducted in a mechanical industrial plant and a foundry where metering systems were installed

  1. The impact of advanced metering infrastructure on residential electricity consumption: Evidence from California

    OpenAIRE

    Paschmann, Martin Heinrich; Paulus, Simon

    2017-01-01

    One important pillar in the debate about energy-saving measures addresses energy conservation. In this paper, we focus on the deployment of advanced metering infrastructure to reduce the impact of limited information and bounded rationality of consumers. For California, we empirically analyze the influence of a statewide and policy-driven installation of advanced metering infrastructure. We apply synthetic control methods to derive a suitable control group. We then conduct a Difference-in-Dif...

  2. Determining the ash content of coal flotation tailings using an MPOF optical ash meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, T; Sliwa, J

    1982-01-01

    The block layout, a description of the design and principles of operation of an automatic optical, continuous action MPOF type ash meter are presented. The difference in the optical properties of coal and rock is used in the ash meter. The identification of the ash content is conducted on the basis of the spectral characteristics of reflection of a finely dispersed aqueous coal and rock suspension.

  3. Properties of cellulose triacetate dose meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, N.; Tanaka, R.; Mitomo, S.; Matsuda, K.; Nagai, S.

    1981-01-01

    Several clear plastics and dyed plastics are commercially available for dosimetry in intense radiation field, especially for radiation processing applications. Among these dose meters cellulose triacetate (CTA) dose meter has two advantages for routine uses; (1) it has linear response in mega-rad dose region and (2) the main product form is long tape. However, the manufacture of Numelec CTA film so far used had been discontinued, and for this reason we developed a new film for dosimetry uses. To determine the manufacturing conditions of the film, we examined the influence of additives, triphenylphosphate (TPP) and others, and film thickness on the dosimetric properties, since these two conditions remarkably influence the sensitivity of the dose meter. It is necessary for the reliability of plastic dose meters that the radiation induced colorations should be understood as radiation chemical processes. In this paper we describe the determination of the manufacturing conditions of the new film, the feature of the new dose meter, and the coloration mechanism. (author)

  4. Multiphase flow metering: 4 years on

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcone, G.; Hewitt, G.F.; Alimonti, C.; Harrison, B.

    2005-07-01

    Since the authors' last review in 2001 [1], the use of Multiphase Flow Metering (MFM) within the oil and gas industry continues to grow apace, being more popular in some parts of the world than others. Since the early 1990's, when the first commercial meters started to appear, there have been more than 1,600 field applications of MFM for field allocation, production optimisation and mobile well testing. As the authors predicted, wet gas metering technology has improved to such an extent that its use has rapidly increased worldwide. A ''who's who'' of the MFM sector is provided, which highlights the mergers in the sector and gives an insight into the meters and measurement principles available today. Cost estimates, potential benefits and reliability in the field of the current MFM technologies are revisited and brought up to date. Several measurements technologies have resurfaced, such as passive acoustic energy patterns, infrared wavelengths, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT), and they are becoming commercial. The concept of ''virtual metering'', integrated with ''classical MFM'', is now widely accepted. However, sometimes the principles of the MFM measurements themselves are forgotten, submerged in the sales and marketing hype. (author) (tk)

  5. MSET modeling of Crystal River-3 venturi flow meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockhorst, F. K.; Gross, K. C.; Herzog, J. P.; Wegerich, S. W.

    1998-01-01

    The analysis of archived Crystal River-3 feedwater flow data reveals a slow and steady degradation of the flow meter measurements during the 1992/1993 operating cycle. MSET can reliably estimate the true flow rate and quantify the degree of departure between the indicated signal and the true flow rate with high accuracy. The MSET computed flow rate could, in principle, be used to provide an improved estimate of the reactor power and hence avoid the revenue loss associated with derating the reactor based on a faulty feedwater flow rate indication

  6. Privacy friendly aggregation of smart meter readings, even when meters crash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoepman, J.H.

    2017-01-01

    A well studied privacy problem in the area of smart grids is the question of how to aggregate the sum of a set of smart meter readings in a privacy friendly manner, i.e., in such a way that individual meter readings are not revealed to the adversary. Much less well studied is how to deal with

  7. Simple meters get smart? Cost benefit analysis of smart metering infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gerwen, R.J.F.; Jaarsma, S.A.; Koenis, F.T.C.

    2005-08-01

    The Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs requested a cost-benefit analysis of the large scale introduction of a smart meter infrastructure for gas and electricity consumption by small consumers. The questions asked in the study need to be answered in order to enable a well-founded evaluation of the implementation of smart meters. [mk] [nl

  8. Implementation plan for smart meters in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents Ontario Energy Board's implementation plan to install 800,000 smart meters by December 31, 2007. The objective is to help consumers control their electricity bills through conservation and demand response. The three conditions that will change power consumption habits are price changes in response to demand and supply forces; the ability of consumers to see and respond to the price signals; and, a measurement of the response so that consumers get credit for their actions. This paper identifies the mandatory technical requirements for smart meters and the support operations of distributors. It sets priorities, identifies barriers and regulatory mechanisms for cost recovery. It also discusses options for ownership of the meters. 18 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  9. IMPORTANT: Fluke is recalling Digital Clamp Meters

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Fluke is voluntarily recalling four models of Digital Clamp Meters: Fluke 373, 374, 375 and 376. If you own one of these clamp meters, please stop using it and send it back to Fluke for repair even if you have not experienced problems.   Description of the problem: "The printed circuit assembly may not be properly fastened to the test lead input jack. This may result in inaccurate voltage readings, including a low or no-voltage reading on a circuit energised with a hazardous voltage, presenting a shock, electrocution or thermal burn hazard." To determine if your clamp meter is affected by this recall notice, and for more information, click here.

  10. Development of a calibration methodology and tests of kerma area product meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Nathalia Almeida

    2013-01-01

    The quantity kerma area product (PKA) is important to establish reference levels in diagnostic radiology exams. This quantity can be obtained using a PKA meter. The use of such meters is essential to evaluate the radiation dose in radiological procedures and is a good indicator to make sure that the dose limit to the patient's skin doesn't exceed. Sometimes, these meters come fixed to X radiation equipment, which makes its calibration difficult. In this work, it was developed a methodology for calibration of PKA meters. The instrument used for this purpose was the Patient Dose Calibrator (PDC). It was developed to be used as a reference to check the calibration of PKA and air kerma meters that are used for dosimetry in patients and to verify the consistency and behavior of systems of automatic exposure control. Because it is a new equipment, which, in Brazil, is not yet used as reference equipment for calibration, it was also performed the quality control of this equipment with characterization tests, the calibration and an evaluation of the energy dependence. After the tests, it was proved that the PDC can be used as a reference instrument and that the calibration must be performed in situ, so that the characteristics of each X-ray equipment, where the PKA meters are used, are considered. The calibration was then performed with portable PKA meters and in an interventional radiology equipment that has a PKA meter fixed. The results were good and it was proved the need for calibration of these meters and the importance of in situ calibration with a reference meter. (author)

  11. Reactor Power Meter type SG-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacki, S W

    1981-01-01

    The report describes the principle and electronic circuits of the Reactor Power Meter type SG-8. The gamma radiation caused by the activity of the reactor first cooling circuit affectes the ionization chamber being the detector of the instrument. The output detector signal direct current is converted into the frequency of electric pulses by means of the current-to-frequency converter. The output converter frequency is measured by the digital frequency meter: the number of measured digits in time unit is proportional to the reactor power.

  12. Liquid metal Flow Meter - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, C.; Hoogendoom, S.; Hudson, B.; Prince, J.; Teichert, K.; Wood, J.; Chase, K.

    2007-01-30

    Measuring the flow of liquid metal presents serious challenges. Current commercially-available flow meters use ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and other technologies to measure flow, but are inadequate for liquid metal flow measurement because of the high temperatures required by most liquid metals. As a result of the reactivity and high temperatures of most liquid metals, corrosion and leakage become very serious safety concerns. The purpose of this project is to develop a flow meter for Lockheed Martin that measures the flow rate of molten metal in a conduit.

  13. Simple, inexpensive computerized rodent activity meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, R M; Karachunski, P I; Kellermann, S A; Conti-Fine, B M

    1995-10-01

    We describe two approaches for using obsolescent computers, either an IBM PC XT or an Apple Macintosh Plus, to accurately quantify spontaneous rodent activity, as revealed by continuous monitoring of the spontaneous usage of running activity wheels. Because such computers can commonly be obtained at little or no expense, and other commonly available materials and inexpensive parts can be used, these meters can be built quite economically. Construction of these meters requires no specialized electronics expertise, and their software requirements are simple. The computer interfaces are potentially of general interest, as they could also be used for monitoring a variety of events in a research setting.

  14. Portable digital reactivity meter for power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, G [Nuklear-Ingenieur Service G.m.b.H., Hanau (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-07-01

    A digital reactivity meter has been developed, which can be used for all kinds of kinetic reactivity measurements in PWR's and BWR's. The input signals may be supplied by standard neutron detectors of the reactor. The hardware configuration consists of a minicomputer with ADC and DAC, a 'Silent' terminal and a high speed paper tape reader/punch. It is easily transportable. The reactivity meter solves the inverse kinetics equations for 6 delayed neutron groups, simultaneously for up to 8 logarithmic or linear neutron flux signals. It has been successfully tested at Biblis A PWR and the KRB BWR.

  15. Two-channel neutron boron meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yongqing; Yin Guowei; Chai Songshan; Deng Zhaoping; Zhou Bin

    1993-09-01

    The two-channel neutron boron meter is a continuous on-line measuring device to measure boron concentration of primary cooling liquid of reactors. The neutron-leakage-compensation method is taken in the measuring mechanism. In the primary measuring configuration, the mini-boron-water annulus and two-channel and central calibration loop are adopted. The calibration ring and constant-temperature of boron-water can be remotely controlled by secondary instruments. With the microcomputer data processing system the boron concentration is automatically measured and calibrated in on-line mode. The meter has many advantages such as high accuracy, fast response, multi-applications, high reliability and convenience

  16. Relative accuracy of the BD Logic and FreeStyle blood glucose meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    The BD Logic((R)) (Becton, Dickinson and Co., Franklin Lakes, NJ) and FreeStyle((R)) (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) meters are used to transmit data directly to insulin pumps for calculation of insulin doses and to calibrate continuous glucose sensors as well as to monitor blood glucose levels. The accuracy of the two meters was evaluated in two inpatient studies conducted by the Diabetes Research in Children Network (DirecNet). In both studies, meter glucose measurements made with either venous or capillary blood were compared with reference glucose measurements made by the DirecNet Central Laboratory at the University of Minnesota using a hexokinase enzymatic method. The BD Logic tended to read lower than the laboratory reference regardless of whether venous (median difference = -9 mg/dL) or capillary blood (median difference = -7 mg/dL) was used. This resulted in lower accuracy of the BD Logic compared with the FreeStyle meter based on the median relative absolute difference (RAD) for both venous blood (median RAD, 9% vs. 5%, P blood (median RAD, 11% vs. 6%, P = 0.008). The greatest discrepancy in the performance of the two meters was at higher reference glucose values. Accuracy was not significantly different when the reference was < or = 70 mg/dL. The BD Logic meter is less accurate than the FreeStyle meter.

  17. Immersed transient eddy current flow metering: a calibration-free velocity measurement technique for liquid metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauter, N.; Stefani, F.

    2017-10-01

    Eddy current flow meters are widely used for measuring the flow velocity of electrically conducting fluids. Since the flow induced perturbations of a magnetic field depend both on the geometry and the conductivity of the fluid, extensive calibration is needed to get accurate results. Transient eddy current flow metering has been developed to overcome this problem. It relies on tracking the position of an impressed eddy current system that is moving with the same velocity as the conductive fluid. We present an immersed version of this measurement technique and demonstrate its viability by numerical simulations and a first experimental validation.

  18. Immersed transient eddy current flow metering: a calibration-free velocity measurement technique for liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauter, N; Stefani, F

    2017-01-01

    Eddy current flow meters are widely used for measuring the flow velocity of electrically conducting fluids. Since the flow induced perturbations of a magnetic field depend both on the geometry and the conductivity of the fluid, extensive calibration is needed to get accurate results. Transient eddy current flow metering has been developed to overcome this problem. It relies on tracking the position of an impressed eddy current system that is moving with the same velocity as the conductive fluid. We present an immersed version of this measurement technique and demonstrate its viability by numerical simulations and a first experimental validation. (paper)

  19. A Probabilistic Model of Meter Perception: Simulating Enculturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Weij, B.; Pearce, M.T.; Honing, H.

    Enculturation is known to shape the perception of meter in music but this is not explicitly accounted for by current cognitive models of meter perception. We hypothesize that the induction of meter is a result of predictive coding: interpreting onsets in a rhythm relative to a periodic meter

  20. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15... AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits customers to reset their postage meters at...

  1. 18 CFR 367.9020 - Account 902, Meter reading expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 902, Meter... GAS ACT Operation and Maintenance Expense Chart of Accounts § 367.9020 Account 902, Meter reading... customer meters, and determining consumption when performed by employees engaged in reading meters. (b...

  2. A seepage meter designed for use in flowing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberry, D.O.

    2008-01-01

    Seepage meters provide one of the most direct means to measure exchange of water across the sediment-water interface, but they generally have been unsuitable for use in fluvial settings. Although the seepage bag can be placed inside a rigid container to minimize velocity head concerns, the seepage cylinder installed in the sediment bed projects into and disrupts the flow field, altering both the local-scale fluid exchange as well as measurement of that exchange. A low-profile seepage meter designed for use in moving water was tested in a seepage meter flux tank where both current velocity and seepage velocity could be controlled. The conical seepage cylinder protrudes only slightly above the sediment bed and is connected via tubing to a seepage bag or flowmeter positioned inside a rigid shelter that is located nearby where current velocity is much slower. Laboratory and field tests indicate that the net effect of the small protrusion of the seepage cylinder into the surface water flow field is inconsequentially small for surface water currents up to 65 cm s-1. Current velocity affects the variability of seepage measurements; seepage standard deviation increased from ???2 to ???6 cm d-1 as current velocity increased from 9 to 65 cm s-1. Substantial bias can result if the shelter is not placed to minimize hydraulic gradient between the bag and the seepage cylinder.

  3. Calculations of dosimetric parameter and REM meter response for BE(d, n) source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Changmao

    1988-01-01

    Based on the recent data about neutron spectra, the average energy, effictive energy and conversion coefficient of fluence to dose equivalent are calculated for some Be (α, n) neutron sources which have differene types and structures. The responses of 2202D and 0075 REM meter for thses spectral neutrons are also estimated. The results indicate that the relationship between average energy and conversion coefficient or REM meter responses can be described by simple functions

  4. An evaporation based digital microflow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nie, C; Frijns, A J H; Mandamparambil, R; Zevenbergen, M A G; den Toonder, J M J

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present a digital microflow meter operating in the range 30-250 nl min-1 for water. The principle is based on determining the evaporation rate of the liquid via reading the number of wetted pore array structures in a microfluidic system, through which continuous evaporation takes

  5. An evaporation based digital microflow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nie, C.; Frijns, A.J.H.; Mandamparambil, R.; Zevenbergen, M.A.G.; Toonder, den J.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present a digital microflow meter operating in the range 30–250 nl min-1 for water. The principle is based on determining the evaporation rate of the liquid via reading the number of wetted pore array structures in a microfluidic system, through which continuous evaporation takes

  6. Field test of coordinated ramp metering (CRM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-15

    This project has focused on field implementation and testing of a Coordinated Ramp Metering (CRM) algorithm at California State Route 99 : Northbound corridor in Sacramento between Calvine Road and the SR50 interchange after 12th Ave. It is a 9 mile ...

  7. Smart meters and economies in energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelem, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    A central theme promoted by the government for the energy transition, the mastering of energy consumption features notably the setting up of intelligent electricity networks and the installation of what are known as smart meters. Yet will consumers actually be in a position to become proponents of more sober use of energy? (author)

  8. Smart wavelength meter for integrated photonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benelajla, Meryem; Taballione, Caterina; Boller, Klaus J.

    2017-01-01

    Thermally tunable SiN waveguide microring resonators in connection with neural network readout algorithms appear promising for use as integrated optical wavelength meters. So far, we have observed long-term reliability and a temperature immunity of the readout across several degrees of ambient

  9. Weak measurements with a qubit meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Shengjun; Mølmer, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    We derive schemes to measure the so-called weak values of quantum system observables by coupling of the system to a qubit meter system. We highlight, in particular, the meaning of the imaginary part of the weak values, and show how it can be measured directly on equal footing with the real part...

  10. Educational Electrical Appliance Power Meter and Logger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, John

    2013-01-01

    The principles behind two different designs of inductive power meter are presented. They both make use of the microphone input of a computer which, together with a custom-written program, can record the instantaneous power of a domestic electrical appliance. The device can be built quickly and can be calibrated with reference to a known power…

  11. Wat maakt een slimme meter echt slim?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Bakker, Vincent; Bosman, M.G.C.; Molderink, Albert; Croes, Roel

    In de Tweede Kamer laaide in 2008 een discussie op naar aanleiding van geluiden uit de samenleving over het wel of niet verplicht installeren van slimme meters in huizen. Voor- en tegenstanders van een verplichte invoer gebruiken ondertussen alle media om de algemene opinie te beïnvloeden.

  12. Optical system for a universal luminance meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1965-01-01

    There is a need for luminance meters in various fields of photometry having these characteristics: a- objective method of measurements. b. variable shape and size of measurement area. c- absence of parallax during aiming operations. d- Possibility of observing the part of the field of view to be

  13. Meter Designs Reduce Operation Costs for Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center collaborated with Quality Monitoring and Control (QMC) of Humble, Texas, through a Space Act Agreement to design a balanced flow meter for the Space Shuttle Program. QMC founded APlus-QMC LLC to commercialize the technology, which has contributed to 100 new jobs, approximately $250,000 in yearly sales, and saved customers an estimated $10 million.

  14. Demonstration of disinfection procedure for the development of accurate blood glucose meters in accordance with ISO 15197:2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Ye; Chang, Jung-Tzu; Chu, Chun-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Despite measures to reduce disease transmission, a risk can occur when blood glucose meters (BGMs) are used on multiple individuals or by caregivers assisting a patient. The laboratory and in-clinic performance of a BGM system before and after disinfection should be demonstrated to guarantee accurate readings and reliable control of blood glucose (BG) for patients. In this study, an effective disinfection procedure, conducting wiping 10 times to assure a one minute contact time of the disinfectant on contaminated surface, was first demonstrated using test samples of the meter housing materials, including acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), and polycarbonate (PC), in accordance with ISO 15197:2013. After bench studies comprising 10,000 disinfection cycles, the elemental compositions of the disinfected ABS, PMMA, and PC samples were almost the same as in the original samples, as indicated by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis. Subsequently, the validated disinfection procedure was then directly applied to disinfect 5 commercial BGM systems composed of ABS, PMMA, or PC to observe the effect of the validated disinfection procedure on meter accuracy. The results of HBsAg values after treatment with HBV sera and disinfectant wipes for each material were less than the LoD of each material of 0.020 IU/mL. Before and after the multiple disinfection cycles, 900 of 900 samples (100%) were within the system accuracy requirements of ISO 15197:2013. All of the systems showed high performance before and after the series of disinfection cycles and met the ISO 15197:2013 requirements. In addition, our results demonstrated multiple cleaning and disinfection cycles that represented normal use over the lifetime of a meter of 3–5 years. Our validated cleaning and disinfection procedure can be directly applied to other registered disinfectants for cleaning commercial BGM products in the future. PMID:28683148

  15. BCM6: New Generation of Boron Meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirat, P.

    2010-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Rolls-Royce has developed a new generation of boron meter, based on more than 30 years of experience. The Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter provides Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operators with the boron concentration of the primary circuit. The meter provides continuous and safe measurements with no manual sampling and no human contact. In this paper, technical features, advantages and customer benefits of the use of the new generation of Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter will be detailed. Values and associated alarms are provides over different media: 4-20 mA outputs, relays, displays in the main control room and in the chemical lab, and digital links. A special alarm avoids unexpected homogeneous dilution of the primary circuit, which is a critical operational parameter. The Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter is fully configurable over a set of parameters allowing adaptation to customer needs. It has a differential capability, thus eliminating neutronic noise and keeping measurements accurate, even in the case of fuel clad rupture. Measurements are accurate, reliable, and have a quick response time. Equipment meets state-of-the-art qualification requests. Designed in 2008, the BCM6 boron meter is the newest equipment of Rolls-Royce boron meters product line. It has been chosen to equip the French EPR NPP and complies with the state-of-the-art of the technology. Rolls-Royce has more than 30 years of experience in Instrumentation and Controls with more than 75 NPP units operating worldwide. All of this experience return has been put in this new generation of equipment to provide the customer with the best operation. About Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce is a global business providing integrated power systems for use on land, at sea and in the air. The Group has a balanced business portfolio with leading market positions. Rolls-Royce has a broad range of civil nuclear expertise, including work related to licensing and safety reviews, engineering design

  16. Frequency and temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity of KTaO3; Li and PbTiO3; La, Cu: Indication of a low temperature polaron mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levstik, A.; Filipic, C.; Bidault, O.; Maglione, M.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, the concept of polarons has again been at the focus of solid-state research, as it can constitute the basis for understanding the high-temperature superconductivity or the colossal magnetoresistance of materials. More than a decade ago there were some indications that polarons play an important role in explaining low temperature maxima in imaginary part of the dielectric constant ε '' (T) in ABO 3 perovskites. In the present work we report the ac electrical conductivities of KTaO 3 ; Li and PbTiO 3 ; La, Cu and their frequency and temperature dependence. The real part of the complex ac conductivity was found to follow the universal dielectric response σ ' ∝ν s . A detailed theoretical analysis of the temperature dependence of the parameter s revealed that, at low temperatures, the tunnelling of small polarons is the dominating charge transport mechanism in ABO 3 perovskites

  17. Smart meters and routers radiofrequency disturbances study with pacemakers and implantable cardiac defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostiguy, Geneviève; Black, Tom; Bluteau, Louis-Jean; Dupont, Louis; Dyrda, Katia; Girard, Guillaume; Nguyen, Duc-Hai; Plante, Michel; Thibault, Bernard

    2013-11-01

    There is no scientific literature that examines radiofrequency (RF) interference from Smart Meters with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). The objective of this in vitro study was to assess any potential interference with Medtronic CIEDs (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA). In the Quebec testing, five models of Medtronic CIEDs were placed in an acrylic cylinder filled with a saline solution and faced a Landis+Gyr Smart Meter or Router (Landis+Gyr AG, Zug, Switzerland). The distance between CIEDs and the meter casing or router antenna was 10 cm. The Meter's normal operating conditions were modified to artificially set the number of impulsions at an abnormally high level (one, two, and three impulses per second). Each scenario was repeated one to five times, for 1 minute each. In the U.S. testing, 6 cm and 15 cm (∼2.25' and ∼6') separated the six models of Medtronic CIEDs from the Schlumberger Smart Meter (Itron Inc., Liberty Lake, WA, USA), which generally sent out a 96-bit Standard Consumption Message over 3 seconds. The transmission varied in frequencies along with the interval between cycles. A total of 6,966 RF transmissions were completed during the 34 tests conducted in Quebec. In the United States, the CIED was exposed to the meter for 10 minutes to provide a minimum of 200 completed RF transmissions. No interference was observed in worst-case scenarios (testing of meters and CIEDs at their performance limits). Landis+Gyr Smart Meters/Routers and Schlumberger Smart Meters do not interfere with the functioning of the Medtronic CIEDs tested, when placed, respectively, 10 cm and 6 cm and 15 cm apart. ©2013, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Investigation of Seepage Meter Measurements in Steady Flow and Wave Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russoniello, Christopher J; Michael, Holly A

    2015-01-01

    Water exchange between surface water and groundwater can modulate or generate ecologically important fluxes of solutes across the sediment-water interface. Seepage meters can directly measure fluid flux, but mechanical resistance and surface water dynamics may lead to inaccurate measurements. Tank experiments were conducted to determine effects of mechanical resistance on measurement efficiency and occurrence of directional asymmetry that could lead to erroneous net flux measurements. Seepage meter efficiency was high (average of 93%) and consistent for inflow and outflow under steady flow conditions. Wave effects on seepage meter measurements were investigated in a wave flume. Seepage meter net flux measurements averaged 0.08 cm/h-greater than the expected net-zero flux, but significantly less than theoretical wave-driven unidirectional discharge or recharge. Calculations of unidirectional flux from pressure measurements (Darcy flux) and theory matched well for a ratio of wave length to water depth less than 5, but not when this ratio was greater. Both were higher than seepage meter measurements of unidirectional flux made with one-way valves. Discharge averaged 23% greater than recharge in both seepage meter measurements and Darcy calculations of unidirectional flux. Removal of the collection bag reduced this net discharge. The presence of a seepage meter reduced the amplitude of pressure signals at the bed and resulted in a nearly uniform pressure distribution beneath the seepage meter. These results show that seepage meters may provide accurate measurements of both discharge and recharge under steady flow conditions and illustrate the potential measurement errors associated with dynamic wave environments. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  19. Revealing household characteristics from smart meter data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckel, Christian; Sadamori, Leyna; Staake, Thorsten; Santini, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Utilities are currently deploying smart electricity meters in millions of households worldwide to collect fine-grained electricity consumption data. We present an approach to automatically analyzing this data to enable personalized and scalable energy efficiency programs for private households. In particular, we develop and evaluate a system that uses supervised machine learning techniques to automatically estimate specific “characteristics” of a household from its electricity consumption. The characteristics are related to a household's socio-economic status, its dwelling, or its appliance stock. We evaluate our approach by analyzing smart meter data collected from 4232 households in Ireland at a 30-min granularity over a period of 1.5 years. Our analysis shows that revealing characteristics from smart meter data is feasible, as our method achieves an accuracy of more than 70% over all households for many of the characteristics and even exceeds 80% for some of the characteristics. The findings are applicable to all smart metering systems without making changes to the measurement infrastructure. The inferred knowledge paves the way for targeted energy efficiency programs and other services that benefit from improved customer insights. On the basis of these promising results, the paper discusses the potential for utilities as well as policy and privacy implications. - Highlights: • Many household characteristics can be automatically inferred from smart meter data. • We develop a system to infer employment status and number of occupants, for instance. • We evaluate our system analyzing data collected from 4232 households in Ireland. • The insights enable personalized and scalable efficiency campaigns for utilities. • Energy efficiency measures must be complemented by privacy protection

  20. Measurement of microchannel fluidic resistance with a standard voltage meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godwin, Leah A.; Deal, Kennon S.; Hoepfner, Lauren D.; Jackson, Louis A.; Easley, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Standard voltage meter used to measure fluidic resistance. ► Manual measurement takes a few seconds, akin to electrical resistance measurements. ► Measurement error is reduced compared to other approaches. ► Amenable to dynamic measurement of fluidic resistance. - Abstract: A simplified method for measuring the fluidic resistance (R fluidic ) of microfluidic channels is presented, in which the electrical resistance (R elec ) of a channel filled with a conductivity standard solution can be measured and directly correlated to R fluidic using a simple equation. Although a slight correction factor could be applied in this system to improve accuracy, results showed that a standard voltage meter could be used without calibration to determine R fluidic to within 12% error. Results accurate to within 2% were obtained when a geometric correction factor was applied using these particular channels. When compared to standard flow rate measurements, such as meniscus tracking in outlet tubing, this approach provided a more straightforward alternative and resulted in lower measurement error. The method was validated using 9 different fluidic resistance values (from ∼40 to 600 kPa s mm −3 ) and over 30 separately fabricated microfluidic devices. Furthermore, since the method is analogous to resistance measurements with a voltage meter in electrical circuits, dynamic R fluidic measurements were possible in more complex microfluidic designs. Microchannel R elec was shown to dynamically mimic pressure waveforms applied to a membrane in a variable microfluidic resistor. The variable resistor was then used to dynamically control aqueous-in-oil droplet sizes and spacing, providing a unique and convenient control system for droplet-generating devices. This conductivity-based method for fluidic resistance measurement is thus a useful tool for static or real-time characterization of microfluidic systems.

  1. Dance and Music in "Gangnam Style": How Dance Observation Affects Meter Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Myun; Barrett, Karen Chan; Kim, Yeonhwa; Lim, Yeoeun; Lee, Kyogu

    2015-01-01

    Dance and music often co-occur as evidenced when viewing choreographed dances or singers moving while performing. This study investigated how the viewing of dance motions shapes sound perception. Previous research has shown that dance reflects the temporal structure of its accompanying music, communicating musical meter (i.e. a hierarchical organization of beats) via coordinated movement patterns that indicate where strong and weak beats occur. Experiments here investigated the effects of dance cues on meter perception, hypothesizing that dance could embody the musical meter, thereby shaping participant reaction times (RTs) to sound targets occurring at different metrical positions.In experiment 1, participants viewed a video with dance choreography indicating 4/4 meter (dance condition) or a series of color changes repeated in sequences of four to indicate 4/4 meter (picture condition). A sound track accompanied these videos and participants reacted to timbre targets at different metrical positions. Participants had the slowest RT's at the strongest beats in the dance condition only. In experiment 2, participants viewed the choreography of the horse-riding dance from Psy's "Gangnam Style" in order to examine how a familiar dance might affect meter perception. Moreover, participants in this experiment were divided into a group with experience dancing this choreography and a group without experience. Results again showed slower RTs to stronger metrical positions and the group with experience demonstrated a more refined perception of metrical hierarchy. Results likely stem from the temporally selective division of attention between auditory and visual domains. This study has implications for understanding: 1) the impact of splitting attention among different sensory modalities, and 2) the impact of embodiment, on perception of musical meter. Viewing dance may interfere with sound processing, particularly at critical metrical positions, but embodied familiarity with

  2. Effect of temperature, pH, and water activity on biofilm formation by Salmonella enterica enteritidis PT4 on stainless steel surfaces as indicated by the bead vortexing method and conductance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaouris, E; Chorianopoulos, N; Nychas, G J E

    2005-10-01

    An assay was developed in an effort to elucidate the effect of important environmental parameters (temperature, pH, and water activity [aw]) on Salmonella Enteritidis biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces. To achieve this, a modified microbiological technique used for biofilm studying (the bead vortexing method) and a rapid method based on conductivity measurements were used. The ability of the microorganism to generate biofilm on the stainless surfaces was studied at three temperatures (5, 20, and 37 degrees C), four pH values (4.5, 5.5, 6.5, and 7.4), and four aw values (0.5, 1.5, 5.5, and 10.5% NaCl). Results obtained by the bead vortexing method show that maximum numbers of adherent bacteria per square centimeter (106 CFU/cm2) were attained in 6 days at 20 degrees C. Biofilm formation after 7 days of incubation at 20 degrees C was found to be independent of the pH value. In addition, the high concentration of sodium chloride (10.5% NaCl, aw = 0.94) clearly inhibited the adherence of cells to the coupons. Conductance measurements were used as a supplementary tool to measure indirectly the attachment and biofilm formation of bacterial cells on stainless steel surfaces via their metabolic activity (i.e., changes in the conductance of the growth medium due to microbial growth or metabolism). Results obtained by conductance measurements corresponded well to those of the bead vortexing method. Furthermore, we were able to detect cells that remained attached on the metal surfaces even after vortexing via their metabolic activity. The results, except for demonstrating environmental-dependent Salmonella Enteritidis biofilm formation, indicated that traditional vortexing with beads did not remove completely biofilm cells from stainless steel; hence, conductance measurements seem to provide a more sensitive test capable to detect down to one single viable organism.

  3. Distribution of conductive minerals as associated with uranium minerals at Dendang Arai sector by induced polarization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurdin, M.; Nikijuluw, N.; Subardjo; Sudarto, S.

    2000-01-01

    Based on previous investigation results, a favourable zone of 20-80 meters in wide, 80-240 meters in length and in the direction of East-West to Northwest-Southeast was found. The favourable zone is conductor, associated with sulfide. Induced polarization method has been applied to find vertical and horizontal sulfide distribution. The measurement was conducted in perpendicular to lateral direction of the conductive zone in an interval of 20 meters. Properties measured are apparent resistivity and charge ability. Measurement results indicated the presence of sulfide zone with the position and dip are sub-vertical. Sulfide zones were found on the fault cross-point with the directions being East-West to East South East-West North West by fault is North-South. This anomalies were then represented in 3 (three) dimension tomographic model. (author)

  4. Metering error quantification under voltage and current waveform distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Jia; Xie, Zhi; Zhang, Ran

    2017-09-01

    With integration of more and more renewable energies and distortion loads into power grid, the voltage and current waveform distortion results in metering error in the smart meters. Because of the negative effects on the metering accuracy and fairness, it is an important subject to study energy metering combined error. In this paper, after the comparing between metering theoretical value and real recorded value under different meter modes for linear and nonlinear loads, a quantification method of metering mode error is proposed under waveform distortion. Based on the metering and time-division multiplier principles, a quantification method of metering accuracy error is proposed also. Analyzing the mode error and accuracy error, a comprehensive error analysis method is presented which is suitable for new energy and nonlinear loads. The proposed method has been proved by simulation.

  5. Community Net Energy Metering: How Novel Policies Expand Benefits of Net Metering to Non-Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, James; Varnado, Laurel

    2009-04-01

    As interest in community solutions to renewable energy grows, more states are beginning to develop policies that encourage properties with more than one meter to install shared renewable energy systems. State net metering policies are evolving to allow the aggregation of multiple meters on a customer’s property and to dissolve conventional geographical boundaries. This trend means net metering is expanding out of its traditional function as an enabling incentive to offset onsite customer load at a single facility. This paper analyzes community net energy metering (CNEM) as an emerging vehicle by which farmers, neighborhoods, and municipalities may more easily finance and reap the benefits of renewable energy. Specifically, it aims to compare and contrast the definition of geographical boundaries among different CNEM models and examine the benefits and limitations of each approach. As state policies begin to stretch the geographic boundaries of net metering, they allow inventive solutions to encourage renewable energy investment. This paper attempts to initiate the conversation on this emerging policy mechanism and offers recommendations for further development of these policies.

  6. Manage costs and revenues by achieving continuous measurement certainty with the Auto-Adjust Turbo Meter; Gerez les couts et les recettes en acquerant une certitude continuelle de mesure grace au Auto-Adjust Turbo Meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D. [Invensys Energy Metering, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Uncertainty in flow measurement and its consequent ramifications are accepted as normal costs of transporting and distributing natural gas. However, a notable advancement in turbine meter technology, pioneered by Invensys Energy Metering, uses two rotors in a tandem configuration to offer unique capabilities beyond those of the tried-and-proven, single-rotor turbine. A flow meter, which monitors its own performance and adjusts its measurement, on a real-time basis, for any deviations from its initial calibration, could largely eliminate many of the costs and lost revenue associated with flow metering and measurement uncertainty. The dual-rotor turbine, trade named the Auto-Adjust Turbo Meter (AAT), is such a flow meter; it provides Continuous Measurement Certainty, with the accompanying potential for enhanced management of costs and revenues. Proprietary algorithms in the AAT's secondary electronics correlate the velocities of the main rotor and the downstream sensing rotor, over the full range of the meter's rated capacity and pressure, such that a real-time adjustment to the indicated volume corrects it to the actual volume. Improved gas accountability results, and substantial savings related to meter site visits, meter testing and repair, preventive maintenance programs, and measurement disputes can be realized. Test data and case histories from a broad range of end users are related to demonstrate areas of potential savings and revenue recovery. (author)

  7. Gamin partable radiation meter with alarm threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payat, Rene.

    1981-10-01

    The Gamin Radiation meter is a direct reading, portable, battery-powered gamma doserate meter featuring alarm thresholds. Doserate is read on a micro-ammeter with a millirad-per-hour logarithmic scale, covering a range of 0,1 to 1000 millirads/hour. The instrument issues an audible warning signal when dose-rate level exceeds a threshold value, which can be selected. The detector tube is of the Geiger-Muller counter, energy compensated type. Because of its low battery drain, the instrument can be operated continously for 1000 hours. It is powered by four 1.5 volt alcaline batteries of the R6 type. The electronic circuitry is housed in a small lightweight case made of impact resistant plastic. Applications of the Gamin portable radiation monitor are found in health physics, safety departments, medical facilities, teaching, civil defense [fr

  8. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel O.; Walsh, Michael M.

    1999-01-01

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel in order to mix its respective portion of liquid water with the corresponding portion of the stream. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  9. Energy Theft in the Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Stephen; Podkuiko, Dmitry; McDaniel, Patrick

    Global energy generation and delivery systems are transitioning to a new computerized "smart grid". One of the principle components of the smart grid is an advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). AMI replaces the analog meters with computerized systems that report usage over digital communication interfaces, e.g., phone lines. However, with this infrastructure comes new risk. In this paper, we consider adversary means of defrauding the electrical grid by manipulating AMI systems. We document the methods adversaries will use to attempt to manipulate energy usage data, and validate the viability of these attacks by performing penetration testing on commodity devices. Through these activities, we demonstrate that not only is theft still possible in AMI systems, but that current AMI devices introduce a myriad of new vectors for achieving it.

  10. Analysis Balance Parameter of Optimal Ramp metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Duan, N.; Yang, X.

    2018-05-01

    Ramp metering is a motorway control method to avoid onset congestion through limiting the access of ramp inflows into the main road of the motorway. The optimization model of ramp metering is developed based upon cell transmission model (CTM). With the piecewise linear structure of CTM, the corresponding motorway traffic optimization problem can be formulated as a linear programming (LP) problem. It is known that LP problem can be solved by established solution algorithms such as SIMPLEX or interior-point methods for the global optimal solution. The commercial software (CPLEX) is adopted in this study to solve the LP problem within reasonable computational time. The concept is illustrated through a case study of the United Kingdom M25 Motorway. The optimal solution provides useful insights and guidances on how to manage motorway traffic in order to maximize the corresponding efficiency.

  11. Quality control of the activity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Marlon da Silva Brandão; Sá, Lídia Vasconcelos de

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To carry out a comparative analysis of national and international standards regarding the quality control of the activity meter used in Nuclear Medicine Services in Brazil. Material and methods: Quality control protocols from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) were pointed out and compared with requirements from both regulatory Brazilian agencies, National Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) and National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Results: The daily routine tests recommended by the regulatory agencies do not have significant differences; in contrast the tests with higher periodicities like (accuracy, linearity and precision) have differences discrepant. Conclusion: In view of the comparative analysis carried out, it is suggested that the national recommendations for the quality control tests of the activity meter should be checked and evaluated, with emphasis on the semiannual and annual periodicity tests. (author)

  12. Critical review of directional neutron survey meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Matthew J. I.; Gamage, Kelum A. A.; Taylor, Graeme C.

    2014-01-01

    Having been overlooked for many years, research is now starting to take into account the directional distribution of the neutron work place field. The impact of not taking this into account has led to overly conservative estimates of dose in neutron workplace fields. This paper provides a critical review of this existing research into directional survey meters which could improve these estimates of dose. Instruments which could be adapted for use as directional neutron survey meters are also considered within this review. Using Monte-Carlo techniques, two of the most promising existing designs are evaluated; a boron-doped liquid scintillator and a multi-detector directional spectrometer. As an outcome of these simulations, possible adaptations to these instruments are suggested with a view to improving the portability of the instrument.

  13. Critical Review of Directional Neutron Survey Meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, M.J.I.; Gamage, K.A.A.; Taylor, G.C.

    2013-06-01

    Having been overlooked for many years, research is now starting to take into account the directional distribution of the neutron work place field. The impact of not taking this into account has led to overly conservative estimates of dose in neutron workplace fields. This paper provides a critical review of this existing research into directional survey meters which could improve these estimates of dose. Instruments which could be adapted for use as directional neutron survey meters are also considered within this review. Using Monte-Carlo techniques, two of the most promising existing designs are evaluated; a boron-doped liquid scintillator and a multi-detector directional spectrometer. As an outcome of these simulations, possible adaptations to these instruments are suggested with a view to improving the portability of the instrument. (authors)

  14. Evaluation of Cow Milk Electrical Conductivity Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Gavan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of subclinical mastitis diagnosis using an electrical conductivity (EC meter was evaluated in the dairy farm of Agricultural Research and Development Station ( ARDS Simnic Craiova. The results were compared with those obtained by using the California Mastitis Test (CMT and the Somatic Cell Count (SCC.The milk quarter samples ( 1176 from Holstein Friesian cows were analyzed between September and December 2015. The EC evaluation with  the EC meter  ,showed a high proportion of results differing from SCC and CMT results. The CMT still shows to be the most accessible and efficient test in comparison to the EC meter tested.

  15. Monitoring of prestressed concrete pressure vessels. 1. An overview of concrete embedment strain instrumentation and calibration test results for selected concrete embedment strain meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Hurtt, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    The report presents results of calibration tests on strain meters. The approach was divided into two phases: (1) an overview of meter performance criteria for PCPV applications and techniques for strain measurements in concrete and (2) procurement of commercially available gages and their evaluation to assess the reliability of manufacturer-supplied calibration factors. Calibration test results for gages embedded in 15.2-cm-diam by 54-cm cylindrical concrete specimens indicated that calibration factors should be determined (verified) by embedding samples of the gages in test specimens fabricated using a representative mix and that further research should be conducted on other measurement techniques based on inductance, capacitance, semiconductors, and fluidic principles

  16. From Smart Metering to Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukuča, Peter; Chrapčiak, Igor

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with evaluation of measurements in electrical distribution systems aimed at better use of data provided by Smart Metering systems. The influence of individual components of apparent power on the power loss is calculated and results of measurements under real conditions are presented. The significance of difference between the traditional and the complex evaluation of the electricity consumption efficiency by means of different definitions of the power factor is illustrated.

  17. Wanted: competitive metering infrastructure. Metering must be automated in a high grade; Gesucht: wettbewerbsfaehige Metering-Infrastruktur. Metering muss hochgradig automatisiert werden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Elschner, C. [T-Systems Enterprise Services GmbH, Bonn (Germany). Business Development und Marketing

    2008-04-21

    Accurate on-time consumption metering and data transmission are increasingly important as energy markets are being deregulated. Measuring and information systems combine measurements with intelligent modules for automatic transmission of consumption information. A meaningful cost-benefit comparision results only when the total system is considered. Telecommunication companies as ICT service systems and service sectors can do a clear contribution to the total system. (orig./GL)

  18. Device Stores and Discharges Metered Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, S. L.; Setzer, D.

    1983-01-01

    Hand-held container accepts measured amount of liquid from pressurized supply. Supply pressure drives spring-loaded piston that stores enough mechanical energy to discharge measured liquid into another container. Original application of container was to rehydrate sterilized pre-packaged food in zerogravity environment of space vehicles. Possible terrestrial applicatios include dispensing of toxic fluids or metering of fluids for household, commercial or laboratory uses.

  19. Electricity Consumption Clustering Using Smart Meter Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tureczek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Electricity smart meter consumption data is enabling utilities to analyze consumption information at unprecedented granularity. Much focus has been directed towards consumption clustering for diversifying tariffs; through modern clustering methods, cluster analyses have been performed. However, the clusters developed exhibit a large variation with resulting shadow clusters, making it impossible to truly identify the individual clusters. Using clearly defined dwelling types, this paper will present methods to improve clustering by harvesting inherent structure from the smart meter data. This paper clusters domestic electricity consumption using smart meter data from the Danish city of Esbjerg. Methods from time series analysis and wavelets are applied to enable the K-Means clustering method to account for autocorrelation in data and thereby improve the clustering performance. The results show the importance of data knowledge and we identify sub-clusters of consumption within the dwelling types and enable K-Means to produce satisfactory clustering by accounting for a temporal component. Furthermore our study shows that careful preprocessing of the data to account for intrinsic structure enables better clustering performance by the K-Means method.

  20. The Gemini 8-Meter Telescopes Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroson, Todd A.

    1995-05-01

    The Gemini 8-Meter Telescopes Project is an international partnership to build and operate two 8-meter telescopes, one on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and one on Cerro Pachon, Chile. The telescopes will be international facilities, open to the scientific communities of the six member countries, the United States (50%), the United Kingdom (25%), Canada (15%), Chile (5%), Argentina (2.5%), and Brazil (2.5%). The telescopes are designed to exploit the best atmospheric conditions at these excellent sites. Near diffraction limited performance will be delivered at 2.2 microns and longward, with minimal degradation of the best seeing conditions at shorter wavelengths. The telescopes and facilities are designed to achieve emissivity opportunity. First light for the Mauna Kea telescope is expected in late 1998, and for the Cerro Pachon telescope in mid-2000. This talk will report on construction progress, the instrumental capabilities, and operations strategies being considered. The Gemini 8-meter Telescopes Project is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc. under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation which serves as executive agency for the Gemini partner countries. U.S. participation in the project is through the U.S. Gemini Program, a division of the National Optical Astronomy Observatories. NOAO is operated by AURA, Inc. under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  1. Critical review of directional neutron survey meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, Matthew J.I.; Gamage, Kelum A.A.; Taylor, Graeme C.

    2014-01-01

    Having been overlooked for many years, research is now starting to take into account the directional distribution of the neutron work place field. The impact of not taking this into account has led to overly conservative estimates of dose in neutron workplace fields. This paper provides a critical review of this existing research into directional survey meters which could improve these estimates of dose. Instruments which could be adapted for use as directional neutron survey meters are also considered within this review. Using Monte-Carlo techniques, two of the most promising existing designs are evaluated; a boron-doped liquid scintillator and a multi-detector directional spectrometer. As an outcome of these simulations, possible adaptations to these instruments are suggested with a view to improving the portability of the instrument. -- Highlights: • We critically review the existing literature into directional survey meters. • Instruments which could be adapted for this purpose are also reviewed. • Investigate the potential of much lighter portable real-time instrument. • Improvements to existing instruments are suggested to improve their design. • Boron-Doped liquid scintillator design is the most promising, but needs further work

  2. The potential of at-home prediction of the formation of urolithiasis by simple multi-frequency electrical conductivity of the urine and the comparison of its performance with urine ion-related indices, color and specific gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverio, Angelito A; Chung, Wen-Yaw; Cheng, Cheanyeh; Wang, Hai-Lung; Kung, Chien-Min; Chen, Jun; Tsai, Vincent F S

    2016-04-01

    It is important to control daily diet, water intake and life style as well as monitor the quality of urine for urolithiasis prevention. For decades, many ion-related indices have been developed for predicting the formation of urinary stones or urolithiasis, such as EQUILs, relative supersaturation (RSS), Tiselius indices (TI), Robertson risk factor algorithms (RRFA) and more recently, the Bonn risk index. However, they mostly demand robust laboratory analysis, are work-intensive, and even require complex computational programs to get the concentration patterns of several urine analytes. A simple and fast platform for measuring multi-frequency electrical conductivity (MFEC) of morning spot urine (random urine) to predict the onset of urolithiasis was implemented in this study. The performance thereof was compared to ion-related indices, urine color and specific gravity. The concentrations of relevant ions, color, specific gravity (SG) and MFEC (MFEC tested at 1, 10, 100, 5001 KHz and 1 MHz) of 80 random urine samples were examined after collection. Then, the urine samples were stored at 4 °C for 24 h to determine whether sedimentation would occur or not. Ion-activity product index of calcium oxalate (AP(CaOx) EQ2) was calculated. The correlation between AP(CaOx) EQ2, urine color, SG and MFEC were analyzed. AP(CaOx) EQ2, urine color and MFEC (at 5 frequencies) all demonstrated good prediction (p = 0.01, 0.01, 0.01, respectively) for stone formation. The positive correlation between AP(CaOx) EQ2 and MFEC is also significant (p = 0.01). MFEC provides a good metric for predicting the onset of urolithiasis, which is comparable to conventional ion-related indices and urine color. This technology can be implemented with much ease for objectively monitoring the quality of urine at points-of-care or at home.

  3. Real time Aanderaa current meter data collection system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AshokKumar, K.; Diwan, S.G.

    Aanderaa current meters are widely used for recording the current speed and such other 4 parameters by deploying them over extended period of time. Normally data are recorded on magnetic tape and after recovery of current meters, data are read...

  4. IMAGE TYPE WATER METER CHARACTER RECOGNITION BASED ON EMBEDDED DSP

    OpenAIRE

    LIU Ying; HAN Yan-bin; ZHANG Yu-lin

    2015-01-01

    In the paper, we combined DSP processor with image processing algorithm and studied the method of water meter character recognition. We collected water meter image through camera at a fixed angle, and the projection method is used to recognize those digital images. The experiment results show that the method can recognize the meter characters accurately and artificial meter reading is replaced by automatic digital recognition, which improves working efficiency.

  5. Modal Test of Six-Meter Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nijo; Buehrle, Ralph; Templeton, Justin; Lindell, Mike; Hancock, Sean M.

    2014-01-01

    A modal test was performed on the six-meter Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) test article to gain a firm understanding of the dynamic characteristics of the unloaded structure within the low frequency range. The tests involved various configurations of the HIAD to understand the influence of the tri-torus, the varying pressure within the toroids and the influence of straps. The primary test was conducted utilizing an eletrodynamic shaker and the results were verified using a step relaxation technique. The analysis results show an increase in the structure's stiffness with respect to increasing pressure. The results also show the rise of coupled modes with the tri-torus configurations. During the testing activity, the attached straps exhibited a behavior that is similar to that described as fuzzy structures in the literature. Therefore extensive tests were also performed by utilizing foam to mitigate these effects as well as understand the modal parameters of these fuzzy sub structures. Results are being utilized to update the finite element model of the six-meter HIAD and to gain a better understanding of the modeling of complex inflatable structures.

  6. 49 CFR 192.357 - Customer meters and regulators: Installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Installation. 192... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.357 Customer meters and regulators: Installation. (a...

  7. 49 CFR 192.359 - Customer meter installations: Operating pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meter installations: Operating pressure... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.359 Customer meter installations: Operating pressure...

  8. 24 CFR 965.401 - Individually metered utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Individual Metering of Utilities for Existing PHA-Owned Projects § 965.401 Individually metered utilities. (a) All utility service shall be... supplier or through the use of checkmeters, unless: (1) Individual metering is impractical, such as in the...

  9. Integrating an embedded system in a microwave moisture meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    The conversion of a PC- or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter measures the attenuation and phase shift of low power microwaves traversing the sample, from which the dielectric properties are calculated. T...

  10. Integrating an Embedded System within a Microwave Moisture Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper, the conversion of a PC or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter uses low-power microwaves to measure the attenuation and phase shift of the sample, from which the dielectric properties are cal...

  11. HJD-I record and analysis meter for nuclear information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Shaoliang; Huang Yong; Xiao Yanbin

    1992-01-01

    A low-cost, small-volume, multi-function and new model intelligent nuclear electronic meter HJD-I Record and Analysis Meter are stated for Nuclear Information. It's hardware and software were detailed and the 137 Cs spectrum with this meter was presented

  12. A Scalable Smart Meter Data Generator Using Spark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Liu, Xiufeng; Danalachi, Sergiu

    2017-01-01

    Today, smart meters are being used worldwide. As a matter of fact smart meters produce large volumes of data. Thus, it is important for smart meter data management and analytics systems to process petabytes of data. Benchmarking and testing of these systems require scalable data, however, it can ...

  13. The disc pasture meter: Possible applications in grazing management.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disc meter is a simple inexpensive instrument which may be used to make rapid yield estimates of standing forage. Linear regression relationships between meter reading and pasture dry matter yield are usually fairly good, but these may be affected by a number of different factors. The meter should therefore be ...

  14. 21 CFR 868.1780 - Inspiratory airway pressure meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspiratory airway pressure meter. 868.1780 Section 868.1780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... meter. (a) Identification. An inspiratory airway pressure meter is a device used to measure the amount...

  15. Multichannel Distribution Meter: A Veritable Solution in Power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Partitioned apartments in commercial buildings particularly in congested environments shares energy supply meters among several users. This often leads to disputes and results to power theft in the form of unpaid bills and meter tampering. This paper described how power from a single supply meter can be adequately ...

  16. Digital radioisotope moisture-density meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychvarov, N.; Vankov, I.; Dimitrov, L.

    1982-01-01

    The primary information from the detectors of a combined radioisotope moisture-density meter is obtained as pulses, their counting rate being functionally dependent on the humidity per unit volume and the wet density. However, most practical cases demand information on the moisture per unit weight and the mass density of the dry skeleton. The paper describes how the proposed electronic circuit processes the input primary information to obtain the moisture in weight % and the mass density of the dry skeleton in g/cm 3 . (authors)

  17. Ramp - Metering Algorithms Evaluated within Simplified Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janota, Aleš; Holečko, Peter; Gregor, Michal; Hruboš, Marián

    2017-12-01

    Freeway networks reach their limits, since it is usually impossible to increase traffic volumes by indefinitely extending transport infrastructure through adding new traffic lanes. One of the possible solutions is to use advanced intelligent transport systems, particularly ramp metering systems. The paper shows how two particular algorithms of local and traffic-responsive control (Zone, ALINEA) can be adapted to simplified conditions corresponding to Slovak freeways. Both control strategies are modelled and simulated using PTV Vissim software, including the module VisVAP. Presented results demonstrate the properties of both control strategies, which are compared mutually as well as with the initial situation in which no control strategy is applied

  18. Ramp - Metering Algorithms Evaluated within Simplified Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janota Aleš

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Freeway networks reach their limits, since it is usually impossible to increase traffic volumes by indefinitely extending transport infrastructure through adding new traffic lanes. One of the possible solutions is to use advanced intelligent transport systems, particularly ramp metering systems. The paper shows how two particular algorithms of local and traffic-responsive control (Zone, ALINEA can be adapted to simplified conditions corresponding to Slovak freeways. Both control strategies are modelled and simulated using PTV Vissim software, including the module VisVAP. Presented results demonstrate the properties of both control strategies, which are compared mutually as well as with the initial situation in which no control strategy is applied

  19. Victoreen panoramic 470 A survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.H.; Iles, W.J.

    1978-07-01

    This instrument is a portable, battery powered, survey meter covering an exposure rate range from 0 to 1000 R h -1 . and an exposure range of 0 to 1000 mR. It is designed to measure X- and γ-radiation over a wide range of energies and angular distributions, and also to detect alpha and beta radiation. The radiation detector is an unsealed ionisation chamber. The report describes the instrument under the following headings: facilities and controls; radiation characteristics; electrical characteristics; environmental characteristics; mechanical characteristics; the manual; summary of performance. (U.K.)

  20. Dynamic range meter for radiofrequency amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozd S. S.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The new measurement setup having increased on 20…30 dB the own dynamic range in comparison with the standard circuit of the dynamic range meter is offered and the rated value of an error bringing by setup in the worst case does not exceed ± 2,8 dB. The measurement setup can be applied also to determinate levels of intermodulation components average power amplifiers and powerful amplifiers of a low-frequency at replacement of the quartz filter on meeting low-frequency the LC-filter and the spectrum analyzer.

  1. EPA Region 1 - Valley Depth in Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raster of the Depth in meters of EPA-delimited Valleys in Region 1.Valleys (areas that are lower than their neighbors) were extracted from a Digital Elevation Model (USGS, 30m) by finding the local average elevation, subtracting the actual elevation from the average, and selecting areas where the actual elevation was below the average. The landscape was sampled at seven scales (circles of 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 16, and 22 km radius) to take into account the diversity of valley shapes and sizes. Areas selected in at least four scales were designated as valleys.

  2. Conducting Polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    would exhibit electronic conductivity, their conductivities (of compressed pellets) were indeed measured by others, and were found to be .... Polyaniline. Polyphenylene. Polypheny lene- vinylene. Table 1. G!NeRAl I ARTICl! structure. Maximum conductivity Stem Stability. Processability. ~. 1.5 x 105. Reacts with Film not n air.

  3. Synergisms between smart metering and smart grid; Synergien zwischen Smart Metering und Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, Peter [IDS GmbH, Ettlingen (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    With the implementation of a smart metering solution, it is not only possible to acquire consumption data for billing but also to acquire relevant data of the distribution grid for grid operation. There is still a wide gap between the actual condition and the target condition. Synergies result from the use of a common infrastructure which takes account both of the requirements of smart metering and of grid operation. An open architecture also enables the future integration of further applications of the fields of smart grid and smart home. (orig.)

  4. Smart Metering. Synergies within medium voltage automation; Synergien durch Smart Metering. Automatisierung auf Mittelspannungsebene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, Peter [IDS GmbH, Ettlingen (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Transparent interdivisional system solutions are an indispensable and decisive precondition for the optimization of business processes. The implementation of a Smart Metering solution does not only provide data for billing purposes, but also renders important data for network operation. Synergies can be achieved through the use of a common infrastructure which covers both the needs of Smart Metering and network operation. An open architecture of the solution allows for the future integration of further services of the domains Smart Grid and Smart Home. (orig.)

  5. Energy saving by smart metering with consumption feedback; Energieeinsparung durch Smart Metering mit Verbrauchs-Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Patrick [Institut fuer ZukunftsEnergieSysteme (IZES), Saarbruecken (Germany); Friedrich, Malte [Institut fuer Soziologische Meinungsforschung (IsoMe), Berlin (Germany); Kerber-Clasen, Stefan [Institut fuer Sozialforschung und Sozialwirtschaft e.V., Saarbruecken (Germany); Frey, Guenther

    2012-08-15

    While the German legislative, e.g. in the EnWG (Power Industry Act) assumes that electricity consumption metering will contribute to energy conservation in any case, many studies have arrived at a different contribution: Only a combination of consumption metering and direct feedback methods will result in significant energy savings. A recent research project (''Moderne Energiesparsysteme fuer Haushalte'') analysed an energy conservation system of this type. The findings will provide socio-economic insight into the background of successful energy conservation, and they will show how feedback methods can be optimised.

  6. Estimating grass fuel loads with a disc pasture meter in the Kruger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reports the results of a study conducted to assess the efficiency of a new calibration procedure for the disc pasture meter, used for estimating the fuel load available for combustion during fires; The major portion of the fuel load in the savanna areas comprises surface fuels in the form of the standing grass sward. The disc ...

  7. Implementation of Linus Programme Based on the Model of Van Meter and Van Horn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Nazariyah bt; Idris, Abdul Rahman

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the understanding of school leaders on the implementation of LINUS programme that based on the features contained in the Implementation Model of Van Meter and Van Horn (1975). The study was carried out in the form of qualitative method and particularly, the multiple case studies that were conducted in four…

  8. Digital Survey Meter based on PIC16F628 Microcontroller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mohamad, A.; Shliwitt, J.

    2010-01-01

    A Digital Survey Meter based on PIC16F628 Microcontroller was designed using simple Geiger-Muller Counter ZP1320 made by Centronic in the UK as detector. The sensitivity of this tube is about 9 counts/s at 10μGy/h. It is sensitive to gamma and beta particles over 0.25 MeV. It has a sensitive length of 28mm. Count rate versus dose rate is quite linear up to about 10 4 counts/s. Indication is given by a speaker which emits one click for each count. In addition to the acoustic alarm, the meter works according one of three different measurement modes selected using appropriate 3 states switch: 1- Measurement of Dose rate ( in μGy/h) and counting rate ( in CPS) , for High counting rates. 2- Measurement of Dose rate ( in μGy/h) and counting rate ( in CPM), for Low counting rates. 3- Accumulated Counting with continues display for No. of Counts and Counting Time with a period of 2 Sec. The results are Displayed on an Alphanumerical LCD Display, and the circuit will give many hours of operation from a single 9V PP3 battery. The design of the circuit combines between accuracy, simplicity and low power consumption. We built 2 Models of this design, the first only with an internal detector, and the second is equipped with an External Detector. (author)

  9. Automatic ranging circuit for a digital panel meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, T.R.; Ross, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a range changing circuit that operates in conjunction with a digital panel meter of fixed sensitivity. The circuit decodes the output of the panel meter and uses that information to change the gain of an input amplifier to the panel meter in order to ensure that the maximum number of significant figures is always displayed in the meter. The circuit monitors five conditions in the meter and responds to any of four combinations of these conditions by means of logic elements to carry out the function of the circuit. The system was designed for readout of a fluorescence analyzer for uranium analysis

  10. A convenient calibrator for tritium survey meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutler, J.M.; Janmohamed, S.R.; Surette, R.A.; Wood, M.J.

    1993-06-01

    Staff in Ontario Hydro's CANDU nuclear power stations were having difficulty calibrating their tritium-in-air survey meters. Chalk River Laboratories suggested using a standard silica gel collector loaded with tritiated water vapour as a radiation source. The collector is a polyethylene tube with a length of rubber tubing attached to each end. The plastic tube is filled with dry silica gel, and cotton wool is stuffed into each end to retain the gel. To load the source with tritiated vapour, a bubbler containing tritiated water is connected to the collector until the gel is completely pink. The end tubes of the source are then connected to each other to seal the source. To use the source, the rubber tubes are connected to the intake and exhaust fittings of the survey meter to be calibrated. No tritium vapour is released during loading or calibration. This source not only verifies that the ion chamber and electrometer are working, but also checks whether the air sample is reaching the detector. It is more direct and credible than a gamma source, and is inexpensive and convenient to construct and calibrate at the power station. 5 figs

  11. Calibration of ionization chamber survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadhim, A.K.; Kadni, T.B.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation measuring devices need to process calibration which lose their sensitivity and the extent of the response and the amount of stability under a changing conditions from time to time and this period depends on the nature and use of field in which used devices. A comparison study was done toa (45 I P) ( ionization chamber survey meter) and this showed the variation factor in five different years. This study also displayed the concept of radiation instrument calibration and necessity of every year calibration of them.In this project we used the five years calibration data for ionization chamber survey meter model Inspector (1/C F). the value deviation (∆ %) of Cfs for four years of calibration in comparison of C F for the year 2007 are very high and the device under research is not good to use in field and reliable because the ionization chamber is very sensitive to humidity and must calibrate a year or less, or due ing every two years and must maintain carefully to reduce the discarded effects the measurements.

  12. Technical note: Validation of the BHBCheck blood β-hydroxybutyrate meter as a diagnostic tool for hyperketonemia in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailer, K J; Pralle, R S; Oliveira, R C; Erb, S J; Oetzel, G R; White, H M

    2018-02-01

    the receiver operator characteristic curve suggests adequate diagnostic accuracy of both meters. Overall, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the BHBCheck meter was similar to the Precision Xtra meter and laboratory assay, indicating the BHBCheck meter is appropriate for use as a cow-side diagnostic test for hyperketonemia in dairy cows. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Measurement of microchannel fluidic resistance with a standard voltage meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Leah A; Deal, Kennon S; Hoepfner, Lauren D; Jackson, Louis A; Easley, Christopher J

    2013-01-03

    A simplified method for measuring the fluidic resistance (R(fluidic)) of microfluidic channels is presented, in which the electrical resistance (R(elec)) of a channel filled with a conductivity standard solution can be measured and directly correlated to R(fluidic) using a simple equation. Although a slight correction factor could be applied in this system to improve accuracy, results showed that a standard voltage meter could be used without calibration to determine R(fluidic) to within 12% error. Results accurate to within 2% were obtained when a geometric correction factor was applied using these particular channels. When compared to standard flow rate measurements, such as meniscus tracking in outlet tubing, this approach provided a more straightforward alternative and resulted in lower measurement error. The method was validated using 9 different fluidic resistance values (from ∼40 to 600kPa smm(-3)) and over 30 separately fabricated microfluidic devices. Furthermore, since the method is analogous to resistance measurements with a voltage meter in electrical circuits, dynamic R(fluidic) measurements were possible in more complex microfluidic designs. Microchannel R(elec) was shown to dynamically mimic pressure waveforms applied to a membrane in a variable microfluidic resistor. The variable resistor was then used to dynamically control aqueous-in-oil droplet sizes and spacing, providing a unique and convenient control system for droplet-generating devices. This conductivity-based method for fluidic resistance measurement is thus a useful tool for static or real-time characterization of microfluidic systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Storms over the METER--ORNL Precipitation Network: the first six months

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.; Patrinos, A.A.N.; Saylor, R.E.

    1979-06-01

    This report presents the first set of data collected by the METER--ORNL Precipitation Network. This network of 49 recording raingages and 5 recording windsets was installed in February 1978, around the Bowen Electric Generating Plant in northwest Georgia for the purpose of investigating the potential effect of the plant's cooling towers on rainfall. This study is conducted on behalf of the DOE Program on Meteorological Effects of Thermal Energy Releases (METER). Included in this report are the complete descriptions of 98 rainfall events which occurred over the METER--ORNL network during the period February 22--August 31, 1978. These descriptions are augmented by information and data supplied by the National Weather Service (NWS). Several stratifications of the rainfall events are performed for reference purposes

  15. TRL Assessment of Solar Sail Technology Development Following the 20-Meter System Ground Demonstrator Hardware Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Roy M.; Adams, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Projects Office sponsored two separate, independent solar sail system design and development demonstration activities during 2002-2005. ATK Space Systems of Goleta, CA was the prime contractor for one development team and L' Garde, Inc. of Tustin, CA was the prime contractor for the other development team. The goal of these activities was to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of solar sail propulsion from 3 towards 6 by the year 2006. Component and subsystem fabrication and testing were completed successfully, including the ground deployment of 10-meter and 20-meter demonstration hardware systems under vacuum conditions. The deployment and structural testing of the 20-meter solar sail systems was conducted in the 30 meter diameter Space Power Facility thermal-vacuum chamber at NASA Glenn Plum Brook in April though August, 2005. This paper will present the results of the TRL assessment following the solar sail technology development activities associated with the design, development, analysis and testing of the 20-meter system ground demonstrators.

  16. Logic elements for reactor period meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, William P.; Bobis, James P.

    1976-01-01

    Logic elements are provided for a reactor period meter trip circuit. For one element, first and second inputs are applied to first and second chopper comparators, respectively. The output of each comparator is O if the input applied to it is greater than or equal to a trip level associated with each input and each output is a square wave of frequency f if the input applied to it is less than the associated trip level. The outputs of the comparators are algebraically summed and applied to a bandpass filter tuned to f. For another element, the output of each comparator is applied to a bandpass filter which is tuned to f to give a sine wave of frequency f. The outputs of the filters are multiplied by an analog multiplier whose output is 0 if either input is 0 and a sine wave of frequency 2f if both inputs are a frequency f.

  17. Aperture meter for the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, G.J.; Fuchsberger, K.; Redaelli, S.

    2012-01-01

    The control of the high intensity beams of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is particular challenging and requires a good modeling of the machine and monitoring of various machine parameters. During operation it is crucial to ensure a minimal distance between the beam edge and the aperture of sensitive equipment, e.g. the superconducting magnets, which in all cases must be in the shadow of the collimator's that protect the machine. Possible dangerous situations must be detected as soon as possible. In order to provide the operator with information about the current machine bottlenecks an aperture meter application was developed based on the LHC online modeling tool-chain. The calculation of available free aperture takes into account the best available optics and aperture model as well as the relevant beam measurements. This paper describes the design and integration of this application into the control environment and presents results of the usage in daily operation and from validation measurements. (authors)

  18. Radiation survey meters used for environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerke, H.; Sigurdsson, T.; Meier Pedersen, K.; Grindborg, J.-E.; Persson, L.; Siiskonen, T.; Hakanen, A.; Kosunen, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Nordic dosimetry group set up the GammaRate project to investigate how its expertise could be used to assure appropriate usage of survey meters in environmental monitoring. Considerable expertise in calibrating radiation instruments exists in the Nordic radiation protection authorities. The Swedish, Finnish, Danish and Norwegian authorities operate Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) that provide users with calibration traceable to internationally recognised primary standards. These authorities together with the Icelandic authorities have formally cooperated since 2002 in the field of radiation dosimetry. Dosimetry is the base for assesment of risk from ionising radiation and calibration of instruments is an imported part in dosimetry. The Nordic dosimetry group has been focused on cancer therapy. This work extends the cooperation to the dosimetry of radiation protection and environmental monitoring. This report contains the formal, theoretical and practical background for survey meter measurements. Nordic standards dosimetry laboratories have the capability to provide traceable calibration of instruments in various types of radiation. To verify and explore this further in radiation protection applications a set of survey instruments were sent between the five Nordic countries and each of the authority asked to provide a calibration coefficient for all instruments. The measurement results were within the stated uncertainties, except for some results from NRPA for the ionchamber based instrument. The comparison was shown to be a valuable tool to harmonize the calibration of radiation protection instruments in the Nordic countries. Dosimetry plays an important role in the emergency situations, and it is clear that better traceability and harmonised common guidelines will improve the emergency preparedness and health. (Author)

  19. Radiation survey meters used for environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerke, H. (ed.) (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, NRPA (Norway)); Sigurdsson, T. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority, Geislavarnir Rikisins, GR (IS)); Meier Pedersen, K. (National Board of Health, Statens Institut for Straalebeskyttelse (SIS) (Denmark)); Grindborg, J.-E.; Persson, L. (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Straalsaekerhetsmyndigheten (SSM) (Sweden)); Siiskonen, T.; Hakanen, A.; Kosunen, A. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Saeteilyturvakeskus (STUK) (Finland))

    2012-01-15

    The Nordic dosimetry group set up the GammaRate project to investigate how its expertise could be used to assure appropriate usage of survey meters in environmental monitoring. Considerable expertise in calibrating radiation instruments exists in the Nordic radiation protection authorities. The Swedish, Finnish, Danish and Norwegian authorities operate Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) that provide users with calibration traceable to internationally recognised primary standards. These authorities together with the Icelandic authorities have formally cooperated since 2002 in the field of radiation dosimetry. Dosimetry is the base for assesment of risk from ionising radiation and calibration of instruments is an imported part in dosimetry. The Nordic dosimetry group has been focused on cancer therapy. This work extends the cooperation to the dosimetry of radiation protection and environmental monitoring. This report contains the formal, theoretical and practical background for survey meter measurements. Nordic standards dosimetry laboratories have the capability to provide traceable calibration of instruments in various types of radiation. To verify and explore this further in radiation protection applications a set of survey instruments were sent between the five Nordic countries and each of the authority asked to provide a calibration coefficient for all instruments. The measurement results were within the stated uncertainties, except for some results from NRPA for the ionchamber based instrument. The comparison was shown to be a valuable tool to harmonize the calibration of radiation protection instruments in the Nordic countries. Dosimetry plays an important role in the emergency situations, and it is clear that better traceability and harmonised common guidelines will improve the emergency preparedness and health. (Author)

  20. A Probabilistic Model of Meter Perception: Simulating Enculturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastiaan van der Weij

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Enculturation is known to shape the perception of meter in music but this is not explicitly accounted for by current cognitive models of meter perception. We hypothesize that the induction of meter is a result of predictive coding: interpreting onsets in a rhythm relative to a periodic meter facilitates prediction of future onsets. Such prediction, we hypothesize, is based on previous exposure to rhythms. As such, predictive coding provides a possible explanation for the way meter perception is shaped by the cultural environment. Based on this hypothesis, we present a probabilistic model of meter perception that uses statistical properties of the relation between rhythm and meter to infer meter from quantized rhythms. We show that our model can successfully predict annotated time signatures from quantized rhythmic patterns derived from folk melodies. Furthermore, we show that by inferring meter, our model improves prediction of the onsets of future events compared to a similar probabilistic model that does not infer meter. Finally, as a proof of concept, we demonstrate how our model can be used in a simulation of enculturation. From the results of this simulation, we derive a class of rhythms that are likely to be interpreted differently by enculturated listeners with different histories of exposure to rhythms.

  1. Proceedings of the 2006 smart metering conference and expo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Ontario's smart metering program was launched as part of a general demand response management strategy to improve energy conservation in the province. Smart metering will help consumers to control their electricity bills through conservation and demand response, and will allow consumers to better manage their energy consumption and use it more effectively during cheaper, off-peak times of day. Smart metering systems measure how much electricity a customer uses on an hourly basis, and data is transferred daily to local electricity distributors. Toronto Hydro will have close to 200,000 smart meters installed by the end of 2006. By 2010, Toronto will be North America's largest urban centre to have made the full transition to smart metering technology across its entire base. This conference provided an update of Toronto Hydro's smart metering project, as well as details of their demand response program. Presentations were given by a variety of experts in information technology as well as electric power industry leaders North American demand and response metering strategies were reviewed, as well as various initiatives in advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). Security risks associated with smart metering environments were reviewed. An evaluation of the current regulatory environment was presented along with a discussion of smart metering standards and compatibility issues. New metering technologies were presented as well as various associated demand side management tools. Smart metering pilot programs and initiatives were discussed, and best practices in smart metering were evaluated. Twenty-nine presentations were given at the conference, 13 of which have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  2. Relationship between chlorophyll density and SPAD chlorophyll meter reading for Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorophyll is an indicator of crop health and productivity. Measuring chlorophyll is usually done directly and requires significant time and resources. Indirect measurement of chlorophyll density using a handheld portable chlorophyll meter can reduce time. However, this information is very limit...

  3. Correlation between macro texture measures carried out by the volumetric method and by different laser texture meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra Ruiz, L.; Yanguas Gonzalez, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    The reference value for the measurement of surface macro texture in the Spanish Main Road Network is the MTD or Mean Texture Depth (PMT, Profundidad Media de Textura), obtained by means of the volumetric methods, in accordance with the standard UNE EN 13036-1:12010. The fact that it is a spot measurement that requires road closures makes it an expensive procedure as well as slow and dangerous. In addition to this, the test results are relatively sensitive to the operator, being the procedure not too suitable for systematic surveys. These are some of the reasons that have contributed to the development of texture meter laser devices that can be assembled on board of vehicles, circulating without interfering with the normal traffic flow and providing a parameter named the MPD (Mean Depth Profile). According to the standard UNE-EN ISO 13473-1:2006, it is possible to estimate the texture obtained by volumetric methods, with the parameter ETD (Estimated Texture Depth) through the equation: ETD=0,8 x MPD+0.2 In 2008 CEDEX conducted a study that correlated macro texture measures obtained by means of the volumetric method with such carried out by different laser texture meters. The equations yield a better relation between MPD and MTD were dependent on the measurement device used and were not linear equations type, as is it indicated in the standard, but exponential type equations. (Author) 6 refs.

  4. A flight management algorithm and guidance for fuel-conservative descents in a time-based metered air traffic environment: Development and flight test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    A simple airborne flight management descent algorithm designed to define a flight profile subject to the constraints of using idle thrust, a clean airplane configuration (landing gear up, flaps zero, and speed brakes retracted), and fixed-time end conditions was developed and flight tested in the NASA TSRV B-737 research airplane. The research test flights, conducted in the Denver ARTCC automated time-based metering LFM/PD ATC environment, demonstrated that time guidance and control in the cockpit was acceptable to the pilots and ATC controllers and resulted in arrival of the airplane over the metering fix with standard deviations in airspeed error of 6.5 knots, in altitude error of 23.7 m (77.8 ft), and in arrival time accuracy of 12 sec. These accuracies indicated a good representation of airplane performance and wind modeling. Fuel savings will be obtained on a fleet-wide basis through a reduction of the time error dispersions at the metering fix and on a single-airplane basis by presenting the pilot with guidance for a fuel-efficient descent.

  5. Heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigull, U.; Sandner, H.

    1984-01-01

    Included are discussions of rates of heat transfer by conduction, the effects of varying and changing properties, thermal explosions, distributed heat sources, moving heat sources, and non-steady three-dimensional conduction processes. Throughout, the importance of thinking both numerically and symbolically is stressed, as this is essential to the development of the intuitive understanding of numerical values needed for successful designing. Extensive tables of thermophysical properties, including thermal conductivity and diffusivity, are presented. Also included are exact and approximate solutions to many of the problems that arise in practical situations

  6. Reengineering GSM/GPRS Towards a Dedicated Network for Massive Smart Metering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madueño, Germán Corrales; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2014-01-01

    GSM is a synonym for a major success in wireless technology, achieving widespread use and high technology maturity. However, its future is questionable, as many stakeholders indicate that the GSM spectrum should be re-farmed for LTE. On the other hand, the advent of smart grid and the ubiquity...... of smart meters will require reliable, long-lived wide area connections. This motivates to investigate the potential of GSM to be evolved into a dedicated network for smart metering. We introduce simple mechanisms to reengineer the access control in GSM. The result is a system that offers excellent support...

  7. Electrical Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.; Sand, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Explains how electrical conductivity (EC) can be used to measure ion concentration in solutions. Describes instrumentation for the measurement, temperature dependence and EC, and the EC of common substances. (PR)

  8. Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... objections runs away from home often truant from school Children who exhibit these behaviors should receive a comprehensive evaluation by an experience mental health professional. Many children with a conduct disorder may ...

  9. Characteristic tests of ionization chamber and GM counter survey meters for beta-rays, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, Shin-ichi; Bingo, Kazuyoshi; Kajimoto, Yoichi

    1979-03-01

    To estimate a beta-ray absorbed dose rate of contaminated skin, measurements were done twice by a survey meter without and with a filter, keeping the distance from the contaminated skin surface to the survey meter at 10 mm. The absorbed dose rate was obtained multiplying a net reading (equals a reading of survey meter's indicator measured without the filter minus that measured with the filter) by a multiplying factor. Calibrations were made with reference plane sources of natural uranium, 198 Au and 204 Tl, varying their area. The five types of ionization chamber survey meters had nearly same multiplying factors when the diameter of source was larger than the diameter of the chamber cylinder. Estimation of the absorbed doses due to beta-emitting nuclides was possible when the measured value without filter was larger by 20% or more than that of with filter. In the case of small sources, the multiplying factor varied significantly with area of the source. The multiplying factors agreed within +-30% in the respective types i.e. manufacturers and in maximum beta-ray energies from 0.7 up to 2.5 MeV. In the source to detector distance of 1 cm +-0.2 cm, the multiplying factor varied within +-20%. The multiplying factor of a GM counter survey meter varied with beta-ray energy, the multiplying factor for uranium was 1/3 that of 204 Tl. (author)

  10. Individuals achieve more accurate results with meters that are codeless and employ dynamic electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Anoop; Wiley, Meg; Iyengar, Sridhar; Nadeau, Dan; Carnevale, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown that controlling blood glucose can reduce the onset and progression of the long-term microvascular and neuropathic complications associated with the chronic course of diabetes mellitus. Improved glycemic control can be achieved by frequent testing combined with changes in medication, exercise, and diet. Technological advancements have enabled improvements in analytical accuracy of meters, and this paper explores two such parameters to which that accuracy can be attributed. Four blood glucose monitoring systems (with or without dynamic electrochemistry algorithms, codeless or requiring coding prior to testing) were evaluated and compared with respect to their accuracy. Altogether, 108 blood glucose values were obtained for each system from 54 study participants and compared with the reference values. The analysis depicted in the International Organization for Standardization table format indicates that the devices with dynamic electrochemistry and the codeless feature had the highest proportion of acceptable results overall (System A, 101/103). Results were significant when compared at the 10% bias level with meters that were codeless and utilized static electrochemistry (p = .017) or systems that had static electrochemistry but needed coding (p = .008). Analytical performance of these blood glucose meters differed significantly depending on their technologic features. Meters that utilized dynamic electrochemistry and did not require coding were more accurate than meters that used static electrochemistry or required coding. 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.

  11. Advanced Metering Installations – A Perspective from Federal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earni, Shankar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area

    2016-05-02

    This report is intended to provide guidance to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and other federal agencies to highlight some of the existing practices related to advanced building metering systems. This study identified some of the existing actions related to advanced meter data and proposes how advanced metered data can be employed to develop robust cost effective measurement and verification (M&V) strategies. This report proposes an integrated framework on how advanced meter data can be used to identify energy conservation opportunities and to develop proactive M&V strategies to ensure that the savings for energy projects are being realized. This information will help improve metering, feedback, and dashboard implementations for reducing energy use at DOE facilities, based on lessons learned from various advanced metering implementations.

  12. De Minimis Thresholds for Federal Building Metering Appropriateness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Jordan W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is required by statute and Presidential Memorandum to establish guidelines for agencies to meter their Federal buildings for energy (electricity, natural gas, and steam) and water. See 42 U.S.C. § 8253(e). DOE issued guidance in February 2006 on the installation of electric meters in Federal buildings. A recent update to the 2006 guidance accounts for more current metering practices within the Federal Government. The updated metering guidance specifies that all Federal buildings shall be considered “appropriate” for energy or water metering unless identified for potential exclusion. In developing the updated guidance to carry out the statue, Congress also directed DOE to (among other things) establish exclusions from the metering requirements based on the de minimis quantity of energy use of a Federal building, industrial process, or structure. This paper discusses the method used to identify de minimis values.

  13. Turbine flow meter response in two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, W.J.; Dougherty, T.J.; Cheh, H.Y.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest a simple method of calibrating turbine flow meters to measure the flow rates of each phase in a two-phase flow. The response of two 50.8 mm (2 inch) turbine flow meters to air-water, two-phase mixtures flowing vertically in a 57 mm I.D. (2.25 inch) polycarbonate tube has been investigated for both upflow and downflow. The flow meters were connected in series with an intervening valve to provide an adjustable pressure difference between them. Void fractions were measured by two gamma densitometers, one upstream of the flow meters and the other downstream. The output signal of the turbine flow meters was found to depend only on the actual volumetric flow rate of the gas, F G , and liquid, F L , at the location of the flow meter

  14. Research on Operation Assessment Method for Energy Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangqun; Huang, Rui; Shen, Liman; chen, Hao; Xiong, Dezhi; Xiao, Xiangqi; Liu, Mouhai; Xu, Renheng

    2018-03-01

    The existing electric energy meter rotation maintenance strategy regularly checks the electric energy meter and evaluates the state. It only considers the influence of time factors, neglects the influence of other factors, leads to the inaccuracy of the evaluation, and causes the waste of resources. In order to evaluate the running state of the electric energy meter in time, a method of the operation evaluation of the electric energy meter is proposed. The method is based on extracting the existing data acquisition system, marketing business system and metrology production scheduling platform that affect the state of energy meters, and classified into error stability, operational reliability, potential risks and other factors according to the influencing factors, based on the above basic test score, inspecting score, monitoring score, score of family defect detection. Then, according to the evaluation model according to the scoring, we evaluate electric energy meter operating state, and finally put forward the corresponding maintenance strategy of rotation.

  15. A Method of Evaluating Operation of Electric Energy Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangqun; Li, Tianyang; Cao, Fei; Chu, Pengfei; Zhao, Xinwang; Huang, Rui; Liu, Liping; Zhang, Chenglin

    2018-05-01

    The existing electric energy meter rotation maintenance strategy regularly checks the electric energy meter and evaluates the state. It only considers the influence of time factors, neglects the influence of other factors, leads to the inaccuracy of the evaluation, and causes the waste of resources. In order to evaluate the running state of the electric energy meter in time, a method of the operation evaluation of the electric energy meter is proposed. The method is based on extracting the existing data acquisition system, marketing business system and metrology production scheduling platform that affect the state of energy meters, and classified into error stability, operational reliability, potential risks and other factors according to the influencing factors, based on the above basic test score, inspecting score, monitoring score, score of family defect detection. Then, according to the evaluation model according to the scoring, we evaluate electric energy meter operating state, and finally put forward the corresponding maintenance strategy of rotation.

  16. FUSION OF VENTURI AND ULTRASONIC FLOW METER FOR ENHANCED FLOW METER CHARACTERISTICS USING FUZZY LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Santhosh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a technique for measurement of liquid flow using venturi and ultrasonic flow meter(UFM to have following objectives a to design a multi-sensor data fusion (MSDF architecture for using both the sensors, b improve sensitivity and linearity of venturi and ultrasonic flow meter, and c detect and diagnosis of faults in sensor if any. Fuzzy logic algorithm is used to fuse outputs of both the sensor and train the fuzzy block to produces output which has an improved characteristics in terms of both sensitivity and linearity. For identification of sensor faults a comparative test algorithm is designed. Once trained proposed technique is tested in real life, results show successful implementation of proposed objectives.

  17. How today's USM diagnostics solve metering problems[Ultrasonic meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansing, John

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses both basic and advanced diagnostic features of gas ultrasonic meters (USM), and how capabilities built into today's electronics can identify problems that often may not have been identified in the past. It primarily discusses fiscal-quality, multi-path USMs and does not cover issues that may be different with non-fiscal meters. Although USMs basically work the same, the diagnostics for each manufacturer does vary. All brands provide basic features as discussed in AGA 9. However, some provide advanced features that can be used to help identify issues such as blocked flow conditioners and gas compositional errors. This paper is based upon the Daniel USM design and the information presented here may or may not be applicable to other manufacturers. (author) (tk)

  18. Established Designs For Advanced Ground Based Astronomical Telescopes In The 1-meter To 4-meter Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Anthony B.; Barentine, J.; Legters, S.

    2012-01-01

    The same technology and analytic approaches that led to cost-effective unmitigated successes for the spaceborne Kepler and WISE telescopes are now being applied to meter-class to 4-meter-class ground telescopes, providing affordable solutions to ground astronomy, with advanced features as needed for the application. The range of optical and mechanical performance standards and features that can be supplied for ground astronomy shall be described. Both classical RC designs, as well as unobscured designs are well represented in the IOS design library, allowing heritage designs for both night time and day time operations, the latter even in the proximity of the sun. In addition to discussing this library of mature features, we will also describe a process for working with astronomers early in the definition process to provide the best-value solution. Solutions can include remote operation and astronomical data acquisition and transmission.

  19. Species Composition at the Sub-Meter Level in Discontinuous Permafrost in Subarctic Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S. M.; Palace, M. W.; Layne, M.; Varner, R. K.; Crill, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Northern latitudes are experiencing rapid warming. Wetlands underlain by permafrost are particularly vulnerable to warming which results in changes in vegetative cover. Specific species have been associated with greenhouse gas emissions therefore knowledge of species compositional shift allows for the systematic change and quantification of emissions and changes in such emissions. Species composition varies on the sub-meter scale based on topography and other microsite environmental parameters. This complexity and the need to scale vegetation to the landscape level proves vital in our estimation of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions and dynamics. Stordalen Mire (68°21'N, 18°49'E) in Abisko and is located at the edge of discontinuous permafrost zone. This provides a unique opportunity to analyze multiple vegetation communities in a close proximity. To do this, we randomly selected 25 1x1 meter plots that were representative of five major cover types: Semi-wet, wet, hummock, tall graminoid, and tall shrub. We used a quadrat with 64 sub plots and measured areal percent cover for 24 species. We collected ground based remote sensing (RS) at each plot to determine species composition using an ADC-lite (near infrared, red, green) and GoPro (red, blue, green). We normalized each image based on a Teflon white chip placed in each image. Textural analysis was conducted on each image for entropy, angular second momentum, and lacunarity. A logistic regression was developed to examine vegetation cover types and remote sensing parameters. We used a multiple linear regression using forwards stepwise variable selection. We found statistical difference in species composition and diversity indices between vegetation cover types. In addition, we were able to build regression model to significantly estimate vegetation cover type as well as percent cover for specific key vegetative species. This ground-based remote sensing allows for quick quantification of vegetation

  20. Activity meters: Calibration and quality assurance measures by the manufacturer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pychlau, P.

    1992-01-01

    A manufacturer of ionisation chambers gives a general idea of such quality assurance programs as may be implemented after an agreement has been reached at the EC level on a guideline for activity meters. Further issues discussed include the final controls, calibration of activity meters by the manufacturer and the advantages that the participation in cooperate tests would offer over a mandatory calibration of activity meters. (orig./DG) [de

  1. Optimization on Measurement Method for Neutron Moisture Meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Yalin; Wu Zhiqiang; Li Yanfeng; Wang Wei; Song Qingfeng; Liu Hui; Wei Xiaoyun; Zhao Zhonghua

    2010-01-01

    When the water in the measured material is nonuniformity, the measured results of the neutron moisture meter in the field may have errors, so the measured errors of the moisture meter associated with the water nonuniformity in material were simulated by Monte Carlo method. A new measurement method of moisture meter named 'transmission plus scatter' was put forward. The experiment results show that the new measurement method can reduce the error even if the water in the material is nonuniformity. (authors)

  2. Development of a hand-held fast neutron survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, T.; Tsujimura, N.; Yamano, T.

    2011-01-01

    A neutron survey meter with a ZnS(Ag) scintillator to measure recoil protons was built. The detection probe weighs ∼2 kg, therefore providing us with true portability. Performance tests exhibited satisfactory neutron dosimetry characteristics in unmoderated or lightly moderated fission neutron fields and in particular work environments at a mixed oxide fuel facility. This new survey meter will augment a routine of neutron monitoring that is inconveniently being carried out by moderator-based neutron survey meters. (authors)

  3. Comprehensive evaluation of the Berthold LB1200 survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.W.

    1986-05-01

    The performance of two Berthod LB1200 survey meters was evaluated under the influence of a range of beta and photon radiation energies and environmental conditions likely to be encountered in the field. The survey meters responded satisfactorily to the range of beta particle and photon radiation energies emitted by most radioisotopes commonly used in Canada. The survey meters performed acceptably under most of the environmental conditions tested here with the exception of radiofrequency interference and electrostatic charge

  4. A Novel Smart Meter Controlling System with Dynamic IP Addresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manembu, Pinrolinvic; Welang, Brammy; Kalua Lapu, Aditya

    2017-01-01

    Smart meters are the electronic devices for measuring energy consumption in real time. Usually, static public IP addresses are allocated to realize the point-to-point (P2P) communication and remote controlling for smart metering systems. This, however, restricts the wide deployment of smart meters......, due to the deficiency of public IP resources. This paper proposes a novel subscription-based communication architecture for the support of dynamic IP addresses and group controlling of smart meters. The paper evaluates the proposed architecture by comparing the traditional P2P architecture...

  5. Status of neutron monitoring meters for radiation protection purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Taosheng

    2003-01-01

    The status of and trends towards the development of neutron monitoring meters, such as dose survey meter, workplace (ambient) spectrometer and individual dosimeters, are discussed in the present paper from the perspectives of workplace and individual dose monitoring. Over the past 4 decades, both neutron dose survey meter and workplace spectrometer have declined to be more reasonable in design of their probes, with more broaden applications. With the development of electronic technology, there is a trend towards being more small-compacted and smart. Although many technical difficulties in the practical measurement, some significant progresses have be made in the development and research of these kinds of meters. (authors)

  6. The relationships between common measures of glucose meter performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmoth, Daniel R

    2012-09-01

    Glucose meter performance is commonly measured in several different ways, including the relative bias and coefficient of variation (CV), the total error, the mean absolute relative deviation (MARD), and the size of the interval around the reference value that would be necessary to contain a meter measurement at a specified probability. This fourth measure is commonly expressed as a proportion of the reference value and will be referred to as the necessary relative deviation. A deeper understanding of the relationships between these measures may aid health care providers, patients, and regulators in comparing meter performances when different measures are used. The relationships between common measures of glucose meter performance were derived mathematically. Equations are presented for calculating the total error, MARD, and necessary relative deviation using the reference value, relative bias, and CV when glucose meter measurements are normally distributed. When measurements are also unbiased, the CV, total error, MARD, and necessary relative deviation are linearly related and are therefore equivalent measures of meter performance. The relative bias and CV provide more information about meter performance than the other measures considered but may be difficult for some audiences to interpret. Reporting meter performance in multiple ways may facilitate the informed selection of blood glucose meters. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  7. Suitable RF spectrum in ISM band for 2-way advanced metering network in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A.; Khan, M. A.; Gaur, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    The ISM (Industrial Scientific and Medical) bands in the radio frequency space in India offer two alternative spectra to implement wireless network for advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). These bands lie in the range of 2.4GHz and sub-GHz frequencies 865 to 867 MHz This paper aims to examine the suitability of both options by designing and executing experiments in laboratory as well as carrying out field trials on electricity meters to validate the selected option. A parameter, communication effectiveness index (CEI2) is defined to measure the effectiveness of 2 way data communication (packet exchange) between two points under different scenarios of buildings and free space. Both 2.4 GHz and Sub-GHz designs were implemented to compare the results. The experiments were conducted across 3 floors of a building. Validation of the selected option was carried out by conducting a field trial by integrating the selected radio frequency (RF) modem into the single phase electricity meters and installing these meters across three floors of the building. The methodology, implementation details, observations and resulting analytical conclusion are described in the paper.

  8. Ionizing radiation detection meter systems usability evaluation. Technical memorandum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severs, Y.; Hughes, R.; Tack, D.; Bossi, L.L.M.

    2002-12-01

    In support of the Canadian Forces Nuclear Detection, Identification and Dosimetry project a usability trial of three Ionizing Radiation Detection Meter Systems (IRDMS) was conducted 18-22 June 2001 at Connaught Ranges. The systems evaluated: System 1: ANPDR 77 Operational System with PDR 77 Alpha/Beta probes and GPS (Global Positioning System) Training System; System 2: ADM 300C Operational System with ABP 100 Alpha/Beta probes and GPS Training System, and System 3: RAM R200 Operational System with PA 100M and RG12 Alpha/Beta probes and GPS Training System. Twelve military personnel (Private to Captain) determined compliance with the bid evaluation criteria. The counter-balanced study, based on a Latin square design, was divided into two assessment phases, an operational phase and a training system phase, which rotated three groups (of four participants each) concurrently through each IRDMS. Groups were trained in set-up, maintenance and operation of each bid IRDMS prior to evaluation. The operational evaluation consisted of a test/maintenance stand, an indoor/outdoor operational stand, and an indoor,/outdoor training system stand. Participants rated the utility and usability of each system, by measuring case of use/maintenance under a range of relevant operational and clothing conditions, compatibility with soldier tasks, compatibility with clothing, compatibility with equipment and operational environments, and case of learning (including an assessment of initial and refresher training implications). A 7-point Likert-like acceptability rating scale, which covered a range from completely unacceptable (1) to completely acceptable (7), was used to evaluate the measures. The combined weighted mean scores were 584.3 for System 1 (70 o /b), 682.0 for System 2 (81 %) and 756.9 for System 3 (90%) out of a total possible score of 840. Participants reported mean scores for System 1 between barely unacceptable and borderline for both indoor and outdoor operations. System 2

  9. Investigation of the mixture flow rates of oil-water two-phase flow using the turbine flow meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Donghui; Feng Feifei; Wu Yingxiang; Xu Jingyu

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the mixture flow rate of oil-water flows was studied using the turbine flow-meter. The research emphasis focuses on the effect of oil viscosity and input fluids flow rates on the precision of the meter. Experiments were conducted to measure the in-situ mixture flow rate in a horizontal pipe with 0.05m diameter using seven different viscosities of white oil and tap water as liquid phases. Results showed that both oil viscosity and input oil fraction exert a remarkable effect on measured results, especially when the viscosity of oil phase remained in the area of high value. In addition, for metering mixture flow rate using turbine flow-meter, the results are not sensitive to two-phase flow pattern according to the experimental data.

  10. Conduct disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, J.K.; Smeets, K.C.; Herpers, P.; Scheepers, F.; Glennon, J.; Rommelse, N.N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic

  11. Two-Phase Quality/Flow Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerk, J. Steven (Inventor); Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Werlink, Rudy J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A quality and/or flow meter employs a capacitance probe assembly for measuring the dielectric constant of flow stream, particularly a two-phase flow stream including liquid and gas components.ne dielectric constant of the flow stream varies depending upon the volume ratios of its liquid and gas components, and capacitance measurements can therefore be employed to calculate the quality of the flow, which is defined as the volume ratio of liquid in the flow to the total volume ratio of gas and liquid in the flow. By using two spaced capacitance sensors, and cross-correlating the time varying capacitance values of each, the velocity of the flow stream can also be determined. A microcontroller-based processing circuit is employed to measure the capacitance of the probe sensors.The circuit employs high speed timer and counter circuits to provide a high resolution measurement of the time interval required to charge each capacitor in the probe assembly. In this manner, a high resolution, noise resistant, digital representation of each of capacitance value is obtained without the need for a high resolution A/D converter, or a high frequency oscillator circuit. One embodiment of the probe assembly employs a capacitor with two ground plates which provide symmetry to insure that accurate measurements are made thereby.

  12. REM meter for pulsed sources of neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorngate, J.E.; Hunt, G.F.; Rueppel, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    A rem meter was constructed specifically for measuring neutrons produced by fusion experiments for which the source pulses last 10 ms or longer. The detector is a 6 Li glass scintillator, 25.4 mm in diameter and 3.2 mm thick, surrounded by 11.5 cm of polyethylene. This detector has a sensitivity of 8.5 x 10 4 counts/mrem. The signals from this fast scintillator are shaped using a shorted delay line to produce pulses that are only 10 ns long so that dose equivalent rates up to 12 mrem/s can be measured with less than a 1% counting loss. The associated electronic circuits store detector counts only when the count rate exceeds a preset level. When the count rate returns to background, a conversion from counts to dose equivalent is made and the results are displayed. As a means of recording the number of source pulses that have occurred, a second display shows how many times the preset count rate has been exceeded. Accumulation of detector counts and readouts can also be controlled manually. The unit will display the integrated dose equilavent up to 200 mrem in 0.01 mrem steps. A pulse-height discriminator rejects gamma-ray interactions below 1 MeV, and the detector size limits the response above that energy. The instrument can be operated from an ac line or will run on rechargeable batteries for up to 12 hours

  13. Development of a CONTOUR-METER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrada Contardi, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    Dose calculation in patients undergoing radiotherapy treatments requires the knowledge of their anatomical geometry.Making reference to the specific case of breast cancer, one of the measurement that are made on the patients is the acquisition of the breast's contour, determined in an axial plane from a point marked on the breastbone until another point marked on the thorax side under the armpit.This measurement is normally made with a mechanic contour-meter: a device formed by a series of plastic-covered wires designed to be applied on the patient's skin copying the breast contour after it deformation.The geometrical error associated with this procedure is ± 1 cm. The precision of the dose calculation could be increased acquiring a breast contour more accurate.This objective was achieved developing a method based on breast images from a digital camera.The algorithms to obtain an axial-plane image of the contour from digital photographs taken from arbitrary positions were developed.A geometric transformation is applied to the photograph to correct for perspective distortions, obtaining a frontal - undistorted image (axial-plane image).A software tool to make all the image processing was developed under MatLab.The maximum geometrical error detected during the validation of the process was 2 mm [es

  14. Measuring methods in power metering 2013; Elektrizitaetsmesstechnik 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahmann, Martin; Zayer, Peter (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    The book addresses technical and economic issues of power metering, data communication and data processing. Smart metering is the key issue discussed in all 14 contributions: 1. The perspective of Smart Metering in Europe through 2020; 2. Introduction of Smart Metering in Austria; 3. Metering after the amended EnWG 2011; 4. The FNN project ''MessSystem 2020''; 5. Technological requirements of Smart Grid and Smart Market; 6. DIN Spec 33440 ''Ergonomic Aspects of Smart Grids and Electromobility''; 7. Load management as a key element of energy transition; 8. Added value in Smart Metering as a result of Smart Home applications, 9. The main cost factors of the new metering systems; 10. BSI protection profile: Smart Meter Gateway certification; 11. The influence of new boundary conditions in metering on intercompany processes; 12. Reliable time allotment via internet; 13. Recommendations of the EEG Clearing Authority on metering problems; 14. Outline quality management manual for state-authorized test services for electric power, gas, water, and heat. [German] Dieses Buch richtet seinen Blick sowohl auf technische wie auch auf energiewirtschaftliche Themen rund um das Thema Mess- und Zaehltechnik sowie die inzwischen immer bedeutsamer werdende zugehoerige Datenkommunikations- und Datenverarbeitungstechnik. Eine zunehmende Betrachtung des Smart Metering als einen Teilaspekt des grossen Themas Smart Grid bildet die gemeinsame Klammer um die Beitraege. Die Themen der 14 Beitraege sind: 1. Perspektive Smart Metering in Europa bis 2020; 2. Smart-Meter-Einfuehrung in Oesterreich; 3. Das Messwesen nach der EnWG-Novelle 2011; 4. Das FNN-Projekt ''MessSystem 2020''; 5. Anforderungen durch Smart Grid und Smart Market an die intelligente Messtechnik; 6. DIN Spec 33440 ''Ergonomie-Aspekte zu Smart Grid und Elektromobilitaet''; 7. Lastverschiebung als Baustein der Energiewende; 8. Mehrwerte beim Smart

  15. TaS2 nanosheet-based room-temperature dosage meter for nitric oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiyuan He

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A miniature dosage meter for toxic gas is developed based on TaS2 nanosheets, which is capable of indicating the toxic dosage of trace level NO at room temperature. The TaS2 film-based chemiresistor shows an irreversible current response against the exposure of NO. The unique non-recovery characteristic makes the TaS2 film-based device an ideal indicator of total dosage of chronicle exposure.

  16. Analysis of aquifer tests conducted in borehole USW G-2, 1996, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, G.M.

    1998-01-01

    Borehole USW G-2 is located north of Yucca Mountain in a large-hydraulic-gradient area. Two single-borehole aquifer tests were conducted in the borehole during 1996. A 54.9-hour pumping period was conducted February 6--8, 1996, and a 408-hour pumping period was conducted April 8--25, 1996. The purpose of testing was to obtain estimates of the aquifer-system transmissivity and to determine if perched water was affecting the observed water level in borehole USW G-2. This report presents and analyzes data collected between February 6 and December 17, 1996. Analysis of the aquifer-test data indicated that fracture flow, dual-porosity flow, and boundary-affected flow conditions were observed in the drawdown and recovery data. Transmissivity estimates ranged from 2.3 to 12 meters squared per day. The most representative transmissivity estimate for the interval tested is the early-time mean transmissivity of 9.4 meters squared per day. The Calico Hills Formation was the primary formation tested, but the top 3 meters of the nonpumping water column was within the overlying Topopah Spring Tuff. Persistent residual drawdown following pumping more than 6 million liters of water during aquifer testing may indicate that the bore-hole intersected a perched water body. After 236 days of recovery, residual drawdown was 0.5 meter. The quantitative effect of the perched water on the observed water level in borehole USW G-2, however, cannot be determined with the available data

  17. Empirical Productivity Indices and Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Balk (Bert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe empirical measurement of productivity change (or difference) by means of indices and indicators starts with the ex post profit/loss accounts of a production unit. Key concepts are profit, leading to indicators, and profitability, leading to indices. The main task for the productivity

  18. Development of a novel vortex flow meter for downhole use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiferli, W.; Cheng, L.K.

    2008-01-01

    Due to the increasing complexity of oil and gas wells, the demand for instrumentation to measure conditions inside well tubing below the surface is growing rapidly. A robust meter was designed to measure liquid flows at downhole conditions. The meter is based on a specially-designed bluff body to

  19. Analysis of a quantum nondemolition speed-meter interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdue, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    In the quest to develop viable designs for third-generation optical interferometric gravitational-wave detectors (e.g. LIGO-III and EURO), one strategy is to monitor the relative momentum or speed of the test-mass mirrors rather than monitoring their relative position. This paper describes and analyzes the most straightforward design for a speed meter interferometer that accomplishes this--a design (due to Braginsky, Gorodetsky, Khalili and Thorne) that is analogous to a microwave-cavity speed meter conceived by Braginsky and Khalili. A mathematical mapping between the microwave speed meter and the optical interferometric speed meter is developed and is used to show [in accord with the speed being a quantum nondemolition observable] that in principle the interferometric speed meter can beat the gravitational-wave standard quantum limit (SQL) by an arbitrarily large amount, over an arbitrarily wide range of frequencies, and can do so without the use of squeezed vacuum or any auxiliary filter cavities at the interferometer's input or output. However, in practice, to reach or beat the SQL, this specific speed meter requires exorbitantly high input light power. The physical reason for this is explored, along with other issues such as constraints on performance due to optical dissipation. This analysis forms a foundation for ongoing attempts to develop a more practical variant of an interferometric speed meter and to combine the speed meter concept with other ideas to yield a promising LIGO-III/EURO interferometer design that entails low laser power

  20. Investigating water meter performance in developing countries: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High levels of water losses in distribution systems are the main challenge that water utilities in developing countries currently face. The water meter is an essential tool for both the utility and the customers to measure and monitor consumption. When metering is inefficient and coupled with low tariffs, the financial ...

  1. The Solar Energy Trifecta: Solar + Storage + Net Metering | State, Local,

    Science.gov (United States)

    and Tribal Governments | NREL The Solar Energy Trifecta: Solar + Storage + Net Metering The Solar Energy Trifecta: Solar + Storage + Net Metering February 12, 2018 by Benjamin Mow Massachusetts (DPU) seeking an advisory ruling on the eligibility of pairing solar-plus-storage systems with current

  2. 40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the following cases, you may use a raw exhaust flow meter signal that does not give the actual value... dew and pressure, p total at the flow meter inlet. Use these values in emission calculations according... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.230 Raw exhaust...

  3. Justification of the Utility of Introducing Smart Meters in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunickis M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Automatic data reading from smart meters is being developed in many parts of the world, including Latvia. The key drivers for that are developments of smart technologies and economic benefits for consumers. Deployment of smart meters could be launched in a massive scale.

  4. Construction and calibration of high time resolution gas pressure meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, J.O.; Santos, C.; Ueda, M.

    1989-11-01

    In this report, the construction and calibration of a gas pressure meter with a time resolution better than 20 μs are described. The meter consists basically of a sensor of the FIG (Fast Ionization Gauge) type and an adequate electronic circuit. A 6AU6A pentode vacuum tube without the glass envelope is used as the sensor head. (author) [pt

  5. A wireless mesh communication protocol for smart-metering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, D.J.M.; Kempen, van G.M.P.; Hoogstraten, van F.; Liotta, A.

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide there has been increasing interest over the past few years for so-called "Smart Meters", in academia, governments and in industry. Such smart-metering systems need a way to communicate the collected data reliably and cost efficiently to the back-office for analysis. Several competing

  6. Performance of a Tilt Current Meter in the Surf Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Asger Bendix; Carstensen, Stefan; Christensen, Drude Fritzbøger

    2017-01-01

    Tilt Current Meters (TCM’s) are relatively simple and inexpensive instruments for measuring currents in rivers and inthe sea. Their low cost and easy deployment means that a relatively large number of TCM’s can be deployed comparedto more conventional current meters such as Acoustic Doppler...

  7. 40 CFR 92.122 - Smoke meter calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoke meter calibration. 92.122 Section 92.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... meter calibration. The smokemeter shall be checked according to the following procedure prior to each...

  8. Designing remote web-based mechanical-volumetric flow meter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today, in water and wastewater industry a lot of mechanical-volumetric flow meters are used for the navigation of the produced water and the data of these flow meters, due to use in a wide geographical range, is done physically and by in person presence. All this makes reading the data costly and, in some cases, due to ...

  9. The accuracy of self monitoring blood glucose meter systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many patients were referred to Kololo polyclinic laboratory to have their blood glucose checked because the values obtained on the patients' glucose meter systems did not tally with familiar clinical signs and symptoms. This prompted an experimental set up to check glucose meter systems using a larger number of patients.

  10. Integration of auditory and tactile inputs in musical meter perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Gamble, Darik; Sarnlertsophon, Kristine; Wang, Xiaoqin; Hsiao, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Musicians often say that they not only hear but also "feel" music. To explore the contribution of tactile information to "feeling" music, we investigated the degree that auditory and tactile inputs are integrated in humans performing a musical meter-recognition task. Subjects discriminated between two types of sequences, "duple" (march-like rhythms) and "triple" (waltz-like rhythms), presented in three conditions: (1) unimodal inputs (auditory or tactile alone); (2) various combinations of bimodal inputs, where sequences were distributed between the auditory and tactile channels such that a single channel did not produce coherent meter percepts; and (3) bimodal inputs where the two channels contained congruent or incongruent meter cues. We first show that meter is perceived similarly well (70-85 %) when tactile or auditory cues are presented alone. We next show in the bimodal experiments that auditory and tactile cues are integrated to produce coherent meter percepts. Performance is high (70-90 %) when all of the metrically important notes are assigned to one channel and is reduced to 60 % when half of these notes are assigned to one channel. When the important notes are presented simultaneously to both channels, congruent cues enhance meter recognition (90 %). Performance dropped dramatically when subjects were presented with incongruent auditory cues (10 %), as opposed to incongruent tactile cues (60 %), demonstrating that auditory input dominates meter perception. These observations support the notion that meter perception is a cross-modal percept with tactile inputs underlying the perception of "feeling" music.

  11. Development and Testing of Infrared Water Current Meter | Ezenne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuous monitoring of the river flow is essential for assessing water availability. River flow velocity is crucial to simulate discharge hydrographs of water in the hydrological system.This study developed a digital water current meter with infrared. The infrared current meter was tested using Ebonyi River at Obollo-Etiti and ...

  12. Knowledge of spacer device, peak flow meter and inhaler technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Metered dose inhalers are cornerstone in effective management of bronchial asthma when correctly used. Most studies hitherto have focused on assessing patient's knowledge of inhaler technique. We sought to assess the knowledge of inhaler technique, spacer device and peak flow meter among doctors and ...

  13. Attacks and their Defenses for Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lighari, Sheeraz Niaz; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    The smart grid is the digitized, modernized, updated version of archaic traditional electric grid. Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is an imperative part of the smart grid. It has replaced legacy metering, as it reports the energy consumption to the utility automatically through communicati...

  14. 7 CFR 801.6 - Tolerances for moisture meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tolerances for moisture meters. 801.6 Section 801.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.6 Tolerances for moisture meters. (a) The maintenance tolerances...

  15. Measuring Neural Entrainment to Beat and Meter in Infants: Effects of Music Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirelli, Laura K.; Spinelli, Christina; Nozaradan, Sylvie; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2016-01-01

    Caregivers often engage in musical interactions with their infants. For example, parents across cultures sing lullabies and playsongs to their infants from birth. Behavioral studies indicate that infants not only extract beat information, but also group these beats into metrical hierarchies by as early as 6 months of age. However, it is not known how this is accomplished in the infant brain. An EEG frequency-tagging approach has been used successfully with adults to measure neural entrainment to auditory rhythms. The current study is the first to use this technique with infants in order to investigate how infants' brains encode rhythms. Furthermore, we examine how infant and parent music background is associated with individual differences in rhythm encoding. In Experiment 1, EEG was recorded while 7-month-old infants listened to an ambiguous rhythmic pattern that could be perceived to be in two different meters. In Experiment 2, EEG was recorded while 15-month-old infants listened to a rhythmic pattern with an unambiguous meter. In both age groups, information about music background (parent music training, infant music classes, hours of music listening) was collected. Both age groups showed clear EEG responses frequency-locked to the rhythms, at frequencies corresponding to both beat and meter. For the younger infants (Experiment 1), the amplitudes at duple meter frequencies were selectively enhanced for infants enrolled in music classes compared to those who had not engaged in such classes. For the older infants (Experiment 2), amplitudes at beat and meter frequencies were larger for infants with musically-trained compared to musically-untrained parents. These results suggest that the frequency-tagging method is sensitive to individual differences in beat and meter processing in infancy and could be used to track developmental changes. PMID:27252619

  16. A micro-controller based wide range survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhingare, R.R.; Bajaj, K.C.; Kannan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Wide range survey meters (1μSv/h -10 Sv/h) with the detector(s) mounted at the end of a two-to-four meter-long extendable tube are widely used for radiation protection survey of difficult to reach locations and high dose rate areas, The commercially available survey meters of this type use two GM counters to cover a wide range of dose rate measurement. A new micro-controller based wide range survey meter using two Si diode detectors has been developed. The use of solid state detectors in the survey meter has a number of advantages like low power consumption, lighter battery powered detector probe, elimination of high voltage for the operation of the detectors, etc. The design uses infrared communication between the probe and the readout unit through a light-weight collapsible extension tube for high reliability. The design details and features are discussed in detail. (author)

  17. Metering instrument of quality factor Q of gravitational wave antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia-yan, C.; Tong-ren, G.

    1982-01-01

    The quality factor, Q, of gravitational wave antenna depends on the material property as well as external conditions, such as temperature, residual pressure in vacuum tank, support type, additional loss from transducer on antenna, etc. In order to find out the relationship between the antenna Q and external conditions automatical operating in succession is required. The authors have designed and made a metering instrument for quality factor Q. The metering instrument of Q can measure Q of the metal cylinder and other bar of higher Q. It can give data of the measurement at regular intervals as desired. It can measure accurately the longitudinal fundamental mode frequency of the cylinder with a digital frequency meter record oscillating signal from metering instrument. Because the metering instrument excites free-vibration of the cylinder with free-running type and keep up the stationary amplitude for a long time. (Auth.)

  18. How Should Blood Glucose Meter System Analytical Performance Be Assessed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, David A

    2015-08-31

    Blood glucose meter system analytical performance is assessed by comparing pairs of meter system and reference instrument blood glucose measurements measured over time and across a broad array of glucose values. Consequently, no single, complete, and ideal parameter can fully describe the difference between meter system and reference results. Instead, a number of assessment tools, both graphical (eg, regression plots, modified Bland-Altman plots, and error grid analysis) and tabular (eg, International Organization for Standardization guidelines, mean absolute difference, and mean absolute relative difference) have been developed to evaluate meter system performance. The strengths and weaknesses of these methods of presenting meter system performance data, including a new method known as Radar Plots, are described here. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  19. Combining smart metering with successful marketing; Smart Metering mit erfolgreichem Marketing verbinden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckhardt, Sina [EVB Energie AG, Velbert (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Smart metering can be implemented in various ways. Apart from data transmission via powerline cables, also teletransmission via GPRS may be advantageous. A current project investigates both communication strategies which can also be used in parallel, especially by major utilities with the appropriate infrastructure. In the case of concrete implementation, it has been found that the communication with users must be clear in order to give them an idea of the advantages of the new technologies, and that an appropriate marketing strategy must be developed for successful rollout. (orig.)

  20. Conductivity Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took measurements in Martian soil and in the air. The needles on the end of the instrument were inserted into the Martian soil, allowing TECP to measure the propagation of both thermal and electrical energy. TECP also measured the humidity in the surrounding air. The needles on the probe are 15 millimeters (0.6 inch) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Blood glucose monitoring and glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: meter downloads versus self-report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Shanna M; Crimmins, Nancy A; Hood, Korey K

    2011-09-01

    Reported frequencies of blood glucose monitoring (BGM) by both adolescents and their caregivers serve as adherence proxies when meter downloads are not available. Yet, correlates of reported BGM frequencies and their predictive utility are understudied. To identify sociodemographic, psychological, and disease-specific correlates of reported BGM frequencies in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and to explore the predictive utility of BGM indices on glycemic control. Study participants included caregivers and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (N=143, 13-18 yr) receiving diabetes treatment at a tertiary care setting. At the initial visit, adolescents and caregivers reported on daily BGM frequencies. A sub-sample provided meter downloads. Adolescents also completed a depression inventory. Three months later, adolescents provided blood sampling for A1c assessment. Multivariate general linear modeling identified that older adolescent age and more depressive symptoms were associated with reports of less frequent BGM. Two stepwise multivariate regression models examined the predictive utility of BGM indices (i.e., adolescent-reported BGM, caregiver-reported BGM, meter download) on glycemic control. Caregiver-reported BGM frequency predicted glycemic control in the absence of meter download data (pmeter download data were the most robust predictor of glycemic control (pMeter downloads have the most robust association with glycemic control when contextual variables are considered. Caregiver-reported BGM frequencies can serve as reliable substitutes in the absence of meter download, but they may not be as reliable in adolescents with depressive symptoms. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Musical Meter Modulates the Allocation of Attention across Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzroy, Ahren B; Sanders, Lisa D

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic attending theory predicts that attention is allocated hierarchically across time during processing of hierarchical rhythmic structures such as musical meter. ERP research demonstrates that attention to a moment in time modulates early auditory processing as evidenced by the amplitude of the first negative peak (N1) approximately 100 msec after sound onset. ERPs elicited by tones presented at times of high and low metric strength in short melodies were compared to test the hypothesis that hierarchically structured rhythms direct attention in a manner that modulates early perceptual processing. A more negative N1 was observed for metrically strong beats compared with metrically weak beats; this result provides electrophysiological evidence that hierarchical rhythms direct attention to metrically strong times during engaged listening. The N1 effect was observed only on fast tempo trials, suggesting that listeners more consistently invoke selective processing based on hierarchical rhythms when sounds are presented rapidly. The N1 effect was not modulated by musical expertise, indicating that the allocation of attention to metrically strong times is not dependent on extensive training. Additionally, changes in P2 amplitude and a late negativity were associated with metric strength under some conditions, indicating that multiple cognitive processes are associated with metric perception.

  3. EU data protection and smart metering. Legal boundary conditions; EU-Datenschutz und Smart Metering. Rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hladjk, Joerg [Praxisgruppe European Data Protection and Privacy, Hunton and Williams, Bruessel (Belgium)

    2011-07-01

    With the introduction of smart metering, the problem of data protection arises. The independent Article 29 Data Protection Group of the European Commission drew up an expert opinion with the intention of explaining the applicable EU data protection regulations for the smart metering technology in the power supply sector. (orig.)

  4. Laser power meters as an X-ray power diagnostic for LCLS-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, Philip; Moeller, Stefan; Carbajo, Sergio; Song, Sanghoon; Dakovski, Georgi; Nordlund, Dennis; Fritz, David

    2018-01-01

    For the LCLS-II X-ray instruments, laser power meters are being developed as compact X-ray power diagnostics to operate at soft and tender X-ray photon energies. These diagnostics can be installed at various locations along an X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) beamline in order to monitor the transmission of X-ray optics along the beam path. In addition, the power meters will be used to determine the absolute X-ray power at the endstations. Here, thermopile power meters, which measure average power, and have been chosen primarily for their compatibility with the high repetition rates at LCLS-II, are evaluated. A number of characteristics in the soft X-ray range are presented including linearity, calibrations conducted with a photodiode and a gas monitor detector as well as ultra-high-vacuum compatibility tests using residual gas analysis. The application of these power meters for LCLS-II and other X-ray FEL sources is discussed.

  5. Primary flow meter for calibrating a sniffer test leak artefact by a pressure rise method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Kenta; Yoshida, Hajime

    2014-10-01

    Sniffer tests are used to locate leaks in equipment during operation. The sensitivity of a sniffer leak detector must be calibrated against a known gas flow to atmospheric pressure generated by a sniffer test leak artefact. We have developed a primary flow meter for calibrating gas flows to atmospheric pressure through the leak artefact. The flow meter is based on a pressure rise method and two chambers are used to measure the pressure rise with small uncertainty even at atmospheric pressure. The calibration range of the flow rate is 5 × 10-7 Pa m3 s-1 to 7 × 10-4 Pa m3 s-1 to atmospheric pressure at 23.0 °C with a minimum uncertainty of 1.4% (k = 2), as well as 4 × 10-8 Pa m3 s-1 to 5 × 10-4 Pa m3 s-1 to a vacuum at 23.0 °C. The long term stability of the flow meter was determined as 0.41% by repeated measurements of the conductance of the leak artefact. In case of the flow rate into a vacuum, the flow meter was successfully linked to the international reference value of CCM.P-K12 by a lab-internal comparison.

  6. Structured Literature Review of Electricity Consumption Classification Using Smart Meter Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Martin Tureczek

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Smart meters for measuring electricity consumption are fast becoming prevalent in households. The meters measure consumption on a very fine scale, usually on a 15 min basis, and the data give unprecedented granularity of consumption patterns at household level. A multitude of papers have emerged utilizing smart meter data for deepening our knowledge of consumption patterns. This paper applies a modification of Okoli’s method for conducting structured literature reviews to generate an overview of research in electricity customer classification using smart meter data. The process assessed 2099 papers before identifying 34 significant papers, and highlights three key points: prominent methods, datasets and application. Three important findings are outlined. First, only a few papers contemplate future applications of the classification, rendering papers relevant only in a classification setting. Second; the encountered classification methods do not consider correlation or time series analysis when classifying. The identified papers fail to thoroughly analyze the statistical properties of the data, investigations that could potentially improve classification performance. Third, the description of the data utilized is of varying quality, with only 50% acknowledging missing values impact on the final sample size. A data description score for assessing the quality in data description has been developed and applied to all papers reviewed.

  7. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  8. Waste indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  9. Quality indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth-Andersen, Christian

    1991-01-01

    In recent literature it has been suggested that consumers need have no knowledge of product quality as a number of quality indicators (or signals) may be used as substitutes. Very little attention has been paid to the empirical verification of these studies. The present paper is devoted...... to the issue of how well these indicators perform, using market data provided by consumer magazines from 3 countries. The results strongly indicate that price is a poor quality indicator. The paper also presents some evidence which suggests that seller reputation and easily observable characteristics are also...

  10. A MEMS Electrochemical Bellows Actuator for Fluid Metering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheybani, Roya; Gensler, Heidi; Meng, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    We present a high efficiency wireless MEMS electrochemical bellows actuator capable of rapid and repeatable delivery of boluses for fluid metering and drug delivery applications. Nafion®-coated Pt electrodes were combined with Parylene bellows filled with DI water to form the electrolysis-based actuator. The performance of actuators with several bellows configurations was compared for a range of applied currents (1-10 mA). Up to 75 boluses were delivered with an average pumping flow rate of 114.40 ± 1.63 μL/min. Recombination of gases into water, an important factor in repeatable and reliable actuation, was studied for uncoated and Nafion®-coated actuators. Real-time pressure measurements were conducted and the effects of temperature, physiological back pressure, and drug viscosity on delivery performance were investigated. Lastly, we present wireless powering of the actuator using a class D inductive powering system that allowed for repeatable delivery with less than 2% variation in flow rate values. PMID:22833156

  11. Design and Implementation of Enhanced Smart Energy Metering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oday A.L.A Ridha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the design and implementation of a smart energy metering system has been developed. This system consists of two parts: billing center and a set of distributed smart energy meters. The function of smart energy meter is measuring and calculating the cost of consumed energy according to a multi-tariff scheme. This can be effectively solving the problem of stressing the electrical grid and rising consumer awareness. Moreover, smart energy meter decreases technical losses by improving power factor. The function of the billing center is to issue a consumer bill and contributes in locating the irregularities on the electrical grid (non-technical losses. Moreover, it sends the switch off command in case of the consumer bill is not paid. For implementation of smart energy meter, the microcontroller (PIC 18F45K22 is used. For communication between billing center and smart energy meters, ZigBee technology is adopted. The necessary program for smart energy meter is written in MicroC PRO, while the program for billing center is written in visual C#.

  12. General indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document summarizes the main 2002 energy indicators for France. A first table lists the evolution of general indicators between 1973 and 2002: energy bill, price of imported crude oil, energy independence, primary and final energy consumption. The main 2002 results are detailed separately for natural gas, petroleum and coal (consumption, imports, exports, production, stocks, prices). (J.S.)

  13. Physical requirements for measurement of radiation dose and their relationship to personnel dose meter design and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, G.E. Jr.; Jimenez, M.A.; Skrable, K.W.

    1978-01-01

    This paper stems from the concerns of the authors with both the design of current personnel dose meters and the interpretation of dose information from them in light of the actual physical requirements to measure dose. These concerns have been reinforced and extended following a comparative study of the responses of particular TLD and film systems and as the result of a recent national survey on personnel dosimetry conducted by the authors. Among the major points discussed are the systems available for penetrating and shallow dose assessment, dose meter calibration, the measurement and interpretation of skin dose, and the deficiencies of neutron albedo dose meters for routine personnel use. Calibration considerations address the questions of whether or not a phantom should be used and the difference in interpretation of responses with and without a phantom; the relationship between calculated and measured doses; and electronic equilibrium considerations in the measurement of photon doses. Matters of importance in relation to skin dose measurement include techniques in use to interpret skin dose from dose meter response; the appropriateness of evaluation of the surface dose to the live skin layer versus the average dose to the live skin layer and the limitations and requirements on dose meter design with respect to the dose being evaluated; and the significance of dose meter response in relationship to currently used beta calibration standards. Regarding the use of TLD albedo type neutron dose meters currently available, considerations are extended to the strong energy spectral dependence of the dose meter response and the possibility of making significant over or underestimations of neutron dose equivalent, depending on the calibration techniques used and the spectral quality encountered. (author)

  14. Liquid ultrasonic flow meters for crude oil measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalivoda, Raymond J.; Lunde, Per

    2005-07-01

    Liquid ultrasonic flow meters (LUFMs) are gaining popularity for the accurate measurement of petroleum products. In North America the first edition of the API standard ''Measurement of liquid hydrocarbons by ultrasonic flow meters using transit time technology'' was issued in February 2005. It addresses both refined petroleum products and crude oil applications. Its field of application is mainly custody transfer applications but it does provide general guidelines for the installation and operation of LUFM's other applications such as allocation, check meters and leak detection. As with all new technologies performance claims are at times exaggerated or misunderstood and application knowledge is limited. Since ultrasonic meters have no moving parts they appear to have fewer limitations than other liquid flow meters. Liquids ultrasonic flow meters, like turbine meters, are sensitive to fluid properties. It is increasingly more difficult to apply on high viscosity products then on lighter hydrocarbon products. Therefore application data or experience on the measurement of refined or light crude oil may not necessarily be transferred to measuring medium to heavy crude oils. Before better and more quantitative knowledge is available on how LUFMs react on different fluids, the arguments advocating reduced need for in-situ proving and increased dependency on laboratory flow calibration (e.g. using water instead of hydrocarbons) may be questionable. The present paper explores the accurate measurement of crude oil with liquid ultrasonic meters. It defines the unique characteristics of the different API grades of crude oils and how they can affect the accuracy of the liquid ultrasonic measurement. Flow testing results using a new LUFM design are discussed. The paper is intended to provide increased insight into the potentials and limitations of crude oil measurement using ultrasonic flow meters. (author) (tk)

  15. Metering: EU policy and implications for fuel poor households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    Fuel poverty is a function of household energy consumption, income, and the cost of delivered energy. The paper discusses ways in which current EU policy on the development of ‘smart’ metering could affect fuel poor households. The main focus is on developments in electricity metering and the development of ‘active demand’ and smart grids, so that demand can be matched closely with available supply. Advances in metering and related technologies open the way to time-of-use charging, easier switching between suppliers and between credit payment and prepayment, direct load control of some end-uses by the utility, greater scope for microgeneration, and improved consumption feedback for customers. These options open up both uncertainties and risks. The paper offers definitions and discussion of various functions of smart metering, summarizes the EU policy background, and considers some possible equity implications of rolling out a new generation of meters. There follows an assessment of potential implications to the fuel poor of changes to metering, based on a review of the literature on energy feedback, tariffing, and supplier–customer relationships. Much of the discussion is based on the UK experience, with examples from other EU member states and, where appropriate, from other parts of the world. - Highlights: ► Smart meters are part of general upgrading of electricity and gas networks. ► EU policy is to roll out the meters to 80%+ of the population by 2020. ► Improved feedback and prepayment metering may benefit the fuel poor. ► Remote disconnection and data privacy are issues for all consumers. ► We need careful assessment of potential gains and losses to the fuel poor.

  16. Conduct disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitelaar, Jan K; Smeets, Kirsten C; Herpers, Pierre; Scheepers, Floor; Glennon, Jeffrey; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-02-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to CD in the light of the forthcoming DSM-5 definition. The diagnostic criteria for CD will remain unchanged in DSM-5, but the introduction of a specifier of CD with a callous-unemotional (CU) presentation is new. Linked to this, we discuss the pros and cons of various other ways to subtype aggression/CD symptoms. Existing guidelines for CD are, with few exceptions, already of a relatively older date and emphasize that clinical assessment should be systematic and comprehensive and based on a multi-informant approach. Non-medical psychosocial interventions are recommended as the first option for the treatment of CD. There is a role for medication in the treatment of comorbid syndromes and/or in case of insufficient response to psychosocial interventions and severe and dangerous aggressive and violent behaviours.

  17. Hybrid TLC-pair meter for the Sphinx Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, T.; Yamamoto, I.; Takahashi, N.; Misaki, A.

    1985-01-01

    The chief aims in THE SPHINX PROJECT are research of super lepton physics and new detector experiments. At the second phase of THE SPHINX PROJECT, a hybrid TLC-PAIR METER was designed for measuring high energy neutrino sources (E upsilon * TeV), searching high energy muon sources (E mu TeV) and measuring muon group (E mu 1 TeV). The principle of PAIR METER has been already proposed. In this TLC-PAIR METER, electromagnetic shower induced by cosmic ray muons are detected using TL (Thermoluminescence) sheets with position counters.

  18. Hybrid TLC-pair meter for the Sphinx Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, T.; Yamamoto, I.; Takahashi, N.; Misaki, A.

    1985-01-01

    The chief aims in the Sphinx Project are research on super lepton physics and new detector experiments. In the second phase of the Sphinx Project, a hybrid TLC-pair meter was designed for measuring for high energy neutrino sources (E upsilon * TeV), searching high energy muon sources (E mu TeV), and measuring muon groups (E mu 1 TeV). The principle of the pair meter has been already proposed. In this TLC pair meter, electromagnetic showers induced by cosmic ray muons are detected using thermoluminescene sheets with position counters

  19. Advanced digital counting rate meter for gamma ray logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, S.; Meenakshi Sundari, A.; Rai, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    A compact, hand held controller based Advanced Digital Count Rate Meter (ADCRM) as a replacement of bulky Count Rate (analog) Meters (SBL-2A) was designed, developed and fabricated to carry out Gamma-Ray borehole logging with Geiger Muller (GM) tubes and Scintillation (SC) detectors. In the hardware the functionality of analog meter simulation, digital counting of gamma events and auto reference adjustment to use different length of armour cable winches were implemented. The in-built software evaluates grade in ppm and at the end of logging, the reports are prepared automatically. ADCRM was developed in-house to assist the uranium mineral exploration in AMD. (author)

  20. A new kind high-reliability digital reactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Feng; Jiang Zongbing

    2001-01-01

    The paper introduces a new kind of high-reliability Digital Reactivity Meter developed by the DRM developing group in designing department of Nuclear Power Institute of China. The meter has two independent measure channels, which can be set as either master-slave structure or working independently. This structure will ensure that the meter can continually fulfill its online measure task under the condition of single failure with it. It provides a solution for the conflict between nuclear station's extreme demand in DRM's reliability and instability of computer's business software platform. The instrument reaches both advance and reliability by covering a lot of kinds of complex functions in data process and display

  1. Topology-Based Estimation of Missing Smart Meter Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Kodaira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart meters often fail to measure or transmit the data they record when measuring energy consumption, known as meter readings, owing to faulty measuring equipment or unreliable communication modules. Existing studies do not address successive and non-periodical missing meter readings. This paper proposes a method whereby missing readings observed at a node are estimated by using circuit theory principles that leverage the voltage and current data from adjacent nodes. A case study is used to demonstrate the ability of the proposed method to successfully estimate the missing readings over an entire day during which outages and unpredictable perturbations occurred.

  2. Federal metering data analysis needs and existing tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Jordan W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fowler, Kimberly M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Agencies have been working to improve their metering data collection, management, and analysis efforts over the last decade (since EPAct 2005) and will continue to address these challenges as new requirements and data needs come into place. Unfortunately there is no “one-size-fits-all” solution. As agencies continue to expand their capabilities to use metered consumption data to reducing resource use and improve operations, the hope is that shared knowledge will empower others to follow suit. This paper discusses the Federal metering data analysis needs and some existing tools.

  3. Deducing Energy Consumer Behavior from Smart Meter Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebeid, Emad Samuel Malki; Heick, Rune; Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg

    2017-01-01

    The ongoing upgrade of electricity meters to smart ones has opened a new market of intelligent services to analyze the recorded meter data. This paper introduces an open architecture and a unified framework for deducing user behavior from its smart main electricity meter data and presenting...... the results in a natural language. The framework allows a fast exploration and integration of a variety of machine learning algorithms combined with data recovery mechanisms for improving the recognition’s accuracy. Consequently, the framework generates natural language reports of the user’s behavior from...

  4. Technique of Hurdle Clearing in 400 Meters Hurdles (Study Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Jakoubek, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Title: Technique of Hurdle Clearing in 400 Meters Hurdles (Study Review) Authors: Jiří Jakoubek Supervisor: PhDr. Aleš Kaplan, Ph.D. Aims: The aim of this thesis is to describe technique of hurdle clearing in 400 meters hurdle race using study review and to examine this technique at particular athlete during training and racing sessions in 400 meters hurdles race. Methods: Technique was compared and examined at young athlete. Two kinograms were used for analysis, one from training and one fro...

  5. Technique of Hurdle Clearing in 400 Meters Hurdles

    OpenAIRE

    Jakoubek, Jiří

    2018-01-01

    Title: Technique of Hurdle Clearing in 400 Meters Hurdles Authors: Jiří Jakoubek Supervisor: PhDr. Aleš Kaplan, Ph.D. Aims: The aim of this thesis is to describe technique of hurdle clearing in 400 meters hurdle race using study review and to examine this technique at particular athlete during training and racing sessions in 400 meters hurdles race. Methods: Technique was compared and examined at young athlete. Two kinograms were used for analysis, one from training and one from racing sessio...

  6. Simple Assessment of Nitrogen Nutrition Index in Summer Maize by Using Chlorophyll Meter Readings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ben; Ata-Ul-Karim, Syed Tahir; Liu, Zhandong; Zhang, Jiyang; Xiao, Junfu; Liu, Zugui; Qin, Anzhen; Ning, Dongfeng; Yang, Qiuxia; Zhang, Yonghui; Duan, Aiwang

    2018-01-01

    Rapid and non-destructive diagnostic tools to accurately assess crop nitrogen nutrition index (NNI) are imperative for improving crop nitrogen (N) diagnosis and sustaining crop production. This study was aimed to develop the relationships among NNI, leaf N gradient, chlorophyll meter (CM) readings gradient, and positional differences chlorophyll meter index [PDCMI, the ratio of CM readings between different leaf layers (LLs) of crop canopy] and to validate the accuracy and stability of these relationships across the different LLs, years, sites, and cultivars. Six multi-N rates (0-320 kg ha -1 ) field experiments were conducted with four summer maize cultivars (Zhengdan958, Denghai605, Xundan20, and Denghai661) at two different sites located in China. Six summer maize plants per plot were harvested at each sampling stage to assess NNI, leaf N concentration and CM readings of different LLs during the vegetative growth period. The results showed that the leaf N gradient, CM readings gradient and PDCMI of different LLs decreased, while the NNI values increased with increasing N supply. The leaf N gradient and CM readings gradient increased gradually from top to bottom of the canopy and CM readings of the bottom LL were more sensitive to changes in plant N concentration. The significantly positive relationship between NNI and CM readings of different LLs ( LL 1 to LL 3) was observed, yet these relationships varied across the years. In contrast, the relationships between NNI and PDCMI of different LLs ( LL 1 to LL 3) were significantly negative. The strongest relationship between PDCMI and NNI which was stable across the cultivars and years was observed for PDCMI1-3 (NNI = -5.74 × PDCMI1-3+1.5, R 2 = 0.76 ** ). Additionally, the models developed in this study were validated with the data acquired from two independent experiments to assess their accuracy of prediction. The root mean square error value of 0.1 indicated that the most accurate and robust relationship was

  7. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF THE POTENTIAL REPOSITORY HORIZON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.E. BEAN

    2004-09-27

    The primary purpose of this report is to assess the spatial variability and uncertainty of bulk thermal conductivity in the host horizon for the repository at Yucca Mountain. More specifically, the lithostratigraphic units studied are located within the Topopah Spring Tuff (Tpt) and consist of the upper lithophysal zone (Tptpul), the middle nonlithophysal zone (Tptpmn), the lower lithophysal zone (Tptpll), and the lower nonlithophysal zone (Tptpln). Design plans indicate that approximately 81 percent of the repository will be excavated in the Tptpll, approximately 12 percent in the Tptpmn, and the remainder in the Tptul and Tptpln (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168370]). This report provides three-dimensional geostatistical estimates of the bulk thermal conductivity for the four stratigraphic layers of the repository horizon. The three-dimensional geostatistical estimates of matrix and lithophysal porosity, dry bulk density, and matrix thermal conductivity are also provided. This report provides input to various models and calculations that simulate heat transport through the rock mass. These models include the ''Drift Degradation Analysis, Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model, Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms, Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'', and ''Drift Scale THM Model''. These models directly or indirectly provide input to the total system performance assessment (TSPA). The main distinguishing characteristic among the lithophysal and nonlithophysal units is the percentage of large-scale (centimeters-meters) voids within the rock. The Tptpul and Tptpll, as their names suggest, have a higher percentage of lithophysae than the Tptpmn and the Tptpln. Understanding the influence of the lithophysae is of great importance to understanding bulk thermal conductivity.

  8. NOHSS Child Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Data for School year-end 1994 through year-end 2016. State oral health surveys are the data sources for these indicators. States periodically conduct independent...

  9. NOHSS Child Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Data for School year-end 1994 through year-end 2017. State oral health surveys are the data sources for these indicators. States periodically conduct independent...

  10. Solar Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  11. 40 CFR 1065.245 - Sample flow meter for batch sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample flow meter for batch sampling... Sample flow meter for batch sampling. (a) Application. Use a sample flow meter to determine sample flow... difference between a diluted exhaust sample flow meter and a dilution air meter to calculate raw exhaust flow...

  12. A review of neutron scattering correction for the calibration of neutron survey meters using the shadow cone method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang In; Kim, Bong Hwan; Kim, Jang Lyul; Lee, Jung Il [Health Physics Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The calibration methods of neutron-measuring devices such as the neutron survey meter have advantages and disadvantages. To compare the calibration factors obtained by the shadow cone method and semi-empirical method, 10 neutron survey meters of five different types were used in this study. This experiment was performed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI; Daejeon, South Korea), and the calibration neutron fields were constructed using a {sup 252}Californium ({sup 252}Cf) neutron source, which was positioned in the center of the neutron irradiation room. The neutron spectra of the calibration neutron fields were measured by a europium-activated lithium iodide scintillator in combination with KAERI's Bonner sphere system. When the shadow cone method was used, 10 single moderator-based survey meters exhibited a smaller calibration factor by as much as 3.1 - 9.3% than that of the semi-empirical method. This finding indicates that neutron survey meters underestimated the scattered neutrons and attenuated neutrons (i.e., the total scatter corrections). This underestimation of the calibration factor was attributed to the fact that single moderator-based survey meters have an under-ambient dose equivalent response in the thermal or thermal-dominant neutron field. As a result, when the shadow cone method is used for a single moderator-based survey meter, an additional correction and the International Organization for Standardization standard 8529-2 for room-scattered neutrons should be considered.

  13. A review of neutron scattering correction for the calibration of neutron survey meters using the shadow cone method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang In; Kim, Bong Hwan; Kim, Jang Lyul; Lee, Jung Il

    2015-01-01

    The calibration methods of neutron-measuring devices such as the neutron survey meter have advantages and disadvantages. To compare the calibration factors obtained by the shadow cone method and semi-empirical method, 10 neutron survey meters of five different types were used in this study. This experiment was performed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI; Daejeon, South Korea), and the calibration neutron fields were constructed using a 252 Californium ( 252 Cf) neutron source, which was positioned in the center of the neutron irradiation room. The neutron spectra of the calibration neutron fields were measured by a europium-activated lithium iodide scintillator in combination with KAERI's Bonner sphere system. When the shadow cone method was used, 10 single moderator-based survey meters exhibited a smaller calibration factor by as much as 3.1 - 9.3% than that of the semi-empirical method. This finding indicates that neutron survey meters underestimated the scattered neutrons and attenuated neutrons (i.e., the total scatter corrections). This underestimation of the calibration factor was attributed to the fact that single moderator-based survey meters have an under-ambient dose equivalent response in the thermal or thermal-dominant neutron field. As a result, when the shadow cone method is used for a single moderator-based survey meter, an additional correction and the International Organization for Standardization standard 8529-2 for room-scattered neutrons should be considered

  14. The 3R-WL working level survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiager, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    The design and operation of a direct-reading sampler for airborne radon progeny are described. The instrument was designed for use by ventilation personnel in uranium mines and is small, rugged, light-weight and easily carried and operated. Direct readout of the radon progeny concentration in units of working levels, in the range 0.01 - 10 WL, is accomplished by counting the alpha particles from 218 Po and 214 Po with a single detector and two energy discrimination channels. Unique features include a fixed-volume, gravity-operated pump requiring no power source and minimal calibration; automatic delay, counting and display sequencing; capacity for more than 50 samples on a single roll of membrane filter; and provisions for recording all data directly on the filter tape. For the prototype as built, calibration against the 2-count alpha spectroscopy method of measuring WL indicated an average error of less than 1% in the range from 0.25 to 25 WL. However, the standard deviation of measurements made with the 3R-WL meter increased from 7% above 10 WL to 71% at 0.25 WL. Sources of error and variability are analyzed and suggestions for improving the precision of the measurements are included. (author)

  15. Evaluation of a point-of-care electrochemical meter to detect subclinical ketosis and hypoglycaemia in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakian, A; Tehrani-Sharif, M; Mokhber-Dezfouli, M R; Nouri, M; Constable, P D

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate and validate a hand-held electrochemical meter (Precision Xtra®) as a screening test for subclinical ketosis and hypoglycaemia in lactating dairy cattle. Method comparison study using a convenience sample. Blood samples were collected into plain tubes from the coccygeal vessels of 181 Holstein cows at 2-4 weeks of lactation during summer in Iran. Blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration (BHB) and glucose concentration were immediately measured by the electrochemical meter after applying 20 μL of blood to the reagent strip. Passing-Bablok regression and Bland-Altman plots were used to determine the accuracy of the meter against laboratory reference methods (BHB dehydrogenase and glucose oxidase). Serum BHB ranged from 0.1 to 7.3 mmol/L and serum glucose ranged from 0.9 to 5.1 mmol/L. Passing-Bablok regression analysis indicated that the electrochemical meter and reference methods were linearly related for BHB and glucose, with a slope estimate that was not significantly different from 1.00. Clinically minor, but statistically significant, differences were present for the intercept value for Passing-Bablok regression analysis for BHB and glucose, and bias estimates in the Bland-Altman plots for BHB and glucose. The electrochemical meter provided a clinically useful method to detect subclinical ketosis and hypoglycaemia in lactating dairy cows. Compared with other method validation studies using the meter, we attributed the improved performance of the electrochemical meter to application of a fixed volume of blood (20 μL) to the reagent strip, use of the meter in hot ambient conditions and use of glucose oxidase as the reference method for glucose analysis. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  16. Period meter output in response to terminated ramps of reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, J D [Dynamics Group, Control and Instrumentation Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1962-07-15

    The time behaviour of the period meter output has been determined for a range of total reactivity injections and reactivity rates. Some results which are directly applicable to graphite gas cooled reactors are given. (author)

  17. Chlorophyll meter for estimating nitrogen status of irrigated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schepers, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    Chlorophyll-meter readings, generated from the leaves of irrigated wheat at particular growth stages, were normalized to the data obtained with locally recommended rates of fertilizer N, in Chile China, India and Mexico. Normalizing permitted comparisons of crop-N status across growth stages, locations, cultivars, and years. Relative yields and meter readings at growth-stage Z-50 are presented; they revealed similar trends for India, China, and Chile, however, for Mexico, the combination of soil, wheat cultivar, and climate resulted in much less response to N fertilization in the meter data. The implications are discussed. The SPAD meter proved to be a good tool to monitor and evaluate the N status of irrigated wheat. (author)

  18. Electric Power Substitute Meter Management via Mobile Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson C. Rodelas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available EPSMvMA is composed of Digital Sub-Meter connected to different components namely the GSM module, Bluetooth module, Power Analyzer Module, LCD Module, Relay Module and Main Microcontroller module. The connection via Mobile is made possible by the modules mentioned. The software that the proponents will be dealing with in the study is C++ language, which will be used in programming the Main Microcontroller module and Visual Basic Language for the Android Phones. The Bluetooth module can access the Android Phones and connect to the digital sub-meter in a limited distance. The users will be at ease since a code embedded to the microcontroller will make the utility sub-meter produce the desired value of electricity (KWH and wherein the computed Sub-meter reading can be viewed through the LCD. This project is accommodating to those person that is always on the go and prudent.

  19. Smart Meter Data Analytics: Systems, Algorithms and Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Golab, Lukasz; Golab, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    the proposed benchmark using five representative platforms: a traditional numeric computing platform (Matlab), a relational DBMS with a built-in machine learning toolkit (PostgreSQL/MADlib), a main-memory column store (“System C”), and two distributed data processing platforms (Hive and Spark/Spark Streaming......Smart electricity meters have been replacing conventional meters worldwide, enabling automated collection of fine-grained (e.g., every 15 minutes or hourly) consumption data. A variety of smart meter analytics algorithms and applications have been proposed, mainly in the smart grid literature......-line feature extraction and model building as well a framework for on-line anomaly detection that we propose. Second, since obtaining real smart meter data is difficult due to privacy issues, we present an algorithm for generating large realistic data sets from a small seed of real data. Third, we implement...

  20. Tweeting : Smart meters raise awareness of energy consumption in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2009-11-15

    The University of Mississippi (UM) will monitor, analyze and report on energy consumption in its campus buildings in real-time using SmartSynch Smart Meters. The technology uses smart meter data to help identify a detailed pattern of electricity usage with the objective of finding methods to alter behaviour to reduce electricity usage and carbon emissions. SmartSynch installed 16 Smart Meters on campus with additional deployments being planned. The technology will enable the university to monitor energy consumption, track building power performance over time, compare building energy usage, and review the impact of the weather on energy use while reducing its carbon footprint. Additionally, UM will use Facebook, Twitter and an RSS feed to provide regular public updates on its buildings' energy consumption based on SmartSynch Smart Meter data. Each building will have its own profile on the social networking sites. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  1. Minnesota Digital Elevation Model - Tiled 93 Meter Resolution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) at a resolution of 93 meters. Original data resolution was 3 arc seconds which corresponds (approximately) to a matrix of points at a...

  2. an assessment of billing electricity consumers via analogue meters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. This paper assesses the perception of billing consumers via analogue meter in Kano Electricity ... the successor companies of Power Holding Company ... Nassarawa computer center was established in 1991. .... The value 7.2 is.

  3. Evaluating the student activity meter : two case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govaerts, S.; Verbert, K.; Duval, E.

    2011-01-01

    In the Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) domain, visualizations are attracting increased interest. In this paper, we present the Student Activity Meter that visualizes learner activities within online learning environments for learners and teachers to help increase awareness and to support

  4. Service-oriented advanced metering infrastructure for smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, S.; Lukkien, J.J.; Zhang, L.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) enables smart grids to involve power consumers in the business process of power generation transmission, distribution and consumption. However, the participant of consumers challenges the current power systems with system integration and cooperation and

  5. Service-oriented advanced metering infrastructure for smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, S.; Lukkien, J.J.; Zhang, L.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) enables smart grids to involve power consumers in the business process of power generation, transmission, distribution and consumption. However, the participant of consumers challenges the current power systems with system integration and cooperation and

  6. 49 CFR 192.353 - Customer meters and regulators: Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service... protected from corrosion and other damage, including, if installed outside a building, vehicular damage that...

  7. A Prediction-based Smart Meter Data Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Liu, Xiufeng; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen

    2016-01-01

    With the prevalence of cloud computing and In-ternet of Things (IoT), smart meters have become one of the main components of smart city strategy. Smart meters generate large amounts of fine-grained data that is used to provide useful information to consumers and utility companies for decision......, mainly due to privacy issues. This paper proposes a smart meter data generator that can generate realistic energy consumption data by making use of a small real-world dataset as seed. The generator generates data using a prediction-based method that depends on historical energy consumption patterns along......-making. Now-a-days, smart meter analytics systems consist of analytical algorithms that process massive amounts of data. These analytics algorithms require ample amounts of realistic data for testing and verification purposes. However, it is usually difficult to obtain adequate amounts of realistic data...

  8. Digital forensics issues in advanced metering infrastructure | Ibrahim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 10, No 6S (2018) > ... the architecture of telecommunications and energy infrastructure, along with Internet networks. Various ... A core component of the smart grid is advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), in which a utility ...

  9. Radiofrequency fields associated with the Itron smart meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, R A; Sias, G G; Vazquez, A; Sahl, J; Turman, J P; Kavet, R I; Mezei, G

    2012-08-01

    This study examined radiofrequency (RF) emissions from smart electric power meters deployed in two service territories in California for the purpose of evaluating potential human exposure. These meters included transmitters operating in a local area mesh network (RF LAN, ∼250 mW); a cell relay, which uses a wireless wide area network (WWAN, ∼1 W); and a transmitter serving a home area network (HAN, ∼70 mW). In all instances, RF fields were found to comply by a wide margin with the RF exposure limits established by the US Federal Communications Commission. The study included specialised measurement techniques and reported the spatial distribution of the fields near the meters and their duty cycles (typically smart meters as deployed. However, the results are restricted to a single manufacturer's emitters.

  10. Solutions For Smart Metering Under Harsh Environmental Condicions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunicina N.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The described case study concerns application of wireless sensor networks to the smart control of power supply substations. The solution proposed for metering is based on the modular principle and has been tested in the intersystem communication paradigm using selectable interface modules (IEEE 802.3, ISM radio interface, GSM/GPRS. The solution modularity gives 7 % savings of maintenance costs. The developed solution can be applied to the control of different critical infrastructure networks using adapted modules. The proposed smart metering is suitable for outdoor installation, indoor industrial installations, operation under electromagnetic pollution, temperature and humidity impact. The results of tests have shown a good electromagnetic compatibility of the prototype meter with other electronic devices. The metering procedure is exemplified by operation of a testing company's workers under harsh environmental conditions.

  11. Guanabara Bay and Pecem LNG flexible metering systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Vinicus Roberto C.; Carvalho, Gustavo L.A.; Bruel, Edson L.; Santana, Jose P.C. de; Vidal, Lud C.C.N. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    This work presents to the community the metering systems installed in the Liquefied Natural (LNG) Gas Flexible Terminals of the Pecem Port and Guanabara Bay. A brief description of the Terminals facilities and its operation is firstly made to provide a background of the systems discussed. Then, the LNG custody transfer metering system, the operational control metering system, the energy balance of the LNG transferring system and the Natural Gas custody transfer metering system - that are our systems of interest - are described in detail. It is intended to use the philosophy adopted in the Guanabara Bay and Pecem Flexible Terminals design as a standard to future installations, integrated with improvements brought by the operation experience that will be obtained in those terminals. (author)

  12. Radiofrequency fields associated with the Itron smart meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tell, R. A.; Sias, G. G.; Vazquez, A.; Sahl, J.; Turman, J. P.; Kavet, R. I.; Mezei, G.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined radiofrequency (RF) emissions from smart electric power meters deployed in two service territories in California for the purpose of evaluating potential human exposure. These meters included transmitters operating in a local area mesh network (RF LAN, ∼250 mW); a cell relay, which uses a wireless wide area network (WWAN, ∼1 W); and a transmitter serving a home area network (HAN, ∼70 mW). In all instances, RF fields were found to comply by a wide margin with the RF exposure limits established by the US Federal Communications Commission. The study included specialised measurement techniques and reported the spatial distribution of the fields near the meters and their duty cycles (typically <1 %) whose value is crucial to assessing time-averaged exposure levels. This study is the first to characterise smart meters as deployed. However, the results are restricted to a single manufacturer's emitters. (authors)

  13. Wireless transmission of metering data from a photovoltaic solar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data from direct cable connection was highly reliable because data ... aggregated solar home systems instead of establishing grid connected solar farms. ... Key words: PV solar home system, DC power meter, GSM, data adaptor software ...

  14. Tweeting : Smart meters raise awareness of energy consumption in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    2009-11-15

    The University of Mississippi (UM) will monitor, analyze and report on energy consumption in its campus buildings in real-time using SmartSynch Smart Meters. The technology uses smart meter data to help identify a detailed pattern of electricity usage with the objective of finding methods to alter behaviour to reduce electricity usage and carbon emissions. SmartSynch installed 16 Smart Meters on campus with additional deployments being planned. The technology will enable the university to monitor energy consumption, track building power performance over time, compare building energy usage, and review the impact of the weather on energy use while reducing its carbon footprint. Additionally, UM will use Facebook, Twitter and an RSS feed to provide regular public updates on its buildings' energy consumption based on SmartSynch Smart Meter data. Each building will have its own profile on the social networking sites. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  15. Smarter energy from smart metering to the smart grid

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Hongjian; Poor, H Vincent; Carpanini, Laurence; Fornié, Miguel Angel Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    This book presents cutting-edge perspectives and research results in smart energy spanning multiple disciplines across four main topics: smart metering, smart grid modeling, control and optimisation, and smart grid communications and networking.

  16. Development of an ultra-portable ride quality meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    FRAs Office of Research and Development has funded the development of an ultra-portable ride quality meter (UPRQM) under the Small Business and Innovative Research (SBIR) program. Track inspectors can use the UPRQM to locate segments of track that...

  17. One-Meter Class Drilling for Planetary Exploration, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the proposed effort is to understand and characterize the fundamental limitations of drilling one to three meters into challenging materials which may...

  18. Pulse counting period meter output during startup transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, J.D.

    1962-12-01

    The time response of a period meter whose input signal comes from a pulse counting channel may be calculated using a Ferranti Mercury autocode programme details of which are given. The period meter considered is the type for which the logarithmic characteristic is approximated by several diode pump circuits. The input excitation is a terminated ramp of reactivity. Other reactivity inputs may be treated. In particular the step change of reactivity may be used as the input excitation. Allowance is made for the effective time constants of the diode pump circuits and the period meter. The programme may be used for instrument assessment and for safety and operations studies on reactors which use this type of period meter. An example of the use of the programme is given. (author)

  19. an assessment of billing electricity consumers via analogue meters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Keywords: Electricity Distribution, Consumers, Analogue Meter, Billing, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Electricity ... the energy usage of a typical electricity consumer in one month is several ..... improve on distribution network. In addition it should.

  20. Design and construction of a resistivity meter for shallow investigation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design and construction of a resistivity meter for shallow investigation. ... Nigerian Journal of Physics. Journal Home ... Consequently many institutions that need this equipment for teaching and research purposes cannot afford the price.

  1. Development of an alternative reactivity meter for nuclear reactor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, P.S.B.

    1991-01-01

    This work describes an alternative version of the IPEN-CNEN/SP reactivity-meter. This new version utilizes a programmable electrometer (to realize the data acquisition) and a IBM-PC microcomputer to process the reactivity calculation. The aim of development of this alternative reactivity-meter is to have available a equipment of measurements of reactivity in the case of the later version show any problem during an experiment. (author)

  2. Ramp metering with an objective to reduce fuel consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Woldeab, Zeremariam; de Koning, Anne; Bie, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Ramp meters successfully decrease congestion but leave a burden on the traffic situation at on-ramps. Chaotic queuing leads to many stop-and-go movements and causes inefficiency where fuel consumption is concerned. As part of the eCoMove project, complementary strategies are being designed and evaluated to reduce fuel consumption at metered on-ramps, using vehicle-to-infrastructure communication. This paper presents the design of two strategies, as well as their effect as derived from simulat...

  3. Effects of γ-rays on electrical conductivity of polyvinyl alcohol-polypyrrole composite polymer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hamzah Harun; Elias Saion; Noorhana Yahya; Anuar Kassim; Ekramul Mahmud; Muhammad Yousuf Hussain; Iskandar Shahrim Mustafa; Azian Othman; Norazimah Mohd Yusof; Mohd Ahmad Ali Omer

    2007-01-01

    The composite polymer films of polyvinyl alcohol/polypyrrole/chloral hydrate (PVA-PPy-CH) had been prepared. Effects of γ-rays on the electrical conductivity of the composite polymer films had been investigated by using Inductance Resistance meter (LCR) meter at a frequency ranging from 20 Hz to 1 MHz. With the incorporation of choloral hydrate in the polymer sample, the conductivity increased indicates that it is capable to be used as dopant for polymerizing conjugated polymer. The electrical conductivity obtained increased as the dose increased, which is in the order of 10 -5 Scm -1 indicates that γ-ray is capable to enhance the electrical conductivity of the composite polymer films. The parameter of s is in the range of 0.31 ≤ S ≤ 0.49 and obeyed simple power law dispersion ω S . The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) micrographs reveal the formation of polypyrrole globules in polyvinyl alcohol matrix which increased as the irradiation dose was increased. (Author)

  4. A tube seepage meter for in situ measurement of seepage rate and groundwater sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solder, John; Gilmore, Troy E.; Genereux, David P.; Solomon, D. Kip

    2016-01-01

    We designed and evaluated a “tube seepage meter” for point measurements of vertical seepage rates (q), collecting groundwater samples, and estimating vertical hydraulic conductivity (K) in streambeds. Laboratory testing in artificial streambeds show that seepage rates from the tube seepage meter agreed well with expected values. Results of field testing of the tube seepage meter in a sandy-bottom stream with a mean seepage rate of about 0.5 m/day agreed well with Darcian estimates (vertical hydraulic conductivity times head gradient) when averaged over multiple measurements. The uncertainties in q and K were evaluated with a Monte Carlo method and are typically 20% and 60%, respectively, for field data, and depend on the magnitude of the hydraulic gradient and the uncertainty in head measurements. The primary advantages of the tube seepage meter are its small footprint, concurrent and colocated assessments of q and K, and that it can also be configured as a self-purging groundwater-sampling device.

  5. The 3.5-Meter Telescope Enclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    and acoustic vibrations, and the enclosure cannot be stopped quickly in an emergency. Also, the work of Zago indicates that open-air operation of the...enclosure. This capability is useful during operational testing and maintenance of the telescope. ’ Zago , L., "Design and Performance of Large

  6. Temperature, current meter, and other data using current meter, thermistor, and mooring casts from the HUNT from the Pacific Ocean as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / International Southern Ocean Studies / First Dynamic Response and Kinematics Experiment in the Drake Passage (IDOE/ISOS/FDRAKE) project, from 1982-06-28 to 1983-11-23 (NODC Accession 9500019)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, conductivity, east-west current component, north-south current component, depth, pressure, and salinity data were collected using current meter,...

  7. A review of net metering mechanism for electricity renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poullikkas, Andreas; Kourtis, George; Hadjipaschalis, Ioannis [Electricity Authority of Cyprus, P.O. Box 24506, 1399 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2013-07-01

    In this work, an overview of the net metering mechanism for renewable energy sources for power generation (RES-E) systems is carried out. In particular, the net metering concept is examined with its benefits and misconceptions. Furthermore, a survey of the current operational net metering schemes in different countries in the world, such as, in Europe, USA, Canada, Thailand and Australia, is carried out. The survey indicated that there are different net metering mechanisms depending on the particularities of each country (or state in the case of USA). Especially, in Europe, only five countries are using net metering in a very simple form, such as, any amount of energy produced by the eligible RES-E technology is compensated from the energy consumed by the RES-E producer, which results to either a less overall electricity bill or to an exception in payment energy taxes. In the USA and the USA territories, any customer’s net excess generation is credited to the customer’s next electricity bill for a 12-month billing cycle at various rates or via a combination between rates. The actual type of net excess generation (NEG) credit is decided by a number of set criteria, such as the type of RES-E technology, the RES-E capacity limit, the type of customer and the type of utility. Regarding any excess credit at the end of the 12-month billing cycle, this is either granted to the utilities, or carries over indefinitely to the customer’s next electricity bill, or is reconciled annually at any rate, or provides an option to the customer to choose between the last two options.

  8. Remote calibration system of a smart electrical energy meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakariae Jebroni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The need to control the power grid in real time has opened a new field of research, today researchers are trying to design electrical meters that are completely remote controlled, to create an advanced metering infrastructure. One of the most important processes in the field of measurement is the calibration of measuring instruments. The calibration process of the electrical meters was performed at laboratories. However, the new directives, now, require a regular test of accuracy. Nevertheless, moving each time on site to check the accuracy of a meter can be annoying. To solve this problem our contribution is to propose a new structure of a smart meter that integrates a calibration card, so that, this process is carried out remotely. To be able to calibrate the meter or test its accuracy, we have included an AC-AC converter powered by the electrical grid and that provides a stable voltage independent of the electrical grid in term of frequency and amplitude. The output voltage of the converter is used as the reference signal during calibration or accuracy testing. In this paper, we will present the structure of the calibration card, the study and dimensioning of the converter, as well as the control technique used to eliminate variations of the input voltage. At the end, we will present the results of simulations and experiments.

  9. Characterization of radiofrequency field emissions from smart meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, Richard A; Kavet, Robert; Mezei, Gabor

    2013-01-01

    This study presents measurement data that describe radiofrequency emission levels and patterns from smart meters (rated nominally at 1 W) currently deployed in Pacific Gas and Electric Company's service territory in northern California. The smart meters in our investigation could not be set to operate continuously and required a Field Service Unit to induce short periods of emitted fields. To obtain peak field data under both laboratory and ambient conditions, a spectrum analyzer scanned across the 83 transmitting channels between 902 and 928 MHz used by the smart meter on a random frequency-hopping basis. To obtain data describing temporal emission patterns, the analyzer operated in scope mode. Duty cycle was estimated using transmit data acquired by the system operator from over 88,000 m. Instantaneous peak fields at 0.3 m in front of the meters were no more than 15% of the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) exposure limit for the general public, and 99.9% of the meters operated with a duty cycle of 1.12% or less during the sampling period. In a sample of measurements in six single-detached residences equipped with individual smart meters, no interior measurement of peak field exceeded 1% of the FCC's general public exposure limit.

  10. Fission Meter Information Barrier Attribute Measurement System: Task 1 Report: Document existing Fission Meter neutron IB system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, P. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-28

    An SNM attribute Information Barrier (IB) system was developed for a 2011 US/UK Exercise. The system was modified and extensively tested in a 2013-2014 US-UK Measurement Campaign. This work demonstrated rapid deployment of an IB system for potential treaty use. The system utilizes an Ortec Fission Meter neutron multiplicity counter and custom computer code. The system demonstrates a proof-of-principle automated Pu-240 mass determination with an information barrier. After a software start command is issued, the system automatically acquires and downloads data, performs an analysis, and displays the results. This system conveys the results of a Pu mass threshold measurements in a way the does not reveal sensitive information. In full IB mode, only red/green ‘lights’ are displayed in the software. In test mode, more detailed information is displayed. The code can also read in, analyze, and display results from previously acquired or simulated data. Because the equipment is commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS), the system demonstrates a low-cost short-lead-time technology for treaty SNM attribute measurements. A deployed system will likely require integration of additional authentication and tamper-indicating technologies. This will be discussed for the project in this and future progress reports.

  11. Operational indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The chapter presents the operational indicators related to budget, travel costs and tickets, the evolution of the annual program for regulatory inspection, the scientific production, requested patents and the numbers related to the production of the services offered by the Institution

  12. Pharmaceutical Product Development: Intranasal Scopolamine (INSCOP) Metered Dose Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcha, Lakshmi; Crady, Camille; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Motion sickness (MS) has been a problem associated with space flight, the modern military and commercial air and water transportation for many years. Clinical studies have shown that scopolamine is the most effective medication for the prevention of motion sickness (Dornhoffer et al, 2004); however, the two most common methods of administration (transdermal and oral) have performance limitations that compromise its utility. Intranasal administration offers a noninvasive treatment modality, and has been shown to counter many of the problems associated with oral and transdermal administration. With the elimination of the first pass effect by the liver, intranasal delivery achieves higher and more reliable bioavailability than an equivalent oral dose. This allows for the potential of enhanced efficacy at a reduced dose, thus minimizing the occurrence of untoward side effects. An Intranasal scopolamine (INSCOP) gel formulation was prepared and tested in four ground-based clinical trials under an active Investigational New Drug (IND) application with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Although there were early indicators that the intranasal gel formulation was effective, there were aspects of formulation viscosity and the delivery system that were less desirable. The INSCOP gel formulation has since been reformulated into an aqueous spray dosage form packaged in a precise, metered dose delivery system; thereby enhancing dose uniformity, increased user satisfaction and palatability, and a potentially more rapid onset of action. Recent reports of new therapeutic indications for scopolamine has prompted a wide spread interest in new scopolamine dosage forms. The novel dosage form and delivery system of INSCOP spray shows promise as an effective treatment for motion sickness targeted at the armed forces, spaceflight, and commercial sea, air, and space travel markets, as well as prospective psychotherapy for mental and emotional disorders.

  13. Investigation of Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out Control Strategies for Systems with Over Centre Valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Rico Hjerm

    2010-01-01

    to overcome this problem, but it typically implies higher energy consumption and/or decreased control performance. With the development of robust sensors and new valve types with separate meter-in, separate meter-out control it is, however, possible to overcome these stability problems in a much more...... intelligent way, also adding increased functionality to the system. The focus of the current paper is therefore on investigation of different control strategies for Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out (SMISMO) control of general single axis hydraulic system with a differential cylinder and an over......-centre valve included. The paper first presents a general model of the system considered, which is experimentally verified. This is followed by a discussion of different control strategies and their implications. For each of the control strategies controllers are described, taking into account the dynamics...

  14. Smart metering gateway works as Smart Home Energy Manager; Smart Metering Gateway als Smart Home Energy Manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Klaus-Dieter [SSV Software Systems GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The installation of smart meters together with real time consumption data visualization doesn't help to save energy CO2 emissions. With regards to refinancing options, the situation in Germany has been quite different since the middle of last year for buildings equipped with a photovoltaic system. If a heat pump system is also present, intelligent energy use in conjunction with smart meters can save considerable amounts of money. A Smart Home Energy Manager (SHEM) automates the energy saving. (orig.)

  15. A Study on Watt-hour Meter Data Acquisition Method Based on RFID Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangqun; Huang, Rui; Shen, Liman; Chen, Hao; Xiong, Dezhi; Xiao, Xiangqi; Liu, Mouhai; Xu, Renheng

    2018-03-01

    Considering that traditional watt-hour meter data acquisition was subjected to the influence of distance and occlusion, a watt-hour meter data acquisition method based on RFID technology was proposed in this paper. In detail, RFID electronic tag was embedded in the watt-hour meter to identify the meter and record electric energy information, which made RFID based wireless data acquisition for watt-hour meter come true. Eventually, overall lifecycle management of watt-hour meter is realized.

  16. Invert Effective Thermal Conductivity Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.J. Anderson; H.M. Wade; T.L. Mitchell

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the temperature-dependent effective thermal conductivities of a repository-emplaced invert steel set and surrounding ballast material. The scope of this calculation analyzes a ballast-material thermal conductivity range of 0.10 to 0.70 W/m · K, a transverse beam spacing range of 0.75 to 1.50 meters, and beam compositions of A 516 carbon steel and plain carbon steel. Results from this calculation are intended to support calculations that identify waste package and repository thermal characteristics for Site Recommendation (SR). This calculation was developed by Waste Package Department (WPD) under Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 1, ICN 0, Calculations

  17. Reliability of 4-meter and 10-meter walk tests after lower extremity surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unver, Bayram; Baris, Refik Hilmi; Yuksel, Ertugrul; Cekmece, Senol; Kalkan, Serpil; Karatosun, Vasfi

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the test-retest reliability of the 4-meter walk test (4 MWT) and 10-meter walk test (10 MWT) in patients undergoing lower extremity surgery during inpatient rehabilitation. In all, 102 patients with total hip arthroplasty (THA), total knee arthroplasty (TKA), lower extremity fracture (LEF) and soft tissue operation were recruited. Patients performed two 4 MWT and two 10 MWT trials on the same day. The same researcher performed all the measurements to avoid inter-rater variability. The 4 MWT and 10 MWT were shown to have excellent test-retest reliability. The ICCs for the 4 MWT and 10 MWT were found as 0.94 and 0.95, respectively. The SEMs for the 4 MWT and 10 MWT were 2.0 and 5.5 seconds, respectively. The smallest real difference at the 95% confidence level (SRD95) was 5.5 seconds for the 4 MWT and 12.2 seconds for 10 MWT and SRD95 percentage was 31.2 for the 4 MWT and 28.5 for the 10 MWT. Both the 4 MWT and the 10 MWT have excellent reliability in patients undergoing lower extremity surgery such as TKA, THA, LEF and soft tissue operation during inpatient rehabilitation. Clinicians and researchers can be confident that changes above the SRD95s for the different patient groups, for both sexes and with regard to weight-bearing status, represent a real clinical change in rehabilitation process. Implications for Rehabilitation The 4 MWT and the 10 MWT are simple methods and were also shown to be reliable measurement methods in many patient groups. This study illustrates that the test-retest reliability of the 4 MWT and 10 MWT are excellent in patients undergoing lower extremity surgery during inpatient rehabilitation (ICC: 0.94 for 4 MWT, ICC: 0.95 for 10 MWT). Clinicians and researchers can be confident that changes above the SRD95s for the different patient groups, for both sexes and with regard to weight-bearing status represent a real clinical change in rehabilitation process.

  18. Multiparametric Experiments and Multiparametric Setups for Metering Explosive Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddeucci, J.; Scarlato, P.; Del Bello, E.

    2016-12-01

    Explosive eruptions are multifaceted processes best studied by integrating a variety of observational perspectives. This need marries well with the continuous stream of new means that technological progress provides to volcanologists to parameterize these eruptions. Since decades, new technologies have been tested and integrated approaches have been attempted during so-called multiparametric experiments, i.e., short field campaigns with many, different instruments (and scientists) targeting natural laboratory volcanoes. Recently, portable multiparametric setups have been developed, including a few, highly complementary instruments to be rapidly deployed at any erupting volcano. Multiparametric experiments and setups share most of their challenges, like technical issues, site logistics, and data processing and interpretation. Our FAMoUS (FAst MUltiparametric Setup) setup pivots around coupled, high-speed imaging (visible and thermal) and acoustic (infrasonic to audible) recording, plus occasional seismic recording and sample collection. FAMoUS provided new insights on pyroclasts ejection and settling and jet noise dynamics at volcanoes worldwide. In the last years we conducted a series of BAcIO (Broadband ACquisition and Imaging Operation) experiments at Stromboli (Italy). These hosted state-of-the-art and prototypal eruption-metering technologies, including: multiple high-speed high-definition cameras for 3-D imaging; combined visible-infrared-ultraviolet imaging; in-situ and remote gas measurements; UAV aerial surveys; Doppler radar, and microphone arrays. This combined approach provides new understandings of the fundamental controls of Strombolian-style activity, and allows for crucial cross-validation of instruments and techniques. Several documentary expeditions participated in the BAcIO, attesting its tremendous potential for public outreach. Finally, sharing field work promotes interdisciplinary discussions and cooperation like nothing in the world.

  19. An assessment of the Italian smart gas metering program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Castelnuovo, Matteo; Fumagalli, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of smart metering is one of the core elements in recent European policies targeting environmental sustainability and competitiveness of energy markets. Following the roll-out of smart electricity meters, in 2008 the Italian regulator designed an ambitious deployment program also for smart gas meters, that was recently modified in both scope and timing. This paper assesses Italy's original and current deployment plans, with a specific focus on the results of its cost–benefit analysis. In light of the evidence derived from the literature, we observe that the case for the roll-out of smart gas meters in Italy was not supported by a strong emphasis on energy savings but rather focused on increasing efficiency of the Italian gas market; in this respect, we argue that options other than smart gas metering should also be considered. Moreover the Italian cost–benefit analysis, which mostly dealt with the potential cost savings for distributors and suppliers, led to ambiguous results in terms of net present values; thus, we believe that an updated assessment would be extremely useful. Finally, in terms of technological choices, our analysis positively evaluates the regulator's recent proposal to consider a dual-fuel solution for the mass market deployment. - Highlights: • This paper assesses Italy's original and current deployment plans for smart gas meters. • The plan was not supported by a strong emphasis on energy savings. • A focus on increasing efficiency of the Italian gas market appears only partly justifiable. • The business case for adopting smart gas meters should be updated. • Our analysis positively evaluates the a dual-fuel solution for the mass market

  20. Current Trends in and Indications for Endoscopy-Assisted Breast Surgery for Breast Cancer: Results from a Six-Year Study Conducted by the Taiwan Endoscopic Breast Surgery Cooperative Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hung-Wen; Chen, Shou-Tung; Chen, Dar-Ren; Chen, Shu-Ling; Chang, Tsai-Wang; Kuo, Shou-Jen; Kuo, Yao-Lung; Hung, Chin-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Endoscopy-assisted breast surgery (EABS) performed through minimal axillary and/or periareolar incisions is a possible alternative to open surgery for certain patients with breast cancer. In this study, we report the early results of an EABS program in Taiwan. Methods The medical records of patients who underwent EABS for breast cancer during the period May 2009 to December 2014 were collected from the Taiwan Endoscopic Breast Surgery Cooperative Group database. Data on clinicopathologic characteristics, type of surgery, method of breast reconstruction, complications and recurrence were analyzed to determine the effectiveness and oncologic safety of EABS in Taiwan. Results A total of 315 EABS procedures were performed in 292 patients with breast cancer, including 23 (7.8%) patients with bilateral disease. The number of breast cancer patients who underwent EABS increased initially from 2009 to 2012 and then stabilized during the period 2012–2014. The most commonly performed EABS was endoscopy-assisted total mastectomy (EATM) (85.4%) followed by endoscopy-assisted partial mastectomy (EAPM) (14.6%). Approximately 74% of the EATM procedures involved breast reconstruction, with the most common types of reconstruction being implant insertion and autologous pedicled TRAM flap surgery. During the six-year study period, there was an increasing trend in the performance of EABS for the management of breast cancer when total mastectomy was indicated. The positive surgical margin rate was 1.9%. Overall, the rate of complications associated with EABS was 15.2% and all were minor and wound-related. During a median follow-up of 26.8 (3.3–68.6) months, there were 3 (1%) cases of local recurrence, 1 (0.3%) case of distant metastasis and 1 (0.3%) death. Conclusion The preliminary results from the EABS program in Taiwan show that EABS is a safe procedure and results in acceptable cosmetic outcome. These findings could help to promote this under-used surgical technique

  1. Canadian consumer issues in accurate and fair electricity metering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-07-01

    The Public Interest Advocacy Centre (PIAC), located in Ottawa, participates in regulatory proceedings concerning electricity and natural gas to support public and consumer interest. PIAC provides legal representation, research and policy support and public advocacy. A study aimed toward the determination of the issues at stake for residential electricity consumers in the provision of fair and accurate electricity metering, was commissioned by Measurement Canada in consultation with Industry Canada's Consumer Affairs. The metering of electricity must be carried out in a fair and efficient manner for all residential consumers. The Electricity, Gas and Inspection Act was developed to ensure compliance with standards for measuring instrumentation. The accurate metering of electricity through the distribution systems for electricity in Canada represents the main focus of this study and report. The role played by Measurement Canada and the increased efficiencies of service delivery by Measurement Canada or the changing of electricity market conditions are of special interest. The role of Measurement Canada was explained, as were the concerns of residential consumers. A comparison was then made between the interests of residential consumers and those of commercial and industrial electricity consumers in electricity metering. Selected American and Commonwealth jurisdictions were reviewed in light of their electricity metering practices. A section on compliance and conflict resolution was included, in addition to a section on the use of voluntary codes for compliance and conflict resolution

  2. The AGS Ggamma Meter and Calibrating the Gauss Clock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, Leif [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-03-31

    During AGS Polarized Proton acceleration periods, one output from the AGS Ggamma Meter, namely the energy (or Ggamma) calculated from the magnetic field in the AGS main magnets and the beam radius- both measured in particular instant, is used to figure out the times in the AGS magnet acceleration cycle when the beam passes through a particular set of depolarizing resonances. The resonance set occur whenever a particle’s Ggamma (energy*(G/m) becomes nearly equal to n*Qx (i.e. any integer multiplied by the horizontal betatron tune). This deliverable is why the machinery is referred to as the ''Ggamma Meter'' rather than the AGS energy meter. The Ggamma Meter takes as inputs a set of measurements of frequency (F(t)), radius (r(t)), and gauss clock counts (GCC(t)). The other energy (GgammaBr) assumes the field when the gauss clock starts counting is known. The change in field to time t is given by the measured accumulated gauss clock counts multiplied by the gauss clock calibration (gauss/GCC). In order to deal with experimental data, this calibration factor gets an added ad hoc complication, namely a correction dependent on the rate of change the counting rate. The Ggamma meter takes GCC(t) and together with the past history for this cycle calculates B(t).

  3. Modelling and calibration of a ring-shaped electrostatic meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jianyong [University of Teesside, Middlesbrough TS1 3BA (United Kingdom); Zhou Bin; Xu Chuanlong; Wang Shimin, E-mail: zhoubinde1980@gmail.co [Southeast University, Sipailou 2, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2009-02-01

    Ring-shaped electrostatic flow meters can provide very useful information on pneumatically transported air-solids mixture. This type of meters are popular in measuring and controlling the pulverized coal flow distribution among conveyors leading to burners in coal-fired power stations, and they have also been used for research purposes, e.g. for the investigation of electrification mechanism of air-solids two-phase flow. In this paper, finite element method (FEM) is employed to analyze the characteristics of ring-shaped electrostatic meters, and a mathematic model has been developed to express the relationship between the meter's voltage output and the motion of charged particles in the sensing volume. The theoretical analysis and the test results using a belt rig demonstrate that the output of the meter depends upon many parameters including the characteristics of conditioning circuitry, the particle velocity vector, the amount and the rate of change of the charge carried by particles, the locations of particles and etc. This paper also introduces a method to optimize the theoretical model via calibration.

  4. Strategies for Power Line Communications Smart Metering Network Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Sendin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Smart Grids are becoming a reality all over the world. Nowadays, the research efforts for the introduction and deployment of these grids are mainly focused on the development of the field of Smart Metering. This emerging application requires the use of technologies to access the significant number of points of supply (PoS existing in the grid, covering the Low Voltage (LV segment with the lowest possible costs. Power Line Communications (PLC have been extensively used in electricity grids for a variety of purposes and, of late, have been the focus of renewed interest. PLC are really well suited for quick and inexpensive pervasive deployments. However, no LV grid is the same in any electricity company (utility, and the particularities of each grid evolution, architecture, circumstances and materials, makes it a challenge to deploy Smart Metering networks with PLC technologies, with the Smart Grid as an ultimate goal. This paper covers the evolution of Smart Metering networks, together with the evolution of PLC technologies until both worlds have converged to project PLC-enabled Smart Metering networks towards Smart Grid. This paper develops guidelines over a set of strategic aspects of PLC Smart Metering network deployment based on the knowledge gathered on real field; and introduces the future challenges of these networks in their evolution towards the Smart Grid.

  5. What to look for when selecting ANSI protocol meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    York, T.

    2001-09-01

    A large number of major manufacturers now offer American National Standards Institute (ANSI) protocol meters, with ever improving capabilities. It is now time to consider ANSI Protocol Meters (APM). One of the advantages of the industry moving toward APMs is the fact that the eventual exclusion of proprietary technology should accelerate and additional software tools should become available to fully support APMs. The emphasis on the part of suppliers and potential users must now be placed on the acquisition of metering products that provide maximum benefits. The proper evaluation of APM will provide valuable feedback to the meter manufacturers, which in turn will encourage the development of new and improved metering products to increase productivity. The customers should be mindful of the following: insist on end device language files, and look for product flexibility. Other interesting features are: billing data (so it can be presented in standard format), present values (for inclusion of instrumentation measurements for quick retrieval by the customer), interval data recording, security features, user defined tables, logging, and power quality monitoring. 1 fig.

  6. Polarization speed meter for gravitational-wave detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Andrew R.; McKenzie, Kirk; Chen, Yanbei; Shaddock, Daniel A.; Chow, Jong H.; McClelland, David E.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a modified configuration of an advanced gravitational-wave detector that is a speed-meter-type interferometer with improved sensitivity with respect to quantum noise. With the addition of polarization-controlling components to the output of an arm cavity Michelson interferometer, an orthogonal polarization state of the interferometer can be used to store signal, returning it later with opposite phase to cancel position information below the storage bandwidth of the opposite mode. This modification provides an alternative to an external kilometer-scale Fabry-Pérot cavity, as presented in earlier work of Purdue and Chen [Phys. Rev. D 66, 122004 (2002)]. The new configuration requires significantly less physical infrastructure to achieve speed meter operation. The quantity of length and alignment degrees of freedom is also reduced. We present theoretical calculations to show that such a speed meter detector is capable of beating the strain sensitivity imposed by the standard quantum limit over a broad range of frequencies for Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory-like parameters. The benefits and possible difficulties of implementing such a scheme are outlined. We also present results for tuning of the speed meter by adjusting the degree of polarization coupling, a novel possibility that does not exist in previously proposed designs, showing that there is a smooth transition from speed meter operation to that of a signal-recycling Michelson behavior.

  7. Optical position meters analyzed in the noninertial reference frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarabrin, Sergey P.; Seleznyov, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of general relativity we develop a method for the analysis of the operation of the optical position meters in their photodetectors proper reference frames. These frames are noninertial in general due to the action of external fluctuative forces on meters test masses, including detectors. For comparison we also perform the calculations in the laboratory (globally inertial) reference frame and demonstrate that for certain optical schemes laboratory-based analysis results in unmeasurable quantities, in contrast to the detector-based analysis. We also calculate the response of the simplest optical meters to weak plane gravitational waves and fluctuative motions of their test masses. It is demonstrated that for the round-trip meter analysis in both the transverse-traceless (TT) and local Lorentz (LL) gauges produces equal results, while for the forward-trip meter corresponding results differ in accordance with different physical assumptions (e.g. procedure of clocks synchronization) implicitly underlying the construction of the TT and LL gauges.

  8. Development of PIC-based digital survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Arymaswati Abdullah; Nur Aira Abdul Rahman; Mohd Ashhar Khalid; Taiman Kadni; Glam Hadzir Patai Mohamad; Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli; Chong Foh Yong

    2006-01-01

    The need of radiation monitoring and monitoring of radioactive contamination in the workplace is very important especially when x-ray machines, linear accelerators, electron beam machines and radioactive sources are present. The appropriate use of radiation detector is significant in order to maintain a radiation and contamination free workplace. This paper reports on the development of a prototype of PIC-based digital survey meter. This prototype of digital survey meter is a hand held instrument for general-purpose radiation monitoring and surface contamination meter. Generally, the device is able to detect some or all of the three major types of ionizing radiation, namely alpha, beta and gamma. It uses a Geiger-Muller tube as a radiation detector, which converts gamma radiation quanta to electric pulses and further processed by the electronic devices. The development involved the design of the controller, counter and high voltage circuit. All these circuit are assembled and enclosed in a plastic casing together with a GM detector and LCD display to form a prototype survey meter. The number of counts of the pulses detected by the survey meter varies due to the random nature of radioactivity. By averaging the reading over a time-period, more accurate and stable reading is achieved. To test the accuracy and the linearity of the design, the prototype was calibrated using standard procedure at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) in MINT. (Author)

  9. The AGS Ggamma Meter and Calibrating the Gauss Clock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, Leif

    2014-01-01

    During AGS Polarized Proton acceleration periods, one output from the AGS Ggamma Meter, namely the energy (or Ggamma) calculated from the magnetic field in the AGS main magnets and the beam radius- both measured in particular instant, is used to figure out the times in the AGS magnet acceleration cycle when the beam passes through a particular set of depolarizing resonances. The resonance set occur whenever a particle's Ggamma (energy*(G/m) becomes nearly equal to n*Qx (i.e. any integer multiplied by the horizontal betatron tune). This deliverable is why the machinery is referred to as the ''Ggamma Meter'' rather than the AGS energy meter. The Ggamma Meter takes as inputs a set of measurements of frequency (F(t)), radius (r(t)), and gauss clock counts (GCC(t)). The other energy (GgammaBr) assumes the field when the gauss clock starts counting is known. The change in field to time t is given by the measured accumulated gauss clock counts multiplied by the gauss clock calibration (gauss/GCC). In order to deal with experimental data, this calibration factor gets an added ad hoc complication, namely a correction dependent on the rate of change the counting rate. The Ggamma meter takes GCC(t) and together with the past history for this cycle calculates B(t).

  10. Aesthetic and emotional effects of meter and rhyme in poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, Christian; Menninghaus, Winfried; von Koppenfels, Martin; Raettig, Tim; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Otterbein, Sascha; Kotz, Sonja A

    2013-01-01

    Metrical patterning and rhyme are frequently employed in poetry but also in infant-directed speech, play, rites, and festive events. Drawing on four line-stanzas from nineteenth and twentieth German poetry that feature end rhyme and regular meter, the present study tested the hypothesis that meter and rhyme have an impact on aesthetic liking, emotional involvement, and affective valence attributions. Hypotheses that postulate such effects have been advocated ever since ancient rhetoric and poetics, yet they have barely been empirically tested. More recently, in the field of cognitive poetics, these traditional assumptions have been readopted into a general cognitive framework. In the present experiment, we tested the influence of meter and rhyme as well as their interaction with lexicality in the aesthetic and emotional perception of poetry. Participants listened to stanzas that were systematically modified with regard to meter and rhyme and rated them. Both rhyme and regular meter led to enhanced aesthetic appreciation, higher intensity in processing, and more positively perceived and felt emotions, with the latter finding being mediated by lexicality. Together these findings clearly show that both features significantly contribute to the aesthetic and emotional perception of poetry and thus confirm assumptions about their impact put forward by cognitive poetics. The present results are explained within the theoretical framework of cognitive fluency, which links structural features of poetry with aesthetic and emotional appraisal.

  11. Electricity as (Big Data: Metering, spatiotemporal granularity and value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Kragh-Furbo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Electricity is hidden within wires and networks only revealing its quantity and flow when metered. The making of its properties into data is therefore particularly important to the relations that are formed around electricity as a produced and managed phenomenon. We propose approaching all metering as a situated activity, a form of quantification work in which data is made and becomes mobile in particular spatial and temporal terms, enabling its entry into data infrastructures and schemes of evaluation and value production. We interrogate the transition from the pre-digital into the making of bigger, more spatiotemporally granular electricity data, through focusing on those actors selling and materialising new metering technologies, data infrastructures and services for larger businesses and public sector organisations in the UK. We examine the claims of truth and visibility that accompany these shifts and their enrolment into management techniques that serve to more precisely apportion responsibility for, and evaluate the status of, particular patterns and instances of electricity use. We argue that whilst through becoming Big Data electricity flow is now able to be known and given identity in significantly new terms, enabling new relations to be formed with the many heterogeneous entities implicated in making and managing energy demand, it is necessary to sustain some ambivalence as to the performative consequences that follow for energy governance. We consider the wider application of our conceptualisation of metering, reflecting on comparisons with the introduction of new metering systems in domestic settings and as part of other infrastructural networks.

  12. Transverse micro-erosion meter measurements; determining minimum sample size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenhaile, Alan S.; Lakhan, V. Chris

    2011-11-01

    Two transverse micro-erosion meter (TMEM) stations were installed in each of four rock slabs, a slate/shale, basalt, phyllite/schist, and sandstone. One station was sprayed each day with fresh water and the other with a synthetic sea water solution (salt water). To record changes in surface elevation (usually downwearing but with some swelling), 100 measurements (the pilot survey), the maximum for the TMEM used in this study, were made at each station in February 2010, and then at two-monthly intervals until February 2011. The data were normalized using Box-Cox transformations and analyzed to determine the minimum number of measurements needed to obtain station means that fall within a range of confidence limits of the population means, and the means of the pilot survey. The effect on the confidence limits of reducing an already small number of measurements (say 15 or less) is much greater than that of reducing a much larger number of measurements (say more than 50) by the same amount. There was a tendency for the number of measurements, for the same confidence limits, to increase with the rate of downwearing, although it was also dependent on whether the surface was treated with fresh or salt water. About 10 measurements often provided fairly reasonable estimates of rates of surface change but with fairly high percentage confidence intervals in slowly eroding rocks; however, many more measurements were generally needed to derive means within 10% of the population means. The results were tabulated and graphed to provide an indication of the approximate number of measurements required for given confidence limits, and the confidence limits that might be attained for a given number of measurements.

  13. The accuracy of home glucose meters in hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmez, Alper; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Uckaya, Gokhan; Kilic, Selim; Tapan, Serkan; Taslipinar, Abdullah; Aydogdu, Aydogan; Yazici, Mahmut; Yilmaz, Mahmut Ilker; Serdar, Muhittin; Erbil, M Kemal; Kutlu, Mustafa

    2010-08-01

    Home glucose meters (HGMs) may not be accurate enough to sense hypoglycemia. We evaluated the accuracy and the capillary and venous comparability of five different HGMs (Optium Xceed [Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA, USA], Contour TS [Bayer Diabetes Care, Basel, Switzerland], Accu-Chek Go [Roche Ltd., Basel, Switzerland], OneTouch Select [Lifescan, Milpitas, CA, USA], and EZ Smart [Tyson Bioresearch Inc., Chu-Nan, Taiwan]) in an adult population. The insulin hypoglycemia test was performed to 59 subjects (56 males; 23.6 +/- 3.2 years old). Glucose was measured from forearm venous blood and finger capillary samples both before and after regular insulin (0.1 U/kg) was injected. Venous samples were analyzed in the reference laboratory by the hexokinase method. In vitro tests for method comparison and precision analyses were also performed by spiking the glucose-depleted venous blood. All HGMs failed to sense hypoglycemia to some extend. EZ Smart was significantly inferior in critical error Zone D, and OneTouch Select was significantly inferior in the clinically unimportant error Zone B. Accu-Chek Go, Optium Xceed, and Contour TS had similar performances and were significantly better than the other two HGMs according to error grid analysis or International Organization for Standardization criteria. The in vitro tests were consistent with the above clinical data. The capillary and venous consistencies of Accu-Chek Go and OneTouch Select were better than the other HGMs. The present results show that not all the HGMs are accurate enough in low blood glucose levels. The patients and the caregivers should be aware of these restrictions of the HGMs and give more credit to the symptoms of hypoglycemia than the values obtained by the HGMs. Finally, these results indicate that there is a need for the revision of the accuracy standards of HGMs in low blood glucose levels.

  14. A comparative study between clinical grading of anterior chamber flare and flare reading using the Kowa laser flare meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulou, Kallirroi; Del'Omo, Roberto; Morley, Anne M; Karagiannis, Dimitris; Bunce, Catey; Pavesio, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    To assess the accuracy of standard clinical grading of aqueous flare in uveitis according to the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature consensus, and compare the results with the readings of the laser flare meter, Kowa 500. Two examiners clinically graded the flare in 110 eyes. The flare was then measured using the Kowa laser flare meter. Twenty-nine eyes were graded as anterior chamber flare +2; for 18 of these, the clinicians were in agreement, the rest differed by the order of one grade. The range of the laser flare meter for these eyes was 5.2-899.1 photons/ms. The median value was 41.4. Seventy-four eyes were graded with flare +1. Agreement was established in 51 of these eyes. Disagreement for the rest was again by the order of 1, and the flare meter range was 1.1-169.9 photons/ms, median value 18.4. For the clinical measure of flare 0, the clinicians disagreed on three out of five eyes. The flare meter readings ranged from 2.5 to 14.1 photons/ms, median value 9.9. Only two eyes were graded with flare +3 and there was one step disagreement on both of them. We found little evidence of association between the flare readings and intraocular pressure or age. Our findings suggest that clinical evaluation of aqueous flare is subjective. Compared with the Kowa laser flare meter's numeric readings, the discrepancies observed indicate that clinical grading is an approximate science. The laser flare meter provides an accurate, reproducible, non-invasive assessment of aqueous flare that can prove valuable in research and clinical decisions.

  15. Optoelectronic pH Meter: Further Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Anderson, Mejody M.; Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2009-01-01

    A collection of documents provides further detailed information about an optoelectronic instrument that measures the pH of an aqueous cell-culture medium to within 0.1 unit in the range from 6.5 to 7.5. The instrument at an earlier stage of development was reported in Optoelectronic Instrument Monitors pH in a Culture Medium (MSC-23107), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 9 (September 2004), page 4a. To recapitulate: The instrument includes a quartz cuvette through which the medium flows as it is circulated through a bioreactor. The medium contains some phenol red, which is an organic pH-indicator dye. The cuvette sits between a light source and a photodetector. [The light source in the earlier version comprised red (625 nm) and green (558 nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs); the light source in the present version comprises a single green- (560 nm)-or-red (623 nm) LED.] The red and green are repeatedly flashed in alternation. The responses of the photodiode to the green and red are processed electronically to obtain the ratio between the amounts of green and red light transmitted through the medium. The optical absorbance of the phenol red in the green light varies as a known function of pH. Hence, the pH of the medium can be calculated from the aforesaid ratio.

  16. Knowledge is power: Customer load metering in the Victorian End-Use Measurement Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavin, G. [CitiPower Ltd., Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    The Victorian End-Use Measurement Program is a sophisticated load metering program being conducted over 500 sites in Victoria, covering the major customer sectors of residential, commercial and industrial. Its goal is to gather sufficient data to determine with statistical accuracy the load profiles of these major sectors, together with the load profiles of selected customer end-uses in the residential and commercial sectors, and selected building types in the commercial sector. This paper discusses the major elements of the program, the history of its development, the design of the statistical and operational components of the program, and its implementation in the field. In the Victorian electricity industry, with the combination of contestable customer metering and the End-Use Measurement program metering for the franchise/non-contestable market, there is now a considerable flow of customer load data. The opportunity exists for an accurate understanding of customer load needs, and the minimization of risk in business operations in the retail and wholesale market. (author).

  17. The bacterial contamination rate of glucose meter test strips in the hospital setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid A.; Saeb, Amr T. M.; AlNaqeb, Dhekra M.; AlQumaidi, Hamed M.; AlMogbel, Turki A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the rate of bacterial contamination of the multi-use vial and single-use packed glucose meter strips, and to identify the type and frequency of various bacterial contamination in different hospital wards. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted by a team from the Strategic Center for Diabetes Research in 7 general hospitals in the Central region of Saudi Arabia during the period from August to September 2014 to assess the bacterial contamination rate of the unused strips. A total of 10,447 strips were cultured using proper agar media and incubated both aerobically and anaerobically. Results: The total bacterial contamination rate for the multi-use vials glucose strips was 31.7%, while single-use packed strips were not contaminated at all. Ministry of Health hospitals had the highest contamination rates compared with other hospitals. Critical, obstetric, and surgical wards had the highest bacterial isolates number, where most were in the risk group 3 according to the National Institute of Health guidelines. Staphylococcus species were the most common bacteria found. Conclusion: Glucose meter strips should be recognized as a source of bacterial contamination that could be behind serious hospital acquired infections. The hospital infection control team should adopt proper measures to implement protocols for glucose meter cleaning and glucose strips handling. PMID:27570855

  18. Development of in-service meter testing (ISMET); Developpement de test de compteurs en service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullathorne, D. [BG Technology Ltd. (United Kingdom); Finnerty, G. [BG Transco plc. (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Managing a population of 19 million meters in the UK is a massive task for Transco, the UK's principal regulated gas transporter. Adopting a cost-effective approach to all aspects of mater work is crucial in today's regulated business environment. It was from a critical review of mater work processes that a need was identified for new test equipment to reinforce the introduction of a mater re-use policy. This would reduce mater transportation and refurbishment costs. BG Technology and Transco have jointly developed some low cost equipment suitable for testing residential gas meters used by Transco's Competent Person (TCP) workforce or by trained local depot operatives. The test equipment can determine whether the meter meets the national requirements for registration performance and hence can be re-used without refurbishment at central workshops. The equipment has been shown to be technically feasible in the laboratory. Field testing has allowed rapid development of working prototypes and provided a basis for conducting simple inter-rig comparison to verify the acceptability of the test method. The pilot trial has shown that the project objectives have been met, in providing low cost test equipment for widespread use by properly trained personnel. (authors)

  19. BH3105 type neutron dose equivalent meter of high sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Zhang Enshan; Yang Jianfeng; Zhang Hong; Huang Jiling

    1995-10-01

    It is noted that to design a neutron dose meter of high sensitivity is almost impossible in the frame of traditional designing principle--'absorption net principle'. Based on a newly proposed principle of obtaining neutron dose equi-biological effect adjustment--' absorption stick principle', a brand-new neutron dose-equivalent meter with high neutron sensitivity BH3105 has been developed. Its sensitivity reaches 10 cps/(μSv·h -1 ), which is 18∼40 times higher than one of foreign products of the same kind and is 10 4 times higher than that of domestic FJ342 neutron rem-meter. BH3105 has a measurement range from 0.1μSv/h to 1 Sv/h which is 1 or 2 orders wider than that of the other's. It has the advanced properties of gamma-resistance, energy response, orientation, etc. (6 tabs., 5 figs.)

  20. Net Metering and Interconnection Procedures-- Incorporating Best Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Keyes, Kevin Fox, Joseph Wiedman, Staff at North Carolina Solar Center

    2009-04-01

    State utility commissions and utilities themselves are actively developing and revising their procedures for the interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. However, the procedures most often used by regulators and utilities as models have not been updated in the past three years, in which time most of the distributed solar facilities in the United States have been installed. In that period, the Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) has been a participant in more than thirty state utility commission rulemakings regarding interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. With the knowledge gained from this experience, IREC has updated its model procedures to incorporate current best practices. This paper presents the most significant changes made to IREC’s model interconnection and net metering procedures.

  1. Metering management at the plutonium research and development facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Masaru; Miyamoto, Fujio; Kurosawa, Makoto; Abe, Jiro; Sakai, Haruyuki; Suzuki, Tsuneo.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear fuel research laboratory of the Oarai Research Laboratory of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is an R and D facility to treat with plutonium and processes various and versatile type samples in chemical and physical form for use of various experimental researches even though on much small amount. Furthermore, wasted and plutonium samples are often transported to other KMP and MBA such as radioactive waste management facility, nuclear reactor facility and so forth. As this facility is a place to treat plutonium important on the safeguards, it is a facility necessary for detection and allowance actions and for detail managements on the metering management data to report to government and IAEA in each small amount sample and different configuration. In this paper, metering management of internationally regulated matters and metering management system using a work station newly produced in such small scale facility were introduced. (G.K.)

  2. A Randomized Response Model For Privacy Preserving Smart Metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lijuan; Que, Jialan; Choi, Dae-Hyun; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Cheng, Samuel; Xie, Le

    2012-01-01

    The adoption of smart meters may bring new privacy concerns to the general public. Given the fact that metering data of individual homes/factories is accumulated every 15 minutes, it is possible to infer the pattern of electricity consumption of individual users. In order to protect the privacy of users in a completely de-centralized setting (i.e., individuals do not communicate with one another), we propose a novel protocol, which allows individual meters to report the true electricity consumption reading with a pre-determinted probability. Load serving entities (LSE) can reconstruct the total electricity consumption of a region or a district through inference algorithm, but their ability of identifying individual users’ energy consumption pattern is significantly reduced. Using simulated data, we verify the feasibility of the proposed method and demonstrate performance advantages over existing approaches. PMID:23243488

  3. Advanced Metering Implementations - A Perspective from Federal Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaarni, Shankar

    2014-08-11

    Federal mandate (EPACT 2005) requires that federal buildings install advanced electrical meters-meters capable of providing data at least daily and measuring the consumption of electricity at least hourly. This work presents selected advanced metering implementations to understand some of the existing practices related to data capture and to understand how the data is being translated into information and knowledge that can be used to improve building energy and operational performance to meet federal energy reduction mandates. This study highlights case studies to represent some of the various actions that are being taken based on the data that are being collected to improve overall energy performance of these buildings. Some of these actions include- individualized tenant billing and energy forecasting, benchmarking, identifying energy conservation measures, measurement and verification.

  4. Current meter observations near the Sellafield pipeline, 1984-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.R.; Norris, S.

    1988-01-01

    Low-level liquid radioactive wastes are discharged into the north-east Irish Sea, under authorization, from the Sellafield reprocessing plant run by British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL). The effluent contains a range of radionuclides including caesium-137. The discharges are monitored and assessed by the Aquatic Environment Protection Division which is part of the Ministry of agriculture, Food and Fisheries. The results from the Sellafield current meter mooring in the Irish Sea from December 1983 to December 1986 are presented. The aim was to assess long-term tidal and residual current conditions under a variety of wind and current combinations as part of the assessment of the distribution of discharged radionuclides. The instrumentation is described briefly. Periods of data loss (due to meter failure or loss) and the data processing are explained. The results of the current metering are presented. (U.K.)

  5. Effect of Smart Meter Measurements Data On Distribution State Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Nainar, Karthikeyan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2018-01-01

    Smart distribution grids with renewable energy based generators and demand response resources (DRR) requires accurate state estimators for real time control. Distribution grid state estimators are normally based on accumulated smart meter measurements. However, increase of measurements in the phy......Smart distribution grids with renewable energy based generators and demand response resources (DRR) requires accurate state estimators for real time control. Distribution grid state estimators are normally based on accumulated smart meter measurements. However, increase of measurements...... in the physical grid can enforce significant stress not only on the communication infrastructure but also in the control algorithms. This paper aims to propose a methodology to analyze needed real time smart meter data from low voltage distribution grids and their applicability in distribution state estimation...

  6. Privacy, technology, and norms: the case of Smart Meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Christine; Darras, Brice; Bean, Elyse; Srivastava, Anurag; Frickel, Scott

    2015-05-01

    Norms shift and emerge in response to technological innovation. One such innovation is Smart Meters - components of Smart Grid energy systems capable of minute-to-minute transmission of consumer electricity use information. We integrate theory from sociological research on social norms and privacy to examine how privacy threats affect the demand for and expectations of norms that emerge in response to new technologies, using Smart Meters as a test case. Results from three vignette experiments suggest that increased threats to privacy created by Smart Meters are likely to provoke strong demand for and expectations of norms opposing the technology and that the strength of these normative rules is at least partly conditional on the context. Privacy concerns vary little with actors' demographic characteristics. These findings contribute to theoretical understanding of norm emergence and have practical implications for implementing privacy protections that effectively address concerns of electricity users. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of uncertainties in the calibration of radiation survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potiens, M.P.A.; Santos, G.P.

    2006-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of ISO 17025, the quantification of the expanded uncertainties of experimental data in the calibration of survey meters must be carried out using well defined concepts, like those expressed in the 'ISO-Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement'. The calibration procedure of gamma ray survey meters involves two values that have to get their uncertainties clearly known: measurements of the instrument under calibration and the conventional true values of a quantity. Considering the continuous improvement of the calibration methods and set-ups, it is necessary to evaluate periodically the involved uncertainties in the procedures. In this work it is shown how the measurement uncertainties of an individual calibration can be estimated and how it can be generalized to be valid for others radiation survey meters. (authors)

  8. Measurement of thermal conductance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.

    1977-01-01

    The 6-m long, 45-kG, warm-iron superconducting magnets envisioned for the Energy Doubler stage of the Fermilab accelerator require stiff supports with minimized thermal conductances in order to keep the refrigeration power reasonable. The large number of supports involved in the system required a careful study of their heat conduction from the room temperature wall to the intercepting refrigeration at 20 0 K and to the liquid helium. For this purpose the thermal conductance of this support was measured by comparing it with the thermal conductance of a copper strap of known geometry. An association of steady-state thermal analysis and experimental thermal conductivity techniques forms the basis of this method. An important advantage is the automatic simulation of the 20 0 K refrigeration intercept by the copper strap, which simplifies the apparatus considerably. This relative resistance technique, which uses electrical analogy as a guideline, is applicable with no restrictions for materials with temperature-independent thermal conductivity. For other materials the results obtained are functions of the specific temperature interval involved in the measurements. A comprehensive review of the literature on thermal conductivity indicates that this approach has not been used before. A demonstration of its self-consistency is stressed here rather than results obtained for different supports

  9. Neural processing of musical meter in musicians and non-musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T Christina; Lam, H T Gloria; Sohi, Harkirat; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2017-11-01

    Musical sounds, along with speech, are the most prominent sounds in our daily lives. They are highly dynamic, yet well structured in the temporal domain in a hierarchical manner. The temporal structures enhance the predictability of musical sounds. Western music provides an excellent example: while time intervals between musical notes are highly variable, underlying beats can be realized. The beat-level temporal structure provides a sense of regular pulses. Beats can be further organized into units, giving the percept of alternating strong and weak beats (i.e. metrical structure or meter). Examining neural processing at the meter level offers a unique opportunity to understand how the human brain extracts temporal patterns, predicts future stimuli and optimizes neural resources for processing. The present study addresses two important questions regarding meter processing, using the mismatch negativity (MMN) obtained with electroencephalography (EEG): 1) how tempo (fast vs. slow) and type of metrical structure (duple: two beats per unit vs. triple: three beats per unit) affect the neural processing of metrical structure in non-musically trained individuals, and 2) how early music training modulates the neural processing of metrical structure. Metrical structures were established by patterns of consecutive strong and weak tones (Standard) with occasional violations that disrupted and reset the structure (Deviant). Twenty non-musicians listened passively to these tones while their neural activities were recorded. MMN indexed the neural sensitivity to the meter violations. Results suggested that MMNs were larger for fast tempo and for triple meter conditions. Further, 20 musically trained individuals were tested using the same methods and the results were compared to the non-musicians. While tempo and meter type similarly influenced MMNs in both groups, musicians overall exhibited significantly reduced MMNs, compared to their non-musician counterparts. Further analyses

  10. Development of a calibration methodology and tests of kerma area product meters; Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia de calibracao e testes de medidores de produto Kerma-Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Nathalia Almeida

    2013-07-01

    The quantity kerma area product (PKA) is important to establish reference levels in diagnostic radiology exams. This quantity can be obtained using a PKA meter. The use of such meters is essential to evaluate the radiation dose in radiological procedures and is a good indicator to make sure that the dose limit to the patient's skin doesn't exceed. Sometimes, these meters come fixed to X radiation equipment, which makes its calibration difficult. In this work, it was developed a methodology for calibration of PKA meters. The instrument used for this purpose was the Patient Dose Calibrator (PDC). It was developed to be used as a reference to check the calibration of PKA and air kerma meters that are used for dosimetry in patients and to verify the consistency and behavior of systems of automatic exposure control. Because it is a new equipment, which, in Brazil, is not yet used as reference equipment for calibration, it was also performed the quality control of this equipment with characterization tests, the calibration and an evaluation of the energy dependence. After the tests, it was proved that the PDC can be used as a reference instrument and that the calibration must be performed in situ, so that the characteristics of each X-ray equipment, where the PKA meters are used, are considered. The calibration was then performed with portable PKA meters and in an interventional radiology equipment that has a PKA meter fixed. The results were good and it was proved the need for calibration of these meters and the importance of in situ calibration with a reference meter. (author)

  11. Nine steps towards a better water meter management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arregui, F J; Soriano, J; Cabrera, E; Cobacho, R

    2012-01-01

    The paper provides a comprehensive perspective of the critical aspects to be taken into account when planning the long-term management of water meters in a utility. In order to facilitate their quick understanding and practical implementation, they have been structured into nine steps. Ranging from an initial audit up to the final periodic meter replacement planning, these steps cover three aspects of the problem - field work, laboratory work and management tasks; and each one is developed in detail paying attention to the particular data needed and noting the practical outcome it will yield.

  12. Evaluation of methods to calibrate radiation survey meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.C.; Arbeau, N.D.

    1987-04-01

    Calibration requirements for radiation survey meters used in industrial radiography have been reviewed. Information obtained from a literature search, discussions with CSLD inspectors and firms performing calibrations has been considered. Based on this review a set of minimum calibration requirements was generated which, when met, will determine that the survey meter is suited for measurements described in the current AEC Regulations that apply to industrial radiography equipment. These requirements are presented in this report and may be used as guidelines for evaluating calibration methods proposed or in use in industry. 39 refs

  13. Application research of improved 235U enrichment meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Daming; Wu Xin; Lu Zhao; Tang Peijia; Lu Feng; Wang Yunmei

    1998-01-01

    A prototype 235 U enrichment meter based on NaI(Tl) γ spectroscopy is improved and it works under the principle of that the enrichment of 235 U is proportional to the radioactivity of 185 keV γ-ray when the sample is thick infinitely. The data of radioactivity from 235 U can be collected by a notebook computer and the interface control software is written using C++ language. The meter was tested and calibrated using standard fuel rods in fuel fabrication plant. For single fuel rod, the measured value of 235 U enrichment is agreeable with declared value within-1.0%-2.8%

  14. Setting a price for solar net-metering in California

    OpenAIRE

    Knezevic, Laura M

    2014-01-01

    Net-metering programs are an effective policy tool for promoting investment in solar photovoltaics, yet little attention has been paid to the rate at which excess energy generation is credited until recently. Like most States, California customers who participate in net-metering receive a credit for excess generation at the current retail rate for electricity. This buy-back rate does not take into account the value of solar energy to the utility or the costs to the customer of purchasing an...

  15. Thermal emissivity analysis of a GEMINI 8-meter telescopes design

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Clair Dinger, Ann

    1993-01-01

    The GEMINI 8-meter Telescopes Project is designing twin 8-meter telescopes to be located in Hawaii and Chile. The GEMINI telescopes will have interchangeable secondary mirrors for use in the visible and IR. The APART/PADE program is being used to evaluate the effective IR emissivity of the IR configuration plus enclosure as a function of mirror contamination at three IR wavelengths. The goal is to design a telescope whose effective IR emissivity is no more than 2 percent when the mirrors are clean.

  16. Determination for energy response and directionality of neutron survey meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Changmao; Liu Jinhua; Xie Jianlun; Su Jingling

    1992-01-01

    The energy response and directionality of neutron survey meter type MK7 and 2202D are determined. The reactor thermal column beam, reactor filtered beams (6 eV, 24.4 keV and 144 keV), 226 Ra-Be, 241 Am-Be, 252 Cf and its moderated sources are used for the measurement. The results shows: the survey meters are influenced obviously by the direction; the response of middle-energy region is large, the energy response of 2202D is better than MK7

  17. Short Communication: Conductivity as an indicator of surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various water- soluble species are present in FeCr waste materials and in process water. Considering the size of the South African FeCr industry and its global importance, it is essential to assess the extent of potential surface water pollution in the proximity of FeCr smelters by such watersoluble species. In this study water ...

  18. Talking about Emotion: Prosody and Skin Conductance Indicate Emotion Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Matejka, Moritz; Kazzer, Philipp; Seehausen, Maria; Bajbouj, Malek; Klann-Delius, Gisela; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Prehn, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Talking about emotion and putting feelings into words has been hypothesized to regulate emotion in psychotherapy as well as in everyday conversation. However, the exact dynamics of how different strategies of verbalization regulate emotion and how these strategies are reflected in characteristics of the voice has received little scientific attention. In the present study, we showed emotional pictures to 30 participants and asked them to verbally admit or deny an emotional experience or a neut...

  19. Current meter and temperature profile data from moored current meter casts in the TOGA area - Atlantic Ocean from 10 September 1970 - 27 October 1980 (NODC Accession 8600320)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and temperature profile data were collected using moored current meter - PCM casts in the TOGA area - Atlantic Ocean from September 10, 1970 to October...

  20. Comparative Analysis of Smart Meters Deployment Business Models on the Example of the Russian Federation Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daminov, Ildar; Tarasova, Ekaterina; Andreeva, Tatyana; Avazov, Artur

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the comparison of smart meter deployment business models to determine the most suitable option providing smart meters deployment. Authors consider 3 main business model of companies: distribution grid company, energy supplier (energosbyt) and metering company. The goal of the article is to compare the business models of power companies from massive smart metering roll out in power system of Russian Federation.

  1. Apparent losses due to domestic water meter under-registration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By combining these results with the average age of meters in South Africa, estimated from the National Water Demand Archive, it was possible to estimate the average meter under-registration due to meter aging. The study concluded that apparent losses due to water meter under-registration are around 5% of consumption ...

  2. A Density-Based Ramp Metering Model Considering Multilane Context in Urban Expressways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most effective intelligent transportation strategies, ramp metering is regularly discussed and applied all over the world. The classic ramp metering algorithm ALINEA dominates in practical applications due to its advantages in stabilizing traffic flow at a high throughput level. Although ALINEA chooses the traffic occupancy as the optimization parameter, the classic traffic flow variables (density, traffic volume, and travel speed may be easier obtained and understood by operators in practice. This paper presents a density-based ramp metering model for multilane context (MDB-RM on urban expressways. The field data of traffic flow parameters is collected in Chengdu, China. A dynamic density model for multilane condition is developed. An error function represented by multilane dynamic density is introduced to adjust the different usage between lanes. By minimizing the error function, the density of mainstream traffic can stabilize at the set value, while realizing the maximum decrease of on-ramp queues. Also, VISSIM Component Object Model of Application Programming Interface is used for comparison of the MDB-RM model with a noncontrol, ALINEA, and density-based model, respectively. The simulation results indicate that the MDB-RM model is capable of achieving a comprehensive optimal result from both sides of the mainstream and on-ramp.

  3. Anomaly Detection in Smart Metering Infrastructure with the Use of Time Series Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Andrysiak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents solutions to anomaly detection in network traffic for critical smart metering infrastructure, realized with the use of radio sensory network. The structure of the examined smart meter network and the key security aspects which have influence on the correct performance of an advanced metering infrastructure (possibility of passive and active cyberattacks are described. An effective and quick anomaly detection method is proposed. At its initial stage, Cook’s distance was used for detection and elimination of outlier observations. So prepared data was used to estimate standard statistical models based on exponential smoothing, that is, Brown’s, Holt’s, and Winters’ models. To estimate possible fluctuations in forecasts of the implemented models, properly parameterized Bollinger Bands was used. Next, statistical relations between the estimated traffic model and its real variability were examined to detect abnormal behavior, which could indicate a cyberattack attempt. An update procedure of standard models in case there were significant real network traffic fluctuations was also proposed. The choice of optimal parameter values of statistical models was realized as forecast error minimization. The results confirmed efficiency of the presented method and accuracy of choice of the proper statistical model for the analyzed time series.

  4. Economic and social impacts of converting to tenant metering in multi-family housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palermini, D.; Hewitt, D.

    1990-01-01

    A current trend in the multifamily housing industry is to convert heating (gas and oil) systems to tenant-metered heating systems (electric zonal heat, individual gas furnaces, secondary metering systems for boilers). Moving responsibility for heating costs directly to tenants has been shown to save energy (on the order of 15%). However, there are social and economic aspects of this type of 'energy investment' such as the impact on vacancy rates, rent levels and comfort of tenants. This paper presents the findings from a research project that surveyed the owners and tenants of 37 multifamily buildings (a total of 741 units) that had been converted from central to individual metering. In addition to the behavioral analysis, the authors gathered utility billing data which they analyzed using the Princeton Scorekeeping Method. Survey findings indicate that energy use was decreased substantially by conversion to separate heating systems. Increases in tenant-paid utility bills after conversion were not sufficient to cause hardship for most tenants, even those with modest incomes. Rent and vacancy levels remained stable after the heating system changes were made or an allocation system was installed

  5. Smart Metering: Learning from telecommunication providers. Innovative customized products; Beim Smart Metering von Telekommunikationsanbietern lernen. Innovative Buendelprodukte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isbrecht, Volker; Sombrutzki, Ingo [Putz und Partner Unternehmensberatung AG, Hamburg (Germany). Strategie- und Projektmanagement - Energiewirtschaft; Hofer, Kristina [Putz und Partner Unternehmensberatung AG, Hamburg (Germany). CRM- und Telekommunikation

    2010-04-06

    Deregulation in the electricity and gas metering has raised interest in smart meters. Experts estimate that in a four-person household, smart meters may reduce electricity consumption by up to 10 percent, i.e. 50 - 90 Euros, and CO2 emissions by 8.5 million tonnes, which amounts to 4 percent of the total CO2 emissions in Germany. These are ideal conditions for utilities to develop innovative products for the mass market of private consumers and to improve their competitive standing in the market by a clearly communicated advantage to both the customers and the climate. By utilizing the experience gained in the telecommunications industry, they will be able to respond quickly to impending challenges. (orig.)

  6. Effects of the leakage magnetic field from an analog meter on the response of scintillation survey meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Hisao; Norimura, Toshiyuki; Katase, Akira

    2003-01-01

    Effects of the weak leakage magnetic field are studied on the response of two kinds of scintillation survey meters: an ordinary type for γ-rays and that optimized for the detection of low-energy photons from 125 I. In the presence of the magnetic field, the response of the optimized survey meter decreases to the photons from 125 I, and increases considerably to the background radiations. On the other hand, the response of the ordinary survey meter decreases slightly to both the γ-rays from 131 I and the background radiations. From analysis of the pulse-height spectra for the radiations, such variations of the response are ascribed to the reduction of the amplification factor of photomultiplier tubes by the magnetic field. (author)

  7. Reactor core flow measurements during plant start-up using non-intrusive flow meter CROSSFLOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanda, V.; Sharp, B.; Gurevich, A., E-mail: vkanda@amag-inc.com, E-mail: bsharp@amag-inc.com, E-mail: agurevich@amag-inc.com [Advanced Measurement & Analysis Group Inc., Ontario (Canada); Gurevich, Y., E-mail: yuri.gurevich@daystartech.ca [Daystar Technologies Inc., Ontario (Canada); Selvaratnarajah, S.; Lopez, A., E-mail: sselvaratnarajah@amag-inc.com, E-mail: alopez@amag-inc.com [Advanced Measurement & Analysis Group Inc., Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    For the first time, direct measurements of the total reactor coolant flow and the flow distribution between the inner reactor zone and the outer zone were conducted using the non-intrusive clamp on ultrasonic cross-correlation flow meter, CROSSFLOW, developed and manufactured by Advanced Measurement & Analysis Group Inc. (AMAG). The measurements were performed at Bruce Power A Unit 1 on the Pump Discharge piping of the Primary Heat Transport (PHT) system during start-up. This paper describes installation processes, hydraulic testing, uncertainty analysis and traceability of the measurements to certified standards. (author)

  8. Look at the Beat, Feel the Meter: Top-Down Effects of Meter Induction on Auditory and Visual Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celma-Miralles, Alexandre; de Menezes, Robert F; Toro, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated top-down effects on meter induction in the auditory modality. However, little is known about these effects in the visual domain, especially without the involvement of motor acts such as tapping. In the present study, we aim to assess whether the projection of meter on auditory beats is also present in the visual domain. We asked 16 musicians to internally project binary (i.e., a strong-weak pattern) and ternary (i.e., a strong-weak-weak pattern) meter onto separate, but analog, visual and auditory isochronous stimuli. Participants were presented with sequences of tones or blinking circular shapes (i.e., flashes) at 2.4 Hz while their electrophysiological responses were recorded. A frequency analysis of the elicited steady-state evoked potentials allowed us to compare the frequencies of the beat (2.4 Hz), its first harmonic (4.8 Hz), the binary subharmonic (1.2 Hz), and the ternary subharmonic (0.8 Hz) within and across modalities. Taking the amplitude spectra into account, we observed an enhancement of the amplitude at 0.8 Hz in the ternary condition for both modalities, suggesting meter induction across modalities. There was an interaction between modality and voltage at 2.4 and 4.8 Hz. Looking at the power spectra, we also observed significant differences from zero in the auditory, but not in the visual, binary condition at 1.2 Hz. These findings suggest that meter processing is modulated by top-down mechanisms that interact with our perception of rhythmic events and that such modulation can also be found in the visual domain. The reported cross-modal effects of meter may shed light on the origins of our timing mechanisms, partially developed in primates and allowing humans to synchronize across modalities accurately.

  9. Look at the Beat, Feel the Meter: Top–Down Effects of Meter Induction on Auditory and Visual Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celma-Miralles, Alexandre; de Menezes, Robert F.; Toro, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated top–down effects on meter induction in the auditory modality. However, little is known about these effects in the visual domain, especially without the involvement of motor acts such as tapping. In the present study, we aim to assess whether the projection of meter on auditory beats is also present in the visual domain. We asked 16 musicians to internally project binary (i.e., a strong-weak pattern) and ternary (i.e., a strong-weak-weak pattern) meter onto separate, but analog, visual and auditory isochronous stimuli. Participants were presented with sequences of tones or blinking circular shapes (i.e., flashes) at 2.4 Hz while their electrophysiological responses were recorded. A frequency analysis of the elicited steady-state evoked potentials allowed us to compare the frequencies of the beat (2.4 Hz), its first harmonic (4.8 Hz), the binary subharmonic (1.2 Hz), and the ternary subharmonic (0.8 Hz) within and across modalities. Taking the amplitude spectra into account, we observed an enhancement of the amplitude at 0.8 Hz in the ternary condition for both modalities, suggesting meter induction across modalities. There was an interaction between modality and voltage at 2.4 and 4.8 Hz. Looking at the power spectra, we also observed significant differences from zero in the auditory, but not in the visual, binary condition at 1.2 Hz. These findings suggest that meter processing is modulated by top–down mechanisms that interact with our perception of rhythmic events and that such modulation can also be found in the visual domain. The reported cross-modal effects of meter may shed light on the origins of our timing mechanisms, partially developed in primates and allowing humans to synchronize across modalities accurately. PMID:27047358

  10. Look at the Beat, Feel the Meter:Top-down Effects of Meter Induction on Auditory and Visual Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eCelma-Miralles

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated top-down effects on meter induction in the auditory modality. However, little is known about these effects in the visual domain, especially without the involvement of motor acts such as tapping. In the present study, we aim to assess whether the projection of meter on auditory beats is also present in the visual domain. We asked sixteen musicians to internally project binary (i.e. a strong-weak pattern and ternary (i.e. a strong-weak-weak pattern meter onto separate, but analogue, visual and auditory isochronous stimuli. Participants were presented with sequences of tones or blinking circular shapes (i.e. flashes at 2.4 Hz while their electrophysiological responses were recorded. A frequency analysis of the elicited steady-state evoked potentials allowed us to compare the frequencies of the beat (2.4 Hz, its first harmonic (4.8 Hz, the binary subharmonic (1.2 Hz, and ternary subharmonic (0.8 Hz within and across modalities. Taking the amplitude spectra into account, we observed an enhancement of the amplitude at 0.8 Hz in the ternary condition for both modalities, suggesting meter induction across modalities. There was an interaction between modality and voltage at 2.4 and 4.8 Hz. Looking at the power spectra, we also observed significant differences from zero in the auditory, but not in the visual, binary condition at 1.2 Hz. These findings suggest that meter processing is modulated by top-down mechanisms that interact with our perception of rhythmic events and that such modulation can also be found in the visual domain. The reported cross-modal effects of meter may shed light on the origins of our timing mechanisms, partially developed in primates and allowing humans to synchronize across modalities accurately.

  11. Mobile metering. Efficient charging infrastructure. Charging stations in the public, semi-public and private room; Mobile Metering. Effiziente Ladeinfrastruktur. Ladepunkte im oeffentlichen, halboeffentlichen und privaten Raum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoerhammer, Marcus; Zayer, Peter [Voltaris GmbH, Merzig (Germany); Hechtfischer, Knut; Pawlitschek, Frank [Ubitricity Gesellschaft fuer Verteilte Energiesysteme mbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-01-28

    Mobile metering shifts the power metering and data communication from the stationary charging stationary into the charger cable or into the vehicle - and thus creates a mobile metering point. Thus, the charging stations are reduced to technically simple system sockets. These system sockets do not cause current expenses and make the charging infrastructure affordable and economically viable.

  12. Accuracy of Handheld Blood Glucose Meters at High Altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mol, Pieter; Krabbe, Hans G.; de Vries, Suzanna T.; Fokkert, Marion J.; Dikkeschei, Bert D.; Rienks, Rienk; Bilo, Karin M.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Due to increasing numbers of people with diabetes taking part in extreme sports (e. g., high-altitude trekking), reliable handheld blood glucose meters (BGMs) are necessary. Accurate blood glucose measurement under extreme conditions is paramount for safe recreation at altitude. Prior

  13. Optimal water meter selection system | Johnson | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic/financial analysis based on an income statement together with capital budgeting techniques assist with the determination of the financial suitability of investing in a new replacement water meter. This financial analysis includes various potential income and expenditure components that will result from the ...

  14. Performance evaluation of cognitive radio in advanced metering infrastructure communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiew, Yik-Kuan; Mohd Aripin, Norazizah; Din, Norashidah Md

    2016-03-01

    Smart grid is an intelligent electricity grid system. A reliable two-way communication system is required to transmit both critical and non-critical smart grid data. However, it is difficult to locate a huge chunk of dedicated spectrum for smart grid communications. Hence, cognitive radio based communication is applied. Cognitive radio allows smart grid users to access licensed spectrums opportunistically with the constraint of not causing harmful interference to licensed users. In this paper, a cognitive radio based smart grid communication framework is proposed. Smart grid framework consists of Home Area Network (HAN) and Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), while AMI is made up of Neighborhood Area Network (NAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN). In this paper, the authors only report the findings for AMI communication. AMI is smart grid domain that comprises smart meters, data aggregator unit, and billing center. Meter data are collected by smart meters and transmitted to data aggregator unit by using cognitive 802.11 technique; data aggregator unit then relays the data to billing center using cognitive WiMAX and TV white space. The performance of cognitive radio in AMI communication is investigated using Network Simulator 2. Simulation results show that cognitive radio improves the latency and throughput performances of AMI. Besides, cognitive radio also improves spectrum utilization efficiency of WiMAX band from 5.92% to 9.24% and duty cycle of TV band from 6.6% to 10.77%.

  15. How to Make the 20-cent Fallout Meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rodriguez, Serena R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Alvarez, Luis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-17

    Nobel Prize winner Luis Alvarez published an article on how to build a homemade fallout meter in the November 12, 1961, issue of the Sunday supplement This Week Magazine. A yellowed copy of the article was recently found in the files of the Radiochemistry Group, C-NR, and is reproduced below in its original form.

  16. Data system for multiplexed water-current meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, C. R.

    1977-01-01

    Flow rates at 32 flood plain locations are measured simultaneously by single digital logic unit with high noise immunity. Water flowing through pygmy current meters rotates element that closes electrical contact once every resolution, so flow rate is measured by counting number of closures in time interval.

  17. Ipratropium bromide delivered by metered-dose aerosol to infant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-08-21

    Aug 21, 1990 ... Two methods of administration of ipratropium bromide. (Atrovent; Boehringer Ingelheim) to wheezing children'< 25 months of age were compared: (I) the conventional nebulisa- tion (15 children); and (iI) a metered-dose aerosol plus spacer and mask (MDA group, 17 children). The drug induced a significant ...

  18. Ipratropium bromide delivered by metered-dose aerosol to infant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two methods of administration of ipratropium bromide (Atrovent; Boehringer Ingelheim) to wheezing children'< 25 months of age were compared: (i) the conventional nebulisation (15 children); and (ii) a metered-dose aerosol plus spacer and mask (MDA group, 17 children). The drug induced a significant and similar fall in ...

  19. Instrument evaluation no.14: Wallac laboratory contamination meter RD 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.H.; Iles, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    An instrument for measuring low level contamination and consisting of a detachable Geiger-Muller tube probe, connected to a rate meter by a coiled extensible tube is described. Facilities and controls, performance, electrical, environmental and mechanical characteristics are included. (UK)

  20. A 4 Tesla/1 meter superferric MRI magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, W.M.; Huson, F.R.; Mackay, W.W.; Rocha, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Superferric technology was first applied to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) magnets by the Texas Accelerator Center (TAC) in 1986 with the design and construction of a 4 Tesla/30 cm magnet. In an evolutionary step, this technology is now being applied to the development of a whole body 4 Tesla/1 meter superconducting magnet. The design of such a magnetis presented in this paper